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Sample records for adolescent depression prevention

  1. Prevention of Depression in Childhood and Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Tamar; Tandon, S Darius

    2016-04-01

    This article discusses strategies and programs used to prevent depression in children and adolescents. It describes the rationale for depression prevention and discusses prevention approaches in schools and other settings, highlighting examples of programs that have been empirically evaluated. Prevention effects are small but significant, comparable or greater in magnitude than adolescent prevention programs for other issues, including substance use and human immunodeficiency virus. Future research should include rigorous design features, including attention control groups, allocation concealment, larger sample sizes, longer follow-up assessments, and theory-driven tests of moderation and mediation, and should test larger-scale implementation of prevention programs. PMID:26980124

  2. Universal Adolescent Depression Prevention Programs: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Teresa D.

    2013-01-01

    Although the subject of adolescent depression has gained significant attention, little is being done in the way of primary prevention. The purpose of this article is to conduct a review of the literature through the lens of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework. This review was conducted utilizing several…

  3. Prevention and Intervention of Depression in Asian-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieu, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…

  4. Depression and AIDS Preventive Self-efficacy Among Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Effectively reducing adolescents' risky sexual behaviors has been an urgent need since the HIV/AIDS infections among young people has been acknowledged as a priority. Self-efficacy has been considered playing an essential role in behavioral changes, and depressed individuals may demonstrate lower self-efficacy. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to gain insights into self-reported depression among 16-18 years-old Taiwanese adolescents as well as to explore psychosocial predictors of AIDS preventive self-efficacy. A convenience sample of 734 adolescents from southern Taiwan was recruited, and several reliable and valid questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, odds ratio, independent t-test, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were utilized to analyze data. Results showed that the differences in self-reported depression and in the AIDS preventive self-efficacy varied by gender, substance use, and having sexual experience. Furthermore, depression was a significant predictor of AIDS preventive self-efficacy while controlling the covariates. This study suggests that gender and mental health status such as depression may play significant roles in AIDS preventive self-efficacy. Nurses and health care providers should take the influence of mental health into consideration when designing AIDS preventive interventions for male and female Taiwanese adolescents. The provided information may also enhance psychiatric nurses' capability to provide care and to enhance the prevention of HIV infection for adolescents. PMID:26804507

  5. Prevention of Depression in At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Judy; Clarke, Gregory N; Robin Weersing, V; Beardslee, William R.; Brent, David A.; Gladstone, Tracy R. G.; DeBar, Lynn L.; Lynch, Frances L.; D’Angelo, Eugene; Hollon, Steven D.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Iyengar, Satish

    2009-01-01

    Context Adolescent offspring of depressed parents are at markedly increased risk of developing depressive disorders. Although some smaller targeted prevention trials have found that depression risk can be reduced, these results have yet to be replicated and extended to large-scale, at-risk populations in different settings. Objective To determine the effects of a group cognitive behavioral (CB) prevention program compared with usual care in preventing the onset of depression. Design, Setting, and Participants A multicenter randomized controlled trial conducted in 4 US cities in which 316 adolescent (aged 13–17 years) offspring of parents with current or prior depressive disorders were recruited from August 2003 through February 2006. Adolescents had a past history of depression, current elevated but sub-diagnostic depressive symptoms, or both. Assessments were conducted at baseline, after the 8-week intervention, and after the 6-month continuation phase. Intervention Adolescents were randomly assigned to the CB prevention program consisting of 8 weekly, 90-minute group sessions followed by 6 monthly continuation sessions or assigned to receive usual care alone. Main Outcome Measure Rate and hazard ratio (HR) of a probable or definite depressive episode (ie, depressive symptom rating score of ≥4) for at least 2 weeks as diagnosed by clinical interviewers. Results Through the postcontinuation session follow-up, the rate and HR of incident depressive episodes were lower for those in the CB prevention program than for those in usual care (21.4% vs 32.7%; HR, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40–0.98). Adolescents in the CB prevention program also showed significantly greater improvement in self-reported depressive symptoms than those in usual care (coefficient,−1.1; z = −2.2; P = .03). Current parental depression at baseline moderated intervention effects (HR, 5.98; 95% CI, 2.29–15.58; P = .001). Among adolescents whose parents were not depressed at

  6. Relapse and Recurrence Prevention in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Anne D.; Rohde, Paul; Kennard, Betsy D.; Robins, Michele

    2005-01-01

    Relapse and recurrence in adolescent depression are important problems. Much less is known about relapse prevention compared to the acute treatment of depression in adolescents. Based on previous research, theoretical predictions, and clinical experience, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) protocol was designed to determine…

  7. Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training: An Indicated Preventive Intervention for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Background: Indicated interventions for adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms may help decrease rates of depression. The current study reports on the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group indicated preventive intervention. Methods: Forty-one adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were…

  8. Prevention of Adolescent Depression in the Spanish-Speaking World

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Andrea B.; Cañizares, Catalina; Gómez, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency. PMID:24871258

  9. Mother-Child Conflict and Its Moderating Effects on Depression Outcomes in a Preventive Intervention for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on mother-child conflict as an outcome and moderator of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a preventive intervention for depression. Forty-one adolescents (average age = 13.37, SD = 1.19) with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Adolescents…

  10. Preventing Depression among Adolescent Girls: Pathways toward Effective and Sustainable Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Vicky Veitch; Dozois, David J. A.; Fisman, Sandra; DePace, JoAnne

    2008-01-01

    Up to 25% of adolescent girls experience an episode of major depression, at least twice the rate found with adolescent boys. In addition to reducing the suffering associated with depression, prevention efforts with this high-risk population have the potential to avert short- and long-term functional impairment, reduce the risk of associated mental…

  11. Influence of a Family-Focused Substance Use Preventive Intervention on Growth in Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Spoth, Richard L.; Redmond, Cleve

    2007-01-01

    Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY) is a preventive intervention that targets parenting behaviors, family interaction patterns, and adolescent substance use, factors that have been shown to predict depression among teenagers. Effects of PDFY on trajectories of self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms from 6th through 12th grade were…

  12. Prevention of Depression in at-risk Adolescents: Longer-term Effects

    PubMed Central

    Beardslee, William R.; Brent, David A.; Weersing, V. Robin; Clarke, Gregory N.; Porta, Giovanna; Hollon, Steven D.; Gladstone, Tracy R.G.; Gallop, Robert; Lynch, Frances L.; Iyengar, Satish; DeBar, Lynn; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Context Adolescent offspring of depressed parents are at high risk for experiencing depressive disorders themselves. Objective To determine whether the positive effects of a group cognitive-behavioral prevention (CBP) program extended to longer term (multi-year) follow-up. Design, Setting, and Participants A four-site, randomized, controlled trial enrolled 316 adolescent (ages 13-17 years) offspring of parents with current and/or prior depressive disorders; adolescents had histories of depression, current elevated depressive symptoms, or both. Intervention The CBP program consisted of 8 weekly, 90-minute group sessions followed by 6 monthly continuation sessions. Adolescents were randomly assigned to either the CBP program or usual care (UC). Main Outcome Measure The primary outcome was a probable or definite episode of depression (Depression Symptom Rating score ≥; 4) for at least 2 weeks through the month 33 follow-up evaluation. Results Over the 33-month follow-up period, youths in the CBP condition had significantly fewer onsets of depressive episodes compared to those in UC. Parental depression at baseline significantly moderated the intervention effect. When parents were not depressed at intake, CBP was superior to UC (NNT ratio=6), whereas when parents were actively depressed at baseline, average onset rates between CBP and UC were not significantly different. A three-way interaction among intervention, baseline parental depression, and site indicated that the impact of parental depression on intervention effectiveness varied across sites. Conclusions The CBP program showed significant sustained effects compared to usual care in preventing the onset of depressive episodes in at-risk youth over a nearly three-year period. Important next steps will be to strengthen the CBP intervention to further enhance its preventive effects, improve intervention outcomes when parents are currently depressed, and conduct larger implementation trials to test the broader

  13. Prevention of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: A Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral and Interpersonal Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Jason L.; Garber, Judy; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 programs for preventing depressive symptoms in adolescents. Participants were 380 high school students randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral program (CB), an interpersonal psychotherapy-adolescent skills training program (IPT-AST), or a no-intervention control. The interventions involved eight 90-min…

  14. Depression in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan; Pine, Daniel S; Thapar, Ajay K

    2012-01-01

    Unipolar depressive disorder in adolescence is common worldwide but often unrecognised. The incidence, notably in girls, rises sharply after puberty and, by the end of adolescence, the 1 year prevalence rate exceeds 4%. The burden is highest in low-income and middle-income countries. Depression is associated with sub stantial present and future morbidity, and heightens suicide risk. The strongest risk factors for depression in adolescents are a family history of depression and exposure to psychosocial stress. Inherited risks, developmental factors, sex hormones, and psychosocial adversity interact to increase risk through hormonal factors and associated perturbed neural pathways. Although many similarities between depression in adolescence and depression in adulthood exist, in adolescents the use of antidepressants is of concern and opinions about clinical management are divided. Effective treatments are available, but choices are dependent on depression severity and available resources. Prevention strategies targeted at high-risk groups are promising. PMID:22305766

  15. [Internet-based approaches in prevention and treatment of depressive symptoms in adolescents and young adults ].

    PubMed

    Berking, Matthias; Ebert, David D; Lehr, Dirk; Riper, Heleen; Sieland, Bernhard; Wiencke, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological findings indicate that up to 18.5 % of the German adolescents suffer from depressive symptoms and that younger adults display the highest risk for relevant symptoms of depression (9.9 %) within the German adult population. Internet-based interventions have been shown to be useful for preventing and treating depression and are more easily disseminated in internet-savvy generations. Available programs are usually based on principles of cognitive behavioural therapy. They differ significantly with regard to target groups, structure, content, degree of guidance provided by online-coaches and evidence for their efficacy. Whereas some studies could not prove the use of the trainings there are others that show large effect sizes (up to d = 0.84) for the reduction of depressive symptoms. In Germany there are some online counseling programs for children and adolescents in (acute) crises available. However, at this point no structured intervention program for the treatment of depression exists. PMID:24877779

  16. Evaluation of a School-Based Program Aimed at Preventing Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmy, Pernilla; Jakobsson, Ulf; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral program whose target is to prevent depressive symptoms in adolescents. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pretest, posttest, and a 1-year follow-up and provides an illustrative calculation for the implementation costs of the…

  17. Depression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Noel M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, depression has been recognized widely in children and adolescents. However, even with what is known today about depression, many children and adolescents remain undiagnosed. Early recognition is imperative to prevent further episodes that may continue into adulthood. Depression in children and adolescents affects social…

  18. Evaluation of a School-Based Program Aimed at Preventing Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Ulf; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral program whose target is to prevent depressive symptoms in adolescents. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pretest, posttest, and a 1-year follow-up and provides an illustrative calculation for the implementation costs of the intervention. Sixty-two students (aged 14) and seven tutors participated. A majority of the students and all of the tutors were satisfied with the intervention. The students, both females and males, rated their depressed symptoms as significantly lower after the course; and for the females, this was maintained 1-year postintervention. The implementation costs for the initial 2 years were about US$300 per student. Positive effects of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral intervention aiming at preventing depressive symptoms in adolescents were found, especially among females. PMID:24526572

  19. Prevention effects on trajectories of African American adolescents' exposure to interparental conflict and depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Allen W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Kogan, Steven M.; Stanley, Scott M.; Fincham, Frank D.; Hurt, Tera R.; Brody, Gene H.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the trajectory of children's exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence, its effects on adolescents' psychological adjustment, as well as the ability of a family-centered prevention program to alter this trajectory. A total of 331 African American couples with an adolescent or pre-adolescent child participated in a randomized control trial of the Promoting Strong African American Families (ProSAAF) program, a newly-developed program targeting couple and co-caregiving processes. Using a multi-informant, latent growth curve approach, child exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence was found to be stable over a period of two years among families in the control group, but significantly declined among families in the treatment condition. Rates of change were significantly different between intervention and control groups based on parents' report of youth exposure to interparental conflict, but not for child's report. Structural equation models found trajectory parameters of interparental conflict predicted changes in adolescent depressive symptoms, with increasing rates of changes in conflict associated with increases in adolescent internalizing symptoms over the 2-year duration of the study. Finally, a significant indirect effect was identified linking treatment, changes in parents' reports of child exposure to interparental conflict, and adolescent depressive symptoms. The implications for research and intervention are discussed. PMID:25844492

  20. Evaluating Depressive Symptom Interactions on Adolescent Smoking Prevention Program Mediators: A Mediated Moderation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ping; Unger, Jennifer B.; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking prevention interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing smoking prevalence in the United States. Further work is needed to address smoking in China, where over one third of the world’s current smokers reside. China, with more than 60% of the male population being smokers, also presents a unique opportunity to test cognitive processes involved in depression, social influences, and smoking. Adolescents at-risk for developing depression may process social information differently from low-risk counterparts. Methods: The Wuhan Smoking Prevention Trial was a school-based longitudinal randomized controlled trial aimed at preventing initiation and escalation of adolescent smoking behaviors. Thousand three hundred and ninety-one male seventh-grade students were assessed with a 200-item paper-and-pencil baseline survey, and it was readministered 1 year later following program implementation. Results: Friend prevalence estimates were significantly higher among 30-day smokers and among those at highest risk for depression symptoms. The program appeared to be successful in changing the perception of friend smoking prevalence only among adolescents with a comorbidity of high scores of depression symptoms and who have experimented previously with smoking. This Program × Comorbidity interaction on perceived friend smoking prevalence was significant in predicting 30-day smoking 1 year after program implementation. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that those adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms may be more sensitive to social influences associated with smoking prevalence. Individual Disposition × Social Environmental Influences may be important when developing future effective prevention programming. PMID:20861150

  1. CB7-05: Incremental Cost-effectiveness of Preventing Depression in At-risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, John; Clarke, Greg; Beardslee, William; Weersing, V. Robin; Gladstone, Tracey; Porta, Giovanna; Brent, David; DeBar, Lynn; Garber, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Adolescent depression is common and leads to many negative personal, social, and economic consequences for youth and their families; unfortunately, most youth who experience major depression do not receive any treatment. Depression prevention programs can reduce these negative consequences, but they must be affordable to be widely disseminated and useful for health care systems. Decision-makers need to weigh relative costs and benefits of providing efficacious prevention programs to depressed adolescents, but little cost-effectiveness analysis exists. The Prevention of Depression trial (POD) was a brief prevention program that compared a group cognitive- behavioral preventive (CBP) intervention to usual care (UC) to reduce depression risk in at-risk youth; the intervention decreased the number of days with depression. We present an incremental cost- effectiveness analysis of the group CBP program relative to UC, from the societal perspective, for 9 months following the intervention. Methods POD was conducted in four U.S. academic and community clinics. Participants were 316 youth aged 13–17 with a past history of depression and/or current elevated, but sub-diagnostic, depressive symptoms. They were randomly assigned to the CBP group consisting of 8 weekly, 90- minute group sessions followed by 6 monthly continuation sessions or to UC alone. The main clinical outcome measures were depression-free days (DFD) and quality-adjusted life-years based on DFD (DFD-QALYs). Costs of intervention, non-protocol services, and families were included. Results CBP achieved 13 additional DFD (p=.008), 0.022 more DFD-QALYs (p=.008). CBP cost $591 (SD=286) on average. Cost per DFD was $59 (ICER = $59; 95% CI: 11–263), $35,434 per DFD-QALY (ICER=$35,434; 95% CI: 6,350 – 157,594). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve analyses suggest a 69% probability that CBP is more cost-effective at a willingness to pay of $50,000 per QALY. CBP had a higher net benefit for

  2. School-Based Prevention of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Early Adolescence: A Pilot of a Parent Intervention Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen J.; Freres, Derek R.; Lascher, Marisa; Litzinger, Samantha; Shatte, Andrew; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that school-based cognitive-behavioral interventions can reduce and prevent depressive symptoms in youth. This pilot study investigated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program for Children and Adolescents (the PRP-CA), when combined with a parent intervention…

  3. Fluoxetine Treatment for Prevention of Relapse of Depression in Children and Adolescents: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emslie, Graham J.; Heiligenstein, John H.; Hoog, Sharon L.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Findling, Robert L.; McCracken, James T.; Nilsson, Mary E.; Jacobson, Jennie G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare fluoxetine 20 to 60 mg/day with placebo for prevention of relapse of major depressive disorder in children and adolescents who had achieved Children's Depression Rating Scale, Revised scores of [less than or equal to]28 during treatment with fluoxetine 20 to 60 mg. Method: In this 32-week relapse-prevention phase of a…

  4. The Relationship Between Parental Stress and Postpartum Depression Among Adolescent Mothers Enrolled in a Randomized Controlled Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Maureen G.; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Zlotnick, Caron

    2015-01-01

    Given the high co-occurrence of depression and parental stress among adolescent mothers, we evaluated the relationship between parental stress and postpartum depression among primiparous adolescent mothers. We conducted an observational analysis among a cohort of 106 adolescent mothers at 289 postpartum visits who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to prevent postpartum depression. Parental stress was measured using the Parenting Stress Index, short form. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses was administered to assess for postpartum depression; subthreshold depression was assessed using the Children's Depression Rating Scale, revised version. Generalized estimating equations were utilized to assess the relationship of parental stress on postpartum depression during the first 6 months postpartum. We present adjusted odds ratios (AOR) controlling for study arm, age, born in the United States, prior history of depression, and number of study visits. The median age was 16 years, 53 % were Latina, and 16 % reported a past history of depression. Nineteen adolescents (19 %) were diagnosed with postpartum depression and 25 % experienced high levels of parental stress through 6 months postpartum. Adolescent mothers who reported higher levels of parental stress were at significantly increased risk for postpartum depression [AOR 1.06 (95 % CI 1.04–1.09); p < 0.0001]. High levels of parental stress predicted subsequent postpartum depression when assessing parental stress at visits prior to a depression diagnosis to determine whether we could establish a temporal association [AOR 1.06 (95 % CI 1.02– 1.09); p < 0.01]. Parental stress was also a risk factor for subthreshold depression [AOR 1.04 (95 % CI 1.01– 1.07); p < 0.01]. Parental stress was a significant risk factor for developing both postpartum depression as well as subthreshold depression among adolescent mothers. Interventions that target a reduction in parental stress may

  5. A Randomized Depression Prevention Trial Comparing Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training to Group Counseling in Schools.

    PubMed

    Young, Jami F; Benas, Jessica S; Schueler, Christie M; Gallop, Robert; Gillham, Jane E; Mufson, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Given the rise in depression disorders in adolescence, it is important to develop and study depression prevention programs for this age group. The current study examined the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group prevention program for adolescent depression, in comparison to group programs that are typically delivered in school settings. In this indicated prevention trial, 186 adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST delivered by research staff or group counseling (GC) delivered by school counselors. Hierarchical linear modeling examined differences in rates of change in depressive symptoms and overall functioning from baseline to the 6-month follow-up assessment. Cox regression compared rates of depression diagnoses. Adolescents in IPT-AST showed significantly greater improvements in self-reported depressive symptoms and evaluator-rated overall functioning than GC adolescents from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. However, there were no significant differences between the two conditions in onset of depression diagnoses. Although both intervention conditions demonstrated significant improvements in depressive symptoms and overall functioning, results indicate that IPT-AST has modest benefits over groups run by school counselors which were matched on frequency and duration of sessions. In particular, IPT-AST outperformed GC in reduction of depressive symptoms and improvements in overall functioning. These findings point to the clinical utility of this depression prevention program, at least in the short-term. Additional follow-up is needed to determine the long-term effects of IPT-AST, relative to GC, particularly in preventing depression onset. PMID:26638219

  6. Clusters of Behaviors and Beliefs Predicting Adolescent Depression: Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Paunesku, David; Ellis, Justin; Fogel, Joshua; Kuwabara, Sachiko A; Gollan, Jackie; Gladstone, Tracy; Reinecke, Mark; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Risk factors for various disorders are known to cluster. However, the factor structure for behaviors and beliefs predicting depressive disorder in adolescents is not known. Knowledge of this structure can facilitate prevention planning. METHODS We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) data set to conduct an exploratory factor analysis to identify clusters of behaviors/experiences predicting the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) at 1-year follow-up (N=4,791). RESULTS Four factors were identified: family/interpersonal relations, self-emancipation, avoidant problem solving/low self-worth, and religious activity. Strong family/interpersonal relations were the most significantly protective against depression at one year follow-up. Avoidant problem solving/low self-worth was not predictive of MDD on its own, but significantly amplified the risks associated with delinquency. CONCLUSION Depression prevention interventions should consider giving family relationships a more central role in their efforts. Programs teaching problem solving skills may be most appropriate for reducing MDD risk in delinquent youth. PMID:20502621

  7. Decision Making Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among African-American Adolescents: Implications for Prevention Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwumabua, Jebose O.; Duryea, Elias J.; Wong, S. P.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and decision making among a non-clinical sample of low-income African American adolescents. Data from the Children's Depression Inventory and Flinders Adolescent Decision Making Questionnaire indicated that there was a significant correlation between adolescents' self-reported depressive…

  8. Evaluation of a Group Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Young Adolescents: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen J.; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Chajon, Norma D.; Kash-MacDonald, V. Megan; Chaplin, Tara M.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Matlin, Samantha L.; Gallop, Robert J.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a common psychological problem in adolescence. Recent research suggests that group cognitive-behavioral interventions can reduce and prevent symptoms of depression in youth. Few studies have tested the effectiveness of such interventions when delivered by school teachers and counselors (as opposed to research team staff). We…

  9. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for High-Risk Adolescents Outperforms Two Alternative Interventions: A Randomized Efficacy Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2008-01-01

    In this depression prevention trial, 341 high-risk adolescents (mean age = 15.6 years, SD = 1.2) with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive-expressive intervention, bibliotherapy, or assessment-only control condition. CB participants showed significantly greater…

  10. The Prevention of Depression and Anxiety in a Sample of High-Risk Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Keith S.; Hopkins, Jamie Ahnberg; Fata, Ladan; Scherrer, Martin; Allan, Lauren C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques in preventing depression and anxiety in a group of adolescent high school students with elevated risk for developing emotional disorders. Students were screened using a measure of depression severity and clinical interview. Following screening procedures,…

  11. Depression Prevention for Early Adolescent Girls: A Pilot Study of All Girls Versus Co-Ed Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen; Elkon, Andrea G. L.; Samuels, Barbra; Freres, Derek R.; Winder, Breanna; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Given the dramatic increase in depression that occurs during early adolescence in girls, interventions must address the needs of girls. The authors examined whether a depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program, was more effective for girls in all-girls groups than in co-ed groups. Within co-ed groups, the authors also tested…

  12. Effectiveness of depression and anxiety prevention in adolescents with high familial risk: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety disorders during adolescence can have detrimental consequences. Both disorders are related to negative outcome in various areas during adolescence and are also predictive of depression and anxiety disorders later in life. Especially parental psychopathology and being female are risk factors that increase the probability of developing one of these disorders during adolescence. Research has shown that prevention programs have promising results, especially for adolescents who have these risk factors. Therefore, in this study, we will focus on the effectiveness of a prevention program ‘A jump forward’ that has been developed for adolescent girls with a familial risk of depression and/or anxiety. Methods/Design We designed a randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of an indicated and selective prevention program aimed at depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Adolescents aged between 11 and 15 years old with depressive and/or anxiety symptoms and with parents who show indicators of parental psychopathology will be randomly assigned to the experimental (N = 80) or control groups (N = 80). Participants in the experimental group will follow a preventive intervention, consisting of six sessions of 90 minutes each. All participants will complete baseline, intervention phase 1 (after session 2), intervention phase 2 (after session 4), post-intervention, 6 month follow-up, and 12 month follow-up assessments. Furthermore, parents will be asked to complete assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-month follow-up. Primary outcome will be depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes will be anxiety symptoms, suicidal ideation, response style, negative cognitive errors, parental emotional support and parental control, parental psychopathology, parenting stress and adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms according to the parents. Discussion This paper described the study designed to evaluate a program

  13. Integrative Internet-Based Depression Prevention for Adolescents: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Primary Care for Vulnerability and Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.; Vanderplough-Booth, Karen; Fogel, Joshua; Gladstone, Tracy; Bell, Carl; Stuart, Scott; Gollan, Jackie; Bradford, Nathan; Domanico, Rocco; Fagan, Blake; Ross, Ruth; Larson, Jon; Watson, Natalie; Paunesku, Dave; Melkonian, Stephanie; Kuwabara, Sachiko; Holper, Tim; Shank, Nicholas; Saner, Donald; Butler, Amy; Chandler, Amy; Louie, Tina; Weinstein, Cynthia; Collins, Shannon; Baldwin, Melinda; Wassel, Abigail; Reinecke, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Adolescent depression is both a major public health and clinical problem, yet primary care physicians have limited intervention options. We developed two versions of an Internet-based behavioral intervention to prevent the onset of major depression and compared them in a randomized clinical trial in 13 US primary care practices. Methods We enrolled 84 adolescents at risk for developing major depression and randomly assigned them to two groups: brief advice (BA; 1–2 minutes) + Internet program versus motivational interview (MI; 5–15 minutes) + Internet program. We compared pre/post changes and between group differences for protective and vulnerability factors (individual, family, school and peer). Results Compared with pre-study values, both groups demonstrated declines in depressed mood; [MI: 21.2 to 16.74 (p < 0.01), BA: 23.34 to 16.92 (p < 0.001)]. Similarly, both groups demonstrated increases in social support by peers [MI: 8.6 to 12.1 (p = 0.002), BA: 7.10 to 12.5 (p < 0.001)] and reductions in depression related impairment in school [MI: 2.26 to 1.76 (p = 0.06), BA: 2.16 to 1.93 (p = 0.07)]. Conclusions Two forms of a primary care/Internet-based behavioral intervention to prevent adolescent depression may lower depressed mood and strengthen some protective factors for depression. PMID:19018321

  14. Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dina M.

    Affective disorder is characterized by maladaptive changes in mood, attitudes, energy level, and physical status. These changes constitute the basic dimensions of depression. Depression results from a combination of genetic and experiential factors. There are sex differences and age differences with regard to depression, and there is a high…

  15. Computerised Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for the Prevention and Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Thomas; Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) can be effective in the treatment of depression and anxiety in adults, although the outcomes with children and adolescents are unclear. The aim of the study is to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of cCBT for the prevention and treatment of depression…

  16. Efficacy Trial of a Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for High-Risk Adolescents: Effects at 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Wade, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) depression prevention program for high-risk adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, 341 at-risk youths were randomized to a group CB intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

  17. Evaluation of a group cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for young adolescents: A randomized effectiveness trial

    PubMed Central

    Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen J.; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Chajon, Norma D.; Megan Kash-MacDonald, V.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Matlin, Samantha L.; Gallop, Robert J.; Seligman, Martin E.P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Depression is a common psychological problem in adolescence. Recent research suggests that group cognitive-behavioral interventions can reduce and prevent symptoms of depression in youth. Few studies have tested the effectiveness of such interventions when delivered by school teachers and counselors (as opposed to research team staff). Method We evaluated the effectiveness of the Penn Resiliency Program for adolescents (PRP-A), a school-based group intervention that targets cognitive behavioral risk factors for depression. We randomly assigned 408 middle school students (ages 10-15) to one of three conditions: PRP-A, PRP-AP (in which adolescents participated in PRP-A and parents were invited to attend a parent intervention component), or a school-as-usual control. Adolescents completed measures of depression and anxiety symptoms, cognitive style, and coping at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and at 6-month follow-up. Results PRP-A reduced depression symptoms relative to the school as usual control. Baseline levels of hopelessness moderated intervention effects. Among participants with average and high levels of hopelessness, PRP (A and AP) significantly improved depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, hopelessness, and active coping relative to control. Among participants with low baseline hopelessness, we found no intervention effects. PRP-AP was not more effective than PRP-A alone. We found no intervention effects on clinical levels of depression or anxiety. Conclusion These findings suggest that cognitive-behavioral interventions can be beneficial when delivered by school teachers and counselors. These interventions may be most helpful to students with elevated hopelessness. PMID:22889296

  18. Costing program implementation using systematic reviews: interventions for the prevention of adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Shemilt, Ian; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Pössel, Patrick; Mugford, Miranda; Wooldridge, Don T

    2012-09-01

    Systematic reviews can provide up-to-date syntheses of reliable evidence on "what works" to help policymakers, practitioners, and people who use services make well-informed decisions about social and behavioral interventions. However, systematic reviews of social and behavioral interventions do not typically include evidence on resource use and costs, critical dimensions for decision makers to consider when faced with limited resources and constrained budgets. This paper builds on existing recommendations for including evidence for resource use and costs in systematic reviews by illustrating the development and use of an instrument to code resource use and cost data from an existing systematic review on the effects of adolescent depression prevention programs and applying that instrument to 46 studies included in that review. We demonstrate that resource use and cost data are relatively sparsely reported for treatment conditions in reports of included studies and even more so for comparison conditions, although the reporting of the most important cost drivers is reasonably frequent for treatment conditions. To allow for better integration of resource use and cost data into systematic reviews, future studies that aim to inform decision making should report more detail about program resource use and costs required for implementation, perhaps using the template provided in this paper. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26062162

  19. [School Based, Universal Primary Prevention of Depressive Symptoms (Disorders) in Adolescents].

    PubMed

    Hautzinger, M; Wahl, M; Patak, M

    2015-09-01

    The universal prevention programme "Lifeskills with LARS&LISA" includes 10 sessions held in a regular school setting. We expected the programme to empower young people to improve their life skills, to foster their realistic thinking, to influence school behaviour and thus to prevent the development of depressive symptoms. The "Lifeskills with LARS&LISA" programme can be successfully delivered to a school-based population (grades 7-8) and integrated into the classroom curriculum. Our results demonstrate a prevention (less depressive symptoms) but also an intervention effect on social skills, school behaviour (more social, less aggressive). PMID:23757099

  20. Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Led Depression Prevention Intervention for African American Adolescents and Young Adults in Employment Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Darius; Mendelson, Tamar; Mance, GiShawn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the acceptability and preliminary outcomes from an open trial of a depression prevention intervention for low-income African American adolescents and young adults in employment training programs. The sample (N=42) consisted of predominately African American adolescents and young adults (mean age=19.1) exhibiting subclinical…

  1. [Childhood and adolescent depression].

    PubMed

    Mikami, Katsunaka; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2007-09-01

    Depression is a common, chronic and recurrent disorder in children and adolescents. This article reviewed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, natural course and treatment (pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment) of major depressive disorder (MDD) in children and adolescents. Several randomized controlled trials have shown that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), in particular fluoxetine, and psychotherapeutic treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy are efficacious in children and adolescents with MDD. However, in Japan only three SSRIs (fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline) are currently available, and few clinicians are trained to deliver psychotherapeutic treatment. Further clinical researches on the treatment to children and adolescents with MDD are needed in Japan. PMID:17876994

  2. A longitudinal evaluation of the Resilient Families randomized trial to prevent early adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Buttigieg, Jason P; Shortt, Alison L; Slaviero, Tania M; Hutchinson, Delyse; Kremer, Peter; Toumbourou, John W

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether an intervention prevented the development of depressive symptoms through the early years of secondary school (Grades 7 to 9 - mean ages 12.3 to 14.5 years) in Victoria, Australia. Twelve schools were randomized to a universal preventative intervention (including a student social relationship/emotional health curriculum, and parent/caregiver parenting education); 12 were randomized as control schools. Multivariate regression analyses used student self-report to predict depressive symptoms at 26-month follow-up (13-months after intervention completion) from baseline measures and intervention status (N = 2027). There was no overall intervention effect on depressive symptoms. However, intervention students with moderate symptoms whose parents attended parent education events had a significantly reduced risk of depressive symptoms at follow-up. Future evaluations of interventions of this type should investigate: therapeutic processes; methods to increase recruitment into effective parent education events; and the potential to target assistance to students with high depressive symptoms. PMID:26298674

  3. Research Review: Can We Justify the Widespread Dissemination of Universal, School-Based Interventions for the Prevention of Depression among Children and Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Susan H.; Shortt, Alison L.

    2007-01-01

    This review examines the evidence concerning the efficacy and effectiveness of universal, school-based interventions designed to prevent the development of depression in children and adolescents. It evaluates the outcomes of research in relation to standards of evidence specified by the Society for Prevention Research (Flay et al., 2005). The…

  4. The Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skill Training (IPT-AST) in Preventing Depression: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerner, Sarah Shankman

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent depression is a prevalent and debilitating disorder that is associated with social and academic impairment, suicidality, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and high-risk behaviors (Horowitz, Garber, Ciesla, Young, & Mufson, 2007). Yet many adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms do not receive adequate services, and those that do…

  5. Acculturative stress, depression, and suicidal ideation among Mexican-American adolescents: implications for the development of suicide prevention programs in schools.

    PubMed

    Hovey, J D

    1998-08-01

    The present study explored the relationship of scores on acculturative stress with those on depression and suicidal ideation among 26 male and 28 female Mexican-American students from a southern California high school. Subjects completed the SAFE acculturative stress scale, the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale, and the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior. Analyses suggested that acculturating Mexican-American adolescents who report high scores on acculturative stress may report elevated scores for depression and suicidal ideation. Researchers should assess suicide risk within this and other acculturating groups, and risk factors specific to acculturating groups should be considered in the development and implementation of suicide prevention programs in schools. PMID:9775681

  6. Where to Go from Here? An Exploratory Meta-Analysis of the Most Promising Approaches to Depression Prevention Programs for Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hetrick, Sarah E.; Cox, Georgina R.; Merry, Sally N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the overall effect of individual depression prevention programs on future likelihood of depressive disorder and reduction in depressive symptoms. In addition, we have investigated whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) and other therapeutic techniques may modify this effectiveness. Methods: This study is based on and includes the trial data from meta-analyses conducted in the Cochrane systematic review of depression prevention programs for children and adolescents by Merry et al. (2011). All trials were published or unpublished English language randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or cluster RCTs of any psychological or educational intervention compared to no intervention to prevent depression in children and adolescents aged 5–19 years. Results: There is some evidence that the therapeutic approach used in prevention programs modifies the overall effect. CBT is the most studied type of intervention for depression prevention, and there is some evidence of its effectiveness in reducing the risk of developing a depressive disorder, particularly in targeted populations. Fewer studies employed IPT, however this approach appears promising. To our knowledge, this is the first study to have explored how differences in the approach taken in the prevention programs modify the overall treatment effects of prevention programs for children and adolescents. Conclusions: More research is needed to identify the specific components of CBT that are most effective or indeed if there are other approaches that are more effective in reducing the risk of future depressive episodes. It is imperative that prevention programs are suitable for large scale roll-out, and that emerging popular modes of delivery, such as online dissemination continue to be rigorously tested. PMID:25941844

  7. Effects of Adolescent Universal Substance Misuse Preventive Interventions on Young Adult Depression Symptoms: Mediational Modeling.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard; Mason, W Alex; Randall, G Kevin; Redmond, Cleve; Schainker, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Depression symptoms are associated with impairments in functioning and have substantial health and economic consequences. Universal substance misuse prevention programs have shown effects on non-targeted mental health-related symptoms, but long-term effects are understudied. This cluster randomized controlled trial examined effects of both the LifeSkills Training (LST) and Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (SFP 10-14) interventions, delivered during seventh grade, on age 22 young adult depression symptoms. The study was conducted in US rural Midwestern communities with a randomly-selected sample from a larger study (N = 670). Experimental conditions were LST+SFP 10-14, LST-only, and a control condition. Effects on age 22 depression symptoms were hypothesized as mediated through effects on age 21 relationship problems and illicit use of substances. Structural equation modeling with manifest and latent variables was conducted to test hypotheses; the intervention conditions were combined and compared with the control condition because analyses indicated a comparable pattern of effects between intervention conditions. Significant indirect intervention effects were found on age 22 depression symptoms via effects on the mediating variables (indirect effect: β = -0.06, 95 % CI [-0.10, -0.01], p = 0.011). Effect sizes for the young adult variables were between d = 0.17 and 0.29, which can be considered small, but nontrivial, especially in the context of public health benefits. Results support scaled-up implementation of school-based and family-focused universal substance misuse preventive interventions. PMID:25795013

  8. Examining reward-seeking, negative self-beliefs and over-general autobiographical memory as mechanisms of change in classroom prevention programs for adolescent depression

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Frances; Rawal, Adhip; Riglin, Lucy; Lewis, Gemma; Lewis, Glyn; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective methods to prevent adolescent depressive symptoms could reduce suffering and burden across the lifespan. However, psychological interventions delivered to adolescents show efficacy only in symptomatic or high-risk youth. Targeting causal risk factors and assessing mechanistic change can help devise efficacious universal or classroom based prevention programs. Methods A non-randomized longitudinal design was used to compare three classroom-based prevention programs for adolescent depression (Behavioral Activation with Reward Processing, “Thinking about Reward in Young People” (TRY); Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT)), and determine cognitive mechanisms of change in these programs. Cognitive mechanisms examined were reward-seeking, negative self-beliefs (assessed with behavioral tasks) and over-general autobiographical memory. 256 healthy adolescents aged 13–14 participated with 236 (92%) and 227 (89%) completing the pre- and post-assessments. Results TRY was the only intervention associated with a reduction in depressive symptoms at follow-up. Reward-seeking increased following TRY. In the other programs there were non-significant changes in cognitive mechanisms, with more reflective negative self-beliefs in CBT and fewer over-general autobiographical memories in MBCT In the TRY program, which focused on increasing sensitivity to rewarding activities, reward seeking increased and this was associated with decreased depressive symptoms. Limitations Due to the infeasibility of a cluster randomized controlled trial, a non-randomized design was used. Conclusions Increased reward-seeking was associated with decreased depressive symptoms and may be a mechanism of depressive symptom change in the intervention with a focus on enhancing sensitivity and awareness of reward. This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that incorporating activities to enhance reward sensitivity may be fruitful in

  9. Development and Pilot Study of a Marketing Strategy for Primary Care/Internet–Based Depression Prevention Intervention for Adolescents (The CATCH-IT Intervention)

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Natalie; Bridges, John F. P.; Fogel, Joshua; Galas, Jill; Kramer, Clarke; Connery, Marc; McGill, Ann; Marko, Monika; Cardenas, Alonso; Landsback, Josephine; Dmochowska, Karoline; Kuwabara, Sachiko A.; Ellis, Justin; Prochaska, Micah; Bell, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescent depression is both common and burdensome, and while evidence-based strategies have been developed to prevent adolescent depression, participation in such interventions remains extremely low, with less than 3% of at-risk individuals participating. To promote participation in evidence-based preventive strategies, a rigorous marketing strategy is needed to translate research into practice. Objective: To develop and pilot a rigorous marketing strategy for engaging at-risk individuals with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention in primary care targeting key attitudes and beliefs. Method: A marketing design group was constituted to develop a marketing strategy based on the principles of targeting, positioning/competitor analysis, decision analysis, and promotion/distribution and incorporating contemporary models of behavior change. We evaluated the formative quality of the intervention and observed the fielding experience for prevention using a pilot study (observational) design. Results: The marketing plan focused on “resiliency building” rather than “depression intervention” and was relayed by office staff and the Internet site. Twelve practices successfully implemented the intervention and recruited a diverse sample of adolescents with > 30% of all those with positive screens and > 80% of those eligible after phone assessment enrolling in the study with a cost of $58 per enrollee. Adolescent motivation for depression prevention (1–10 scale) increased from a baseline mean value of 7.45 (SD = 2.05) to 8.07 poststudy (SD = 1.33) (P = .048). Conclusions: Marketing strategies for preventive interventions for mental disorders can be developed and successfully introduced and marketed in primary care. PMID:20944776

  10. Preventing depression among early adolescents in the primary care setting: a randomized controlled study of the Penn Resiliency Program.

    PubMed

    Gillham, Jane E; Hamilton, John; Freres, Derek R; Patton, Ken; Gallop, Robert

    2006-04-01

    This study evaluated the Penn Resiliency Program's effectiveness in preventing depression when delivered by therapists in a primary care setting. Two-hundred and seventy-one 11- and 12-year-olds, with elevated depressive symptoms, were randomized to PRP or usual care. Over the 2-year follow-up, PRP improved explanatory style for positive events. PRP's effects on depressive symptoms and explanatory style for negative events were moderated by sex, with girls benefiting more than boys. Stronger effects were seen in high-fidelity groups than low-fidelity groups. PRP did not significantly prevent depressive disorders but significantly prevented depression, anxiety, and adjustment disorders (when combined) among high-symptom participants. Findings are discussed in relation to previous PRP studies and research on the dissemination of psychological interventions. PMID:16741684

  11. Preventing Depression among Early Adolescents in the Primary Care Setting: A Randomized Controlled Study of the Penn Resiliency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Jane E.; Hamilton, John; Freres, Derek R.; Patton, Ken; Gallop, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the Penn Resiliency Program's effectiveness in preventing depression when delivered by therapists in a primary care setting. Two-hundred and seventy-one 11- and 12-year-olds, with elevated depressive symptoms, were randomized to PRP or usual care. Over the 2-year follow-up, PRP improved explanatory style for positive events.…

  12. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  13. Teen Depression and Suicide: Effective Prevention and Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Teen depression and suicidal behaviors are intricately intertwined, with untreated depression being a leading cause of adolescent suicide. Most depressed or suicidal teens tend to show warning signs and possess specific risk factors. A key component to preventing teen depression is for adults to remain aware of such warning signs and risk factors…

  14. Development of an Adolescent Depression Ontology for Analyzing Social Data.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyesil; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Song, Tae-Min; Jeon, Eunjoo; Kim, Ae Ran; Lee, Joo Yun

    2015-01-01

    Depression in adolescence is associated with significant suicidality. Therefore, it is important to detect the risk for depression and provide timely care to adolescents. This study aims to develop an ontology for collecting and analyzing social media data about adolescent depression. This ontology was developed using the 'ontology development 101'. The important terms were extracted from several clinical practice guidelines and postings on Social Network Service. We extracted 777 terms, which were categorized into 'risk factors', 'sign and symptoms', 'screening', 'diagnosis', 'treatment', and 'prevention'. An ontology developed in this study can be used as a framework to understand adolescent depression using unstructured data from social media. PMID:26262398

  15. Effectiveness Trial of an Indicated Cognitive-Behavioral Group Adolescent Depression Prevention Program versus Bibliotherapy and Brochure Control at 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the longterm effects of a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) adolescent depression indicated prevention program through 2-year follow-up, relative to CB bibliotherapy and brochure control, when high school personnel recruited students and delivered the program. Method 378 adolescents (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.2; 68% female, 72% White) with elevated self-assessed depressive symptoms who were randomized to CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or educational brochure control were assessed at pre, post, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results By 2 years post-intervention, CB group participants showed significantly lower major depressive disorder (MDD) onset versus CB bibliotherapy (10% vs. 25%, respectively; HR = 2.48, p = .006), but the incidence difference relative to brochure controls (17%) was nonsignificant; MDD incidence for bibliotherapy and brochure controls did not differ. Although CB group participants showed lower depressive symptoms at post versus brochure controls, there were no effects for this outcome or for social adjustment or substance use over 2-year follow-up. Moderator analyses suggested that participants with higher baseline depressive symptoms showed greater longterm symptom reductions in the CB group intervention versus bibliotherapy. Conclusions The evidence that a brief CB group intervention delivered by real-world providers significantly reduced MDD onset versus CB bibliotherapy is potentially encouraging. However, the lack of MDD prevention effects relative to brochure control and lack of longterm symptom effects (though consistent with results from other depression prevention trials), suggest that the delivery of CB group should be refined to strengthen its effectiveness. PMID:25894666

  16. Components of Adolescent Depression in a Cross-Cultural Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Margaret

    Alaska has the highest rate in the nation of depression, alcohol and drug abuse, and adolescent suicide. The prevention of depression and suicide is complex because of many impinging variables. Data from a sample of 40 adolescents referred to a residential treatment center in Alaska revealed that a rapid change in life style of the Alaskan natives…

  17. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, Dave; Golden, Larry

    This book deals with the realities of adolescent suicide. It consists of 15 chapters organized under 5 major headings: The Problem of Adolescent Suicide (chapters 1 and 2); A Profile of the Attempter (chapters 3-6); Assessing Lethality (chapters 7 and 8); Prevention and Intervention (chapters 9-14); and Legal Issues (chapter 15). Individual…

  18. Adolescent Dose and Ratings of an Internet-Based Depression Prevention Program: A Randomized Trial of Primary Care Physician Brief Advice versus a Motivational Interview

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.; Fogel, Joshua; Pomper, Benjamin E.; Marko, Monika; Reid, Nicholas; Watson, Natalie; Larson, John; Bradford, Nathan; Fagan, Blake; Zuckerman, Steve; Wiedmann, Peggy; Domanico, Rocco

    2009-01-01

    Background Internet-based interventions for education and behavior change have proliferated, but most adolescents may not be sufficiently motivated to engage in Internet-based behavior change interventions. We sought to determine how two different forms of primary care physician engagement, brief advice (BA) versus motivational interview (MI), could enhance participation outcomes in an Internet-based depression prevention intervention. Methods Eighty-three adolescents at risk for developing major depression were recruited by screening in primary care and randomized to two groups: BA (1–2 minutes) + Internet program versus MI (10–15 minutes) + Internet program. We compared measures of participation and satisfaction for the two groups for a minimum of 12 months after enrollment. Results Both groups engaged the site actively (MI: 90% versus BA: 78%, p=0.12). MI had significantly higher levels of engagement than BA for measures including total time on site (143.7 minutes versus 100.2 minutes, p=0.03), number of sessions (8.16 versus 6.00, p=0.04), longer duration of session activity on Internet site (46.2 days versus 29.34 days, p=0.04), and with more characters typed into exercises (3532 versus 2004, p=0.01). Adolescents in the MI group reported higher trust in their physician (4.18 versus 3.74, p=0.05) and greater satisfaction with the Internet-based component (7.92 versus 6.66, p=0.01). Conclusions Primary care engagement, particularly using motivational interviewing, may increase Internet use dose, and some elements enhance and intensify adolescent use of an Internet-based intervention over a one to two month period. Primary care engagement may be a useful method to facilitate adolescent involvement in preventive mental health interventions. PMID:20694059

  19. Influence of General Self-Efficacy on the Effects of a School-Based Universal Primary Prevention Program of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: A Randomized and Controlled Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Possel, Patrick; Baldus, Christiane; Horn, Andrea B.; Groen, Gunter; Hautzinger, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Background: Depressive disorders in adolescents are a widespread and increasing problem. Prevention seems a promising and feasible approach. Methods: We designed a cognitive-behavioral school-based universal primary prevention program and followed 347 eighth-grade students participating in a randomized controlled trial for three months. Results:…

  20. Korean American Adolescent Depression and Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung; Cain, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM Korean American adolescents tend to experience more mental health problems than adolescents in other ethnic groups. METHODS The goal of this study was to examine the association between Korean American parent-adolescent relationships and adolescents’ depressive symptoms in 56 families. FINDINGS Thirty-nine percent of adolescents reported elevated depressive symptoms. Adolescents’ perceived low maternal warmth and higher intergenerational acculturation conflicts with fathers were significant predictors for adolescent depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS The findings can be used to develop a family intervention program, the aim of which would be to decrease adolescent depressive symptoms by promoting parental warmth and decreasing parent-adolescent acculturation conflicts. PMID:18429840

  1. The Effectiveness of a School-Based Adolescent Depression Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Karen L.; Kastelic, Elizabeth A.; Hess, Sally G.; Cox, Todd S.; Gonzales, Lizza C.; Mink, Sallie P.; DePaulo, J. Raymond, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to decrease the suicide rate in adolescents, many interventions have focused on school-based suicide prevention programs. Alternatively, depression education in schools might be effective in decreasing the morbidity, mortality, and stigma associated with adolescent depression. The Adolescent Depression Awareness Program (ADAP)…

  2. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Eliza S. Y.; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Wong, Paul W. C.; Fu, King-Wa; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, “The Little Prince is Depressed”, for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme. Methods This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in “The Little Prince is Depressed” programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1) depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2) knowledge of mental health; (3) attitudes towards mental illness; (4) perceived social support; and (5) help-seeking behaviours. Results A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (p<.05). A preference among schoolchildren for whom to seek help from was identified. Conclusions The universal depression prevention programme was effective in enhancing knowledge of mental health and promoting a more positive attitude towards mental illness among adolescents in Hong Kong. In particular, the teacher-led group showed better outcomes than the professional-led group in reducing students’ anxiety and stress at follow-up period. The programme can achieve sustainability in schools if

  3. Depressive symptomatology in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Duggal, S; Carlson, E A; Sroufe, L A; Egeland, B

    2001-01-01

    Antecedents of depressive symptomatology in childhood and adolescence were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of at-risk youth (n = 168) from families of lower socioeconomic status. Relations between family context factors, maternal depressive symptoms, and depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence were examined, with a focus on early family relationship factors rarely available for analysis in longitudinal data sets. Results suggest the possibility of etiological differences between depressive symptoms in childhood and in adolescence. Depressive symptomatology in childhood was predicted by the overall family context. Cumulative effects of maternal depressive symptomatology, early care lacking in emotional supportiveness, abuse, and family stressors were observed. Depressive symptomatology in adolescence, on the other hand, was specifically associated with maternal depression and early care lacking in emotional supportiveness. Moreover, an intriguing sex difference emerged: maternal depressive symptomatology was strongly associated with depressive symptomatology in adolescence for females, but for males supportive early care appeared more relevant. PMID:11346049

  4. Obesity and depression in adolescence and beyond: Reciprocal risks

    PubMed Central

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.; Iacono, William G.; Legrand, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obesity and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) are associated, but evidence about how they relate over time is conflicting. The goal of this study was to examine prospective associations between depression and obesity from early adolescence through early adulthood. Methods Participants were drawn from a statewide, community-based, Minnesota sample. MDD and obesity with onsets by early adolescence (by age 14), late adolescence (between 14 and 20), and early adulthood (ages 20 to 24) were assessed via structured interview (depression) and study-measured height and weight. Results Cross-sectional results indicated that depression and obesity with onsets by early adolescence were concurrently associated, but the same was not true later in development. Prospective results indicated that depression by early adolescence predicted the onset of obesity (odds ratio=3.76, confidence interval= 1.33–10.59) during late adolescence among females. Obesity that developed during late adolescence predicted the onset of depression (odds ratio=5.89, confidence interval= 2.31–15.01) during early adulthood among females. Conclusions For girls, adolescence is a high risk period for the development of this comorbidity, with the nature of the risk varying over the course of adolescence. Early adolescent-onset depression is associated with elevated risk of later onset obesity, and obesity, particularly in late adolescence, is associated with increased odds of later depression. Further investigation into the mechanisms of these effects and the reasons for the observed gender and developmental differences is needed. Prevention programs focused on early-onset cases of depression and adolescent-onset cases of obesity, particularly among females, may help in reducing risk for this form of comorbidity. PMID:24480863

  5. Screening and managing depression in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jami F; Miller, Michelle R; Khan, Nida

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 10%–15% of adolescents will experience a major depressive episode. The risk factors associated with depression in adolescence include a family history of depression, being female, subthreshold depression, having a nonaffective disorder, negative cognitions, interpersonal conflict, low social support, and stressful life events. Despite the availability of measures to identify depressed adolescents and efficacious interventions to treat these adolescents, a large number of depressed adolescents go undetected and untreated. This review describes several screening measures that can be used to identify adolescents with elevated depression symptoms who would benefit from a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. If an adolescent is diagnosed with a depressive disorder, there are several efficacious treatment options, including pharmacotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, and interpersonal psychotherapy. The research supporting each of these approaches is outlined, and recommendations are made to help health professionals determine the appropriate course of treatment. Although existing treatments are effective for many depressed adolescents, approximately one-third of adolescents remain depressed following treatment. Continuing research is needed to enhance the efficacy of existing treatments for adolescent depression and to develop and study novel treatment approaches. PMID:24600264

  6. Depression in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dhavale, H S

    2001-01-01

    Childhood depression accounts for a substantial proportion of cases in child psychiatric clinics. Depression is more common in boys than girls in school age children and it becomes reverse during adolescents. The childhood depression can be wholly chemical, wholly due to psychological factors of a combination of both. The causes of depression can be discussed under three headings--genetic factors, biological factors and social factors. Some children display the classical symptoms of sadness, anxiety, restlessness, eating and sleeping problems while others present with physical problems like aches and pains which do not respond to treatment. Diagnosis depends on interview or questionnaire instruments to screen populations and some biological procedures to determine neuro-endocrine and other physical dysfunctions. Treatment consists of pharmacological treatment and psychological treatment. Tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin specific reuptake inhibitors and electroconvulsive therapy constitute pharmacological part of the treatment, whereas supportive, insight oriented, play, behaviour, family therapies and cognitive psychotherapy constitute psychological part. PMID:11480955

  7. MEMO—A Mobile Phone Depression Prevention Intervention for Adolescents: Development Process and Postprogram Findings on Acceptability From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Merry, Sally; Stasiak, Karolina; McDowell, Heather; Doherty, Iain; Shepherd, Matthew; Dorey, Enid; Parag, Varsha; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Rodgers, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Background Prevention of the onset of depression in adolescence may prevent social dysfunction, teenage pregnancy, substance abuse, suicide, and mental health conditions in adulthood. New technologies allow delivery of prevention programs scalable to large and disparate populations. Objective To develop and test the novel mobile phone delivery of a depression prevention intervention for adolescents. We describe the development of the intervention and the results of participants’ self-reported satisfaction with the intervention. Methods The intervention was developed from 15 key messages derived from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The program was fully automated and delivered in 2 mobile phone messages/day for 9 weeks, with a mixture of text, video, and cartoon messages and a mobile website. Delivery modalities were guided by social cognitive theory and marketing principles. The intervention was compared with an attention control program of the same number and types of messages on different topics. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken in high schools in Auckland, New Zealand, from June 2009 to April 2011. Results A total of 1348 students (13–17 years of age) volunteered to participate at group sessions in schools, and 855 were eventually randomly assigned to groups. Of these, 835 (97.7%) self-completed follow-up questionnaires at postprogram interviews on satisfaction, perceived usefulness, and adherence to the intervention. Over three-quarters of participants viewed at least half of the messages and 90.7% (379/418) in the intervention group reported they would refer the program to a friend. Intervention group participants said the intervention helped them to be more positive (279/418, 66.7%) and to get rid of negative thoughts (210/418, 50.2%)—significantly higher than proportions in the control group. Conclusions Key messages from CBT can be delivered by mobile phone, and young people report that these are helpful. Change in

  8. Randomized controlled trial of primary care physician motivational interviewing versus brief advice to engage adolescents with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention: 6-month outcomes and predictors of improvement.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Willemijn; Marko, Monika; Fogel, Joshua; Schuurmans, Josien; Gladstone, Tracy; Bradford, Nathan; Domanico, Rocco; Fagan, Blake; Bell, Carl; Reinecke, Mark A; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W

    2011-12-01

    We believe that primary care physicians could play a key role in engaging youth with a depression prevention intervention. We developed CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral and Interpersonal Training), which is an adolescent Internet-based behavior change model. We conducted a randomized comparison of two approaches in engaging adolescents with the Internet intervention: primary care physician (PCP) motivational interview + CATCH-IT Internet program (MI) vs PCP brief advice + CATCH-IT Internet program (BA). The participants (N = 84) were recruited by screening for risk of depression in 13 primary care practices. We compared depressive disorder outcomes between groups and within groups over 6 months and examined the potential predictors and moderators of outcomes across both study arms. Depressive symptom scores declined from baseline to 6 weeks with these statistically significant reductions sustained at the 6 months follow-up in both groups. No significant interactions with treatment condition were found. However, by 6 months, the MI group demonstrated significantly fewer depressive episodes and reported less hopelessness as compared with the BA group. Hierarchical linear modeling regressions showed higher ratings of ease of use of the Internet program predicting lower depressive symptom levels over 6 months. In conclusion, a primary care/Internet-based intervention model among adolescents demonstrated reductions in depressed mood over 6 months and may result in fewer depressive episodes. PMID:22061038

  9. A causal model of adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Brage, D; Meredith, W

    1994-07-01

    We examined how family strengths, parent-adolescent communication, self-esteem, loneliness, age, and gender interrelate, and how this interaction influences depression in adolescents. The data were collected on a written questionnaire completed by 156 adolescents who were attending public schools in four communities in the midwestern United States. We developed a causal model to explicate the relationships among the variables hypothesized to affect adolescent depression and analyzed the data using path analysis via the LISREL VII program. Results showed a good fit of the model to the data. Loneliness and self-esteem had a direct effect on adolescent depression. Self-esteem had an indirect effect on depression through loneliness. Age directly and indirectly influenced depression through loneliness. Gender was significantly related to depression through self-esteem. Family strengths indirectly affected depression through self-esteem. PMID:7932297

  10. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  11. Predictors of Depression in Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Lisa A.; Lancaster, Sandra

    2001-01-01

    Study examined factors associated with symptoms of depression in female adolescents. Specifically, the relationship between theoretically related measures-separation-individuation; interpersonal concerns; attachment style; parental representations-and symptoms of depression was investigated. The model developed explained interrelationships of…

  12. Emerging from Depression: Treatment of Adolescent Depression Using the Major Treatment Models of Adult Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Kathleen M.

    Noting that adolescents who commit suicide are often clinically depressed, this paper examines various approaches in the treatment of depression. Major treatment models of adult depression, which can be directly applied to the treatment of the depressed adolescent, are described. Major treatment models and selected research studies are reviewed in…

  13. Examining Minor and Major Depression in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Tejera, Gloria; Canino, Glorisa; Ramirez, Rafael; Chavez, Ligia; Shrout, Patrick; Bird, Hector; Bravo, Milagros; Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso; Ribera, Julio; Bauermeister, Jose

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that a large proportion of adolescents with symptoms of depression and substantial distress or impairment fail to meet the diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder (MDD). However, many of these undiagnosed adolescents may meet criteria for a residual category of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  14. [Electroconvulsive therapy in depressed adolescents].

    PubMed

    van Niel, M C; Hegeman, J M; van Megen, H J G M

    2007-08-11

    Two patients, young women aged 15 and 17, both suffering from major depression with psychotic features, were resistant to treatment with antidepressive regimen and psychotherapy. Both patients became severely suicidal and were subsequently successfully treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The second patient needed maintenance ECT once a month in order to stay in remission. Whereas ECT is a well-studied and accepted treatment option in adult psychiatry, in child psychiatry people are reluctant to even consider this option. This resistance is partly based on the possible side effects ofECT i.e. memory problems. As a result, the effect ofECT in adolescents has not yet been well studied. In 2004, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry proposed guidelines for the use of ECT in adolescents. Following these guidelines, the use ofECT in adolescents seems to be a safe treatment option, however further research to the effect of ECT in this age group is warranted. PMID:17822246

  15. [Vulnerability to depression in children and adolescents: update and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Michel, G; Mouren-Siméoni, M-C

    2002-01-01

    Depression in children and adolescents is associated with poor psychosocial functioning, high psychiatric comorbidity, risk of recurrent episodes or onset of bipolar disorder. These findings emphasize the importance of early identification of children and adolescents having elevated risk for future depression and further development, evaluation and greater availability of prevention strategies. Our review aims an update about depressive vulnerability in children and adolescents in the perspective of better identification of at-risk populations and targeting of prevention programs. Psychopathology, in particular anxiety and disruptive disorders are well identified risk-factors for later depression. Subclinical depressive symptomatology, also termed "demoralization", also identifies high-risk populations, likely to become incident cases of depression. It is still unclear whether this condition is prodromal depression, a specific clinical entity or the expression of biological and/or cognitive vulnerability. Familial risk for depressive disorders involves both genetic and psychosocial factors. Marital discord, poor communication and dysfunctional parenting practices are often present in families with affective disorders and can be implicated in increased depressive vulnerability in the offspring. Research on individual vulnerability in children and adolescents has focused on temperamental and cognitive characteristics. Temperament traits describe individual differences in reactivity and behavior. High emotionality, defined as the tendency to become upset easily and intensely has been associated with an increased risk for subsequent major depression. However, as the majority of high scorers will not become depressive cases, emotionality should not be the only criterion for selection of at-risk populations. Cognitive style including poor self esteem, low social competence and negative attributions are also associated with increased likelihood of depressive symptoms, but

  16. The Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory Profiles of Depressed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Marion F.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated personality styles, concerns, and behaviors of depressed adolescents using Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (MAPI). Data from 332 high school students on Beck Depression Inventory and MAPI were reduced to 2 factors accounting for 65.1 percent of total variance, the first suggesting socially withdrawn, overtly recognizable…

  17. Who Expresses Depressive Affect in Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.; And Others

    Statistics suggest that the incidence of depression and suicide increase over the course of adolescence. Other research suggests that many indicators of well-being increase over the course of adolescence as well. This study investigated affective development during adolescence and examined the relationship of gender, normative developmental…

  18. Depressive Symptoms Among Adolescent Students in Greek High Schools

    PubMed Central

    Zacharopoulou, Vasiliki; Tsironi, Maria; Zyga, Sofia; Gialama, Fotini; Zacharopoulou, Georgia; Grammatikopoulos, Ilias; Avraam, Nikolaos; Prezerakos, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms in adolescence have been a subject of considerable controversy in terms of their nature, severity and identification. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the presence of depressive symptoms in Greek adolescent high school students and to explore the relationship between depressive symptoms and sociodemographic characteristics. For that purpose, a cross-sectional study design was conducted in two public schools in Megalopolis, Greece, from April 2012 to July 2012, using a self-administered questionnaire based on DSM-IV. The target population involved 222 high school students and the response rate was 74.75%. Data was analyzed using trend χ2 test, student’s t-test and bivariate analysis. The analysis of survey data was conducted using the SPSS (19.0). Main findings demonstrate that 3.6% had symptoms of major depressive episode. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were significantly higher in girls, while statistically significant relationships were found between students’ physical (P<0.01) and mental health (P<0.008), students’ experiences in school (P<0.02), students’ experiences with friends (P<0.008) and the frequency of depressive symptoms. Overall, the study results reveal that depressive symptoms can occur in adolescents. Early diagnosis, as well as the need for psychological care at adolescence is necessary for the prevention of major depressive disorders. PMID:26973952

  19. Depressive Symptoms Among Adolescent Students in Greek High Schools.

    PubMed

    Zacharopoulou, Vasiliki; Tsironi, Maria; Zyga, Sofia; Gialama, Fotini; Zacharopoulou, Georgia; Grammatikopoulos, Ilias; Avraam, Nikolaos; Prezerakos, Panagiotis

    2014-11-01

    Depressive symptoms in adolescence have been a subject of considerable controversy in terms of their nature, severity and identification. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the presence of depressive symptoms in Greek adolescent high school students and to explore the relationship between depressive symptoms and sociodemographic characteristics. For that purpose, a cross-sectional study design was conducted in two public schools in Megalopolis, Greece, from April 2012 to July 2012, using a self-administered questionnaire based on DSM-IV. The target population involved 222 high school students and the response rate was 74.75%. Data was analyzed using trend χ(2) test, student's t-test and bivariate analysis. The analysis of survey data was conducted using the SPSS (19.0). Main findings demonstrate that 3.6% had symptoms of major depressive episode. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were significantly higher in girls, while statistically significant relationships were found between students' physical (P<0.01) and mental health (P<0.008), students' experiences in school (P<0.02), students' experiences with friends (P<0.008) and the frequency of depressive symptoms. Overall, the study results reveal that depressive symptoms can occur in adolescents. Early diagnosis, as well as the need for psychological care at adolescence is necessary for the prevention of major depressive disorders. PMID:26973952

  20. Social Neuroscience of Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression is inherently multidisciplinary. Depressive disorders beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Psychopathology research has described depression's defining clinical and contextual features, and intervention research has characterized its response…

  1. The Emergence of Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.; Petersen, Anne C., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Twelve papers on the emergence and maintenance of severe clinical depression and depressive symptoms during adolescence are presented. Topics include parental influences, epidemiological data, depressive and negative affect, hormonal effects, preadolescent symptoms, sex differences, longitudinal studies with rhesus monkeys, suicidal ideation,…

  2. Listening Clearly: Alternative Treatments for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlasson, Terry D.

    2012-01-01

    For many years now, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and anti-depressant medications have been the primary treatments for adolescent depression. However, there are many youth today with mild to moderate depressive symptoms for whom these treatments are not necessary. This article briefly summarizes several alternative therapeutic approaches for…

  3. Suicidal behavior in adolescents with comorbid depression and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Ganz, D; Sher, L

    2009-06-01

    Depression, alcohol abuse and suicidality each continue to threaten adolescent populations throughout the world. The comorbidity between these diseases has been found to be up to 73% with consistent positive correlations between adolescent drinking, depression and suicidality. Alcohol abuse, depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents have also been found to have biochemical and genetic correlates. This article explores the contributing and causative factors and directional models underlying such prevalent comorbidities. Alcohol use is shown to be both a distal and proximal cause of suicide attempts in adolescent populations. Individuals with both alcoholism and depression who attempt or complete suicide often present with significantly high levels of aggression and impulsivity. These factors may be caused or nuanced by poor or underdeveloped coping skills as well as other comorbid psychiatric conditions. Such behaviors, alone or in comorbidity, may be a consequence of childhood abuse, social pressures, low self-esteem and/or delinquency- all of which may be particularly salient among adolescent populations. Such adolescent stressors are implicated as the cause for the self-medication model. Some studies suggest that depression encourages alcohol use as self-medication and then leads to suicidality, while others imply that the initial alcohol consumption is responsible for increasing depressive and suicidal symptoms in adolescents. This article discusses the social stigma associated with alcoholism, depression and suicidality, and how that may serve to enhance these disorders in adolescent populations. Many directional models are presented based on past research and as suggestions for future research. There is a lot that can be done by clinicians, legal and educational professionals and society at large that may help to prevent and treat such problems. PMID:19461576

  4. Latino Adolescents' Adjustment, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and the Mother-Adolescent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Rosalie; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Romo, Laura F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined associations between adolescent behaviors, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-adolescent relationships. Latina mothers and adolescents (111 dyads) completed questionnaires and participated in videotaped discussions. Mothers' depressive symptoms related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors and family…

  5. Does Personality Predict Depression and Use of an Internet-Based Intervention for Depression among Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Vangberg, Hans Christian B.; Lillevoll, Kjersti R.; Waterloo, Knut; Eisemann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background. Focus upon depression and prevention of its occurrence among adolescents is increasing. Novel ways of dealing with this serious problem have become available especially by means of internet-based prevention and treatment programs of depression and anxiety. The use of Internet-based intervention programs among adolescents has revealed some difficulties in implementation that need to be further elucidated. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between personality and adolescent depression and the characteristics of users of an Internet-based intervention program. Method. The Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI), the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE) and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) have been administered to a sample (n = 1234) of Norwegian senior high-school students. Results. Multiple regression analysis revealed associations between depression and gender, and several JTCI domains and facets. In line with previous findings in adults, high Harm Avoidance and low Self-Directedness emerged as the strongest predictors of adolescent depressive symptoms. Further, in logistic regression analysis with the covariates JTCI, GSE and CES-D, the only significant variables predicting use/non-use were the CES-D and the temperament domain Reward Dependence. Conclusion. The results in this study revealed level of depressive symptoms as the strongest predictor of the use of the Internet based intervention and that personality might provide useful information about the users. PMID:22928095

  6. Neuropsychological deficits in adolescent unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Klimkeit, Ester I; Tonge, Bruce; Bradshaw, John L; Melvin, Glenn A; Gould, Kate

    2011-11-01

    Although neuropsychological deficits in adult depression are relatively well established, findings in children/adolescents have been inconsistent and thus require further investigation. The current study investigated verbal fluency (VF), cognitive speed, motor speed, and executive functions in adolescents with unipolar depression. Results indicated that adolescents with minor depression showed working memory deficits and poorer VF (letter task). Adolescents with major depression showed working memory deficits and processing speed deficits from the early stages of information processing to the later stages of motor output. Executive function deficits of set-shifting and response inhibition that are well established in adults were not found, but may reflect task differences. Thus, it appears that depression subtype or severity of symptoms may impact on neuropsychological functioning and may in part explain previous inconsistent results. PMID:21690097

  7. Adolescent Depression: Stress and Reward Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Admon, Roee; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a peak period for the onset of depression, and it is also a time marked by substantial stress as well as neural development within the brain reward circuitry. In the current review, we provide a selective overview of current animal and human research investigating the relationship among reward processes, stress, and depression. Three separate, but related, etiological models examine the differential roles that stress may play with regard to reward dysfunction and adolescent depression. First, the reward mediation model suggests that acute and chronic stress contribute to reward deficits, which in turn, potentiate depressive symptoms and/or increase the risk for depression. Second, in line with the stress generation perspective, it is plausible that premorbid reward-related dysfunction generates stress, in particular interpersonal stress, which then leads to the manifestation of depressive symptoms. Last, consistent with a diathesis-stress model, the interaction between stress and premorbid reward dysfunction may contribute to the onset of depression. Given the equifinal nature of depression, these models could shed important light on different etiological pathways during adolescence, particularly as they may relate to understanding the heterogeneity of depression. To highlight the translational potential of these insights, a hypothetical case study is provided as means of demonstrating the importance of targeting reward dysfunction in both assessment and treatment of adolescent depression. PMID:24704785

  8. Childhood psychological maltreatment subtypes and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Paul, Elise; Eckenrode, John

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to understand how subtypes and the timing of psychological maltreatment contribute to adolescent depressive symptoms at age 14. The sample included 638 youth from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). At age 12, youth reported experiences of psychological maltreatment (degradation, isolating, and terrorizing), physical abuse (endangerment and physical injury), and sexual abuse that occurred before and during elementary school/last year. Multivariable regression models were conducted separately for females and males at each of the two time periods and accounted for demographics, primary caregiver depressive symptoms, other maltreatment subtypes, and youth-reported age 12 depressive symptoms. For girls, caregiver degradation was the only maltreatment subtype that contributed unique variance to depressive symptoms. Degradation before elementary school and chronic degradation had a stronger impact on depression symptoms. Only caregiver isolating behaviors during elementary school/last year and chronic isolation predicted depressive symptoms in boys. These results suggest that childhood psychological maltreatment is multi-dimensional and is implicated in the etiology of adolescent depressive symptoms. Future prevention efforts should consider parental psychological maltreatment in reducing risk for adolescent depression. PMID:26105164

  9. Developing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Depressive Relapse in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jarrett, Robin B.; Emslie, Graham J.

    2008-01-01

    Relapse rates for children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) range from 30% to 40% within 1 to 2 years after acute treatment. Although relapse rates are high, there have been relatively few studies on the prevention of relapse in youth. While acute phase pharmacotherapy has been shown to reduce symptoms rapidly in depressed…

  10. Effectiveness Study of a CBT-Based Adolescent Coping with Depression Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvik, Margit; Idsoe, Thormod; Bru, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Even though the efficacy of group-based cognitive behavioural interventions is well established both for adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorders as well as for adolescents with depressive symptoms, in order to prevent further development, there has been a call for effectiveness studies in real world settings. This study investigated…

  11. Adolescent depression in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Ali, Akleema; Konings, Monique

    2006-02-01

    This study investigates depression in adolescents in Trinidad and Tobago and identifies any significant trends associated with its occurrence. A stratified random sample of 1.845 adolescent students from 24 schools was administered a questionnaire requesting demographic information and responses to the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale. In all, 14% of the sample was depressed. Depression was 2.18 times more likely to occur in females than males (17.9 % vs. 8.2 %). The peak age was 16 years with a rate of 15.9%. Both attendance at a religious institution and prayer with the family resulted in lower depression rates. Intact families had the lowest rate (11.7 %),while the reconstituted family had the highest rate (25.7 %). Individuals who had alcohol abuse in their family were 1.8 times more likely to be depressed than those without abuse. Adolescents from non-prestige schools were more likely to be depressed than those from prestige schools (p < 0.01). There were no ethnic differences in depression. The findings of this study are comparable to those of developed countries and provide guidelines for the planning and development of strategies for fighting depression in developing countries. PMID:16514507

  12. Peer Victimization, Depression, and Suicidiality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2008-01-01

    The association between specific types of peer victimization with depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents was examined. A self-report survey was completed by 2,342 high-school students. Regression analyses indicated that frequent exposure to all types of peer victimization was related to high risk of depression,…

  13. Depression and Suicide in Deaf Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, Carolyn J.; Bibby, Mary Ann

    1998-01-01

    This article shares one mother's experiences with the depression of her son and his friend who are both deaf. Findings from interviews with the two adolescents are provided, along with recommendations for educators, peers, and professionals for helping teenagers with deafness coping with depression and thoughts of suicide. (Contains references.)…

  14. Depressive Disorder in Highly Gifted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, P. Susan; Peterson, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Two case studies and clinical examples document the capacity of highly gifted adolescents to mask severe depressive disorder symptoms. Factors contributing to this masking phenomenon include shame for being incapacitated and unable to resolve their dilemma; depression's signature cognitive confusion, which disengaged their coping mechanism; and…

  15. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M

    2015-07-01

    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression. PMID:25938204

  16. Preventing suicide in adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Makhija, Nita J; Sher, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is an escalating crisis that needs to be addressed by clinicians and researchers. Alcohol use has consistently been implicated in adolescent suicide and it is generally assumed that alcohol use leads to an increased risk in suicidality, suicide attempts and completed suicides. It can lead to adolescent suicidality through alcohol myopia, disinhibition, and impaired judgment. Multiple genetically related intermediate phenotypes might contribute to the risk of alcohol misuse and suicidal behavior in adolescents. Genetic variations that enhance the risk for mood and anxiety symptoms or susceptibility to stress might increase risk through different mechanisms. Comorbid disorders such as depression are frequently exhibited in adolescents who misuse alcohol, therefore any adolescent who appears to be at risk for alcoholism or depression should always be screened for all other psychiatric disorders and for suicidality; some signs suicidal adolescents may exhibit include withdrawal, personality change, and a loss of interest in pleasurable activities. While assessment is important, prevention is crucial in any attempt to decrease the incidence of adolescent suicide. The US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has established a set of seven guidelines that can be implemented from kindergarten through high school in order to establish alcohol prevention efforts in schools. Through beginning prevention efforts at a young age, it is hopeful that both alcohol misuse and adolescent suicide can be reduced. PMID:17458324

  17. Suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents: a review of empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Galaif, Elisha R; Sussman, Steve; Newcomb, Michael D; Locke, Thomas F

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is a serious health problem as it is currently the third leading cause of death for teenagers between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Depression, which is also a serious problem for adolescents, is the most significant biological and psychological risk factor for teen suicide. Alcohol use remains extremely widespread among today's teenagers and is related to both suicidality and depression. Suicidality refers to the occurrence of suicidal thoughts or suicidal behavior. The consensus in empirical research is that mental disorders and substance abuse are the most important risk factors in both attempted and completed adolescent suicide. Therefore, it is incumbent upon researchers to identify the factors that can lead to their prevention among today's youth. This review compiles the existing literature on suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents spanning over the past 15 years. Both Problem Behavior Theory and Stress-coping Theory can explain the relationships among suicidality, depression and alcohol use. The prevention of suicidality is critical, especially during the early school years, when it is associated with depression and alcohol use. Suicidality, depression and alcohol use are three phenomenon that noticeably increase in adolescence marking this time period as an ideal opportunity for prevention efforts to commence. Future empirical work is needed that will further assess the impact of adolescent depression and alcohol use on suicidality. In sum, this review of empirical research highlights critical results and limitations, as well as indicates a need for continued efforts in preventing suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:17458321

  18. Psychosocial treatment of depression and suicidality in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Stanley, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    Depression is a common disorder among adolescents and is associated with a high risk of suicide. Suicide is the third leading cause of death among adolescents in the United States. Currently, there are only two evidence-based psychotherapies for adolescence depression: cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy. Furthermore, psychosocial interventions that specifically target suicidal behavior in adolescents are even fewer in number than treatments for depression. This article will review the psychosocial interventions for depression and suicidality in adolescents and will describe a recently developed treatment that is under study for depressed suicidal adolescents. PMID:17277714

  19. Community-Based Prevention Programs for Anxiety and Depression in Youth: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Helen; Pallister, Emma; Smale, Stephanie; Hickie, Ian B.; Calear, Alison L.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of prevention and early intervention programs for young people and adolescents once they leave or dropout from school. The effectiveness of 18 anxiety and 26 depression studies addressing prevention in community programs were identified using systematic review methodology. Anxiety and depression symptoms…

  20. Postpartum Depression Prevention for Reservation-Based American Indians: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Hastings, Ranelda; Baker, Elena Varipatis; Mullany, Britta; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Walkup, John

    2012-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression is a devastating condition that affects a significant number of women and their offspring. Few preventive interventions have targeted high risk youth, such as American Indians (AIs). Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of a depression prevention program for AI adolescents and young adults. Methods: Expectant AI…

  1. Development and Validation of a Depression Scale for Asian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Chang, W. C.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Koh, Jessie B. K.; Leong, Joyce S. F.; Kee, Carolyn H. Y.; Seah, Cheryl K. F.

    2004-01-01

    Items covering both core and culture-specific facets of depression were generated based on literature review and clinical experience. They were modified following focus group discussions with depressed adolescents and adolescents in the community. The newly constructed Asian Adolescent Depression Scale (AADS) was administered to a clinical and a…

  2. Treatment of depression in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bostic, Jeff Q; Rubin, David H; Prince, Jefferson; Schlozman, Steven

    2005-05-01

    Depression occurs in children and adolescents, although it may appear differently in younger patients. Research suggests juvenile depression may respond to psychotherapy and to pharmacologic agents, and that antidepressants remain a valuable treatment for juveniles with depression. Diagnostic considerations in juveniles with mood symptoms are discussed. A brief overview is provided of the evidence supporting psychotherapy for juveniles with depression. Controlled antidepressant trials in juveniles with depression provide some support for the use of some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and little support for atypical antidepressants, tricyclic antidepressants, or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Evidence from suicide rates over time, autopsy findings among juvenile suicides, and impacts of antidepressant prescribing trends are related to the current controversy over suicidality and antidepressant use in juvenile patients. Based on this evidence, practical guidelines for treatment of juvenile depression are provided. PMID:15920388

  3. Pubertal Timing and Vulnerabilities to Depression in Early Adolescence: Differential Pathways to Depressive Symptoms by Sex

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    Although research implicates pubertal processes in the emergence of the sex difference in depression during adolescence, few studies have examined how cognitive and affective vulnerabilities influence the effect of pubertal timing on depressive symptoms. The current study prospectively examined whether early pubertal timing predicted increases in depressive symptoms among adolescents with more negative cognitive styles and lower emotional clarity, and whether this risk was specific to adolescent girls. In a diverse sample of 318 adolescents, early pubertal timing predicted increases in depressive symptoms among adolescent boys and girls with more negative cognitive styles and adolescent girls with poor emotional clarity. These findings suggest that earlier pubertal maturation may heighten the risk of depression for adolescents with pre-existing vulnerabilities to depression, and that early-maturing adolescent girls with lower levels of emotional clarity may be particularly vulnerable to depressive symptoms, representing one pathway through which the sex difference in depression may emerge. PMID:24439622

  4. Adolescent Motherhood and Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…

  5. Protective Factors Against Depression and Suicidal Behaviour in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Jean-Jacques; Labelle, Réal; Berthiaume, Claude; Royer, Chantal; St-Georges, Marie; Ricard, Dominique; Abadie, Pascale; Gérardin, Priscille; Cohen, David; Guilé, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether protective factors in the Protection for Adolescent Depression Study (PADS) moderate the impact of stressful events on depression and suicidal behaviour in the community and a clinical setting; and to study the influence of sex. Method: Participants were 283 adolescents from the community and 119 from a mood disorder clinic in Montreal. The participants were evaluated on 6 instruments measuring individual risk and protective factors. Descriptive analyses and univariate and multiple logistic regression models were carried out. Results: Risk factors predicted higher levels of depression and presence of suicidal behaviour, and protective factors predicted lower levels of depression and absence of suicidal behaviour, as expected under the vulnerability-resilience stress model. Several sex differences were observed in terms of the predictive power of risk factors (for example, hopelessness among girls and keep to themselves among boys) and protective factors (for example, focusing on the positive among girls and self-discovery among boys). Conclusions: Findings from the PADS suggest that protective factors moderate the impact of stress on depression and suicidal behaviour. Developing protection appears important in the presence of chronic conditions, such as depressive disorders, to reduce the likelihood of further episodes. The influence of sex makes it all the more relevant to target different factors for boys and girls to increase protection and decrease risk in prevention and intervention programs. PMID:25886672

  6. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  7. Body Image Change and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Judith M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the temporal association between body image and depressive symptoms in African American, Asian American, Hispanic American, and white adolescents. Found that girls were more influenced by body image change than boys. Compared to other ethnic groups, African American girls experienced a greater increase in psychological distress as body…

  8. Treating Depression and Oppositional Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Jordan, Neil; Silva, Susan G.; Rohde, Paul; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents with depression and high levels of oppositionality often are particularly difficult to treat. Few studies, however, have examined treatment outcomes among youth with both externalizing and internalizing problems. This study examines the effect of fluoxetine, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), the combination of fluoxetine and CBT, and…

  9. Bullying, Depression, and Suicidality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin S.; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association between bullying behavior and depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents. Method: A self-report survey was completed by 9th-through 12th-grade students (n = 2342) in six New York State high schools from 2002 through 2004. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the association…

  10. Music Shifts Frontal EEG in Depressed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Martinez, Alex; Nawrocki, Thomas; Pickens, Jeffrey; Fox, Nathan A.; Schanberg, Saul

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen chronically depressed female adolescents listened to rock music for a 23-minute session. EEG was recorded and saliva samples were collected to determine the effects of the music on stress hormone cortisol levels. No differences were reported for mood state; however, cortisol levels decreased and relative right-frontal activation was…

  11. Primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Schinke, S P; Blythe, B J; Gilchrist, L D; Burt, G A

    1981-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is associated with many health, emotional and socioeconomic problems including higher rates of anemia, labor complications, mortality, legal and social struggles and hhigher divorce rates. Professional social workers need strategies to help teenagers avoid early, unwanted pregnancy. This paper offers promising experential and research backing for a primary prevention group work strategy for all adolescents. Social and health programs overlook educational, cognitive anc interpersonal factors biasing youths' ability to comprehend and regulate contraception. Primary prevention to assist adolescents in thinking analytically about their sexual behavior must stress problem solving and decision-making as well as facts about human reproduction and birth control. To implement decisions, youths also need interpersonal communication skills. Small groups are ideal for delivering cognitive-behavioral primary prevention. This approach is based on the premise that youths become pregnant not because of a lack of relevant information, but because they lack cognitive and behavioral skills necessary to use information. Group work involving role-playing helps develop communication skills. Results from 2 field studies describe short-term and longitudinal benefits of the prevention strategy. Professionals can reach significant numbers of youth in this way. By treating sexual issues and the risk of pregnancy as normal in adolescence, social workers can introduce information and pertinent skills to all teenagers. No one is singled out as deviant and the group format enables young people to discuss taboo topics, discovering what the norms are and gradually learning how to deal with peers, family members, techers and others. Adolescents in primary prevention groups gained knowledge, cognitive skills and communication acumen. Improved attitudes toward family planning, increased regular contraception and less unsafe sex resulted from this cognitive-behavioral approach

  12. Primary care management of depression in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Haefner, Judy

    2016-06-19

    Depression is the most common mental health disorder in children and adolescents, and primary care is often the first point of contact for children and adolescents with depression. Depression impacts all areas of life, impairing academics and interactions with family and friends. The purpose of this article is to help NPs identify and treat children and adolescents presenting with depression in the primary care setting. PMID:27214067

  13. Adolescent preventive services.

    PubMed

    Reif, C J; Elster, A B

    1998-03-01

    Today, there are significant risks to the health of teenagers. Drugs (tobacco, alcohol, steroids and others), sex (pregnancy, STDs, date rape), nutrition (obesity and eating disorders), and violence (abuse, fighting) are unfortunately a part of many teens' lives. These risks increase throughout the teen years. Since each risk has a strong behavioral component, we hope to modify the behavior and minimize the risk. Prevention and health promotion are an important part of health care for teens. Primary care providers, such as family physicians, are in an excellent position to provide teen preventative care that is comprehensive and specific to the needs of each teen. PMID:9469914

  14. Adolescent Suicide: A Review of Influences and the Means for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarski, John S.; Harris, Pamela

    1987-01-01

    Addresses adolescent suicide, the third leading cause of death among youths. Reviews depression, stress, family, and peer factors that impinge on adolescents and predispose them to suicide. Examines role of professionals in prevention efforts and outlines practice paradigm for identifying and helping suicidal adolescents. (Author/KS)

  15. Onset of Alcohol or Substance Use Disorders Following Treatment for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, John; Silva, Susan; Rohde, Paul; Ginsburg, Golda; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Kirchner, Jerry; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Feeny, Norah; Albano, Anne Marie; Lavanier, Sarah; Reinecke, Mark; Jacobs, Rachel; Becker-Weidman, Emily; Weller, Elizabeth; Emslie, Graham; Walkup, John; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Burns, Barbara; Wells, Karen; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested whether positive response to short-term treatment for adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) would have the secondary benefit of preventing subsequent alcohol use disorders (AUD) or substance use disorders (SUD). Method: For 5 years, we followed 192 adolescents (56.2% female; 20.8% minority) who had participated in…

  16. Does early adolescent sex cause depressive symptoms?

    PubMed

    Sabia, Joseph J

    2006-01-01

    A recent study by the Heritage Foundation (Rector, Johnson, & Noyes, 2003) found evidence of a positive relationship between early sexual intercourse and depressive symptoms. This finding has been used to bolster support for funding abstinence only sex education. However, promoting abstinence will only yield mental health benefits if there is a causal link between sexual intercourse and depression. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), I carefully examine the relationship between early teen sex and several measures of depression. Controlling for a wide set of individual level and family level observable characteristics, cross section estimates consistently show a significant positive relationship between early sexual activity for females and three measures of adverse mental health: self reported depression, a belief that one's life is not worth living, and serious thoughts of suicide. However, difference-in-difference estimates reflect no evidence of a significant relationship between early teen sex and depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that the positive association observed by Rector et al. (2003) can be explained by unmeasured heterogeneity. Thus, promoting abstinence among adolescents is unlikely to alleviate depressive symptoms PMID:16989034

  17. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III

    2007-01-01

    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  18. Developmentally informed pharmacotherapy for child and adolescent depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris

    2012-04-01

    This article reviews evidence-based pharmacotherapy for children and adolescents with depression. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) support the use of fluoxetine for the treatment of childhood and adolescent depression as well as escitalopram in the treatment of adolescent depression. To date, one RCT has demonstrated the effectiveness of sertraline or citalopram for the treatment of major depressive disorder in youth. Only a small number of RCTs for depression have included children, and none of these trials were adequately powered to detect differences in the efficacy of medication between children and adolescents. PMID:22537729

  19. Social Network Status and Depression among Adolescents: An Examination of Social Network Influences and Depressive Symptoms in a Chinese Sample

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Janet; Johnson, C. Anderson; Leventhal, Adam; Milam, Joel; Pentz, Mary Ann; Schwartz, David; Valente, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the well established influence of peer experiences on adolescent attitudes, thoughts, and behaviors, surprisingly little research has examined the importance of peer context and the increased prevalence of depressive symptoms accompanying the transition into adolescence. Examination of social networks may provide some insight into the role of peers in the vulnerability of some adolescents to depression. To address this issue, we leveraged an existing sample of 5,563 Chinese 10th graders to incorporate social network data into a multilevel regression model of depressive symptoms. We found that, in this sample, being nominated as a friend was more important than being nominated as most liked. Social network centrality was significantly associated with depression; those adolescents who were less connected were more likely to suffer from depression. The risk of depression for those who were marginal members of classroom social networks was substantial. These findings suggest that a social network perspective could help to increase the effectiveness of programs aimed at preventing adolescent depression. PMID:23226988

  20. Interpersonal Theory and Adolescents with Depression: Clinical Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Beamish, Patricia M.

    2002-01-01

    This article provides mental health counselors with information about the prevalence and course of adolescent depression, other empirically tested treatments for adolescent depression, an explanation of Interpersonal psychotherapy for adolescents (IPT-A) treatment protocol, and results of outcome studies on the effectiveness of IPT-A. Suggestions…

  1. Mental Health and Functional Outcomes of Maternal and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Frances; Lifford, Kate J.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of maternal and self-ratings of adolescent depression by investigating the extent to which these reports predicted a range of mental health and functional outcomes 4 years later. The potential influence of mother's own depressed mood on her ratings of adolescent depression and suicidal ideation on adolescent outcome…

  2. A Qualitative Study of Mexican American Adolescents and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornos, Laura B.; Mika, Virginia Seguin; Bayles, Bryan; Serrano, Alberto C.; Jimenez, Roberto L.; Villarreal, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Depressive disorders are present in a high percentage of Mexican American adolescents. Among the US Mexican American population, suicide is the fourth leading cause of death among 10- to 19-year-olds. Little research, however, has focused on Mexican American adolescents' knowledge and views about depression and seeking help for depression. Results…

  3. Cognitive Measures of Adolescent Depression: Unique or Unitary Constructs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Silva, Susan G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Tonev, Simon; Hoyle, Rick H.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Reinecke, Mark A.; Curry, John F.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of several self-report questionnaires assessing depression-relevant cognitions frequently employed in clinical research was examined in a sample of 390 adolescents (M age = 14.54; 216 girls; 74% Caucasian) with current major depressive disorder enrolled in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study. A four-factor…

  4. Depression and the Maternal Behavior of Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colletta, Nancy Donohue

    The rates of depression among a sample of 75 adolescent mothers were studied in order to investigate the relationship of environmental stress and support to depressive symptomatology and to investigate the relationship between depression and adolescents' interactions with their children. The Stress, Support, and Family Functioning Interview,…

  5. Differentiating Adolescent Self-Injury from Adolescent Depression: Possible Implications for Borderline Personality Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hsiao, Ray C.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Yaptangco, Mona; Linehan, Marsha M.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Self-inflicted injury (SII) in adolescence marks heightened risk for suicide attempts, completed suicide, and adult psychopathology. Although several studies have revealed elevated rates of depression among adolescents who self injure, no one has compared adolescent self injury with adolescent depression on biological, self-, and informant-report…

  6. Depression screening and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Depression is an important cause of disability among children and adolescents. Depression screening is one possible method for managing depression, and screening programs have been initiated in some school and medical settings. However, in 2005, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care and the United Kingdom National Institute of Clinical Excellence did not recommend depression screening among children and adolescents. By contrast, in 2009, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommended that all adolescents, but not younger children, be screened for depression in medical settings with integrated depression management services, although no trials of screening were identified. The objectives of this systematic review are to evaluate in children and adolescents the accuracy of depression screening tools; depression treatment efficacy; whether depression screening improves depression outcomes; and potential harms related to depression interventions and screening. Methods/design Data sources will include the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, LILACS and Web of Science, supplemented by reference harvesting of eligible articles, relevant systematic reviews, relevant guidelines and recommendations, and selected journals, and by searches for unpublished studies. Eligible studies will report data for children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years. Eligible diagnostic accuracy studies must compare a depression screening tool to a validated diagnostic interview for major depressive disorder and report diagnostic accuracy data. Eligible treatment studies must be randomized controlled trials of pharmacological, psychotherapeutic, or other depression treatments commonly available for children and adolescents in pediatric, primary-care, and family medicine settings. Eligible screening studies must be randomized controlled trials that compare depression outcomes between children or adolescents who underwent depression

  7. Group prevention of depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P; Schulman, Peter; Tryon, Alyssa M

    2007-06-01

    To prevent depression and anxiety, we delivered a brief, classroom-based cognitive-behavioral workshop along with ongoing Web-based materials and e-mail coaching to college students at risk for depression. At risk was defined as having mild to moderate depressive symptoms on a self-report measure of depression. Two hundred forty students were randomized into either an eight-week workshop that met in groups of 10, once per week for 2 h or into an assessment-only control group. We plan to track participants for 3 years after the workshop and here we report the 6 month preventive effects on depression and anxiety. The workshop group had significantly fewer depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms than the control group, but there was no significant difference between the conditions on depression or anxiety episodes at 6 month follow up. The workshop group had significantly better well being than the control group, and the workshop group had significantly greater improvement in optimistic explanatory style than the control group. Improved explanatory style was a significant mediator of the prevention effects from pre- to post-workshop for depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as for improved well being. PMID:17074301

  8. Indicators of Adolescent Depression and Relationship Progression in Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg-Thoma, Sara E.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent depression may be associated with future relationship problems that have long-term consequences given the developmental importance and health benefits of forming committed unions in emerging adulthood. The authors examined associations between emotional and behavioral indicators of adolescent depression (depressive symptoms, alcohol problems, and suicidal ideation) and romantic relationship and union formation and dissolution in emerging adulthood (n = 14,146) using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Adolescent alcohol problems were associated with more romantic relationships in emerging adulthood. Emerging adults with depressive symptoms or alcohol problems in adolescence were significantly more likely to enter into a cohabiting union, and those with adolescent alcohol problems were less likely to marry. Cohabiting emerging adults with a history of adolescent depressive symptoms were less likely to marry, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with a decreased likelihood of cohabitation dissolution. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24465056

  9. Indicators of Adolescent Depression and Relationship Progression in Emerging Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sandberg-Thoma, Sara E; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent depression may be associated with future relationship problems that have long-term consequences given the developmental importance and health benefits of forming committed unions in emerging adulthood. The authors examined associations between emotional and behavioral indicators of adolescent depression (depressive symptoms, alcohol problems, and suicidal ideation) and romantic relationship and union formation and dissolution in emerging adulthood (n = 14,146) using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Adolescent alcohol problems were associated with more romantic relationships in emerging adulthood. Emerging adults with depressive symptoms or alcohol problems in adolescence were significantly more likely to enter into a cohabiting union, and those with adolescent alcohol problems were less likely to marry. Cohabiting emerging adults with a history of adolescent depressive symptoms were less likely to marry, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with a decreased likelihood of cohabitation dissolution. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24465056

  10. Preventing Adolescent Relapse: Concepts, Theories and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Shitala P.; Ressler, Robert A.

    This chapter discusses adolescent drug abuse relapse prevention. It presents the following four conclusions regarding the efficacy of prevention programs. First, more controlled studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of relapse prevention strategies with adolescents in reducing factors such as cravings and increasing their…

  11. Within-Person Changes in Individual Symptoms of Depression Predict Subsequent Depressive Episodes in Adolescents: a Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Kouros, Chrystyna D; Morris, Matthew C; Garber, Judy

    2016-04-01

    The current longitudinal study examined which individual symptoms of depression uniquely predicted a subsequent Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in adolescents, and whether these relations differed by sex. Adolescents (N = 240) were first interviewed in grade 6 (M = 11.86 years old; SD = 0.56; 54% female; 81.5% Caucasian) and then annually through grade 12 regarding their individual symptoms of depression as well as the occurrence of MDEs. Individual symptoms of depression were assessed with the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and depressive episodes were assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results showed that within-person changes in sleep problems and low self-esteem/excessive guilt positively predicted an increased likelihood of an MDE for both boys and girls. Significant sex differences also were found. Within-person changes in anhedonia predicted an increased likelihood of a subsequent MDE among boys, whereas irritability predicted a decreased likelihood of a future MDE among boys, and concentration difficulties predicted a decreased likelihood of an MDE in girls. These results identified individual depressive symptoms that predicted subsequent depressive episodes in male and female adolescents, and may be used to guide the early detection, treatment, and prevention of depressive disorders in youth. PMID:26105209

  12. Adolescent Suicide: Prevention, Postvention and Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dineen, Peggy

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults between the ages of 15-25. Every day, over 1,000 young adults attempt to destroy themselves. Although adolescents contemplate suicide for many reasons, research suggests that depression is the number one risk factor in suicide. Accordingly, this paper describes many of…

  13. Culturally Tailored Depression/Suicide Prevention in Latino Youth: Community Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ford-Paz, Rebecca E; Reinhard, Christine; Kuebbeler, Andrea; Contreras, Richard; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2015-10-01

    Latino adolescents are at elevated risk for depression and suicide compared to other ethnic groups. Project goals were to gain insight from community leaders about depression risk factors particular to Latino adolescents and generate innovative suggestions to improve cultural relevance of prevention interventions. This project utilized a CBPR approach to enhance cultural relevance, acceptability, and utility of the findings and subsequent program development. Two focus groups of youth and youth-involved Latino community leaders (n = 18) yielded three overarching themes crucial to a culturally tailored depression prevention intervention: (1) utilize a multipronged and sustainable intervention approach, (2) raise awareness about depression in culturally meaningful ways, and (3) promote Latino youth's social connection and cultural enrichment activities. Findings suggest that both adaptation of existing prevention programs and development of hybrid approaches may be necessary to reduce depression/suicide disparities for Latino youth. One such hybrid program informed by community stakeholders is described. PMID:24132548

  14. The Temporal Relation between Depression and Comorbid Psychopathology in Adolescents at Varied Risk for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallerani, Catherine M.; Garber, Judy; Martin, Nina C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined the temporal comorbidity of depressive disorders with anxiety, externalizing, and substance use disorders in adolescents who varied in risk for depression. Methods: Participants were 240 adolescents and their mothers who had either a history of depression (high-risk, n = 185) or were lifetime-free of psychiatric…

  15. Pharmacotherapy in depressed children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Taurines, Regina; Gerlach, Manfred; Warnke, Andreas; Thome, Johannes; Wewetzer, Christoph

    2011-09-01

    In children and adolescents, antidepressants are used in the treatment of depressive symptoms and several other psychiatric conditions. In the treatment of mild and moderate depressive symptoms, non-pharmacological approaches such as psychotherapy play a major role, a severe symptomatology may demand a combination with antidepressants. As first-choice medication for the treatment of juvenile depression, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine is recommended, due to its efficacy and approval. As second-choice antidepressants the SSRIs sertraline, escitalopram and citalopram might be used. Other antidepressants - such as tricyclic antidepressants, α(2)-adrenoceptor antagonists, selective noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) - may be alternatively used, but not as first- or second-choice medications. In the case of "off-label" use, patients and parents have to be carefully informed prior to the start of medication, after a thorough risk-benefit analysis. In the following overview we address a general framework, therapeutic strategies and the issues of antidepressant pharmacotherapy for the treatment of unipolar depression in childhood and adolescence. PMID:21905988

  16. Adolescent Suicide: Prevention Starts in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, Jane A.; Siehl, Peterann M.

    Adolescent suicide is thought by many experts to be the second leading cause of dath among adolescents. The present strategies being used, which attempt to prevent these suicides by treatment during adolescence, do not seem to be working. This study therefore examined the development of self-concept and coping strategies during childhood in an…

  17. Suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents: A review of empirical findings

    PubMed Central

    Galaif, Elisha R; Sussman, Steve; Newcomb, Michael D; Locke, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is a serious health problem as it is currently the third leading cause of death for teenagers between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Depression, which is also a serious problem for adolescents, is the most significant biological and psychological risk factor for teen suicide. Alcohol use remains extremely widespread among today’s teenagers and is related to both suicidality and depression. Suicidality refers to the occurrence of suicidal thoughts or suicidal behavior. The consensus in empirical research is that mental disorders and substance abuse are the most important risk factors in both attempted and completed adolescent suicide. Therefore, it is incumbent upon researchers to identify the factors that can lead to their prevention among today’s youth. This review compiles the existing literature on suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents spanning over the past 15 years. Both Problem Behavior Theory and Stress-coping Theory can explain the relationships among suicidality, depression and alcohol use. The prevention of suicidality is critical, especially during the early school years, when it is associated with depression and alcohol use. Suicidality, depression and alcohol use are three phenomenon that noticeably increase in adolescence marking this time period as an ideal opportunity for prevention efforts to commence. Future empirical work is needed that will further assess the impact of adolescent depression and alcohol use on suicidality. In sum, this review of empirical research highlights critical results and limitations, as well as indicates a need for continued efforts in preventing suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:17458321

  18. Correlation between bullying and clinical depression in adolescent patients

    PubMed Central

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari

    2011-01-01

    A literature review of the associations between involvement in bullying and depression is presented. Many studies have demonstrated a concurrent association between involvement in bullying and depression in adolescent population samples. Not only victims but also bullies display increased risk of depression, although not all studies have confirmed this for the bullies. Retrospective studies among adults support the notion that victimization is followed by depression. Prospective follow-up studies have suggested both that victimization from bullying may be a risk factor for depression and that depression may predispose adolescents to bullying. Research among clinically referred adolescents is scarce but suggests that correlations between victimization from bullying and depression are likely to be similar in clinical and population samples. Adolescents who bully present with elevated numbers of psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric and social welfare treatment contacts. PMID:24600274

  19. Prevention of Disordered Eating among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey-Stokes, Marilyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)

  20. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  1. Brooding and reflection as explanatory of depressive symptoms in adolescents experiencing stressful life events.

    PubMed

    Young, Cara Calloway; Dietrich, Mary S; Lutenbacher, Melanie

    2014-03-01

    Delineating etiologic mechanisms of adolescent-onset depressive disorders has implications for advances in depression recognition and prevention. Two cognitive processes, namely brooding and reflection, may be instrumental in the development of depressive symptoms. Study aims were to (1) examine the relationships among brooding, reflection, dysfunctional attitudes, negative inferential style, stressful life events, and depressive symptoms and (2) determine the unique contributions of brooding and reflection to depressive symptoms in adolescents who are experiencing stressful life events. A secondary data analysis was conducted using cross-sectional data gathered via a web-based survey (N = 111) of 12-15 year olds. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlations, and hierarchical linear regression modeling were used to evaluate study aims. The final regression model explained approximately 73% of the variance in depressive symptoms (Multiple R = 0.85, p < .001). After controlling for each of the study variables, both brooding (beta = .48, p < .001) and reflection (beta = .33, p < .001) demonstrated unique contributions to the prevalence of depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that brooding and reflection are significant contributors to depressive symptoms in young adolescents experiencing stressful life events. With this knowledge, nurses are better equipped to identify adolescents at high risk for depressive symptoms and implement appropriate levels of intervention. PMID:24597582

  2. Depressed Adolescents and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders: Are There Differences in the Presentation of Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, David Marc; Simons, Anne D.; Yovanoff, Paul; Silva, Susan G.; Lewis, Cara C.; Murakami, Jessica L.; March, John

    2008-01-01

    Patterns and correlates of comorbidity, as well as differences in manifest depressive profiles were investigated in a sample of depressed adolescents. A sub-sample of the youth were characterized as belonging to either a "Pure" depression group, an "Internalizing" group (depression and co-occurring internalizing disorders), or an "Externalizing"…

  3. Should Screening for Depression among Children and Adolescents Be Demedicalized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Allan V.; Wakefield, Jerome C.

    2009-01-01

    The criteria for diagnosing depressive disorders fails to place the symptoms of intense sadness in the context of major losses in life, and separating normal sadness from depressive disorder among adolescents is especially difficult. Suggested modifications to the screening of suicidal ideation among adolescents are also presented.

  4. Rest-Activity Cycles in Childhood and Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, Roseanne; Hoffmann, Robert; Emslie, Graham; Rintelman, Jeanne; Moore, Jarrette; Lewis, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To quantify circadian rhythms in rest-activity cycles in depressed children and adolescents. Method: Restactivity cycles were evaluated by actigraphy over five consecutive 24-hour periods in 100 children and adolescents, including 59 outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 41 healthy normal controls. Total activity, total…

  5. Longitudinal Course of Adolescent Depression: Neuroendocrine and Psychosocial Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Uma; Hammen, Constance L.; Poland, Russell E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The study examined whether cortisol measures are associated with the clinical course of depression in adolescents. Furthermore, the study evaluated whether the relationship between cortisol and clinical course is moderated by environmental stress and/or social support. Method: Fifty-five adolescents with depression (age range 13-18…

  6. The Roles of Sex, Gender, and Coping in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Cindy Ellen; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Froh, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of coping and masculinity in higher rates of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls, as compared to boys. A model was designed and tested through path analysis, which involved the variables of sex, gender, problem-focused coping, rumination, and distraction. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale and the Bem…

  7. Adolescent Sexual Activity: Links between Relational Context and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Lee, Joanna M.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of the relational context of adolescent sexual activity on depressive symptoms. The present study examined trajectories of depressive symptoms among 6,602 adolescents (44% male, 60% White) taken from a nationally representative study (Add Health). Sexually active youth in romantic and casual relationships were…

  8. Dimensions of Adolescent Alcohol Involvement as Predictors of Young-Adult Major Depression*

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hawkins, J. David; Redmond, Cleve; Spoth, Richard L.; Shin, Chungyeol

    2010-01-01

    Objective Adolescent alcohol involvement may increase risk for young-adult depression; however, findings are mixed and important questions remain unanswered. Because alcohol involvement among teens is multidimensional, this study examined the extent to which four different adolescent alcohol dimensions (i.e., frequency of alcohol use, quantity of consumption, frequency of heavy episodic drinking, and frequency of problem use) were predictive of young-adult major depressive disorder (MDD). Method Participants in this prospective longitudinal study, which extended from age 11 to age 22, were 429 rural teens (including 222 girls) and their families. Self-reports of each dimension of adolescent alcohol involvement were obtained at ages 16 and 18. Depression diagnoses were obtained at age 22, using a structured interview. Analyses included adolescent depressed mood, measured via self-report at ages 16 and 18. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Results The multidimensional nature of adolescent alcohol involvement was best represented by a first-order problem-use factor and a second-order alcohol-intake factor comprised of quantity, frequency, and heavy drinking. After controlling for gender and depressed mood, adolescent problem use, but not alcohol intake, was a significant positive predictor of young-adult MDD. Conclusions Findings help clarify the link between alcohol involvement and depression and suggest that harm-reduction strategies may help prevent later mood disorders. PMID:18299769

  9. Managing depression in childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes depression (a syndrome of low mood/irritability/lack of pleasure with associated physical and cognitive symptoms) in children and adolescents. It aims to help GPs to recognise more cases of it. It discusses why some young people do become depressed and will describe the treatments which are available, and how treatment may be implemented in the primary care setting. Current UK NICE guidelines recommend that: (i) psychological treatments should be offered as first-line treatment for moderate to severe depression and persistent mild depression; (ii) if this is not effective after four to six sessions, co-existing factors such as social stresses and family discord should be considered and addressed; (iii) an antidepressant (fluoxetine) should only be considered after four to six sessions; (iv) antidepressants should only be offered in conjunction with psychological treatment. These guidelines are not in full agreement with large randomised controlled trials that demonstrate that fluoxetine is more effective than CBT; and that show equivocal benefit of combined fluoxetine and CBT over fluoxetine alone. Part of the reason for the predominance of psychological treatments in these guidelines is the small but significant risk of suicidality with fluoxetine. PMID:26042160

  10. Adolescents' Perceptions of Family Connectedness, Intrinsic Religiosity, and Depressed Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Merten, Michael J.; Robinson, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 248 ninth and tenth grade students at public high schools, we examined adolescents' perceptions of family connectedness, intrinsic religiosity, and adolescents' gender in relation to depressed mood and whether intrinsic religiosity and gender moderated the association of aspects of family connectedness to adolescent depressed…

  11. Loneliness, Depression, and Epistemological Relativity in Early and Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; And Others

    Epistemological loneliness refers to the isolation adolescents may experience as the result of cognitive relativism, ushered in by the emergence of formal operational thought. To examine the relationship between cognitive relativity, epistemological loneliness, and depression in adolescence, 108 adolescents (29 seventh graders, 29 ninth graders,…

  12. Exercise for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Dopp, Richard R.; Mooney, Ann J.; Armitage, Roseanne; King, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms and decreased aerobic exercise, yet the relationship between exercise and clinical depression among adolescents requires further examination. This study assessed the feasibility of a 12-week intervention designed to increase exercise for adolescents with depressive disorders: Will a teenager with depression exercise? Methods. Participants were 13 adolescents with depression reporting low levels of aerobic exercise. They completed a 12-week intervention (15 supervised exercise sessions and 21 independent sessions). Exercise was measured through the aerobic exercise Questionnaire, actigraphy, and heart-rate monitoring. Depression was measured with the Children's Depression Rating Scale, Revised, and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report. Results. All participants who started the intervention completed the protocol, attending all supervised exercise sessions. Actigraphy verified 81% adherence to the protocol's independent sessions. Analysis of secondary outcomes showed a significant increase in exercise levels and a significant decrease in depression severity. Initially, ten participants were overweight or obese, and three were healthy weight. After 12 weeks of exercise, the number of participants in the healthy-weight category doubled. Conclusions. Adolescents suffering from depression can complete a rigorous protocol requiring structured increases in aerobic exercise. Participants showed significant increases in exercise, and significant decreases in depressive symptoms. PMID:22888415

  13. Perceived Control Mediates the Relations between Depressive Symptoms and Academic Achievement in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Moè, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined the protective role played by perceived control in the relation between depressive symptoms and academic achievement in adolescence. A sample of 218 adolescents aged 11 to 16 filled in questionnaires to assess self-reported depressive symptoms and three factors tied with Perceived Control (PC): self-regulated learning strategies use, effort attribution, and perceived competence. Grade Point Average (GPA) was considered as a measure of academic achievement. A path model showed that the relation between GPA and depressive symptoms is mediated by PC (p<.05), and became non-significant when PC is considered. The discussion stresses the need to take into account the strategic and motivational factors favouring learning in planning programmes to prevent and treat depressive symptoms in adolescence. PMID:26377348

  14. Genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms in Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent depression is common and has become a major public health concern in China, yet little research has examined the etiology of depression in Chinese adolescents. In the present study, genetic and environmental influences on Chinese adolescent depressive symptoms were investigated in 1,181 twin pairs residing in Beijing, China (ages 11-19 years). Child- and parent-versions of the children's depression inventory were used to measure adolescents' depressive symptoms. For self-reports, genetic factors, shared environmental factors, and non-shared environmental factors accounted for 50, 5, and 45 % of the variation in depressive symptoms, respectively; for parent-reports, genetic factors, shared environmental factors, and non-shared environmental factors accounted for 51, 18, and 31 % of the variation, respectively. These estimates are generally consistent with previous findings in Western adolescents, supporting the cross-cultural generalizability of etiological model of adolescent depression. Neither qualitative nor quantitative sex differences were found in the etiological model. Future studies are needed to investigate how genes and environments work together (gene-environment interaction, gene-environment correlation) to influence depression in Chinese adolescents. PMID:24311200

  15. Suicide and depression in childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, B. D.; Golombek, H.

    1974-01-01

    Suicide and depression in children and adolescents are reviewed. The true incidence of suicide in the pediatric population is not known because of under-reporting; suicide is, however, considered as a leading cause of death in this age group. Suicide in young children often reflects an immature comprehension of the state of death, combined with a wish to alter an intolerable living situation or to punish individuals significant in his environment. At age 14 the incidence of suicide increases markedly. These acts of self-destruction reflect a developmental process that follows puberty. During this period the youth experiences an impoverishment of values and controls, as well as an intensification of emotions and needs, resulting in extreme disequilibrium. In the late adolescent, as in the adult, suicide occurs commonly in response to real or imagined loss. Specific guidelines are set out for the assessment and management of the depressed and suicidal youth. Community and medical measures of a prophylactic nature are recommended in the belief that the rising incidence of suicide can be halted through an intensification of efforts on the part of the medical profession. PMID:4599484

  16. Sex Differences in the Expression of Depression in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Pierre; Joly, Elisabeth

    1988-01-01

    Examination of 249 Quebec adolescents on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) revealed in 67.8 percent of the cases that depressed males show a symptomatology characterized by irritability, work inhibition, social withdrawal and sleep disturbance. Depressed females present symptoms characterized by body image distortion, weight loss, loss of…

  17. Family Heritage and Depression Guides: Family and Peer Views Influence Adolescent Attitudes about Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Agnor, Chrystal

    2007-01-01

    While adolescents tend to under-use professional mental health services for depression, they informally seek health-related information from parents and peers. In this study, we interviewed 15 adolescents to examine how the views and behaviours of others influence teens' decisions about seeking care for depression. Using a grounded theory…

  18. [Possibilities of group psychological correction of depressiveness among adolescents].

    PubMed

    Markeviciūte, Aurelija; Gostautas, Antanas; Pilkauskiene, Ina

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of psychological correction in groups to decrease depressiveness among senior schoolchildren. Data of 87 (53 girls and 34 boys) depressive schoolchildren, who participated in the sessions for developing communication skills were analyzed. Depressiveness was assessed by the Depression scale of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory for Adolescents. Communication skills training method consisted of ten structured hourly sessions. The effectiveness of psychological correction was assessed by the Abbreviated self-awareness scale and the Depression scale of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory for Adolescents. The results showed decrease in depressiveness and self-worth both among boys and girls (p<0.005). Among boys decrease in average present self-worth scores was noted, while among girls decrease in average present self-worth and average self-worth deviation. Depressiveness as well as self-worth decreased better among boys and girls, which had attended most sessions (p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS. Psychological correction enabled adolescents to decrease the manifestation of depressiveness, and to increase their self-worth: they became more active, communicable, optimistic and in a better mood. Depressiveness among boys decreased better among adolescents, who attended most sessions. Depressiveness decreased better among girls irrespective of their involvement in the sessions, and among actively involved boys. Self-awareness among boys and girls increased better among adolescents, who attended most sessions. Self-awareness increased better among girls irrespective of their involvement in the sessions, and among actively involved boys. PMID:12878825

  19. Cultural identity, explanatory style, and depression in Navajo adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rieckmann, Traci R; Wadsworth, Martha E; Deyhle, Donna

    2004-11-01

    This study investigated the interrelationships among cultural identity, explanatory style, and depression in Navajo adolescents. A total of 332 (197 female, 135 male) Navajo adolescents completed 7 self-report measures. These data were used to create, via structural equation modeling, a series of factor models and full structural models. Analyses indicated that current factor structures for explanatory style and depression are adequate for use with Navajo adolescents. Increased control and predictability and limited duration of stressful encounters were both predictive of decreased symptoms of depression. Higher levels of Navajo cultural identity had a modest effect in terms of reducing depression. Other factors, such as perceived discrimination and urban/reservation domicile, are important to study to provide an increased understanding of depression among Navajo adolescents. PMID:15554799

  20. Self-Concept, Early Childhood Depression and School Retention as Predictors of Adolescent Depression in Urban Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles-Pina, Rebecca A.; Defrance, Emily; Cox, Deborah L.

    2008-01-01

    The role that early school retention, early childhood depression and self-concept had on levels of depression in 191 urban Hispanic adolescents was investigated. This exploratory study used a purposeful sample to study relationships and thus causality cannot be inferred. Statistically significant gender differences were found for depression with…

  1. Patterns of depression among adolescent mothers: Resilience related to father support and home visiting program.

    PubMed

    Easterbrooks, M Ann; Kotake, Chie; Raskin, Maryna; Bumgarner, Erin

    2016-01-01

    The negative consequences of maternal depression are a major public health concern, both for mothers and for their children. Despite the high prevalence of depression among adolescent mothers, little is known about the patterns of adolescent mothers' depression in the early parenting years. The present study examined mothers' depression during the first 2 years following childbirth in a sample of 428 young mothers (20 or younger at first childbirth) who were participants in a randomized controlled trial of a home visiting parenting support program. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the self-reported Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Mothers were classified into groups based on whether their depressive symptoms were below or above the cutoff for clinically significant symptomatology. Depression groups (stable nondepressed, stable depressed, remitted depression) were associated with variations in mothers' satisfaction with support from the baby's father and enrollment in the home visiting program. Maternal depression was more likely to remit when mothers were satisfied with father support; assignment to the home visiting program was associated with mothers remaining mentally healthy. Results have clinical and policy implications for prevention and intervention programs. PMID:26460697

  2. Nocturnal indicators of increased cardiovascular risk in depressed adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Waloszek, Joanna M; Woods, Michael J; Byrne, Michelle L; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Murray, Greg; Raniti, Monika; Allen, Nicholas B; Trinder, John

    2016-04-01

    Depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adults, and recent literature suggests preclinical signs of cardiovascular risk are also present in depressed adolescents. No study has examined the effect of clinical depression on cardiovascular factors during sleep. This study examined the relationship between clinical depression and nocturnal indicators of cardiovascular risk in depressed adolescent girls from the general community (13-18 years old; 11 clinically depressed, eight healthy control). Continuous beat-to-beat finger arterial blood pressure and heart rate were monitored via Portapres and electrocardiogram, respectively. Cardiovascular data were averaged over each hour for the first 6 h of sleep, as well as in 2-min epochs of stable sleep that were then averaged within sleep stages. Data were also averaged across 2-min epochs of pre-sleep wakefulness and the first 5 min of continuous non-rapid eye movement sleep to investigate the blood pressure dipping response over the sleep-onset period. Compared with controls, depressed adolescents displayed a similar but significantly elevated blood pressure profile across sleep. Depressed adolescents had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressures across the entire night (P < 0.01), as well as during all sleep stages (P < 0.001). Depressed adolescents also had higher blood pressure across the sleep-onset period, but the groups did not differ in the rate of decline across the period. Higher blood pressure during sleep in depressed adolescent females suggests that depression has a significant association with cardiovascular functioning during sleep in adolescent females, which may increase risk for future cardiovascular pathology. PMID:26543013

  3. Preventing adolescent pregnancy and associated risks.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R.

    1995-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a complex and frustrating problem that exacts a large social and personal cost. This year approximately 40,000 Canadian teenagers will become pregnant. With proper prevention, this number could be reduced. Pregnant teenagers seem to be at increased risk for some obstetric complications and their children for some neonatal complications. Family physicians who see patients over the course of a lifetime are in a good position to prevent adolescent pregnancy and the associated complications. PMID:8520241

  4. Influence of Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptomatology on Adolescent Substance Use: Developmentally Proximal versus Distal Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of developmentally specific windows at which key predictors of adolescent substance use are most influential is a crucial task for informing the design of appropriately targeted substance use prevention and intervention programs. The current study examined effects of conduct problems and depressive symptomatology on changes in…

  5. Suicidal behaviors in depressed adolescents: role of perceived relationships in the family

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ratios increased according to risk severity grade. Conclusion Family discord and negative relationship with parents were associated with an increased suicide risk in depressed adolescents. So it appears essential to take intrafamilial relationships into account in depressed adolescents to prevent suicidal behaviours. PMID:23497551

  6. Development and persistence of depressive symptoms in adolescents with CHD.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Goossens, Eva; Apers, Silke; Oris, Leen; Moons, Philip

    2016-08-01

    Patients with CHD are vulnerable to psychiatric disorders. The present study compared baseline depressive symptoms between adolescents with CHD and community adolescents, and also assessed the development and persistence of depressive symptoms in patients. We examined the implications of persistent depressive symptoms towards quality of life and patient-reported health. In total, 296 adolescents with CHD participated in a four-wave longitudinal study, with 9-month intervals, and completed measures of depressive symptoms - Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) - at time points one to four and of quality of life - linear analogue scale (LAS) - and patient-reported health - LAS and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory - at T (time) 4. Information about diagnosis, disease complexity, and previous heart surgery was collected from medical records. At T1, 278 patients were matched 1:1 with community adolescents, based on sex and age. The findings of this study indicate that patients scored significantly lower on depressive symptoms compared with community adolescents. Depressive symptoms in the total patient sample were stable over time and were unrelated to disease complexity. Based on conventional cut-off scores of the CES-D, substantial individual differences existed in the extent to which depressive symptoms persisted over time: 12.2% of the patients reported elevated depressive symptoms at minimally three out of the four time points. Especially physical functioning, cardiac symptoms, and patient-reported health at T4 were predicted by persistent depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the level of depressive symptoms at T4. Our findings indicate that those involved in the care of adolescents with CHD should remain vigilant to persistent depressive symptoms and arrange timely referral to mental healthcare services. PMID:27365113

  7. Developmental Approach to Prevent Adolescent Suicides

    PubMed Central

    Wyman, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    The 2012 National Strategy for Suicide Prevention expands the current suicide prevention paradigm by including a strategic direction aimed at promoting healthy populations. Childhood and adolescence are key suicide prevention window periods, yet knowledge of suicide prevention pathways through universal interventions is limited (Aspirational Goal 11). Epidemiologic evidence suggests that prevention programs in normative social systems such as schools are needed for broad suicide prevention impact. Prevention trial results show that current universal prevention programs for children and young adolescents are effective in reducing adolescent emotional and behavioral problems that are risk factors for suicidal behavior, and in the case of the Good Behavior Game, suicide attempts. A developmentally sequenced upstream suicide prevention approach is proposed: (a) childhood programs to strengthen a broad set of self-regulation skills through family and school-based programs, followed by (b) adolescent programs that leverage social influences to prevent emerging risk behaviors such as substance abuse and strengthen relationships and skills. Key knowledge breakthroughs needed are evidence linking specific intervention strategies to reduced suicidal behaviors and mortality and their mechanisms of action. Short- and long-term objectives to achieve these breakthroughs include combining evidence from completed prevention trials, increasing motivators for prevention researchers to assess suicide-related outcome, and conducting new trials of upstream interventions in populations using efficient designs acceptable to communities. In conclusion, effective upstream prevention programs have been identified that modify risk and protective factors for adolescent suicide, and key knowledge breakthroughs can jump-start progress in realizing the suicide prevention potential of specific strategies. PMID:25145747

  8. The Involvement of Genes in Adolescent Depression: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Liangwei; Yao, Shuqiao

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the roles of genetic factors in the development of depression in adolescents and young adults. However, there are few systematic reviews that update our understanding of adolescent depression with the biological findings identifying the roles of gene expression and/or polymorphism(s). This review systematically summarized the findings that clearly identified the contribution of a gene to the risk of depression in adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 years old and young adults between the ages of 20 and 25 years old. Data were obtained through searching PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. A total of 47 studies on early adolescence and three studies on young adults were included in the current review. Most articles studied genes in the serotonergic system (n = 26), dopaminergic system (n = 3), and the Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) gene (n = 12). 92.3% of studies (24/26) identified positive associations of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with depressive illness or depressive symptoms. 83.3% of studies (10/12) found positive association between BDNF Val66Met genotype and adolescent depressive symptoms. More studies should be conducted on the 18 genes reported in a few studies to clarify their roles in the risk for adolescent depression. PMID:26733829

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety and Depression in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; King, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of heightened vulnerability for the onset of internalizing psychopathology. Characterizing developmental patterns of symptom stability, progression, and co-occurrence is important in order to identify adolescents most at risk for persistent problems. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms and four classes of anxiety symptoms (separation anxiety, social phobia, GAD, and physical anxiety) across early adolescence, prospective associations of depression and anxiety trajectories with one another, and variation in trajectories by gender. A diverse sample of early adolescents (N=1065) was assessed at three time points across a one-year period. All classes of anxiety symptoms declined across the study period and depressive symptoms remained stable. In between-individual analysis, adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms experienced less decline over time in symptoms of physical, social, and separation anxiety. Consistent associations were observed between depression and anxiety symptom trajectories within-individuals over time, such that adolescents who experienced a higher level of a specific symptom type than would be expected given their overall symptom trajectory were more likely to experience a later deflection from their average trajectory in other symptoms. Within-individual deflections in physical, social, and GAD symptoms predicted later deflections in depressive symptoms, and deflections in depressive symptoms predicted later deflections in separation anxiety and GAD symptoms. Females had higher levels of symptoms than males, but no evidence was found for variation in symptom trajectories or their associations with one another by gender or by age. PMID:24996791

  10. Does family interaction prevent adolescent pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Casper, L M

    1990-01-01

    This study uses data from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth to ascertain whether family interaction can avert adolescent sexual activity, pregnancy, childbearing and parenthood. The results obtained from using logistic regression procedures indicate that the family may be effective in increasing adolescents' use of contraceptives and selection of abortion or adoption as alternatives to parenthood. Family interaction, however, was not associated with forestalling adolescent sexual activity or with providing for the well-being of the adolescent and her child and it is unlikely that a policy based solely on family interaction will be effective. Characteristics associated with effectiveness in preventing adolescent pregnancy included race, religion, residence, mother's education, the adolescent's age and family income. PMID:2379567

  11. Escalation to Major Depressive Disorder among Adolescents with Subthreshold Depressive Symptoms: Evidence of Distinct Subgroups at Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Ryan M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of subthreshold depressive symptoms (SubD) in adolescence is associated with high prospective risk of developing Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Little is known about variables that predict escalation from SubD to MDD. This study used a longitudinal prospective design in a community sample of adolescents to identify combinations of risk factors that predicted escalation from SubD to MDD. Methods Classification tree analysis was used to identify combinations of risk factors that improved the sensitivity and specificity of prediction of MDD onset among 424 adolescents with a lifetime history of SubD. Results Of the 424, 144 developed MDD during the follow-up period. Evidence for multiple subgroups was found: Among adolescents with poor friend support, the highest risk of escalation was among participants with lifetime histories of an anxiety or substance use disorder. Among adolescents with high friend support, those reporting multiple major life events in the past year or with a history of an anxiety disorder were at highest risk of escalation. Limitations Study findings may not inform prevention efforts for individuals who first develop SubD during adulthood. This study did not examine the temporal ordering of predictors involved in escalation from SubD to MDD. Conclusions Adolescents with a history of SubD were at highest risk of escalation to MDD in the presence of poor friend support and an anxiety or substance use disorder, or in the presence of better friend support, multiple major life events, and an anxiety disorder. Findings may inform case identification approaches for adolescent depression prevention programs. PMID:24655777

  12. Interpersonal factors associated with depression in adolescents: are these consistent with theories underpinning interpersonal psychotherapy?

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Gabrielle; Spence, Susan H; Donovan, Caroline L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether depressed adolescents differed from non-depressed adolescents in terms of constructs consistent with those that are proposed to underpin interpersonal psychotherapy. In particular, it was hypothesized that compared with non-depressed adolescents, depressed adolescents would demonstrate a greater number of negative life events associated with interpersonal loss and major life transitions, a more insecure attachment style and poorer communication skills, interpersonal relationships and social support. Thirty-one clinically diagnosed depressed adolescents were matched with 31 non-depressed adolescents on age, gender and socio-economic status. The 62 participants were aged between 12 and 19 years and comprised 18 male and 44 female adolescents. On a self-report questionnaire, depressed adolescents reported a greater number of negative interpersonal life events, a less secure attachment style and scored higher on all insecure attachment styles compared with the non-depressed adolescents. In addition, depressed adolescents demonstrated lower levels of social skill (on both adolescent and parent report), a poorer quality of relationship with parents (on both adolescent and parent report) and lower social competence (adolescent report only). Parents of depressed adolescents also reported more negative parental attitudes and behaviours towards their adolescent compared with parents of non-depressed adolescents. Thus, the results of this study are consistent with the constructs underlying interpersonal psychotherapy and suggest their usefulness in the assessment, conceptualization and treatment of adolescent depression. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23801523

  13. Improving Care for Depression & Suicide Risk in Adolescents: Innovative Strategies for Bringing Treatments to Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Miranda, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on interventions and services for depression and suicide prevention among adolescents, with the goals of placing this science within the context of current changing health care environments and highlighting innovative models for improving health and mental health. We examine the: challenges and opportunities offered by new initiatives and legislation designed to transform the U.S. health and mental healthcare systems; summarize knowledge regarding the treatment of depression and suicidality/self-harm in adolescents; and describe innovative models for partnering with health systems and communities. This review demonstrates that treatment models and service delivery strategies are currently available for increasing evidence-based care, particularly for depression, and concludes with recommendations for future research and quality improvement initiatives aimed at inspiring additional efforts to put science to work, bridge science and community practice, and develop strategies for partnering with communities to improve care, mental health, and well-being among adolescents. PMID:24437432

  14. Intrinsic religiosity buffers the longitudinal effects of peer victimization on adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Helms, Sarah W; Gallagher, Michelle; Calhoun, Casey D; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Dawson, Glen C; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2015-01-01

    Peer victimization is a common and potentially detrimental experience for many adolescents. However, not all youth who are exposed to peer victimization experience maladaptive outcomes, such as depression. Thus, greater attention to potential moderators of peer victimization is particularly important. The current study examined the potential moderating effect of intrinsic religiosity and religious attendance on the longitudinal association between physical and relational victimization and depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of adolescents (N = 313; M(age) = 17.13 years; 54% female; 49% Caucasian, 24% African American, 19% Latino, 8% mixed race/other; 80% Christian religious affiliation) were recruited from a rural, low-income setting. Adolescents completed self-report measures of religious attendance and intrinsic religiosity, and two forms of victimization (i.e., physical and relational) were assessed using sociometric procedures in 11th grade. Depressive symptoms were measured in both 11th and 12th grade. Results suggest that relational victimization is associated prospectively with depressive symptoms only under conditions of adolescents' low intrinsic religiosity. Findings may contribute to efforts aimed at prevention and intervention among adolescents at risk for peer victimization and depression. PMID:24460657

  15. Food patterns and the prevention of depression.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, Miguel A; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena

    2016-05-01

    An emerging field of research in nutritional epidemiology is the assessment of several links between nutritional quality and mental health. Specifically, some studies have pointed out that several food patterns could be associated with a reduced risk of depression among adults. This association seems to be consistent across countries, cultures and populations according to several systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies. Some previously described food patterns, specifically the Mediterranean Food Pattern, the Alternative Healthy Eating Index, the Prudent diet or the Provegetarian Food Pattern may be effective to reduce the future risk of depression. Among them, only the Mediterranean Food Pattern has been tested for primary prevention in a large randomised trial, but the inverse association found was not statistically significant. The scientific report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Advisory Committee concluded that current evidence is still limited. Notwithstanding, this field is promising and, according to large and well-conducted observational studies, food patterns potentially associated with reduced risk of depression are those emphasising seafood, vegetables, fruits and nuts. There is a need to assess whether differences in the intake of some micro or macronutrients between these dietary patterns can make a difference in their association with a lower risk of depression. Moreover, the shape of the dose-response curve and the potential existence of a nonlinear threshold effect have not yet been established. PMID:26898781

  16. Trajectories of depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood: the role of self-esteem and body-related predictors.

    PubMed

    Rawana, Jennine S; Morgan, Ashley S

    2014-04-01

    Although depression is a common issue among youth, it is unclear how important developmental factors, such as body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, and eating-and weight-related disturbances relate to the development of depression across adolescence and into young adulthood. Gender differences in these relationships and the specific nature of these relationships among adolescent boys and young men require further study. Using multilevel growth curve modeling, this study examined the effects of BMI, self-esteem, and eating- and weight-related disturbances (i.e., body dissatisfaction and weight management effort) and their interactive effects with gender on the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms using the Canadian-based National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 4,359 ages 12-21, 48.7 % female). On average, depressive symptoms decreased slightly at ages 12 through 14, began to increase from ages 14 through 17, and then began to decrease through age 21. Adolescent girls were at increased risk for depressive symptoms throughout adolescence and young adulthood compared to boys. This effect was compounded by low levels of self-esteem across adolescence and young adulthood. Engaging in weight management effort was associated with lower initial levels of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. The study's findings contribute to basic etiologic research regarding the trajectory of depressive symptoms in adolescence and young adulthood suggesting that mid-adolescents may be most vulnerable to depression compared to other adolescent age groups. The findings also underscore the importance of fostering positive self-esteem among adolescent girls and young women to prevent depression and exploring the protective effect of specific weight management strategies in future research. PMID:23975352

  17. Maternal Depressive Symptoms During Childhood and Risky Adolescent Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Maeve E.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Wild, T. Cameron; Hoglund, Wendy L.G.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maternal depression is a risk factor for adolescent depression; however, the effect of childhood exposure to maternal depression on adolescent engagement in health risk behaviors (eg, substance use, delinquency) is unclear. METHODS: We examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms (child’s age 4–15) and engagement in health risk behaviors at age 16 to 17 by using data from 2910 mother–youth pairs in a nationally representative prospective Canadian cohort. Maternal depressive trajectories were estimated through finite mixture modeling, and multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and engagement in various health risk behaviors (linear regression) and age of debut of various behaviors (Cox regression). RESULTS: Five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms were found: recurrent maternal symptoms, midchildhood exposure to maternal symptoms, adolescent exposure to maternal symptoms, mild maternal symptoms, and low symptoms. Adolescents exposed to maternal depressive symptoms during middle childhood were more likely to use common substances (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana), engage in violent and nonviolent delinquent behavior, and have an earlier debut ages of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hallucinogen use. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, particularly in middle childhood, is associated with greater and earlier engagement in health risk behaviors. PMID:25535266

  18. Preventing postpartum depression: review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Werner, Elizabeth; Miller, Maia; Osborne, Lauren M; Kuzava, Sierra; Monk, Catherine

    2015-02-01

    Nearly 20 % of mothers will experience an episode of major or minor depression within the first 3 months postpartum, making it the most common complication of childbearing. Postpartum depression (PPD) is significantly undertreated, and because prospective mothers are especially motivated for self-care, a focus on the prevention of PPD holds promise of clinical efficacy. This study is a qualitative review of existing approaches to prevent PPD. A PubMed search identified studies of methods of PPD prevention. The search was limited to peer-reviewed, published, English-language, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of biological, psychological, and psychosocial interventions. Eighty articles were initially identified, and 45 were found to meet inclusion criteria. Eight RCTs of biological interventions were identified and 37 RCTs of psychological or psychosocial interventions. Results were mixed, with 20 studies showing clear positive effects of an intervention and 25 showing no effect. Studies differed widely in screening, population, measurement, and intervention. Among biological studies, anti-depressants and nutrients provided the most evidence of successful intervention. Among psychological and psychosocial studies, 13/17 successful trials targeted an at-risk population, and 4/7 trials using interpersonal therapy demonstrated success of the intervention versus control, with a further two small studies showing trends toward statistical significance. Existing approaches to the prevention of PPD vary widely, and given the current literature, it is not possible to identify one approach that is superior to others. Interpersonal therapy trials and trials that targeted an at-risk population appear to hold the most promise for further study. PMID:25422150

  19. Depression in children and adolescents. When "moodiness" merits special attention.

    PubMed

    Shugart, Margaret A; Lopez, Elda M

    2002-09-01

    Depression does occur in children and adolescents and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, identification and treatment of depression are essential. Referral to a mental health clinician, preferably a child and adolescent psychiatrist, is important for suicide evaluation, psychotherapy, and management of complicated medication treatment regimens. The SSRIs are most often used in youngsters because of their favorable side effect profiles and their efficacy as documented in some double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. PMID:12360657

  20. The relation of weight change to depressive symptoms in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    FELTON, JULIA; COLE, DAVID A.; TILGHMAN-OSBORNE, CARLOS; MAXWELL, MELISSA A.

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders lists weight gain or weight loss as a symptom of depression at all ages, but no study of adolescent depression has examined its relation to actual (not just self-reported) weight change. In the current longitudinal study, 215 adolescents provided physical and self-report measures of change in weight, body mass, and body fat over a 4-month time interval. They also completed psychological measures of body dissatisfaction, problematic eating attitudes, and depressive symptoms. The relation between physical measures of weight change and depressive symptoms varied with age. These relations were explained by individual differences in body dissatisfaction, eating attitudes, and behaviors, leading to questions about weight change as a symptom of depression in adolescence. PMID:20102656

  1. Exploring Associations between Problematic Internet Use, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance among Southern Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yafei; Chen, Ying; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p < 0.001) and depression (β = 0.232; Sobel test Z = 3.39, p < 0.001) had partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance and depression was of greater importance for sleep disturbance than problematic Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for prevention and

  2. Exploring Associations between Problematic Internet Use, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance among Southern Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafei; Chen, Ying; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2016-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p < 0.001) and depression (β = 0.232; Sobel test Z = 3.39, p < 0.001) had partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance and depression was of greater importance for sleep disturbance than problematic Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for prevention and

  3. The role of peer rejection in adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Platt, Belinda; Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2013-09-01

    Adolescence is a period of major risk for depression, which is associated with negative personal, social, and educational outcomes. Yet, in comparison to adult models of depression, very little is known about the specific psychosocial stressors that contribute to adolescent depression, and whether these can be targeted by interventions. In this review, we consider the role of peer rejection. First, we present a comprehensive review of studies using innovative experimental paradigms to understand the role of peer rejection in adolescent depression. We show how reciprocal relationships between peer rejection and depressive symptoms across adolescence powerfully shape and maintain maladaptive trajectories. Second, we consider how cognitive biases and their neurobiological substrates may explain why some adolescents are more vulnerable to the effects of, and perhaps exposure to, peer rejection compared to others. Finally, we draw attention to emerging cognitive and functional magnetic resonance imaging-based neurofeedback training, which by modifying aspects of information processing may promote more adaptive responses to peer rejection. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying adolescent depression may not only alleviate symptoms during a period of substantial developmental challenges, but may also reduce the burden of the disorder across the lifespan. PMID:23596129

  4. Depression and suicidality in the adolescents in Osijek, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Degmecić, Dunja; Filaković, Pavo

    2008-03-01

    Mood disorders in children and adolescents and their treatments have received increasing attention and clinical investigation over the last few decades. The core features of mood disorders are essentially the same across the life span. Developmental level, however, appears to influence the expression of certain mood symptoms with greater frequency than other within the framework of depressive disorders. Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death in children between the ages of 10 and 15 years and the third leading cause of death among the adolescents and young adults 15-25 years. In this article the authors presents cross-sectional study done on the sample of 286 adolescents. Adolescents fulfilled self-rating scale Beck Depression Inventory for the screening of the depression and suicidality. In our sample 3.85% of the adolescents fulfilled the criteria for severe depressive episode and the 5.94% of the adolescents fulfilled criteria for moderate depressive episode. Also on the item of suicidality (Item 9) 0.7% of the adolescents had very high score, while 8.4 had significant score for the suicidal risk. Our results are in concordance with similar epidemiological studies done world while. PMID:18496908

  5. Depression Prevention Research: Design, Implementation, and Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; And Others

    This document contains three papers concerned with prevention intervention research, a new area of depression research which has shown great promise for contributing new knowledge to the understanding of depression. The first paper, "Clinical Trials vs. Prevention Trials: Methodological Issues in Depression Research" (Ricardo F. Munoz), emphasizes…

  6. Romantic and Sexual Activities, Parent-Adolescent Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Joanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Starr, Lisa R.; Miller, Melissa Ramsay; Yoneda, Athena; Hershenberg, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Building on evidence that romantic experiences are associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence, we examined their bidirectional association, as well as the role of sexual activity and parent-adolescent stress in their association. Data were collected from 71 early adolescent girls (M age 13.45 years; SD = 0.68) and their primary caregiver…

  7. Perceived Parental Monitoring, Adolescent Disclosure, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamza, Chloe A.; Willoughby, Teena

    2011-01-01

    Parental monitoring has long been stressed as an important parenting practice in reducing adolescents' susceptibility to depressive symptoms. Reviews have revealed, however, that measures of monitoring have been confounded with parental knowledge, and that the role of adolescent disclosure has been neglected. In the present study, adolescents (N =…

  8. Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy: A Youth Development Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse on Families and Youth, Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet presents the youth development approach to supporting adolescents in dealing with all the issues they face, including preventing unintended pregnancies. The Department of Health and Human Services promotes five principles that research and experience suggest are key to community efforts to prevent teen pregnancy: (1) parental and…

  9. Adolescent Suicide: Detection, Intervention, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popenhagen, Mark P.; Qualley, Roxanne M.

    1998-01-01

    Presents six myths of suicide are discussed. Risk factors, methods of detection of suicidal behavior, intervention techniques, and prevention of adolescent suicide. Characteristics of school-based suicide-prevention programs and appropriate teacher interventions are presented. A list of warning signs and two "no suicide" contracts are appended.…

  10. It gets better: future orientation buffers the development of hopelessness and depressive symptoms following emotional victimization during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Connolly, Samantha L; Liu, Richard T; Stange, Jonathan P; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-04-01

    Research consistently has linked hopelessness to a range of negative outcomes, including depression, during adolescence. Although interpersonal stressors such as familial and peer emotional victimization have been found to contribute to hopelessness, less research has examined whether adolescents with a greater tendency to think about and plan for the future (i.e., future orientation) are protected against the development of hopelessness, particularly in the context of negative events. Thus, the current study evaluated whether peer and familial emotional victimization predicted increases in hopelessness more strongly among adolescents with a weaker future orientation than those with a stronger orientation towards the future, and whether hopelessness in turn predicted increases in depression. In a diverse sample of 259 early adolescents (54% female; 51% African American; Mage = 12.86 years), both peer and familial emotional victimization predicted increases in hopelessness more strongly among adolescents with weaker future orientations than among those with stronger future orientations. Further, moderated mediation analyses revealed that hopelessness significantly mediated the relationship between emotional victimization and increases in depressive symptoms more strongly among adolescents with weaker orientations towards the future compared to those with stronger future orientations. These findings indicate that adolescents' tendency to think about the future may impact whether emotional victimization induces hopelessness and ultimately depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Results have important implications regarding intervention and prevention of depression during the critical developmental period of adolescence. PMID:25052625

  11. School Climate, Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms among Asian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…

  12. Cyberbullying Victimisation in Adolescence: Relationships with Loneliness and Depressive Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit; Heiman, Tali; Eden, Sigal

    2012-01-01

    Cyberbullying is deliberate, aggressive activity carried out through digital means. Cybervictimisation in adolescence may be related to negative psychosocial variables such as loneliness and depressive mood. The purpose of the present study, the first of its kind in Israel, was to examine the association between adolescent cybervictimisation and…

  13. Factors Predicting Rural Chinese Adolescents' Anxieties, Fears and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Zhang, Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study examined age, gender, birth order and self-perceived level of achievement and popularity, as predictors of anxieties, fears and depression in Chinese adolescents. A sample of 398 rural Chinese adolescents participated in this study. Gender, academic performance and popularity have been found to make the greatest contributions to the…

  14. Adolescent Depression and Time Spent with Parents and Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desha, Laura N.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Ziviani, Jenny M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines adolescent depressive symptoms and the quantity and quality of time spent by adolescents with their parents and siblings. We use measures of the quality of relationships with parents and siblings as proxy indicators for the quality of time spent with these social partners. The study emphasizes the salience of parent…

  15. Is There an Epidemic of Child or Adolescent Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, E. Jane; Erkanli, Alaattin; Angold, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Background: Both the professional and the general media have recently published concerns about an "epidemic" of child and adolescent depression. Reasons for this concern include (1) increases in antidepressant prescriptions, (2) retrospective recall by successive birth cohorts of adults, (3) rising adolescent suicide rates until 1990, and (4)…

  16. Substance Use and the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Vitiello, Benedetto; Ryan, Neal; Birmaher, Boris; Mayes, Taryn; Onorato, Matthew; Zelazny, Jamie; Brent, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Despite the known association between substance use disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD) among adolescents, little is known regarding substance use among adolescents with MDD. Method: Youths with MDD who had not improved after an adequate selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor trial (N = 334) were enrolled in the Treatment of…

  17. Perfectionism, Rumination, Worry, and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Gordon L.; Coulter, Lisa-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.; Nepon, Taryn

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined trait perfectionism, automatic perfectionistic thoughts, rumination, worry, and depressive symptoms in early adolescents. A group of 81 elementary school students in Grades 7 and 8 completed 5 questionnaires: the Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory, the Children's Response Styles…

  18. Peer Contagion and Adolescent Depression: The Role of Failure Anticipation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the mechanisms underlying peer contagion of depressive symptoms in adolescence. Five annual measurements of data were gathered from a large (N = 842) community-based network of adolescents (M = 14.3 years at first measurement). Results showed that, after controlling for selection and deselection of friends on the…

  19. Factors Associated with Deliberate Self-Harm Behaviour among Depressed Adolescent Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuisku, Virpi; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Ruuttu, Titta; Marttunen, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether depressed adolescent outpatients with deliberate self-harm behaviour (DSH) differed from non-suicidal depressed adolescent outpatients in depressive and anxiety symptoms, alcohol use, perceived social support and number of negative life-events. Depressed adolescent outpatients (n = 155) aged 13-19 years were interviewed…

  20. Examining Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory as a Risk Factor for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawal, Adhip; Rice, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying risk factors for adolescent depression is an important research aim. Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a feature of adolescent depression and a candidate cognitive risk factor for future depression. However, no study has ascertained whether OGM predicts the onset of adolescent depressive disorder. OGM was…

  1. Links among Attachment-Related Cognitions and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen R.; Burwell, Rebecca A.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the role of self-evaluative and support-seeking processes as mediators of the relation between maternal representations and depressive symptoms in a sample of 168 young adolescents. Representations of mother as unavailable, unresponsive, and unsupportive were associated with depressive symptoms measured by semistructured interview and…

  2. The Association between Family Factors and Depressive Disorders in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the familial factors (parental psychopathology and attachment to parents) in depressed adolescents. Another aim was to compare level of psychosocial impairment, use of mental health services, suicidal ideation and attempt, and the clinical features of depression (e.g., severity and age of onset) among…

  3. Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Do Learning Difficulties Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether learning difficulties play a role in depressive symptoms, 658 Finnish adolescents were asked to complete scales for depression three times during the transition to post-comprehensive education. They also reported on their learning difficulties and feelings of inadequacy as a student. The results showed that learning difficulties…

  4. Depression, Meaninglessness, and Substance Abuse in "Normal" and Hospitalized Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnier, Richard T.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships among depression, meaninglessness, suicide ideation, and substance abuse among 48 high school students and 113 adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Correlational analyses indicated that high school students who viewed themselves negatively, were depressed, or who had found little meaning in their lives were more likely to…

  5. Dynamics of Affective Experience and Behavior in Depressed Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Leve, Craig; Davis, Betsy; Shortt, Joann Wu; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2009-01-01

    Background: Depression is often characterized as a disorder of affect regulation. However, research focused on delineating the key dimensions of affective experience (other than valence) that are abnormal in depressive disorder has been scarce, especially in child and adolescent samples. As definitions of affect regulation center around processes…

  6. Adolescents with Major Depression Demonstrate Increased Amygdala Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tony T.; Simmons, Alan N.; Matthews, Scott C.; Tapert, Susan F.; Frank, Guido K.; Max, Jeffrey E.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Lansing, Amy E.; Brown, Gregory; Strigo, Irina A.; Wu, Jing; Paulus, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional neuroimaging studies have led to a significantly deeper understanding of the underlying neural correlates and the development of several mature models of depression in adults. In contrast, our current understanding of the underlying neural substrates of adolescent depression is very limited. Although numerous studies have…

  7. Trait Rumination, Depression, and Executive Functions in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Clara A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2014-01-01

    Although deficits in executive functions have been linked with both depression and rumination in adulthood, the nature of the relationship between these constructs is not well understood and remains understudied in adolescence. The present study examined the relationship of rumination and depression to deficits in executive functions in early adolescence, a critical developmental period for the emergence of depression and rumination and the development of executive functions. Participants were 486 early adolescents (52.7% female; 47.1% African American, 48.8% Caucasian; 4.2% Biracial/Multiracial/Other; M age = 12.88 years; SD = .62) and their mothers, recruited through local schools. Measures included (a) a semi-structured diagnostic interview of the mother and adolescent, (b) youth self-report forms assessing depressive symptoms and trait rumination, (c) mother-report forms assessing demographic information, and (d) behavioral tests of executive function (sustained, selective and divided attention, attentional set shifting, and working memory). Gender moderated rumination-set shifting associations, such that rumination predicted better set shifting in boys only. The current level of depressive symptoms moderated rumination-sustained attention associations, such that rumination predicted better sustained attention in those with low levels of depressive symptoms and worse sustained attention in those with high levels of depressive symptoms. Rumination did not predict performance on other measures of executive functions. Likewise, depressive symptoms and diagnosis were not associated with executive functions. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24839132

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Murray, David M.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To assess prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms in young adolescents and examine associations between symptoms and sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Methods: Cross-sectional survey data from 3621 seventh grade students from 16 middle schools were analyzed. Results: Elevated depressive symptoms were reported by 40% of girls…

  9. Trait rumination, depression, and executive functions in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Clara A; Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2015-01-01

    Although deficits in executive functions have been linked with both depression and rumination in adulthood, the nature of the relationship between these constructs is not well understood and remains understudied in adolescence. The present study examined the relationship of rumination and depression to deficits in executive functions in early adolescence, a critical developmental period for the emergence of depression and rumination and the development of executive functions. Participants were 486 early adolescents (52.7% female; 47.1% African American, 48.8% Caucasian; 4.2% Biracial/Multiracial/Other; M age = 12.88 years; SD = .62) and their mothers, recruited through local schools. Measures included (a) a semi-structured diagnostic interview of the mother and adolescent, (b) youth self-report forms assessing depressive symptoms and trait rumination, (c) mother-report forms assessing demographic information, and (d) behavioral tests of executive function (sustained, selective and divided attention, attentional set shifting, and working memory). Gender moderated rumination-set shifting associations, such that rumination predicted better set shifting in boys only. The current level of depressive symptoms moderated rumination-sustained attention associations, such that rumination predicted better sustained attention in those with low levels of depressive symptoms and worse sustained attention in those with high levels of depressive symptoms. Rumination did not predict performance on other measures of executive functions. Likewise, depressive symptoms and diagnosis were not associated with executive functions. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24839132

  10. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

  11. Sex Differences in Adolescent Depression: Stress Exposure and Reactivity Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Mermelstein, Robin; Roesch, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Stress exposure and reactivity models were examined as explanations for why girls exhibit greater levels of depressive symptoms than boys. In a multiwave, longitudinal design, adolescents' depressive symptoms, alcohol usage, and occurrence of stressors were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months later (N=538; 54.5% female; ages 13-18, average…

  12. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with Excess Weight and Unhealthier Lifestyle Behaviors in Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Fiorella; Francis, Lori; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms and obesity. This study examined the association of depressive symptoms with standardized BMI (BMI z-score), lifestyle behaviors, and self-efficacy measures in a sample of urban adolescents. Methods: A school-based study was conducted among adolescents (N=1508) enrolled from 11 public schools. Depressive symptoms were assessed with Kandel's depressive symptoms scale for adolescents. Fruit and vegetable intake and intake of energy-dense foods were assessed by a short food frequency questionnaire. Sedentary behavior and physical activity (PA) were obtained by self-report. Height and weight were measured directly and BMI z-scores were calculated. Mixed-effects models were used to examine the association of depressive symptoms with BMI z-score and lifestyle behaviors, accounting for clustering at school level and adjusting for confounders. Self-efficacy measures were evaluated as potential mediators. Results: The sample was 53% female, 75% Hispanic, and 82% US born, with a mean age of 13.9 years. Higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher BMI z-score (β=0.02; p=0.02), intake of energy-dense foods (β=0.42; p<0.001), and sedentary behavior (β=0.48; p<0.001), but lower PA (β=−0.03; p=0.01). There was an interaction by gender in the association of depressive symptoms and PA. Self-efficacy mediated the association of depressive symptoms and PA. Conclusions: Obesity prevention and treatment programs should consider addressing the role of negative emotions as part of their preventive strategies. PMID:25181530

  13. Neighbourhood Factors and Depression among Adolescents in Four Caribbean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Roger C.; Halliday, Sharon; Morris, Amrie; Clarke, Nelson; Wilson, Rosemarie N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Past research suggests that perceived neighbourhood conditions may influence adolescents' emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of perceived neighbourhood conditions with depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of perceived neighbourhood conditions with levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of the academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Neighbourhood Characteristics Questionnaire along with the BDI-II. Social cohesion, attachment to the neighbourhood, neighbourhood quality, neighbourhood crime, and neighbourhood disorder scales were created by summing the relevant subscales of the Neighbourhood Characteristics Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of perceived neighbourhood conditions to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yr). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. Overall, Jamaican adolescents perceived their neighbourhoods in a more positive manner than those in the Bahamas, St. Vincent and St. Kitts and Nevis. Results of a series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses suggested that a different pattern of neighbourhood factors for each island were associated with depressive symptoms. However, neighbourhood factors were more highly associated with depressive symptoms for Jamaican students than for students in the other three islands. Conclusions

  14. [Drug treatment of depression in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Grøholt, Berit

    2011-11-15

    Antidepressants may increase suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents with depression, and should be used with great care. The article provides an overview of research that may guide the clinician when treating depression in young people. No medication should be given without a thorough evaluation of diagnoses and psychosocial problems. Psychoeducation and psychotherapy should be tried before medication is started. Fluoxetine is the first choice for depression. If it is not effective, a switch to another SSRI may prove effective. SSRIs are found to be more efficacious in adolescents than in children. PMID:22085951

  15. Executive Attention Impairment in Adolescents With Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sommerfeldt, Sasha L; Cullen, Kathryn R; Han, Georges; Fryza, Brandon J; Houri, Alaa K; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Neural network models that guide neuropsychological assessment practices are increasingly used to explicate depression, though a paucity of work has focused on regulatory systems that are under development in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsystems of attention related to executive functioning including alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks, as well as sustained attention with varying working memory load, in a sample of depressed and well adolescents. Neuropsychological functioning in 99 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 63 adolescent healthy controls (M = 16.6 years old) was assessed on the Attention Network Test (ANT) and the Continuous Performance Test, Identical Pairs. Adolescents with MDD, particularly those who were not medicated, were slower to process conflict (slower reaction time on the Executive Attention scale of the ANT) compared to controls, particularly for those who were not undergoing psychopharmacological treatment. Tentative evidence also suggests that within the MDD group, orienting performance was more impaired in those with a history of comorbid substance use disorder, and alerting was more impaired in those with a history of a suicide attempt. Adolescents with depression showed impaired executive attention, although cognitive performance varied across subgroups of patients. These findings highlight the importance of examining neurocognitive correlates associated with features of depression and suggest an avenue for future research to help guide the development of interventions. PMID:26566871

  16. Executive Attention Impairment in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfeldt, Sasha L.; Cullen, Kathryn R.; Han, Georges; Fryza, Brandon J.; Houri, Alaa K.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neural network models that guide neuropsychological assessment practices are increasingly used to explicate depression, though a paucity of work has focused on regulatory systems that are under development in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsystems of attention related to executive functioning including alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks, as well as sustained attention with varying working memory load, in a sample of depressed and well adolescents. Method Neuropsychological functioning in 99 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 63 adolescent healthy controls (M = 16.6 years old) was assessed on the Attention Network Task (ANT) and the Continuous Performance Test, Identical Pairs (CPT). Results Adolescents with MDD, particularly those who were not medicated, were slower to process conflict (slower reaction time on the executive attention scale of the ANT) compared to controls, particularly for those who were not undergoing psychopharmacological treatment. Tentative evidence also suggests that within the MDD group, orienting performance was more impaired in those with a history of comorbid substance use disorder, and alerting was more impaired in those with a history of a suicide attempt. Conclusions Adolescents with depression showed impaired executive attention, although cognitive performance varied across subgroups of patients. These findings highlight the importance of examining neurocognitive correlates associated with features of depression and suggest an avenue for future research to help guide the development of interventions. PMID:26566871

  17. [A psychosocial perspective of depressive symptoms in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Aragão, Thais Araújo; Coutinho, Maria da Penha de Lima; de Araújo, Ludgleydson Fernandes; Castanha, Alessandra Ramos

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the social representations (SR) of depression among adolescents on high school level. Two hundred and twenty-two (222) adolescents of both sexes (53% male and 47% female), aged between 14 and 19 years and attending the first, second and third grades of high school participated in the study. The instruments used were: the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for selecting the sample, using 17 as a cut point. The adolescents who achieved this score were invited to participate in the second part of this study consisting of semi-structured interviews and application of Free Association Tests with the stimulus words: depression, depressed person and me. It was verified that the adolescents anchored their SR of depression as synonym for pain, grief, misfortune, hatred, death, discouragement, anxiety, solitude and tears. The SR elaborated by the social actors of this study revealed a similarity with the conception/description, as described in psychiatry. The purpose of this study besides helping to understand the suffering provoked by depressive symptoms is to contribute to a better quality of life of these adolescents. PMID:19197415

  18. Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Status during the Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters (TASA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Stanley, Barbara; Bukstein, Oscar; Kennard, Betsy D.; Compton, Scott; Coffey, Barbara; Cwik, Mary F.; Posner, Kelly; Wagner, Ann; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Capasso, Lisa; Mayes, Taryn; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake; Barnett, Shannon; Zelazny, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the course of depression during the treatment of adolescents with depression who had recently attempted suicide. Method: Adolescents (N = 124), ages 12 to 18 years, with a 90-day history of suicide attempt, a current diagnosis of depressive disorder (96.0% had major depressive disorder), and a Children's Depression Rating…

  19. Control or involvement? Relationship between authoritative parenting style and adolescent depressive symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Piko, B F; Balázs, M A

    2012-03-01

    Among factors predicting adolescent mood problems, certain aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship play an important role. In previous studies, children whose parents had an authoritative style of parenting reported the best behavioral and psychological outcomes. Therefore, the main goal of this paper was to investigate the role of authoritative parenting style and other family variables (negative family interactions and positive identification with parents) in adolescents' depressive symptomatology. The study was carried out in all primary and secondary schools in Mako and the surrounding region in Hungary in the spring of 2010, students of grades 7-12 (N = 2,072): 49.2% of the sample were males; 38.1% primary school pupils; and 61.9% high school students. Self-administered questionnaires contained items of measuring depressive symptoms (CDI) and parental variables beyond sociodemographics. Beyond descriptive statistics and calculation of correlation coefficients, multiple linear regression analyses were applied to detect relationships between parental variables and depressive scores by gender. Overall, our data support a negative association between authoritative parenting style and adolescent mood problems, particularly among girls. Among boys, only mother's responsiveness was a significant predictor. Among girls, father's parenting played a decisive role; not only his responsiveness but also demandingness. Interestingly, mother's demandingness went together with an elevated depressive score for girls. Prevention programs cannot guarantee success without taking into account the role of parents. Teaching positive parenting seems to be a part of these prevention programs that may include facilitating intimate yet autonomous relationships. PMID:22271064

  20. Social Problem-Solving among Adolescents Treated for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire – Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19775677

  1. Prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Cheong, Siew Man; Mahadir Naidu, Balkish; Kaur, Gurpreet; Manickam, Mala A; Mat Noor, Malisa; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Depression among adolescents has been recognized as a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the Malaysia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 were analyzed with additional data from the validated DASS21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress) questionnaire. The study revealed that 17.7% of respondents had depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis further showed that feeling lonely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.99; 95% CI = 2.57-3.47), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.63-2.44), using drugs (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.21-2.82), and being bullied (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.60-1.99) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Lack of parental supervision, alcohol use, and tobacco use were also significant risk factors. Addressing depressive symptoms among adolescents may have implications for managing their risks of being bullied and substance use. This study also highlights the need to further investigate depressive symptoms among adolescents of Indian ethnicity. PMID:25070697

  2. It Gets Better: Future Orientation Buffers the Development of Hopelessness and Depressive Symptoms following Emotional Victimization during Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Connolly, Samantha L.; Liu, Richard T.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    Research consistently has linked hopelessness to a range of negative outcomes, including depression, during adolescence. Although interpersonal stressors such as familial and peer emotional victimization have been found to contribute to hopelessness, less research has examined whether adolescents with a greater tendency to think about and plan for the future (i.e., future orientation) are protected against the development of hopelessness, particularly in the context of negative events. Thus, the current study evaluated whether peer and familial emotional victimization predicted increases in hopelessness more strongly among adolescents with a weaker future orientation than those with a stronger orientation towards the future, and whether hopelessness in turn predicted increases in depression. In a diverse sample of 259 early adolescents (54% female; 51% African American; Mage = 12.86 years), both peer and familial emotional victimization predicted increases in hopelessness more strongly among adolescents with weaker future orientations than among those with stronger future orientations. Further, moderated mediation analyses revealed that hopelessness significantly mediated the relationship between emotional victimization and increases in depressive symptoms more strongly among adolescents with weaker orientations towards the future compared to those with stronger future orientations. These findings indicate that adolescents’ tendency to think about the future may impact whether emotional victimization induces hopelessness and ultimately depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Results have important implications regarding intervention and prevention of depression during the critical developmental period of adolescence. PMID:25052625

  3. Pathways to prevention for children of depressed mothers: a review of the literature and recommendations for practice.

    PubMed

    Rishel, Carrie W

    2012-01-01

    Maternal depression is one of the most well-documented risk factors for child and adolescent depression, but little work has focused on how to reduce this risk. Although a few interventions have been developed and tested, implementing targeted prevention efforts with depressed mothers and their children is not common practice. The increased risk of depression for children of depressed mothers is so clear, however, professionals can no longer "sit on the sidelines" without initiating specific prevention efforts with this population. To do so requires a paradigm shift-moving from a focus on individual treatment to a prevention approach that engages the entire family as the unit of care. The purpose of this paper is to draw on existing literature to highlight potential "pathways to prevention" for children of depressed mothers. Recommendations for initiating these pathways based on family lifecycle stage, point of contact, and service setting are presented and discussed. PMID:22454768

  4. Preliminary Effectiveness of Surviving the Teens[R] Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program on Adolescents' Suicidality and Self-Efficacy in Performing Help-Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Strunk, Catherine M.; Sorter, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death among youth aged 15-24 years. Schools provide ideal opportunities for suicide prevention efforts. However, research is needed to identify programs that effectively impact youth suicidal ideation and behavior. This study examined the immediate and 3-month effect of Surviving the Teens[R]…

  5. Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

  6. Characteristics, correlates, and outcomes of childhood and adolescent depressive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Uma; Chen, Li-Ann

    2009-01-01

    Depressive illness beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Therefore, understanding the disorder during this developmental stage is critical for determining its etiology and course, as well as for deveiopinq effective intervention straieqies. This paper summarizes current knoviedqe reqardinq the etiology, phenomenoiogy, correlates, natural course, and consequences of unipolar depression in children and adolescents. Using adult depression as a framevork, the unique aspects of childhood and adolescence are considered in order to better understand depression within a developmental context. The data suggest that the clinical presentation, correlates, and natural course of depression are remarkably similar across the lifespan. There are, however, important developmental differences. Specifically, the familial and psychological context in which depression develops in youngsters is associated with variability in the frequency and nature of depressive symptoms and comorbid conditions among children and adolescents. Maturational differences have also been identified in the neurobiological correlates of depression. These developmental differences may be associated with the observed variability in clinical response to treatment and longitudinal course. Characterization of the developmental differences will be helpful in developing more specific and effective interventions for youngsters, thereby allowing them to reach their full potential as adults. PMID:19432387

  7. Depressive Symptoms, Self-Esteem and Perceived Parent–Child Relationship in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Babore, Alessandra; Trumello, Carmen; Candelori, Carla; Paciello, Marinella; Cerniglia, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Early adolescence represents a critical developmental period both from a psychological and a psychopathological point of view. During this period, one of the most common disorders that frequently arise is represented by depression, that tends to become chronic and may produce many subsequent psychosocial impairments. The present study aimed to analyze characteristics of depressive symptoms in an Italian sample of early adolescents, and to explore their connections with self-esteem levels and perceived maternal and paternal emotional availability. Methods: 594 adolescents (50% females) with a mean age of 12.11 years (SD = 0.98) were administered the Children’s Depression Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the maternal and the paternal forms of the Lum Emotional Availability of Parents. Results: Findings highlighted a slightly higher, though not statistically significant, level of depressive symptoms in girls than in boys. Regression analysis showed that, as far as predictors of depression, self-esteem was the most relevant one, followed by maternal and paternal emotional availability. Conclusion: Our results strongly suggested to plan intervention programs aimed at monitoring early adolescents’ self-esteem and supporting relationship with both parents, in order to prevent the emergence of depressive symptoms. PMID:27445941

  8. Assessment of Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence as Predictors of Early Adult Depression.

    PubMed

    Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lengua, Liliana J; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2009-05-21

    Behavior and psychological problems assessed prospectively by teachers and parents and by youths' self-reports through late childhood and adolescence were examined as possible predictors of early adult depression. Data were from 765 participants in the Seattle Social Development Project, a multiethnic and gender-balanced urban sample. Analyses examined 7 waves of data from ages 10 to 21, and included measures from the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and assessments of past-year depressive episode based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Self-reported conduct problems as early as age 10 (Mason et al., 2001) and throughout adolescence consistently predicted depression at age 21. Parent reports of conduct and other externalizing problems in adolescence also significantly predicted adult depression. None of the available teacher reports through age 14 were significant predictors. Results suggest that externalizing problems can be useful indicators of risk for adult depression. Prevention efforts that target externalizing problems in youth may hold promise for reducing later depression. PMID:20383270

  9. Comorbidity between depression and disordered eating in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Santos, Melissa; Richards, C Steven; Bleckley, M Kathryn

    2007-12-01

    Depression is one of the most common mental health disorders seen in adolescence. Low self-esteem, lack of social support and poor body image have been found to be risk factors for depression. However, these risk factors have not adequately explained why adolescent female rates of depressive episodes rise to almost twice that of males. This study had three purposes. The first is to identify the prevalence and comorbidity of depressive and disordered eating symptoms in a sample of high school students. The second is to examine predictors of depressive and disordered eating symptoms. Finally, a model predicting depressive symptoms is examined. Significant depressive and disordered eating symptomatology and a high level of comorbidity were observed in this sample. Predictors of depressive and disordered eating symptoms were similar for both genders. Finally, a model predicting depressive symptoms, via body image factors, was found to be supported in both boys and girls. The results of this study suggest that males and females are more similar than different, regarding predictors of depressive symptoms and disordered eating symptoms. PMID:17950932

  10. Treating depression in children and adolescents: what options now?

    PubMed

    Varley, Christopher K

    2006-01-01

    There have been significant developments in the understanding of depression in children and adolescents in the past few years, including an increased recognition that significant depressive illness occurs in this patient group. Pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments are used to manage depression in children and adolescents, and there is evidence from randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of benefit for both approaches. However, not all medication trials have been positive. In addition, there have been increasing concerns about specific safety issues related to the use of medications to treat depression, with an overall finding of mood-related adverse effects, including suicide attempts, in 4% of active drug versus 2% of placebo recipients in controlled trials involving children and adolescents. This has resulted in regulatory actions in a number of countries that have ranged from the declaration of contraindication for most antidepressants (in Great Britain), to relegation of antidepressants to a second-line intervention (in New Zealand) to a Black Box warning (in the US). It can be concluded that best practice combines treatment with both medication and psychotherapy, and that important safety issues must be monitored carefully when children and adolescents are treated for depression. On balance, there appears to be evidence of the benefit for antidepressant medications in children and adolescents, which outweigh safety concerns. PMID:16396520

  11. Preventing Obesity and Eating Disorders in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Golden, Neville H; Schneider, Marcie; Wood, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and eating disorders (EDs) are both prevalent in adolescents. There are concerns that obesity prevention efforts may lead to the development of an ED. Most adolescents who develop an ED did not have obesity previously, but some teenagers, in an attempt to lose weight, may develop an ED. This clinical report addresses the interaction between obesity prevention and EDs in teenagers, provides the pediatrician with evidence-informed tools to identify behaviors that predispose to both obesity and EDs, and provides guidance about obesity and ED prevention messages. The focus should be on a healthy lifestyle rather than on weight. Evidence suggests that obesity prevention and treatment, if conducted correctly, do not predispose to EDs. PMID:27550979

  12. Functional connectivity of negative emotional processing in adolescent depression

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Tiffany C.; Yang, Guang; Wu, Jing; Cassey, Pete; Brown, Scott D.; Hoang, Napoleon; Chan, Melanie; Connolly, Colm G.; Blom, Eva Henje; Duncan, Larissa G.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Paulus, Martin P.; Max, Jeffrey E.; Patel, Ronak; Simmons, Alan N.; Yang, Tony T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and its connected circuitry have been heavily implicated in emotional functioning in adolescent-onset major depressive disorder (MDD). While several recent studies have examined sgACC functional connectivity (FC) in depressed youth at rest, no studies to date have investigated sgACC FC in adolescent depression during negative emotional processing. METHODS Nineteen medication-naïve adolescents with MDD and 19 matched healthy controls (HCL) performed an implicit fear facial affect recognition task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We defined seeds in bilateral sgACC and assessed FC using the psychophysiological interaction method. We also applied cognitive behavioral modeling to estimate group differences in perceptual sensitivity in this task. Finally, we correlated connectivity strength with clinical data and perceptual sensitivity. RESULTS Depressed adolescents showed increased sgACC-amygdala FC and decreased sgACC-fusiform gyrus, sgACC-precuneus, sgACC-insula, and sgACC-middle frontal gyrus FC compared to HCL (p<0.05, corrected). Among the MDD, sgACC-precuneus FC negatively correlated with depression severity (p<0.05, corrected). Lastly, MDD adolescents exhibited poorer perceptual sensitivity in the task than HCL, and individual differences in perceptual sensitivity significantly correlated with sgACC FC and depression scores (p<0.05, corrected). LIMITATIONS Subjects were clinically homogenous, possibly limiting generalizability of the findings. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent depression is associated with biased processing of negative stimuli that may be driven by sgACC dysregulation and may possibly lead to an imbalance among intrinsic functional brain networks. This work also establishes the use of combining neuroimaging and cognitive behavioral modeling methods to investigate cognitive and neural differences between psychiatric and healthy populations. PMID:24268546

  13. Developmental trajectories of anxiety and depression in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Katie A; King, Kevin

    2015-02-01

    Adolescence is a period of heightened vulnerability for the onset of internalizing psychopathology. Characterizing developmental patterns of symptom stability, progression, and co-occurrence is important in order to identify adolescents most at risk for persistent problems. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms and four classes of anxiety symptoms (GAD, physical symptoms, separation anxiety, and social anxiety) across early adolescence, prospective associations of depression and anxiety trajectories with one another, and variation in trajectories by gender. A diverse sample of early adolescents (N = 1,065) was assessed at three time points across a one-year period. All classes of anxiety symptoms declined across the study period and depressive symptoms remained stable. In between-individual analysis, adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms experienced less decline over time in symptoms of physical, social, and separation anxiety. Consistent associations were observed between depression and anxiety symptom trajectories within-individuals over time, such that adolescents who experienced a higher level of a specific symptom type than would be expected given their overall symptom trajectory were more likely to experience a later deflection from their average trajectory in other symptoms. Within-individual deflections in GAD, physical, and social symptoms predicted later deflections in depressive symptoms, and deflections in depressive symptoms predicted later deflections in GAD and separation anxiety symptoms. Females had higher levels of symptoms than males, but no evidence was found for variation in symptom trajectories or their associations with one another by gender or by age. PMID:24996791

  14. Collaborative Care for Adolescents With Depression in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Laura P.; Ludman, Evette; McCauley, Elizabeth; Lindenbaum, Jeff; Larison, Cindy; Zhou, Chuan; Clarke, Greg; Brent, David; Katon, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Up to 20%of adolescents experience an episode of major depression by age 18 years yet few receive evidence-based treatments for their depression. OBJECTIVE To determine whether a collaborative care intervention for adolescents with depression improves depressive outcomes compared with usual care. DESIGN Randomized trial with blinded outcome assessment conducted between April 2010 and April 2013. SETTING Nine primary care clinics in the Group Health system in Washington State. PARTICIPANTS Adolescents (aged 13–17 years) who screened positive for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item [PHQ-9] score ≥10) on 2 occasions or who screened positive and met criteria for major depression, spoke English, and had telephone access were recruited. Exclusions included alcohol/drug misuse, suicidal plan or recent attempt, bipolar disorder, developmental delay, and seeing a psychiatrist. INTERVENTIONS Twelve-month collaborative care intervention including an initial in-person engagement session and regular follow-up by master’s-level clinicians. Usual care control youth received depression screening results and could access mental health services through Group Health. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was change in depressive symptoms on a modified version of the Child Depression Rating Scale–Revised (CDRS-R; score range, 14–94) from baseline to 12 months. Secondary outcomes included change in Columbia Impairment Scale score (CIS), depression response (≥50% decrease on the CDRS-R), and remission (PHQ-9 score <5). RESULTS Intervention youth (n = 50), compared with those randomized to receive usual care (n = 51), had greater decreases in CDRS-R scores such that by 12 months intervention youth had a mean score of 27.5 (95%CI, 23.8–31.1) compared with 34.6 (95%CI, 30.6–38.6) in control youth (overall intervention effect: F2,747.3 = 7.24, P < .001). Both intervention and control youth experienced improvement on the CIS with no significant

  15. A Study of the Predictive Validity of the Children's Depression Inventory for Major Depression Disorder in Puerto Rican Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Medina, Carmen L.; Bernal, Guillermo; Rossello, Jeannette; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the predictive validity of the Children's Depression Inventory items for major depression disorder (MDD) in an outpatient clinic sample of Puerto Rican adolescents. The sample consisted of 130 adolescents, 13 to 18 years old. The five most frequent symptoms of the Children's Depression Inventory that best predict the…

  16. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p < .05). In contrast to previous research on Caribbean parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the

  17. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among immigrant-origin adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena

    2013-07-01

    Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PMID:23875851

  18. Testing the temporal relationship between maternal and adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ruth C; Clark, Shaunna L; Dahne, Jennifer; Stratton, Kelcey J; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2015-01-01

    Transactional models have been used to explain the relationship between maternal depression and child behavioral problems; however, few studies have examined transactional models for maternal depression and adolescent depression and anxiety. Using an autoregressive cross-lagged analysis, we examined the longitudinal association between maternal and adolescent depression to determine the extent to which maternal depression influences adolescent depression and anxiety, and vice versa, over the course of a 4-year period. Participants were a community sample of 277 mother-adolescent dyads with offspring 10 to 14 years of age at the 1st year used in the analyses (43.7% female; 35% African American, 2.9% Hispanic/Latino). Depressive symptoms were assessed using maternal self-report (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale; Radloff, 1977), and adolescent depression and anxiety were assessed by self-report (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale; Chorpita, Yim, Moffitt, Umemoto, & Francis, 2000). The final model, χ(2)(14) = 23.74, p = .05 (TLI = .97, CFI = .98, RMSEA = .05), indicated that maternal depression was significantly associated with adolescent depression 2 years later. Of interest, adolescent depression did not significantly predict maternal depression, and the association between maternal and adolescent depression was not moderated by gender, age, or ethnicity. The association between maternal depression and adolescent anxiety was weaker than that observed for adolescent depression. Results suggest that the transaction model of maternal depression may not extend to adolescent depression and anxiety. Furthermore, maternal depression can have an enduring effect on adolescent depression, and continued research and clinical monitoring over extended periods is warranted. PMID:24702257

  19. Social determinants of adolescent depression: an examination of racial differences.

    PubMed

    Respress, Brandon N; Morris, Diana L; Gary, Faye A; Lewin, Linda C; Francis, Shelley A

    2013-07-01

    Conventional behavior theories that assert adolescent risk behaviors are determined by peer and parental relationships are being challenged as research begins to consider broader socioenvironmental factors. This study, using data from the Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (Add Health), Wave II, Public Use Data, and the Social Determinants of Adolescent Risk Behaviors (SDOARB) framework, examines relationships among socioeconomic status (SES), academic performance, perceived peer prejudice, and perceived teacher discrimination as predictors of depressive symptoms among high school adolescents. Overall, the study found that GPA was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms across all three racial groups (Black, White, and Other Minority). Teacher discrimination predicted depressive symptoms among White and Other minority adolescents, but not Black adolescents. These findings suggest the need for interventions within schools for both students and teachers around racial differences in perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. Failure to address overt and covert subtleties of discrimination and prejudice within schools and policies which affect these interpersonal dynamics may have a significant impact on the overall mental wellbeing of adolescents. PMID:23875556

  20. Adolescent Suicide Prevention: A Compendium of Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Richard A., Ed.; Wing, Michael, Ed.

    This guide presents information, direction, and resources to help teachers design a curriculum on suicide prevention tailored to their students' needs. Chapter I describes the problem of adolescent suicide at one high school and the program that developed as a result of that problem. Chapter II presents facts about suicide under the headings of…

  1. Pregnancy-Prevention Groups for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Betty J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Tested the efficacy of group training in decision making and interpersonal skills to prevent unwanted adolescent pregnancy. Evaluation of the program suggests that group intervention is an effective social work approach. Participants reported greater commitment to postponing pregnancy and greater reliance on birth control methods. (JAC)

  2. Universal School-Based Depression Prevention 'Op Volle Kracht': a Longitudinal Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Tak, Yuli R; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Gillham, Jane E; Van Zundert, Rinka M P; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2016-07-01

    The longitudinal effectiveness of a universal, adolescent school-based depression prevention program Op Volle Kracht (OVK) was evaluated by means of a cluster randomized controlled trial with intervention and control condition (school as usual). OVK was based on the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP) (Gillham et al. Psychological Science, 6, 343-351, 1995). Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Child Depression Inventory (Kovacs 2001). In total, 1341 adolescents participated, Mage = 13.91, SD = 0.55, 47.3 % girls, 83.1 % Dutch ethnicity; intervention group n = 655, four schools; control group n = 735, five schools. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that OVK did not prevent depressive symptoms, β = -0.01, SE = 0.05, p = .829, Cohen's d = 0.02, and the prevalence of an elevated level of depressive symptoms was not different between groups at 1 year follow-up, OR = 1.00, 95 % CI = 0.60-1.65, p = .992, NNT = 188. Latent Growth Curve Modeling over the 2 year follow-up period showed that OVK did not predict differences in depressive symptoms immediately following intervention, intercept: β = 0.02, p = .642, or changes in depressive symptoms, slope: β = -0.01, p = .919. No moderation by gender or baseline depressive symptoms was found. To conclude, OVK was not effective in preventing depressive symptoms across the 2 year follow-up. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26404640

  3. Adolescent Depression: Stressful Interpersonal Contexts and Risk for Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Hammen, Constance

    2009-08-01

    High rates of diagnosable depression in adolescence, especially among young women, present challenging clinical and research issues. Depression not only portends current maladjustment but may also signal risk for recurrent or chronic depression and its associated impairment. Because depression is most often a response to stressful events and circumstances, it is important to understand the stress context itself. Individuals with depression histories are known to contribute to the occurrence of interpersonal and other stressors at a high rate, and for young women particularly, the occurrence of interpersonal stressors and conditions in turn predicts recurrences of depression, in a vicious cycle. Interpersonal dysfunction in early adolescence predicts the likelihood of continuing maladaptive functioning in peer, family, romantic, and parenting roles. The transmission of depression from one generation to the next involves not only heritable factors but also the likelihood that depressed youth become caught in life contexts of marital and parenting discord that portend dysfunction for their offspring and continuing depression for themselves. PMID:20161119

  4. Ethnicity and adolescent depression: the case of Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Chen, I G; Roberts, R E; Aday, L A

    1998-10-01

    This paper is concerned with whether an instrument developed in the U.S. may identify lower rates of major depression among Chinese, because its content may not cover culture-specific symptoms of depression. Data were obtained from approximately 952 Anglo and Chinese American middle school students, aged 10 to 17 years, in the Teen Life Changes Survey conducted in the spring of 1994. We investigated the hypothesis that rates of missing values would be higher, the mean score for total depression items would be lower, and internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the DSM Scale for Depression (DSD) would be lower for Chinese American adolescents compared with Anglo American adolescents. We also examined whether response functions on the DSD item would differ for these two groups. Only the latter was observed. Five of 26 items in the DSD exhibited differential functioning between Anglo and Chinese students. The results suggest that the lower prevalence of depression was not due to the ethnocentric character of the instrument in the Chinese sample. Stronger immunity to depression or other cultural factors may contribute to the lower rate of depression for the Chinese American adolescents in the Teen Life Changes study. PMID:9788639

  5. Service Use and Costs of Care for Depressed Adolescents: Who Uses and Who Pays?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domino, Marisa Elena; Burns, Barbara J.; Mario, Jeremy; Reinecke, Mark A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Weller, Elizabeth B.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; May, Diane E.; Feeny, Norah C.; Robins, Michele; Hallin, Mary J.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is common in adolescence and is associated with significant morbidity and family burden. Little is known about service use by depressed adolescents. The purpose of this article is to report the patterns of services use and costs for participants in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study sample during the 3…

  6. The Relation between Eating- and Weight-Related Disturbances and Depression in Adolescence: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawana, Jennine S.; Morgan, Ashley S.; Nguyen, Hien; Craig, Stephanie G.

    2010-01-01

    Depression often emerges during adolescence and persists into adulthood. Thus, it is critical to study risk factors that contribute to the development of depression in adolescence. One set of risk factors that has been recently studied in adolescent depression research is eating- and weight-related disturbances (EWRDs). EWRDs encompass negative…

  7. Processes of Change in CBT of Adolescent Depression: Review and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Christian A.; Auerbach, Randy P.; DeRubeis, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of research supports the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression. The mechanisms through which CBT exerts its beneficial effects on adolescent patients suffering from depression, however, remain unclear. The current article reviews the CBT for adolescent depression process literature. Our review…

  8. Can Developmental Changes in Inhibition and Peer Relationships Explain Why Depressive Symptoms Increase in Early Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Katharine Ann; Dix, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Why do depressive symptoms increase during adolescence? Because inhibition and poor peer relationships predict adolescents' depressive symptoms concurrently, we hypothesized that adolescents who cope with the stresses of this period by becoming increasingly inhibited may experience increasing depressive symptoms both directly and due to increased…

  9. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Depression in Urban Adolescent Females: Implications for Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor

    Despite an increased interest in adolescent depression from theoretical and clinical perspectives, there have been few attempts to investigate depression in non-clinical populations. To identify demographic, sociocultural, and behavioral factors related to adolescent depression in a non-clinical population of urban adolescent females, a racially…

  10. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents (IPT-A): A Case Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Elisabeth Baerg; Mufson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the treatment of a depressed adolescent (15 years of age) boy using Interpersonal Psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). IPT-A is an empirically supported psychosocial intervention for adolescents suffering from a depressive episode. It is delivered as an individual psychotherapy with a minimum of parental…

  11. Impact of Comorbid Anxiety in an Effectiveness Study of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of comorbid anxiety on treatment for adolescent depression in an effectiveness study of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). Method: A randomized clinical trial was conducted from April 1, 1999, through July 31, 2002. Sixty-three depressed adolescents, ages 12 to 18, received either IPT-A…

  12. Anxiety, stress, depression, and psychosocial functioning of Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamlesh; Junnarkar, Mohita; Sharma, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifetime prevalence of depression and anxiety increases from 1% of the population under age 12 years to ~17%-25% of the population by the end of adolescence. The greatest increase in new cases occurs between 15-18 years. Indian empirical studies have reported a prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the range between 14.4% and 31.7%; thus, affecting psychosocial functioning. Aims: The objectives of the current study were to (i) examine the psychometric properties of the DASS and SDQ on Indian adolescents, (ii) explore the role of socio- demographic variablesand (iii) examine if there was any difference between school going and school dropouts. Methodology: Data from 1812 students, aged 12-19 years was collected with mean age = 15.67 years (SD =1.41 years). The participants were administered a booklet containing demographic questionnaire and psychometric scales such as DASS-21 (Henry & Crawford, 2005; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1999) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). Statistical Analysis: Structure validation, correlational analysis and multivariate analysis. Results and Conclusions: The results of validation indicated that English and Hindi version of 3 factor model of DASS and 2 factor model of SDQ was an acceptable model fit. It was noted that early adolescents were high on prosocial behaviour whereas late adolescents were high on difficulties score. Females were higher than males on prosocial behaviour. Adolescents residing in rural areas differed from their urban counterparts on prosocial behaviour and anxiety. Government school going adolescents differed from private school going adolescents on prosocial behaviour, stress and anxiety. Negative perception of relationship with family affected adolescents difficulties score, depression and stress. Similarly, negative perception of self-concept leads to higher difficulties score and lower prosocial behaviour score. The school going adolescents differed from non-school going

  13. Genetic sensitivity to emotional cues, racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among African–American adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Swartzendruber, Andrea L.; Smearman, Erica L.; Brody, Gene H.; DiClemente, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial stress, including stress resulting from racial discrimination (RD), has been associated with elevated depressive symptoms. However, individuals vary in their reactivity to stress, with some variability resulting from genetic differences. Specifically, genetic variation within the linked promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) is related to heightened reactivity to emotional environmental cues. Likewise, variations within this region may interact with stressful life events (e.g., discrimination) to influence depressive symptoms, but this has not been empirically examined in prior studies. The objective of this study was to examine whether variation in the 5-HTTLPR gene interacts with RD to predict depressive symptoms among a sample of African–American adolescent females. Participants were 304 African–American adolescent females enrolled in a sexually transmitted disease prevention trial. Participants completed a baseline survey assessing psychosocial factors including RD (low vs. high) and depressive symptomatology (low vs. high) and provided a saliva sample for genotyping the risk polymorphism 5-HTTLPR (s allele present vs. not present). In a logistic regression model adjusting for psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms, an interaction between RD and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with depressive symptomatology (AOR = 3.79, 95% CI: 1.20–11.98, p = 0.02). Follow-up tests found that high RD was significantly associated with greater odds of high depressive symptoms only for participants with the s allele. RD and 5-HTTLPR status interact to differentially impact depressive symptoms among African–American adolescent females. Efforts to decrease depression among minority youth should include interventions which address RD and strengthen factors (e.g., coping, emotion regulation, building support systems) which protect youth from the psychological costs of discrimination. PMID:26157407

  14. Genetic sensitivity to emotional cues, racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among African-American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Smearman, Erica L; Brody, Gene H; DiClemente, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial stress, including stress resulting from racial discrimination (RD), has been associated with elevated depressive symptoms. However, individuals vary in their reactivity to stress, with some variability resulting from genetic differences. Specifically, genetic variation within the linked promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) is related to heightened reactivity to emotional environmental cues. Likewise, variations within this region may interact with stressful life events (e.g., discrimination) to influence depressive symptoms, but this has not been empirically examined in prior studies. The objective of this study was to examine whether variation in the 5-HTTLPR gene interacts with RD to predict depressive symptoms among a sample of African-American adolescent females. Participants were 304 African-American adolescent females enrolled in a sexually transmitted disease prevention trial. Participants completed a baseline survey assessing psychosocial factors including RD (low vs. high) and depressive symptomatology (low vs. high) and provided a saliva sample for genotyping the risk polymorphism 5-HTTLPR (s allele present vs. not present). In a logistic regression model adjusting for psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms, an interaction between RD and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with depressive symptomatology (AOR = 3.79, 95% CI: 1.20-11.98, p = 0.02). Follow-up tests found that high RD was significantly associated with greater odds of high depressive symptoms only for participants with the s allele. RD and 5-HTTLPR status interact to differentially impact depressive symptoms among African-American adolescent females. Efforts to decrease depression among minority youth should include interventions which address RD and strengthen factors (e.g., coping, emotion regulation, building support systems) which protect youth from the psychological costs of discrimination. PMID:26157407

  15. Using Music Techniques To Treat Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, C. Bret; Robinson, Beth; Bradley, Loretta J.; Davis, Kenneth

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a school-based therapy program using music for teenagers (N=19) who demonstrated depressive symptoms. Pre- and post-testing indicated a significant decrease in depressive symptoms. Offers recommendations for further research. (Author/MKA)

  16. Parental marital discord and treatment response in depressed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Meredith M; Reinecke, Mark A; Silva, Susan G; March, John S

    2011-04-01

    Evidence suggests that parental marital discord contributes to the development of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children and adolescents. Few studies, however, have examined the association between parental marital discord and youth's response to treatment. The present study examined the impact of interparental discord on treatment response in a randomized control trial of adolescents with major depression enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Participants were 260 adolescents from two-parent households randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or placebo (PBO). Logistic regressions revealed that parental marital discord interacted with youth gender and co-morbid oppositionality symptoms to predict group differences in treatment response. PMID:20957515

  17. Concurrent Trajectories of Change in Adolescent and Maternal Depressive Symptoms in the TORDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Curby, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Depression has a heightened prevalence in adolescence, with approximately 15 % of adolescents experiencing a major depressive episode by age 18. Depression in adolescence also poses a risk for future distress and impairment. Despite treatment advances, many adolescents relapse after initial remission. Family context may be an important factor in the developmental trajectory of adolescent depression, and thus in enhancing treatment. This study examined concurrent change over time in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the context of the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study. Participants were 334 adolescents (mean age: 16; SD: 1.6; 70 % female, 84 % Caucasian), and their mothers (n = 241). All adolescents were clinically depressed when they entered the study and had received previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Adolescents received acute treatment for 12 weeks and additional treatment for 12 more weeks. Adolescent depression and suicidal ideation were assessed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks, while maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks. Latent basis growth curve analyses showed a significant correlation over 72 weeks between trajectories of maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms, supporting the hypothesis of concurrent patterns of change in these variables. The trajectories were correlated more strongly in a subsample that included only dyads in which mothers reported at least one depressive symptom at baseline. Results did not show a correlation between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms change in tandem, and that treatment for adolescent depression can benefit the wider family system. Notably, most mothers in this sample had subclinical depressive symptoms. Future research might explore these trajectories in dyads with more severely depressed mothers

  18. Coping with the Stress of Parental Depression II: Adolescent and Parent Reports of Coping and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Langrock, Adela M.; Keller, Gary; Merchant, Mary Jane; Benson, Molly A.; Reeslund, Kristen; Champion, Jennifer E.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined associations between adolescents' self-reports and parents' reports of adolescents' exposure to family stress, coping, and symptoms of anxiety/depression and aggression in a sample of 78 adolescent offspring of depressed parents. Significant cross-informant correlations were found between adolescents' reports of family stress,…

  19. Pregnant African American women's attitudes toward perinatal depression prevention.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sherryl H; Dimidjian, Sona; Williams, Kristen G

    2013-01-01

    Depression during the perinatal period is common, debilitating, and consequential for women and their children, particularly among low income African American women. Viable approaches to prevention of depression have emerged. Yet little is known about women's preferences for approaches to preventing depression. A sample of 60 pregnant, low-income African American women seeking routine prenatal care was presented with standardized descriptions of three approaches to depression prevention (pharmacotherapy and two psychosocial approaches) and measures of preferences, perceived credibility, and personal reactions to each approach. Women also completed measures of perceived barriers and facilitators and current depression. Consistent with expectations, both of the psychosocial approaches were rated as more strongly preferred, more credible, and associated with more positive personal reactions relative to the pharmacotherapy approach. Depression did not alter women's preferences among the approaches. Contrary to prediction, women with clinically significant levels of depression did not find the pharmacotherapy approach to be more credible or to have more favorable personal reactions to it than women with low depression symptom levels. Exploration of women's perceptions of barriers revealed the importance of logistics, beliefs, and stigma barriers whereas women reported that concern about depression being impairing and ease of pragmatics would both facilitate engagement with preventive interventions. The findings suggest the need to examine the role of preferences in tests of the effectiveness of approaches to the prevention of perinatal depression in order to enhance service delivery among low income African American women. PMID:23356356

  20. Depression and the social developmental context of adolescence.

    PubMed

    Aseltine, R H; Gore, S; Colten, M E

    1994-08-01

    This article examines the interrelations of personal and social factors in fostering longitudinal patterns of depressive symptoms, using 3 waves of data from high school students in the Boston area. Previously depressed and nondepressed youths differed markedly in their emotional responsiveness to family and friend relations. Chronically depressed youths were unresponsive to family problems, but were highly reactive to peer relations. Among previously asymptomatic youths, family relations exerted greater effects on depressed mood than relations with peers. Further analyses suggest a process through which chronic family turmoil shapes long-term mental health while also intensifying the distancing from family and investment in peer relationships that typically occurs in adolescence. Findings illustrate the importance of modeling transactions between personal and environmental factors in research on adolescent mental health and development. PMID:7932062

  1. The relations among abuse, depression, and adolescents' autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca J; Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Glisky, Elizabeth; McCloskey, Laura A

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the relations among early and recent experiences with abuse, depression, and adolescents' autobiographical memory in a longitudinal study of family violence. Participants' (N = 134) exposure to violence was documented when they were 6 to 12 years old and again when they were 12 to 18 years old. The second assessment included measures of depression and autobiographical memory for childhood experiences. Memory problems were more consistently related to current circumstances than childhood abuse history. For instance, depressive symptoms were associated with increased rates of "overgeneral" childhood memories. Recent exposure to family violence predicted more overgeneral memories, shorter memories, and lower rates of negative memories. The patterns suggest that adolescents currently stressed by depression or family violence might strategically avoid the details of past experiences to regulate affect. PMID:15901224

  2. Paths to adolescent parenthood: implications for prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Flick, L H

    1986-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and parenthood are increasingly common today and pose many problems for both the individual persons involved and society as a whole. For programs to address these issues successfully, factors associated with unintended pregnancy and resulting parenthood must first be identified and understood. This paper is a review of current research on the factors associated with the four steps leading to an adolescent becoming a parent. Being an adolescent parent requires taking a particular path at four crossroads: becoming sexually active, not using or incorrectly using contraceptives, carrying rather than aborting a pregnancy, and parenting rather than placing a child for adoption. Much research in the last 15 years has explored adolescent childbearing, but many studies only compared adolescent parents to nonparents to reach conclusions about differences in these groups. This review focuses on recent studies that explore the four processes, or crossroads, separately and it excludes studies that generalize and overlap these processes. Factors that influence adolescent behavior at multiple points on the path to parenthood indicate areas particularly relevant for preventive intervention. For instance, boyfriends exert influence at all four crossroads. Sexual activity and contraceptive use increase with longevity of relationships, yet closer relationships are less often associated with raising a child. Better general communication skills, and particularly an increased ability to discuss sexuality, increases use of contraceptives, and low educational and occupational aspirations appear to influence each successive turn toward parenthood. This summary of current research serves to highlight those individual, family, dyadic, and social factors that exert great impact on adolescent parenthood by influencing young people at each of the four crossroads. These factors suggest potentially effective points for intervention to reduce the incidence of adolescent

  3. Social skills and depression in adolescent substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Van Hasselt, V B; Null, J A; Kempton, T; Bukstein, O G

    1993-01-01

    The present study provided an assessment of social skills and depression in adolescent substance abusers hospitalized in an inpatient psychiatric setting. Level of social skill was evaluated using the Adolescent Assertion Expression Scale and the Loneliness Scale. Depression and related problems were examined through administration of the Beck Depression Inventory. Beck Hopelessness Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Comparisons with normative values and clinical cut-offs (by gender) indicated that female adolescent substance abusers were less submissive and more aggressive than normative counterparts; male substance abusers exhibited less assertiveness. In addition, mild to moderate levels of depression were evident in both female and male substance abusers. Further, results of correlational analyses revealed several significant relationships between measures of social skills and depression. Results are discussed in terms of: (a) the need for finer grained analyses of social functioning in adolescent substance abusers, (b) the potential value of skills intervention for a subgroup of these individuals, and (c) the need for longitudinal data to more clearly explicate patterns and sequencing of social (mal)adjustment, affective disorder, and onset of substance abuse in this population. PMID:8465682

  4. Internet addiction, adolescent depression, and the mediating role of life events: finding from a sample of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linsheng; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Zhihua; Sun, Yehuan; Wu, Hongyan; Ye, Dongqing

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of life events in the relation between Internet addiction and depression using an adolescent sample in China. A total of 3507 urban adolescent students were asked to complete the questionnaires including Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, and demographic characteristics. Path analyses demonstrated that life events fully mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression. Specificity for the mediating role of life events was demonstrated in comparison to alternative competing mediation models. The findings support our hypothesis that the effect of Internet addiction on adolescent depression is mediated by the life events. Further research is required to test the temporal relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression and explore mechanisms underlying the pathways leading to adolescent depression. PMID:25178955

  5. Achieving adolescent adherence to treatment of major depression

    PubMed Central

    Staton, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    When treatments are ordered for adolescent major depression, or for other adolescent medical illnesses, adherence and clinical outcomes are likely to be unsatisfactory, unless 4 basic principles of the medical treatment of adolescent illness are implemented. These comprise providing effective patient and parent/caregiver education, establishing effective patient and caregiver therapeutic alliances, providing effective treatment, and managing other factors associated with treatment adherence as indicated. The goals of treatment are to achieve the earliest possible response and remission. Failure to treat adolescent major depression successfully has potentially serious consequences, including worsened adherence, long-term morbidity, and suicide attempt. Accordingly, prescribed treatment must be aggressively managed. Doses of an antidepressant medication should be increased as rapidly as can be tolerated, preferably every 1–2 weeks, until full remission is achieved or such dosing is limited by the emergence of unacceptable adverse effects. A full range of medication treatment options must be employed if necessary. Treatment adherence, occurrence of problematic adverse effects, clinical progress, and safety must be systematically monitored. Adolescents with major depression must be assessed for risk of harm to self or others. When this risk appears significant, likelihood of successful outcomes will be enhanced by use of treatment plans that comprehensively address factors associated with treatment nonadherence. Abbreviated and comprehensive plans for the treatment of potentially fatal adolescent illnesses are outlined in this review. PMID:24600263

  6. Therapist Strategies for Building Involvement in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungbluth, Nathaniel J.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between 9 therapist behaviors and client involvement in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Analyses included 42 adolescents who met criteria for a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or adjustment disorder with depressed mood) and who were…

  7. Risk Factors Linking Maternal Depressed Mood to Growth in Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Rebecca C.; Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal depression has been implicated in the development of adolescent substance use. Conceptualizing depression as a continuum, the aims of this study are to (a) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood and risk factors associated with adolescent substance use; (b) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood…

  8. Trajectories of Depressed Mood from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Effects of Pubertal Timing and Adolescent Dating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Biehl, Michael C.; Ge, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    The effects of pubertal timing and adolescent dating on trajectories of depressed mood from early adolescence to young adulthood were examined among youths who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results showed that for both boys and girls, the trajectories of depressed mood between the ages of 12 and 23 took an…

  9. Prevalence of diagnosed depression in adolescents with history of concussion

    PubMed Central

    Chrisman, Sara P.D.; Richardson, Laura P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies in adults have suggested concussion and other brain injury presents a risk factor for depression. The goal of our study was to analyze the association between previous concussion and current depression diagnosis in a large nationally-representative adolescent dataset. Methods Retrospective cohort study using the National Survey of Children’s Health 2007–2008, a nationally-representative survey conducted via random digit dialing. Data were obtained by parental report. We included youth 12–17 years old without a current concussion (N=36,060), and evaluated the association between previous concussion (binary) and current depression diagnosis (binary) using multiple logistic regression to control for age, sex, parental mental health and socioeconomic status. Results After controlling for age, sex, parental mental health, and socioeconomic status, history of concussion was associated with a 3.3 fold greater risk for depression diagnosis (95%CI: 2.0–5.5). Other factors significantly associated with depression diagnosis included poor or fair parental mental health (OR: 3.7, 95%CI: 2.8–4.9), and older age (15–17 years vs. 12–14 years, OR: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1–1.8). Sex of the subject was not significantly related to depression diagnosis. Being above 200% of the poverty level was associated with approximately a 50% decreased risk of depression diagnosis (95%CI: 35–70%). Conclusions History of concussion was associated with a higher prevalence of diagnosed depression in a large nationally-representative adolescent dataset. Clinicians should screen for depression in their adolescent patients with concussion. Future studies should confirm this association using prospective methodology, and examine potential treatment approaches. PMID:24355628

  10. Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA): Week 24 Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn; Porta, Giovanna; Vitiello, Benedetto; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Spirito, Anthony; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Kennard, Betsy; DeBar, Lynn; McCracken, James; Strober, Michael; Onorato, Matthew; Zelazny, Jamie; Keller, Marty; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to report on the outcome of participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial after 24 weeks of treatment, including remission and relapse rates and predictors of treatment outcome. Method Adolescents (ages 12–18 years) with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-resistant depression were randomly assigned to either a medication switch alone (alternate SSRI or venlafaxine) or a medication switch plus cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). At week 12, responders could continue in their assigned treatment arm and nonresponders received open treatment (medication and/or CBT) for 12 more weeks (24 weeks total). The primary outcomes were remission and relapse, defined by the Adolescent Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation as rated by an independent evaluator. Results Of 334 adolescents enrolled in the study, 38.9% achieved remission by 24 weeks, and initial treatment assignment did not affect rates of remission. Likelihood of remission was much higher (61.6% versus 18.3% ) and time to remission was much faster among those who had already demonstrated clinical response by week 12. Remission was also higher among those with lower baseline depression, hopelessness, and self-reported anxiety. At week 12, lower depression, hopelessness, anxiety, suicidal ideation, family conflict, and absence of comorbid dysthymia, anxiety, and drug/alcohol use and impairment also predicted remission. Of those who responded by week 12, 19.6% had a relapse of depression by week 24. Conclusions Continued treatment for depression among treatment-resistant adolescents results in remission in approximately one-third of patients, similar to adults. Eventual remission is evident within the first 6 weeks in many, suggesting that earlier intervention among non-responders could be important. PMID:20478877

  11. Genetic Heterogeneity in Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms in Response to Victimization.

    PubMed

    Gottfredson, Nisha C; Foshee, Vangie A; Ennett, Susan T; Haberstick, Brett; Smolen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study had two objectives: first, to determine the degree to which experiences of victimization by peers during adolescence led to a subsequent rise in depressive symptoms, and second, to identify genetic markers that predict depressive reactivity to victimization. We used a cohort sequential design to obtain a longitudinal sample of 1,475 adolescents (3,263 observations) in Grades 8 to 12 (56% female; 47% Black, 46% White). Multilevel growth curve models were used to assess whether victimization predicted depressive symptoms 6 months later, beyond baseline trajectories for depressive symptoms. We modeled the interactive effects of peer victimization with three genetic polymorphisms (on 5-HTTLPR, DRD2 TaqIA, and BDNF Val66Met) on depressive symptoms. Although victimization predicted subsequent depressive symptoms, there was substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect of victimization. Val alleles, associated with higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) functioning, predicted more sensitivity to victimization. Neither DRD2 TaqIA, a marker associated with dopaminergic functioning, nor 5-HTTLPR, a marker associated with serotonin activity, was associated with sensitivity to victimization. The social stress of peer victimization triggers depressive symptoms most strongly in individuals who are homozygous for the Val allele on the BDNF Val/Met polymorphism. This polymorphism has been linked with sensitivity to social defeat in animal models. Future research should explore behavioral, cognitive, and emotional explanations of the effects of BDNF Val/Met on responsivity to victimization. PMID:24819687

  12. Childhood and Adolescent Anxiety and Depression: Beyond Heritability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franic, Sanja; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Ligthart, Lannie; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To review the methodology of behavior genetics studies addressing research questions that go beyond simple heritability estimation and illustrate these using representative research on childhood and adolescent anxiety and depression. Method: The classic twin design and its extensions may be used to examine age and gender differences in…

  13. Social Context in School: Its Relation to Adolescents' Depressive Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulard, Aurore; Quertemont, Etienne; Gauthier, Jean-Marie; Born, Michel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of various school-related factors on adolescents' depressive mood, including prosocial behavior, verbal aggression, and relationships with teachers. The data used in this study were collected in the context of a larger survey on victimization in secondary schools from the French Community of Belgium. Participants…

  14. Stress Generation and Adolescent Depression: Contribution of Interpersonal Stress Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the proposal that ineffective responses to common interpersonal problems disrupt youths' relationships, which, in turn, contributes to depression during adolescence. Youth (86 girls, 81 boys; M age = 12.41, SD = 1.19) and their primary female caregivers participated in a three-wave longitudinal study. Youth completed a…

  15. Dysfunctional Cognitions Associated with Adolescent Depression: Findings across Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study examined differences in reported depressive symptomatology and related dysfunctional cognitions in nonhandicapped, learning-disabled, and seriously emotionally disturbed adolescents from both public school and juvenile correction settings. No significant main effect was found for differences across label, but consequential differences…

  16. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  17. Depressed Mood and Body Weight: Exploring Race Differences in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Christie-Mizell, C. Andre

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this article examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence. The authors also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Their findings indicate that over a 4-year…

  18. Body Dissatisfaction, Dietary Restraint, Depression, and Weight Status in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…

  19. Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression in Canadian and Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Abela, John R. Z.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare diathesis-stress and transactional models of cognitive vulnerability to depression in samples of Canadian (n = 118) and Chinese (n = 405) adolescents. We utilized a six-month multi-wave, longitudinal design in order to examine whether (a) perceived control moderated the association between the…

  20. Selective Neurocognitive Impairments in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Georges; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Jepsen, Susie; Ballard, Kristin; Nelson, Megan; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Cullen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether major depression in adolescence is characterized by neurocognitive deficits in attention, affective decision making, and cognitive control of emotion processing. Neuropsychological tests including the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs, the Attention Network…

  1. Overweight, Body Image, and Depression in Asian and Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bin; Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Johnson, C. Anderson; Wu, Qiaobing; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Methods: Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body…

  2. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents Living in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peden, Ann R.; Reed, Deborah B.; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this pilot study were to examine prevalence of depressive symptoms among rural adolescents and identify related social and environmental variables. Methods: A convenience sample of 299 14- to 18-year-old agriculture class students at 5 rural high schools in Kentucky and Iowa completed a survey that included demographic…

  3. Academic Performance, Popularity, and Depression Predict Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany M.; Sanders, Christopher E.

    2003-01-01

    Eighty-nine high school seniors completed a questionnaire on their feelings and activities, including their use of drugs. Adolescents with a low grade point average, high popularity, and high depression were more likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, and smoke marijuana than were their peers. Cigarette and alcohol use predicted marijuana use,…

  4. Sertraline in Children and Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Craig L.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Rynn, Moira; Ambrosini, Paul; Landau, Phyllis; Yang, Ruoyong; Wohlberg, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore time to first response and time to first persistent response of sertraline versus placebo and compare these parameters between children (6-11 years old, n = 177) and adolescents (12-17 years old, n = 199) with major depressive disorder. Method: A 10-week placebo-controlled treatment was followed by a 24-week open-label…

  5. Older Romantic Partners and Depressive Symptoms During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2010-01-01

    Although developmental theory predicts that adolescent romantic relationships have important benefits, empirical evidence suggests that they may also carry substantial psychosocial risk. This study uses data from 4,948 respondents (50% female) in Wave I and Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the association between involvement with an older romantic partner and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Ordinary least squares regression models compared Wave II depressive symptoms among respondents with older partners (defined as an age difference of 2 or more years) to respondents with same-age or younger partners, controlling for baseline depressive symptoms and sociodemographic characteristics. Ten percent of females and two percent of males reported having an older romantic partner at Wave II. Among females only, involvement with an older romantic partner was associated with a modest but significant increase in depressive symptoms between waves. This association was largely mediated by increases in substance use. Findings suggest that involvement with an older male partner during adolescence may increase the risk of poor emotional outcomes among females. PMID:20424899

  6. The Relations Among Abuse, Depression, and Adolescents' Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca J.; Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Glisky, Elizabeth; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations among early and recent experiences with abuse, depression, and adolescents' autobiographical memory in a longitudinal study of family violence. Participants' (N = 134) exposure to violence was documented when they were 6 to 12 years old and again when they were 12 to 18 years old. The second assessment included…

  7. The depression distress amplification model in adolescents: A longitudinal examination of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, depression and suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Capron, Daniel W; Allan, Nicholas P; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Leen-Feldner, Ellen; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents with comorbid anxiety and depression are at significantly increased risk of suicide. The recently proposed depression distress amplification model appears to have promise for explaining the relations between anxiety, depression, and suicidality, but it has not been tested in adolescents. Participants were 524 adolescents followed over two years. Baseline data for the current report were collected by trained interviewers while the adolescents were in eighth grade. Data were obtained in the same manner when the adolescents were in tenth grade. Baseline anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns significantly predicted suicidal ideation two years later, above and beyond baseline suicidal ideation and depression. Further, consistent with the depression distress amplification model, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns interacted with depressive symptoms to predict suicidal ideation. This report extends the empirical and theoretical support for a relationship between anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns and suicidality. PMID:25754194

  8. Hopelessness and Excessive Drinking among Aboriginal Adolescents: The Mediating Roles of Depressive Symptoms and Drinking to Cope

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sherry H.; Sherry, Simon B.; Comeau, M. Nancy; Mushquash, Christopher J.; Collins, Pamela; Van Wilgenburg, Hendricus

    2011-01-01

    Canadian Aboriginal youth show high rates of excessive drinking, hopelessness, and depressive symptoms. We propose that Aboriginal adolescents with higher levels of hopelessness are more susceptible to depressive symptoms, which in turn predispose them to drinking to cope—which ultimately puts them at risk for excessive drinking. Adolescent drinkers (n = 551; 52% boys; mean age = 15.9 years) from 10 Canadian schools completed a survey consisting of the substance use risk profile scale (hopelessness), the brief symptom inventory (depressive symptoms), the drinking motives questionnaire—revised (drinking to cope), and quantity, frequency, and binge measures of excessive drinking. Structural equation modeling demonstrated the excellent fit of a model linking hopelessness to excessive drinking indirectly via depressive symptoms and drinking to cope. Bootstrapping indicated that this indirect effect was significant. Both depressive symptoms and drinking to cope should be intervention targets to prevent/decrease excessive drinking among Aboriginal youth high in hopelessness. PMID:21197100

  9. Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler’s (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842

  10. Depression in adolescents and young adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eliza M.; Rosenstein, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer are at risk for depression due to disruptions in their developmental trajectory, greater physical symptom burden, and increased likelihood of developing aggressive disease. Rates of depression and other psychological disorders are substantially higher in AYAs with cancer when compared with older adults. Psychiatrists caring for these patients must consider the age-appropriate developmental context of these patients along with familial and medical factors that may influence the presentation and treatment of depression. Previous research suggests that psychosocial interventions specifically designed for AYA patients are promising, but studies of psychopharmacology treatments for depression are lacking. There is a pressing need for prospective studies and controlled clinical trials that evaluate the optimal strategies for treating depression in this patient group. PMID:26246791

  11. Sexual minority status, peer harassment, and adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler's (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842

  12. Specificity of Stress Generation: A Comparison of Adolescents with Depressive, Anxiety, and Comorbid Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Nicole P.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with a history of depression experience more stress that is dependent in part on their own actions. However, it is unclear whether stress generation is a unique feature of depression, or a universal process that is also present in other types of psychopathology, such as anxiety disorders. The current study addressed this issue by comparing adolescents with a history of “pure” (i.e., non-comorbid) depressive disorders, pure anxiety disorders, comorbid depression and anxiety, and no disorder, on their levels of dependent and independent stress. Results indicated that adolescents with pure depression experienced more dependent stress than adolescents with pure anxiety, and adolescents with any internalizing diagnosis experienced more dependent stress than controls. Further, adolescents with comorbid depression and anxiety reported the highest levels of stress generation. The results suggest that while stress generation may be more strongly associated with depression than anxiety in adolescence, it is not unique to depression. PMID:22724042

  13. Comorbidity of Anxiety and Depression in Youth: Implications for Treatment and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Judy; Weersing, V. Robin

    2010-01-01

    The high level of concurrent and sequential comorbidity between anxiety and depression in children and adolescents may result from (a) substantial overlap in both the symptoms and items used to assess these putatively different disorders, (b) common etiological factors (e.g., familial risk, negative affectivity, information processing biases, neural substrates) implicated in the development of each condition, and (c) negative sequelae of anxiety conferring increased risk for the development of depression. Basic research on their various common and unique etiological mechanisms has guided the development of efficacious treatments for anxiety and depressive disorders in youth. Potential processes through which the successful treatment of childhood anxiety might prevent subsequent depression are described. PMID:21499544

  14. The role of the pediatrician in preventing suicide in adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Juan J; Clavel, Maria; Giner, Lucas; Sher, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, suicide is among the top five causes of mortality in the 15- to 19- year age group. Pediatricians and primary care providers are in a distinctive position to help prevent suicide in adolescents. According to the Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services, all adolescents should have at least an annual preventive services visit, which should address both the biomedical and psychosocial aspects of health. Suicide prevention may best be accomplished by detection and management of specific risk factors, rather than by attempting to recognize those youth who are considered most likely to commit suicide. Alcohol use has been regarded as an important risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior and the diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder indicates an elevated risk for adolescent suicide. Although the causal relationship between alcohol use and suicide remains unknown, a clear and strong relationship exists. Pediatricians and other health care providers should be skilled to recognize risk factors for adolescent suicide, including alcohol and drug misuse, depression, major loss, and recent suicides within a community. The relative frequency of suicidal behavior among adolescents suffering from alcohol use disorders and its distressing effects on individuals, families and society merits further research and development of prevention strategies in general pediatric settings. PMID:17458325

  15. Effects of an early intervention group program for anxious and depressed adolescents: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Muris, P; Bogie, N; Hoogsteder, A

    2001-04-01

    The Resourceful Adolescent Program is an early intervention program designed to enhance psychological resilience in adolescents with emotional problems. Eight adolescents with high anxious and/or depressive symptoms were treated with this 11-session group program. Treatment effects were examined by means of self-report questionnaires of anxiety, depression, and self-efficacy. Pre- and postintervention data showed reductions in anxiety and depression scores and a concomitant increase in adolescents' self-efficacy. PMID:11351893

  16. Depression and school performance in middle adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Fröjd, Sari A; Nissinen, Eeva S; Pelkonen, Mirjami U I; Marttunen, Mauri J; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2008-08-01

    The study aimed to investigate the associations between different levels of depression with different aspects of school performance. The target population included 2516 7th-9th grade pupils (13-17 years) of whom 90% completed the questionnaire anonymously in the classroom. Of the girls 18.4% and of the boys 11.1% were classified as being depressed (R-Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Finnish version of the 13-item BDI). The lower the self-reported grade point average (GPA) or the more the GPA had declined from the previous term, the more commonly the adolescents were depressed. Depression was associated with difficulties in concentration, social relationships, self-reliant school performance and reading and writing as well as perceiving schoolwork as highly loading. The school performance variables had similar associations with depression among both sexes when a wide range of depression was studied but gender differences appeared when studying the severe end of the depression scale. Our study indicates that pupils reporting difficulties in academic performance should be screened for depression. PMID:17949806

  17. The dysfunctional attitudes scale: psychometric properties in depressed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Gregory M; Park, Jong-Hyo; Essex, Marilyn J; Klein, Marjorie H; Silva, Susan G; Hoyle, Rick H; Curry, John F; Feeny, Norah C; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher J; Pathak, Sanjeev; Reinecke, Mark A; Rosenberg, David R; Weller, Elizabeth B; March, John S

    2009-11-01

    The psychometric properties and factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale were examined in a sample of 422 male and female adolescents (ages 12-17) with current major depressive disorder. The scale demonstrated high internal consistency (alpha = .93) and correlated significantly with self-report and interview-based measures of depression. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a correlated 2-factor model, with scales corresponding to perfectionism and need for social approval, provided a satisfactory fit to the data. The goodness-of-fit was equivalent across sexes and age groups. The findings support the use of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale and its subscales in the assessment of clinically depressed adolescents. PMID:20183662

  18. Depression and life satisfaction among European and Confucian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stankov, Lazar

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare adolescents from Europe and Confucian Asia on measures of psychological constructs that reflect either maladjustment or positive outlook on life. Empirical findings are reported based on N = 7,167 secondary school students (15 years old) from Confucian Asia (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan) and from Europe (Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Serbia, and Latvia with 2 nationalities-Latvian and Russian). Participants' responses were used to assess several aspects of personality and psychopathology, in addition to well-being, social attitudes, and parental styles. Exploratory factor analysis of these measures produced 4 factors: Depression, Life Satisfaction, Toughness and Modesty. Adolescents from Confucian countries show higher levels of Depression and lower levels of Life Satisfaction in comparison to their European counterparts. The most potent influences on Depression and Life Satisfaction were found to be Toughness and Parental Warmth variables, both of which are, in turn, linked to differences between regions/cultures. PMID:23914959

  19. Postpartum Depression Prevention for Reservation-Based American Indians: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Hastings, Ranelda; Baker, Elena Varipatis; Mullany, Britta; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Walkup, John

    2012-01-01

    Background Postpartum depression is a devastating condition that affects a significant number of women and their offspring. Few preventive interventions have targeted high risk youth, such as American Indians (AIs). Objective To evaluate the feasibility of a depression prevention program for AI adolescents and young adults. Methods Expectant AI women (mean age = 18.15; N = 47) were randomized (1:1) to either the Living in Harmony program (LIH, an 8 lesson cognitive-behaviorally based program) or an Educational–Support program (ES, an 8 lesson education program). Both interventions were delivered by AI paraprofessionals. Adolescents were evaluated during their pregnancy at baseline, at post-intervention, and at 4, 12, and 24 weeks postpartum. The primary outcome measure was the Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression scale (CES-D). Additional measures of depression included the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD; assessed via computerized diagnostic interview) and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS). Secondary outcomes included changes in mothers' global functioning and social support. Results At all post intervention assessments, mothers in both groups showed similar reductions in depressive symptoms and similar rates of MDD (0 and 6% in LIH and ES respectively). Both groups of participants also showed similar improvements in global functioning. No changes in either group were found on the measure of social support. Conclusions Findings suggest that both paraprofessional-delivered interventions may reduce symptoms of depression among AIs. Replication with a larger sample, a usual care control condition, blinded evaluators, and a longer follow-up is needed. PMID:22701296

  20. Parent Involvement in CBT Treatment of Adolescent Depression: Experiences in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Karen C.; Albano, Anne Marie

    2005-01-01

    The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) evaluated the short- and long-term effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) alone, fluoxetine alone, and their combination, relative to pill placebo, and the 12-week treatment effects were recently published (TADS Team, 2004). Results showed that treatment that combined CBT with…

  1. A Manual-Based Intervention to Address Clinical Crises and Retain Patients in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Diane E.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Puumala, Susan E.; Silva, Susan G.; Rezac, Amy J.; Hallin, Mary J.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Weller, Elizabeth B.; Pathak, Sanjeev; Simons, Anne D.; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe a manual-based intervention to address clinical crises and retain participants in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: The use of adjunct services for attrition prevention (ASAP) is described for adolescents (ages 12-17 years) during the 12-week acute treatment in TADS, from 2000 to 2003.…

  2. Intention to seek depression treatment in adolescent mothers and a comparison group of adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M Cynthia; Usui, Wayne; Pinto-Foltz, Melissa; Rakestraw, Vivian Leffler

    2009-02-01

    The aims of the study were (a) to determine the efficacy of the theory of reasoned action in predicting intention to seek depression treatment in adolescent mothers (n = 64) and a comparison group of adolescent girls (n = 65) and (b) to explore the role of empirically suggested variables (e.g., social support and current symptoms of depression) in increasing the explanatory power of the model. Findings between the two groups differed. Subjective norms, but not attitude, was a significant predictor of intention to seek depression treatment in adolescent mothers (F = 4.82, P = .00; R(2) = .14). In the comparison group of adolescent girls, both attitude and subjective norms predicted intention to seek depression treatment (F = 8.56, P = .00, R(2) = .22). The addition of depressive symptoms and social support increased the explanatory power of the model in the comparison group of adolescent girls (R(2) change = 0.10, P = .02) but resulted in the deletion of subjective norms from the regression equation. Implications for further research and practice are discussed. PMID:19216987

  3. A Qualitative Investigation of Adolescents’ Perceived Mechanisms of Change from a Universal School-Based Depression Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Shochet, Ian; Montague, Roslyn; Smith, Coral; Dadds, Mark

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis provides evidence supporting the universal application of school-based prevention programs for adolescent depression. The mechanisms underlying such successful interventions, however, are largely unknown. We report on a qualitative analysis of 109 Grade 9 students’ beliefs about what they gained from an evidence-based depression prevention intervention, the Resourceful Adolescent Program (RAP-A). Fifty-four percent of interviewees articulated at least one specific example of program benefit. A thematic analysis of responses revealed two major themes, improved interpersonal relationships and improved self-regulation, both stronger than originally assumed. A more minor theme also emerged—more helpful cognitions. It is postulated that both improved interpersonal relationships and improved self-regulation are likely to enhance one another, and more helpful cognitions may express its contribution through enhanced self-regulation. These findings broaden our understanding of the impact of depression prevention programs, beginning to illuminate how such programs benefit participants. PMID:24859679

  4. Depression in Late-Life: a Focus on Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Okereke, Olivia I.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.; Lotrich, Francis E.; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a leading cause of disease burden, disability and distress for millions of older adults. Thus, prevention of late-life depression is a priority research area. This article addresses the science of late-life depression prevention with the following: 1) an introduction to the Institute of Medicine framework of universal, selective and indicated prevention as it pertains to late-life depression, with particular attention to successes of indicated and selective prevention in primary care; 2) a discussion of how biomarkers can be integrated into prevention research, using interferon-alpha-induced depression as a model; 3) an outline for expansion of prevention to non-specialist care delivery systems in Low and Middle Income Countries – thus, extending the reach of current successful approaches; 4) a description of a novel approach to simultaneous testing of universal, selective and indicated prevention in late-life depression, with emphasis on study design features required to achieve practical, scalable tests of health impact. PMID:24729758

  5. Training School Personnel to Implement a Universal School-Based Prevention of Depression Program under Real-World Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnett, P.H.; Dadds, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of a universal prevention of depression program [the Resourceful Adolescent Program (RAP)] when implemented under real-world conditions in a school setting. Prior research has found the RAP program to be beneficial for high-school students when the program was implemented by university staff selected,…

  6. Mediators involved in the relation between depressive symptoms and weight status in female adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Choo, Tse-Hwei J.; Larson, Nicole I.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Depression may be a risk factor for overweight status, but mechanisms involved in this relationship are unclear. This study explored behavioral factors involved in the relationship between adolescent depression symptoms and adult overweight status. A population-based cohort of female participants in Project EAT (n=1,035) was followed over 10 years and reported on psychological functioning, weight status, and eating and activity patterns in early/middle adolescence (1999=Time 1; T1), middle adolescence/early young adulthood (2004=Time 2; T2), and early/middle young adulthood (2009=Time 3; T3). Structural equation models were fit which included T1 depression scores predicting overweight status at T3, with T2 fruit and vegetable consumption, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and binge eating examined as mediators. There were small but significant effects of T1 depression scores predicting an increased likelihood of T3 overweight status (standardized estimate=0.038; p=.007), and of T2 binge eating mediating the relation between T1 depression and T3 overweight status (standardized indirect effect estimate=.036; p=.009). Binge eating may be one pathway to overweight among depressed females, suggesting that recognition and treatment of eating pathology in individuals with depression may help prevent overweight. Examination of other behavioral (and non-behavioral) factors explaining the relationship between depression and overweight is warranted. PMID:25640769

  7. Facets of loneliness and depression among Chinese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lau, S; Chan, D W; Lau, P S

    1999-12-01

    The authors examined the relation among different facets of loneliness and depression in a sample of 6,356 Chinese children and adolescents from Grades 4-9. Loneliness and depression were closely related among the primary (Grades 4-6) and secondary (Grades 7-9) students, both boys and girls. Although the different facets of loneliness were predictive of the various facets of depression, peer-related loneliness and aloneness were more predictive of depression in both groups than was parent-related loneliness. The students in Grades 5 and 6 scored lower for loneliness but a little higher for depression than did the students in Grade 4. The students in Grades 8 and 9 scored higher than the students in Grade 7 for loneliness and depression. The primary boys scored higher than the primary girls for both loneliness and depression. Among the secondary students, there was no difference between the scores of the boys and those of the girls for loneliness, but the boys scored lower than the girls for depression. PMID:10646306

  8. Increased Ventricular Cerebrospinal Fluid Lactate in Depressed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Kailyn A. L.; Mao, Xiangling; Case, Julia A. C.; Kang, Guoxin; Shungu, Dikoma C.; Gabbay, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly examined as a potential pathogenic event in psychiatric disorders, although its role early in the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction in medication-free adolescents with MDD through in vivo measurements of neurometabolites using high-spatial resolution multislice/multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods Twenty-three adolescents with MDD and 29 healthy controls, ages 12–20, were scanned at 3T and concentrations of ventricular cerebrospinal fluid lactate, as well as N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), total creatine (tCr), and total choline (tCho) in the bilateral caudate, putamen, and thalamus were reported. Results Adolescents with MDD exhibited increased ventricular lactate compared to healthy controls [F(1, 41) = 6.98, p = .01]. However, there were no group differences in the other neurometabolites. Dimensional analyses in the depressed group showed no relation between any of the neurometabolites and symptomatology, including anhedonia and fatigue. Conclusions Increased ventricular lactate in depressed adolescents suggests mitochondrial dysfunction may be present early in the course of MDD; however it is still not known whether the presence of mitochondrial dysfunction is a trait vulnerability of individuals predisposed to psychopathology or a state feature of the disorder. Therefore, there is a need for larger multimodal studies to clarify these chemical findings in the context of network function. PMID:26802978

  9. Preventing depression and anxiety in young people: a review of the joint efficacy of universal, selective and indicated prevention.

    PubMed

    Stockings, E A; Degenhardt, L; Dobbins, T; Lee, Y Y; Erskine, H E; Whiteford, H A; Patton, G

    2016-01-01

    Depression and anxiety (internalizing disorders) are the largest contributors to the non-fatal health burden among young people. This is the first meta-analysis to examine the joint efficacy of universal, selective, and indicated preventive interventions upon both depression and anxiety among children and adolescents (5-18 years) while accounting for their co-morbidity. We conducted a systematic review of reviews in Medline, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, from 1980 to August 2014. Multivariate meta-analysis examined the efficacy of preventive interventions on depression and anxiety outcomes separately, and the joint efficacy on both disorders combined. Meta-regressions examined heterogeneity of effect according to a range of study variables. Outcomes were relative risks (RR) for disorder, and standardized mean differences (Cohen's d) for symptoms. One hundred and forty-six randomized controlled trials (46 072 participants) evaluated universal (children with no identified risk, n = 54) selective (population subgroups of children who have an increased risk of developing internalizing disorders due to shared risk factors, n = 45) and indicated prevention (children with minimal but detectable symptoms of an internalizing disorder, n = 47), mostly using psychological-only strategies (n = 105). Reductions in internalizing disorder onset occurred up to 9 months post-intervention, whether universal [RR 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.60], selective (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43-0.85) or indicated (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.78). Reductions in internalizing symptoms occurred up to 12 months post-intervention for universal prevention; however, reductions only occurred in the shorter term for selective and indicated prevention. Universal, selective and indicated prevention interventions are efficacious in reducing internalizing disorders and symptoms in the short term. They might be considered as repeated exposures in school settings across childhood

  10. Romantic Functioning and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls: The Moderating Role of Parental Emotional Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Sara J.; Davila, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    This study tested associations between adolescent romantic functioning and depressive symptoms and predicted that adolescents with emotionally unavailable parents would be most likely to show an association between poor romantic functioning and depressive symptoms. Data collected from 80 early adolescent nonreferred girls (average age of 13.45; SD…

  11. Depressive Symptoms, Stress, and Support: Gendered Trajectories from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Sarah O.; Brown, J. Scott; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Stressful transitions in adolescence increase depressive symptoms, especially among girls. However, little is known about this risk as adolescents mature into young adulthood, especially about how parental support affects depression trajectories during this period. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this analysis…

  12. Interpersonal Theory and Music Techniques: A Case Study for a Family With a Depressed Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, C. Bret; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2005-01-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-A) is a brief, time-limited therapy developed for use with adolescents diagnosed with major depression. IPT-A has been shown to be effective with adolescents in family counseling milieus. Music therapy techniques also have been successfully used to treat adolescent depression. This article provides mental health…

  13. Effects of Grandmother Coresidence and Quality of Family Relationships on Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Spencer, Michael S.; Spieker, Susan J.; Gilchrist, Lewayne D.

    1998-01-01

    Considers the main and interactive effects of grandmother coresidence, family cohesion, and young mother conflict with grandmother on adolescent reports of depressive symptoms in a sample of predominantly low-income adolescent mothers. Adolescent mothers with the greatest depressive symptoms were found to be those who coresided with grandmothers…

  14. Maternal Socialization of Positive Affect: The Impact of Invalidation on Adolescent Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Marie B. H.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relations among maternal socialization of positive affect (PA), adolescent emotion regulation (ER), and adolescent depressive symptoms. Two hundred early adolescents, 11-13 years old, provided self-reports of ER strategies and depressive symptomatology; their mothers provided self-reports of socialization responses to…

  15. What Do Mothers Make Adolescents Feel Guilty about? Incidents, Reactions, and Relation to Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donatelli, Jo-Ann L.; Bybee, Jane A.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    We found mothers' history of depression and symptoms of depression among their adolescent children were both associated with the type of events that mothers made adolescents feel guilty about and with the mothers' reactions to those events. Adolescents (20 male, 23 female) described incidents in which their mothers made them feel guilty and what…

  16. Transporting Evidence-Based Therapy for Adolescent Depression to the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Heather L.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen R.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the Adolescent Mood Project (Project AMP), a study transporting an evidence-based, cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for adolescent depression from the university lab setting to a school-based setting. Extant research on the psychosocial treatment of adolescent depression is reviewed and rationale for transporting evidence…

  17. Depressive Symptoms among Native and Immigrant Adolescents in Norway: The Role of Gender and Urbanization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fandrem, Hildegunn; Sam, David L.; Roland, Erling

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates depressive symptoms among 3,431 adolescents aged 13-15 years. The sample comprises both native Norwegian and immigrant adolescents living in Norway. The main finding of the study is that the level of depressive symptoms is significantly higher among the immigrant adolescents than their Norwegian counterparts. When analysed…

  18. Being bullied and feeling ashamed: Implications for eating psychopathology and depression in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Rodrigues, Tânia

    2015-10-01

    The current study examined the associations between peer victimization, body image shame, self-criticism, self-reassurance, depressive symptoms and eating psychopathology in 609 female adolescents. Correlational analyses showed that being the victim of bullying was positively associated with body image shame, self-criticism, with low self-reassurance, depressive symptoms and eating psychopathology. A path analysis indicated that victimization experiences were associated with increased depressive symptoms partially through increased levels of body image shame, and a severe form of self-criticism - hated self. Body image shame and hated-self self-criticism fully mediated the association between victimization experiences eating psychopathology. The tested model accounted for a total of 51% of depressive symptoms variance and for 52% of eating psychopathology variance. These findings may have important intervention and prevention implications, by suggesting that bullying experiences fuel body image shame and consequent self-directed hostility and anger, which, in turn, predict increased depressive symptomatology and eating psychopathology in female adolescents. PMID:26318063

  19. Anxiety and depression in adolescents in urban and rural China.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Therese; Ding, Qu Jian

    2005-04-01

    The goal was to assess rates of anxiety and depression in adolescents in two areas of Zhejiang Province, China. A cross-sectional survey was carried-out using a self-report questionnaire developed for this study. Participants were middle school students (age range 13-16 years) in an urban and a rural setting. There were 1576 completed questionnaires. Symptoms of anxiety sufficient to interfere with enjoyment of life, relaxation, and sleep were common (48%, 40%, and 27%, respectively). School-related problems were the predominant sources of worry. One third reported a history of depression, 16% had at times felt life was not worth living, and 9% reported that they had attempted suicide. Girls were more likely to report symptoms of depression. Patterns of help-seeking showed reliance on friends and parents; only 1% had sought professional help. There were no significant differences in anxiety and depression between one-child and multisibling families. PMID:15941121

  20. Overweight, Body Image, and Depression in Asian and Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bin; Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Johnson, C. Anderson; Wu, Qiaobing; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Methods Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body image dissatisfaction, and depressive symptoms. Results Significant mediation effect was found only in Asian girls (mediation effect=0.16, P<0.05) and girls with high acculturation (mediation effect=0.17, P<0.05). Overweight significantly predicted higher body image dissatisfaction, which in turn was significantly related to depressive symptoms. Conclusion Our findings help understanding the association of overweight and experience of depressive symptoms. PMID:20218759

  1. A Preliminary Study of Functional Connectivity in Comorbid Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Kathryn R.; Gee, Dylan G.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Gabbay, Vilma; Hulvershorn, Leslie; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Bell, Christopher J.; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) begins frequently in adolescence and is associated with severe outcomes, but the developmental neurobiology of MDD is not well understood. Research in adults has implicated fronto-limbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD, particularly in relation to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Developmental changes in brain networks during adolescence highlight the need to examine MDD-related circuitry in teens separately from adults. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined functional connectivity in adolescents with MDD (n=12) and healthy adolescents (n=14). Seed-based connectivity analysis revealed that adolescents with MDD have decreased functional connectivity in a subgenual ACC-based neural network that includes the supragenual ACC (BA 32), the right medial frontal cortex (BA 10), the left inferior (BA 47) and superior frontal cortex (BA 22), superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), and the insular cortex (BA 13). These preliminary data suggest that MDD in adolescence is associated with abnormal connectivity within neural circuits that mediate emotion processing. Future research in larger, un-medicated samples will be necessary to confirm this finding. We conclude that hypothesis-driven, seed-based analyses of resting state fMRI data hold promise for advancing our current understanding of abnormal development of neural circuitry in adolescents with MDD. PMID:19446602

  2. Serum cytokines and anxiety in adolescent depression patients: Gender effect.

    PubMed

    Pallavi, Pooja; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju; Sharma, Subhadra; Subramanium, Arulselvi; Shamshi, Farah; Sengupta, Utpal; Pandey, Ravindra M; Mukhopadhyay, Asok K

    2015-09-30

    The present study compares the serum cytokine levels between adolescent depression patients and healthy controls and assesses correlation between depression, anxiety scores and serum levels of eight cytokines. Study also checked the variation in serum levels with medication status (medication free/naïve vs. patients on medication). Following clinical and psychometric assessment of 77 adolescent (aged 13-18 years) depression patients (49 males and 28 females; 56 medication free/naïve) and 54 healthy controls (25 males, 29 females), eight cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β1 and IL-17A {denoted IL-17 throughout}) were measured in serum using ELISA. Depressed adolescents had significantly high levels of IL-2 (p<0.001) and IL-6 (p=0.03) as compared to controls. The female population skewed the result of one cytokine (IL-6) in patients. Anxiety scores showed positive correlation (only in female patients) with IL-1β, IL-10 and negative correlation with TGF-β1 and IL-17. The gender effect in relationship between anxiety and cytokines was not straightforward. On comparing study groups on the medication/naïve status, IL-2 and TGF-β1 showed significant difference between the groups (p<0.001, p=0.007 higher in medicated). Depression in adolescents was associated with elevation of proinflammatory serum cytokines with a gender bias for females. Anxiety scores correlated negatively with TGF-β1 and IL-17. PMID:26163725

  3. Parental emotion socialization in clinically depressed adolescents: Enhancing, and dampening positive affect

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Shortt, Joann Wu; Allen, Nicholas B.; Davis, Betsy; Hunter, Erin; Leve, Craig; Sheeber, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study compared parental socialization of adolescent positive affect in families of depressed and healthy adolescents. Participants were 107 adolescents (42 boys) aged 14 - 18 years and their parents. Half of the participants met criteria for major depressive disorder and the others were demographically matched adolescents without emotional or behavioral disorders. Results based on multi-source questionnaire and interview data indicated that mothers and fathers of depressed adolescents were less accepting of adolescents’ positive affect and more likely to use strategies that dampen adolescents’ positive affect than were parents of healthy adolescents. Additionally, fathers of depressed adolescents exhibited fewer responses likely to enhance the adolescents’ positive affect than were fathers of healthy adolescents. These findings build on those of previous work in examining parental responses to adolescent emotions, focusing on positive emotions and including both mothers and fathers. PMID:23942826

  4. The Developmental Relationship between Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence and Harmful Drinking in Emerging Adulthood: The Role of Peers and Parents

    PubMed Central

    Pesola, F; Shelton, KH; Heron, J; Munafo, M; Hickman, M; van den Bree, MB

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptoms have been linked to the development of harmful drinking in adolescence but it remains unclear to what extent this effect continues into emerging adulthood. Deviant peers represent a risk factor while parental monitoring is a protective factor for harmful drinking. The study explored the relationship between depressive symptoms and harmful drinking between early adolescence and emerging adulthood. We also assessed to what extent this relationship is mediated by the influence of deviant peers and whether parental monitoring weakens this process. The sample consisted of 2,964 adolescents (64% females) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study assessed between the ages of 14 and 19. Using Structural Equation Modelling, we found that affiliation with deviant peers mediated the association between depressive symptoms and harmful drinking after adjustment for socio-demographic variables, parental drinking and depression, teenager’s sex, conduct problems as well as drinking and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. We also found that parental control and solicitation reduced the influence of deviant peers on harmful drinking. The results indicate that prevention programs should offer adolescents training for refusal skills with peers and monitoring skills training for parents may have a long-term effect at weakening peer influences on harmful drinking. PMID:25976526

  5. Co-occurring Trajectories of Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional Defiance From Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Leadbeater, Bonnie; Thompson, Kara; Gruppuso, Vincenza

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a cohort-sequential longitudinal design to examine the patterns of change and codevelopment of anxiety, depression, and oppositional defiant symptoms (ODS) from late adolescence to young adulthood. Four waves of data were collected biennially by individual interview with a random, community-based sample of 662 youth ages 12 to 18 years at Time 1 (18–26 years at Time 4). Using latent growth curve modeling, we examined co-occurring changes in the levels, rates of change, and variability in symptoms of anxiety, depression, and oppositional defiance. Sex differences were also assessed. Levels of anxiety, depression, and ODS were correlated at each time point. Moreover, adolescents with high initial levels in one domain tended to have high initial levels in the other domains. In addition, increases in depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with increases in anxiety and in ODS, but adolescent levels of symptoms did not predict increases over time. Symptoms of anxiety (for female and male individuals) and depression (for male individuals) continue to increase in young adulthood, whereas ODS stabilize or decline. Adolescent levels of these problems have a significant impact on later levels, suggesting that preventive interventions may be needed in adolescence to defer negative consequences of mental health problems in young adults. PMID:22742519

  6. The Developmental Relationship Between Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence and Harmful Drinking in Emerging Adulthood: The Role of Peers and Parents.

    PubMed

    Pesola, Francesca; Shelton, Katherine H; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus; Hickman, Matthew; van den Bree, Marianne B M

    2015-09-01

    Depressive symptoms have been linked to the development of harmful drinking in adolescence but it remains unclear to what extent this effect continues into emerging adulthood. Deviant peers represent a risk factor while parental monitoring is a protective factor for harmful drinking. The study explored the relationship between depressive symptoms and harmful drinking between early adolescence and emerging adulthood. We also assessed to what extent this relationship is mediated by the influence of deviant peers and whether parental monitoring weakens this process. The sample consisted of 2964 adolescents (64 % females) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children study assessed between the ages of 14 and 19. Using structural equation modelling, we found that affiliation with deviant peers mediated the association between depressive symptoms and harmful drinking after adjustment for socio-demographic variables, parental drinking and depression, teenager's sex, conduct problems as well as drinking and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. We also found that parental control and solicitation reduced the influence of deviant peers on harmful drinking. The results indicate that prevention programs should offer adolescents training for peer resistance training and monitoring skills training for parents may have a long-term effect at weakening peer influences on harmful drinking. PMID:25976526

  7. Efficacy of an Internet-Based Intervention Targeted to Adolescents with Subthreshold Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarushka, Marta Maria

    2011-01-01

    Depression during adolescence is highly prevalent with as many as 20% experiencing a major depressive episode by the age of 18. Adolescent depression causes significant impairment across life areas including school functioning, such as poor academic performance and decreased academic achievement. Despite the existence of many evidence-based…

  8. Stress Generation in Adolescent Depression: The Moderating Role of Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkness, Kate L.; Lumley, Margaret N.; Truss, Alanna E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the role of childhood abuse and neglect and depression recurrence in moderating the generation of stressful life events in adolescent depression. Maltreatment history and stressful life events were assessed using two rigorous contextual interviews and rating systems. In a sample of 59 community depressed adolescents we…

  9. Emerging Depression Is Associated with Face Memory Deficits in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Choate, Victoria R.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Pine, Daniel S.; Keenan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between memory for previously encoded emotional faces and depression symptoms assessed over 4 years in adolescent girls. Investigating the interface between memory deficits and depression in adolescent girls may provide clues about depression pathophysiology. Method: Participants were 213 girls recruited from…

  10. The Association between Humor and Depression in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients and High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiheit, Stacy R.; Overholser, James C.; Lehnert, Kim L.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined relationship between a sense of humor and symptoms of depression among adolescents. Findings on measures of humor and depression for 140 adolescents revealed that a sense of humor can be reliably measured and may be inversely related to symptoms of depression. (LBT)

  11. A Comparison of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Sertraline, and Their Combination for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Glenn A.; Tonge, Bruce J.; King, Neville J.; Heyne, David; Gordon, Michael S.; Klimkeit, Ester

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate cognitive-behavioral therapy, antidepressant medication alone, and combined CBT and antidepressant medication in the treatment of depressive disorders in adolescents. Method: Seventy-three adolescents (ages 12-18 years) with a primary diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or depressive disorder…

  12. MODERATE TO SEVERE DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AMONG ADOLESCENT MOTHERS FOLLOWED FOUR YEARS POSTPARTUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to examine race/ethnic differences in depressive symptoms among adolescent mothers during the first four years postpartum. A prospective study of 623 adolescent mothers, 18 years or younger followed four years after delivery. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depress...

  13. Understanding the Sex Difference in Vulnerability to Adolescent Depression: An Examination of Child and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhart, Nicole K.; Shih, Josephine H.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in risk factors associated with adolescent depression in a large sample of boys and girls. Moderation and mediation explanatory models of the sex difference in likelihood of depression were examined. Findings indicate that the factors associated with depression in adolescent boys and girls are quite similar. All…

  14. The Adolescent Mattering Experience: Gender Variations in Perceived Mattering, Anxiety, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Andrea L.; Scheidegger, Corey; McWhirter, J. Jeffries

    2009-01-01

    Individuals who perceive that they matter to others are likely to experience lower anxiety and depression levels. The effects of young adolescents' perceived mattering on their anxiety and depression levels were examined. Results indicated that female adolescents reported lower anxiety levels but greater depression levels than did male…

  15. Depressive Symptoms and Romantic Relationship Qualities from Adolescence through Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Examination of Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vujeva, Hana M.; Furman, Wyndol

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated the negative consequences of depression on adolescents' functioning in peer and family relationships, but little work has examined how depressive symptoms affect the quality of adolescents' and emerging adults' romantic relationships. Five waves of data on depressive symptoms, romantic relationship conflict,…

  16. Toward scientific equity for the prevention of depression and depressive symptoms in vulnerable youth.

    PubMed

    Perrino, Tatiana; Beardslee, William; Bernal, Guillermo; Brincks, Ahnalee; Cruden, Gracelyn; Howe, George; Murry, Velma; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo; Sandler, Irwin; Brown, C Hendricks

    2015-07-01

    Certain subgroups of youth are at high risk for depression and elevated depressive symptoms, and experience limited access to quality mental health care. Examples are socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority, and sexual minority youth. Research shows that there are efficacious interventions to prevent youth depression and depressive symptoms. These preventive interventions have the potential to play a key role in addressing these mental health disparities by reducing youth risk factors and enhancing protective factors. However, there are comparatively few preventive interventions directed specifically to these vulnerable subgroups, and sample sizes of diverse subgroups in general prevention trials are often too low to assess whether preventive interventions work equally well for vulnerable youth compared to other youth. In this paper, we describe the importance and need for "scientific equity," or equality and fairness in the amount of scientific knowledge produced to understand the potential solutions to such health disparities. We highlight possible strategies for promoting scientific equity, including the following: increasing the number of prevention research participants from vulnerable subgroups, conducting more data synthesis analyses and implementation science research, disseminating preventive interventions that are efficacious for vulnerable youth, and increasing the diversity of the prevention science research workforce. These strategies can increase the availability of research evidence to determine the degree to which preventive interventions can help address mental health disparities. Although this paper utilizes the prevention of youth depression as an illustrative case example, the concepts are applicable to other health outcomes for which there are disparities, such as substance use and obesity. PMID:25349137

  17. [Depressive disorders in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Preiss, Maike; Remschmidt, Helmut

    2007-11-01

    Childhood depressive disorders are a health risk that need to be taken seriously due to their potential associated complications. A literature search of previously published studies about this subject utilizing PubMed, Psycontent and Psyndex has been performed. The data has been analyzed and the results discussed critically. It becomes apparent that few studies focus on depressive disorders in children and not much consideration is given to possible gender-related differences. Further investigation is needed in regard to epidemiology, symptoms, comorbid factors and duration of these disorders including studying the children's developmental psychopathology. It is especially essential to establish adequate pharmaco- and psychotherapeutic treatments to ameliorate prognosis, progression and persistence of depressive disorders in children. PMID:18357969

  18. Innovative collaboration to prevent repeated adolescent pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Saunders, R B; Brown, H N

    1997-01-01

    Nurse educators from a university setting and staff from the county health department collaborated to establish an innovative program to prevent repeated pregnancy in adolescents. Called Dollar-A-Day and patterned after the original in Denver, CO, the program was operated jointly for 5 years and today continues to operate under the auspices of the health department. Success of the venture is attributed to use of skills in assessment, building, managing, and evaluating, as described by Loxley (1997). These elements were used to construct a context for collaboration. PMID:9397869

  19. Parent-child acculturation, parenting, and adolescent depressive symptoms in Chinese immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Li, Jing; Huang, Xuan; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2009-06-01

    Using a sample of 388 father-adolescent and 399 mother-adolescent dyads in Chinese immigrant families, the current investigation tested Portes and Rumbaut's (1996) assertion that generational dissonance may indicate a family context that places children at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Study findings suggest that a high discrepancy in father-adolescent acculturation levels relates significantly to more adolescent depressive symptoms. The study further demonstrates that the quality of the parenting relationship between fathers and adolescents operates as a mediator between father-adolescent acculturation discrepancy and adolescent depressive symptoms. Specifically, a high level of discrepancy in American orientation between fathers and adolescents is associated with unsupportive parenting practices, which, in turn, are linked to more adolescent depressive symptoms. These relationships are significant even after controlling for the influence of family socioeconomic status and parents' and adolescents' sense of discrimination within the larger society. PMID:19586205

  20. The Temporal Relation between Depression and Comorbid Psychopathology in Adolescents at Varied Risk for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Gallerani, Catherine M.; Garber, Judy; Martin, Nina C.

    2009-01-01

    Background This study examined the temporal comorbidity of depressive disorders with anxiety, externalizing, and substance use disorders in adolescents who varied in risk for depression. Methods Participants were 240 adolescents and their mothers who had either a history of depression (high-risk, n=185) or were lifetime-free of psychiatric disorders (low-risk, n=55). Children (54.2% females) were first evaluated in 6th grade (mean age = 11.86, SD = .57) with the K-SADS-PL to assess current and lifetime diagnoses, and then annually through 12th grade with the A-LIFE to assess diagnoses since the previous evaluation. Results For girls, the rate of depression was high regardless of prior anxiety, whereas for boys, the odds that those with prior subthreshold anxiety would have subsequent subthreshold depression were 1.5 times those of boys with no prior subthreshold anxiety, controlling for risk. In addition, the odds that girls with prior substance use disorders would have a threshold depressive disorder subsequently were three times those of girls with no prior substance use disorders, controlling for risk. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of early detection of various forms of psychopathology in youth who then can be targeted for intervention. The prospective paths to comorbidity differed by sex, thus suggesting that interventions need to be constructed with sensitivity to these distinct diagnostic trajectories. PMID:19874429

  1. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  2. Does Early Adolescent Sex Cause Depressive Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    A recent study by the Heritage Foundation (Rector, Johnson, & Noyes, 2003) found evidence of a positive relationship between early sexual intercourse and depressive symptoms. This finding has been used to bolster support for funding abstinence only sex education. However, promoting abstinence will only yield mental health benefits if there is a…

  3. Rumination, anxiety, depressive symptoms and subsequent depression in adolescents at risk for psychopathology: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. Methods Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. Results We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p = 0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p < 0.0005), after adjustment for prior levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Conclusion High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression. PMID:24103296

  4. Validation of Edinburgh postnatal depression scale for adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M Cynthia; Usui, Wayne M; Nering, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale has widespread use internationally with adult women, but few psychometric properties have been described for samples of adolescent mothers. The purpose of this paper is to validate the psychometric properties of the EPDS in a sample of adolescent mothers (n = 149) in a southern, urban area of the United States. Internal consistency reliability was .88. Principal components analysis supported a two factor structure accounting for 60% of variance. Results of item response theory analysis suggest that the EPDS and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale have similar psychometric properties. This data can be used to provide evidence of construct validity of the EPDS. The study provides a foundation for further psychometric testing of the instrument. PMID:19639384

  5. DEPRESSED AFFECT AND HISTORICAL LOSS AMONG NORTH AMERICAN INDIGENOUS ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Walls, Melissa L.; Johnson, Kurt D.; Morrisseau, Allan D.; McDougall, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the prevalence and correlates of perceived historical loss among 459 North American Indigenous adolescents aged 11–13 years from the northern Midwest of the United States and central Canada. The adolescents reported daily or more thoughts of historical loss at rates similar to their female caretakers. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that our measure of perceived historical loss and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale were separate but related constructs. Regression analysis indicated that, even when controlling for family factors, perceived discrimination, and proximal negative life events, perceived historical loss had independent effects on adolescent’s depressive symptoms. The construct of historical loss is discussed in terms of Indigenous ethnic cleansing and life course theory. PMID:20052631

  6. Oseltamivir (tamiflu) induced depressive episode in a female adolescent.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sungho; Joung, Yoo Sook

    2010-12-01

    Oseltamivir was developed for prophylactic and therapeutic use against influenza, specifically targeting the viral enzyme's highly-conserved active site. In recent years, there have been case reports of neuropsychiatric events during or after oseltamivir treatment, in Japan and other countries. However, a search of the literature revealed no such cases in South Korea. We present the case of a 15-year-old female adolescent diagnosed with depressive episode after taking oseltamivir. Oseltamivir is generally well tolerated. Its most frequent adverse effects include nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. In influenza patients taking oseltamivir, neuropsychiatric adverse events include delirium, behavioral disturbance, suicide, delusion, panic attack, convulsion, depressed mood, loss of consciousness, etc. Reportedly, such neuropsychiatric adverse events were more common in children than in adults and generally occurred within 48 hours of administration. Here, we report a retrospective review case of an oseltamivir-related neuropsychiatric event in a female adolescent in South Korea. PMID:21253416

  7. Relational victimization and depressive symptoms in adolescence: moderating effects of mother, father, and peer emotional support.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Tracy L; Leadbeater, Bonnie J

    2011-05-01

    Adolescence heralds a unique period of vulnerability to depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined relational victimization in adolescents' peer relationships as a unique predictor of depressive symptoms among a primarily (85%) Caucasian sample of 540 youth (294 females) concurrently and across a 6-year period. The moderating effects of emotional support received from mothers, fathers, and peers on the association between relational victimization and adolescents' depressive symptoms were also investigated. Findings revealed that adolescents who were relationally victimized consistently had higher depressive symptoms than their non-victimized peers. However, high levels of emotional support from fathers buffered this relationship over time. Emotional support from mothers and peers also moderated the longitudinal relationship between relational victimization and depressive symptoms, with high levels of support predicting increases in adolescents' symptoms. Relational victimization presents a clear risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence, and emotional support may serve either a protective or vulnerability-enhancing role depending on the source of support. PMID:20577897

  8. Maternal and Peer Regulation of Adolescent Emotion: Associations with Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lougheed, Jessica P; Craig, Wendy M; Pepler, Debra; Connolly, Jennifer; O'Hara, Arland; Granic, Isabela; Hollenstein, Tom

    2016-07-01

    Emotion socialization by close relationship partners plays a role in adolescent depression. In the current study, a microsocial approach was used to examine how adolescents' emotions are socialized by their mothers and close friends in real time, and how these interpersonal emotion dynamics are related to adolescent depressive symptoms. Participants were 83 adolescents aged 16 to 17 years who participated in conflict discussions with their mothers and self-nominated close friends. Adolescents' positive and negative emotions, and mothers' and peers' supportive regulation of adolescent emotions, were coded in real time. Two multilevel survival analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework predicted the hazard rate of (1) mothers' supportive regulation of adolescents' emotions, and (2) peers' supportive regulation of adolescents' emotions. The likelihood of maternal supportiveness, regardless of adolescent emotions, was lower for adolescents with higher depressive symptoms. In addition, peers were less likely to up-regulate adolescent positive emotions at higher levels of adolescent depressive symptoms. The results of the current study support interpersonal models of depression and demonstrate the importance of real-time interpersonal emotion processes in adolescent depressive symptoms. PMID:26419667

  9. Adolescent-Onset Depression: Are Obesity and Inflammation Developmental Mechanisms or Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Byrne, Michelle L; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Mitchell, Sarah A; Allen, Nicholas B

    2015-12-01

    Depression often has its first onset during adolescence and is associated with obesity. Furthermore, inflammatory processes have been implicated in both depression and obesity, although research amongst adolescents is limited. This review explores associations between depression and obesity, depression and inflammation, and obesity and inflammation from a developmental perspective. The temporal relations between these factors are examined to explore whether obesity and elevated inflammation act as either risk factors for, or outcomes of, adolescent-onset depression. Sex differences in these processes are also summarized. We propose a model whereby increases in sex hormones during puberty increase risk for depression for females, which can lead to obesity, which in turn increases levels of inflammation. Importantly, this model suggests that inflammation and obesity are outcomes of adolescent depression, rather than initial contributing causes. Further research on biological and psychosocial effects of sex hormones is needed, as is longitudinal research with children and adolescents. PMID:25666100

  10. Neural Aspects of Inhibition Following Emotional Primes in Depressed Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Colich, Natalie L; Foland-Ross, Lara C; Eggleston, Caitlin; Singh, Manpreet K; Gotlib, Ian H

    2016-01-01

    Adults diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) have been found to be characterized by selective attention to negative material and by impairments in their ability to disengage from, or inhibit the processing of, negative stimuli. Altered functioning in the frontal executive control network has been posited to underlie these deficits in cognitive functioning. We know little, however, about the neural underpinnings of inhibitory difficulties in depressed adolescents. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 18 adolescents diagnosed with MDD and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (CTLs) while they performed a modified affective Go/No-Go task that was designed to measure inhibitory control in the presence of an emotional distractor. Participants were presented with either a happy or a sad face, followed by a go or a no-go target to which they either made or inhibited a motor response. A group (MDD, CTL) by valence (happy, sad) by condition (go, no-go) analysis of variance indicated that MDD adolescents showed attenuated BOLD response in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and in the occipital cortex bilaterally, to no-go targets that followed a sad, but not a happy, face. Adolescents diagnosed with MDD showed anomalous recruitment of prefrontal control regions during inhibition trials, suggesting depression-associated disruption in neural underpinnings of the inhibition of emotional distractors. Given that the DLPFC is associated with the maintenance of goal-relevant information, it is likely that sad faces differentially capture attention in adolescents with MDD and interfere with task demands requiring inhibition. PMID:25635920

  11. Depressive Symptoms and Health-Related Risk-Taking in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, C. Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear…

  12. Identifying Cognitive and Interpersonal Predictors of Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Ho, Moon Ho-Ringo; Kim, Judy C.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging research has begun to examine cognitive and interpersonal predictors of stress and subsequent depression in adolescents. This research is critical as cognitive and interpersonal vulnerability factors likely shape expectations, perspectives, and interpretations of a given situation prior to the onset of a stressor. In the current study, adolescents (n=157; boys=64, girls=93), ages 12 to 18, participated in a 6-month, multi-wave longitudinal study examining the impact of negative cognitive style, self-criticism, and dependency on stress and depression. Results of time-lagged, idiographic multilevel analyses indicate that depressogenic attributional styles (i.e., composite score and weakest link approach) and self-criticism predict dependent interpersonal, but not noninterpersonal stress. Moreover, the occurrence of stress mediates the relationship between cognitive vulnerability and depressive symptoms over time. At the same time, self-criticism predicts above and beyond depressogenic attributional styles (i.e., composite and weakest link approach). In contrast to our hypotheses, dependency does not contribute to the occurrence of stress, and additionally, no gender differences emerge. Taken together, the findings suggest that self-criticism may be a particularly damaging vulnerability factor in adolescence, and moreover, it may warrant greater attention in the context of psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:24398789

  13. Identifying cognitive and interpersonal predictors of adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Randy P; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Kim, Judy C

    2014-08-01

    Emerging research has begun to examine cognitive and interpersonal predictors of stress and subsequent depression in adolescents. This research is critical as cognitive and interpersonal vulnerability factors likely shape expectations, perspectives, and interpretations of a given situation prior to the onset of a stressor. In the current study, adolescents (n = 157; boys=64, girls=93), ages 12 to 18, participated in a 6-month, multi-wave longitudinal study examining the impact of negative cognitive style, self-criticism, and dependency on stress and depression. Results of time-lagged, idiographic multilevel analyses indicate that depressogenic attributional styles (i.e., composite score and weakest link approach) and self-criticism predict dependent interpersonal, but not noninterpersonal stress. Moreover, the occurrence of stress mediates the relationship between cognitive vulnerability and depressive symptoms over time. At the same time, self-criticism predicts above and beyond depressogenic attributional styles (i.e., composite and weakest link approach). In contrast to our hypotheses, dependency does not contribute to the occurrence of stress, and additionally, no gender differences emerge. Taken together, the findings suggest that self-criticism may be a particularly damaging vulnerability factor in adolescence, and moreover, it may warrant greater attention in the context of psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:24398789

  14. Preventing adolescent pregnancy: in hot pursuit.

    PubMed

    Carrera, M A

    1995-01-01

    Many children and teenagers are raised in unstable and unsupportive family and community environments ridden with poverty, institutionalized racism, poor housing, substandard health care, inadequate education, and limited career opportunities. Under such conditions, they see no hope for the future. Having sexual intercourse helps these young people to cope with their otherwise harsh realities. Taking precautions against unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) is of secondary importance to the immediate need for emotional and physical bonding through intimate sexual relations. Simply providing adolescents and youths in this context with information on family planning and STD avoidance will not convince them to delay the onset of sexual intercourse or modify their sexual behavior once begun. The desire to live a long, successful, and productive life is what encourages youths to delay the onset of intercourse and to use contraception consistently once they begin to have sex. Youth workers, teachers, and counselors must therefore provide relevant prevention information while also attempting to replace sexual intercourse as a coping mechanism with concrete and hopeful alternatives. Patricia Dempsey and the author launched a program in 1985 at the Children's Aid Society to develop a long-term, holistic, multidimensional adolescent sexuality and pregnancy prevention pilot program for young people, parents, and adults in Harlem. The program would address teen pregnancy and childbearing as well as the underlying causes. This paper presents an overview of the participants and program components. PMID:12319703

  15. Immune system dysregulation in adolescent major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Vilma; Klein, Rachel G.; Alonso, Carmen M.; Babb, James S.; Nishawala, Melissa; De Jesus, Georgette; Hirsch, Glenn S.; Hottinger-Blanc, Pauline M.Z.; Gonzalez, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence suggests that immune system dysregulation is associated with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in adults. This study extends this work to adolescent MDD to examine the hypotheses of immune system dysregulation in adolescents with MDD, as manifested by significantly: (i) elevated plasma levels of cytokines (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1β, and IL-4); and (ii) Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance shifted toward Th1 as indexed by increased IFN-γ/IL-4. Method Thirty adolescents with MDD (19 females; 13 medication-free/naïve; ages 12–19) of at least 6 weeks duration and a minimum severity score of 40 on the Children’s Depression Rating Scale—Revised, and 15 healthy comparisons (8 females), group-matched for age, were enrolled. Plasma cytokines were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mann–Whitney test was used to compare subjects with MDD and controls. Results Adolescents with MDD had significantly elevated plasma IFN-γ levels (3.38 ± 11.8 pg/ml versus 0.37 ± 0.64 pg/ml; p<0.003), and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio (16.6 ± 56.5 versus 1.76 ± 2.28; p = 0.007). A trend for IL-6 to be elevated in the MDD group was also observed (1.52 ± 2.88 pg/ml versus 0.49 ± 0.90 pg/ml; p=0.09). Importantly, findings remained evident when medicated subjects were excluded. Conclusions Findings suggest that immune system dysregulation may be associated with adolescent MDD, with an imbalance of Th1/Th2 shifted toward Th1, as documented in adult MDD. Larger studies with medication-free adolescents should follow. PMID:18790541

  16. [Chronotype and depression in adolescents – a review].

    PubMed

    Keller, Lena Katharina; Zöschg, Sarah; Grünewald, Barbara; Roenneberg, Till; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with depressive disorders experience symptoms in relation to sleep behavior and daily rhythmicity. However, the multifaceted associations between sleep, depression and circadian rhythms are not fully understood. During the past years, the concept of chronotypehas become increasingly popular in research. The Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) derives chronotype from sleep timing on work-free days and therefore represents a biological measure for the circadian clock, whereas the Morningness-Eveningness-Questionnaire(MEQ) assesses chronotype as a subjective preference for different activities at specific times of day. Chronotype changes with age, with adolescents and young adults being especially late types. We conducted a systematic literature research and identified studies that explore the association between chronotype (MEQ, MCTQ) and depressive symptoms or depressive disorders. Most of the studies showed an association between a late chronotype and depressive symptomatology. However, it is still unclear what is cause and effect. We propose a bidirectional relationship: On the one hand, due to reduced social and physical activity, depressed patients get less daylight which causes their chronotype to delay. On the other hand, a discrepancy between internal time (directed by the circadian clock) and external time (such as early school- or works tarting times) can cause problems PMID:27008901

  17. Rumination and Perceived Impairment Associated with Depressive Symptoms in a Verbal Adolescent-Adult ASD Sample

    PubMed Central

    Gotham, Katherine; Bishop, Somer L.; Brunwasser, Steven; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and several psychosocial constructs (insight into autism symptoms, rumination, desire for social interaction, and satisfaction with social support) that may play a role in the development or maintenance of depression in verbally fluent adolescents and adults with ASD. Participants included 50 individuals with ASD and verbal IQ >= 70, aged 16-35 (sample size varied by measure). Elevated depressive symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition, were associated with greater self-perceived autism-related impairments (n=48), greater rumination (n=21), and lower perceived social support (n=37). Rumination tended to moderate the association between self-perceived autism symptoms and BDI-II scores (n=21), and was significantly associated with ASD-related Insistence on Sameness behaviors (n=18). An unexpected relationship between depressive features and social participation and motivation will need to be clarified by longitudinal research. These and similar findings contribute to our understanding of the phenomenology of depression in ASD, which is critical to the development of practical prevention and treatment. PMID:24802136

  18. Parent–Child Acculturation, Parenting, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Li, Jing; Huang, Xuan; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of 388 father–adolescent and 399 mother–adolescent dyads in Chinese immigrant families, the current investigation tested Portes and Rumbaut's (1996) assertion that generational dissonance may indicate a family context that places children at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Study findings suggest that a high discrepancy in father–adolescent acculturation levels relates significantly to more adolescent depressive symptoms. The study further demonstrates that the quality of the parenting relationship between fathers and adolescents operates as a mediator between father–adolescent acculturation discrepancy and adolescent depressive symptoms. Specifically, a high level of discrepancy in American orientation between fathers and adolescents is associated with unsupportive parenting practices, which, in turn, are linked to more adolescent depressive symptoms. These relationships are significant even after controlling for the influence of family socioeconomic status and parents’ and adolescents’ sense of discrimination within the larger society. PMID:19586205

  19. Developmental pathways linking childhood and adolescent internalizing, externalizing, academic competence, and adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Murray; Ploubidis, George B; Cairney, John; Wild, T Cameron; Naicker, Kiyuri; Colman, Ian

    2016-08-01

    This study examined longitudinal pathways through three domains of adaptation from ages 4-5 to 14-15 (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and academic competence) towards depressive symptoms at age 16-17. Participants were 6425 Canadian children followed bi-annually as part of the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth. Within-domain (i.e., stability) effects were moderate in strength. We found longitudinal cross-domain effects across one time point (i.e., one-lag cascades) between internalizing and externalizing in early childhood (positive associations), and between academic competence and externalizing in later childhood and adolescence (negative associations). We also found cascade effects over multiple time points (i.e., multi-lag cascades); lower academic competence at age 4-5 and greater internalizing at age 6-7 predicted greater age 12-13 externalizing, and greater age 6-7 externalizing predicted greater age 16-17 depression. Important pathways towards adolescent depression include a stability path through childhood and adolescent internalizing, as well as a number of potential paths involving all domains of adaptation, highlighting the multifactorial nature of adolescent depression. PMID:27288965

  20. Associations between depression risk, bullying and current smoking among Chinese adolescents: Modulated by gender.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Hong, Lingyao; Gao, Xue; Zhou, Jinhua; Lu, Ciyong; Zhang, Wei-Hong

    2016-03-30

    This school-based study aimed to investigate the prevalence of being at risk for depression, bullying behavior, and current smoking among Chinese adolescents in order to explore gender differences in the vulnerability of adolescents with these behaviors to develop a smoking habit. A total of 35,893 high school students sampled from high schools in eighteen cities in China participated in the study from 2011 to 2012. Overall, the prevalence of current smoking was estimated at 6.4%. In total, 1.7% (618) of the participants admitted to bullying others, 5.8% (2071) reported being bullied, 3.5% (1269) were involved in both bullying others and being bullied, and 5.6% (2017) were at high risk for depression. Logistic regression analysis indicated that among girls, with high depression risk, bullying others, being bullied, and both bullying others and being bullied were independently and positively associated with current smoking habits, while the final results among boys showed that bullying others and both bullying others and being bullied were independently associated with an increased risk of current smoking. School-based prevention programs are highly recommended, and we should focus on high-risk students, particularly girls with high risk of depression or involved in school bullying and boys who are involved in school bullying. PMID:26833280

  1. The Relation of Childhood Maltreatment to Psychotic Symptoms in Adolescents and Young Adults With Depression.

    PubMed

    Holshausen, Katherine; Bowie, Christopher R; Harkness, Kate L

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and the presence of psychotic symptoms in a community sample of adolescents and young adults with major depressive disorder. One hundred and twenty-nine depressed adolescents and young adults (M = 16.02 years, 77% female, 92% White) were recruited through community advertisement and clinician referral. Clinical diagnoses and psychotic symptoms (i.e., hallucinations and delusions) were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using a contextual interview and standardized rating system. Logistic regression analyses examined the relation between childhood maltreatment and psychotic symptoms. As hypothesized, individuals with psychotic symptoms were significantly more likely to report a history of severe sexual maltreatment than those without psychotic symptoms (Wald = 5.44, odds ratio = 3.86, p = .020), 95% confidence interval [1.24, 12.01]. Further, those with psychotic symptoms were more likely to report being the victims of more than one type of maltreatment than those without, χ(2)(2) = 6.66, p = .036 (ϕ = .23; 40% vs. 16%). Results held upon adjusting for overall level of depression symptoms. A history of severe sexual maltreatment is related to a severe presentation of major depressive disorder even in the initial onset of the syndrome in adolescence and young adulthood. These findings underscore the importance of early assessment of both depression and maltreatment history to implement interventions that have the potential to prevent the emergence of psychotic psychopathology in young people at risk. PMID:25411823

  2. Maternal Positive and Negative Interaction Behaviors and Early Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Adolescent Emotion Regulation as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Marie B. H.; Schwartz, Orli S.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relation between mothers' positive and negative interaction behaviors during mother-child interactions and the emotion regulation (ER) and depressive symptoms of their adolescent offspring. Event-planning (EPI) and problem-solving interactions (PSI) were observed in 163 mother-adolescent dyads, and adolescents also provided…

  3. Friendships and Family Support Reduce Subsequent Depressive Symptoms in At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Gibson, Jenny L.; St Clair, Michelle C.; Owens, Matt; Brodbeck, Jeannette; Dunn, Valerie; Lewis, Gemma; Croudace, Tim; Jones, Peter B.; Kievit, Rogier A.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early life stress (ELS) consists of child family adversities (CFA: negative experiences that happened within the family environment) and/or peer bullying. ELS plays an important role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms and clinical disorders. Identifying factors that may reduce depressive symptoms in adolescents with ELS may have important public mental health implications. Methods We used structural equation modelling and examined the impact of adolescent friendships and/or family support at age 14 on depressive symptoms at age 17 in adolescents exposed to ELS before age 11. To this end, we used structural equation modelling in a community sample of 771 adolescents (322 boys and 477 girls) from a 3 year longitudinal study. Significant paths in the model were followed-up to test whether social support mediated or moderated the association between ELS and depressive symptoms at age 17. Results We found that adolescent social support in adolescence is negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in boys and girls exposed to ELS. Specifically, we found evidence for two mediational pathways: In the first pathway family support mediated the link between CFA and depressive symptoms at age 17. Specifically, CFA was negatively associated with adolescent family support at age 14, which in turn was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In the second pathway we found that adolescent friendships mediated the path between peer bullying and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational bullying was negatively associated with adolescent friendships at age 14, which in turn were negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In contrast, we did not find a moderating effect of friendships and family support on the association between CFA and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Friendships and/or family support in adolescence mediate the relationship between ELS and late adolescent depressive symptoms in boys and

  4. Temperament, Stress Reactivity, and Coping: Implications for Depression in Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Connor-Smith, Jennifer; Jaser, Sarah S.

    2004-01-01

    This article considers the role of temperament in the development of depression during childhood and adolescence. The features of depression in young people and aspects of temperament that are most relevant to depression are briefly reviewed. Studies that have tested the direct and indirect associations of temperament and depressive symptoms in…

  5. Early Onset Recurrent Subtype of Adolescent Depression: Clinical and Psychosocial Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Herr, Nathaniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Evaluated trajectories of adolescent depression and their correlates in a longitudinal study of a community sample: early onset (by age 15) with major depression (MDE) recurrence between 15 and 20; early onset with no recurrence; later onset of major depression after age 15 with and without recurrence by 20; and never-depressed.…

  6. It Takes Three: Selection, Influence, and De-Selection Processes of Depression in Adolescent Friendship Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this study tested a selection-influence-de-selection model of depression. This model explains friendship influence processes (i.e., friends' depressive symptoms increase adolescents' depressive symptoms) while controlling for two processes: friendship selection (i.e., selection of friends with similar levels of depressive symptoms)…

  7. The blues of adolescent romance: observed affective interactions in adolescent romantic relationships associated with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; Dishion, Thomas J; Overbeek, Geertjan; Burk, William J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-05-01

    We examined the associations between observed expressions of positive and negative emotions during conflict discussions and depressive symptoms during a 2-year period in a sample of 160 adolescents in 80 romantic relationships (M age = 15.48, SD = 1.16). Conflict discussions were coded using the 10-code Specific Affect Coding System. Depressive symptoms were assessed at the time of the observed conflict discussions (Time 1) and 2 years later (Time 2). Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Girls' expression of both positive and negative emotions at T1 was related to their own depressive symptoms at T2 (actor effect). Boys' positive emotions and negative emotions (actor effect) and girls' negative emotions (partner effect) were related to boys' depressive symptoms at T2. Contrary to expectation, relationship break-up and relationship satisfaction were unrelated to changes in depressive symptoms or expression of negative or positive emotion during conflict discussion. These findings underscore the unique quality of adolescent romantic relationships and suggest new directions in the study of the link between mental health and romantic involvement in adolescence. PMID:24198197

  8. Preventive dental care for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Drummond, B K

    2001-03-01

    Preventive dental care for children and adolescents requires a good understanding of the dental caries process and the particular relationships that exist throughout childhood and young adulthood. Only when these relationships are understood can they be used to diagnose dental caries risk and apply appropriate preventive therapies and restorative care that is effective. The need to diagnose risk when applying preventive care is as important for individual patients as it is for population groups. At the individual level, the aim is to aid the development of a healthy functioning dentition for life. This applies in the population group level but the cost benefits also become important in justifying the funding to carry out preventive practices. Risk can be determined by general factors including the socioeconomic status, access to optimally fluoridated drinking water and age. Specific factors include the microbiology of the dental plaque, dietary practices, oral hygiene practices, individual fluoride use and previous dental caries history. Once the risk has been diagnosed and the related factors identified, the best preventive approach can be selected. This may include oral hygiene, dietary change, fluoride recommendations, restorative care using fluoride releasing materials or antibacterial mouthwashes. The dentist may play several roles in preventive dental care. The first is as the giver of advice and care for the individual child patient; the second is as an advocate to help the child get the care by getting the consent and support of the parents; and the third may be to lobby for the appropriate funding to obtain this care in publicly funded programs. PMID:11458617

  9. Prevalence and predictors of PTSD and depression among adolescent victims of the Spring 2011 tornado outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Zachary W.; Sumner, Jennifer A.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Grös, Kirstin; Paul, Lisa A.; Welsh, Kyleen E.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episode (MDE) in disaster-affected adolescents. Fewer still have administered diagnostic measures or studied samples exposed to tornadoes, a common type of disaster. Further, methodological problems limit the generalizability of previous findings. This study addressed prevalence estimates and risk factors for PTSD and MDE among adolescents exposed to the spring 2011 tornado outbreak in Alabama and Joplin, Missouri. Methods A large (N=2,000), population-based sample of adolescents and caregivers, recruited randomly from tornado-affected communities, participated in structured telephone interviews. PTSD and MDE prevalence were estimated for the overall sample, by gender, and by age. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for PTSD and MDE. Results Overall, 6.7% of adolescents met diagnostic criteria for PTSD and 7.5% of adolescents met diagnostic criteria for MDE since the tornado. Girls were significantly more likely than boys to meet diagnostic criteria for MDE, and older adolescents were more likely than younger adolescents to report MDE since the tornado. Female gender, prior trauma exposure, and an injured family member were associated with greater risk for PTSD and MDE. Specific incident characteristics (loss of services, concern about others’ safety) were associated with greater PTSD risk; prior disaster exposure was associated with lower MDE risk. Conclusions Whereas most adolescents were resilient following tornado exposure, roughly 1 in 15 developed PTSD, 1 in 13 developed MDE, and many more endorsed subclinical mental health problems. Information regarding specific risk factors can guide early screening, prevention, and intervention efforts in disaster-affected communities. PMID:24580551

  10. Self-perceived competence as a mediator between maternal feedback and depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jacquez, Farrah; Cole, David A; Searle, Barbara

    2004-08-01

    Self-report, other-report, clinical interview, and behavioral observations of evaluative maternal feedback (e.g., positive feedback, criticism), adolescent depressive symptoms, and self-perceived competence were obtained from 72 adolescents and their mothers. Most path analyses supported the hypothesis that adolescent self-perceived competence completely mediates the relation between negative maternal feedback and adolescent depressive symptoms, even after controlling for prior levels of depression. Consistent with Cole's competency-based model of depression (D. A. Cole, 1990), these results suggest that high levels of negative maternal feedback (coupled with low levels of positive feedback) are associated with adolescent negative self-perceptions, which in turn place adolescents at risk for depressive symptoms. PMID:15305542

  11. Self-esteem mediates the effect of the parent-adolescent relationship on depression.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junmin; Ai, Hongshan

    2016-06-01

    There is a trend of rapid growth in both the level and occurrence of depression when people reach adolescence. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the parent-adolescent relationship on depression in adolescents, and mainly focused on the confirmation of the mediator role of self-esteem. A total of 364 senior middle school students accomplished the Parent-Adolescent Relationship Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. The results suggested that both parent-adolescent relationship and self-esteem were significantly correlated with depression. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between parent-adolescent relationship and depression. PMID:25030796

  12. Beyond a diagnosis: The experience of depression among clinically-referred adolescents.

    PubMed

    Midgley, Nick; Parkinson, Sally; Holmes, Josh; Stapley, Emily; Eatough, Virginia; Target, Mary

    2015-10-01

    Policy-makers have identified an urgent need to improve our ability to detect and diagnose depression in adolescents. This study aims to explore the lived experience of depression in clinically referred adolescents. 77 adolescents, aged between 11 and 17 with moderate to severe depression, were interviewed as part of a randomised controlled trial, using the Expectations of Therapy Interview. Data were analysed qualitatively using framework analysis, with a focus on how the adolescents spoke about their depression. The study identified five themes: 1) Misery, despair and tears; 2) Anger and violence towards self and others; 3) A bleak view of everything; 4) Isolation and cutting off from the world; and 5) The impact on education. Researchers and policy-makers need to develop an understanding of depression grounded in the experiences of adolescents to improve detection and diagnosis of depression. PMID:26325067

  13. Predictors of Prevention Failure in College Students Participating in Two Indicated Depression Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were randomized to a cognitive-behavioral or relaxation training group preventive intervention. Classification tree analysis showed that older age was the strongest risk factor for persistently elevated depression. Additional risk factors were: (1) for younger students, fewer daily pleasant activities; (2) for those with higher level of pleasant activities, higher level of stressful events; and (3) for those with higher level of stressful events, lower assertiveness. Results offer directions for prevention foci, identify specific subgroups of college students to target for depression prevention efforts, and suggest that research aim to help older, non-traditional students or graduating students manage the transition from college to the work force. PMID:24714056

  14. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control.

    PubMed

    Werner, Lente L A A; der Graaff, Jolien Van; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T

    2016-08-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01 , 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers' psychological control use. Less empathic mothers may be less sensitive to adolescents' need for psychological autonomy, and thus prone to violating this need using psychological control, which may in turn predict adolescents' depressive symptoms. Moreover, according to interpersonal theory of depression (Coyne in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186-193. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.85.2.186 , 1976), adolescents' depressive symptoms may elicit rejecting responses, such as mothers' psychological control. For six waves, 497 adolescents (57 % boys, M age T1 = 13.03) annually completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control, while mothers reported on their empathy. Cross-lagged path analyses showed that throughout adolescence, both mothers' affective and cognitive empathy indirectly predicted boys' and girls' depressive symptoms, through psychological control. Additionally, depressive symptoms predicted psychological control for boys, and early adolescent girls. These results highlight the importance of (1) mothers' affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (2) taking gender into account when examining adolescent-effects. PMID:26627889

  15. Social problem solving among depressed adolescents is enhanced by structured psychotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Laura J.; Marshal, Michael P.; Burton, Chad M.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kolko, David; Duffy, Jamira N.; Brent, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Changes in adolescent interpersonal behavior before and after an acute course of psychotherapy were investigated as outcomes and mediators of remission status in a previously described treatment study of depressed adolescents. Maternal depressive symptoms were examined as moderators of the association between psychotherapy condition and changes in adolescents’ interpersonal behavior. Method Adolescents (n = 63, mean age = 15.6 years, 77.8% female, 84.1% Caucasian) engaged in videotaped interactions with their mothers before randomization to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), systemic behavior family therapy (SBFT), or nondirective supportive therapy (NST), and after 12–16 weeks of treatment. Adolescent involvement, problem solving and dyadic conflict were examined. Results Improvements in adolescent problem solving were significantly associated with CBT and SBFT. Maternal depressive symptoms moderated the effect of CBT, but not SBFT, on adolescents’ problem solving; adolescents experienced increases in problem solving only when their mothers had low or moderate levels of depressive symptoms. Improvements in adolescents’ problem solving were associated with higher rates of remission across treatment conditions, but there were no significant indirect effects of SBFT on remission status through problem solving. Exploratory analyses revealed a significant indirect effect of CBT on remission status through changes in adolescent problem solving, but only when maternal depressive symptoms at study entry were low. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary support for problem solving as an active treatment component of structured psychotherapies for depressed adolescents and suggest one Pathway by which maternal depression may disrupt treatment efficacy for depressed adolescents treated with CBT. PMID:24491077

  16. Preventing Internalizing Symptoms Among Hispanic Adolescents: A Synthesis Across Familias Unidas Trials

    PubMed Central

    Perrino, Tatiana; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Brincks, Ahnalee; Howe, George; Beardslee, William; Sandler, Irwin; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2014-01-01

    Studies document that there are efficacious interventions to prevent adolescent depression and internalizing symptoms, including several family-focused interventions. Questions remain about for whom interventions work (moderation) and by what mechanisms they work (mediation) to prevent internalizing symptoms. Unfortunately, single trials are often underpowered to address moderation and mediation, an issue addressed in this paper. This synthesis study combined individual-level, longitudinal data from 721 adolescents across 3 randomized clinical trials of Familias Unidas, a family-focused prevention intervention for Hispanic youth. Using integrative data analysis (IDA) methods applied to trials, the study examined intervention moderation and mediation effects on internalizing symptoms. Baseline internalizing symptoms were a significant moderator of the intervention's effects on internalizing symptoms, while baseline externalizing symptoms did not moderate intervention effects. Baseline parent–adolescent communication, a modifiable risk factor and hypothesized mechanism by which the intervention works, significantly moderated the intervention's effects. Specifically, the intervention was more efficacious in its impact on internalizing symptoms for youth with lower initial levels of parent–adolescent communication compared to those with higher communication levels. Moderated mediation analyses showed that parent–adolescent communication changes mediated the intervention's effects on internalizing symptoms, with stronger effects for those with poorer baseline communication. Results suggest a potential benefit of identifying youth risks prior to interventions, and targeting specific modifiable mediators that lead to reductions of internalizing problems of adolescents. Findings also highlight advantages of utilizing data from combined trials and IDA for examining intervention moderators and mediators. PMID:24390684

  17. Adolescent depression, alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Deykin, E Y; Levy, J C; Wells, V

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was employed to ascertain the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol and substance abuse in a sample of 424 college students aged 16 to 19 years. Applying DSM III criteria, the prevalence of MDD was 6.8 per cent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 per cent; and of substance abuse 9.4 per cent. Alcohol abuse was associated with MDD, but not with other psychiatric diagnoses. Substance abuse was associated both with MDD and with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. The onset of MDD almost always preceded alcohol or substance abuse suggesting the possibility of self-medication as a factor in the development of alcohol or substance abuse. PMID:3492151

  18. 'It Was All My Fault'; Negative Interpretation Bias in Depressed Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Orchard, Faith; Pass, Laura; Reynolds, Shirley

    2016-07-01

    The extent to which cognitive models of development and maintenance of depression apply to adolescents is largely untested, despite the widespread application of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) for depressed adolescents. Cognitive models suggest that negative cognitions, including interpretation bias, play a role in etiology and maintenance of depression. Given that cognitive development is incomplete by the teenage years and that CBT is not superior to non-cognitive treatments in the treatment of adolescent depression, it is important to test the underlying model. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that interpretation biases are exhibited by depressed adolescents. Four groups of adolescents were recruited: clinically-referred depressed (n = 27), clinically-referred non-depressed (n = 24), community with elevated depression symptoms (n = 42) and healthy community (n = 150). Participants completed a 20 item ambiguous scenarios questionnaire. Clinically-referred depressed adolescents made significantly more negative interpretations and rated scenarios as less pleasant than all other groups. The results suggest that this element of the cognitive model of depression is applicable to adolescents. Other aspects of the model should be tested so that cognitive treatment can be modified or adapted if necessary. PMID:26471896

  19. [Violence prevention in childhood and adolescence--a brief overview].

    PubMed

    Pawils, Silke; Metzner, Franka

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents can be associated with physical and psychological health effects continuing into adulthood. Early programs for violence prevention in childhood and adolescence are intended to prevent or reduce aggressive behaviour in order to decrease the risk for short- and long-term developmental impairments. In a literature review, research findings on prevalence, typical courses of development, and predictors of violent behavior in childhood are first summarized and compared with findings on the frequency, developmental course, and consequences of youth violence. International and German programs for violence prevention in children and adolescents are presented in the context of various settings (family, school, community), target groups (primary vs. secondary prevention) as well as target variables (universal vs. specific). Empirical findings on efficacy testing of violence prevention programs are described and discussed. The presented findings stress the relevance and potential of services for violence prevention for children and adolescents, but also demonstrate the challenges and gaps. PMID:26459567

  20. Socioemotional development in adolescents at risk for depression: the role of maternal depression and attachment style.

    PubMed

    Murray, Lynne; Halligan, Sarah L; Adams, Gillian; Patterson, Paul; Goodyer, Ian M

    2006-01-01

    We examined the impact on adolescent socioemotional functioning of maternal postnatal depression (PND) and attachment style. We also investigated the role of earlier aspects of the child's development-attachment in infancy, and 5-year representations of family relationships. Ninety-one mother-child pairs, recruited in the postnatal period, were followed up at 13 years. Adolescents were interviewed about their friendships, and their level of emotional sensitivity and maturity were rated. Emotional sensitivity was heightened in girls whose mothers experienced PND; notably, its occurrence was also linked to insecure attachment in infancy and raised awareness of emotional components of family relationships at 5 years. High emotional sensitivity was also associated with adolescent depressed mood. Raised social maturity was predicted by a secure maternal attachment style and, for girls, by exposure to maternal PND. Precursors of adolescent social maturity were evident in the narrative coherence of 5-year family representations. Higher social maturity in the friendship interview was also associated with overall good adjustment. PMID:16600065

  1. The cyclical nature of depressed mood and future risk: Depression, rumination, and deficits in emotional clarity in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Liza M; Hamilton, Jessica L; Stange, Jonathan P; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-07-01

    Deficits in emotional clarity, the understanding and awareness of one's own emotions and the ability to label them appropriately, are associated with increased depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, few studies have examined factors associated with reduction in emotional clarity for adolescents, such as depressed mood and ruminative response styles. The present study examined rumination as a potential mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and changes in emotional clarity, focusing on sex differences. Participants included 223 adolescents (51.60% female, Mean age = 12.39). Controlling for baseline levels of emotional clarity, initial depressive symptoms predicted decreases in emotional clarity. Further, rumination prospectively mediated the relationship between baseline depressive symptoms and follow-up emotional clarity for girls, but not boys. Findings suggest that depressive symptoms may increase girls' tendencies to engage in repetitive, negative thinking, which may reduce the ability to understand and label emotions, a potentially cyclical process that confers vulnerability to future depression. PMID:25931160

  2. The cyclical nature of depressed mood and future risk: Depression, rumination, and deficits in emotional clarity in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Liza M.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in emotional clarity, the understanding and awareness of one’s own emotions and the ability to label them appropriately, are associated with increased depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, few studies have examined factors associated with reduction in emotional clarity for adolescents, such as depressed mood and ruminative response styles. The present study examined rumination as a potential mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and changes in emotional clarity, focusing on sex differences. Participants included 223 adolescents (51.60% female, Mean age = 12.39). Controlling for baseline levels of emotional clarity, initial depressive symptoms predicted decreases in emotional clarity. Further, rumination prospectively mediated the relationship between baseline depressive symptoms and follow-up emotional clarity for girls, but not boys. Findings suggest that depressive symptoms may increase girls’ tendencies to engage in repetitive, negative thinking, which may reduce the ability to understand and label emotions, a potentially cyclical process that confers vulnerability to future depression. PMID:25931160

  3. Temperament, Character, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Focusing on Affect

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Danilo; Kerekes, Nóra; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Archer, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA). The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy) between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (N = 304) were categorized into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling” (high PA, low NA), “high affective” (high PA, high NA), “low affective” (low PA, low NA), and “self-destructive” (low PA, high NA). Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The “self-fulfilling” profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness). “Self-destructive” adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development. PMID:22844588

  4. Adolescent coping profiles differentiate reports of depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Herres, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N=982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age=16.04, SD=0.73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver et al., 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies. PMID:26275359

  5. Temperament, character, and adolescents' depressive symptoms: focusing on affect.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Kerekes, Nóra; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Archer, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA). The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy) between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (N = 304) were categorized into four affective profiles: "self-fulfilling" (high PA, low NA), "high affective" (high PA, high NA), "low affective" (low PA, low NA), and "self-destructive" (low PA, high NA). Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The "self-fulfilling" profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness). "Self-destructive" adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development. PMID:22844588

  6. Anterior Cingulate Cortex γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Depressed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Vilma; Mao, Xiangling; Klein, Rachel G.; Ely, Benjamin A.; Babb, James S.; Panzer, Aviva M.; Alonso, Carmen M.; Shungu, Dikoma C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Anhedonia, a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD) and highly variable among adolescents with MDD, may involve alterations in the major inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter system of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Objective To test whether anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) GABA levels, measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, are decreased in adolescents with MDD. The associations of GABA alterations with the presence and severity of anhedonia were explored. Design Case-control, cross-sectional study using single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T. Setting Two clinical research divisions at 2 teaching hospitals. Participants Twenty psychotropic medication-free adolescents with MDD (10 anhedonic, 12 female, aged 12–19 years) with episode duration of 8 weeks or more and 21 control subjects group matched for sex and age. Main Outcome Measures Anterior cingulate cortex GABA levels expressed as ratios relative to unsuppressed voxel tissue water (w) and anhedonia scores expressed as a continuous variable. Results Compared with control subjects, adolescents with MDD had significantly decreased ACC GABA/w (t= 3.2; P<.003). When subjects with MDD were categorized based on the presence of anhedonia, only anhedonic patients had decreased GABA/w levels compared with control subjects (t=4.08; P<.001; PTukey<.001). Anterior cingulate cortex GABA/w levels were negatively correlated with anhedonia scores for the whole MDD group (r = −0.50; P = .02), as well as for the entire participant sample including the control subjects (r=−0.54; P<.001). Anterior cingulate cortex white matter was also significantly decreased in adolescents with MDD compared with controls (P=.04). Conclusions These findings suggest that GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, may be implicated in adolescent MDD and, more specifically, in those with anhedonia. In addition, use of a continuous rather than categorical scale of anhedonia, as in

  7. School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: A Benchmarking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Kaplinski, Heather; Gudmundsen, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression delivered in health clinics and counseling centers in four high schools. Outcomes were benchmarked to results from prior efficacy trials. Fifty adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorders were treated by eight doctoral-level psychologists who followed a…

  8. Alliance and Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Kaplinski, Heather Crisp; McMakin, Dana L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Fifty-four adolescents met criteria for a depressive disorder and were treated in school-based clinics. Alliance was measured after the third session from both therapist and…

  9. An Ecological Risk/Protective Factor Approach to Understanding Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jonathan; Goddard, H. Wallace

    2010-01-01

    We applied an ecological multiple risk/protective factor model to study factors related to depressive symptoms among adolescents. Participants were 39,740 adolescents who self-reported risk factors, protective factors, and depressive symptoms on a school-based survey. Results indicate that an index of multiple risk was related to increased…

  10. School-Related Stress and Depression in Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feurer, D. Paige; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined school-related stress and depression in adolescents with and without learning disabilities. A total of 87 students (38 learning-disabled and 49 nondisabled) from secondary schools in Calgary completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and on school-related stress. Results indicated that the adolescents with LD reported…

  11. Psychopathology in the Adolescent Offspring of Parents with Panic Disorder and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Amritha S.; Srinivasan, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of psychiatric diagnosis and psychopathology in adolescent offspring of parents with panic disorder, depression and normal controls. Methods: Adolescent offspring (11-16 years) of parents with a diagnosis of panic disorder and major depression, and normal controls were interviewed using Missouri Assessment of Genetics…

  12. Cross-Situational Coping with Peer and Family Stressors in Adolescent Offspring of Depressed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Keller, Gary; Merchant, Mary Jane; Benson, Molly; Compas, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    Offspring of depressed parents are faced with significant interpersonal stress both within their families and in peer relationships. The present study examined parent and self-reports of adolescents' coping in response to family and peer stressors in 73 adolescent children of parents with a history of depression. Correlational analyses indicated…

  13. Expanding Behavioral Activation to Depressed Adolescents: Lessons Learned in Treatment Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Elizabeth; Schloredt, Kelly; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Martell, Christopher; Dimidjian, Sona

    2011-01-01

    Depression during adolescence represents a significant public health concern. It is estimated that up to 20% of adolescents experience an episode of depression that interferes with academic and social functioning and is associated with an increased risk for self-harm. Although significant progress has been made in the last decade in treating…

  14. Attachment to Parents, Best Friend, and Romantic Partner: Predicting Different Pathways to Depression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolese, Stephanie K.; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Doyle, Anna Beth

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that insecurely-attached adolescents are at risk for depression, but little is known about factors that may influence or explain this vulnerability. The present study focuses on close relationships during adolescence and their association with depression. Specifically, the objectives were to investigate (1) the role of working…

  15. Selected Executive Skills in Adolescents with Recent First Episode Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyte, Zoe A.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: To investigate whether recent first episode major depression in adolescence is characterised by selected executive difficulties in attentional flexibility, behavioural inhibition and decision-making. Methods: Selected executive functions were compared in adolescents with recent (past year) first episode major depression (n = 30) and…

  16. The Interplay of Loneliness and Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence: Exploring the Role of Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanhalst, Janne; Klimstra, Theo A.; Luyckx, Koen; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Goossens, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Based on current theories of depression, reciprocal links between loneliness and depressive symptoms are expected to occur. However, longitudinal studies on adolescent samples are scarce and have yielded conflicting results. The present five-wave longitudinal study from mid- to late adolescence (N = 428, M age at T1 = 15.22 years; 47% female)…

  17. Specific Coping Behaviors in Relation to Adolescent Depression and Suicidal Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific…

  18. Reduced Nucleus Accumbens Reactivity and Adolescent Depression following Early-life Stress

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Bonnie; Gee, Dylan G.; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Flannery, Jessica; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a common outcome for those having experienced early life stress (ELS). For those individuals, depression typically increases during adolescence and appears to endure into adulthood, suggesting alterations in the development of brain systems involved in depression. Developmentally, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a limbic structure associated with reward learning and motivation, typically undergoes dramatic functional change during adolescence; therefore, age-related changes in NAcc function may underlie increases in depression in adolescence following ELS. The current study examined the effects of ELS in 38 previously institutionalized children and adolescents in comparison to a group of 31 youth without a history of ELS. Consistent with previous research, the findings showed that depression was higher in adolescents than children with a history of ELS. Additionally, fMRI results showed atypical NAcc development, where the ELS group did not show a typical increase in NAcc reactivity during adolescence. Consequently, the ELS group showed NAcc hypoactivation during adolescence, and lower NAcc reactivity was correlated with higher depression scores. The results have important implications for understanding how ELS may influence increases in depression via neural development during the transition to adolescence and highlight the importance of identifying at-risk individuals in childhood, a potential critical period for depression-targeted intervention. PMID:23262241

  19. 5-HTTLPR X Stress in Adolescent Depression: Moderation by MAOA and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priess-Groben, Heather A.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2013-01-01

    Depression surges in adolescence, especially among girls. Most evidence indicates that the short allele of a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) interacts with stress to influence the onset of depression. This effect appears to be less robust in adolescents, particularly among boys, and may be moderated…

  20. The Influence of Familial Support and Dysfunctional Attitudes on Depression and Delinquency in an Adolescent Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Genevieve; Marcotte, Diane; Bouffard, Therese

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the role of familial support and dysfunctional attitudes in depression, delinquency and the concomitance of these disorders in an adolescent population from a middle-class community in the Trois-Rivieres area. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Mesure d'adaptation sociale et personnelle pour adolescents quebecois-MASPAQ…

  1. The Relationship between Adolescent Depression and a History of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of depression among adolescents attending family planning clinics, and to determine the relationship among depression, a history of sexual abuse, and other risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 279 minority females. Results of the study indicated that 40 adolescents (14.3%) scored at or…

  2. Integrating Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Pharmacotherapy in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Albano, Anne Marie; Findling, Robert L.; Kratochvil, Christopher; Walkup, John

    2005-01-01

    Recent evidence from the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) suggests that combining cognitive behavioral and pharmacological treatments holds the most promise for ameliorating depression among adolescents. This article describes lessons learned during the TADS trial about how to integrate these two treatments in the care of…

  3. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Service Use among Adolescents with Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Janet R.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of treatment for major depression in adolescents. This study examined differences in mental health service use in non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents who experienced an episode of major depression. Method: Five years of data (2004-2008) were pooled…

  4. Depressive Symptoms and Somatic Complaints among Zambian Adolescents: Associations with Stress and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neese, Angela L.; Pittman, Laura D.; Hunemorder, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the possible links between perceived stress, coping strategies, depression, and somatic complaints, which have often been supported in other populations, in a school-based sample of Zambian adolescents ages 11-19 years ("N" = 230; 60% males). Zambian adolescents reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms and somatic…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Depressive Symptomology and Self-Concept in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Marjorie; Enders, Craig; Dietz, Samantha; Dixon, Jennifer; Cavendish, Wendy Morrison

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the trajectories of depressive symptomology and self-concept in adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 and to determine whether primary school teacher ratings of adaptive and maladaptive behavior predict self-reported depressive symptoms and self-concept in adolescence. This study is part of an…

  6. Acute Time to Response in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher; Emslie, Graham; Silva, Susan; McNulty, Steve; Walkup, John; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Feeny, Nora; Casat, Charles; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Robins, Michele; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the time to response for both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: Adolescents (N = 439, ages 12 to 17 years) with major depressive disorder were randomized to fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or pill placebo…

  7. Psychosocial Factors in Adolescent and Young Adult Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms: Causal or Correlational Associations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Haslimeier, Claudia; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2007-01-01

    Using a large longitudinal representative community sample, this study identified three groups of subjects who were depressed either in pre-adolescence, late adolescence or early adulthood, and matched by age and gender to controls without depression. The 90th percentile on one or two self-reported symptom scales [i. e. the Center for…

  8. Interactive Effect of Substance Abuse and Depression on Adolescent Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Sara J.; Curry, John F.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the interactive effect of substance abuse and depression on social competence among 106 adolescent inpatients (57% female, 86% Caucasian). Substance abuse and depression were conceptualized using dimensional ratings of illness severity based on adolescent interviews, whereas social competence was conceptualized using parent…

  9. Brief Report: Relationships between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Neissaar, Inga

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between changes in physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Participants were 277 urban adolescent girls. Physical activity was measured using the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall and depressive symptoms were assessed using questionnaire. Data were collected on three occasions over a 3-year…

  10. The Role of Readiness to Change in Response to Treatment of Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Silva, Susan G.; Rohde, Paul; Small, David M.; Murakami, Jessica L.; High, Robin R.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of readiness to change on treatment outcome was examined among 332 adolescents (46% male, 74% Caucasian), ages 12 through 17 years (M = 14.6, SD = 1.5), with major depressive disorder who were participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS). TADS is a randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of…

  11. Testing a Gender Additive Model: The Role of Body Image in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Stice, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence that adolescent girls are at greater risk of developing depression than adolescent boys, risk factor models that account for this difference have been elusive. The objective of this research was to examine risk factors proposed by the "gender additive" model of depression that attempts to partially explain the increased…

  12. Prediction of Postpartum Social Support and Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Cross, Rene; Williams, Beverly; Simpson, Theresa

    2004-01-01

    Many pregnant adolescents remain in school, creating unique challenges for professionals to meet their educational and health needs. In this descriptive pilot study of pregnant adolescents (n = 26), 68% demonstrated symptoms of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In addition, there was an…

  13. Pain and Sleep-Wake Disturbances in Adolescents with Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Caitlin B.; Murphy, Lexa K.; Palermo, Tonya M.; Clarke, Gregory M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) assess and compare sleep disturbances (including daytime and nighttime sleep patterns) in adolescents with depressive disorders and healthy peers, (b) examine the prevalence of pain in adolescents with depressive disorders and healthy peers, and (c) examine pubertal development, pain intensity, and depressive…

  14. Adolescent Depression: Relationships of Self-Report to Intellectual and Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manikam, Ramasamy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Self-report measures of depression, general psychopathology, and social skills were administered to 100 adolescents ranging from moderate mental retardation to above normal intelligence. Adolescents with mental retardation reported more depression and general psychopathology symptoms. Adaptive behavior functioned as a moderator variable, mediating…

  15. The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    n/a; n/a

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study is a multicenter, randomized clinical trial sponsored by the NIMH. This study is designed to evaluate the short- and long-term effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with major depressive disorder: fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, their combination, and, acutely,…

  16. Reciprocal, Longitudinal Associations among Adolescents' Negative Feedback-Seeking, Depressive Symptoms, and Peer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borelli, Jessica L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined reciprocal associations among adolescents' negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, perceptions of friendship quality, and peer-reported social preference over an 11-month period. A total of 478 adolescents in grades 6-8 completed measures of negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, friendship quality,…

  17. Maternal Parenting Behaviors and Adolescent Depression: The Mediating Role of Rumination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gate, Michael A.; Watkins, Edward R.; Simmons, Julian G.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Schwartz, Orli S.; Whittle, Sarah; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that rumination is an important vulnerability factor for adolescent depression. Despite this, few studies have examined environmental risk factors that might lead to rumination and, subsequently, depression in adolescence. This study examined the hypothesis that an adverse family environment is a risk factor for…

  18. A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for the Development of Depression and Disordered Eating in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…

  19. Predictors and Moderators of Acute Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, John; Rohde, Paul; Simons, Anne; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher; Reinecke, Mark; Feeny, Norah; Wells, Karen; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, David; Kennard, Betsy; Robins, Michele; Ginsburg, Golda; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors and moderators of response to acute treatments among depressed adolescents (N = 439) randomly assigned to fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), both fluoxetine and CBT, or clinical management with pill placebo in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS). Method: Potential baseline…

  20. A Pilot Study of Adjunctive Family Psychoeducation in Adolescent Major Depression: Feasibility and Treatment Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Mark; Boyle, Michael; McCleary, Lynn; Miller, Jennifer; Steele, Margaret; Duku, Eric; Offord, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To obtain preliminary evidence of the feasibility and effectiveness of adjunctive family psychoeducation in adolescent major depressive disorder. Method: Participants were from outpatient clinics in Hamilton and London, Ontario. Over 24 months, 41 adolescents ages 13 through 18 years meeting major depressive disorder criteria were…

  1. Cognitive Features Associated with Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Directionality and Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Carolyn A.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    In this study we examined cognitive features that have been posited to contribute to depressive vulnerability in adolescents. Using a longitudinal sample of 331 young adolescents followed from 6th to 7th grade, cross-lagged structural equation analyses were conducted. Controlling for baseline levels of depressive, conduct, and anxiety symptoms,…

  2. Research Review: The Role of Cytokines in Depression in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Natalie T.; Scott, James G.; Wray, Naomi R.; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Baune, Bernhard T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: While cytokines have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression in adults, the potential role in younger age groups such as adolescents is less clear. This article therefore reviews the literature (a) to explore the relationship between cytokines and depression in adolescents, and (b) to examine how cytokines may be related…

  3. Ethnicity and Adolescent Depression: Prevalence, Access to Services, and Promising Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Amanda E.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is more common among adolescents of ethnic minority backgrounds, who also are less likely to receive professional help. This article presents information about prevalence of depression and service use across ethnic groups, and then outlines several promising intervention programs that are designed for adolescents suffering from…

  4. The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Methods and Message at 12 Weeks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy…

  5. Interpersonal Theory and Depressed Adolescents: An Overview of Method and Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellin, Elizabeth Anne

    In an attempt of fill the gap in theoretical and empirical information available for treatment of adolescent depression, interpersonal therapy for adolescents (IPT-A) was developed. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a brief, time-limited therapy originally developed for use with adults diagnosed with major depression. Several outcome studies…

  6. Alcohol Use and Depression among African-American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; Irvin, Deborah M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent…

  7. Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…

  8. Risk and Protective Factors for Depressive Symptoms in Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Darius S.; Solomon, Barry S.

    2009-01-01

    There is limited understanding of risk and protective factors associated with depression among African American adolescents living in impoverished, urban settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify a range of risk and protective factors associated with depressive symptoms among low-income urban African American adolescents. The…

  9. A Latent Class Analysis of Depressive and Externalizing Symptoms in Nonreferred Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezulis, Amy; Vander Stoep, Ann; Stone, Andrea L.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Both depressive and externalizing symptoms are common in adolescence and often co-occur. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents' patterns of depressive and externalizing symptoms can be differentiated into discrete classes and whether these classes are best distinguished by the number or type of symptoms. We examined whether…

  10. Functioning and Quality of Life in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Silva, Susan; Wells, Karen; Casat, Charles; Waslick, Bruce; Simons, Anne; Reinecke, Mark; Weller, Elizabeth; Kratochvil, Christopher; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Robins, Michele; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Obective: To test whether 12-week treatment of major depression improved the level of functioning, global health, and quality of life of adolescents. Method: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study was a multisite, randomized clinical trial of fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical…

  11. Gender-Specific Development of Nonverbal Behaviours and Mild Depression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Beek, Yolanda; Van Dolderen, Marlies S. M.; Demon Dubas, Judith J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Individual differences in depressive symptoms have been linked with social skill deficits in adults and children, yet empirical studies on adolescents are lacking. The present research examines age and gender differences in nonverbal behaviour between mildly depressed and nondepressed (pre-) adolescents during conversations with an…

  12. Adapting Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adolescents Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma: A Case Study with Two Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePrince, Anne P.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that interpersonal trauma increases risk for adolescent and adult depression. Findings from 4 clinical trials for adolescent depression show poorer response to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) among depressed adolescents with a trauma history than youth without such a history. This paper reports…

  13. An Efficacy/effectiveness Study of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Adolescents with Comorbid Major Depression and Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Clarke, Gregory N.; Mace, David E.; Jorgensen, Jenel S.; Seeley, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effectiveness of the Adolescent Coping With Depression (CWD-A) course, a cognitive-behavioral group intervention for depressed adolescents with comorbid conduct disorder. Method: Between 1998 and 2001, 93 nonincarcerated adolescents (ages 13-17 years) meeting criteria for major depressive disorder and conduct disorder were…

  14. Prothrombotic Risk Factors and Preventive Strategies in Adolescent Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Srivaths, Lakshmi; Dietrich, Jennifer E

    2016-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in adolescents is a serious condition that requires prompt recognition and optimal management to prevent mortality and long-term morbidity. Adolescents account for a large proportion of cases of VTE in children. As teenagers transition from childhood to adulthood, they are at risk of developing medical conditions and exposure to risky habits that predispose them to VTE. This review focuses on the variety of risk factors and comorbidities seen in adolescent VTE and takes a quick look into risk-based preventive strategies for primary and secondary prevention. PMID:26883917

  15. Developing a Culturally Appropriate Depression Prevention Program: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardemil, Esteban V.; Kim, Saeromi; Davidson, Tatiana; Sarmiento, Ingrid A.; Ishikawa, Rachel Zack; Sanchez, Monica; Torres, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of the first author and his colleagues in the development and implementation of a depression prevention program that specifically targets Latina mothers. Building on the earlier papers that highlight the underutilization of mental health services by Latinos in general, this paper will make the case that the…

  16. Sexual intercourse among adolescent daughters of mothers with depressive symptoms from minority families.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jina; Cederbaum, Julie A; Hurlburt, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the association between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent engagement in sexual intercourse in a non-clinical sample of mothers and their adolescent daughters from minority families. The current study explores ways in which maternal depression, family factors, and adolescent sex interact. Data were from a cross-sectional study of 176 mother-daughter dyads, including a subset of mothers with HIV. Logistic regression analyses revealed that among mothers who were not current marijuana users, more maternal depressive symptoms was associated with daughters' engagement in sexual intercourse. Neither parent-child conflict nor parental involvement significantly mediated the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent sex. This study provides the first empirical evidence that non-clinical depressive symptoms in mothers are associated with adolescent engagement in sexual intercourse. PMID:27326541

  17. Depressed Adolescents' Pupillary Response to Peer Acceptance and Rejection: The Role of Rumination.

    PubMed

    Stone, Lindsey B; Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Stroud, Laura R; Nelson, Eric E; Dahl, Ronald E; Jones, Neil P

    2016-06-01

    Heightened emotional reactivity to peer feedback is predictive of adolescents' depression risk. Examining variation in emotional reactivity within currently depressed adolescents may identify subgroups that struggle the most with these daily interactions. We tested whether trait rumination, which amplifies emotional reactions, explained variance in depressed adolescents' physiological reactivity to peer feedback, hypothesizing that rumination would be associated with greater pupillary response to peer rejection and diminished response to peer acceptance. Twenty currently depressed adolescents (12-17) completed a virtual peer interaction paradigm where they received fictitious rejection and acceptance feedback. Pupillary response provided a time-sensitive index of physiological arousal. Rumination was associated with greater initial pupil dilation to both peer rejection and acceptance, and diminished late pupillary response to peer acceptance trials only. Results indicate that depressed adolescents high on trait rumination are more reactive to social feedback regardless of valence, but fail to sustain cognitive-affective load on positive feedback. PMID:26271345

  18. Relational stressors and depressive symptoms in late adolescence: rejection sensitivity as a vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Chango, Joanna M; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Allen, Joseph P; Schad, Megan M; Marston, Emily

    2012-04-01

    The role of rejection sensitivity as a critical diathesis moderating the link between adolescent relational stressors and depressive symptoms was examined using multi-method, multi-reporter data from a diverse community sample of 173 adolescents, followed from age 16 to 18. Relational stressors examined included emotional abuse, maternal behavior undermining adolescents' autonomy and relatedness, and lack of support from close peers. As hypothesized, multiple relational stressors were found to predict the future development of depressive symptoms, but as hypothesized predictions existed primarily for adolescents who were highly rejection sensitive. Results are discussed in terms of a diathesis-stress model of depression and suggest that though relational stressors have previously shown consistent modest links to depressive symptoms, understanding pre-existing intrapsychic vulnerabilities of the adolescent may be critical to identifying the processes by which such stressors lead to depressive symptoms. PMID:21927802

  19. Brief report: Explaining differences in depressive symptoms between African American and European American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; King, Vinetra; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    African American adolescents report more depressive symptoms than their European American peers, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This study examines whether risk factors in individual, family, school, and community domains explain these differences. African American and European American adolescents participating in the Birmingham Youth Violence Study (N = 594; mean age 13.2 years) reported on their depressive symptoms, pubertal development, aggressive and delinquent behavior, connectedness to school, witnessing violence, and poor parenting. Primary caregivers provided information on family income and their education level, marital status, and depression, and the adolescents' academic performance. African American adolescents reported more depressive symptoms than European American participants. Family socioeconomic factors reduced this difference by 29%; all risk factors reduced it by 88%. Adolescents' exposure to violence, antisocial behavior, and low school connectedness, as well as lower parental education and parenting quality, emerged as significant mediators of the group differences in depressive symptoms. PMID:26580552

  20. Brain Activity in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder Before and After Fluoxetine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Rongrong; Calley, Clifford S.; Hart, John; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Lu, Hanzhang; Kennard, Betsy D.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Emslie, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Major depression in adolescents is a significant public health concern because of its frequency and severity. To examine the neurobiological basis of depression in this population, the authors studied functional activation characteristics of the brain before and after antidepressant treatment in antidepressant-naive depressed adolescents and healthy comparison subjects. Method Depressed (N=19) and healthy (N=21) adolescents, ages 11 to 18 years, underwent functional MRI assessment while viewing fearful and neutral facial expressions at baseline and again 8 weeks later. The depressed adolescents received 8 weeks of open-label fluoxetine treatment after their baseline scan. Results Voxel-wise whole brain analyses showed that depressed youths have exaggerated brain activation compared with healthy comparison subjects in multiple regions, including the frontal, temporal, and limbic cortices. The 8 weeks of fluoxetine treatment normalized most of these regions of hyperactivity in the depressed group. Region-of-interest analyses of the areas involved in emotion processing indicated that before treatment, depressed youths had significantly greater activations to fearful relative to neutral facial expressions than did healthy comparison subjects in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally. Fluoxetine treatment decreased activations in all three regions, as compared with the repeat scans of healthy comparison subjects. Conclusions While effective treatments are available, the impact of depression and its treatment on the brain in adolescents is understudied. This study confirms increases in brain activation in untreated depressed adolescents and demonstrates reductions in these aberrant activations with treatment. PMID:22267183

  1. Executive functioning and self-reported depressive symptoms within an adolescent inpatient population.

    PubMed

    Kavanaugh, Brian; Holler, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Although the relationship between executive dysfunction and depressive disorders has been well established in the adult population, research within the adolescent population has produced mixed results. The present study examined executive-functioning subdomains in varying levels of self-reported depression within an adolescent inpatient sample diagnosed with primary mood disorders. Via retrospective chart review, the sample consisted of those adolescents (ages 13-18 years) who completed a combined psychological/neuropsychological assessment during hospitalization (N = 105). When the sample was divided into adolescents with mood disorders with self-reported depressive symptoms and adolescents with mood disorders without self-reported depressive symptoms, no differences in various executive functions were identified. There were also no correlations between overall self-reported depressive symptoms and overall executive functioning. However, there were negative correlations between select executive subdomains (e.g., problem solving and response inhibition) and certain depressive symptom subdomains (e.g., negative mood and interpersonal problems). Based on these findings, there was no difference in executive functions between mood disorders with depressive symptoms and mood disorders without depressive symptoms, although there may be select executive subdomains that are particularly involved in certain depressive symptoms, providing important information for the treatment of adolescent depression. PMID:24716871

  2. Behavioral Inhibition and Attentional Control in Adolescents: Robust Relationships with Anxiety and Depression.

    PubMed

    Sportel, B Esther; Nauta, Maaike H; de Hullu, Eva; de Jong, Peter J; Hartman, Catharina A

    2011-04-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) has been associated with the development of internalizing disorders in children and adolescents. It has further been shown that attentional control (AC) is negatively associated with internalizing problems. The combination of high BI and low AC may particularly lead to elevated symptomatology of internalizing behavior. This study broadens existing knowledge by investigating the additive and interacting effects of BI and AC on the various DSM-IV based internalizing dimensions. A sample of non-clinical adolescents (N = 1806, age M = 13.6 years), completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System Scales (BIS/BAS), the attentional control subscale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ) and the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS). As expected, BI was positively, and AC was negatively related to internalizing dimensions, with stronger associations of BI than of AC with anxiety symptoms, and a stronger association of AC than of BI with depressive symptoms. AC moderated the association between BI and all measured internalizing dimensions (i.e., symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive disorder). Since high AC may reduce the impact of high BI on the generation of internalizing symptoms, an intervention focused on changing AC may have potential for prevention and treatment of internalizing disorders. PMID:21475713

  3. School-Based Prevention of Depression: A Randomised Controlled Study of the "beyondblue" Schools Research Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Michael G.; Pfeiffer, Sara; Spence, Susan H.; Bond, Lyndal; Graetz, Brian; Kay, Debra; Patton, George; Sheffield, Jeanie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Depressive disorders are experienced by 3-5% of the adolescent population at any point of time. They adversely affect adolescent development in a range of areas and greatly increase risk for suicide. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a universal intervention designed to reduce depressive symptoms among students…

  4. Intergenerational Discrepancies of Parental Control among Chinese American Families: Links to Family Conflict and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Syed, Moin; Takagi, Miyuki

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how discrepancies between adolescents' and parents' endorsement of parental control contribute to adolescent depressive symptoms. Family conflict was hypothesized to mediate the link between parent-adolescent discrepancies and depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 166 pairs of Chinese American adolescents and their…

  5. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  6. Major depression in mothers predict reduced ventral striatum activation in adolescent female offspring with and without depression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior research has identified reduced reward-related brain activation as a promising endophenotype for the early identification of adolescents with major depressive disorder. However, it is unclear whether reduced reward-related brain activation constitutes a true vulnerability for major depressive ...

  7. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

    PubMed

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Sieh, Dominik Sebstian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (p<.01) than the comparison group. Adolescents of single parents reported more internalizing problems (p<.01) and externalizing problems (p<.05) than children from the other family types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (p<.001). Adolescents of depressed chronically ill parents were particularly vulnerable to internalizing problems (interaction effect, p<.05). Older children and girls, and especially older girls, displayed more internalizing problems and stress. It can be concluded that growing up with a chronically ill parent in a family with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of

  8. Gender Differential Influences of Early Adolescent Risk Factors for the Development of Depressive Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemmler, Mark; Petersen, Anne C.

    2005-01-01

    Based on a model by Cyranowski, J., et al. (2000), Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 57: 21-27, adolescents at-risk for the development of depressive symptoms were identified. Adolescents were considered at-risk if they had 2 or more of the following early adolescent risk factors: (1) insecure parental attachment, (2) anxious/inhibited temperament, (3) low…

  9. Too Many Friends: Social Integration, Network Cohesion and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falci, Christina; McNeely, Clea

    2009-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we examine associations among social integration (network size), network cohesion (alter-density), perceptions of social relationships (e.g., social support) and adolescent depressive symptoms. We find that adolescents with either too large or too small a network have higher levels of…

  10. School Contextual Experiences and Longitudinal Changes in Depressive Symptoms from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, Thulitha; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the direct and multiplicative influences by adolescent school context experiences (disengagement and maltreatment) and contextual characteristics (school minority concentration and school aggregated family poverty) on changes in depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood. Adolescent experiences with…

  11. Self-Perceived Competence as a Mediator between Maternal Feedback and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquez, Farrah; Cole, David A.; Searle, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Self-report, other-report, clinical interview, and behavioral observations of evaluative maternal feedback (e.g., positive feedback, criticism), adolescent depressive symptoms, and self-perceived competence were obtained from 72 adolescents and their mothers. Most path analyses supported the hypothesis that adolescent self-perceived competence…

  12. Research Knowledge among the Participants in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Silva, Susan; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Waslick, Bruce; Hughes, Carroll W.; Prentice, Ernest D.; May, Diane E.; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    A study examined the extent to which parents and adolescents participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) understood the study. The results concluded that most were well-informed, and also parents were overall better informed than adolescents.

  13. Social Skills and Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence: Social Support as a Mediator in Girls versus Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Wendy; Karevold, Evalill; Roysamb, Espen; Gustavson, Kristin; Mathiesen, Kristin S.

    2013-01-01

    The current population-based study of Norwegian adolescents examined gender-specific patterns in the prospective association between social skills in early adolescence (age 12.5; n = 566) and changes in depressive symptoms from early to late adolescence (age 16.5; n = 375). Further, a potential mediation effect of social support (from peers,…

  14. Gender Differences in Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression and Behavior Problems in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvete, Esther; Cardenoso, Olga

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed gender differences in cognitive variables as an explanation for gender differences in depression and behavior problems; 856 adolescents (491 females and 365 males), aged 14-17, completed the Irrational Beliefs Scale for Adolescents, the Social Problem Solving Inventory--Revised Short Form, the adolescent version of the Burnett…

  15. Parenting Style, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use in Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Emily J.; Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Pasch, Lauri A.

    2013-01-01

    This study of 151 Mexican American adolescents ages 12 to 15 examined the relationship between parenting and adolescents' self-reported level of depressive symptoms and substance use 6 months and 1 year later. Adolescents and their parents were recruited from a large health-maintenance organization and interviewed at three time points. Lower…

  16. Adolescent Suicide Assessment and Prevention: Empowerment for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulette, Carol A.

    Adolescent suicide has tripled in the past two decades and is considered to be a leading cause of death among America's youths. This increase has prompted much research on the assessment and prevention of adolescent suicide. Suicidologists have agreed there are no scientifically proven methods to assess which individual might attempt suicide.…

  17. Adolescent Suicide: Assessment of Risk, Prevention, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tishler

    1992-02-01

    The enormity of the problem of adolescent suicide-attempts and completions-mandates that each attempt be evaluated with the context of the adolescent's social, psychological, and biological history. The assessment of risk, including the mental status exam, and prevention and treatment are covered. PMID:10356165

  18. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  19. The role of the kynurenine pathway in suicidality in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Kailyn A L; Case, Julia A C; Khan, Omar; Ricart, Thomas; Hanna, Amira; Alonso, Carmen M; Gabbay, Vilma

    2015-06-30

    The neuroimmunological kynurenine pathway (KP) has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults and adolescents, most recently in suicidality in adults. The KP is initiated by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which degrades tryptophan (TRP) into kynurenine (KYN) en route to neurotoxins. Here, we examined the KP in 20 suicidal depressed adolescents-composed of past attempters and those who expressed active suicidal intent-30 non-suicidal depressed youth, and 22 healthy controls (HC). Plasma levels of TRP, KYN, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), and KYN/TRP (index of IDO) were assessed. Suicidal adolescents showed decreased TRP and elevated KYN/TRP compared to both non-suicidal depressed adolescents and HC. Findings became more significantly pronounced when excluding medicated participants, wherein there was also a significant positive correlation between KYN/TRP and suicidality. Finally, although depressed adolescents with a history of suicide attempt differed from acutely suicidal adolescents with respect to disease severity, anhedonia, and suicidality, the groups did not differ in KP measures. Our findings suggest a possible specific role of the KP in suicidality in depressed adolescents, while illustrating the clinical phenomenon that depressed adolescents with a history of suicide attempt are similar to acutely suicidal youth and are at increased risk for completion of suicide. PMID:25865484

  20. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children. PMID:24653641

  1. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cindy Y; Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S

    2014-02-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children. PMID:24653641

  2. Prospective Reciprocal Relations between Physical Activity and Depression in Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Jerstad, Sarah J.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective Although research has found an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents, few studies have examined this relation prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical activity. Method Data from a longitudinal study involving annual assessments of 496 adolescent girls (M age = 13, SD 0.7) followed over a 6-year period were analyzed to address these questions. Results Physical activity significantly reduced risk for future increases in depressive symptoms and risk for onset of major/minor depression and depressive symptoms and major/minor depression significantly reduced future physical activity, controlling for several covariates, though predictive effects were modest. Conclusions Results support a bidirectional relation between exercise and depression and imply that interventions that increase physical activity may reduce risk for depression among this high-risk population. PMID:20350037

  3. Neural correlates of self-perceptions in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Kailyn A L; Colcombe, Stan; Henderson, Sarah E; Alonso, Carmen M; Milham, Michael P; Gabbay, Vilma

    2016-06-01

    Alteration in self-perception is a salient feature in major depression. Hyperactivity of anterior cortical midline regions has been implicated in this phenomenon in depressed adults. Here, we extend this work to depressed adolescents during a developmental time when neuronal circuitry underlying the sense of self matures by using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and connectivity analyses. Twenty-three depressed adolescents and 18 healthy controls (HC) viewed positive and negative trait words in a scanner and judged whether each word described them ('self' condition) or was a good trait to have ('general' condition). Self-perception scores were based on participants' endorsements of positive and negative traits during the fMRI task. Depressed adolescents exhibited more negative self-perceptions than HC. Both groups activated cortical midline regions in response to self-judgments compared to general-judgments. However, depressed adolescents recruited the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus more for positive self-judgments. Additionally, local connectivity of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex was reduced during self-reflection in depressed adolescents. Our findings highlight differences in self-referential processing network function between depressed and healthy adolescents and support the need for further investigation of brain mechanisms associated with the self, as they may be paramount to understanding the etiology and development of major depressive disorder. PMID:26943454

  4. Association between Cognitive Distortion, Type D Personality, Family Environment, and Depression in Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Hengfen; Zou, Shaohong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Depression prevalence and risk increase among adolescents are related to biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Little is known about the association between cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationships of cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Methods. A sample of Chinese adolescents with depression and the controls were investigated cross-sectionally with life orientation test-revised (LOT-R), type D personality Scale-14 (DS14), family environment scale (FES), and Zung self-depression scale (SDS); respectively, all scales were administered in Chinese. Results. Chinese-depressed adolescents showed more cognitive distortion, type D personality, and adverse family environment than control groups. Furthermore, lower level of Optimism, negative affectivity, and poor family cohesion may increase the risk of depression in Chinese adolescents. Conclusions. Our study indicates that lower level of Optimism, Negative Affectivity, and poor Family Cohesion factors were implicated to contribute to depression in Chinese adolescents. Lower level of optimism and negative affectivity may be crucial associated factors of depression among these samples. our findings pointed to the importance of broad screening and intervention of vulnerable population. PMID:21747993

  5. [Complementary treatment methods for depression in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Dolle, Kathrin; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Depressive disorders are among the more common mental illnesses around the world, about 1- 3% of prepubertal children and 6% of postpubertal children and adolescents are affected. They markedly impair psychosocial development and are associated with higher rate of morbidity and mortality throughout life. Many physicians are unsure about which treatment approaches are effective and how the treatment should be planned. A systematic literature search was carried out in electronic databases and study registries and as a manual search. More than 450 studies (mostly randomized controlled trials = RCTs) were identified and summarized in evidence tables. The ensuing recommendations were agreed upon in a consensus conference. The review summarizes the evidence of complementary treatment methods. The evidence for complementary treatment methods (art and music therapy, sleep deprivation, exercise, electroconvulsive therapy, massage, transcranial magnetic stimulation, relaxation, bibliotherapy, computer based therapy, light therapy, omega-3 treatment) is low or there is no evidence due to missing studies or studies of poor quality. For some methods, i. e. light therapy, relaxation and stress reduction and sleep deprivation there is limited indication for effectiveness without sufficient evidence for a practical guidance. There is an urgent need for adequately informative comparative studies on treatment of depression in children and adolescents considering also complementary methods. PMID:24707770

  6. Parental Depressive Feelings, Parental Support, and the Serotonin Transporter Gene as Predictors of Adolescent Depressive Feelings: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roekel, Eeske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Parental support and parental depressive feelings are found to be associated with depressive feelings in adolescent boys and girls, but results are inconsistent. In addition, the "5-HTTLPR" genotype has been found to interact with environmental stressors in predicting adolescents' depressive feelings, but this has not been examined longitudinally.…

  7. Identifying Trajectories of Adolescents' Depressive Phenomena: An Examination of Early Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Fleming, Charles B.; Abbott, Robert D.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined risk factors of childhood and early adolescent depressive symptomatology trajectories. This study examined self-report depressive symptomatology across a 6-year time period from 2nd to 8th grade to identify latent groups of individuals with similar patterns of depressive phenomena in a sample of 951 children (440 girls,…

  8. A Prospective Test of Cognitive Vulnerability Models of Depression with Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric; Burton, Emily; Fudell, Molly; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to provide a more rigorous prospective test of two cognitive vulnerability models of depression with longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results supported the cognitive vulnerability model in that stressors predicted future increases in depressive symptoms and onset of clinically significant major depression for…

  9. Subthreshold Depressive Disorder in Adolescents: Predictors of Escalation to Full-Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Daniel N.; Shankman, Stewart A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.

    2009-01-01

    The risk for the onset of full-syndrome depressive disorders from the subtreshold depressive disorder in adolescents is found to be at 67 percent. The variables that predict the progression to the full onset are: severity of depressive symptoms, medical conditions/ symptoms, history of suicidal ideation, history of anxiety disorder, and familial…

  10. Neuroticism, Life Events and Negative Thoughts in the Development of Depression in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kercher, Amy J.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Schniering, Carolyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Theories of depression suggest that cognitive and environmental factors may explain the relationship between personality and depression. This study tested such a model in early adolescence, incorporating neuroticism, stress-generation and negative automatic thoughts in the development of depressive symptoms. Participants (896 girls, mean age 12.3…

  11. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…

  12. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Trajectories of Depressed Mood from Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Darce M.; Swendsen, Joel; Rose, Jennifer S.; Dierker, Lisa C.

    2008-01-01

    This study used semi-parametric group-based modeling to explore unconditional and conditional trajectories of self-reported depressed mood from ages 12 to 25 years. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,559), 4 distinct trajectories were identified: no depressed mood, stable low depressed mood, early…

  13. Change in Maternal Depressive Mood: Unique Contributions to Adolescent Functioning over Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amanda McCombs; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the relation of change in maternal depressed mood across time and adolescent functioning. Analyses revealed that increased depressed mood across one year predicted teacher reports of higher levels of externalizing and internalizing problems and lower levels of social competence. A static maternal depressive mood did not forecast…

  14. Parental Maltreatment, Bullying, and Adolescent Depression: Evidence for the Mediating Role of Perceived Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeds, Pamela M.; Harkness, Kate L.; Quilty, Lena C.

    2010-01-01

    The support deterioration model of depression states that stress deteriorates the perceived availability and/or effectiveness of social support, which then leads to depression. The present study examined this model in adolescent depression following parent-perpetrated maltreatment and peer-perpetrated bullying, as assessed by a rigorous contextual…

  15. Abnormal Neural Sensitivity to Monetary Gains versus Losses among Adolescents at Risk for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, Dan; Kotov, Roman; Klein, Daniel N.; Hajcak, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder aggregates within families, although the mechanisms of transfer across generations are not well understood. In light of converging biological and behavioral evidence that depressive symptoms are associated with impaired reward processing, we examined whether adolescent girls with a parental history of depression would…

  16. Maternal Control and Adolescent Depression: Ethnic Differences among Clinically Referred Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Jo-Ann S.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Martinovich, Zoran

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship between perceived maternal control and depression for 11 urban adolescent girls seeking psychological services at an outpatient clinic. No relation between control and depression was found for Caucasian and Latina girls, but high control was linked to less depression among African American girls. Findings highlight the…

  17. Depression and Its Measurement in Verbal Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotham, Katherine; Unruh, Kathryn; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In a sample of 50 verbally fluent adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (age: 16-31 years; verbal IQ: 72-140), we examined the pattern of response and associations between scores on common measures of depressive symptoms, participant characteristics, and clinical diagnosis of depressive disorders. Beck Depression Inventory--Second…

  18. Adolescent Depression: Assessing the Impact of Negative Cognitions and Socioenvironmental Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; Miller, Martin G.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the relative importance of socioenvironmental problems versus negative beliefs in explaining adolescent depression using a sample of high school students (N=423). Only one negative condition--low evaluation of self--was related to depression. Low parental support and employment problems were found to be predictors of depression and a…

  19. Brief Report: Delinquent Behaviour and Depression in Middle Adolescence: A Finnish Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritakallio, Minna; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Kivivuori, Janne; Rimpela, Matti

    2005-01-01

    A large number (N 50 569) of 14-16 year old Finnish adolescents taking part in the School Health Promotion Study were surveyed for delinquent behaviour in relation to depression. The results indicate a robust association between delinquency and depression. Among girls risk for depression varied between 1.3 and 3.1 according to various antisocial…

  20. Perceived Competence and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Attributional Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Seligman, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the interactive effects of depressive attributional style and multiple domains of perceived competence on depressive symptoms among 431 adolescents. Our structural equation modeling with latent factor interactions indicated that (1) for girls with a higher depressive attributional style, lower perceived competence…

  1. Face Emotion Processing in Depressed Children and Adolescents with and without Comorbid Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepman, Karen; Taylor, Eric; Collishaw, Stephan; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Studies of adults with depression point to characteristic neurocognitive deficits, including differences in processing facial expressions. Few studies have examined face processing in juvenile depression, or taken account of other comorbid disorders. Three groups were compared: depressed children and adolescents with conduct disorder (n = 23),…

  2. Prospective Reciprocal Relations between Physical Activity and Depression in Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerstad, Sarah J.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents has been found in research, this relation has seldom been examined prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical…

  3. Retrospective and Prospective Cognitions in Adolescents: Anxiety, Depression, and Positive and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Helen; MacLeod, Andrew K.; Pote, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Research with anxious and depressed adults has suggested that anxiety is related to an increased anticipation of both negative memories and negative expectancies whereas depression is related to a reduction in positive memories and expectancies. The present study examined whether anxiety and depression in 123 school-aged adolescents would show the…

  4. Depression amongst Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong: An Evaluation of a Stress Moderation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Catalina S. M.; Hurry, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Stress has an established association with depression. However, not all adolescents experiencing stressors become depressed and it is helpful to identify potential resilience factors. The current study tests a theoretical extension of a stress-diathesis model of depression in a Chinese context, with stress, coping, family relationships, and…

  5. Cognitive Vulnerabilities and Depression versus Other Psychopathology Symptoms and Diagnoses in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Black, Shimrit K.; Young, Mathew E.; Goldstein, Kim E.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Boccia, Angelo S.; Matt, Lindsey M.; Boland, Elaine M.; Moore, Lauren C.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the concurrent associations between multiple cognitive vulnerabilities to depression featured in hopelessness theory, Beck's theory, and response styles theory and depressive symptoms and diagnoses in a sample of early adolescents. We also examined the specificity of these cognitive vulnerabilities to depression versus anxiety and…

  6. Parenting and Early Adolescent Internalizing: The Importance of Teasing Apart Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…

  7. Expression of Anger in Depressed Adolescents: The Role of the Family Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jennifer; Kuppens, Peter; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    The expression of anger is considered to be abnormal in depression, yet its role is only poorly understood. In the present study we sought to clarify this role by examining the moderating influence of the family environment on overall levels of anger expression and anger reactivity in depressed and non-depressed adolescents during conflictual…

  8. Trajectories of Individual Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Gender and Family Relationships as Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Depressive syndrome and disorders increase substantially during adolescence. Little is known, however, about how "individual" symptoms of depression change over the course of this developmental period. The present study examined within-person changes in symptom severity of each individual symptom of depression, utilizing longitudinal…

  9. Examining the bidirectional relationship between physical activity, screen time, and symptoms of anxiety and depression over time during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gunnell, Katie E; Flament, Martine F; Buchholz, Annick; Henderson, Katherine A; Obeid, Nicole; Schubert, Nicholas; Goldfield, Gary S

    2016-07-01

    More physical activity (PA) and less screen time (ST) are positively associated with mental health in adolescents; however, research is limited by short-term designs and the exclusion of ST when examining PA. We examined: (a) changes in PA, ST, symptoms of depression, and symptoms of anxiety over four assessments spanning 11years, and (b) bidirectional relationships between initial PA, ST, and symptoms of depression and anxiety as predictors of change in each other during adolescence. Between 2006 and 2010, participants from Ottawa Canada (Time1; N=1160, Mean age=13.54years) completed questionnaires at four points covering the ages from 10 to 21years. Latent growth modeling was used. PA decreased over time whereas ST and symptoms of depression and anxiety increased over time. Controlling for sex, ethnicity, school location, zBMI, birth year, and parents' education, initially higher anxiety was associated with initially higher ST (covariance=.88, p<.05) and initially lower PA (covariance=-6.84, p=.07) independent of initial symptoms of depression. Higher initial depression was associated with higher initial ST (covariance=2.55, p<.05). Increases in anxiety were associated with increases in ST (covariance=.07, p=.06) and increases in depression (covariance=.41, p<.05). Examining bidirectional relationships, higher initial symptoms of depression predicted greater decreases in PA (b=-.28, p<.05). No other significant findings between initial PA, ST, anxiety, or depression were found as predictors of change in each other. Interventions targeting depression around age 13 may be useful to prevent further declines in PA. Similarly, interventions to reduce ST may be beneficial for concurrent reductions in symptoms of depression and anxiety, irrespective of PA. PMID:27090920

  10. Stress and the Development of Cognitive Vulnerabilities to Depression Explain Sex Differences in Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    Although cognitive vulnerabilities to depression have received considerable empirical support, little research has evaluated the differential development of cognitive vulnerabilities in adolescent girls and boys. The current study examined the role of stressful life events, as well as sex differences in reactivity and exposure to stress, in the development of negative cognitive style and rumination in a multi-wave study of 382 adolescents. Path analyses indicated that interpersonal dependent stress predicted higher prospective levels of negative cognitive styles and rumination. Additionally, girls’ greater exposure to interpersonal dependent stress explained their higher levels of rumination, which accounted for girls’ higher levels of depressive symptoms than boys. These findings suggest that interpersonal dependent stress is a significant risk factor for the formation of cognitive vulnerabilities to depression during adolescence, and that the sex difference in depressive symptoms may result from girls’ greater exposure to interpersonal dependent stress and ruminative response style than boys. PMID:26509106

  11. Self-Referential Processing in Depressed Adolescents: A High-Density ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Stanton, Colin H.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the alarming increase in the prevalence of depression during adolescence, particularly among female adolescents, the pathophysiology of depression in adolescents remains largely unknown. Event-related potentials (ERPs) provide an ideal approach to investigate cognitive-affective processes associated with depression in adolescents, especially in the context of negative self-referential processing biases. In this study, healthy (n = 30) and depressed (n = 22) female adolescents completed a self-referential encoding task while ERP data were recorded. To examine cognitive-affective processes associated with self-referential processing, P1, P2, and late positive potential (LPP) responses to negative and positive words were investigated, and intracortical sources of scalp effects were probed using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). Additionally, we tested whether key cognitive processes (e.g., maladaptive self-view, self-criticism) previously implicated in depression related to ERP components. Relative to healthy female subjects, depressed females endorsed more negative and fewer positive words, and free recalled and recognized fewer positive words. With respect to ERPs, compared to healthy female adolescents, depressed adolescents exhibited greater P1 amplitudes following negative words, which was associated with a more maladaptive self-view and self-criticism. In both early and late LPP responses, depressed females showed greater activity following negative versus positive words, whereas healthy females demonstrated the opposite pattern. For both P1 and LPP, LORETA revealed reduced inferior frontal gyrus activity in response to negative words in depressed versus healthy female adolescents. Collectively, these findings suggest that the P1 and LPP reflect biased self-referential processing in female adolescents with depression. Potential treatment implications are discussed. PMID:25643205

  12. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID:26916841

  13. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent–child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent–adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID

  14. How Do I Feel About Feelings? Emotion Socialization in Families of Depressed and Healthy Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Erin C.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Shortt, Joann Wu; Davis, Betsy; Leve, Craig; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2010-01-01

    Emotional and cognitive changes that occur during adolescence set the stage for the development of adaptive or maladaptive beliefs about emotions. Although research suggests that parents’ behaviors and beliefs about emotions relate to children’s emotional abilities, few studies have looked at parental socialization of children’s emotions, particularly in families with depressed adolescents. The present study examined associations between parent and adolescent meta-emotion philosophies (MEP), defined as thoughts, reactions, and feelings about their own emotions. Additionally, adolescent depressive status was tested as a moderator of relationships between parents’ and adolescents’ MEP. One hundred and 52 adolescents, aged 14–18 (65.8% female), and their parents (148 mothers, 106 fathers) participated in a study on emotion socialization in families of depressed and healthy adolescents. Depressed adolescents (n = 75) and matched healthy adolescents (n = 77) were recruited based on research criteria for mental health status. The sample was largely Caucasian (82%) and of middle socioeconomic class status. Results indicated that mothers’ and fathers’ MEP about their children’s emotions were associated with adolescents’ MEP, although parents’ MEP about their own emotions was unrelated to adolescents’ MEP. Fathers’ MEP about children’s emotions made unique contributions to adolescents’ MEP across both adolescent groups. Adolescents’ depressive status moderated the relationship between mothers’ and adolescents’ MEP such that mothers’ MEP was particularly relevant for depressed adolescents. The continued influence of parents in the emotional lives of adolescents is discussed as well as differences in emotion socialization in families with depressed and healthy adolescents. PMID:20473712

  15. Measuring depression and stigma towards depression and mental health treatment among adolescents in an Arab-American community

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, R.M.; Farroukh, M.; Ismail, M.; Najda, J.; Sobh, H.; Hammad, A.; Dalack, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research that has examined the prevalence of depression and attitudes towards depression and mental health treatment in Arab-American adolescents; we sought to assess these in a predominantly Arab-American community in metro Detroit. A health survey of adolescents aged 12–17 years was conducted (n=98). Participants were recruited from two local community organizations in Dearborn, MI. Depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Depression Scale, and attitude towards depression and willingness to seek help for mental health conditions were assessed by the Self-Stigma of Depression Scale (SSDS). To assess whether attitudes might be affected by information about mental health treatment, adolescents were randomized to view either an educational video about mental health, or a control video before responding to questions about their willingness to seek help for mental health conditions. Overall, 14% of Arab-American adolescents in this study endorsed moderate or moderately severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 11), suggesting a need to increase awareness of and access to mental health services and screening for Arab-American youth. PMID:26257824

  16. [Discontinuation of depression treatment from the perspective of suicide prevention].

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    It is assumed that discontinuation of treatment for depression may increase the risk of suicide. A population-based register study in Denmark did not find a lower risk among people over age 50 who followed treatment in comparison with those who discontinued treatment with antidepressants at an early stage. This result, however, does not allow us to think superficially that early discontinuation of treatment does not increase the risk of suicide. It is because the study has limitations without information of such as psychiatric diagnoses, severity of the depressed state, and reasons of discontinuation. It is safe for clinicians to aim at preventing discontinuation of treatment. Particularly, in Japan and South Korea where there is a sociocultural climate of tolerability for suicide, suicide can occur in milder depressed state and discontinuation of treatment should be taken more seriously than in Western countries. PMID:22897025

  17. Adapting and testing telephone-based depression care management intervention for adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M Cynthia; Foltz, Melissa Pinto; Stein, Bradley; Usui, Wayne; Josephson, Allan

    2010-08-01

    This phase 1 clinical trial combined qualitative and quantitative methods to modify a collaborative care, telephone-based, depression care management intervention for adolescent mothers and to determine the acceptability, feasibility, and initial efficacy of the intervention in a sample of adolescent mothers (n = 97) who were recruited from a Teen Parent Program. Outcomes included measures of depressive symptoms, functioning, and use of mental health services. Acceptability of the intervention was demonstrated, but feasibility issues related to the complex life challenges confronting the adolescent mother. Although only four adolescent mothers received mental health treatment, there was a trend for improved depressive symptoms over time. Results of the study provide data for the need of further refinement of the intervention before a large clinical trial is conducted for adolescent mothers with symptoms of depression. PMID:20020164

  18. Adapting and Testing Telephone Based Depression Care Management Intervention for Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Pinto-Foltz, Melissa D.; Stein, Bradley; Usui, Wayne; Josephson, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose and Methods This Phase 1 clinical trial combined qualitative and quantitative methods to modify a collaborative care, telephone based, depression care management intervention for adolescent mothers, and to determine the acceptability, feasibility, and initial efficacy of the intervention in a sample of adolescent mothers (n=97) who were recruited from a Teen Parent Program. Outcomes included measures of depressive symptoms, functioning, and use of mental health services. Results Acceptability of the intervention was demonstrated, but feasibility issues related to the complex life challenges confronting the adolescent mother. Although only four adolescent mothers received mental health treatment, there was a trend for improved depressive symptoms over time. Conclusion Results of the study provide data for the need of further refinement of the intervention before a large clinical trial is conducted for adolescent mothers with symptoms of depression. PMID:20020164

  19. The role of the kynurenine pathway in suicidality in adolescent major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Kailyn A. L.; Case, Julia A. C.; Khan, Omar; Ricart, Thomas; Hanna, Amira; Alonso, Carmen M.; Gabbay, Vilma

    2015-01-01

    The neuroimmunological kynurenine pathway (KP) has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults and adolescents, most recently in suicidality in adults. The KP is initiated by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which degrades tryptophan (TRP) into kynurenine (KYN) en route to neurotoxins. Here, we examined the KP in 20 suicidal depressed adolescents—composed of past attempters and those who expressed active suicidal intent—30 non-suicidal depressed youth, and 22 healthy controls (HC). Plasma levels of TRP, KYN, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and KYN/TRP (index of IDO) were assessed. Suicidal adolescents showed decreased TRP and elevated KYN/TRP compared to both non-suicidal depressed adolescents and HC. Findings became more significantly pronounced when excluding medicated participants, wherein there was also a significant positive correlation between KYN/TRP and suicidality. Finally, although depressed adolescents with a history of suicide attempt differed from acutely suicidal adolescents with respect to disease severity, anhedonia, and suicidality, the groups did not differ in KP measures. Our findings suggest a possible specific role of the KP in suicidality in depressed adolescents, while illustrating the clinical phenomenon that depressed adolescents with a history of suicide attempt are similar to acutely suicidal youth and are at increased risk for completion of suicide. PMID:25865484

  20. The association between negative attention biases and symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Susannah E.; Lau, Jennifer Y.F.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable time for the onset of depression. Recent evidence from adult studies suggests not only that negative attention biases are correlated with symptoms of depression, but that reducing negative attention biases through training can in turn reduce symptomology. The role and plasticity of attention biases in adolescent depression, however, remains unclear. This study examines the association between symptoms of depression and attention biases, and whether such biases are modifiable, in a community sample of adolescents. We report data from 105 adolescents aged 13–17 who completed a dot-probe measure of attention bias before and after a single session of visual search-based cognitive bias modification training. This is the first study to find a significant association between negative attention biases and increased symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents. Contrary to expectations, we were unable to manipulate attention biases using a previously successful cognitive bias modification task. There were no significant effects of the training on positive affect and only modest effects of the training, identified in post-hoc analyses, were observed on negative affect. Our data replicate those from the adult literature, which suggest that adolescent depression is a disorder associated with negative attention biases, although we were unable to modify attention biases in our study. We identify numerous parameters of our methodology which may explain these null training effects, and which could be addressed in future cognitive bias modification studies of adolescent depression. PMID:26539335