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Sample records for adolescent depression prevention

  1. The Prevention of Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Gladstone, Tracy R.G.; Beardslee, William R.; O’Connor, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis This article provides a conceptual framework for research on the prevention of depression in youth and reviews the recent literature on prevention efforts targeting children and adolescents. Prevention efforts should target both specific and non-specific risk factors, enhance protective factors, use a developmental approach, and target selective and/or indicated samples. In general, a review of the literature indicates that prevention programs utilizing cognitive behavioral and/or interpersonal approaches, and family-based prevention strategies, are most helpful. Overall, it appears that there is reason for hope regarding the role of interventions in preventing depressive disorders in youth. Several new directions for future research on the prevention of depression in youth were outlined. PMID:21333838

  2. Universal Adolescent Depression Prevention Programs: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Teresa D.

    2013-01-01

    Although the subject of adolescent depression has gained significant attention, little is being done in the way of primary prevention. The purpose of this article is to conduct a review of the literature through the lens of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework. This review was conducted utilizing several…

  3. Depression Prevention for Early Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen; Elkon, Andrea G. L.; Samuels, Barbra; Freres, Derek R.; Winder, Breanna; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2015-01-01

    Given the dramatic increase in depression that occurs during early adolescence in girls, interventions must address the needs of girls. The authors examined whether a depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program, was more effective for girls in all-girls groups than in co-ed groups. Within co-ed groups, the authors also tested whether there were greater effects for boys than for girls. Participants were 208 11- to 14-year-olds. Girls were randomly assigned to all-girls groups, co-ed groups, or control. Boys were assigned to co-ed groups or control. Students completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and explanatory style before and after the intervention. Girls groups were better than co-ed groups in reducing girls’hopelessness and for session attendance rates but were similar to co-ed groups in reducing depressive symptoms. Co-ed groups decreased depressive symptoms, but this did not differ by gender. Findings support prevention programs and suggest additional benefits of girls groups. PMID:26139955

  4. Prevention and Intervention of Depression in Asian-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieu, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…

  5. Depression and AIDS Preventive Self-efficacy Among Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Effectively reducing adolescents' risky sexual behaviors has been an urgent need since the HIV/AIDS infections among young people has been acknowledged as a priority. Self-efficacy has been considered playing an essential role in behavioral changes, and depressed individuals may demonstrate lower self-efficacy. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to gain insights into self-reported depression among 16-18 years-old Taiwanese adolescents as well as to explore psychosocial predictors of AIDS preventive self-efficacy. A convenience sample of 734 adolescents from southern Taiwan was recruited, and several reliable and valid questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, odds ratio, independent t-test, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were utilized to analyze data. Results showed that the differences in self-reported depression and in the AIDS preventive self-efficacy varied by gender, substance use, and having sexual experience. Furthermore, depression was a significant predictor of AIDS preventive self-efficacy while controlling the covariates. This study suggests that gender and mental health status such as depression may play significant roles in AIDS preventive self-efficacy. Nurses and health care providers should take the influence of mental health into consideration when designing AIDS preventive interventions for male and female Taiwanese adolescents. The provided information may also enhance psychiatric nurses' capability to provide care and to enhance the prevention of HIV infection for adolescents. PMID:26804507

  6. Relapse and Recurrence Prevention in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Anne D.; Rohde, Paul; Kennard, Betsy D.; Robins, Michele

    2005-01-01

    Relapse and recurrence in adolescent depression are important problems. Much less is known about relapse prevention compared to the acute treatment of depression in adolescents. Based on previous research, theoretical predictions, and clinical experience, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) protocol was designed to determine…

  7. Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training: An Indicated Preventive Intervention for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Background: Indicated interventions for adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms may help decrease rates of depression. The current study reports on the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group indicated preventive intervention. Methods: Forty-one adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were…

  8. Preventing Adolescent Social Anxiety and Depression and Reducing Peer Victimization: Intervention Development and Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the…

  9. Prevention of Adolescent Depression in the Spanish-Speaking World

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Andrea B.; Cañizares, Catalina; Gómez, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency. PMID:24871258

  10. Prevention of adolescent depression in the Spanish-speaking world.

    PubMed

    Horn, Andrea B; Cañizares, Catalina; Gómez, Yvonne

    2014-06-01

    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency.

  11. Mother-Child Conflict and Its Moderating Effects on Depression Outcomes in a Preventive Intervention for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on mother-child conflict as an outcome and moderator of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a preventive intervention for depression. Forty-one adolescents (average age = 13.37, SD = 1.19) with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Adolescents…

  12. Preventing Depression among Adolescent Girls: Pathways toward Effective and Sustainable Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Vicky Veitch; Dozois, David J. A.; Fisman, Sandra; DePace, JoAnne

    2008-01-01

    Up to 25% of adolescent girls experience an episode of major depression, at least twice the rate found with adolescent boys. In addition to reducing the suffering associated with depression, prevention efforts with this high-risk population have the potential to avert short- and long-term functional impairment, reduce the risk of associated mental…

  13. The Prevention of Depressive Symptoms in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Jason L.; Garber, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Research on the prevention of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents was reviewed and synthesized with meta-analysis. When all 30 studies were included, selective prevention programs were found to be more effective than universal programs immediately following intervention. Both selective and indicated prevention programs were more…

  14. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  15. Prevention of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: A Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral and Interpersonal Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Jason L.; Garber, Judy; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 programs for preventing depressive symptoms in adolescents. Participants were 380 high school students randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral program (CB), an interpersonal psychotherapy-adolescent skills training program (IPT-AST), or a no-intervention control. The interventions involved eight 90-min…

  16. Understanding adolescent response to a technology-based depression prevention program.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, Tracy; Marko-Holguin, Monika; Henry, Jordan; Fogel, Joshua; Diehl, Anne; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W

    2014-01-01

    Guided by the Behavioral Vaccine Theory of prevention, this study uses a no-control group design to examine intervention variables that predict favorable changes in depressive symptoms at 6- to 8-week follow-up in at-risk adolescents who participated in a primary care, Internet-based prevention program. Participants included 83 adolescents from primary care settings ages 14 to 21 (M = 17.5, SD = 2.04), 56.2% female, with 41% non-White. Participants completed self-report measures, met with a physician, and then completed a 14-module Internet intervention targeting the prevention of depression. Linear regression models indicated that several intervention factors (duration on website in days, the strength of the relationship with the physician, perceptions of ease of use, and the perceived relevance of the material presented) were significantly associated with greater reductions in depressive symptoms from baseline to follow-up. Automatic negative thoughts significantly mediated the relation between change in depressive symptoms scores and both duration of use and physician relationship. Several intervention variables predicted favorable changes in depressive symptom scores among adolescents who participated in an Internet-based prevention program, and the strength of two of these variables was mediated by automatic negative thoughts. These findings support the importance of cognitive factors in preventing adolescent depression and suggest that modifiable aspects of technology-based intervention experience and relationships should be considered in optimizing intervention design.

  17. Negative Life Events and Substance Use Moderate Cognitive-Behavioral Adolescent Depression Prevention Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gau, Jeff M.; Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Investigate factors that amplify or mitigate the effects of an indicated cognitive behavioral depression prevention program for adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms. Method Using data from a randomized trial (Registration No. NCT00183417; N = 173) in which adolescents (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.2) were assigned to a brief cognitive behavioral prevention program or an educational brochure control condition, we tested whether elevated motivation to reduce depression and initial depressive symptom severity amplified intervention effects and whether negative life events, social support deficits, and substance use attenuated intervention effects. Results Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) indicated differential intervention effects for two of the five examined variables: negative life events and substance use. For adolescents at low and medium levels of substance use or negative life events, the CB intervention produced declines in depressive symptoms relative to controls. However, at high levels of substance use or negative life events, the CB intervention did not significantly reduce depressive symptoms in comparison to controls. Conclusions Results imply that high-risk adolescent with either high rates of major life stress or initial substance use may require specialized depression prevention efforts. PMID:22414236

  18. [Internet-based approaches in prevention and treatment of depressive symptoms in adolescents and young adults ].

    PubMed

    Berking, Matthias; Ebert, David D; Lehr, Dirk; Riper, Heleen; Sieland, Bernhard; Wiencke, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological findings indicate that up to 18.5 % of the German adolescents suffer from depressive symptoms and that younger adults display the highest risk for relevant symptoms of depression (9.9 %) within the German adult population. Internet-based interventions have been shown to be useful for preventing and treating depression and are more easily disseminated in internet-savvy generations. Available programs are usually based on principles of cognitive behavioural therapy. They differ significantly with regard to target groups, structure, content, degree of guidance provided by online-coaches and evidence for their efficacy. Whereas some studies could not prove the use of the trainings there are others that show large effect sizes (up to d = 0.84) for the reduction of depressive symptoms. In Germany there are some online counseling programs for children and adolescents in (acute) crises available. However, at this point no structured intervention program for the treatment of depression exists. PMID:24877779

  19. Evaluation of a School-Based Program Aimed at Preventing Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmy, Pernilla; Jakobsson, Ulf; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral program whose target is to prevent depressive symptoms in adolescents. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pretest, posttest, and a 1-year follow-up and provides an illustrative calculation for the implementation costs of the…

  20. Evaluation of a School-Based Program Aimed at Preventing Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Ulf; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral program whose target is to prevent depressive symptoms in adolescents. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pretest, posttest, and a 1-year follow-up and provides an illustrative calculation for the implementation costs of the intervention. Sixty-two students (aged 14) and seven tutors participated. A majority of the students and all of the tutors were satisfied with the intervention. The students, both females and males, rated their depressed symptoms as significantly lower after the course; and for the females, this was maintained 1-year postintervention. The implementation costs for the initial 2 years were about US$300 per student. Positive effects of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral intervention aiming at preventing depressive symptoms in adolescents were found, especially among females. PMID:24526572

  1. Evaluation of a school-based program aimed at preventing depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garmy, Pernilla; Jakobsson, Ulf; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral program whose target is to prevent depressive symptoms in adolescents. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pretest, posttest, and a 1-year follow-up and provides an illustrative calculation for the implementation costs of the intervention. Sixty-two students (aged 14) and seven tutors participated. A majority of the students and all of the tutors were satisfied with the intervention. The students, both females and males, rated their depressed symptoms as significantly lower after the course; and for the females, this was maintained 1-year postintervention. The implementation costs for the initial 2 years were about US$300 per student. Positive effects of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral intervention aiming at preventing depressive symptoms in adolescents were found, especially among females. PMID:24526572

  2. Prevention effects on trajectories of African American adolescents' exposure to interparental conflict and depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Allen W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Kogan, Steven M.; Stanley, Scott M.; Fincham, Frank D.; Hurt, Tera R.; Brody, Gene H.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the trajectory of children's exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence, its effects on adolescents' psychological adjustment, as well as the ability of a family-centered prevention program to alter this trajectory. A total of 331 African American couples with an adolescent or pre-adolescent child participated in a randomized control trial of the Promoting Strong African American Families (ProSAAF) program, a newly-developed program targeting couple and co-caregiving processes. Using a multi-informant, latent growth curve approach, child exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence was found to be stable over a period of two years among families in the control group, but significantly declined among families in the treatment condition. Rates of change were significantly different between intervention and control groups based on parents' report of youth exposure to interparental conflict, but not for child's report. Structural equation models found trajectory parameters of interparental conflict predicted changes in adolescent depressive symptoms, with increasing rates of changes in conflict associated with increases in adolescent internalizing symptoms over the 2-year duration of the study. Finally, a significant indirect effect was identified linking treatment, changes in parents' reports of child exposure to interparental conflict, and adolescent depressive symptoms. The implications for research and intervention are discussed. PMID:25844492

  3. School-based prevention programs for depression and anxiety in adolescence: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Corrieri, Sandro; Heider, Dirk; Conrad, Ines; Blume, Anne; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2014-09-01

    School-based interventions are considered a promising effort to prevent the occurrence of mental disorders in adolescents. This systematic review focuses on school-based prevention interventions on depression and anxiety disorders utilizing an RCT design, starting from the year 2000. Based on an online search (PubMed, Scirus, OVID, ISI) and bibliographic findings in the eligible articles, 28 studies providing information were reviewed. The search process ended on 2 May 2011. The majority of interventions turn out to be effective, both for depression (65%) and anxiety (73%). However, the obtained overall mean effect sizes calculated from the most utilized questionnaires can be considered rather small (CDI: -0.12; RCMAS: -0.29). The majority of the reviewed school-based interventions shows effectiveness in reducing or preventing mental disorders in adolescents. However, effect size computation revealed only small-scale effectiveness. Future studies have to consider the impact of program implementation variations.

  4. Prevention effects on trajectories of African American adolescents' exposure to interparental conflict and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Barton, Allen W; Beach, Steven R H; Kogan, Steven M; Stanley, Scott M; Fincham, Frank D; Hurt, Tera R; Brody, Gene H

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigates the trajectory of children's exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence, its effects on adolescents' psychological adjustment, as well as the ability of a family-centered prevention program to alter this trajectory. A total of 331 African American couples with an adolescent or preadolescent child participated in a randomized control trial of the Promoting Strong African American Families program, a newly developed program targeting couple and cocaregiving processes. Using a multi-informant, latent growth curve approach, child exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence was found to be stable over a period of 2 years among families in the control group, but significantly declined among families in the treatment condition. Rates of change were significantly different between intervention and control groups based on parents' report of youth exposure to interparental conflict, but not for child's report. Structural equation models found trajectory parameters of interparental conflict predicted changes in adolescent depressive symptoms, with increasing rates of changes in conflict associated with increases in adolescent internalizing symptoms over the 2-year duration of the study. Finally, a significant indirect effect was identified linking treatment, changes in parents' reports of child exposure to interparental conflict, and adolescent depressive symptoms. The implications for research and intervention are discussed.

  5. Randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a depression prevention program ('Op Volle Kracht') among adolescent girls with elevated depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wijnhoven, Lieke A M W; Creemers, Daan H M; Vermulst, Ad A; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-02-01

    Depression rates rise dramatically from the early to late adolescence. Especially young adolescent girls with elevated depressive symptoms are at high risk for developing a depression during adolescence or adulthood. Therefore, the prevention of depression is important especially in this high-risk group. The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) component of the depression prevention program 'Op Volle Kracht' (OVK) among Dutch adolescent girls with elevated depressive symptoms. In total, 102 adolescent girls (11-15 years) in the first and second year of secondary school participated in this study. The girls in the experimental group (n = 50) followed the eight CBT-lessons of OVK and reported depressive symptoms 1 week prior to the start of the lessons, after every lesson, at one-month and 6-months follow-up. The girls in the control group (n = 52) exclusively reported depressive symptoms at the same time points. Latent Growth Curve Modeling showed that the decrease in depressive symptoms was significantly larger for girls in the experimental group compared to the girls in the control group. Furthermore, it was found that at 6-months follow-up, the girls in the experimental group had significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms compared to the girls in the control group. These findings indicate that the CBT-component of OVK effectively reduces depressive symptoms in short term and possibly prevents the development of a clinical depression.

  6. Moderators of the effects of indicated group and bibliotherapy cognitive behavioral depression prevention programs on adolescents' depressive symptoms and depressive disorder onset.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M; Stice, Eric

    2015-12-01

    We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention.

  7. School-Based Prevention of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Early Adolescence: A Pilot of a Parent Intervention Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen J.; Freres, Derek R.; Lascher, Marisa; Litzinger, Samantha; Shatte, Andrew; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that school-based cognitive-behavioral interventions can reduce and prevent depressive symptoms in youth. This pilot study investigated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program for Children and Adolescents (the PRP-CA), when combined with a parent intervention…

  8. Fluoxetine Treatment for Prevention of Relapse of Depression in Children and Adolescents: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emslie, Graham J.; Heiligenstein, John H.; Hoog, Sharon L.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Findling, Robert L.; McCracken, James T.; Nilsson, Mary E.; Jacobson, Jennie G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare fluoxetine 20 to 60 mg/day with placebo for prevention of relapse of major depressive disorder in children and adolescents who had achieved Children's Depression Rating Scale, Revised scores of [less than or equal to]28 during treatment with fluoxetine 20 to 60 mg. Method: In this 32-week relapse-prevention phase of a…

  9. The Relationship Between Parental Stress and Postpartum Depression Among Adolescent Mothers Enrolled in a Randomized Controlled Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Maureen G.; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Zlotnick, Caron

    2015-01-01

    Given the high co-occurrence of depression and parental stress among adolescent mothers, we evaluated the relationship between parental stress and postpartum depression among primiparous adolescent mothers. We conducted an observational analysis among a cohort of 106 adolescent mothers at 289 postpartum visits who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to prevent postpartum depression. Parental stress was measured using the Parenting Stress Index, short form. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses was administered to assess for postpartum depression; subthreshold depression was assessed using the Children's Depression Rating Scale, revised version. Generalized estimating equations were utilized to assess the relationship of parental stress on postpartum depression during the first 6 months postpartum. We present adjusted odds ratios (AOR) controlling for study arm, age, born in the United States, prior history of depression, and number of study visits. The median age was 16 years, 53 % were Latina, and 16 % reported a past history of depression. Nineteen adolescents (19 %) were diagnosed with postpartum depression and 25 % experienced high levels of parental stress through 6 months postpartum. Adolescent mothers who reported higher levels of parental stress were at significantly increased risk for postpartum depression [AOR 1.06 (95 % CI 1.04–1.09); p < 0.0001]. High levels of parental stress predicted subsequent postpartum depression when assessing parental stress at visits prior to a depression diagnosis to determine whether we could establish a temporal association [AOR 1.06 (95 % CI 1.02– 1.09); p < 0.01]. Parental stress was also a risk factor for subthreshold depression [AOR 1.04 (95 % CI 1.01– 1.07); p < 0.01]. Parental stress was a significant risk factor for developing both postpartum depression as well as subthreshold depression among adolescent mothers. Interventions that target a reduction in parental stress may

  10. The relationship between parental stress and postpartum depression among adolescent mothers enrolled in a randomized controlled prevention trial.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Kartik K; Phipps, Maureen G; Triche, Elizabeth W; Zlotnick, Caron

    2014-08-01

    Given the high co-occurrence of depression and parental stress among adolescent mothers, we evaluated the relationship between parental stress and postpartum depression among primiparous adolescent mothers. We conducted an observational analysis among a cohort of 106 adolescent mothers at 289 postpartum visits who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to prevent postpartum depression. Parental stress was measured using the Parenting Stress Index, short form. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses was administered to assess for postpartum depression; subthreshold depression was assessed using the Children's Depression Rating Scale, revised version. Generalized estimating equations were utilized to assess the relationship of parental stress on postpartum depression during the first 6 months postpartum. We present adjusted odds ratios (AOR) controlling for study arm, age, born in the United States, prior history of depression, and number of study visits. The median age was 16 years, 53% were Latina, and 16% reported a past history of depression. Nineteen adolescents (19%) were diagnosed with postpartum depression and 25% experienced high levels of parental stress through 6 months postpartum. Adolescent mothers who reported higher levels of parental stress were at significantly increased risk for postpartum depression [AOR 1.06 (95% CI 1.04-1.09); p < 0.0001]. High levels of parental stress predicted subsequent postpartum depression when assessing parental stress at visits prior to a depression diagnosis to determine whether we could establish a temporal association [AOR 1.06 (95% CI 1.02-1.09); p < 0.01]. Parental stress was also a risk factor for subthreshold depression [AOR 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.07); p < 0.01]. Parental stress was a significant risk factor for developing both postpartum depression as well as subthreshold depression among adolescent mothers. Interventions that target a reduction in parental stress may lead to less

  11. Prevention and early intervention for depression in adolescence and early adult life.

    PubMed

    Harrington, R; Clark, A

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the possibility that early intervention might prevent mental disorders later in life. Indeed, in the United Kingdom the Department of Health recommends that health promotion should be one of the main functions of child mental health services, a suggestion that has been endorsed by professional bodies. It is easy to see why both purchasers and providers of mental health services would be interested in prevention, but will preventive interventions work in practice? This paper discusses the possibility of preventing depressive disorder in late adolescence and early adult life by intervening in childhood and early adolescence. The paper begins with a description of the phenomenology of depression and its risk factors. It then goes on to describe a framework of prevention and within this framework explores whether there is an adequate knowledge base. The general perspective that is presented is one of cautious scepticism. It is argued that difficulties in defining depression and identifying risk factors that can easily be remedied make it unlikely that within the foreseeable future primary prevention programmes will prove to be more effective than treatment and rehabilitation of affected individuals. The possibility that preventive programmes could do harm will also be discussed. The paper concludes with some proposals about appropriate targets for prevention. It is suggested that apart from a few policy areas where there are some relatively harmless measures that could protect from later depression, a balanced preventive programme will give higher priority to treatment services than to those concerned with early intervention.

  12. A Randomized Depression Prevention Trial Comparing Interpersonal Psychotherapy--Adolescent Skills Training to Group Counseling in Schools.

    PubMed

    Young, Jami F; Benas, Jessica S; Schueler, Christie M; Gallop, Robert; Gillham, Jane E; Mufson, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Given the rise in depression disorders in adolescence, it is important to develop and study depression prevention programs for this age group. The current study examined the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group prevention program for adolescent depression, in comparison to group programs that are typically delivered in school settings. In this indicated prevention trial, 186 adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST delivered by research staff or group counseling (GC) delivered by school counselors. Hierarchical linear modeling examined differences in rates of change in depressive symptoms and overall functioning from baseline to the 6-month follow-up assessment. Cox regression compared rates of depression diagnoses. Adolescents in IPT-AST showed significantly greater improvements in self-reported depressive symptoms and evaluator-rated overall functioning than GC adolescents from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. However, there were no significant differences between the two conditions in onset of depression diagnoses. Although both intervention conditions demonstrated significant improvements in depressive symptoms and overall functioning, results indicate that IPT-AST has modest benefits over groups run by school counselors which were matched on frequency and duration of sessions. In particular, IPT-AST outperformed GC in reduction of depressive symptoms and improvements in overall functioning. These findings point to the clinical utility of this depression prevention program, at least in the short-term. Additional follow-up is needed to determine the long-term effects of IPT-AST, relative to GC, particularly in preventing depression onset.

  13. Clusters of Behaviors and Beliefs Predicting Adolescent Depression: Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Paunesku, David; Ellis, Justin; Fogel, Joshua; Kuwabara, Sachiko A; Gollan, Jackie; Gladstone, Tracy; Reinecke, Mark; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Risk factors for various disorders are known to cluster. However, the factor structure for behaviors and beliefs predicting depressive disorder in adolescents is not known. Knowledge of this structure can facilitate prevention planning. METHODS We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) data set to conduct an exploratory factor analysis to identify clusters of behaviors/experiences predicting the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) at 1-year follow-up (N=4,791). RESULTS Four factors were identified: family/interpersonal relations, self-emancipation, avoidant problem solving/low self-worth, and religious activity. Strong family/interpersonal relations were the most significantly protective against depression at one year follow-up. Avoidant problem solving/low self-worth was not predictive of MDD on its own, but significantly amplified the risks associated with delinquency. CONCLUSION Depression prevention interventions should consider giving family relationships a more central role in their efforts. Programs teaching problem solving skills may be most appropriate for reducing MDD risk in delinquent youth. PMID:20502621

  14. Depression Prevention for Early Adolescent Girls: A Pilot Study of All Girls Versus Co-Ed Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen; Elkon, Andrea G. L.; Samuels, Barbra; Freres, Derek R.; Winder, Breanna; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Given the dramatic increase in depression that occurs during early adolescence in girls, interventions must address the needs of girls. The authors examined whether a depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program, was more effective for girls in all-girls groups than in co-ed groups. Within co-ed groups, the authors also tested…

  15. Evaluation of a Group Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Young Adolescents: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen J.; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Chajon, Norma D.; Kash-MacDonald, V. Megan; Chaplin, Tara M.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Matlin, Samantha L.; Gallop, Robert J.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a common psychological problem in adolescence. Recent research suggests that group cognitive-behavioral interventions can reduce and prevent symptoms of depression in youth. Few studies have tested the effectiveness of such interventions when delivered by school teachers and counselors (as opposed to research team staff). We…

  16. The Prevention of Depression and Anxiety in a Sample of High-Risk Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Keith S.; Hopkins, Jamie Ahnberg; Fata, Ladan; Scherrer, Martin; Allan, Lauren C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques in preventing depression and anxiety in a group of adolescent high school students with elevated risk for developing emotional disorders. Students were screened using a measure of depression severity and clinical interview. Following screening procedures,…

  17. Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dina M.

    Affective disorder is characterized by maladaptive changes in mood, attitudes, energy level, and physical status. These changes constitute the basic dimensions of depression. Depression results from a combination of genetic and experiential factors. There are sex differences and age differences with regard to depression, and there is a high…

  18. Prevention of Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Connor, Jennifer; Wadsworth, Martha

    Substantial numbers of children and adolescents experience symptoms of sadness, dysphoria, and other characteristics associated with depression. The nature of depression in children and adolescents has presented challenges in identification and definition. This chapter reviews research on depression in children and adolescents. Three current…

  19. Can Basic Risk Research Help in the Prevention of Childhood and Adolescent Depression? Examining a Cognitive and Emotional Regulation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Frances; Rawal, Adhip

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight ways in which basic research findings in the field of childhood and adolescent depression can help to inform and refine preventive intervention efforts. We selectively review basic research evidence from community, clinical, and high-risk populations that identifies cognitive mechanisms (thought processes and reactions to negative affect) and emotional regulation as key processes involved in the onset and maintenance of depression. We focus on cognitive and emotional mechanisms in order to allow comparability with the majority of current preventive interventions. A range of basic research strategies and studies are then suggested that could be employed to help the development and refinement of prevention strategies. These include the need for prospective longitudinal studies to identify causal risk and protective factors, an integration of research approaches and methods, and a focus on understanding potential aetiological heterogeneity between childhood and adolescent depression. PMID:21197099

  20. Computerised Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for the Prevention and Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Thomas; Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) can be effective in the treatment of depression and anxiety in adults, although the outcomes with children and adolescents are unclear. The aim of the study is to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of cCBT for the prevention and treatment of depression…

  1. Reduced substance use as a secondary benefit of an indicated cognitive-behavioral adolescent depression prevention program.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Gau, Jeff M; Marti, C Nathan

    2012-09-01

    Our first aim was to test whether a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) depression prevention program reduces substance use escalation over 2-year follow-up relative to two active comparison interventions and a brochure assessment control. Our second aim examined whether reductions in depressive symptoms mediate intervention effects, as posited by the affect-regulation model of substance use. In this indicated prevention trial, 341 high school adolescents at risk for depression because of the presence of elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a Group CB intervention, group supportive-expressive group intervention, CB bibliotherapy, or educational brochure control condition. Participants in Group CB had significantly lower rates of substance use compared with brochure control participants at both 1- and 2-year follow-up and lower substance use at 2-year follow-up relative to bibliotherapy participants; no other condition differences were significant. Mediational analyses suggested that reductions in depressive symptoms from baseline to posttest accounted for changes in substance use over 2 years for participants in Group CB relative to brochure control participants but did not mediate effects relative to those receiving bibliotherapy. Results suggest that a secondary benefit of this CB group indicated depression prevention program is lower rates of long-term substance use. Findings supported the hypothesis that, relative to a nonactive comparison condition, reductions in depressive symptoms mediated the effects of Group CB prevention on substance use escalation.

  2. Reduced Substance Use as a Secondary Benefit of an Indicated Cognitive-Behavioral Adolescent Depression Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Gau, Jeff M.; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Our first aim was to test whether a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) depression prevention program reduces substance use escalation over 2-year follow-up relative to two active comparison interventions and a brochure assessment control. Our second aim examined whether reductions in depressive symptoms mediate intervention effects, as posited by the affect-regulation model of substance use. In this indicated prevention trial, 341 high school adolescents at risk for depression due to the presence of elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group CB intervention, group supportive-expressive intervention, CB bibliotherapy, or educational brochure control condition. Participants in group CB had significantly lower rates of substance use compared to brochure control participants at both 1- and 2-year follow-up and lower substance use at 2-year follow-up relative to bibliotherapy participants; no other condition differences were significant. Mediational analyses suggested that reductions in depressive symptoms from baseline to post-test accounted for changes in substance use over two years for participants in group CB relative to brochure control participants but did not mediate effects relative to those receiving bibliotherapy. Results suggest that a secondary benefit of this CB group indicated depression prevention program is lower rates of long-term substance use. Findings supported the hypothesis that, relative to a non-active comparison condition, reductions in depressive symptoms mediated the effects of group CB prevention on substance use escalation. PMID:22564206

  3. Evaluation of a group cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for young adolescents: A randomized effectiveness trial

    PubMed Central

    Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen J.; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Chajon, Norma D.; Megan Kash-MacDonald, V.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Matlin, Samantha L.; Gallop, Robert J.; Seligman, Martin E.P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Depression is a common psychological problem in adolescence. Recent research suggests that group cognitive-behavioral interventions can reduce and prevent symptoms of depression in youth. Few studies have tested the effectiveness of such interventions when delivered by school teachers and counselors (as opposed to research team staff). Method We evaluated the effectiveness of the Penn Resiliency Program for adolescents (PRP-A), a school-based group intervention that targets cognitive behavioral risk factors for depression. We randomly assigned 408 middle school students (ages 10-15) to one of three conditions: PRP-A, PRP-AP (in which adolescents participated in PRP-A and parents were invited to attend a parent intervention component), or a school-as-usual control. Adolescents completed measures of depression and anxiety symptoms, cognitive style, and coping at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and at 6-month follow-up. Results PRP-A reduced depression symptoms relative to the school as usual control. Baseline levels of hopelessness moderated intervention effects. Among participants with average and high levels of hopelessness, PRP (A and AP) significantly improved depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, hopelessness, and active coping relative to control. Among participants with low baseline hopelessness, we found no intervention effects. PRP-AP was not more effective than PRP-A alone. We found no intervention effects on clinical levels of depression or anxiety. Conclusion These findings suggest that cognitive-behavioral interventions can be beneficial when delivered by school teachers and counselors. These interventions may be most helpful to students with elevated hopelessness. PMID:22889296

  4. Costing program implementation using systematic reviews: interventions for the prevention of adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Shemilt, Ian; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Pössel, Patrick; Mugford, Miranda; Wooldridge, Don T

    2012-09-01

    Systematic reviews can provide up-to-date syntheses of reliable evidence on "what works" to help policymakers, practitioners, and people who use services make well-informed decisions about social and behavioral interventions. However, systematic reviews of social and behavioral interventions do not typically include evidence on resource use and costs, critical dimensions for decision makers to consider when faced with limited resources and constrained budgets. This paper builds on existing recommendations for including evidence for resource use and costs in systematic reviews by illustrating the development and use of an instrument to code resource use and cost data from an existing systematic review on the effects of adolescent depression prevention programs and applying that instrument to 46 studies included in that review. We demonstrate that resource use and cost data are relatively sparsely reported for treatment conditions in reports of included studies and even more so for comparison conditions, although the reporting of the most important cost drivers is reasonably frequent for treatment conditions. To allow for better integration of resource use and cost data into systematic reviews, future studies that aim to inform decision making should report more detail about program resource use and costs required for implementation, perhaps using the template provided in this paper. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Adolescent depression: a metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Dundon, Edith Emma

    2006-01-01

    Concerns about the adequate assessment and treatment of adolescent depression have been in the forefront of pediatric mental health literature in the recent past. While quantitative studies have provided valuable information, the voice of the adolescent has been lacking in the development of theory and treatment of this prevalent disorder. Using approach, a metasynthesis of six qualitative studies was conducted. This process revealed six themes that outline the course of adolescents who struggle with depression: (a) beyond the blues, (b) spiraling down and within, (c) breaking points, (d) seeing and being seen, (e) seeking solutions, and (f) taking control. Knowledge of the experience of adolescent depression will aid practitioners in recognition and early intervention for the increasing number of adolescents suffering with depression, as well as guide educational initiatives to provide needed information on the symptoms of depression and available resources for getting help.

  6. Moderators of two Indicated Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Approaches for Adolescents in a School-Based Effectiveness Trial

    PubMed Central

    Brière, Frédéric N.; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to identify moderators of the effects of a cognitive behavioral group-based prevention program (CB group) and CB bibliotherapy, relative to an educational brochure control condition and to one another, in a school-based effectiveness randomized controlled prevention trial. Method 378 adolescents (M age = 15.5, 68% female) with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized in one of three conditions and were assessed at pretest, posttest, and 6-month follow-up. We tested the moderating effect of three individual (Baseline Depressive Symptoms, Negative Attributional Style, Substance Use), three environmental (Negative Life Events, Parental Support, Peer Support), and two sociodemographic (Sex, Age) characteristics. Results Baseline Depressive Symptoms interacted with Condition and Time. Decomposition indicated that elevated baseline depressive symptoms amplified the effect of CB bibliotherapy at posttest (but not 6-month follow-up) relative to the control condition, but did not modify the effect of CB group relative to the control condition or relative to bibliotherapy. Specifically, CB bibliotherapy resulted in lower posttest depressive symptoms than the control condition in individuals with elevated, but not average or low baseline symptoms. We found no interaction effect for other putative moderators. Conclusions Our findings suggest that bibliotherapy is effective only in participants who have elevated depressive symptoms at baseline. The fact that no study variable moderated the effects of CB group, which had a significant main effect in reducing depressive symptoms relative to the control condition, suggests that this indicated prevention intervention is effective for a wide range of adolescents. PMID:24418653

  7. [Depressive syndromes in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Branik, E

    1990-04-01

    First the difficulties with the concept of depression, its definition and with the classification and heterogeneity of the depressive syndromes are pointed out. The particular clinical importance of depressive states, especially of adolescents, is shown by means of epidemiological data. A case report illustrates the classification problems and a part of the typical conflicts and psychic demands in adolescence. Then follows a short survey on the conception of depressive states in psychoanalysis, with special reference to this age group. The evaluation of the given studies calls for interdisciplinary research, in order to tackle the still unsolved questions concerning depressive conditions and to improve the coordination of separate findings. PMID:2352911

  8. A meta-analytic review of depression prevention programs for children and adolescents: factors that predict magnitude of intervention effects.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C Nathan; Rohde, Paul

    2009-06-01

    In this meta-analytic review, the authors summarized the effects of depression prevention programs for youth as well as investigated participant, intervention, provider, and research design features associated with larger effects. They identified 47 trials that evaluated 32 prevention programs, producing 60 intervention effect sizes. The average effect for depressive symptoms from pre-to-posttreatment (r = .15) and pretreatment to-follow-up (r = .11) were small, but 13 (41%) prevention programs produced significant reductions in depressive symptoms and 4 (13%) produced significant reductions in risk for future depressive disorder onset relative to control groups. Larger effects emerged for programs targeting high-risk individuals, samples with more females, samples with older adolescents, programs with a shorter duration and with homework assignments, and programs delivered by professional interventionists. Intervention content (e.g., a focus on problem-solving training or reducing negative cognitions) and design features (e.g., use of random assignment and structured interviews) were unrelated to effect sizes. Results suggest that depression prevention efforts produce a higher yield if they incorporate factors associated with larger intervention effects (e.g., selective programs with a shorter duration that include homework).

  9. Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Led Depression Prevention Intervention for African American Adolescents and Young Adults in Employment Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Darius; Mendelson, Tamar; Mance, GiShawn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the acceptability and preliminary outcomes from an open trial of a depression prevention intervention for low-income African American adolescents and young adults in employment training programs. The sample (N=42) consisted of predominately African American adolescents and young adults (mean age=19.1) exhibiting subclinical…

  10. A longitudinal evaluation of the Resilient Families randomized trial to prevent early adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Buttigieg, Jason P; Shortt, Alison L; Slaviero, Tania M; Hutchinson, Delyse; Kremer, Peter; Toumbourou, John W

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether an intervention prevented the development of depressive symptoms through the early years of secondary school (Grades 7 to 9 - mean ages 12.3 to 14.5 years) in Victoria, Australia. Twelve schools were randomized to a universal preventative intervention (including a student social relationship/emotional health curriculum, and parent/caregiver parenting education); 12 were randomized as control schools. Multivariate regression analyses used student self-report to predict depressive symptoms at 26-month follow-up (13-months after intervention completion) from baseline measures and intervention status (N = 2027). There was no overall intervention effect on depressive symptoms. However, intervention students with moderate symptoms whose parents attended parent education events had a significantly reduced risk of depressive symptoms at follow-up. Future evaluations of interventions of this type should investigate: therapeutic processes; methods to increase recruitment into effective parent education events; and the potential to target assistance to students with high depressive symptoms. PMID:26298674

  11. The Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skill Training (IPT-AST) in Preventing Depression: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerner, Sarah Shankman

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent depression is a prevalent and debilitating disorder that is associated with social and academic impairment, suicidality, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and high-risk behaviors (Horowitz, Garber, Ciesla, Young, & Mufson, 2007). Yet many adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms do not receive adequate services, and those that do…

  12. Acculturative stress, depression, and suicidal ideation among Mexican-American adolescents: implications for the development of suicide prevention programs in schools.

    PubMed

    Hovey, J D

    1998-08-01

    The present study explored the relationship of scores on acculturative stress with those on depression and suicidal ideation among 26 male and 28 female Mexican-American students from a southern California high school. Subjects completed the SAFE acculturative stress scale, the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale, and the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior. Analyses suggested that acculturating Mexican-American adolescents who report high scores on acculturative stress may report elevated scores for depression and suicidal ideation. Researchers should assess suicide risk within this and other acculturating groups, and risk factors specific to acculturating groups should be considered in the development and implementation of suicide prevention programs in schools. PMID:9775681

  13. Where to Go from Here? An Exploratory Meta-Analysis of the Most Promising Approaches to Depression Prevention Programs for Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hetrick, Sarah E.; Cox, Georgina R.; Merry, Sally N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the overall effect of individual depression prevention programs on future likelihood of depressive disorder and reduction in depressive symptoms. In addition, we have investigated whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) and other therapeutic techniques may modify this effectiveness. Methods: This study is based on and includes the trial data from meta-analyses conducted in the Cochrane systematic review of depression prevention programs for children and adolescents by Merry et al. (2011). All trials were published or unpublished English language randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or cluster RCTs of any psychological or educational intervention compared to no intervention to prevent depression in children and adolescents aged 5–19 years. Results: There is some evidence that the therapeutic approach used in prevention programs modifies the overall effect. CBT is the most studied type of intervention for depression prevention, and there is some evidence of its effectiveness in reducing the risk of developing a depressive disorder, particularly in targeted populations. Fewer studies employed IPT, however this approach appears promising. To our knowledge, this is the first study to have explored how differences in the approach taken in the prevention programs modify the overall treatment effects of prevention programs for children and adolescents. Conclusions: More research is needed to identify the specific components of CBT that are most effective or indeed if there are other approaches that are more effective in reducing the risk of future depressive episodes. It is imperative that prevention programs are suitable for large scale roll-out, and that emerging popular modes of delivery, such as online dissemination continue to be rigorously tested. PMID:25941844

  14. Effects of Adolescent Universal Substance Misuse Preventive Interventions on Young Adult Depression Symptoms: Mediational Modeling.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard; Mason, W Alex; Randall, G Kevin; Redmond, Cleve; Schainker, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Depression symptoms are associated with impairments in functioning and have substantial health and economic consequences. Universal substance misuse prevention programs have shown effects on non-targeted mental health-related symptoms, but long-term effects are understudied. This cluster randomized controlled trial examined effects of both the LifeSkills Training (LST) and Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (SFP 10-14) interventions, delivered during seventh grade, on age 22 young adult depression symptoms. The study was conducted in US rural Midwestern communities with a randomly-selected sample from a larger study (N = 670). Experimental conditions were LST+SFP 10-14, LST-only, and a control condition. Effects on age 22 depression symptoms were hypothesized as mediated through effects on age 21 relationship problems and illicit use of substances. Structural equation modeling with manifest and latent variables was conducted to test hypotheses; the intervention conditions were combined and compared with the control condition because analyses indicated a comparable pattern of effects between intervention conditions. Significant indirect intervention effects were found on age 22 depression symptoms via effects on the mediating variables (indirect effect: β = -0.06, 95 % CI [-0.10, -0.01], p = 0.011). Effect sizes for the young adult variables were between d = 0.17 and 0.29, which can be considered small, but nontrivial, especially in the context of public health benefits. Results support scaled-up implementation of school-based and family-focused universal substance misuse preventive interventions. PMID:25795013

  15. Examining reward-seeking, negative self-beliefs and over-general autobiographical memory as mechanisms of change in classroom prevention programs for adolescent depression

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Frances; Rawal, Adhip; Riglin, Lucy; Lewis, Gemma; Lewis, Glyn; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective methods to prevent adolescent depressive symptoms could reduce suffering and burden across the lifespan. However, psychological interventions delivered to adolescents show efficacy only in symptomatic or high-risk youth. Targeting causal risk factors and assessing mechanistic change can help devise efficacious universal or classroom based prevention programs. Methods A non-randomized longitudinal design was used to compare three classroom-based prevention programs for adolescent depression (Behavioral Activation with Reward Processing, “Thinking about Reward in Young People” (TRY); Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT)), and determine cognitive mechanisms of change in these programs. Cognitive mechanisms examined were reward-seeking, negative self-beliefs (assessed with behavioral tasks) and over-general autobiographical memory. 256 healthy adolescents aged 13–14 participated with 236 (92%) and 227 (89%) completing the pre- and post-assessments. Results TRY was the only intervention associated with a reduction in depressive symptoms at follow-up. Reward-seeking increased following TRY. In the other programs there were non-significant changes in cognitive mechanisms, with more reflective negative self-beliefs in CBT and fewer over-general autobiographical memories in MBCT In the TRY program, which focused on increasing sensitivity to rewarding activities, reward seeking increased and this was associated with decreased depressive symptoms. Limitations Due to the infeasibility of a cluster randomized controlled trial, a non-randomized design was used. Conclusions Increased reward-seeking was associated with decreased depressive symptoms and may be a mechanism of depressive symptom change in the intervention with a focus on enhancing sensitivity and awareness of reward. This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that incorporating activities to enhance reward sensitivity may be fruitful in

  16. Subthreshold depression in adolescence: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bertha, Eszter A; Balázs, Judit

    2013-10-01

    In adolescence, the number of depressive symptoms is rising notably. Individuals may have relevant depressive symptoms without meeting the full criteria of a major depressive episode (MDE), a condition referred to as subthreshold depression (sD). This article presents a review on adolescent sD examining the prevalence, the quality of life (QoL), the risk of developing MDE, and preventive programs available for adolescents living with sD. A systematic literature search from the year of the introduction of Diagnostic and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) until 2012 (18 years) was conducted with a special focus on adolescent sD. Data from 27 studies were included into this review. The results show high prevalence of sD among adolescents, with a negative impact on QoL, and provide evidence that sD is a significant risk indicator of later MDE; therefore, individuals with sD represent good targets for preventive interventions. Our review highlights the fact that sD is a significant health problem among adolescents indeed, and adolescents with sD could be a subgroup of youth, who need further help to reduce their clinically significant depressive symptoms for the successful prevention of a later MDE.

  17. Depression in Urban Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles-Pina, Rebecca A.; DeFrance, Emily; Cox, Deborah; Woodward, April

    2005-01-01

    Depression in urban Hispanic adolescents can have negative influences on their ability to acquire a sound education. This study was conducted on 191 urban Hispanic adolescents ages 13-18. The findings indicated that (a) Hispanic females were more depressed than Hispanic males, (b) 42% of the participants had been retained a grade, (c) 7% had…

  18. Indicated Cognitive-Behavioral Group Depression Prevention Compared to Bibliotherapy and Brochure Control: Acute Effects of an Effectiveness Trial with Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Brière, Frédéric N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Test whether a brief cognitive-behavioral (CB) group and bibliotherapy prevention reduce major depressive disorder onset, depressive symptoms, and secondary outcomes relative to brochure controls in adolescents with self-reported depressive symptoms when school personnel recruit participants and deliver the intervention. Method 378 adolescents (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.2; 68% female, 72% White) with elevated self-assessed depressive symptoms were randomized to a 6-session CB group, minimal contact CB bibliotherapy, or educational brochure control. Participants were assessed at pretest, posttest, and 6-month follow-up. Results CB group participants showed a significantly lower risk for major depressive disorder onset (0.8%) compared to both CB bibliotherapy (6.3%) and brochure control (6.5%; HR = 8.1 and 8.3; respectively). Planned contrasts indicated that CB group resulted in lower depressive symptom severity than brochure control at posttest (p = .03, d = .29) but not 6-month follow-up; differences between CB group and bibliotherapy were nonsignificant at posttest and 6-month follow-up. Condition effects were nonsignificant for social adjustment and substance use. Conclusions The finding that a brief CB group intervention delivered by real-world providers significantly reduced MDD onset relative to both brochure control and bibliotherapy is very encouraging, though effects on continuous outcome measures were small or nonsignificant and approximately half the magnitude of those found in efficacy research, potentially because the present sample reported lower initial depression. PMID:24099432

  19. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  20. Teen Depression and Suicide: Effective Prevention and Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Teen depression and suicidal behaviors are intricately intertwined, with untreated depression being a leading cause of adolescent suicide. Most depressed or suicidal teens tend to show warning signs and possess specific risk factors. A key component to preventing teen depression is for adults to remain aware of such warning signs and risk factors…

  1. Poverty and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Butler, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on non-Hispanic White children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,056) were used to examine whether the relationship between poverty (early childhood poverty, poverty persistence, and current poverty) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Internalizing Index) can be explained by the mother's own childhood depression and family characteristics measured during the child's first year of life. Associations between poverty and depressive symptoms among adolescents were explained by mother's childhood depression and whether the adolescent had lived with both parents during the first year of life. The findings highlight the need for appropriate treatment of childhood depression so as to reduce the adverse consequences in adulthood and for the next generation.

  2. Effectiveness Trial of an Indicated Cognitive-Behavioral Group Adolescent Depression Prevention Program versus Bibliotherapy and Brochure Control at 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the longterm effects of a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) adolescent depression indicated prevention program through 2-year follow-up, relative to CB bibliotherapy and brochure control, when high school personnel recruited students and delivered the program. Method 378 adolescents (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.2; 68% female, 72% White) with elevated self-assessed depressive symptoms who were randomized to CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or educational brochure control were assessed at pre, post, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results By 2 years post-intervention, CB group participants showed significantly lower major depressive disorder (MDD) onset versus CB bibliotherapy (10% vs. 25%, respectively; HR = 2.48, p = .006), but the incidence difference relative to brochure controls (17%) was nonsignificant; MDD incidence for bibliotherapy and brochure controls did not differ. Although CB group participants showed lower depressive symptoms at post versus brochure controls, there were no effects for this outcome or for social adjustment or substance use over 2-year follow-up. Moderator analyses suggested that participants with higher baseline depressive symptoms showed greater longterm symptom reductions in the CB group intervention versus bibliotherapy. Conclusions The evidence that a brief CB group intervention delivered by real-world providers significantly reduced MDD onset versus CB bibliotherapy is potentially encouraging. However, the lack of MDD prevention effects relative to brochure control and lack of longterm symptom effects (though consistent with results from other depression prevention trials), suggest that the delivery of CB group should be refined to strengthen its effectiveness. PMID:25894666

  3. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, Dave; Golden, Larry

    This book deals with the realities of adolescent suicide. It consists of 15 chapters organized under 5 major headings: The Problem of Adolescent Suicide (chapters 1 and 2); A Profile of the Attempter (chapters 3-6); Assessing Lethality (chapters 7 and 8); Prevention and Intervention (chapters 9-14); and Legal Issues (chapter 15). Individual…

  4. Korean American Adolescent Depression and Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung; Cain, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM Korean American adolescents tend to experience more mental health problems than adolescents in other ethnic groups. METHODS The goal of this study was to examine the association between Korean American parent-adolescent relationships and adolescents’ depressive symptoms in 56 families. FINDINGS Thirty-nine percent of adolescents reported elevated depressive symptoms. Adolescents’ perceived low maternal warmth and higher intergenerational acculturation conflicts with fathers were significant predictors for adolescent depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS The findings can be used to develop a family intervention program, the aim of which would be to decrease adolescent depressive symptoms by promoting parental warmth and decreasing parent-adolescent acculturation conflicts. PMID:18429840

  5. Influence of General Self-Efficacy on the Effects of a School-Based Universal Primary Prevention Program of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: A Randomized and Controlled Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Possel, Patrick; Baldus, Christiane; Horn, Andrea B.; Groen, Gunter; Hautzinger, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Background: Depressive disorders in adolescents are a widespread and increasing problem. Prevention seems a promising and feasible approach. Methods: We designed a cognitive-behavioral school-based universal primary prevention program and followed 347 eighth-grade students participating in a randomized controlled trial for three months. Results:…

  6. The Effectiveness of a School-Based Adolescent Depression Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Karen L.; Kastelic, Elizabeth A.; Hess, Sally G.; Cox, Todd S.; Gonzales, Lizza C.; Mink, Sallie P.; DePaulo, J. Raymond, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to decrease the suicide rate in adolescents, many interventions have focused on school-based suicide prevention programs. Alternatively, depression education in schools might be effective in decreasing the morbidity, mortality, and stigma associated with adolescent depression. The Adolescent Depression Awareness Program (ADAP)…

  7. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Eliza S. Y.; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Wong, Paul W. C.; Fu, King-Wa; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, “The Little Prince is Depressed”, for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme. Methods This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in “The Little Prince is Depressed” programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1) depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2) knowledge of mental health; (3) attitudes towards mental illness; (4) perceived social support; and (5) help-seeking behaviours. Results A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (p<.05). A preference among schoolchildren for whom to seek help from was identified. Conclusions The universal depression prevention programme was effective in enhancing knowledge of mental health and promoting a more positive attitude towards mental illness among adolescents in Hong Kong. In particular, the teacher-led group showed better outcomes than the professional-led group in reducing students’ anxiety and stress at follow-up period. The programme can achieve sustainability in schools if

  8. [Current concepts of depression during adolescence].

    PubMed

    Greszta, Elzbieta

    2004-01-01

    Until the 1960-ties, there was considerable debate on whether or not depression exists before adulthood. Next, there were popular concepts, which emphasized that depression during adolescence is "normal" for that particular stage of development. From 1980-ties, adolescent depression is seen as the same problem as with adults. The diagnosis of depression in adolescents is based on adult diagnostic criteria. Today, there is a more generally accepted standard that adolescence depression is essentially the same phenomenon as adult depression but with some development specific modifications. As compared with adults, adolescents with depression demonstrate a more variable course. The adolescent with depression may exhibit somatic complaints, school difficulties and deconcentration rather than depressed mood. Three conceptualizations of depressive phenomena during adolescence have been presented in the literature: (1) depressed mood alone, (2) depressive syndrome, and (3) depressive disorders. Compas, Ey and Grant have compared and integrated different approaches to a synthesis that reflected a comprehensive model of depressive phenomena during adolescence. Depressed mood, syndromes, and disorders are integrated as 3 levels of depressive phenomena in a hierarchical and sequential model.

  9. Differentiating Adolescent Self-Injury from Adolescent Depression: Possible Implications for Borderline Personality Development

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hsiao, Ray C.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Yaptangco, Mona; Linehan, Marsha M.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Self-inflicted injury (SII) in adolescence marks heightened risk for suicide attempts, completed suicide, and adult psychopathology. Although several studies have revealed elevated rates of depression among adolescents who self injure, no one has compared adolescent self injury with adolescent depression on biological, self-, and informant-report markers of vulnerability and risk. Such a comparison may have important implications for treatment, prevention, and developmental models of self injury and borderline personality disorder. We used a multi-method, multi-informant approach to examine how adolescent SII differs from adolescent depression. Self-injuring, depressed, and typical adolescent females (n = 25 per group) and their mothers completed measures of psychopathology and emotion regulation, among others. In addition, we assessed electrodermal responding (EDR), a peripheral biomarker of trait impulsivity. Participants in the SII group (a) scored higher than depressed adolescents on measures of both externalizing psychopathology and emotion dysregulation, and (b) exhibited attenuated EDR, similar to patterns observed among impulsive, externalizing males. Self-injuring adolescents also scored higher on measures of borderline pathology. These findings reveal a coherent pattern of differences between self-injuring and depressed adolescent girls, consistent with theories that SII differs from depression in etiology and developmental course. PMID:22016199

  10. Adolescent Depressed Mood and Parental Unhappiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasko, David S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A set of self-report scales on depression, parental happiness, intimacy, social support, self-esteem, and risk-taking behavior was administered to 455 adolescents to determine the role of depression with the other variables. Depressed adolescents were found to be less intimate with parents, felt less social support, and had lower self-esteem.…

  11. MEMO—A Mobile Phone Depression Prevention Intervention for Adolescents: Development Process and Postprogram Findings on Acceptability From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Merry, Sally; Stasiak, Karolina; McDowell, Heather; Doherty, Iain; Shepherd, Matthew; Dorey, Enid; Parag, Varsha; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Rodgers, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Background Prevention of the onset of depression in adolescence may prevent social dysfunction, teenage pregnancy, substance abuse, suicide, and mental health conditions in adulthood. New technologies allow delivery of prevention programs scalable to large and disparate populations. Objective To develop and test the novel mobile phone delivery of a depression prevention intervention for adolescents. We describe the development of the intervention and the results of participants’ self-reported satisfaction with the intervention. Methods The intervention was developed from 15 key messages derived from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The program was fully automated and delivered in 2 mobile phone messages/day for 9 weeks, with a mixture of text, video, and cartoon messages and a mobile website. Delivery modalities were guided by social cognitive theory and marketing principles. The intervention was compared with an attention control program of the same number and types of messages on different topics. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken in high schools in Auckland, New Zealand, from June 2009 to April 2011. Results A total of 1348 students (13–17 years of age) volunteered to participate at group sessions in schools, and 855 were eventually randomly assigned to groups. Of these, 835 (97.7%) self-completed follow-up questionnaires at postprogram interviews on satisfaction, perceived usefulness, and adherence to the intervention. Over three-quarters of participants viewed at least half of the messages and 90.7% (379/418) in the intervention group reported they would refer the program to a friend. Intervention group participants said the intervention helped them to be more positive (279/418, 66.7%) and to get rid of negative thoughts (210/418, 50.2%)—significantly higher than proportions in the control group. Conclusions Key messages from CBT can be delivered by mobile phone, and young people report that these are helpful. Change in

  12. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  13. Adolescent depression: diagnosis, treatment, and educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, I use nationally representative longitudinal data to examine adolescent depression and educational attainment. First, I examine the individual, family, and community-level determinants of adolescent depression, diagnosis, and treatment. I find that male and minority adolescents who score high on depression scales are less likely to be diagnosed as depressed or receive treatment than female and non-Hispanic white adolescents. Additionally, I find several community-level variables to be important determinants of depression, diagnosis, and treatment. Second, I examine the importance of adolescent depression for educational attainment. Although it is uncontroversial to expect a negative relationship, most previous research uses cross-sectional data, making it difficult to adequately determine the magnitude of the effect. I find that depressive symptoms are related to educational attainment along multiple margins: dropping out of high school, college enrollment, and college type. These relationships are only found for adolescent females, and there are several interesting results across income groups. Overall, these findings suggest that further attempts to diagnose and treat adolescents with depressive symptoms are needed and that additional treatment options may be required to combat the important relationship between adolescent depression and human capital accumulation for females.

  14. Longitudinal associations between smoking and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Beal, Sarah J; Negriff, Sonya; Dorn, Lorah D; Pabst, Stephanie; Schulenberg, John

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is an important period for initiation of smoking and manifestation of depression, which are often comorbid. Researchers have examined associations between depressive symptoms and smoking to elucidate whether those with increased depressive symptoms smoke more to self-medicate, whether those who smoke experience increased subsequent depressive symptoms, or both. Collectively, there have been mixed findings; however, studies have been limited by (1) cross-sectional or short-term longitudinal data or (2) the use of methods that test associations, or only one direction in the associations, rather than a fully-reciprocal model to examine directionality. This study examined the associations between smoking and depressive symptoms in a sample of adolescent girls using latent dual change scores to model (1) the effect of smoking on change in depressive symptoms, and simultaneously (2) the effect of depressive symptoms on change in smoking across ages 11-20. Data were from a cohort-sequential prospective longitudinal study (N = 262). Girls were enrolled by age cohort (11, 13, 15, and 17 years) and were primarily White (61 %) or African American (31 %). Data were restructured by age. Every 6 months, girls reported depressive symptoms and cigarette use. Results indicated that controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, higher levels of smoking predicted a greater increase in depressive symptoms across adolescence. These findings suggest that a higher level of cigarette smoking does contribute to more depressive symptoms, which has implications for prevention of depression and for intervention and future research.

  15. Emerging from Depression: Treatment of Adolescent Depression Using the Major Treatment Models of Adult Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Kathleen M.

    Noting that adolescents who commit suicide are often clinically depressed, this paper examines various approaches in the treatment of depression. Major treatment models of adult depression, which can be directly applied to the treatment of the depressed adolescent, are described. Major treatment models and selected research studies are reviewed in…

  16. Examining Minor and Major Depression in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Tejera, Gloria; Canino, Glorisa; Ramirez, Rafael; Chavez, Ligia; Shrout, Patrick; Bird, Hector; Bravo, Milagros; Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso; Ribera, Julio; Bauermeister, Jose

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that a large proportion of adolescents with symptoms of depression and substantial distress or impairment fail to meet the diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder (MDD). However, many of these undiagnosed adolescents may meet criteria for a residual category of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  17. Postpartum depression in adolescent mothers: an integrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Reid, Vanessa; Meadows-Oliver, Mikki

    2007-01-01

    Research on adolescent mothers has revealed increasing rates of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period. This review integrated 12 research-based articles to provide a better understanding of depression among adolescent mothers in the first year postpartum. The results revealed that more family conflict, fewer social supports, and low self-esteem all were associated with increased rates of depressive symptoms in adolescent mothers during the first postpartum year. To prevent adverse outcomes associated with depression, it is important that nurse practitioners working with these families screen adolescent mothers for depression and refer them for treatment as needed.

  18. Depressive symptoms and learned resourcefulness among Taiwanese female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Sousa, Valmi D; Tu, Shu-Yin; Hwang, Mei-Yi

    2005-06-01

    Depression in adolescents is a widespread problem and has negative consequences on mental health, including suicidal tendencies. Worldwide, this condition is twice as prevalent in females as in males. To identify factors that may affect the development of depression in female adolescents in Taiwan, a cross-sectional, correlational design was used to examine the relationships among stressors, learned resourcefulness, and depressive symptoms. Four hundred four Taiwanese female adolescents participated in the study. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical multiple regression were used to analyze data. The study findings suggested that low household income, dissatisfaction with grades, perceived poor health state, and poor peer relationships were significant stressors that contribute to the development of depressive symptoms. Adolescents with greater learned resourcefulness had fewer depressive symptoms. In addition, learned resourcefulness mediated the effects of perceived health and peer relationships on depressive symptoms. Health-care providers can use this knowledge to teach adolescents coping strategies such as use of learned resourcefulness to prevent depression and its negative consequences. PMID:15991147

  19. [Vulnerability to depression in children and adolescents: update and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Michel, G; Mouren-Siméoni, M-C

    2002-01-01

    Depression in children and adolescents is associated with poor psychosocial functioning, high psychiatric comorbidity, risk of recurrent episodes or onset of bipolar disorder. These findings emphasize the importance of early identification of children and adolescents having elevated risk for future depression and further development, evaluation and greater availability of prevention strategies. Our review aims an update about depressive vulnerability in children and adolescents in the perspective of better identification of at-risk populations and targeting of prevention programs. Psychopathology, in particular anxiety and disruptive disorders are well identified risk-factors for later depression. Subclinical depressive symptomatology, also termed "demoralization", also identifies high-risk populations, likely to become incident cases of depression. It is still unclear whether this condition is prodromal depression, a specific clinical entity or the expression of biological and/or cognitive vulnerability. Familial risk for depressive disorders involves both genetic and psychosocial factors. Marital discord, poor communication and dysfunctional parenting practices are often present in families with affective disorders and can be implicated in increased depressive vulnerability in the offspring. Research on individual vulnerability in children and adolescents has focused on temperamental and cognitive characteristics. Temperament traits describe individual differences in reactivity and behavior. High emotionality, defined as the tendency to become upset easily and intensely has been associated with an increased risk for subsequent major depression. However, as the majority of high scorers will not become depressive cases, emotionality should not be the only criterion for selection of at-risk populations. Cognitive style including poor self esteem, low social competence and negative attributions are also associated with increased likelihood of depressive symptoms, but

  20. Depressive symptoms, negative urgency and substance use initiation in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Raina D.; Farrahi, Layla; Glazier, Shannon; Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies show depressive symptoms are associated with substance use in adolescents, but the mechanism underlying this association is still unclear. This study investigated negative urgency – the disposition to rash action during emotional states – as a factor explaining relations between depressive symptoms and use of several substances. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 476 adolescents (mean age 14.5 years) completed self-report surveys. Regression models and products of coefficient analyses examined the overall relation of depressive symptoms to substance use and negative urgency as a statistical mediator of this association Results Depression levels associated with increased likelihood of lifetime use of cigarettes, other forms of tobacco, marijuana, alcohol, inhalants, prescription painkillers, and any substance. Relations between depression levels and lifetime use of alcohol, inhalants, and any substance were accounted for (i.e., statistically mediated) by negative urgency. In adolescents endorsing lifetime use, depression levels associated with younger age of first use of other forms of tobacco and alcohol as well as use frequency of cigarette, alcohol, and composite frequency. Negative urgency accounted for the covariance between depression level and age of first use of alcohol, but did not for other forms of tobacco or frequency of use of any substances. Conclusions Depression levels are associated with lifetime use of a variety of substances in early adolescence and targeting this risk factor with preventive efforts may be useful in reducing risk. Negative urgency may be an important target for interventions aimed at alcohol and inhalant use. PMID:25280962

  1. The Emergence of Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.; Petersen, Anne C., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Twelve papers on the emergence and maintenance of severe clinical depression and depressive symptoms during adolescence are presented. Topics include parental influences, epidemiological data, depressive and negative affect, hormonal effects, preadolescent symptoms, sex differences, longitudinal studies with rhesus monkeys, suicidal ideation,…

  2. Social Neuroscience of Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression is inherently multidisciplinary. Depressive disorders beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Psychopathology research has described depression's defining clinical and contextual features, and intervention research has characterized its response…

  3. Listening Clearly: Alternative Treatments for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlasson, Terry D.

    2012-01-01

    For many years now, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and anti-depressant medications have been the primary treatments for adolescent depression. However, there are many youth today with mild to moderate depressive symptoms for whom these treatments are not necessary. This article briefly summarizes several alternative therapeutic approaches for…

  4. Sense of identity and depression in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Demir, Başaran; Kaynak-Demir, Hadiye; Sönmez, Emel Irmak

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sense of identity and depression in a group of adolescents. Thirty-one depressed adolescents and 31 control subjects were included in the study. They were evaluated using the Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Depressed adolescents were reevaluated during the eighth week of antidepressant treatment. Higher baseline SIAF scores were detected in depressed adolescents as compared with non-depressed subjects. After antidepressant treatment, there was a significant decrease in SIAF scores in the depression group. Correlation analysis indicated that there are significant, positive relationships between SIAF, depression, and anxiety scores. The regression analysis results suggested that the change in SIAF scores can accurately predict 91.6% of the remitters and 42.8% of the non-remitters. Collectively, these findings indicate that there is a close association between depression symptoms and identity confusion-related distress in adolescents.

  5. Latino Adolescents' Adjustment, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and the Mother-Adolescent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Rosalie; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Romo, Laura F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined associations between adolescent behaviors, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-adolescent relationships. Latina mothers and adolescents (111 dyads) completed questionnaires and participated in videotaped discussions. Mothers' depressive symptoms related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors and family…

  6. Does Personality Predict Depression and Use of an Internet-Based Intervention for Depression among Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Vangberg, Hans Christian B.; Lillevoll, Kjersti R.; Waterloo, Knut; Eisemann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background. Focus upon depression and prevention of its occurrence among adolescents is increasing. Novel ways of dealing with this serious problem have become available especially by means of internet-based prevention and treatment programs of depression and anxiety. The use of Internet-based intervention programs among adolescents has revealed some difficulties in implementation that need to be further elucidated. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between personality and adolescent depression and the characteristics of users of an Internet-based intervention program. Method. The Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI), the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE) and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) have been administered to a sample (n = 1234) of Norwegian senior high-school students. Results. Multiple regression analysis revealed associations between depression and gender, and several JTCI domains and facets. In line with previous findings in adults, high Harm Avoidance and low Self-Directedness emerged as the strongest predictors of adolescent depressive symptoms. Further, in logistic regression analysis with the covariates JTCI, GSE and CES-D, the only significant variables predicting use/non-use were the CES-D and the temperament domain Reward Dependence. Conclusion. The results in this study revealed level of depressive symptoms as the strongest predictor of the use of the Internet based intervention and that personality might provide useful information about the users. PMID:22928095

  7. Adolescent depressed mood and parental unhappiness.

    PubMed

    Lasko, D S; Field, T M; Gonzalez, K P; Harding, J; Yando, R; Bendell, D

    1996-01-01

    A set of self-report scales on depression, parental happiness, intimate relationships, social support, self-esteem, and risk-taking behavior were administered to 455 adolescents to determine the relationship between depression and these other variables. Adolescents with depressed mood were found to be less intimate with both parents, felt less social support, and had lower self-esteem than their peers. Adolescents who perceived their mother or father as unhappy also reported less intimacy with both parents and less social support.

  8. Adolescent Depression: Stress and Reward Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Admon, Roee; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a peak period for the onset of depression, and it is also a time marked by substantial stress as well as neural development within the brain reward circuitry. In the current review, we provide a selective overview of current animal and human research investigating the relationship among reward processes, stress, and depression. Three separate, but related, etiological models examine the differential roles that stress may play with regard to reward dysfunction and adolescent depression. First, the reward mediation model suggests that acute and chronic stress contribute to reward deficits, which in turn, potentiate depressive symptoms and/or increase the risk for depression. Second, in line with the stress generation perspective, it is plausible that premorbid reward-related dysfunction generates stress, in particular interpersonal stress, which then leads to the manifestation of depressive symptoms. Last, consistent with a diathesis-stress model, the interaction between stress and premorbid reward dysfunction may contribute to the onset of depression. Given the equifinal nature of depression, these models could shed important light on different etiological pathways during adolescence, particularly as they may relate to understanding the heterogeneity of depression. To highlight the translational potential of these insights, a hypothetical case study is provided as means of demonstrating the importance of targeting reward dysfunction in both assessment and treatment of adolescent depression. PMID:24704785

  9. Childhood psychological maltreatment subtypes and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Paul, Elise; Eckenrode, John

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to understand how subtypes and the timing of psychological maltreatment contribute to adolescent depressive symptoms at age 14. The sample included 638 youth from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). At age 12, youth reported experiences of psychological maltreatment (degradation, isolating, and terrorizing), physical abuse (endangerment and physical injury), and sexual abuse that occurred before and during elementary school/last year. Multivariable regression models were conducted separately for females and males at each of the two time periods and accounted for demographics, primary caregiver depressive symptoms, other maltreatment subtypes, and youth-reported age 12 depressive symptoms. For girls, caregiver degradation was the only maltreatment subtype that contributed unique variance to depressive symptoms. Degradation before elementary school and chronic degradation had a stronger impact on depression symptoms. Only caregiver isolating behaviors during elementary school/last year and chronic isolation predicted depressive symptoms in boys. These results suggest that childhood psychological maltreatment is multi-dimensional and is implicated in the etiology of adolescent depressive symptoms. Future prevention efforts should consider parental psychological maltreatment in reducing risk for adolescent depression. PMID:26105164

  10. Effectiveness Study of a CBT-Based Adolescent Coping with Depression Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvik, Margit; Idsoe, Thormod; Bru, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Even though the efficacy of group-based cognitive behavioural interventions is well established both for adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorders as well as for adolescents with depressive symptoms, in order to prevent further development, there has been a call for effectiveness studies in real world settings. This study investigated…

  11. Developing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Depressive Relapse in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jarrett, Robin B.; Emslie, Graham J.

    2008-01-01

    Relapse rates for children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) range from 30% to 40% within 1 to 2 years after acute treatment. Although relapse rates are high, there have been relatively few studies on the prevention of relapse in youth. While acute phase pharmacotherapy has been shown to reduce symptoms rapidly in depressed…

  12. Prevention of depressive disorders in older adults: An overview.

    PubMed

    Cuijpers, Pim; Smit, Filip; Patel, Vikram; Dias, Amit; Li, Juan; Reynolds, Charles F

    2015-03-01

    Prevention of depressive disorders is one of the most important challenges for health care in coming decades. Depressive disorders in all age groups have a high disease burden and are associated with huge economic costs, and current treatments are only capable of taking away one-third of the (nonfatal) disease burden of depression under optimal conditions. Prevention may be one alternative strategy that may help in further reducing the disease burden of depression. Because of the worldwide increase in the number of older adults, the number of depressed older adults will also increase considerably in the next few decades, making prevention of depression an important priority for research. Identifying the high-risk target groups for preventive interventions is complicated because most risk indicators have a low specificity, indicating that most people from these groups will not develop the disorder despite increased risk levels. We describe one promising method to identify the best target groups, based on the principle that the high-risk group should be as small as possible, should be responsible for as many new cases of depression as possible, and that intervention be as effective as possible. The number of trials examining the possibility to prevent the onset of depressive disorders in those who do not (yet) meet diagnostic criteria for depression is increasing rapidly. A recent meta-analysis identified more than 30 randomized trials and these studies showed that the incidence of depressive disorders was 21% lower in the prevention groups compared with the control groups who did not receive the preventive intervention. Most of these trials are aimed at adolescents and younger adults. Only six trials were specifically aimed at older adults. The development of evidence-based preventive interventions for major depression and other mental disorders should be an important scientific and public health objective for the 21st century.

  13. Recognizing and Responding to Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    Depression is increasingly recognized as a problem affecting adolescents as well as adults. Adolescents are underserved with regard to treatment facilities. One solution is the comprehensive health care clinic providing a holistic approach to assessment and intervention. Policy recommendations, which include a role for the school system, are made.…

  14. Perfectionism and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Leever, Brooke A.; Noggle, Chad A.; Lapsley, Daniel K.

    2007-01-01

    The "Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale" (AMPS; K.G. Rice & K.J. Preusser, 2002) was developed on samples of 9- to 11-year-old children. A primary purpose of the current research was to examine whether the AMPS could be useful in studies of adolescents, and in particular, studies of adolescent depression. This study of 145 early adolescents…

  15. [Depression and risk behavior in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Heger, Johanna Pia; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable period which is associated with a heightened risk for the development of depressive disorders. Risk-behaviors like alcohol or illicit drug abuse, excessive use of media, school absenteeism and lack of sleep are also frequently occurring during this period; it is often suggested that such behaviors may be associated with mental health problems. This article includes a selective overview of literature to investigate the relation between depression and risk-behavior in adolescence; these results are compared with the results from a representative sample of German pupils who were examined in the context of the European school study SEYLE. Data from a school-based sample of 1,434 pupils with a mean age of 14.7 years (SD = 0.8) was used. Most risk-behaviors tend to be associated with increased likelihood for the development of depression and are correlated with the severity of depressive symptomatology. In this sample, alcohol abuse, smoking, media use, lack of physical activity, risky sexual behavior, school absenteeism, and sleeping problems showed an impact on the level of depression which was consistent with previous research. Illicit drug abuse showed no significant impact on depressive symptoms of young people. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to elucidate the directional relationship between depression and risk behavior in adolescence. The potential value of adolescent risk-behavior as a possible warning sign for early detection of depressive symptoms also warrants further investigation. PMID:24707767

  16. Peer Victimization, Depression, and Suicidiality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2008-01-01

    The association between specific types of peer victimization with depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents was examined. A self-report survey was completed by 2,342 high-school students. Regression analyses indicated that frequent exposure to all types of peer victimization was related to high risk of depression,…

  17. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M

    2015-07-01

    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression.

  18. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M

    2015-07-01

    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression. PMID:25938204

  19. [Bulimic and depressive symptomatology in Puerto Rican adolescents].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Bermúdez, Nelson D; Rosselló, Jeannette

    2003-01-01

    Bulimia nervosa and depression have been identified as frequent mental health problems among adolescents. Bulimia nervosa, an eating disorder has been associated with depression especially among female population. The literature has established a high comorbidity between these disorders. Although depression was initially conceptualized as an adult disorder, recent research evidenced this disorder among adolescents. For this study, it was hypothesized that participants who presented bulimic symptomatology were going to present a higher depressive symptomatology than those who had no bulimic symptoms. The Bulimia Test (Bulit) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) were administered to 309 students from a private high school in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Correlation analyses and group comparisons were performed to investigate the relationship between bulimia nervosa and depression among participants. As hypothesized, a significant correlation (p < .01) was found between depression and bulimia nervosa symptomatology. Females showed a higher average of bulimic symptomatology than males. Early identification for treatments with bulimia and depression would be helpful in preventing future problems in later adulthood. Implications of this study are discussed.

  20. Anxiety and Depression in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Karen Ling; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lai, Tai Sum; Lam, Siu Man

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined anxiety and depression in adolescents with epilepsy and the association of these disorders with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered to 140 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Adolescents with epilepsy had significantly higher scores on the depression subscale than those with asthma (5.2 ± 3.3 vs 4.2 ± 3.2, P = .032). Anxiety subscale scores and the frequency of anxiety and depression in both the epilepsy and asthma groups were not statistically significant. In the epilepsy group, 32.8% had anxiety and 22.1% had depression. Factors associated with anxiety were older age at the time of the study and polytherapy (2 or more antiepileptic drugs). Adolescents who had been seizure-free for 12 months or more at time of the study were less likely to experience anxiety. Factors associated with depression were medical comorbidities, female gender, frequent seizures, and younger age of seizure onset. A common risk factor for both anxiety and depression was the duration of epilepsy. Anxiety and depression were also highly associated with each other. Affective disorders are common in epilepsy and screening for psychiatric symptoms is required.

  1. Preventing suicide in adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Makhija, Nita J; Sher, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is an escalating crisis that needs to be addressed by clinicians and researchers. Alcohol use has consistently been implicated in adolescent suicide and it is generally assumed that alcohol use leads to an increased risk in suicidality, suicide attempts and completed suicides. It can lead to adolescent suicidality through alcohol myopia, disinhibition, and impaired judgment. Multiple genetically related intermediate phenotypes might contribute to the risk of alcohol misuse and suicidal behavior in adolescents. Genetic variations that enhance the risk for mood and anxiety symptoms or susceptibility to stress might increase risk through different mechanisms. Comorbid disorders such as depression are frequently exhibited in adolescents who misuse alcohol, therefore any adolescent who appears to be at risk for alcoholism or depression should always be screened for all other psychiatric disorders and for suicidality; some signs suicidal adolescents may exhibit include withdrawal, personality change, and a loss of interest in pleasurable activities. While assessment is important, prevention is crucial in any attempt to decrease the incidence of adolescent suicide. The US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has established a set of seven guidelines that can be implemented from kindergarten through high school in order to establish alcohol prevention efforts in schools. Through beginning prevention efforts at a young age, it is hopeful that both alcohol misuse and adolescent suicide can be reduced. PMID:17458324

  2. Stress in romantic relationships and adolescent depressive symptoms: Influence of parental support.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Samantha F; Salk, Rachel H; Hyde, Janet S

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that stressful life events can play a role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms; however, there has been little research on romantic stress specifically. The relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms is particularly salient in adolescence, as adolescence often involves the onset of dating. This and other stressors are often dealt with in the context of the family. The present study examined the relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms both concurrently and prospectively, controlling for preexisting depressive symptoms. We then explored whether support from parents buffers the negative effects of romantic stress on depressive symptoms. In addition, the study sought to determine whether the benefits of support vary by parent and child gender. A community sample of 375 adolescents completed self-report measures of parental support (both maternal and paternal), romantic stress, and depressive symptoms. A behavioral measure of maternal support was also obtained. For boys and girls, romantic stress at age 15 predicted depressive symptoms at ages 15 and 18, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Perceived maternal support buffered the stress-depressive symptom relationship for both genders at age 15, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Higher perceived paternal support was associated with lower adolescent depressive symptoms; however, it did not have a buffering effect. These results have implications for the development of effective family-centered methods to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in adolescents.

  3. Development and Validation of a Depression Scale for Asian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Chang, W. C.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Koh, Jessie B. K.; Leong, Joyce S. F.; Kee, Carolyn H. Y.; Seah, Cheryl K. F.

    2004-01-01

    Items covering both core and culture-specific facets of depression were generated based on literature review and clinical experience. They were modified following focus group discussions with depressed adolescents and adolescents in the community. The newly constructed Asian Adolescent Depression Scale (AADS) was administered to a clinical and a…

  4. Attributional Style in Clinically Depressed and Conduct Disordered Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, John F.; Craighead, W. Edward

    1990-01-01

    Tested reformulated learned helplessness theory of depression with adolescent inpatients (N=63) diagnosed as depressed, conduct disordered, or both. Adolescents with major depressive diagnosis differed from nondepressed adolescents with significantly lower attributional style scores for positive events. Subjects who reported more severe depression…

  5. Postpartum Depression Prevention for Reservation-Based American Indians: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Hastings, Ranelda; Baker, Elena Varipatis; Mullany, Britta; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Walkup, John

    2012-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression is a devastating condition that affects a significant number of women and their offspring. Few preventive interventions have targeted high risk youth, such as American Indians (AIs). Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of a depression prevention program for AI adolescents and young adults. Methods: Expectant AI…

  6. Community-Based Prevention Programs for Anxiety and Depression in Youth: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Helen; Pallister, Emma; Smale, Stephanie; Hickie, Ian B.; Calear, Alison L.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of prevention and early intervention programs for young people and adolescents once they leave or dropout from school. The effectiveness of 18 anxiety and 26 depression studies addressing prevention in community programs were identified using systematic review methodology. Anxiety and depression symptoms…

  7. The effect of physical activity on depression in adolescence and emerging adulthood: a growth-curve analysis.

    PubMed

    McPhie, Meghan L; Rawana, Jennine S

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the influence of physical activity on the trajectory of depression from adolescence through emerging adulthood (EA). Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I to IV), latent growth curve modeling was performed to assess how physical activity and gender influenced depression across adolescence and EA. Higher levels of physical activity in mid-adolescence were associated with lower levels of depression during mid-adolescence and slower inclines and declines in depression over time. Boys had lower levels of depression in mid-adolescence and slower inclines and declines in depression over time compared to girls. Findings provide evidence that current theories on understanding depression and mental health prevention programs may be enhanced by the inclusion of physical activity.

  8. Adolescent Motherhood and Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…

  9. Adolescent depression and emergency department use: the roles of suicidality and deliberate self-harm.

    PubMed

    Bethell, Jennifer; Rhodes, Anne E

    2008-02-01

    Depression is associated with increased health service use; clarifying the processes involved may offer strategies to reduce the disorder's individual and societal burdens. This review hypothesizes roles for suicidality and deliberate self-harm to partially explain a relationship between adolescent depression and increased emergency department use. Briefly, depression is associated with suicidality and deliberate self-harm, both of which are likely common among emergency department presentations in this age group. The overlap of depression with suicidality and deliberate self-harm has implications for suicide prevention strategies that emphasize diagnosing and treating adolescent depression. First, identifying and referring depression among these emergency department presentations is promising, but limitations must be addressed. Second, interventions for adolescent depression also may affect the health conditions associated with increased emergency department use, including suicidality and deliberate self-harm. However, much more research is needed on the pathways involved before such benefits, including cost offset, can be reasonably anticipated.

  10. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  11. Music Shifts Frontal EEG in Depressed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Martinez, Alex; Nawrocki, Thomas; Pickens, Jeffrey; Fox, Nathan A.; Schanberg, Saul

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen chronically depressed female adolescents listened to rock music for a 23-minute session. EEG was recorded and saliva samples were collected to determine the effects of the music on stress hormone cortisol levels. No differences were reported for mood state; however, cortisol levels decreased and relative right-frontal activation was…

  12. Treating Depression and Oppositional Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Jordan, Neil; Silva, Susan G.; Rohde, Paul; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents with depression and high levels of oppositionality often are particularly difficult to treat. Few studies, however, have examined treatment outcomes among youth with both externalizing and internalizing problems. This study examines the effect of fluoxetine, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), the combination of fluoxetine and CBT, and…

  13. Bullying, Depression, and Suicidality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin S.; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association between bullying behavior and depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents. Method: A self-report survey was completed by 9th-through 12th-grade students (n = 2342) in six New York State high schools from 2002 through 2004. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the association…

  14. Body Image Change and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Judith M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the temporal association between body image and depressive symptoms in African American, Asian American, Hispanic American, and white adolescents. Found that girls were more influenced by body image change than boys. Compared to other ethnic groups, African American girls experienced a greater increase in psychological distress as body…

  15. Primary care management of depression in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Haefner, Judy

    2016-06-19

    Depression is the most common mental health disorder in children and adolescents, and primary care is often the first point of contact for children and adolescents with depression. Depression impacts all areas of life, impairing academics and interactions with family and friends. The purpose of this article is to help NPs identify and treat children and adolescents presenting with depression in the primary care setting. PMID:27214067

  16. Primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Schinke, S P; Blythe, B J; Gilchrist, L D; Burt, G A

    1981-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is associated with many health, emotional and socioeconomic problems including higher rates of anemia, labor complications, mortality, legal and social struggles and hhigher divorce rates. Professional social workers need strategies to help teenagers avoid early, unwanted pregnancy. This paper offers promising experential and research backing for a primary prevention group work strategy for all adolescents. Social and health programs overlook educational, cognitive anc interpersonal factors biasing youths' ability to comprehend and regulate contraception. Primary prevention to assist adolescents in thinking analytically about their sexual behavior must stress problem solving and decision-making as well as facts about human reproduction and birth control. To implement decisions, youths also need interpersonal communication skills. Small groups are ideal for delivering cognitive-behavioral primary prevention. This approach is based on the premise that youths become pregnant not because of a lack of relevant information, but because they lack cognitive and behavioral skills necessary to use information. Group work involving role-playing helps develop communication skills. Results from 2 field studies describe short-term and longitudinal benefits of the prevention strategy. Professionals can reach significant numbers of youth in this way. By treating sexual issues and the risk of pregnancy as normal in adolescence, social workers can introduce information and pertinent skills to all teenagers. No one is singled out as deviant and the group format enables young people to discuss taboo topics, discovering what the norms are and gradually learning how to deal with peers, family members, techers and others. Adolescents in primary prevention groups gained knowledge, cognitive skills and communication acumen. Improved attitudes toward family planning, increased regular contraception and less unsafe sex resulted from this cognitive-behavioral approach

  17. Onset of Alcohol or Substance Use Disorders Following Treatment for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, John; Silva, Susan; Rohde, Paul; Ginsburg, Golda; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Kirchner, Jerry; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Feeny, Norah; Albano, Anne Marie; Lavanier, Sarah; Reinecke, Mark; Jacobs, Rachel; Becker-Weidman, Emily; Weller, Elizabeth; Emslie, Graham; Walkup, John; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Burns, Barbara; Wells, Karen; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested whether positive response to short-term treatment for adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) would have the secondary benefit of preventing subsequent alcohol use disorders (AUD) or substance use disorders (SUD). Method: For 5 years, we followed 192 adolescents (56.2% female; 20.8% minority) who had participated in…

  18. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III

    2007-01-01

    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  19. Adolescent preventive services.

    PubMed

    Reif, C J; Elster, A B

    1998-03-01

    Today, there are significant risks to the health of teenagers. Drugs (tobacco, alcohol, steroids and others), sex (pregnancy, STDs, date rape), nutrition (obesity and eating disorders), and violence (abuse, fighting) are unfortunately a part of many teens' lives. These risks increase throughout the teen years. Since each risk has a strong behavioral component, we hope to modify the behavior and minimize the risk. Prevention and health promotion are an important part of health care for teens. Primary care providers, such as family physicians, are in an excellent position to provide teen preventative care that is comprehensive and specific to the needs of each teen. PMID:9469914

  20. Developmentally informed pharmacotherapy for child and adolescent depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris

    2012-04-01

    This article reviews evidence-based pharmacotherapy for children and adolescents with depression. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) support the use of fluoxetine for the treatment of childhood and adolescent depression as well as escitalopram in the treatment of adolescent depression. To date, one RCT has demonstrated the effectiveness of sertraline or citalopram for the treatment of major depressive disorder in youth. Only a small number of RCTs for depression have included children, and none of these trials were adequately powered to detect differences in the efficacy of medication between children and adolescents. PMID:22537729

  1. Interpersonal Theory and Adolescents with Depression: Clinical Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Beamish, Patricia M.

    2002-01-01

    This article provides mental health counselors with information about the prevalence and course of adolescent depression, other empirically tested treatments for adolescent depression, an explanation of Interpersonal psychotherapy for adolescents (IPT-A) treatment protocol, and results of outcome studies on the effectiveness of IPT-A. Suggestions…

  2. Cognitive Measures of Adolescent Depression: Unique or Unitary Constructs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Silva, Susan G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Tonev, Simon; Hoyle, Rick H.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Reinecke, Mark A.; Curry, John F.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of several self-report questionnaires assessing depression-relevant cognitions frequently employed in clinical research was examined in a sample of 390 adolescents (M age = 14.54; 216 girls; 74% Caucasian) with current major depressive disorder enrolled in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study. A four-factor…

  3. Depression and the Maternal Behavior of Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colletta, Nancy Donohue

    The rates of depression among a sample of 75 adolescent mothers were studied in order to investigate the relationship of environmental stress and support to depressive symptomatology and to investigate the relationship between depression and adolescents' interactions with their children. The Stress, Support, and Family Functioning Interview,…

  4. Differentiating Adolescent Self-Injury from Adolescent Depression: Possible Implications for Borderline Personality Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hsiao, Ray C.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Yaptangco, Mona; Linehan, Marsha M.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Self-inflicted injury (SII) in adolescence marks heightened risk for suicide attempts, completed suicide, and adult psychopathology. Although several studies have revealed elevated rates of depression among adolescents who self injure, no one has compared adolescent self injury with adolescent depression on biological, self-, and informant-report…

  5. The Temporal Relation between Depression and Comorbid Psychopathology in Adolescents at Varied Risk for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallerani, Catherine M.; Garber, Judy; Martin, Nina C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined the temporal comorbidity of depressive disorders with anxiety, externalizing, and substance use disorders in adolescents who varied in risk for depression. Methods: Participants were 240 adolescents and their mothers who had either a history of depression (high-risk, n = 185) or were lifetime-free of psychiatric…

  6. Preventing Adolescent Relapse: Concepts, Theories and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Shitala P.; Ressler, Robert A.

    This chapter discusses adolescent drug abuse relapse prevention. It presents the following four conclusions regarding the efficacy of prevention programs. First, more controlled studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of relapse prevention strategies with adolescents in reducing factors such as cravings and increasing their…

  7. The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Depression in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Marion F.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined the self-efficacy status of 366 depressed and nondepressed adolescents. Found that self-efficacy was negatively correlated with depression. Three-way interaction of Sex X Age X Level of Depression suggested separate analyses for males and females. Regression analysis revealed age-related changes in the dependence of depression scores on…

  8. Adolescent Suicide: Prevention, Postvention and Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dineen, Peggy

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults between the ages of 15-25. Every day, over 1,000 young adults attempt to destroy themselves. Although adolescents contemplate suicide for many reasons, research suggests that depression is the number one risk factor in suicide. Accordingly, this paper describes many of…

  9. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression and suicidality

    PubMed Central

    Spirito, Anthony; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Wolff, Jennifer; Uhl, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis CBT has emerged as a well-established treatment for depression in children and adolescents but treatment trials for adolescents with suicidality are few in number, and their efficacy to date is rather limited. Although a definitive treatment for adolescent suicide attempters has yet to be established, the limited literature suggests that suicidal thoughts and behavior should be directly addressed for optimal treatment outcome. This chapter reviews the rationale underlying the use of CBT for the treatment of depression and suicidality in adolescents, the literature supporting the efficacy of CBT for depressed adolescents, and whether CBT for depression reduces suicidal thoughts and behavior. A description of some of the core cognitive, affective, and behavioral techniques used in CBT treatments of suicidal ideation and behavior in depressed adolescents is included. PMID:21440850

  10. Suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents: A review of empirical findings

    PubMed Central

    Galaif, Elisha R; Sussman, Steve; Newcomb, Michael D; Locke, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is a serious health problem as it is currently the third leading cause of death for teenagers between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Depression, which is also a serious problem for adolescents, is the most significant biological and psychological risk factor for teen suicide. Alcohol use remains extremely widespread among today’s teenagers and is related to both suicidality and depression. Suicidality refers to the occurrence of suicidal thoughts or suicidal behavior. The consensus in empirical research is that mental disorders and substance abuse are the most important risk factors in both attempted and completed adolescent suicide. Therefore, it is incumbent upon researchers to identify the factors that can lead to their prevention among today’s youth. This review compiles the existing literature on suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents spanning over the past 15 years. Both Problem Behavior Theory and Stress-coping Theory can explain the relationships among suicidality, depression and alcohol use. The prevention of suicidality is critical, especially during the early school years, when it is associated with depression and alcohol use. Suicidality, depression and alcohol use are three phenomenon that noticeably increase in adolescence marking this time period as an ideal opportunity for prevention efforts to commence. Future empirical work is needed that will further assess the impact of adolescent depression and alcohol use on suicidality. In sum, this review of empirical research highlights critical results and limitations, as well as indicates a need for continued efforts in preventing suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:17458321

  11. Correlation between bullying and clinical depression in adolescent patients

    PubMed Central

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari

    2011-01-01

    A literature review of the associations between involvement in bullying and depression is presented. Many studies have demonstrated a concurrent association between involvement in bullying and depression in adolescent population samples. Not only victims but also bullies display increased risk of depression, although not all studies have confirmed this for the bullies. Retrospective studies among adults support the notion that victimization is followed by depression. Prospective follow-up studies have suggested both that victimization from bullying may be a risk factor for depression and that depression may predispose adolescents to bullying. Research among clinically referred adolescents is scarce but suggests that correlations between victimization from bullying and depression are likely to be similar in clinical and population samples. Adolescents who bully present with elevated numbers of psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric and social welfare treatment contacts. PMID:24600274

  12. Characteristics of Severely Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents with Extreme Scores on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagborg, Winston J.

    This study examined self-reported depression among severely emotionally disturbed adolescents at a private school serving publicly funded adolescents enrolled in a therapeutically supportive, non-residential educational program. From a sample of 45 students, using the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS), 15 students were selected for a…

  13. Depressed Adolescents and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders: Are There Differences in the Presentation of Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, David Marc; Simons, Anne D.; Yovanoff, Paul; Silva, Susan G.; Lewis, Cara C.; Murakami, Jessica L.; March, John

    2008-01-01

    Patterns and correlates of comorbidity, as well as differences in manifest depressive profiles were investigated in a sample of depressed adolescents. A sub-sample of the youth were characterized as belonging to either a "Pure" depression group, an "Internalizing" group (depression and co-occurring internalizing disorders), or an "Externalizing"…

  14. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms among Urban Adolescents of South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohanraj, Rani; Subbaiah, Karunanidhi

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to find the prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents studying in schools in Chennai. Settings and Design: The study was a school based cross-sectional survey in which data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire from adolescents studying in classes X, XI and XII. Material: Beck Depression Inventory…

  15. Depression and Self-Actualization in Gifted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, David J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between depressive affect and self-actualization in gifted adolescents (N=248). Found that gifted students who were not self-actualizing types were more depressed; and guilt, low self-esteem, learned helplessness, and cognitive difficulty were important symptoms. Gifted adolescents tended to be more socially…

  16. Should Screening for Depression among Children and Adolescents Be Demedicalized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Allan V.; Wakefield, Jerome C.

    2009-01-01

    The criteria for diagnosing depressive disorders fails to place the symptoms of intense sadness in the context of major losses in life, and separating normal sadness from depressive disorder among adolescents is especially difficult. Suggested modifications to the screening of suicidal ideation among adolescents are also presented.

  17. Rest-Activity Cycles in Childhood and Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, Roseanne; Hoffmann, Robert; Emslie, Graham; Rintelman, Jeanne; Moore, Jarrette; Lewis, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To quantify circadian rhythms in rest-activity cycles in depressed children and adolescents. Method: Restactivity cycles were evaluated by actigraphy over five consecutive 24-hour periods in 100 children and adolescents, including 59 outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 41 healthy normal controls. Total activity, total…

  18. Relationship of Social Skills, Depression, and Anxiety in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Georgiana Shick; Soffer, Alison; Winograd, Greta

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between self-reported social skills, anxiety, and depression in adolescents. Participants were 97 students from a private high school in New York City. They were administered the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS), the Social Skills Rating System-Study Form (SSRS-S), and the Revised…

  19. Suicidality and Its Relationship to Treatment Outcome in Depressed Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbe, Remy P.; Bridge, Jeffrey; Birmaher, Boris; Kolko, David; Brent, David A.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of suicidality on treatment outcome in 107 depressed adolescents who participated in a clinical trial, and received either cognitive-behavioral (CBT), systemic-behavioral-family (SBFT), or non-directive-supportive therapy (NST). Suicidal depressed adolescents had a higher dropout rate and were more likely to be…

  20. The Roles of Sex, Gender, and Coping in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Cindy Ellen; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Froh, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of coping and masculinity in higher rates of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls, as compared to boys. A model was designed and tested through path analysis, which involved the variables of sex, gender, problem-focused coping, rumination, and distraction. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale and the Bem…

  1. Longitudinal Course of Adolescent Depression: Neuroendocrine and Psychosocial Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Uma; Hammen, Constance L.; Poland, Russell E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The study examined whether cortisol measures are associated with the clinical course of depression in adolescents. Furthermore, the study evaluated whether the relationship between cortisol and clinical course is moderated by environmental stress and/or social support. Method: Fifty-five adolescents with depression (age range 13-18…

  2. Dimensions of Adolescent Alcohol Involvement as Predictors of Young-Adult Major Depression*

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hawkins, J. David; Redmond, Cleve; Spoth, Richard L.; Shin, Chungyeol

    2010-01-01

    Objective Adolescent alcohol involvement may increase risk for young-adult depression; however, findings are mixed and important questions remain unanswered. Because alcohol involvement among teens is multidimensional, this study examined the extent to which four different adolescent alcohol dimensions (i.e., frequency of alcohol use, quantity of consumption, frequency of heavy episodic drinking, and frequency of problem use) were predictive of young-adult major depressive disorder (MDD). Method Participants in this prospective longitudinal study, which extended from age 11 to age 22, were 429 rural teens (including 222 girls) and their families. Self-reports of each dimension of adolescent alcohol involvement were obtained at ages 16 and 18. Depression diagnoses were obtained at age 22, using a structured interview. Analyses included adolescent depressed mood, measured via self-report at ages 16 and 18. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Results The multidimensional nature of adolescent alcohol involvement was best represented by a first-order problem-use factor and a second-order alcohol-intake factor comprised of quantity, frequency, and heavy drinking. After controlling for gender and depressed mood, adolescent problem use, but not alcohol intake, was a significant positive predictor of young-adult MDD. Conclusions Findings help clarify the link between alcohol involvement and depression and suggest that harm-reduction strategies may help prevent later mood disorders. PMID:18299769

  3. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  4. Managing depression in childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes depression (a syndrome of low mood/irritability/lack of pleasure with associated physical and cognitive symptoms) in children and adolescents. It aims to help GPs to recognise more cases of it. It discusses why some young people do become depressed and will describe the treatments which are available, and how treatment may be implemented in the primary care setting. Current UK NICE guidelines recommend that: (i) psychological treatments should be offered as first-line treatment for moderate to severe depression and persistent mild depression; (ii) if this is not effective after four to six sessions, co-existing factors such as social stresses and family discord should be considered and addressed; (iii) an antidepressant (fluoxetine) should only be considered after four to six sessions; (iv) antidepressants should only be offered in conjunction with psychological treatment. These guidelines are not in full agreement with large randomised controlled trials that demonstrate that fluoxetine is more effective than CBT; and that show equivocal benefit of combined fluoxetine and CBT over fluoxetine alone. Part of the reason for the predominance of psychological treatments in these guidelines is the small but significant risk of suicidality with fluoxetine. PMID:26042160

  5. Adolescents' Perceptions of Family Connectedness, Intrinsic Religiosity, and Depressed Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Merten, Michael J.; Robinson, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 248 ninth and tenth grade students at public high schools, we examined adolescents' perceptions of family connectedness, intrinsic religiosity, and adolescents' gender in relation to depressed mood and whether intrinsic religiosity and gender moderated the association of aspects of family connectedness to adolescent depressed…

  6. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  7. Psychotherapy Treatments for Depression in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    HOLMES, WILLIAM D.; WAGNER, KAREN DINEEN

    1992-01-01

    The authors review the literature on psychotherapy for the treatment of depression in children and adolescents, describing outcome studies in psychodynamic therapy, family therapy, group therapy, interpersonal therapy, and behavior therapy. The review revealed many limitations in study design; suggestions are made about the design of psychotherapy studies for the treatment of childhood depression. The current trend in the treatment of childhood depression is to modify treatments shown to be effective in depressed adults. Further systematic investigations are necessary before recommendations can be made regarding any particular psychotherapy for the treatment of depressed children and adolescents. PMID:22700113

  8. Psychosocial factors associated with depressive mood in Israeli obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yackobovitch-Gavan, Michal; Meshy-Tamir, Revital; Nagelberg, Nessia; Phillip, Moshe; Meyerovitch, Joseph

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to compare levels of depressive symptoms between normal-weight and obese Israeli adolescents and to identify sociodemographic factors that may explain differences in depression between these groups. Thirty normal-weight and 49 obese patients aged 12-18 years participated in this study. The obese group had a significantly higher depression score. On linear regression analysis, obesity, lower parental income, and lower self-esteem were significantly associated with a higher depression score. This model explained 32.4 percent of the variance. The results indicate that psychosocial assessment and identification of depressive signs should be considered integral components in the management of adolescent obesity. PMID:23479303

  9. Family Heritage and Depression Guides: Family and Peer Views Influence Adolescent Attitudes about Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Agnor, Chrystal

    2007-01-01

    While adolescents tend to under-use professional mental health services for depression, they informally seek health-related information from parents and peers. In this study, we interviewed 15 adolescents to examine how the views and behaviours of others influence teens' decisions about seeking care for depression. Using a grounded theory…

  10. Identifying trajectories of adolescents' depressive phenomena: an examination of early risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mazza, James J; Fleming, Charles B; Abbott, Robert D; Haggerty, Kevin P; Catalano, Richard F

    2010-06-01

    Few studies have examined risk factors of childhood and early adolescent depressive symptomatology trajectories. This study examined self-report depressive symptomatology across a 6-year time period from 2nd to 8th grade to identify latent groups of individuals with similar patterns of depressive phenomena in a sample of 951 children (440 girls, 511 boys). Analyses, using semiparametric group modeling (SGM), identified 5 trajectory groups for girls and boys: low depressed stables, low depressed risers, mildly depressed stables, moderately depressed changers, and moderately depressed risers. Individual risk factors, with the exception of shy/withdrawn behavior, were significantly different across trajectory group membership for boys and girls, as was low-income status for boys. Boys in the low depressed and mildly depressed stable trajectory groups had significantly higher levels of antisocial behavior, attention problems, and lower social competency compared to girls in similar groups. These results suggest that universal prevention programs implemented in early elementary school that target selected risk factors may be helpful in reducing future adolescent mental health problems, specifically depressive symptomatology. PMID:20422348

  11. Nocturnal indicators of increased cardiovascular risk in depressed adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Waloszek, Joanna M; Woods, Michael J; Byrne, Michelle L; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Murray, Greg; Raniti, Monika; Allen, Nicholas B; Trinder, John

    2016-04-01

    Depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adults, and recent literature suggests preclinical signs of cardiovascular risk are also present in depressed adolescents. No study has examined the effect of clinical depression on cardiovascular factors during sleep. This study examined the relationship between clinical depression and nocturnal indicators of cardiovascular risk in depressed adolescent girls from the general community (13-18 years old; 11 clinically depressed, eight healthy control). Continuous beat-to-beat finger arterial blood pressure and heart rate were monitored via Portapres and electrocardiogram, respectively. Cardiovascular data were averaged over each hour for the first 6 h of sleep, as well as in 2-min epochs of stable sleep that were then averaged within sleep stages. Data were also averaged across 2-min epochs of pre-sleep wakefulness and the first 5 min of continuous non-rapid eye movement sleep to investigate the blood pressure dipping response over the sleep-onset period. Compared with controls, depressed adolescents displayed a similar but significantly elevated blood pressure profile across sleep. Depressed adolescents had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressures across the entire night (P < 0.01), as well as during all sleep stages (P < 0.001). Depressed adolescents also had higher blood pressure across the sleep-onset period, but the groups did not differ in the rate of decline across the period. Higher blood pressure during sleep in depressed adolescent females suggests that depression has a significant association with cardiovascular functioning during sleep in adolescent females, which may increase risk for future cardiovascular pathology. PMID:26543013

  12. Determinants of Mental Health Service Use Among Depressed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Breland, David J.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Zhou, Chuan; McCauley, Elizabeth; Rockhill, Carol; Katon, Wayne; Richardson, Laura P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate determinants of mental health service use among depressed adolescents. Method We assessed mental health services use over the 12 months following screening among 113 adolescents (34 males, 79 females) from an integrated healthcare system who screened positive for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score > 11). Youth characteristics (demographics, depression severity, and co-morbidity) and parent characteristics (parent history of depression, parent-report of youth externalizing and internalizing problems) were compared among youth who had received mental health services and those who had not. Multivariate regression was used to evaluate the strongest factors associated with mental health service use. Results Overall, 52% of adolescents who screened positive for depression received mental health service in the year following screening. Higher parent-reported youth internalizing problems (OR 5.37 CI 1.77–16.35), parental history of depression/anxiety (OR 4.12 CI 1.36–12.48) were significant factors associated with mental health service use. Suicidality and functional impairment were not associated with increased mental health services use. Conclusion Parental factors including recognition of the adolescent’s internalizing symptoms and parental experience with depression/anxiety are strongly associated with mental health service use for depressed adolescents. This highlights the importance of educating parents about depression and developing systems to actively screen and engage youth in treatment for depression. PMID:24417955

  13. Influence of Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptomatology on Adolescent Substance Use: Developmentally Proximal versus Distal Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of developmentally specific windows at which key predictors of adolescent substance use are most influential is a crucial task for informing the design of appropriately targeted substance use prevention and intervention programs. The current study examined effects of conduct problems and depressive symptomatology on changes in…

  14. Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety and Depression in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; King, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of heightened vulnerability for the onset of internalizing psychopathology. Characterizing developmental patterns of symptom stability, progression, and co-occurrence is important in order to identify adolescents most at risk for persistent problems. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms and four classes of anxiety symptoms (separation anxiety, social phobia, GAD, and physical anxiety) across early adolescence, prospective associations of depression and anxiety trajectories with one another, and variation in trajectories by gender. A diverse sample of early adolescents (N=1065) was assessed at three time points across a one-year period. All classes of anxiety symptoms declined across the study period and depressive symptoms remained stable. In between-individual analysis, adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms experienced less decline over time in symptoms of physical, social, and separation anxiety. Consistent associations were observed between depression and anxiety symptom trajectories within-individuals over time, such that adolescents who experienced a higher level of a specific symptom type than would be expected given their overall symptom trajectory were more likely to experience a later deflection from their average trajectory in other symptoms. Within-individual deflections in physical, social, and GAD symptoms predicted later deflections in depressive symptoms, and deflections in depressive symptoms predicted later deflections in separation anxiety and GAD symptoms. Females had higher levels of symptoms than males, but no evidence was found for variation in symptom trajectories or their associations with one another by gender or by age. PMID:24996791

  15. Perceived relationships with parents among adolescent inpatients with depressive preoccupations and depressed mood.

    PubMed

    Frank, S J; Poorman, M O; Van Egeren, L A; Field, D T

    1997-06-01

    Hypothesized that two types of "depressogenic" preoccupations (self-critical and interpersonal), measured by the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire for adolescents (DEQ-A; Blatt, Shaffer, Bars, & Quinlan, 1992), would mediate associations between perceived difficulties with parents and adolescent depression. Adolescent inpatients between 11 and 17 years of age (N = 295; 158 girls) in an acute-care psychiatric hospital completed the DEQ-A, a Reynolds (1986, 1989) depression questionnaire, and measures that assess experiences of alienation (vs. dependency) and separation-individuation conflicts in the adolescent-parent relationship. Alienation and counterdependency in relation to parents were associated with self-critical concerns; excessive closeness and dependency with interpersonal concerns; and separation-individuation conflicts with both types of concerns. Self-critical and interpersonal concerns were linked to adolescent depression and accounted for most of the variance initially explained by difficulties with parents.

  16. Interpersonal factors associated with depression in adolescents: are these consistent with theories underpinning interpersonal psychotherapy?

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Gabrielle; Spence, Susan H; Donovan, Caroline L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether depressed adolescents differed from non-depressed adolescents in terms of constructs consistent with those that are proposed to underpin interpersonal psychotherapy. In particular, it was hypothesized that compared with non-depressed adolescents, depressed adolescents would demonstrate a greater number of negative life events associated with interpersonal loss and major life transitions, a more insecure attachment style and poorer communication skills, interpersonal relationships and social support. Thirty-one clinically diagnosed depressed adolescents were matched with 31 non-depressed adolescents on age, gender and socio-economic status. The 62 participants were aged between 12 and 19 years and comprised 18 male and 44 female adolescents. On a self-report questionnaire, depressed adolescents reported a greater number of negative interpersonal life events, a less secure attachment style and scored higher on all insecure attachment styles compared with the non-depressed adolescents. In addition, depressed adolescents demonstrated lower levels of social skill (on both adolescent and parent report), a poorer quality of relationship with parents (on both adolescent and parent report) and lower social competence (adolescent report only). Parents of depressed adolescents also reported more negative parental attitudes and behaviours towards their adolescent compared with parents of non-depressed adolescents. Thus, the results of this study are consistent with the constructs underlying interpersonal psychotherapy and suggest their usefulness in the assessment, conceptualization and treatment of adolescent depression. Clinical implications are discussed.

  17. Delinquency, depression, and substance use disorder among child welfare-involved adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Lalayants, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Although adolescents with delinquency are known to have higher-than-average rates of depression or substance use disorder (SUD), research on the topic is inconsistent. It remains unclear weather depression or SUD leads to delinquency, whether delinquency leads to depression or SUD, or whether there is bi-directionality. Utilizing the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (Wave I: 2008–2009; Wave II: 18 months later: N = 5872), we used logistic regression to predict depression from delinquency (and vice versa), and SUD from delinquency (and vice versa). After inclusion of control variables, we found that females with minor theft in Wave I were more than 4 times as likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.34; 95% CI: 1.10–17.16) as females without minor theft to be depressed in Wave II, and those with public disorder in Wave I were almost 3 times as likely (aOR = 2.74; 95% CI: 1.03–7.30) as those without public disorder to have SUD in Wave II. Overall delinquency also predicted depression or SUD, and SUD predicted delinquency. Practitioners could address risk for depression or SUD among child welfare-involved adolescent females by focusing on overall delinquency or on specific types of delinquency (minor theft for depression and public disorder for SUD) and by offering interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) that have been shown to be effective in preventing depression or SUD. In addition, with respect to our finding that SUD predicts delinquency among adolescent females, practitioners can help prevent delinquency by offering interventions (e.g., intensive outpatient treatments) that have well documented effectiveness in addressing SUD. PMID:24060474

  18. Maternal Depressive Symptoms During Childhood and Risky Adolescent Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Maeve E.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Wild, T. Cameron; Hoglund, Wendy L.G.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maternal depression is a risk factor for adolescent depression; however, the effect of childhood exposure to maternal depression on adolescent engagement in health risk behaviors (eg, substance use, delinquency) is unclear. METHODS: We examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms (child’s age 4–15) and engagement in health risk behaviors at age 16 to 17 by using data from 2910 mother–youth pairs in a nationally representative prospective Canadian cohort. Maternal depressive trajectories were estimated through finite mixture modeling, and multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and engagement in various health risk behaviors (linear regression) and age of debut of various behaviors (Cox regression). RESULTS: Five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms were found: recurrent maternal symptoms, midchildhood exposure to maternal symptoms, adolescent exposure to maternal symptoms, mild maternal symptoms, and low symptoms. Adolescents exposed to maternal depressive symptoms during middle childhood were more likely to use common substances (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana), engage in violent and nonviolent delinquent behavior, and have an earlier debut ages of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hallucinogen use. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, particularly in middle childhood, is associated with greater and earlier engagement in health risk behaviors. PMID:25535266

  19. Improving Care for Depression & Suicide Risk in Adolescents: Innovative Strategies for Bringing Treatments to Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Miranda, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on interventions and services for depression and suicide prevention among adolescents, with the goals of placing this science within the context of current changing health care environments and highlighting innovative models for improving health and mental health. We examine the: challenges and opportunities offered by new initiatives and legislation designed to transform the U.S. health and mental healthcare systems; summarize knowledge regarding the treatment of depression and suicidality/self-harm in adolescents; and describe innovative models for partnering with health systems and communities. This review demonstrates that treatment models and service delivery strategies are currently available for increasing evidence-based care, particularly for depression, and concludes with recommendations for future research and quality improvement initiatives aimed at inspiring additional efforts to put science to work, bridge science and community practice, and develop strategies for partnering with communities to improve care, mental health, and well-being among adolescents. PMID:24437432

  20. The relation of weight change to depressive symptoms in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    FELTON, JULIA; COLE, DAVID A.; TILGHMAN-OSBORNE, CARLOS; MAXWELL, MELISSA A.

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders lists weight gain or weight loss as a symptom of depression at all ages, but no study of adolescent depression has examined its relation to actual (not just self-reported) weight change. In the current longitudinal study, 215 adolescents provided physical and self-report measures of change in weight, body mass, and body fat over a 4-month time interval. They also completed psychological measures of body dissatisfaction, problematic eating attitudes, and depressive symptoms. The relation between physical measures of weight change and depressive symptoms varied with age. These relations were explained by individual differences in body dissatisfaction, eating attitudes, and behaviors, leading to questions about weight change as a symptom of depression in adolescence. PMID:20102656

  1. Trajectories of depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood: the role of self-esteem and body-related predictors.

    PubMed

    Rawana, Jennine S; Morgan, Ashley S

    2014-04-01

    Although depression is a common issue among youth, it is unclear how important developmental factors, such as body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, and eating-and weight-related disturbances relate to the development of depression across adolescence and into young adulthood. Gender differences in these relationships and the specific nature of these relationships among adolescent boys and young men require further study. Using multilevel growth curve modeling, this study examined the effects of BMI, self-esteem, and eating- and weight-related disturbances (i.e., body dissatisfaction and weight management effort) and their interactive effects with gender on the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms using the Canadian-based National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 4,359 ages 12-21, 48.7 % female). On average, depressive symptoms decreased slightly at ages 12 through 14, began to increase from ages 14 through 17, and then began to decrease through age 21. Adolescent girls were at increased risk for depressive symptoms throughout adolescence and young adulthood compared to boys. This effect was compounded by low levels of self-esteem across adolescence and young adulthood. Engaging in weight management effort was associated with lower initial levels of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. The study's findings contribute to basic etiologic research regarding the trajectory of depressive symptoms in adolescence and young adulthood suggesting that mid-adolescents may be most vulnerable to depression compared to other adolescent age groups. The findings also underscore the importance of fostering positive self-esteem among adolescent girls and young women to prevent depression and exploring the protective effect of specific weight management strategies in future research.

  2. Food patterns and the prevention of depression.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, Miguel A; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena

    2016-05-01

    An emerging field of research in nutritional epidemiology is the assessment of several links between nutritional quality and mental health. Specifically, some studies have pointed out that several food patterns could be associated with a reduced risk of depression among adults. This association seems to be consistent across countries, cultures and populations according to several systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies. Some previously described food patterns, specifically the Mediterranean Food Pattern, the Alternative Healthy Eating Index, the Prudent diet or the Provegetarian Food Pattern may be effective to reduce the future risk of depression. Among them, only the Mediterranean Food Pattern has been tested for primary prevention in a large randomised trial, but the inverse association found was not statistically significant. The scientific report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Advisory Committee concluded that current evidence is still limited. Notwithstanding, this field is promising and, according to large and well-conducted observational studies, food patterns potentially associated with reduced risk of depression are those emphasising seafood, vegetables, fruits and nuts. There is a need to assess whether differences in the intake of some micro or macronutrients between these dietary patterns can make a difference in their association with a lower risk of depression. Moreover, the shape of the dose-response curve and the potential existence of a nonlinear threshold effect have not yet been established. PMID:26898781

  3. Exploring Associations between Problematic Internet Use, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance among Southern Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafei; Chen, Ying; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2016-03-14

    The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p < 0.001) and depression (β = 0.232; Sobel test Z = 3.39, p < 0.001) had partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance and depression was of greater importance for sleep disturbance than problematic Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for prevention and

  4. Romantic and Sexual Activities, Parent-Adolescent Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Joanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Starr, Lisa R.; Miller, Melissa Ramsay; Yoneda, Athena; Hershenberg, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Building on evidence that romantic experiences are associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence, we examined their bidirectional association, as well as the role of sexual activity and parent-adolescent stress in their association. Data were collected from 71 early adolescent girls (M age 13.45 years; SD = 0.68) and their primary caregiver…

  5. Perceived Parental Monitoring, Adolescent Disclosure, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamza, Chloe A.; Willoughby, Teena

    2011-01-01

    Parental monitoring has long been stressed as an important parenting practice in reducing adolescents' susceptibility to depressive symptoms. Reviews have revealed, however, that measures of monitoring have been confounded with parental knowledge, and that the role of adolescent disclosure has been neglected. In the present study, adolescents (N =…

  6. Adolescents׳ perceptions of peers with depression: an attributional analysis.

    PubMed

    Dolphin, Louise; Hennessy, Eilis

    2014-08-30

    Understanding adolescents׳ perceptions of peers with depression is vital in order to tackle peer exclusion and lessen stigmatization. To examine adolescents׳ perceptions of a hypothetical peer with depression, we test an attributional model: that stigma towards persons with mental disorders is influenced by attributions about the causes of their disorders and inferences of personal responsibility. Participants were 401 adolescents from 4th year/10th grade with an age range of 14.75-17.08 years (M=15.90 years; S.D.=0.403 years). Structural Equation Modeling was employed to assess the relationships among causal attributions (personal control), perceived responsibility, and emotional reactions, in predicting social acceptance/exclusion of a peer with depression. Results indicated that (a) if the peer with depression is perceived as having little control over the cause of depression, responsibility is not inferred, participants feel sympathy and pity, and are likely to socially accept the peer (b) gender of vignette character and participant influence these responses. This study builds on our theoretical understanding of why adolescents with depression may face social exclusion from peers by applying a well-established theory in social psychology. Findings should be incorporated into the design of interventions aimed at reducing peer exclusion and stigmatization of adolescents with depression.

  7. Maternal Meta-Emotion Philosophy and Adolescent Depressive Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Hunter, Erin C.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between maternal meta-emotion philosophy and adolescent depressive symptoms, as well as general adolescent adjustment and the quality of parent-child interaction. Consistent with previous findings on children in the preschool period and middle childhood, it was expected that an emotion coaching meta-emotion…

  8. School Climate, Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms among Asian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…

  9. Cyberbullying Victimisation in Adolescence: Relationships with Loneliness and Depressive Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit; Heiman, Tali; Eden, Sigal

    2012-01-01

    Cyberbullying is deliberate, aggressive activity carried out through digital means. Cybervictimisation in adolescence may be related to negative psychosocial variables such as loneliness and depressive mood. The purpose of the present study, the first of its kind in Israel, was to examine the association between adolescent cybervictimisation and…

  10. Factors Predicting Rural Chinese Adolescents' Anxieties, Fears and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Zhang, Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study examined age, gender, birth order and self-perceived level of achievement and popularity, as predictors of anxieties, fears and depression in Chinese adolescents. A sample of 398 rural Chinese adolescents participated in this study. Gender, academic performance and popularity have been found to make the greatest contributions to the…

  11. Is There an Epidemic of Child or Adolescent Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, E. Jane; Erkanli, Alaattin; Angold, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Background: Both the professional and the general media have recently published concerns about an "epidemic" of child and adolescent depression. Reasons for this concern include (1) increases in antidepressant prescriptions, (2) retrospective recall by successive birth cohorts of adults, (3) rising adolescent suicide rates until 1990, and (4)…

  12. Perfectionism, Rumination, Worry, and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Gordon L.; Coulter, Lisa-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.; Nepon, Taryn

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined trait perfectionism, automatic perfectionistic thoughts, rumination, worry, and depressive symptoms in early adolescents. A group of 81 elementary school students in Grades 7 and 8 completed 5 questionnaires: the Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory, the Children's Response Styles…

  13. Substance Use and the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Vitiello, Benedetto; Ryan, Neal; Birmaher, Boris; Mayes, Taryn; Onorato, Matthew; Zelazny, Jamie; Brent, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Despite the known association between substance use disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD) among adolescents, little is known regarding substance use among adolescents with MDD. Method: Youths with MDD who had not improved after an adequate selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor trial (N = 334) were enrolled in the Treatment of…

  14. Pharmacological Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, G. Scott; Ryan, Neal D.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that studies examining efficacy of pharmacological and psychosocial treatments of depressive and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents are relatively rare; that current clinical practice bases pharmacological treatment decisions on few existing studies, open clinical data on children and adolescents, and extrapolation from adult…

  15. It gets better: future orientation buffers the development of hopelessness and depressive symptoms following emotional victimization during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Connolly, Samantha L; Liu, Richard T; Stange, Jonathan P; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-04-01

    Research consistently has linked hopelessness to a range of negative outcomes, including depression, during adolescence. Although interpersonal stressors such as familial and peer emotional victimization have been found to contribute to hopelessness, less research has examined whether adolescents with a greater tendency to think about and plan for the future (i.e., future orientation) are protected against the development of hopelessness, particularly in the context of negative events. Thus, the current study evaluated whether peer and familial emotional victimization predicted increases in hopelessness more strongly among adolescents with a weaker future orientation than those with a stronger orientation towards the future, and whether hopelessness in turn predicted increases in depression. In a diverse sample of 259 early adolescents (54% female; 51% African American; Mage = 12.86 years), both peer and familial emotional victimization predicted increases in hopelessness more strongly among adolescents with weaker future orientations than among those with stronger future orientations. Further, moderated mediation analyses revealed that hopelessness significantly mediated the relationship between emotional victimization and increases in depressive symptoms more strongly among adolescents with weaker orientations towards the future compared to those with stronger future orientations. These findings indicate that adolescents' tendency to think about the future may impact whether emotional victimization induces hopelessness and ultimately depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Results have important implications regarding intervention and prevention of depression during the critical developmental period of adolescence. PMID:25052625

  16. Factors Associated with Deliberate Self-Harm Behaviour among Depressed Adolescent Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuisku, Virpi; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Ruuttu, Titta; Marttunen, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether depressed adolescent outpatients with deliberate self-harm behaviour (DSH) differed from non-suicidal depressed adolescent outpatients in depressive and anxiety symptoms, alcohol use, perceived social support and number of negative life-events. Depressed adolescent outpatients (n = 155) aged 13-19 years were interviewed…

  17. Examining Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory as a Risk Factor for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawal, Adhip; Rice, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying risk factors for adolescent depression is an important research aim. Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a feature of adolescent depression and a candidate cognitive risk factor for future depression. However, no study has ascertained whether OGM predicts the onset of adolescent depressive disorder. OGM was…

  18. The relationships among self-esteem, stress, coping, eating behavior, and depressive mood in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Martyn-Nemeth, Pamela; Penckofer, Sue; Gulanick, Meg; Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Bryant, Fred B

    2009-02-01

    The prevalence of adolescent overweight is significant, almost 25% in some minorities, and often is associated with depressive symptoms. Psychological and psychosocial factors as well as poor coping skills have been correlated with unhealthy eating and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among self-esteem, stress, social support, and coping; and to test a model of their effects on eating behavior and depressive mood in a sample of 102 high school students (87% minority). Results indicate that (a) stress and low self-esteem were related to avoidant coping and depressive mood, and that (b) low self-esteem and avoidant coping were related to unhealthy eating behavior. Results suggest that teaching adolescents skills to reduce stress, build self-esteem, and use more positive approaches to coping may prevent unhealthy eating and subsequent obesity, and lower risk of depressive symptoms.

  19. Depression Prevention Research: Design, Implementation, and Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; And Others

    This document contains three papers concerned with prevention intervention research, a new area of depression research which has shown great promise for contributing new knowledge to the understanding of depression. The first paper, "Clinical Trials vs. Prevention Trials: Methodological Issues in Depression Research" (Ricardo F. Munoz), emphasizes…

  20. Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Do Learning Difficulties Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether learning difficulties play a role in depressive symptoms, 658 Finnish adolescents were asked to complete scales for depression three times during the transition to post-comprehensive education. They also reported on their learning difficulties and feelings of inadequacy as a student. The results showed that learning difficulties…

  1. Sex Differences in Adolescent Depression: Stress Exposure and Reactivity Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Mermelstein, Robin; Roesch, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Stress exposure and reactivity models were examined as explanations for why girls exhibit greater levels of depressive symptoms than boys. In a multiwave, longitudinal design, adolescents' depressive symptoms, alcohol usage, and occurrence of stressors were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months later (N=538; 54.5% female; ages 13-18, average…

  2. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

  3. Trait Rumination, Depression, and Executive Functions in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Clara A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2014-01-01

    Although deficits in executive functions have been linked with both depression and rumination in adulthood, the nature of the relationship between these constructs is not well understood and remains understudied in adolescence. The present study examined the relationship of rumination and depression to deficits in executive functions in early adolescence, a critical developmental period for the emergence of depression and rumination and the development of executive functions. Participants were 486 early adolescents (52.7% female; 47.1% African American, 48.8% Caucasian; 4.2% Biracial/Multiracial/Other; M age = 12.88 years; SD = .62) and their mothers, recruited through local schools. Measures included (a) a semi-structured diagnostic interview of the mother and adolescent, (b) youth self-report forms assessing depressive symptoms and trait rumination, (c) mother-report forms assessing demographic information, and (d) behavioral tests of executive function (sustained, selective and divided attention, attentional set shifting, and working memory). Gender moderated rumination-set shifting associations, such that rumination predicted better set shifting in boys only. The current level of depressive symptoms moderated rumination-sustained attention associations, such that rumination predicted better sustained attention in those with low levels of depressive symptoms and worse sustained attention in those with high levels of depressive symptoms. Rumination did not predict performance on other measures of executive functions. Likewise, depressive symptoms and diagnosis were not associated with executive functions. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24839132

  4. Adolescents with Major Depression Demonstrate Increased Amygdala Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tony T.; Simmons, Alan N.; Matthews, Scott C.; Tapert, Susan F.; Frank, Guido K.; Max, Jeffrey E.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Lansing, Amy E.; Brown, Gregory; Strigo, Irina A.; Wu, Jing; Paulus, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional neuroimaging studies have led to a significantly deeper understanding of the underlying neural correlates and the development of several mature models of depression in adults. In contrast, our current understanding of the underlying neural substrates of adolescent depression is very limited. Although numerous studies have…

  5. Prevalence of Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenbach, Victor J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    To investigate significance and measurement of depressive symptoms in young adolescents, 624 students were asked to complete the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during home interviews. The presence of persistent symptoms varied by both race and sex. Results support the feasibility of using a self-report symptom scale to…

  6. Cortical thickness predicts the first onset of major depression in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Foland-Ross, Lara C; Sacchet, Matthew D; Prasad, Gautam; Gilbert, Brooke; Thompson, Paul M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-11-01

    Given the increasing prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder and recent advances in preventative treatments for this disorder, an important challenge in pediatric neuroimaging is the early identification of individuals at risk for depression. We examined whether machine learning can be used to predict the onset of depression at the individual level. Thirty-three never-disordered adolescents (10-15 years old) underwent structural MRI. Participants were followed for 5 years to monitor the emergence of clinically significant depressive symptoms. We used support vector machines (SVMs) to test whether baseline cortical thickness could reliably distinguish adolescents who develop depression from adolescents who remained free of any Axis I disorder. Accuracies from subsampled cross-validated classification were used to assess classifier performance. Baseline cortical thickness correctly predicted the future onset of depression with an overall accuracy of 70% (69% sensitivity, 70% specificity; p=0.021). Examination of SVM feature weights indicated that the right medial orbitofrontal, right precentral, left anterior cingulate, and bilateral insular cortex contributed most strongly to this classification. These findings indicate that cortical gray matter structure can predict the subsequent onset of depression. An important direction for future research is to elucidate mechanisms by which these anomalies in gray matter structure increase risk for developing this disorder. PMID:26315399

  7. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with Excess Weight and Unhealthier Lifestyle Behaviors in Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Fiorella; Francis, Lori; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms and obesity. This study examined the association of depressive symptoms with standardized BMI (BMI z-score), lifestyle behaviors, and self-efficacy measures in a sample of urban adolescents. Methods: A school-based study was conducted among adolescents (N=1508) enrolled from 11 public schools. Depressive symptoms were assessed with Kandel's depressive symptoms scale for adolescents. Fruit and vegetable intake and intake of energy-dense foods were assessed by a short food frequency questionnaire. Sedentary behavior and physical activity (PA) were obtained by self-report. Height and weight were measured directly and BMI z-scores were calculated. Mixed-effects models were used to examine the association of depressive symptoms with BMI z-score and lifestyle behaviors, accounting for clustering at school level and adjusting for confounders. Self-efficacy measures were evaluated as potential mediators. Results: The sample was 53% female, 75% Hispanic, and 82% US born, with a mean age of 13.9 years. Higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher BMI z-score (β=0.02; p=0.02), intake of energy-dense foods (β=0.42; p<0.001), and sedentary behavior (β=0.48; p<0.001), but lower PA (β=−0.03; p=0.01). There was an interaction by gender in the association of depressive symptoms and PA. Self-efficacy mediated the association of depressive symptoms and PA. Conclusions: Obesity prevention and treatment programs should consider addressing the role of negative emotions as part of their preventive strategies. PMID:25181530

  8. Parents’ role in adolescent depression care: primary care provider perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Radovic, Ana; Reynolds, Kerry; McCauley, Heather L.; Sucato, Gina S.; Stein, Bradley D.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand how primary care providers (PCPs) perceive barriers to adolescent depression care to inform strategies to increase treatment engagement. Study design We conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 PCPs recruited from community pediatric offices with access to integrated behavioral health services (i.e., low system-level barriers to care) who participated in a larger study on treating adolescent depression. Interviews addressed PCP perceptions of barriers to adolescents’ uptake of care for depression. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded for key themes. Results Although PCPs mentioned several adolescent barriers to care, they thought parents played a critical role in assisting adolescents in accessing mental health services. Important aspects of the parental role in accessing treatment included transportation, financial support, and social support. PCP’s perceived that parental unwillingness to accept the depression diagnosis, family dysfunction and trauma were common barriers. PCPs contrasted this with examples of good family support they believed would enable adolescents to attend follow-up appointments and have a “life coach” at home to help monitor for side effects and watch for increased suicidality when starting antidepressants. Conclusions In this PCP population, which had enhanced access to mental health specialists, PCPs primarily reported attitudinal barriers to adolescent depression treatment, focusing mainly on perceived parent barriers. The results of these qualitative interviews provide a framework for understanding PCP perceptions of parental barriers to care, identifying that addressing complex parental barriers to care may be important for future interventions. PMID:26143382

  9. Executive Attention Impairment in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfeldt, Sasha L.; Cullen, Kathryn R.; Han, Georges; Fryza, Brandon J.; Houri, Alaa K.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neural network models that guide neuropsychological assessment practices are increasingly used to explicate depression, though a paucity of work has focused on regulatory systems that are under development in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsystems of attention related to executive functioning including alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks, as well as sustained attention with varying working memory load, in a sample of depressed and well adolescents. Method Neuropsychological functioning in 99 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 63 adolescent healthy controls (M = 16.6 years old) was assessed on the Attention Network Task (ANT) and the Continuous Performance Test, Identical Pairs (CPT). Results Adolescents with MDD, particularly those who were not medicated, were slower to process conflict (slower reaction time on the executive attention scale of the ANT) compared to controls, particularly for those who were not undergoing psychopharmacological treatment. Tentative evidence also suggests that within the MDD group, orienting performance was more impaired in those with a history of comorbid substance use disorder, and alerting was more impaired in those with a history of a suicide attempt. Conclusions Adolescents with depression showed impaired executive attention, although cognitive performance varied across subgroups of patients. These findings highlight the importance of examining neurocognitive correlates associated with features of depression and suggest an avenue for future research to help guide the development of interventions. PMID:26566871

  10. Executive Attention Impairment in Adolescents With Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sommerfeldt, Sasha L; Cullen, Kathryn R; Han, Georges; Fryza, Brandon J; Houri, Alaa K; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Neural network models that guide neuropsychological assessment practices are increasingly used to explicate depression, though a paucity of work has focused on regulatory systems that are under development in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsystems of attention related to executive functioning including alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks, as well as sustained attention with varying working memory load, in a sample of depressed and well adolescents. Neuropsychological functioning in 99 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 63 adolescent healthy controls (M = 16.6 years old) was assessed on the Attention Network Test (ANT) and the Continuous Performance Test, Identical Pairs. Adolescents with MDD, particularly those who were not medicated, were slower to process conflict (slower reaction time on the Executive Attention scale of the ANT) compared to controls, particularly for those who were not undergoing psychopharmacological treatment. Tentative evidence also suggests that within the MDD group, orienting performance was more impaired in those with a history of comorbid substance use disorder, and alerting was more impaired in those with a history of a suicide attempt. Adolescents with depression showed impaired executive attention, although cognitive performance varied across subgroups of patients. These findings highlight the importance of examining neurocognitive correlates associated with features of depression and suggest an avenue for future research to help guide the development of interventions.

  11. Abuse, support, and depression among homeless and runaway adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bao, W N; Whitbeck, L B; Hoyt, D R

    2000-12-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of social support networks on psychological well-being among 602 homeless and runaway adolescents. The respondents were interviewed in shelters, drop-in centers, and on the streets in cities of four Midwestern states (Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas). The path model was used to test the direct effect of family abuse and precocious independence on adolescent depressive symptoms and indirect effects through social support networks. Results indicate that although abusive family origins contribute directly to depressive symptoms there are indirect effects of family abuse and early independence through social support networks. Family abuse and early independence drive homeless adolescents to rely on peers for social support. While support from friends on the street reduces depression, association with deviant peers increases depression.

  12. Sex differences in adolescent depression: do sex hormones determine vulnerability?

    PubMed

    Naninck, E F G; Lucassen, P J; Bakker, J

    2011-05-01

    Depression is one of the most common, costly and severe psychopathologies worldwide. Its incidence, however, differs significantly between the sexes, and depression rates in women are twice those of men. Interestingly, this sex difference emerges during adolescence. Although the adolescent period is characterised by major physical and behavioural transformations, it is unclear why the incidence of depression increases so dramatically in girls during this otherwise generally healthy developmental period. Although psychological and environmental factors are also involved, we discuss the neuroendocrinological factors determining adolescent vulnerability to depression. In particular, we address the role of sex steroids in mood regulation, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis maturation and sexual differentiation of the brain, with a focus on hippocampal plasticity.

  13. Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Status during the Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters (TASA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Stanley, Barbara; Bukstein, Oscar; Kennard, Betsy D.; Compton, Scott; Coffey, Barbara; Cwik, Mary F.; Posner, Kelly; Wagner, Ann; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Capasso, Lisa; Mayes, Taryn; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake; Barnett, Shannon; Zelazny, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the course of depression during the treatment of adolescents with depression who had recently attempted suicide. Method: Adolescents (N = 124), ages 12 to 18 years, with a 90-day history of suicide attempt, a current diagnosis of depressive disorder (96.0% had major depressive disorder), and a Children's Depression Rating…

  14. Cross-Lagged Associations Between Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Negative Cognitive Style: The Role of Negative Life Events.

    PubMed

    Kindt, Karlijn C M; Kleinjan, Marloes; Janssens, Jan M A M; Scholte, Ron H J

    2015-11-01

    Previous research has established that cognitive theory-based depression prevention programs aiming change in negative cognitive style in early adolescents do not have strong effects in universal settings. Although theories suggest that a negative cognitive style precedes depressive symptoms, empirical findings are mixed. We hypothesized that negative cognitive style may not predict depressive symptoms in adolescents with normative depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, negative cognitive style and dependent negative life events were assessed in young adolescents (N = 1343; mean age = 13.4 years, SD = 0.77; 52.3 % girls) at four time points over an 18-month period. Using a cross-lagged panel design, results revealed that depressive symptoms predicted a negative cognitive style but not vice versa. However, when including dependent negative life events as a variable, depressive symptoms did not prospect a negative cognitive style consistently. When dependent negative life events were used as a time-varying covariate, depressive symptoms and a negative cognitive style were not related. We concluded that negative cognitive style is not predictive of depressive symptoms in a community sample of young adolescents. Moreover, the findings suggest that longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and a negative cognitive style are not meaningful when dependent negative life events are not considered. PMID:26036993

  15. Cross-Lagged Associations Between Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Negative Cognitive Style: The Role of Negative Life Events.

    PubMed

    Kindt, Karlijn C M; Kleinjan, Marloes; Janssens, Jan M A M; Scholte, Ron H J

    2015-11-01

    Previous research has established that cognitive theory-based depression prevention programs aiming change in negative cognitive style in early adolescents do not have strong effects in universal settings. Although theories suggest that a negative cognitive style precedes depressive symptoms, empirical findings are mixed. We hypothesized that negative cognitive style may not predict depressive symptoms in adolescents with normative depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, negative cognitive style and dependent negative life events were assessed in young adolescents (N = 1343; mean age = 13.4 years, SD = 0.77; 52.3 % girls) at four time points over an 18-month period. Using a cross-lagged panel design, results revealed that depressive symptoms predicted a negative cognitive style but not vice versa. However, when including dependent negative life events as a variable, depressive symptoms did not prospect a negative cognitive style consistently. When dependent negative life events were used as a time-varying covariate, depressive symptoms and a negative cognitive style were not related. We concluded that negative cognitive style is not predictive of depressive symptoms in a community sample of young adolescents. Moreover, the findings suggest that longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and a negative cognitive style are not meaningful when dependent negative life events are not considered.

  16. Predictors of Suicide Attempts in Clinically Depressed Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt groups and we examined significant predictors of suicide attempts. Gender differences in suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were also analyzed. Among 106 depressed participants, 50 (47.2%) adolescents were classified in the suicide attempt group. Generally, the suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt group shared similar clinical characteristics. The suicide attempt group had more females, more major depressive disorder diagnoses, more depressive episodes, and higher suicidal ideation than the non-suicide attempt group. Suicidal ideation was the only significant predictor of suicidal attempt, regardless of gender. Higher suicidal ideation frequency scores and more non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors were shown in the female suicide attempt group than the male suicide attempt group. It is recommended that suicidal ideation be assessed regularly and managed rigorously to decrease suicide risks in depressive adolescents. PMID:27776392

  17. Prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Cheong, Siew Man; Mahadir Naidu, Balkish; Kaur, Gurpreet; Manickam, Mala A; Mat Noor, Malisa; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Depression among adolescents has been recognized as a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the Malaysia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 were analyzed with additional data from the validated DASS21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress) questionnaire. The study revealed that 17.7% of respondents had depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis further showed that feeling lonely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.99; 95% CI = 2.57-3.47), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.63-2.44), using drugs (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.21-2.82), and being bullied (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.60-1.99) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Lack of parental supervision, alcohol use, and tobacco use were also significant risk factors. Addressing depressive symptoms among adolescents may have implications for managing their risks of being bullied and substance use. This study also highlights the need to further investigate depressive symptoms among adolescents of Indian ethnicity. PMID:25070697

  18. Prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Cheong, Siew Man; Mahadir Naidu, Balkish; Kaur, Gurpreet; Manickam, Mala A; Mat Noor, Malisa; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Depression among adolescents has been recognized as a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the Malaysia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 were analyzed with additional data from the validated DASS21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress) questionnaire. The study revealed that 17.7% of respondents had depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis further showed that feeling lonely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.99; 95% CI = 2.57-3.47), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.63-2.44), using drugs (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.21-2.82), and being bullied (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.60-1.99) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Lack of parental supervision, alcohol use, and tobacco use were also significant risk factors. Addressing depressive symptoms among adolescents may have implications for managing their risks of being bullied and substance use. This study also highlights the need to further investigate depressive symptoms among adolescents of Indian ethnicity.

  19. [Family environment risk factors of depression in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Greszta, Elzbieta

    2006-01-01

    General psychosocial theories of developmental psychopathology assert that family environment plays a significant role in forming both adaptive and maladaptive functioning of children. Also virtually all theories of depression assert that faulty parent-child relationships play a major role in the aetiology of this disorder. According these theoretical formulations familial risk factors have been the focus of most research on depression in adolescence. Several studies have shown that insecure attachment and parenting characterized by coldness, rejection, harsh discipline and unsupportive behaviour is positively related to adolescent depressive symptoms. Some research indicates that authoritative parenting, conceptualized as a composite of warmth, accept-involvement, firm control, and democratic discipline, is associated with the least depressive symptoms among adolescents. Pathogenetic factors within the family environment, such as parental depression, changes of family structure, violence or neglect, can also contribute to depression in adolescence. A causal relationship between anomalous parenting and depression is probably the interplay among genetic, cognitive, emotional, interpersonal and family environmental factors. PMID:17068944

  20. Neurobiological and psychosocial processes associated with depressive and substance-related disorders in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rao, Uma; Chen, Li-Ann

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents are at heightened risk for the development of both depressive and substance-related disorders. These two disorders frequently co-occur in adolescents and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Given the substantial economic and psychosocial burden associated with the comorbid condition, the identification of causal mechanisms associated with their co-occurrence is of great public health importance. Although there is significant understanding of the environmental and neurobiological factors involved in depression and addictive disorders considered separately, the mechanisms underlying the comorbid illness have not been investigated carefully. The purpose of this review is to summarize the extant literature on genetic, environmental and neurobiological processes involved in the etiology of depressive and substance-related disorders in adolescents and adults. It is important to note that the data on common neurobiological systems that link addictive and depressive disorders are primarily from research with adult animals and humans. Given the ongoing maturation of these systems throughout adolescence and early adult life, it is not clear how these neurobiological processes influence the development and progression of both disorders. A better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to the onset and course of these disorders during adolescence will be helpful in developing more effective preventive and treatment strategies not only for this population but also for adult patients with early-onset illness.

  1. Control or involvement? Relationship between authoritative parenting style and adolescent depressive symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Piko, B F; Balázs, M A

    2012-03-01

    Among factors predicting adolescent mood problems, certain aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship play an important role. In previous studies, children whose parents had an authoritative style of parenting reported the best behavioral and psychological outcomes. Therefore, the main goal of this paper was to investigate the role of authoritative parenting style and other family variables (negative family interactions and positive identification with parents) in adolescents' depressive symptomatology. The study was carried out in all primary and secondary schools in Mako and the surrounding region in Hungary in the spring of 2010, students of grades 7-12 (N = 2,072): 49.2% of the sample were males; 38.1% primary school pupils; and 61.9% high school students. Self-administered questionnaires contained items of measuring depressive symptoms (CDI) and parental variables beyond sociodemographics. Beyond descriptive statistics and calculation of correlation coefficients, multiple linear regression analyses were applied to detect relationships between parental variables and depressive scores by gender. Overall, our data support a negative association between authoritative parenting style and adolescent mood problems, particularly among girls. Among boys, only mother's responsiveness was a significant predictor. Among girls, father's parenting played a decisive role; not only his responsiveness but also demandingness. Interestingly, mother's demandingness went together with an elevated depressive score for girls. Prevention programs cannot guarantee success without taking into account the role of parents. Teaching positive parenting seems to be a part of these prevention programs that may include facilitating intimate yet autonomous relationships. PMID:22271064

  2. Control or involvement? Relationship between authoritative parenting style and adolescent depressive symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Piko, B F; Balázs, M A

    2012-03-01

    Among factors predicting adolescent mood problems, certain aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship play an important role. In previous studies, children whose parents had an authoritative style of parenting reported the best behavioral and psychological outcomes. Therefore, the main goal of this paper was to investigate the role of authoritative parenting style and other family variables (negative family interactions and positive identification with parents) in adolescents' depressive symptomatology. The study was carried out in all primary and secondary schools in Mako and the surrounding region in Hungary in the spring of 2010, students of grades 7-12 (N = 2,072): 49.2% of the sample were males; 38.1% primary school pupils; and 61.9% high school students. Self-administered questionnaires contained items of measuring depressive symptoms (CDI) and parental variables beyond sociodemographics. Beyond descriptive statistics and calculation of correlation coefficients, multiple linear regression analyses were applied to detect relationships between parental variables and depressive scores by gender. Overall, our data support a negative association between authoritative parenting style and adolescent mood problems, particularly among girls. Among boys, only mother's responsiveness was a significant predictor. Among girls, father's parenting played a decisive role; not only his responsiveness but also demandingness. Interestingly, mother's demandingness went together with an elevated depressive score for girls. Prevention programs cannot guarantee success without taking into account the role of parents. Teaching positive parenting seems to be a part of these prevention programs that may include facilitating intimate yet autonomous relationships.

  3. It Gets Better: Future Orientation Buffers the Development of Hopelessness and Depressive Symptoms following Emotional Victimization during Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Connolly, Samantha L.; Liu, Richard T.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    Research consistently has linked hopelessness to a range of negative outcomes, including depression, during adolescence. Although interpersonal stressors such as familial and peer emotional victimization have been found to contribute to hopelessness, less research has examined whether adolescents with a greater tendency to think about and plan for the future (i.e., future orientation) are protected against the development of hopelessness, particularly in the context of negative events. Thus, the current study evaluated whether peer and familial emotional victimization predicted increases in hopelessness more strongly among adolescents with a weaker future orientation than those with a stronger orientation towards the future, and whether hopelessness in turn predicted increases in depression. In a diverse sample of 259 early adolescents (54% female; 51% African American; Mage = 12.86 years), both peer and familial emotional victimization predicted increases in hopelessness more strongly among adolescents with weaker future orientations than among those with stronger future orientations. Further, moderated mediation analyses revealed that hopelessness significantly mediated the relationship between emotional victimization and increases in depressive symptoms more strongly among adolescents with weaker orientations towards the future compared to those with stronger future orientations. These findings indicate that adolescents’ tendency to think about the future may impact whether emotional victimization induces hopelessness and ultimately depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Results have important implications regarding intervention and prevention of depression during the critical developmental period of adolescence. PMID:25052625

  4. Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

  5. Detecting depression among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: sex differences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression among adolescents is common but most cases go undetected. Brief questionnaires offer an opportunity to identify probable cases but properly validated cut-off points are often unavailable, especially in non-western countries. Sex differences in the prevalence of depression become marked in adolescence and this needs to be accounted when establishing cut-off points. Method This study involved adolescents attending secondary state schools in Santiago, Chile. We compared the self-reported Beck Depression Inventory-II with a psychiatric interview to ascertain diagnosis. General psychometric features were estimated before establishing the criterion validity of the BDI-II. Results The BDI-II showed good psychometric properties with good internal consistency, a clear unidimensional factorial structure, and good capacity to discriminate between cases and non-cases of depression. Optimal cut-off points to establish caseness for depression were much higher for girls than boys. Sex discrepancies were primarily explained by differences in scores among those with depression rather than among those without depression. Conclusions It is essential to validate scales with the populations intended to be used with. Sex differences are often ignored when applying cut-off points, leading to substantial misclassification. Early detection of depression is essential if we think that early intervention is a clinically important goal. PMID:23617306

  6. Characteristics, correlates, and outcomes of childhood and adolescent depressive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Uma; Chen, Li-Ann

    2009-01-01

    Depressive illness beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Therefore, understanding the disorder during this developmental stage is critical for determining its etiology and course, as well as for deveiopinq effective intervention straieqies. This paper summarizes current knoviedqe reqardinq the etiology, phenomenoiogy, correlates, natural course, and consequences of unipolar depression in children and adolescents. Using adult depression as a framevork, the unique aspects of childhood and adolescence are considered in order to better understand depression within a developmental context. The data suggest that the clinical presentation, correlates, and natural course of depression are remarkably similar across the lifespan. There are, however, important developmental differences. Specifically, the familial and psychological context in which depression develops in youngsters is associated with variability in the frequency and nature of depressive symptoms and comorbid conditions among children and adolescents. Maturational differences have also been identified in the neurobiological correlates of depression. These developmental differences may be associated with the observed variability in clinical response to treatment and longitudinal course. Characterization of the developmental differences will be helpful in developing more specific and effective interventions for youngsters, thereby allowing them to reach their full potential as adults. PMID:19432387

  7. Depressive Symptoms, Self-Esteem and Perceived Parent–Child Relationship in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Babore, Alessandra; Trumello, Carmen; Candelori, Carla; Paciello, Marinella; Cerniglia, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Early adolescence represents a critical developmental period both from a psychological and a psychopathological point of view. During this period, one of the most common disorders that frequently arise is represented by depression, that tends to become chronic and may produce many subsequent psychosocial impairments. The present study aimed to analyze characteristics of depressive symptoms in an Italian sample of early adolescents, and to explore their connections with self-esteem levels and perceived maternal and paternal emotional availability. Methods: 594 adolescents (50% females) with a mean age of 12.11 years (SD = 0.98) were administered the Children’s Depression Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the maternal and the paternal forms of the Lum Emotional Availability of Parents. Results: Findings highlighted a slightly higher, though not statistically significant, level of depressive symptoms in girls than in boys. Regression analysis showed that, as far as predictors of depression, self-esteem was the most relevant one, followed by maternal and paternal emotional availability. Conclusion: Our results strongly suggested to plan intervention programs aimed at monitoring early adolescents’ self-esteem and supporting relationship with both parents, in order to prevent the emergence of depressive symptoms. PMID:27445941

  8. Maternal Avoidant Coping Mediates the Effect of Parenting Stress on Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Gondoli, Dawn M.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined maternal avoidant coping as a mediator between maternal parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Three years of self-report data were collected from 173 mothers, beginning when mothers’ adolescents were in 6th grade and aged 11–13 years. Utilizing longitudinal path analysis, results indicated that avoidant coping at time two mediated the association between parenting stress at time one and depressive symptoms at time three. Additionally, the reverse direction of effects was examined, revealing that the relation between parenting stress and avoidant coping was unidirectional, while the relation between avoidant coping and depressive symptoms was bidirectional. Our results suggest that during early adolescence, mothers who experience more stress in the parenting role are more likely to engage in higher levels of avoidant coping when faced with parenting problems. In turn, a mother’s long-term avoidant reactions to parenting problems may predict increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, our findings of a bidirectional relation between avoidant coping and depressive symptoms suggest that prior levels of depression might serve as a barrier to efficient and effective coping. The present study may inform preventive intervention efforts aimed at decreasing the use of avoidance in response to parenting stressors by increasing adaptive parental coping with stressors, and providing appropriate support and resources for parents. PMID:25554723

  9. Preliminary Effectiveness of Surviving the Teens[R] Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program on Adolescents' Suicidality and Self-Efficacy in Performing Help-Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Strunk, Catherine M.; Sorter, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death among youth aged 15-24 years. Schools provide ideal opportunities for suicide prevention efforts. However, research is needed to identify programs that effectively impact youth suicidal ideation and behavior. This study examined the immediate and 3-month effect of Surviving the Teens[R]…

  10. Affective patterns in triadic family interactions: Associations with adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Hollenstein, Tom; Allen, Nicholas B; Sheeber, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Affective family processes are associated with the development of depression during adolescence. However, empirical description of these processes is generally based on examining affect at the individual or dyadic level. The purpose of this study was to examine triadic patterns of affect during parent-adolescent interactions in families with or without a depressed adolescent. We used state space grid analysis to characterize the state of all three actors simultaneously. Compared to healthy controls, triads with depressed adolescents displayed a wider range of affect, demonstrated less predictability of triadic affective sequences, spent more time in and returned more quickly to discrepant affective states, and spent less time in and returned more slowly to matched affective states, particularly while engaged in a problem-solving interaction. Furthermore, we identified seven unique triadic states in which triads with depressed adolescents spent significantly more time than triads with healthy controls. The present study enhances understanding of family affective processes related to depression by taking a more systemic approach and revealing triadic patterns that go beyond individual and dyadic analyses. PMID:25797844

  11. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among immigrant-origin adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena

    2013-07-01

    Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.

  12. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p < .05). In contrast to previous research on Caribbean parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the

  13. A Study of the Predictive Validity of the Children's Depression Inventory for Major Depression Disorder in Puerto Rican Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Medina, Carmen L.; Bernal, Guillermo; Rossello, Jeannette; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the predictive validity of the Children's Depression Inventory items for major depression disorder (MDD) in an outpatient clinic sample of Puerto Rican adolescents. The sample consisted of 130 adolescents, 13 to 18 years old. The five most frequent symptoms of the Children's Depression Inventory that best predict the…

  14. Prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms in young adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Schoenbach, V J; Kaplan, B H; Wagner, E H; Grimson, R C; Miller, F T

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the significance and measurement of depressive symptoms in young adolescents, 624 junior high school students were asked to complete the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during home interviews. In 384 usable symptom scales, item-scale correlations (most were above .50), inter-item correlations, coefficient alpha (.85), and patterns of reported symptoms were reasonable. Persistent symptoms were reported more often by Blacks, especially Black males. Prevalence of persistent symptoms in Whites was quite close to reported figures for adults, ranging from 1 per cent to 15 per cent in adolescent males and 2 per cent to 13 per cent in adolescent females. Adolescents reported persistent vegetative symptoms less often and psychosocial symptoms more often. Reports of symptoms without regard to duration were much more frequent in the adolescents, ranging from 18 per cent to 76 per cent in White males, 34 per cent to 76 per cent in White and Black females, and 41 per cent to 85 per cent in Black males. The results support the feasibility of using a self-report symptom scale to measure depressive symptoms in young adolescents. Transient symptoms reported by adolescents probably reflect their stage of development, but persistent symptoms are likely to have social psychiatric importance. PMID:6625033

  15. Anxiety, stress, depression, and psychosocial functioning of Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamlesh; Junnarkar, Mohita; Sharma, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifetime prevalence of depression and anxiety increases from 1% of the population under age 12 years to ~17%-25% of the population by the end of adolescence. The greatest increase in new cases occurs between 15-18 years. Indian empirical studies have reported a prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the range between 14.4% and 31.7%; thus, affecting psychosocial functioning. Aims: The objectives of the current study were to (i) examine the psychometric properties of the DASS and SDQ on Indian adolescents, (ii) explore the role of socio- demographic variablesand (iii) examine if there was any difference between school going and school dropouts. Methodology: Data from 1812 students, aged 12-19 years was collected with mean age = 15.67 years (SD =1.41 years). The participants were administered a booklet containing demographic questionnaire and psychometric scales such as DASS-21 (Henry & Crawford, 2005; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1999) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). Statistical Analysis: Structure validation, correlational analysis and multivariate analysis. Results and Conclusions: The results of validation indicated that English and Hindi version of 3 factor model of DASS and 2 factor model of SDQ was an acceptable model fit. It was noted that early adolescents were high on prosocial behaviour whereas late adolescents were high on difficulties score. Females were higher than males on prosocial behaviour. Adolescents residing in rural areas differed from their urban counterparts on prosocial behaviour and anxiety. Government school going adolescents differed from private school going adolescents on prosocial behaviour, stress and anxiety. Negative perception of relationship with family affected adolescents difficulties score, depression and stress. Similarly, negative perception of self-concept leads to higher difficulties score and lower prosocial behaviour score. The school going adolescents differed from non-school going

  16. The Relation between Eating- and Weight-Related Disturbances and Depression in Adolescence: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawana, Jennine S.; Morgan, Ashley S.; Nguyen, Hien; Craig, Stephanie G.

    2010-01-01

    Depression often emerges during adolescence and persists into adulthood. Thus, it is critical to study risk factors that contribute to the development of depression in adolescence. One set of risk factors that has been recently studied in adolescent depression research is eating- and weight-related disturbances (EWRDs). EWRDs encompass negative…

  17. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents (IPT-A): A Case Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Elisabeth Baerg; Mufson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the treatment of a depressed adolescent (15 years of age) boy using Interpersonal Psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). IPT-A is an empirically supported psychosocial intervention for adolescents suffering from a depressive episode. It is delivered as an individual psychotherapy with a minimum of parental…

  18. Can Developmental Changes in Inhibition and Peer Relationships Explain Why Depressive Symptoms Increase in Early Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Katharine Ann; Dix, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Why do depressive symptoms increase during adolescence? Because inhibition and poor peer relationships predict adolescents' depressive symptoms concurrently, we hypothesized that adolescents who cope with the stresses of this period by becoming increasingly inhibited may experience increasing depressive symptoms both directly and due to increased…

  19. Processes of Change in CBT of Adolescent Depression: Review and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Christian A.; Auerbach, Randy P.; DeRubeis, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of research supports the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression. The mechanisms through which CBT exerts its beneficial effects on adolescent patients suffering from depression, however, remain unclear. The current article reviews the CBT for adolescent depression process literature. Our review…

  20. Impact of Comorbid Anxiety in an Effectiveness Study of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of comorbid anxiety on treatment for adolescent depression in an effectiveness study of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). Method: A randomized clinical trial was conducted from April 1, 1999, through July 31, 2002. Sixty-three depressed adolescents, ages 12 to 18, received either IPT-A…

  1. Using Music Techniques To Treat Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, C. Bret; Robinson, Beth; Bradley, Loretta J.; Davis, Kenneth

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a school-based therapy program using music for teenagers (N=19) who demonstrated depressive symptoms. Pre- and post-testing indicated a significant decrease in depressive symptoms. Offers recommendations for further research. (Author/MKA)

  2. Preventing Obesity and Eating Disorders in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Golden, Neville H; Schneider, Marcie; Wood, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and eating disorders (EDs) are both prevalent in adolescents. There are concerns that obesity prevention efforts may lead to the development of an ED. Most adolescents who develop an ED did not have obesity previously, but some teenagers, in an attempt to lose weight, may develop an ED. This clinical report addresses the interaction between obesity prevention and EDs in teenagers, provides the pediatrician with evidence-informed tools to identify behaviors that predispose to both obesity and EDs, and provides guidance about obesity and ED prevention messages. The focus should be on a healthy lifestyle rather than on weight. Evidence suggests that obesity prevention and treatment, if conducted correctly, do not predispose to EDs. PMID:27550979

  3. Genetic sensitivity to emotional cues, racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among African–American adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Swartzendruber, Andrea L.; Smearman, Erica L.; Brody, Gene H.; DiClemente, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial stress, including stress resulting from racial discrimination (RD), has been associated with elevated depressive symptoms. However, individuals vary in their reactivity to stress, with some variability resulting from genetic differences. Specifically, genetic variation within the linked promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) is related to heightened reactivity to emotional environmental cues. Likewise, variations within this region may interact with stressful life events (e.g., discrimination) to influence depressive symptoms, but this has not been empirically examined in prior studies. The objective of this study was to examine whether variation in the 5-HTTLPR gene interacts with RD to predict depressive symptoms among a sample of African–American adolescent females. Participants were 304 African–American adolescent females enrolled in a sexually transmitted disease prevention trial. Participants completed a baseline survey assessing psychosocial factors including RD (low vs. high) and depressive symptomatology (low vs. high) and provided a saliva sample for genotyping the risk polymorphism 5-HTTLPR (s allele present vs. not present). In a logistic regression model adjusting for psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms, an interaction between RD and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with depressive symptomatology (AOR = 3.79, 95% CI: 1.20–11.98, p = 0.02). Follow-up tests found that high RD was significantly associated with greater odds of high depressive symptoms only for participants with the s allele. RD and 5-HTTLPR status interact to differentially impact depressive symptoms among African–American adolescent females. Efforts to decrease depression among minority youth should include interventions which address RD and strengthen factors (e.g., coping, emotion regulation, building support systems) which protect youth from the psychological costs of discrimination. PMID:26157407

  4. Concurrent Trajectories of Change in Adolescent and Maternal Depressive Symptoms in the TORDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Curby, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Depression has a heightened prevalence in adolescence, with approximately 15 % of adolescents experiencing a major depressive episode by age 18. Depression in adolescence also poses a risk for future distress and impairment. Despite treatment advances, many adolescents relapse after initial remission. Family context may be an important factor in the developmental trajectory of adolescent depression, and thus in enhancing treatment. This study examined concurrent change over time in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the context of the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study. Participants were 334 adolescents (mean age: 16; SD: 1.6; 70 % female, 84 % Caucasian), and their mothers (n = 241). All adolescents were clinically depressed when they entered the study and had received previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Adolescents received acute treatment for 12 weeks and additional treatment for 12 more weeks. Adolescent depression and suicidal ideation were assessed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks, while maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks. Latent basis growth curve analyses showed a significant correlation over 72 weeks between trajectories of maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms, supporting the hypothesis of concurrent patterns of change in these variables. The trajectories were correlated more strongly in a subsample that included only dyads in which mothers reported at least one depressive symptom at baseline. Results did not show a correlation between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms change in tandem, and that treatment for adolescent depression can benefit the wider family system. Notably, most mothers in this sample had subclinical depressive symptoms. Future research might explore these trajectories in dyads with more severely depressed mothers

  5. Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy: A Symposium for Journalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scientists' Inst. for Public Information, New York, NY.

    During a symposium on adolescent pregnancy, medical and education personnel presented an overview of the problem and its causes, a description of solutions currently in practice throughout the country, analysis of the state of research in the field of prevention, and a look at the government's role. Addressed in this transcipt of the symposium are…

  6. Adolescent Suicide Prevention: A Compendium of Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Richard A., Ed.; Wing, Michael, Ed.

    This guide presents information, direction, and resources to help teachers design a curriculum on suicide prevention tailored to their students' needs. Chapter I describes the problem of adolescent suicide at one high school and the program that developed as a result of that problem. Chapter II presents facts about suicide under the headings of…

  7. Coping with the Stress of Parental Depression II: Adolescent and Parent Reports of Coping and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Langrock, Adela M.; Keller, Gary; Merchant, Mary Jane; Benson, Molly A.; Reeslund, Kristen; Champion, Jennifer E.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined associations between adolescents' self-reports and parents' reports of adolescents' exposure to family stress, coping, and symptoms of anxiety/depression and aggression in a sample of 78 adolescent offspring of depressed parents. Significant cross-informant correlations were found between adolescents' reports of family stress,…

  8. The relations among abuse, depression, and adolescents' autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca J; Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Glisky, Elizabeth; McCloskey, Laura A

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the relations among early and recent experiences with abuse, depression, and adolescents' autobiographical memory in a longitudinal study of family violence. Participants' (N = 134) exposure to violence was documented when they were 6 to 12 years old and again when they were 12 to 18 years old. The second assessment included measures of depression and autobiographical memory for childhood experiences. Memory problems were more consistently related to current circumstances than childhood abuse history. For instance, depressive symptoms were associated with increased rates of "overgeneral" childhood memories. Recent exposure to family violence predicted more overgeneral memories, shorter memories, and lower rates of negative memories. The patterns suggest that adolescents currently stressed by depression or family violence might strategically avoid the details of past experiences to regulate affect.

  9. Spirituality Moderates Hopelessness, and Suicidal Ideation among Iranian Depressed Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2015-01-01

    To examine the moderating role of spirituality between hopelessness, spirituality, and suicidal ideation, 202 Iranian depressed adolescent inpatients completed measures of patient health, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and core spiritual experience. Structural equation modelling indicated that depressed inpatients high in hopelessness, but also high in spirituality, had less suicidal ideation than others. These findings reinforce the importance of spirituality as a protective factor against hopelessness and suicidal ideation. PMID:25924082

  10. Which SSRIs most effectively treat depression in adolescents?

    PubMed

    DeLucia, Valory; Kelsberg, Gary; Safranek, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    We don't know which selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most effective and safe because no studies have compared these antidepressants with each other. Three SSRI antidepressant medications--fluoxetine, sertraline, and escitalopram--produce modest improvements (about 5% to 10%) in standardized depression scores without a significant increase in the risk of suicide-related outcomes (suicidal behavior or ideation) in adolescent patients with major depression of moderate severity. PMID:27672691

  11. Diagnostic Subgroups of Depression in Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmanico, Sharon J.; Erickson, Marilyn T.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Best, Al M.; Sood, Aradhana A.; Oswald, Donald P.

    1998-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-five adolescent inpatients with emotional and behavioral disorders completed two self-report measures for depression and a structured diagnostic interview of depression. A cluster analysis found the following depression subgroups: nondepressed, endogenous depression, depressed mood with subclinical features, depression with…

  12. Internet addiction, adolescent depression, and the mediating role of life events: finding from a sample of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linsheng; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Zhihua; Sun, Yehuan; Wu, Hongyan; Ye, Dongqing

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of life events in the relation between Internet addiction and depression using an adolescent sample in China. A total of 3507 urban adolescent students were asked to complete the questionnaires including Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, and demographic characteristics. Path analyses demonstrated that life events fully mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression. Specificity for the mediating role of life events was demonstrated in comparison to alternative competing mediation models. The findings support our hypothesis that the effect of Internet addiction on adolescent depression is mediated by the life events. Further research is required to test the temporal relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression and explore mechanisms underlying the pathways leading to adolescent depression.

  13. Risk Factors Linking Maternal Depressed Mood to Growth in Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Rebecca C.; Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal depression has been implicated in the development of adolescent substance use. Conceptualizing depression as a continuum, the aims of this study are to (a) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood and risk factors associated with adolescent substance use; (b) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood…

  14. Therapist Strategies for Building Involvement in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungbluth, Nathaniel J.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between 9 therapist behaviors and client involvement in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Analyses included 42 adolescents who met criteria for a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or adjustment disorder with depressed mood) and who were…

  15. Functional communication as a predictor of depression and anxiety symptoms among adolescents seeking bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Curran, J L; Datto, G

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether functional communication and parent-adolescent relations prospectively predict anxiety and depression symptoms among severely obese adolescents seeking bariatric surgery. Participants included 30 adolescents and their primary caregivers, who presented for enrolment in a study assessing the safety and efficacy of the laparoscopic adjustable gastric band. Adolescents and their caregivers completed questionnaires assessing anxiety and depression symptoms, functional communication, and parent-adolescent relations at baseline and immediately prior to having bariatric surgery. Regression analyses revealed that poorer parent reported functional communication at baseline predicted increases in adolescent reported anxiety and depression symptoms immediately prior to surgery (on average 8.8 months later), above and beyond baseline symptoms. Anxiety and depression symptoms did not predict functional communication over time. Parent-adolescent relations, as reported by the adolescent, were concurrently associated with adolescent reported depression symptoms at baseline, and were concurrently associated with adolescent reported anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as parent reported depression symptoms, immediately prior to surgery. Functional communication may be an important prospective risk factor for the development of anxiety and depression symptoms among severely obese adolescents seeking bariatric surgery, whereas adolescent report of the parent-adolescent relationship appears to be concurrently related to anxiety and depression symptoms. Future research should examine whether specifically targeting communication skills and family relationships within psychological treatment would improve psychosocial functioning among severely obese adolescents.

  16. Paths to adolescent parenthood: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Flick, L H

    1986-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and parenthood are increasingly common today and pose many problems for both the individual persons involved and society as a whole. For programs to address these issues successfully, factors associated with unintended pregnancy and resulting parenthood must first be identified and understood. This paper is a review of current research on the factors associated with the four steps leading to an adolescent becoming a parent. Being an adolescent parent requires taking a particular path at four crossroads: becoming sexually active, not using or incorrectly using contraceptives, carrying rather than aborting a pregnancy, and parenting rather than placing a child for adoption. Much research in the last 15 years has explored adolescent childbearing, but many studies only compared adolescent parents to nonparents to reach conclusions about differences in these groups. This review focuses on recent studies that explore the four processes, or crossroads, separately and it excludes studies that generalize and overlap these processes. Factors that influence adolescent behavior at multiple points on the path to parenthood indicate areas particularly relevant for preventive intervention. For instance, boyfriends exert influence at all four crossroads. Sexual activity and contraceptive use increase with longevity of relationships, yet closer relationships are less often associated with raising a child. Better general communication skills, and particularly an increased ability to discuss sexuality, increases use of contraceptives, and low educational and occupational aspirations appear to influence each successive turn toward parenthood. This summary of current research serves to highlight those individual, family, dyadic, and social factors that exert great impact on adolescent parenthood by influencing young people at each of the four crossroads. These factors suggest potentially effective points for intervention to reduce the incidence of adolescent

  17. Paths to adolescent parenthood: implications for prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Flick, L H

    1986-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and parenthood are increasingly common today and pose many problems for both the individual persons involved and society as a whole. For programs to address these issues successfully, factors associated with unintended pregnancy and resulting parenthood must first be identified and understood. This paper is a review of current research on the factors associated with the four steps leading to an adolescent becoming a parent. Being an adolescent parent requires taking a particular path at four crossroads: becoming sexually active, not using or incorrectly using contraceptives, carrying rather than aborting a pregnancy, and parenting rather than placing a child for adoption. Much research in the last 15 years has explored adolescent childbearing, but many studies only compared adolescent parents to nonparents to reach conclusions about differences in these groups. This review focuses on recent studies that explore the four processes, or crossroads, separately and it excludes studies that generalize and overlap these processes. Factors that influence adolescent behavior at multiple points on the path to parenthood indicate areas particularly relevant for preventive intervention. For instance, boyfriends exert influence at all four crossroads. Sexual activity and contraceptive use increase with longevity of relationships, yet closer relationships are less often associated with raising a child. Better general communication skills, and particularly an increased ability to discuss sexuality, increases use of contraceptives, and low educational and occupational aspirations appear to influence each successive turn toward parenthood. This summary of current research serves to highlight those individual, family, dyadic, and social factors that exert great impact on adolescent parenthood by influencing young people at each of the four crossroads. These factors suggest potentially effective points for intervention to reduce the incidence of adolescent

  18. [Postpartum depression: we know the risks, can it be prevented?].

    PubMed

    Zinga, Dawn; Phillips, Shauna Dae; Born, Leslie

    2005-10-01

    In the past 20 years, there has been increasing recognition that for some women, pregnancy may be burdened with mood problems, in particular depression, that may impact both mother and child. With identification of risk factors for postpartum depression and a growing knowledge about a biologic vulnerability for mood change following delivery, research has accumulated on attempts to prevent postpartum depression using various psychosocial, psychopharmacologic, and hormonal strategies. The majority of psychosocial and hormonal strategies have shown little effect on postpartum depression. Notwithstanding, results from preliminary trials of interpersonal therapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and antidepressants indicate that these strategies may be of benefit. Information on prevention of postpartum depression using dietary supplements is sparse and the available evidence is inconclusive. Although a few studies show promising results, more rigorous trials are required. The abounding negative evidence in the literature indicates that postpartum depression cannot be easily prevented, yet.

  19. Developmental associations between adolescent change in depressive symptoms and menstrual-cycle-phase-specific negative affect during early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kiesner, Jeff; Poulin, François

    2012-10-01

    The causal factors associated with increases in depressive symptoms among adolescent girls remain an area of theoretical debate, and the limited research considering a hormonal influence has provided mixed results. The goal of the present study was to test a set of longitudinal associations, that, if found, would provide support for a hormonal contribution to these changes. Specifically, this study tested the hypotheses that changes in depressive symptoms among adolescent girls would be associated with phase-specific symptoms of the menstrual cycle during early adulthood; that these associations would differ across three phases of the menstrual cycle; and that the pattern of associations would differ for changes in depressive symptoms during early- and late-adolescence. The sample consisted of 47 women with longitudinal data from 12 to 21 years old (approximately 91% European Canadian, 4% Middle Eastern Canadian, 2% Haitian Canadian, and 2% Asian Canadian). Consistent with expectations, results showed that early-adolescent increases in depressive symptoms were negatively associated with menstrual-phase negative affect, and positively associated with mid-cycle negative affect, but not associated with premenstrual negative affect; whereas late-adolescent change in depressive symptoms was only associated with depressive symptoms at 20-21 years. Thus, early-adolescent changes in depressive symptoms are longitudinally associated with later mood change across the menstrual cycle, suggesting a common underlying cause, which is hypothesized to be hormonal. Moreover, results suggest that, with respect to variables that are involved in affective development, important differences exist between early- and late-adolescence. The discussion considers menstrual-cycle-related symptoms (e.g., dysmenorrhea) during adolescence, and the need to study their effects on development. It is suggested that focused intervention and prevention efforts may be indicated to interrupt negative

  20. Genetic Heterogeneity in Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms in Response to Victimization.

    PubMed

    Gottfredson, Nisha C; Foshee, Vangie A; Ennett, Susan T; Haberstick, Brett; Smolen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study had two objectives: first, to determine the degree to which experiences of victimization by peers during adolescence led to a subsequent rise in depressive symptoms, and second, to identify genetic markers that predict depressive reactivity to victimization. We used a cohort sequential design to obtain a longitudinal sample of 1,475 adolescents (3,263 observations) in Grades 8 to 12 (56% female; 47% Black, 46% White). Multilevel growth curve models were used to assess whether victimization predicted depressive symptoms 6 months later, beyond baseline trajectories for depressive symptoms. We modeled the interactive effects of peer victimization with three genetic polymorphisms (on 5-HTTLPR, DRD2 TaqIA, and BDNF Val66Met) on depressive symptoms. Although victimization predicted subsequent depressive symptoms, there was substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect of victimization. Val alleles, associated with higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) functioning, predicted more sensitivity to victimization. Neither DRD2 TaqIA, a marker associated with dopaminergic functioning, nor 5-HTTLPR, a marker associated with serotonin activity, was associated with sensitivity to victimization. The social stress of peer victimization triggers depressive symptoms most strongly in individuals who are homozygous for the Val allele on the BDNF Val/Met polymorphism. This polymorphism has been linked with sensitivity to social defeat in animal models. Future research should explore behavioral, cognitive, and emotional explanations of the effects of BDNF Val/Met on responsivity to victimization.

  1. Social Context in School: Its Relation to Adolescents' Depressive Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulard, Aurore; Quertemont, Etienne; Gauthier, Jean-Marie; Born, Michel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of various school-related factors on adolescents' depressive mood, including prosocial behavior, verbal aggression, and relationships with teachers. The data used in this study were collected in the context of a larger survey on victimization in secondary schools from the French Community of Belgium. Participants…

  2. Academic Performance, Popularity, and Depression Predict Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany M.; Sanders, Christopher E.

    2003-01-01

    Eighty-nine high school seniors completed a questionnaire on their feelings and activities, including their use of drugs. Adolescents with a low grade point average, high popularity, and high depression were more likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, and smoke marijuana than were their peers. Cigarette and alcohol use predicted marijuana use,…

  3. Stress Generation and Adolescent Depression: Contribution of Interpersonal Stress Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the proposal that ineffective responses to common interpersonal problems disrupt youths' relationships, which, in turn, contributes to depression during adolescence. Youth (86 girls, 81 boys; M age = 12.41, SD = 1.19) and their primary female caregivers participated in a three-wave longitudinal study. Youth completed a…

  4. Selective Neurocognitive Impairments in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Georges; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Jepsen, Susie; Ballard, Kristin; Nelson, Megan; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Cullen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether major depression in adolescence is characterized by neurocognitive deficits in attention, affective decision making, and cognitive control of emotion processing. Neuropsychological tests including the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs, the Attention Network…

  5. The Relations Among Abuse, Depression, and Adolescents' Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca J.; Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Glisky, Elizabeth; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations among early and recent experiences with abuse, depression, and adolescents' autobiographical memory in a longitudinal study of family violence. Participants' (N = 134) exposure to violence was documented when they were 6 to 12 years old and again when they were 12 to 18 years old. The second assessment included…

  6. Friendship, loneliness and depression in adolescents with Asperger's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Durkin, Kevin; Jaquet, Emma; Ziatas, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated the relation between friendship, loneliness and depressive symptoms in adolescents with Asperger's Syndrome (AS). Thirty-five adolescents with AS and 35 controls matched on chronological age, school year and gender distribution, completed questionnaires designed to ascertain the quality of their best-friendship, motivation for developing friendships, feelings of loneliness and depressive symptomatology. Relative to the comparison group, the participants with AS reported poorer quality of best-friendship and less motivation to develop friendships. The individuals with AS displayed higher levels of loneliness and depressive symptoms, with loneliness being negatively correlated with the quality of their best-friendship. Increased levels of loneliness in the adolescents with AS was predicted by the extent to which their best-friendships were characterized by high levels of conflict/betrayal. Increased depressive symptoms in the adolescents with AS were also predicted by this factor. The findings indicate that increased levels of negative affect may be related to the poor quality of social relationships often reported in this population.

  7. Body Dissatisfaction, Dietary Restraint, Depression, and Weight Status in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…

  8. Overweight, Body Image, and Depression in Asian and Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bin; Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Johnson, C. Anderson; Wu, Qiaobing; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Methods: Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body…

  9. Depressed Mood and Body Weight: Exploring Race Differences in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Christie-Mizell, C. Andre

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this article examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence. The authors also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Their findings indicate that over a 4-year…

  10. Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression in Canadian and Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Abela, John R. Z.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare diathesis-stress and transactional models of cognitive vulnerability to depression in samples of Canadian (n = 118) and Chinese (n = 405) adolescents. We utilized a six-month multi-wave, longitudinal design in order to examine whether (a) perceived control moderated the association between the…

  11. Sertraline in Children and Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Craig L.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Rynn, Moira; Ambrosini, Paul; Landau, Phyllis; Yang, Ruoyong; Wohlberg, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore time to first response and time to first persistent response of sertraline versus placebo and compare these parameters between children (6-11 years old, n = 177) and adolescents (12-17 years old, n = 199) with major depressive disorder. Method: A 10-week placebo-controlled treatment was followed by a 24-week open-label…

  12. Childhood and Adolescent Anxiety and Depression: Beyond Heritability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franic, Sanja; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Ligthart, Lannie; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To review the methodology of behavior genetics studies addressing research questions that go beyond simple heritability estimation and illustrate these using representative research on childhood and adolescent anxiety and depression. Method: The classic twin design and its extensions may be used to examine age and gender differences in…

  13. Depression and Disability in Children and Adolescents. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guetzloe, Eleanor

    This digest discusses the most frequently diagnosed mood disorders in children and adolescents, including major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, and bipolar disorder. The symptoms of these disorders are described, along with family and genetic causal factors, biological causal factors, and cognitive causal factors. The digest then…

  14. Preventing postpartum depression: A meta-analytic review

    PubMed Central

    Sockol, Laura E.; Epperson, C. Neill; Barber, Jacques P.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis assessed the efficacy of a wide range of preventive interventions designed to reduce the severity of postpartum depressive symptoms or decrease the prevalence of postpartum depressive episodes. A systematic review identified 37 randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials in which an intervention was compared to a control condition. Differences between treatment and control conditions in the level of depressive symptoms and prevalence of depressive episodes by 6 months postpartum were assessed in separate analyses. Depressive symptoms were significantly lower at post-treatment in intervention conditions, with an overall effect size in the small range after exclusion of outliers (Hedges' g = 0.18). There was a 27% reduction in the prevalence of depressive episodes in intervention conditions by 6 months postpartum after removal of outliers and correction for publication bias. Later timing of the postpartum assessment was associated with smaller differences between intervention and control conditions in both analyses. Among studies that assessed depressive symptoms using the EPDS, higher levels of depressive symptoms at pre-treatment were associated with smaller differences in depressive symptoms by 6 months postpartum. These findings suggest that interventions designed to prevent postpartum depression effectively reduce levels of postpartum depressive symptoms and decrease risk for postpartum depressive episodes. PMID:24211712

  15. Sexual minority status, peer harassment, and adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler's (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future.

  16. Depression in adolescents and young adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eliza M.; Rosenstein, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer are at risk for depression due to disruptions in their developmental trajectory, greater physical symptom burden, and increased likelihood of developing aggressive disease. Rates of depression and other psychological disorders are substantially higher in AYAs with cancer when compared with older adults. Psychiatrists caring for these patients must consider the age-appropriate developmental context of these patients along with familial and medical factors that may influence the presentation and treatment of depression. Previous research suggests that psychosocial interventions specifically designed for AYA patients are promising, but studies of psychopharmacology treatments for depression are lacking. There is a pressing need for prospective studies and controlled clinical trials that evaluate the optimal strategies for treating depression in this patient group. PMID:26246791

  17. Depression in adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Eliza M; Rosenstein, Donald L

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer are at risk for depression due to disruptions in their developmental trajectory, greater physical symptom burden, and increased likelihood of developing aggressive disease. Rates of depression and other psychological disorders are substantially higher in AYAs with cancer when compared with older adults. Psychiatrists caring for these patients must consider the age-appropriate developmental context of these patients along with familial and medical factors that may influence the presentation and treatment of depression. Previous research suggests that psychosocial interventions specifically designed for AYA patients are promising, but studies of psychopharmacology treatments for depression are lacking. There is a pressing need for prospective studies and controlled clinical trials that evaluate the optimal strategies for treating depression in this patient group.

  18. The depression distress amplification model in adolescents: A longitudinal examination of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, depression and suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Capron, Daniel W; Allan, Nicholas P; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Leen-Feldner, Ellen; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents with comorbid anxiety and depression are at significantly increased risk of suicide. The recently proposed depression distress amplification model appears to have promise for explaining the relations between anxiety, depression, and suicidality, but it has not been tested in adolescents. Participants were 524 adolescents followed over two years. Baseline data for the current report were collected by trained interviewers while the adolescents were in eighth grade. Data were obtained in the same manner when the adolescents were in tenth grade. Baseline anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns significantly predicted suicidal ideation two years later, above and beyond baseline suicidal ideation and depression. Further, consistent with the depression distress amplification model, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns interacted with depressive symptoms to predict suicidal ideation. This report extends the empirical and theoretical support for a relationship between anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns and suicidality.

  19. Depression and suicide in adolescents with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Baker, Gus A

    2006-03-28

    Depression and other disorders are underdiagnosed and undertreated in young people with epilepsy. Signs of depression are often dismissed as "normal" reactions, even though depression is a life-threatening disease and a risk factor for suicide. A strong correlation between epilepsy and depression has been demonstrated in a variety of studies; etiological factors include neurologic, genetic, and iatrogenic factors. At the time of the initial diagnostic evaluation, the physician who is managing the patient with seizure disorder should make a psychiatric and psychosocial assessment to identify the patient's risk for depression. This approach enables the physician to assess the impact of epilepsy on the patient and to detect gross signs of psychiatric disorder. Effective treatment options include both somatic and nonsomatic therapies as well as combinations thereof.

  20. Measurement invariance of the depressive symptoms scale during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined (1) the factor structure of a depressive symptoms scale (DSS), (2) the sex and longitudinal invariance of the DSS, and (3) the predictive validity of the DSS scale during adolescence in terms of predicting depression and anxiety symptoms in early adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 1,293 adolescents. Results The analytical sample included 527 participants who provided complete data or had minimal missing data over follow-up. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that an intercorrelated three-factor model with somatic, depressive, and anxiety factors provided the best fit. Further, this model was invariant across sex and time. Finally, DSS scores at Time 3 correlated significantly with depressive and anxiety symptoms measured at Time 4. Conclusions Results suggest that the DSS is multidimensional and that it is a suitable instrument to examine sex differences in somatic, depressive, and anxiety symptoms, as well as changes in these symptoms over time in adolescents. In addition, it could be used to identify individuals at-risk of psychopathology during early adulthood. PMID:24679136

  1. Inpatient treatment for depressed children and adolescents: preliminary evaluations.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R M; Powers, J M; Cleveland, P H; Thyer, B A

    1990-01-01

    Reported are the results of two uncontrolled outcome studies that evaluate the effectiveness of inpatient psychiatric treatment of children and adolescents suffering from clinical depression. Study 1 employed a sample of 7 children and measured outcome with the Depression Self-rating Scale (DSRS), the Hopelessness Scale for Children (HSC), and the Global Asssessment of Functioning (GAF) scale, which were administered to each child upon admission and again at discharge. Inpatient treatment involved multiple interventions, including individual psychotherapy, medication, milieu therapy and token economy, and other procedures. At discharge, statistically significant improvements were found on the patients' GAF and HSC scores, but not on their DSRS scores. Study 2 used a sample of 15 adolescents, also admitted for clinical depression. Administered at each patient's admission and discharge, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Generalized Contentment Scale (GCS), and Index of Self-esteem (ISE) were used to measure outcome. The multi-modal treatment program offered to the sample in Study 2 was similar to that offered the sample in Study 1. At discharge all three outcome measures reflected statistically significant improvements in the patients studies; therefore, these results provide addmtional support for the inpatient treatment of depressed children and adolescents.

  2. Results of prevention programs with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Perry, C L

    1987-09-01

    Programs for preventing smoking and alcohol and drug abuse have radically changed in the past decade. Instead of being regarded as a health or discipline problem that involves only a few deviant adolescents, drug use has begun to be viewed as social behavior that is functional for adolescents, not capricious, and is normative for that population. The most successful prevention programs have sought to delay the onset of tobacco use. Based on theoretical and etiological research, these programs target factors that have repeatedly been predictive of adolescent smoking, alcohol and drug use. The programs teach adolescents (1) why people their age smoke tobacco or use alcohol and drugs; (2) how these meanings get established by peers, older role models and advertising; (3) how to resist these influences to smoke or to use alcohol and drugs; and (4) life skills and competencies to counterbalance the functions that drug use serves. Because of the association with the onset of smoking and the onset of using other drugs, these strategies are being studied for alcohol use and other drugs. In addition, elected peer leaders are trained to conduct these activities with their classmates and act as new role models for non-use. Evaluations of these approaches are optimistic. Studies in northern California and Minnesota reveal 50-70% reductions in the onset of smoking. Botvin's 'Life Skills Training' program demonstrates success in delaying heavy alcohol and marijuana use.

  3. Depression and life satisfaction among European and Confucian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stankov, Lazar

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare adolescents from Europe and Confucian Asia on measures of psychological constructs that reflect either maladjustment or positive outlook on life. Empirical findings are reported based on N = 7,167 secondary school students (15 years old) from Confucian Asia (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan) and from Europe (Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Serbia, and Latvia with 2 nationalities-Latvian and Russian). Participants' responses were used to assess several aspects of personality and psychopathology, in addition to well-being, social attitudes, and parental styles. Exploratory factor analysis of these measures produced 4 factors: Depression, Life Satisfaction, Toughness and Modesty. Adolescents from Confucian countries show higher levels of Depression and lower levels of Life Satisfaction in comparison to their European counterparts. The most potent influences on Depression and Life Satisfaction were found to be Toughness and Parental Warmth variables, both of which are, in turn, linked to differences between regions/cultures. PMID:23914959

  4. Depression and life satisfaction among European and Confucian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stankov, Lazar

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare adolescents from Europe and Confucian Asia on measures of psychological constructs that reflect either maladjustment or positive outlook on life. Empirical findings are reported based on N = 7,167 secondary school students (15 years old) from Confucian Asia (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan) and from Europe (Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Serbia, and Latvia with 2 nationalities-Latvian and Russian). Participants' responses were used to assess several aspects of personality and psychopathology, in addition to well-being, social attitudes, and parental styles. Exploratory factor analysis of these measures produced 4 factors: Depression, Life Satisfaction, Toughness and Modesty. Adolescents from Confucian countries show higher levels of Depression and lower levels of Life Satisfaction in comparison to their European counterparts. The most potent influences on Depression and Life Satisfaction were found to be Toughness and Parental Warmth variables, both of which are, in turn, linked to differences between regions/cultures.

  5. Parent Involvement in CBT Treatment of Adolescent Depression: Experiences in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Karen C.; Albano, Anne Marie

    2005-01-01

    The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) evaluated the short- and long-term effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) alone, fluoxetine alone, and their combination, relative to pill placebo, and the 12-week treatment effects were recently published (TADS Team, 2004). Results showed that treatment that combined CBT with…

  6. The role of the pediatrician in preventing suicide in adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Juan J; Clavel, Maria; Giner, Lucas; Sher, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, suicide is among the top five causes of mortality in the 15- to 19- year age group. Pediatricians and primary care providers are in a distinctive position to help prevent suicide in adolescents. According to the Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services, all adolescents should have at least an annual preventive services visit, which should address both the biomedical and psychosocial aspects of health. Suicide prevention may best be accomplished by detection and management of specific risk factors, rather than by attempting to recognize those youth who are considered most likely to commit suicide. Alcohol use has been regarded as an important risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior and the diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder indicates an elevated risk for adolescent suicide. Although the causal relationship between alcohol use and suicide remains unknown, a clear and strong relationship exists. Pediatricians and other health care providers should be skilled to recognize risk factors for adolescent suicide, including alcohol and drug misuse, depression, major loss, and recent suicides within a community. The relative frequency of suicidal behavior among adolescents suffering from alcohol use disorders and its distressing effects on individuals, families and society merits further research and development of prevention strategies in general pediatric settings. PMID:17458325

  7. Stress Generation and Adolescent Depression: Contribution of Interpersonal Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the proposal that ineffective responses to common interpersonal problems disrupt youths’ relationships, which, in turn, contributes to depression during adolescence. Youth (86 girls, 81 boys; M age = 12.41, SD = 1.19) and their primary female caregivers participated in a three-wave longitudinal study. Youth completed a measure assessing interpersonal stress responses; youth and caregivers completed semi-structured interviews assessing youths’ life stress and psychopathology. Consistent with the hypothesized model, ineffective stress responses (low levels of effortful engagement, high levels of involuntary engagement and disengagement) predicted the generation of subsequent interpersonal stress, which partially accounted for the association between stress responses and depression over time. Moreover, results revealed that self-generated interpersonal, but not noninterpersonal stress, predicted depression, and that this explanatory model was specific to the prediction of depression but not anxiety. This research builds on interpersonal stress generation models of depression, and highlights the importance of implementing depression-focused intervention programs that promote effective stress responses and adaptive interpersonal relationships during adolescence. PMID:21647600

  8. LONGITUDINAL COURSE OF ADOLESCENT DEPRESSION: NEUROENDOCRINE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL PREDICTORS

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Uma; Hammen, Constance L.; Poland, Russell E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The study examined whether cortisol measures are associated with the clinical course of depression in adolescents. Further, the study evaluated whether the relationship between cortisol and clinical course is moderated by environmental stress and/or social support. Method Fifty-five adolescents with depression (age range 13–18) were recruited. In addition to a systematic diagnostic assessment, information was obtained on environmental stress and social support. Urinary free cortisol measures were collected on three consecutive nights during the index episode. Clinical follow-up evaluations were conducted at regular intervals over a 5-year period, documenting recovery from the index depressive episode and recurrent episodes. Information on environmental stress and social support also was gathered during each follow-up assessment. Results Consistent with prior reports, the majority of adolescents (92.2%) recovered from the initial depressive episode. A substantial proportion of the recovered youth (42.6%) experienced a subsequent episode during the follow-up period. Higher cortisol levels were associated with a longer time to recovery from the index depressive episode. The effect of cortisol on recovery was moderated by social support. The combination of elevated cortisol and recent stressful experiences predicted recurrence, whereas a higher level of social support was protective against recurrence. Conclusions These data, in conjunction with prior literature, suggest that depression reflects an underlying neurobiological vulnerability that may predispose individuals with high vulnerability to chronic, recurrent episodes. Psychosocial factors, independently or in combination with an underlying neurobiological vulnerability, also play an important role in determining the clinical course of depression. PMID:20215936

  9. A Manual-Based Intervention to Address Clinical Crises and Retain Patients in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Diane E.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Puumala, Susan E.; Silva, Susan G.; Rezac, Amy J.; Hallin, Mary J.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Weller, Elizabeth B.; Pathak, Sanjeev; Simons, Anne D.; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe a manual-based intervention to address clinical crises and retain participants in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: The use of adjunct services for attrition prevention (ASAP) is described for adolescents (ages 12-17 years) during the 12-week acute treatment in TADS, from 2000 to 2003.…

  10. Facets of loneliness and depression among Chinese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lau, S; Chan, D W; Lau, P S

    1999-12-01

    The authors examined the relation among different facets of loneliness and depression in a sample of 6,356 Chinese children and adolescents from Grades 4-9. Loneliness and depression were closely related among the primary (Grades 4-6) and secondary (Grades 7-9) students, both boys and girls. Although the different facets of loneliness were predictive of the various facets of depression, peer-related loneliness and aloneness were more predictive of depression in both groups than was parent-related loneliness. The students in Grades 5 and 6 scored lower for loneliness but a little higher for depression than did the students in Grade 4. The students in Grades 8 and 9 scored higher than the students in Grade 7 for loneliness and depression. The primary boys scored higher than the primary girls for both loneliness and depression. Among the secondary students, there was no difference between the scores of the boys and those of the girls for loneliness, but the boys scored lower than the girls for depression. PMID:10646306

  11. Approaches to adolescent pregnancy prevention.

    PubMed

    Haffner, D; Casey, S

    1986-09-01

    The US has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the industrialized world, over 1,000,000 a year. This can add to social problems including poverty, unemployment, family breakup, juvenile crime, school dropouts, and child abuse. In several studies various approaches have been developed and it is concluded that teens must not only be given the knowledge to avoid teen pregnancies, but the motivation to do so. Sex education is an important part of pregnancy prevention, but few programs go beyond the facts of reproduction and less than 14% of them are 40 hours long. Studies have shown mixed results as to the effect of education on teen pregnancy. There are many programs that have been developed by different communities, including computer programs and youth service agencies. Religious groups also play an important part in sex education and they have some distinct advantages in affecting teens' sexual values and activities. Education programs for teen's parents appear to be very important since studies show when sexuality is discussed at home, the teens begin activity later and use birth control more. Clinics have had difficulty recruiting and retaining teen patients and devote special attention to establishing a rapport with them. The school-based clinic is becoming increasingly popular and can provide birth control counseling, contraceptives, family planning clinic referral, examinations, pregnancy testing, and prenatal care. There success is due to confidentiality, convenience, and comprehensive service. However, since nearly all efforts on teen pregnancy prevention are directed at girls, 1/2 of those involved in teen pregnancies--males--are not participating in programs. This must change for longterm success of these programs and also the involvement of the community and media.

  12. Helpless attributions and depression in adolescents: the roles of anxiety, event valence, and demographics.

    PubMed

    Waschbusch, Daniel A; Sellers, Denise P; LeBlanc, Monique; Kelley, Mary L

    2003-04-01

    The relationship between helpless attributions and depression is well established. This study evaluated whether anxiety, event valence (positive or negative) and demographic variables (gender, age, socioeconomic status or race) influence this relationship. Results showed: (1) adolescents with anxiety and depression who were from lower socioeconomic backgrounds made less helpless attributions for negative events than did adolescents from higher socioeconomic backgrounds, (2) male adolescents with anxiety-only had helpless attribution styles that were similar to male adolescents with depression, but the same was not true for female adolescents, and (3) African-American adolescents showed less helpless attributions for negative events than did Caucasian adolescents. Results replicate past research showing that a helpless attribution style is associated with depression in adolescence, but suggest that this pattern may be influenced by demographic factors. Results also suggest that helpless attributions may be related to both anxiety and depression in males. PMID:12581725

  13. Increased Ventricular Cerebrospinal Fluid Lactate in Depressed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Kailyn A. L.; Mao, Xiangling; Case, Julia A. C.; Kang, Guoxin; Shungu, Dikoma C.; Gabbay, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly examined as a potential pathogenic event in psychiatric disorders, although its role early in the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction in medication-free adolescents with MDD through in vivo measurements of neurometabolites using high-spatial resolution multislice/multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods Twenty-three adolescents with MDD and 29 healthy controls, ages 12–20, were scanned at 3T and concentrations of ventricular cerebrospinal fluid lactate, as well as N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), total creatine (tCr), and total choline (tCho) in the bilateral caudate, putamen, and thalamus were reported. Results Adolescents with MDD exhibited increased ventricular lactate compared to healthy controls [F(1, 41) = 6.98, p = .01]. However, there were no group differences in the other neurometabolites. Dimensional analyses in the depressed group showed no relation between any of the neurometabolites and symptomatology, including anhedonia and fatigue. Conclusions Increased ventricular lactate in depressed adolescents suggests mitochondrial dysfunction may be present early in the course of MDD; however it is still not known whether the presence of mitochondrial dysfunction is a trait vulnerability of individuals predisposed to psychopathology or a state feature of the disorder. Therefore, there is a need for larger multimodal studies to clarify these chemical findings in the context of network function. PMID:26802978

  14. Mediators involved in the relation between depressive symptoms and weight status in female adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, A B; Wall, M M; Choo, T-H J; Larson, N I; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2015-06-01

    Depression may be a risk factor for overweight status, but mechanisms involved in this relationship are unclear. This study explored behavioral factors involved in the relationship between adolescent depression symptoms and adult overweight status. A population-based cohort of female participants in Project EAT (n=1035) was followed over 10 years and reported on psychological functioning, weight status and eating and activity patterns in early/middle adolescence (1999=Time 1; T1), middle adolescence/early young adulthood (2004=Time 2; T2) and early/middle young adulthood (2009=Time 3; T3). Structural equation models were fit which included T1 depression scores predicting overweight status at T3, with T2 fruit and vegetable consumption, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and binge eating examined as mediators. There were small but significant effects of T1 depression scores predicting an increased likelihood of T3 overweight status (standardized estimate=0.038; P=0.007), and of T2 binge eating mediating the relation between T1 depression and T3 overweight status (standardized indirect effect estimate=0.036; P=0.009). Binge eating may be one pathway to overweight among depressed females, suggesting that recognition and treatment of eating pathology in individuals with depression may help prevent overweight. Examination of other behavioral (and non-behavioral) factors explaining the relationship between depression and overweight is warranted.

  15. A Qualitative Investigation of Adolescents’ Perceived Mechanisms of Change from a Universal School-Based Depression Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Shochet, Ian; Montague, Roslyn; Smith, Coral; Dadds, Mark

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis provides evidence supporting the universal application of school-based prevention programs for adolescent depression. The mechanisms underlying such successful interventions, however, are largely unknown. We report on a qualitative analysis of 109 Grade 9 students’ beliefs about what they gained from an evidence-based depression prevention intervention, the Resourceful Adolescent Program (RAP-A). Fifty-four percent of interviewees articulated at least one specific example of program benefit. A thematic analysis of responses revealed two major themes, improved interpersonal relationships and improved self-regulation, both stronger than originally assumed. A more minor theme also emerged—more helpful cognitions. It is postulated that both improved interpersonal relationships and improved self-regulation are likely to enhance one another, and more helpful cognitions may express its contribution through enhanced self-regulation. These findings broaden our understanding of the impact of depression prevention programs, beginning to illuminate how such programs benefit participants. PMID:24859679

  16. Onset of Alcohol or Substance Use Disorders Following Treatment for Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Curry, John; Silva, Susan; Rohde, Paul; Ginsburg, Golda; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Kirchner, Jerry; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Feeny, Norah; Albano, Anne Marie; Lavanier, Sarah; Reinecke, Mark; Jacobs, Rachel; Becker-Weidman, Emily; Weller, Elizabeth; Emslie, Graham; Walkup, John; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Burns, Barbara; Wells, Karen; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study tested whether positive response to short-term treatment for adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) would have the secondary benefit of preventing subsequent alcohol or substance use disorders. Method We followed for five years 192 adolescents (56.2% female; 20.8% minority) who had participated in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS), and had no prior diagnoses of alcohol or substance use disorders. TADS initial treatments were cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), the combination of CBT and FLX (COMB), or clinical management with pill placebo (PBO). We used both the original TADS treatment response rating and a more restrictive symptom count rating. During follow-up, diagnostic interviews were completed at six or 12 month intervals to assess onset of alcohol (AUD) or substance use disorders (SUD), MDD recovery and recurrence. Results Achieving a positive response to MDD treatment was unrelated to subsequent AUD, but predicted lower rate of subsequent SUD, regardless of the measure of positive response (11.65% versus 24.72%; or 10.0% versus 24.5%, respectively). Type of initial MDD treatment was not related to either outcome. Prior to depression treatment, greater involvement with alcohol or drugs predicted later alcohol or substance use disorders, as did older age (for AUD) and more comorbid disorders (for SUD). Among those with recurrent MDD and AUD, AUD preceded MDD recurrence in 24 of 25 cases. Conclusion Effective short-term adolescent depression treatment significantly reduces the rate of subsequent substance use, but not alcohol use, disorders. Alcohol or drug use should be assessed prior to adolescent MDD treatment and monitored even after MDD recovery. PMID:22250853

  17. Stressful life events and depression among adolescent twin pairs.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Jason D; Alexander, Kari B; Stallings, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    Using the twin pairs sample from the National Longitudinal Study ofAdolescent Health, we estimate bivariate Cholesky models for the influence of stressful life events (SLEs) on depressive symptoms. We show that depressive symptoms (h2Depression = .28) and dependent SLEs (events influenced by an individual's behavior) are both moderately heritable (h2SLE Dependent = .43). We find no evidence for the heritability of independent SLEs. Results from the bivariate Cholesky model suggest that roughly one-half of the correlation between depression and dependent SLEs is due to common genetic factors. Our findings suggest that attempts to characterize the causal effect of SLEs on mental health should limit their list of SLEs to those that are outside of the control of the individual.

  18. Overweight, Body Image, and Depression in Asian and Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bin; Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Johnson, C. Anderson; Wu, Qiaobing; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Methods Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body image dissatisfaction, and depressive symptoms. Results Significant mediation effect was found only in Asian girls (mediation effect=0.16, P<0.05) and girls with high acculturation (mediation effect=0.17, P<0.05). Overweight significantly predicted higher body image dissatisfaction, which in turn was significantly related to depressive symptoms. Conclusion Our findings help understanding the association of overweight and experience of depressive symptoms. PMID:20218759

  19. Information processing in recovered depressed children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, T; Neshat-Doost, H; Taghavi, R; Moradi, A; Yule, W; Canterbury, R; Vostanis, P

    1998-10-01

    Previous research into subjective probability estimates for negative events revealed that depressed children estimated events as equally likely to happen to themselves as to other children. In contrast, both controls and anxious children estimated that negative events were more likely to happen to others than to themselves. The present study followed up this finding by investigating the subjective probability judgements concerning future negative events generated by children and adolescents who have recovered from depression. Subjects generated probability estimates either for themselves or for other children for a range of negative events on a visual analogue scale. The results revealed that both recovered depressed and matched control groups estimated negative events as significantly more likely to happen to others than to themselves. It was also found that the recovered depressed subjects estimated that negative events were less likely overall, compared to the controls. These results are discussed in the context of the adult literature.

  20. What Do Mothers Make Adolescents Feel Guilty about? Incidents, Reactions, and Relation to Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donatelli, Jo-Ann L.; Bybee, Jane A.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    We found mothers' history of depression and symptoms of depression among their adolescent children were both associated with the type of events that mothers made adolescents feel guilty about and with the mothers' reactions to those events. Adolescents (20 male, 23 female) described incidents in which their mothers made them feel guilty and what…

  1. Interpersonal Theory and Music Techniques: A Case Study for a Family With a Depressed Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, C. Bret; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2005-01-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-A) is a brief, time-limited therapy developed for use with adolescents diagnosed with major depression. IPT-A has been shown to be effective with adolescents in family counseling milieus. Music therapy techniques also have been successfully used to treat adolescent depression. This article provides mental health…

  2. Transporting Evidence-Based Therapy for Adolescent Depression to the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Heather L.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen R.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the Adolescent Mood Project (Project AMP), a study transporting an evidence-based, cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for adolescent depression from the university lab setting to a school-based setting. Extant research on the psychosocial treatment of adolescent depression is reviewed and rationale for transporting evidence…

  3. Depressive Symptoms among Native and Immigrant Adolescents in Norway: The Role of Gender and Urbanization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fandrem, Hildegunn; Sam, David L.; Roland, Erling

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates depressive symptoms among 3,431 adolescents aged 13-15 years. The sample comprises both native Norwegian and immigrant adolescents living in Norway. The main finding of the study is that the level of depressive symptoms is significantly higher among the immigrant adolescents than their Norwegian counterparts. When analysed…

  4. Nonparent Adult Social Support and Depressive Symptoms among Mexican American and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey-Cannon, Shannon; Pasch, Lauri A.; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Flores, Elena

    2006-01-01

    The notion that nonparent social support buffers the impact of parent depressive symptoms and substance use on adolescent depressive symptoms was tested in 142 Mexican American and 148 European American families with 12- through 15-year-old adolescents. Parent risk factors and adolescent nonparent adult social support were measured at baseline;…

  5. Training School Personnel to Implement a Universal School-Based Prevention of Depression Program under Real-World Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnett, P.H.; Dadds, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of a universal prevention of depression program [the Resourceful Adolescent Program (RAP)] when implemented under real-world conditions in a school setting. Prior research has found the RAP program to be beneficial for high-school students when the program was implemented by university staff selected,…

  6. Being bullied and feeling ashamed: Implications for eating psychopathology and depression in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Rodrigues, Tânia

    2015-10-01

    The current study examined the associations between peer victimization, body image shame, self-criticism, self-reassurance, depressive symptoms and eating psychopathology in 609 female adolescents. Correlational analyses showed that being the victim of bullying was positively associated with body image shame, self-criticism, with low self-reassurance, depressive symptoms and eating psychopathology. A path analysis indicated that victimization experiences were associated with increased depressive symptoms partially through increased levels of body image shame, and a severe form of self-criticism - hated self. Body image shame and hated-self self-criticism fully mediated the association between victimization experiences eating psychopathology. The tested model accounted for a total of 51% of depressive symptoms variance and for 52% of eating psychopathology variance. These findings may have important intervention and prevention implications, by suggesting that bullying experiences fuel body image shame and consequent self-directed hostility and anger, which, in turn, predict increased depressive symptomatology and eating psychopathology in female adolescents.

  7. Being bullied and feeling ashamed: Implications for eating psychopathology and depression in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Rodrigues, Tânia

    2015-10-01

    The current study examined the associations between peer victimization, body image shame, self-criticism, self-reassurance, depressive symptoms and eating psychopathology in 609 female adolescents. Correlational analyses showed that being the victim of bullying was positively associated with body image shame, self-criticism, with low self-reassurance, depressive symptoms and eating psychopathology. A path analysis indicated that victimization experiences were associated with increased depressive symptoms partially through increased levels of body image shame, and a severe form of self-criticism - hated self. Body image shame and hated-self self-criticism fully mediated the association between victimization experiences eating psychopathology. The tested model accounted for a total of 51% of depressive symptoms variance and for 52% of eating psychopathology variance. These findings may have important intervention and prevention implications, by suggesting that bullying experiences fuel body image shame and consequent self-directed hostility and anger, which, in turn, predict increased depressive symptomatology and eating psychopathology in female adolescents. PMID:26318063

  8. Parental emotion socialization in clinically depressed adolescents: Enhancing, and dampening positive affect

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Shortt, Joann Wu; Allen, Nicholas B.; Davis, Betsy; Hunter, Erin; Leve, Craig; Sheeber, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study compared parental socialization of adolescent positive affect in families of depressed and healthy adolescents. Participants were 107 adolescents (42 boys) aged 14 - 18 years and their parents. Half of the participants met criteria for major depressive disorder and the others were demographically matched adolescents without emotional or behavioral disorders. Results based on multi-source questionnaire and interview data indicated that mothers and fathers of depressed adolescents were less accepting of adolescents’ positive affect and more likely to use strategies that dampen adolescents’ positive affect than were parents of healthy adolescents. Additionally, fathers of depressed adolescents exhibited fewer responses likely to enhance the adolescents’ positive affect than were fathers of healthy adolescents. These findings build on those of previous work in examining parental responses to adolescent emotions, focusing on positive emotions and including both mothers and fathers. PMID:23942826

  9. Emerging Depression Is Associated with Face Memory Deficits in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Choate, Victoria R.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Pine, Daniel S.; Keenan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between memory for previously encoded emotional faces and depression symptoms assessed over 4 years in adolescent girls. Investigating the interface between memory deficits and depression in adolescent girls may provide clues about depression pathophysiology. Method: Participants were 213 girls recruited from…

  10. A Comparison of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Sertraline, and Their Combination for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Glenn A.; Tonge, Bruce J.; King, Neville J.; Heyne, David; Gordon, Michael S.; Klimkeit, Ester

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate cognitive-behavioral therapy, antidepressant medication alone, and combined CBT and antidepressant medication in the treatment of depressive disorders in adolescents. Method: Seventy-three adolescents (ages 12-18 years) with a primary diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or depressive disorder…

  11. The correlation between impaired attention and emotional reactivity in depressed adolescent patients.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Yuval; Aviram, Shai; Faibel, Nurit; Govezensky, Jose; Braw, Yoram; Rabany, Liron; Walter, Garry

    2013-01-01

    A group of 20 drug-naïve depressed adolescents and 20 matched controls underwent cognitive evaluations and assessment of emotional reactivity. Emotional reactivity correlated only with attention and only in depressed patients. The cognitive-emotional construct may enhance the understanding of adolescent depression and aid diagnosis. PMID:24026716

  12. Depressive Symptoms and Romantic Relationship Qualities from Adolescence through Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Examination of Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vujeva, Hana M.; Furman, Wyndol

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated the negative consequences of depression on adolescents' functioning in peer and family relationships, but little work has examined how depressive symptoms affect the quality of adolescents' and emerging adults' romantic relationships. Five waves of data on depressive symptoms, romantic relationship conflict,…

  13. Efficacy of an Internet-Based Intervention Targeted to Adolescents with Subthreshold Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarushka, Marta Maria

    2011-01-01

    Depression during adolescence is highly prevalent with as many as 20% experiencing a major depressive episode by the age of 18. Adolescent depression causes significant impairment across life areas including school functioning, such as poor academic performance and decreased academic achievement. Despite the existence of many evidence-based…

  14. The Adolescent Mattering Experience: Gender Variations in Perceived Mattering, Anxiety, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Andrea L.; Scheidegger, Corey; McWhirter, J. Jeffries

    2009-01-01

    Individuals who perceive that they matter to others are likely to experience lower anxiety and depression levels. The effects of young adolescents' perceived mattering on their anxiety and depression levels were examined. Results indicated that female adolescents reported lower anxiety levels but greater depression levels than did male…

  15. Understanding the Sex Difference in Vulnerability to Adolescent Depression: An Examination of Child and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhart, Nicole K.; Shih, Josephine H.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in risk factors associated with adolescent depression in a large sample of boys and girls. Moderation and mediation explanatory models of the sex difference in likelihood of depression were examined. Findings indicate that the factors associated with depression in adolescent boys and girls are quite similar. All…

  16. The Developmental Relationship Between Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence and Harmful Drinking in Emerging Adulthood: The Role of Peers and Parents.

    PubMed

    Pesola, Francesca; Shelton, Katherine H; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus; Hickman, Matthew; van den Bree, Marianne B M

    2015-09-01

    Depressive symptoms have been linked to the development of harmful drinking in adolescence but it remains unclear to what extent this effect continues into emerging adulthood. Deviant peers represent a risk factor while parental monitoring is a protective factor for harmful drinking. The study explored the relationship between depressive symptoms and harmful drinking between early adolescence and emerging adulthood. We also assessed to what extent this relationship is mediated by the influence of deviant peers and whether parental monitoring weakens this process. The sample consisted of 2964 adolescents (64 % females) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children study assessed between the ages of 14 and 19. Using structural equation modelling, we found that affiliation with deviant peers mediated the association between depressive symptoms and harmful drinking after adjustment for socio-demographic variables, parental drinking and depression, teenager's sex, conduct problems as well as drinking and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. We also found that parental control and solicitation reduced the influence of deviant peers on harmful drinking. The results indicate that prevention programs should offer adolescents training for peer resistance training and monitoring skills training for parents may have a long-term effect at weakening peer influences on harmful drinking. PMID:25976526

  17. Preventing depression and anxiety in young people: a review of the joint efficacy of universal, selective and indicated prevention.

    PubMed

    Stockings, E A; Degenhardt, L; Dobbins, T; Lee, Y Y; Erskine, H E; Whiteford, H A; Patton, G

    2016-01-01

    Depression and anxiety (internalizing disorders) are the largest contributors to the non-fatal health burden among young people. This is the first meta-analysis to examine the joint efficacy of universal, selective, and indicated preventive interventions upon both depression and anxiety among children and adolescents (5-18 years) while accounting for their co-morbidity. We conducted a systematic review of reviews in Medline, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, from 1980 to August 2014. Multivariate meta-analysis examined the efficacy of preventive interventions on depression and anxiety outcomes separately, and the joint efficacy on both disorders combined. Meta-regressions examined heterogeneity of effect according to a range of study variables. Outcomes were relative risks (RR) for disorder, and standardized mean differences (Cohen's d) for symptoms. One hundred and forty-six randomized controlled trials (46 072 participants) evaluated universal (children with no identified risk, n = 54) selective (population subgroups of children who have an increased risk of developing internalizing disorders due to shared risk factors, n = 45) and indicated prevention (children with minimal but detectable symptoms of an internalizing disorder, n = 47), mostly using psychological-only strategies (n = 105). Reductions in internalizing disorder onset occurred up to 9 months post-intervention, whether universal [RR 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.60], selective (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43-0.85) or indicated (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.78). Reductions in internalizing symptoms occurred up to 12 months post-intervention for universal prevention; however, reductions only occurred in the shorter term for selective and indicated prevention. Universal, selective and indicated prevention interventions are efficacious in reducing internalizing disorders and symptoms in the short term. They might be considered as repeated exposures in school settings across childhood

  18. Toward scientific equity for the prevention of depression and depressive symptoms in vulnerable youth.

    PubMed

    Perrino, Tatiana; Beardslee, William; Bernal, Guillermo; Brincks, Ahnalee; Cruden, Gracelyn; Howe, George; Murry, Velma; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo; Sandler, Irwin; Brown, C Hendricks

    2015-07-01

    Certain subgroups of youth are at high risk for depression and elevated depressive symptoms, and experience limited access to quality mental health care. Examples are socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority, and sexual minority youth. Research shows that there are efficacious interventions to prevent youth depression and depressive symptoms. These preventive interventions have the potential to play a key role in addressing these mental health disparities by reducing youth risk factors and enhancing protective factors. However, there are comparatively few preventive interventions directed specifically to these vulnerable subgroups, and sample sizes of diverse subgroups in general prevention trials are often too low to assess whether preventive interventions work equally well for vulnerable youth compared to other youth. In this paper, we describe the importance and need for "scientific equity," or equality and fairness in the amount of scientific knowledge produced to understand the potential solutions to such health disparities. We highlight possible strategies for promoting scientific equity, including the following: increasing the number of prevention research participants from vulnerable subgroups, conducting more data synthesis analyses and implementation science research, disseminating preventive interventions that are efficacious for vulnerable youth, and increasing the diversity of the prevention science research workforce. These strategies can increase the availability of research evidence to determine the degree to which preventive interventions can help address mental health disparities. Although this paper utilizes the prevention of youth depression as an illustrative case example, the concepts are applicable to other health outcomes for which there are disparities, such as substance use and obesity.

  19. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  20. Does Early Adolescent Sex Cause Depressive Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    A recent study by the Heritage Foundation (Rector, Johnson, & Noyes, 2003) found evidence of a positive relationship between early sexual intercourse and depressive symptoms. This finding has been used to bolster support for funding abstinence only sex education. However, promoting abstinence will only yield mental health benefits if there is a…

  1. Bias to negative emotions: a depression state-dependent marker in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Fadi T; Clark, Luke; Tavitian, Lucy; Sahakian, Barbara J; Brent, David; Phillips, Mary L

    2012-06-30

    The aim of the current research was to examine for the first time the extent to which bias to negative emotions in an inhibitory control paradigm is a state or trait marker in major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents. We administered the affective go/no go task which measures the ability to switch attention to or away from positive or negative emotional stimuli to 40 adolescents with MDD (20 in acute episode (MDDa) and 20 in remission (MDDr)) and 17 healthy controls (HC). MDDa were significantly faster on the shift to negative target blocks as compared to shift to positive target blocks while HC and MDDr displayed the opposite pattern as measured by an "emotional bias index" (EBI=latency (shift to negative targets)-latency (shift to positive targets)). There was also a trend for an effect of group on commission errors, suggesting more impulsive responding by MDDa than both MDDr and HC independently of stimulus valence throughout the task. Negative bias was not associated with depression severity or medication status. In conclusion, bias to negative emotional stimuli appears to be present in the acute stage of MDD and absent in remission suggesting that it is a depression state-specific marker of MDD in adolescents. Latency emerges as a better proxy of negative bias than commission errors and accuracy on this inhibitory control task in adolescents with MDD.

  2. Adolescent-Onset Depression: Are Obesity and Inflammation Developmental Mechanisms or Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Byrne, Michelle L; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Mitchell, Sarah A; Allen, Nicholas B

    2015-12-01

    Depression often has its first onset during adolescence and is associated with obesity. Furthermore, inflammatory processes have been implicated in both depression and obesity, although research amongst adolescents is limited. This review explores associations between depression and obesity, depression and inflammation, and obesity and inflammation from a developmental perspective. The temporal relations between these factors are examined to explore whether obesity and elevated inflammation act as either risk factors for, or outcomes of, adolescent-onset depression. Sex differences in these processes are also summarized. We propose a model whereby increases in sex hormones during puberty increase risk for depression for females, which can lead to obesity, which in turn increases levels of inflammation. Importantly, this model suggests that inflammation and obesity are outcomes of adolescent depression, rather than initial contributing causes. Further research on biological and psychosocial effects of sex hormones is needed, as is longitudinal research with children and adolescents.

  3. Innovative collaboration to prevent repeated adolescent pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Saunders, R B; Brown, H N

    1997-01-01

    Nurse educators from a university setting and staff from the county health department collaborated to establish an innovative program to prevent repeated pregnancy in adolescents. Called Dollar-A-Day and patterned after the original in Denver, CO, the program was operated jointly for 5 years and today continues to operate under the auspices of the health department. Success of the venture is attributed to use of skills in assessment, building, managing, and evaluating, as described by Loxley (1997). These elements were used to construct a context for collaboration.

  4. Depressive Symptoms and Health-Related Risk-Taking in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, C. Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear…

  5. Adolescents' and Teachers' Perceptions of a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Gleason, Jamie H.; Johnson, Stephanie A.; Fahlman, Mariane M.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of adolescent and teacher perceptions of adolescent pregnancy-prevention programs using dolls that simulate infant behavior. Uses experimental and control groups of high school students from Midwest suburban areas. Finds increased appreciation for difficulty of infant care among adolescents in experimental groups. Majority of teachers…

  6. Brighter Futures: The Wisconsin Plan To Prevent Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Executive Committee on Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention, Madison.

    The Executive Committee and the Subcommittee on Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention were charged to develop and provide leadership to implement a state plan to reduce adolescent pregnancy in Wisconsin. Both the negative outcomes for adolescent parents and their children and the cost to society are at issue. This document serves as a first step to…

  7. Mothers' trajectories of depressive symptoms across Mexican-origin adolescent daughters' transition to parenthood.

    PubMed

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B; Harvey-Mendoza, Elizabeth C

    2013-06-01

    This study draws from a life-course perspective in examining trajectories of mothers' depressive symptoms across their adolescent daughters' adjustment to parenthood in 204 Mexican-origin families using latent class growth analysis. Four distinct trajectories were identified based on mothers' depressive symptoms before the birth and 10 and 24 months postpartum. Two trajectories were characterized by stable levels of depressive symptoms but were differentiated in their levels of symptoms (i.e., High/Stable and Low/Stable). The remaining two trajectories were characterized by changes from pre- to post-birth, with one group exhibiting increases in depressive symptoms (i.e., Low/Post-Birth Increase) and the other group characterized by decreases in depressive symptoms (i.e., Low/Post-Birth Decrease). Consistent with a risk and resilience perspective, mothers with more disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances and fewer intrapersonal resources (i.e., self-esteem, ethnic identity affirmation) were more likely to be members of the High/Stable group. In addition, daughters of mothers in the High/Stable group were more likely to have lower self-esteem as compared with daughters in the other three groups. Collectively, these findings suggested that the High/Stable group was at risk for adjustment difficulties from the third trimester to two years postpartum. In contrast, membership in the Low/Post-Birth Decrease trajectory group was associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem for mothers and daughters. Findings point to the need to identify mothers who are at risk for depressive symptoms during their adolescent daughters' pregnancy and offer prevention and intervention programs that reduce risks and enhance protective factors.

  8. Mothers' trajectories of depressive symptoms across Mexican-origin adolescent daughters' transition to parenthood.

    PubMed

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B; Harvey-Mendoza, Elizabeth C

    2013-06-01

    This study draws from a life-course perspective in examining trajectories of mothers' depressive symptoms across their adolescent daughters' adjustment to parenthood in 204 Mexican-origin families using latent class growth analysis. Four distinct trajectories were identified based on mothers' depressive symptoms before the birth and 10 and 24 months postpartum. Two trajectories were characterized by stable levels of depressive symptoms but were differentiated in their levels of symptoms (i.e., High/Stable and Low/Stable). The remaining two trajectories were characterized by changes from pre- to post-birth, with one group exhibiting increases in depressive symptoms (i.e., Low/Post-Birth Increase) and the other group characterized by decreases in depressive symptoms (i.e., Low/Post-Birth Decrease). Consistent with a risk and resilience perspective, mothers with more disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances and fewer intrapersonal resources (i.e., self-esteem, ethnic identity affirmation) were more likely to be members of the High/Stable group. In addition, daughters of mothers in the High/Stable group were more likely to have lower self-esteem as compared with daughters in the other three groups. Collectively, these findings suggested that the High/Stable group was at risk for adjustment difficulties from the third trimester to two years postpartum. In contrast, membership in the Low/Post-Birth Decrease trajectory group was associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem for mothers and daughters. Findings point to the need to identify mothers who are at risk for depressive symptoms during their adolescent daughters' pregnancy and offer prevention and intervention programs that reduce risks and enhance protective factors. PMID:23750520

  9. Immune system dysregulation in adolescent major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Vilma; Klein, Rachel G.; Alonso, Carmen M.; Babb, James S.; Nishawala, Melissa; De Jesus, Georgette; Hirsch, Glenn S.; Hottinger-Blanc, Pauline M.Z.; Gonzalez, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence suggests that immune system dysregulation is associated with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in adults. This study extends this work to adolescent MDD to examine the hypotheses of immune system dysregulation in adolescents with MDD, as manifested by significantly: (i) elevated plasma levels of cytokines (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1β, and IL-4); and (ii) Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance shifted toward Th1 as indexed by increased IFN-γ/IL-4. Method Thirty adolescents with MDD (19 females; 13 medication-free/naïve; ages 12–19) of at least 6 weeks duration and a minimum severity score of 40 on the Children’s Depression Rating Scale—Revised, and 15 healthy comparisons (8 females), group-matched for age, were enrolled. Plasma cytokines were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mann–Whitney test was used to compare subjects with MDD and controls. Results Adolescents with MDD had significantly elevated plasma IFN-γ levels (3.38 ± 11.8 pg/ml versus 0.37 ± 0.64 pg/ml; p<0.003), and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio (16.6 ± 56.5 versus 1.76 ± 2.28; p = 0.007). A trend for IL-6 to be elevated in the MDD group was also observed (1.52 ± 2.88 pg/ml versus 0.49 ± 0.90 pg/ml; p=0.09). Importantly, findings remained evident when medicated subjects were excluded. Conclusions Findings suggest that immune system dysregulation may be associated with adolescent MDD, with an imbalance of Th1/Th2 shifted toward Th1, as documented in adult MDD. Larger studies with medication-free adolescents should follow. PMID:18790541

  10. Trajectories of Overweight and their Association with Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential for a developmental approach to reveal new insights into the well-documented link between weight and depressive symptoms. Methods Latent class analysis identified multiple trajectories of overweight from 24 months to 15 years in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 957). Structural equation models then used these classes to predict depressive symptoms at age 15. Results Five latent classes captured continuity and change in weight from early childhood into middle adolescence. Controlling for current weight, stably overweight girls tended to have the most depressive symptoms, but popularity and positive image appeared to buffer against some of the risks that girls faced from being stably overweight or becoming overweight in early to middle childhood. Notably, boys’ longitudinal weight patterns were not associated with their depressive symptoms in adolescence. Conclusions Weight histories, controlling for current weight, are important for understanding the psychological experience of overweight, especially when such histories are considered in relation to other aspects of psychosocial functioning. PMID:25603419

  11. Current maternal depression moderates the relation between critical expressed emotion in mothers and depressive symptoms in their adolescent daughters.

    PubMed

    Mellick, William; Kalpakci, Allison; Sharp, Carla

    2015-06-30

    Prior studies have examined critical expressed emotion (EE-Crit) in mothers in the intergenerational transmission of depression. However, the potential moderating effect of maternal depression diagnostic status in relation to EE-Crit and youth depressive symptoms has yet to be determined. A total of N=121 biological mother/daughter dyads that differed in maternal depression diagnostic status were recruited for the present study: (1) currently depressed mothers (current depression, n=29); (2) formerly depressed mothers (past depression, n=39); and (3) mothers free from any psychiatric history (healthy controls, n=53). Mothers were administered structured clinical interviews and completed self-report measures of EE-Crit and psychopathology, and daughters self-reported depressive symptoms. Results indicated no significant group differences in EE-Crit; however, current maternal depression status moderated EE-Crit such that the magnitude of the relation between EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms was significantly greater in daughters of currently depressed mothers. These findings highlight the importance of considering current maternal depression, rather than a history of maternal depression, in relation to EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms, providing impetus for future investigations.

  12. Associations between depression risk, bullying and current smoking among Chinese adolescents: Modulated by gender.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Hong, Lingyao; Gao, Xue; Zhou, Jinhua; Lu, Ciyong; Zhang, Wei-Hong

    2016-03-30

    This school-based study aimed to investigate the prevalence of being at risk for depression, bullying behavior, and current smoking among Chinese adolescents in order to explore gender differences in the vulnerability of adolescents with these behaviors to develop a smoking habit. A total of 35,893 high school students sampled from high schools in eighteen cities in China participated in the study from 2011 to 2012. Overall, the prevalence of current smoking was estimated at 6.4%. In total, 1.7% (618) of the participants admitted to bullying others, 5.8% (2071) reported being bullied, 3.5% (1269) were involved in both bullying others and being bullied, and 5.6% (2017) were at high risk for depression. Logistic regression analysis indicated that among girls, with high depression risk, bullying others, being bullied, and both bullying others and being bullied were independently and positively associated with current smoking habits, while the final results among boys showed that bullying others and both bullying others and being bullied were independently associated with an increased risk of current smoking. School-based prevention programs are highly recommended, and we should focus on high-risk students, particularly girls with high risk of depression or involved in school bullying and boys who are involved in school bullying.

  13. Associations between depression risk, bullying and current smoking among Chinese adolescents: Modulated by gender.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Hong, Lingyao; Gao, Xue; Zhou, Jinhua; Lu, Ciyong; Zhang, Wei-Hong

    2016-03-30

    This school-based study aimed to investigate the prevalence of being at risk for depression, bullying behavior, and current smoking among Chinese adolescents in order to explore gender differences in the vulnerability of adolescents with these behaviors to develop a smoking habit. A total of 35,893 high school students sampled from high schools in eighteen cities in China participated in the study from 2011 to 2012. Overall, the prevalence of current smoking was estimated at 6.4%. In total, 1.7% (618) of the participants admitted to bullying others, 5.8% (2071) reported being bullied, 3.5% (1269) were involved in both bullying others and being bullied, and 5.6% (2017) were at high risk for depression. Logistic regression analysis indicated that among girls, with high depression risk, bullying others, being bullied, and both bullying others and being bullied were independently and positively associated with current smoking habits, while the final results among boys showed that bullying others and both bullying others and being bullied were independently associated with an increased risk of current smoking. School-based prevention programs are highly recommended, and we should focus on high-risk students, particularly girls with high risk of depression or involved in school bullying and boys who are involved in school bullying. PMID:26833280

  14. Friendships and Family Support Reduce Subsequent Depressive Symptoms in At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Gibson, Jenny L.; St Clair, Michelle C.; Owens, Matt; Brodbeck, Jeannette; Dunn, Valerie; Lewis, Gemma; Croudace, Tim; Jones, Peter B.; Kievit, Rogier A.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early life stress (ELS) consists of child family adversities (CFA: negative experiences that happened within the family environment) and/or peer bullying. ELS plays an important role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms and clinical disorders. Identifying factors that may reduce depressive symptoms in adolescents with ELS may have important public mental health implications. Methods We used structural equation modelling and examined the impact of adolescent friendships and/or family support at age 14 on depressive symptoms at age 17 in adolescents exposed to ELS before age 11. To this end, we used structural equation modelling in a community sample of 771 adolescents (322 boys and 477 girls) from a 3 year longitudinal study. Significant paths in the model were followed-up to test whether social support mediated or moderated the association between ELS and depressive symptoms at age 17. Results We found that adolescent social support in adolescence is negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in boys and girls exposed to ELS. Specifically, we found evidence for two mediational pathways: In the first pathway family support mediated the link between CFA and depressive symptoms at age 17. Specifically, CFA was negatively associated with adolescent family support at age 14, which in turn was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In the second pathway we found that adolescent friendships mediated the path between peer bullying and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational bullying was negatively associated with adolescent friendships at age 14, which in turn were negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In contrast, we did not find a moderating effect of friendships and family support on the association between CFA and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Friendships and/or family support in adolescence mediate the relationship between ELS and late adolescent depressive symptoms in boys and

  15. It Takes Three: Selection, Influence, and De-Selection Processes of Depression in Adolescent Friendship Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this study tested a selection-influence-de-selection model of depression. This model explains friendship influence processes (i.e., friends' depressive symptoms increase adolescents' depressive symptoms) while controlling for two processes: friendship selection (i.e., selection of friends with similar levels of depressive symptoms)…

  16. Temperament, Stress Reactivity, and Coping: Implications for Depression in Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Connor-Smith, Jennifer; Jaser, Sarah S.

    2004-01-01

    This article considers the role of temperament in the development of depression during childhood and adolescence. The features of depression in young people and aspects of temperament that are most relevant to depression are briefly reviewed. Studies that have tested the direct and indirect associations of temperament and depressive symptoms in…

  17. Early Onset Recurrent Subtype of Adolescent Depression: Clinical and Psychosocial Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Herr, Nathaniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Evaluated trajectories of adolescent depression and their correlates in a longitudinal study of a community sample: early onset (by age 15) with major depression (MDE) recurrence between 15 and 20; early onset with no recurrence; later onset of major depression after age 15 with and without recurrence by 20; and never-depressed.…

  18. The Role of Parent and Peer Support in Predicting Adolescent Depression: A Longitudinal Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Berenson, Kathy; Cohen, Patricia; Garcia, Jesenia

    2005-01-01

    This study examines whether perceived parent support, peer support, and the interaction between them predict depression symptoms and depression diagnosis 2 years later in a community sample of 389 adolescents. Controlling for Time 1 depression, parent support and anticipated peer support were not independently related to Time 2 depression in…

  19. Maternal Positive and Negative Interaction Behaviors and Early Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Adolescent Emotion Regulation as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Marie B. H.; Schwartz, Orli S.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relation between mothers' positive and negative interaction behaviors during mother-child interactions and the emotion regulation (ER) and depressive symptoms of their adolescent offspring. Event-planning (EPI) and problem-solving interactions (PSI) were observed in 163 mother-adolescent dyads, and adolescents also provided…

  20. Preventing adolescent pregnancy: in hot pursuit.

    PubMed

    Carrera, M A

    1995-01-01

    Many children and teenagers are raised in unstable and unsupportive family and community environments ridden with poverty, institutionalized racism, poor housing, substandard health care, inadequate education, and limited career opportunities. Under such conditions, they see no hope for the future. Having sexual intercourse helps these young people to cope with their otherwise harsh realities. Taking precautions against unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) is of secondary importance to the immediate need for emotional and physical bonding through intimate sexual relations. Simply providing adolescents and youths in this context with information on family planning and STD avoidance will not convince them to delay the onset of sexual intercourse or modify their sexual behavior once begun. The desire to live a long, successful, and productive life is what encourages youths to delay the onset of intercourse and to use contraception consistently once they begin to have sex. Youth workers, teachers, and counselors must therefore provide relevant prevention information while also attempting to replace sexual intercourse as a coping mechanism with concrete and hopeful alternatives. Patricia Dempsey and the author launched a program in 1985 at the Children's Aid Society to develop a long-term, holistic, multidimensional adolescent sexuality and pregnancy prevention pilot program for young people, parents, and adults in Harlem. The program would address teen pregnancy and childbearing as well as the underlying causes. This paper presents an overview of the participants and program components.

  1. Preventing Substance Use among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a computerized gender-specific, parent-involvement intervention program grounded in family interaction theory and aimed at preventing substance use among adolescent girls. Following program delivery and 1 year later, girls randomly assigned to the intervention arm improved more than girls in a control arm on variables associated with reduced risks for substance use, including communication with their mothers, knowledge of family rules about substance use, awareness of parental monitoring of their discretionary time, non-acceptance of peer substance use, problem-solving skills, and ability to refuse peer pressure to use substances. Relative to control-arm girls, those in the intervention arm also reported less 30-day use of alcohol and marijuana and lower intentions to smoke, drink, and take illicit drugs in the future. Girls’ mothers in the intervention arm reported greater improvements after the program and relative to control-arm mothers in their communication with their daughters, establishment of family rules about substance use, and monitoring of their daughters’ discretionary time. Study findings lend support to the potential of gender-specific, parent-involvement, and computerized approaches to preventing substance use among adolescent girls. PMID:19632053

  2. The blues of adolescent romance: observed affective interactions in adolescent romantic relationships associated with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; Dishion, Thomas J; Overbeek, Geertjan; Burk, William J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-05-01

    We examined the associations between observed expressions of positive and negative emotions during conflict discussions and depressive symptoms during a 2-year period in a sample of 160 adolescents in 80 romantic relationships (M age = 15.48, SD = 1.16). Conflict discussions were coded using the 10-code Specific Affect Coding System. Depressive symptoms were assessed at the time of the observed conflict discussions (Time 1) and 2 years later (Time 2). Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Girls' expression of both positive and negative emotions at T1 was related to their own depressive symptoms at T2 (actor effect). Boys' positive emotions and negative emotions (actor effect) and girls' negative emotions (partner effect) were related to boys' depressive symptoms at T2. Contrary to expectation, relationship break-up and relationship satisfaction were unrelated to changes in depressive symptoms or expression of negative or positive emotion during conflict discussion. These findings underscore the unique quality of adolescent romantic relationships and suggest new directions in the study of the link between mental health and romantic involvement in adolescence.

  3. The blues of adolescent romance: observed affective interactions in adolescent romantic relationships associated with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; Dishion, Thomas J; Overbeek, Geertjan; Burk, William J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-05-01

    We examined the associations between observed expressions of positive and negative emotions during conflict discussions and depressive symptoms during a 2-year period in a sample of 160 adolescents in 80 romantic relationships (M age = 15.48, SD = 1.16). Conflict discussions were coded using the 10-code Specific Affect Coding System. Depressive symptoms were assessed at the time of the observed conflict discussions (Time 1) and 2 years later (Time 2). Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Girls' expression of both positive and negative emotions at T1 was related to their own depressive symptoms at T2 (actor effect). Boys' positive emotions and negative emotions (actor effect) and girls' negative emotions (partner effect) were related to boys' depressive symptoms at T2. Contrary to expectation, relationship break-up and relationship satisfaction were unrelated to changes in depressive symptoms or expression of negative or positive emotion during conflict discussion. These findings underscore the unique quality of adolescent romantic relationships and suggest new directions in the study of the link between mental health and romantic involvement in adolescence. PMID:24198197

  4. Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS): Safety Results

    PubMed Central

    Emslie, Graham; Kratochvil, Christopher; Vitiello, Benedetto; Silva, Susan; Mayes, Taryn; McNulty, Steven; Weller, Elizabeth; Waslick, Bruce; Casat, Charles; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Rohde, Paul; Posner, Kelly; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the rates of physical, psychiatric, and suicide-related events in adolescents with MDD treated with fluoxetine alone (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), combination treatment (COMB), or placebo (PBO). Method Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs) collected by spontaneous report, as well as systematic measures for specific physical and psychiatric symptoms. Suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were systematically assessed by self- and clinician reports. Suicidal events were also reanalyzed by the Columbia Group and expert raters using the Columbia-Classification Algorithm for Suicidal Assessment used in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration reclassification effort. Results Depressed adolescents reported high rates of physical symptoms at baseline, which improved as depression improved. Sedation, insomnia, vomiting, and upper abdominal pain occurred in at least 2% of those treated with FLX and/or COMB and at twice the rate of placebo. The rate of psychiatric AEs was 11% in FLX, 5.6% in COMB, 4.5% in PBO, and 0.9% in CBT. Suicidal ideation improved overall, with greatest improvement in COMB. Twenty-four suicide-related events occurred during the 12-week period: 5 patients (4.7%) in COMB, 10 (9.2%) in FLX, 5 (4.5%) in CBT, and 3 (2.7%) in placebo. Statistically, only FLX had more suicide-related events than PBO (p = .0402, odds ratio [OR] = 3.7, 95% CI 1.00–13.7). Only five actual attempts occurred (2 COMB, 2 FLX, 1 CBT, 0 PBO). There were no suicide completions. Conclusions Different methods for eliciting AEs produce different results. In general, as depression improves, physical complaints and suicidal ideation decrease in proportion to treatment benefit. In this study, psychiatric AEs and suicide-related events are more common in FLX-treated patients. COMB treatment may offer a more favorable safety profile than medication alone in adolescent depression. PMID:17135989

  5. Self-esteem mediates the effect of the parent-adolescent relationship on depression.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junmin; Ai, Hongshan

    2016-06-01

    There is a trend of rapid growth in both the level and occurrence of depression when people reach adolescence. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the parent-adolescent relationship on depression in adolescents, and mainly focused on the confirmation of the mediator role of self-esteem. A total of 364 senior middle school students accomplished the Parent-Adolescent Relationship Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. The results suggested that both parent-adolescent relationship and self-esteem were significantly correlated with depression. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between parent-adolescent relationship and depression.

  6. Prevalence and predictors of PTSD and depression among adolescent victims of the Spring 2011 tornado outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Zachary W.; Sumner, Jennifer A.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Grös, Kirstin; Paul, Lisa A.; Welsh, Kyleen E.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episode (MDE) in disaster-affected adolescents. Fewer still have administered diagnostic measures or studied samples exposed to tornadoes, a common type of disaster. Further, methodological problems limit the generalizability of previous findings. This study addressed prevalence estimates and risk factors for PTSD and MDE among adolescents exposed to the spring 2011 tornado outbreak in Alabama and Joplin, Missouri. Methods A large (N=2,000), population-based sample of adolescents and caregivers, recruited randomly from tornado-affected communities, participated in structured telephone interviews. PTSD and MDE prevalence were estimated for the overall sample, by gender, and by age. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for PTSD and MDE. Results Overall, 6.7% of adolescents met diagnostic criteria for PTSD and 7.5% of adolescents met diagnostic criteria for MDE since the tornado. Girls were significantly more likely than boys to meet diagnostic criteria for MDE, and older adolescents were more likely than younger adolescents to report MDE since the tornado. Female gender, prior trauma exposure, and an injured family member were associated with greater risk for PTSD and MDE. Specific incident characteristics (loss of services, concern about others’ safety) were associated with greater PTSD risk; prior disaster exposure was associated with lower MDE risk. Conclusions Whereas most adolescents were resilient following tornado exposure, roughly 1 in 15 developed PTSD, 1 in 13 developed MDE, and many more endorsed subclinical mental health problems. Information regarding specific risk factors can guide early screening, prevention, and intervention efforts in disaster-affected communities. PMID:24580551

  7. Adolescent depression, alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Deykin, E Y; Levy, J C; Wells, V

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was employed to ascertain the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol and substance abuse in a sample of 424 college students aged 16 to 19 years. Applying DSM III criteria, the prevalence of MDD was 6.8 per cent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 per cent; and of substance abuse 9.4 per cent. Alcohol abuse was associated with MDD, but not with other psychiatric diagnoses. Substance abuse was associated both with MDD and with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. The onset of MDD almost always preceded alcohol or substance abuse suggesting the possibility of self-medication as a factor in the development of alcohol or substance abuse. PMID:3492151

  8. The cyclical nature of depressed mood and future risk: Depression, rumination, and deficits in emotional clarity in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Liza M.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in emotional clarity, the understanding and awareness of one’s own emotions and the ability to label them appropriately, are associated with increased depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, few studies have examined factors associated with reduction in emotional clarity for adolescents, such as depressed mood and ruminative response styles. The present study examined rumination as a potential mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and changes in emotional clarity, focusing on sex differences. Participants included 223 adolescents (51.60% female, Mean age = 12.39). Controlling for baseline levels of emotional clarity, initial depressive symptoms predicted decreases in emotional clarity. Further, rumination prospectively mediated the relationship between baseline depressive symptoms and follow-up emotional clarity for girls, but not boys. Findings suggest that depressive symptoms may increase girls’ tendencies to engage in repetitive, negative thinking, which may reduce the ability to understand and label emotions, a potentially cyclical process that confers vulnerability to future depression. PMID:25931160

  9. Predictors of Prevention Failure in College Students Participating in Two Indicated Depression Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were randomized to a cognitive-behavioral or relaxation training group preventive intervention. Classification tree analysis showed that older age was the strongest risk factor for persistently elevated depression. Additional risk factors were: (1) for younger students, fewer daily pleasant activities; (2) for those with higher level of pleasant activities, higher level of stressful events; and (3) for those with higher level of stressful events, lower assertiveness. Results offer directions for prevention foci, identify specific subgroups of college students to target for depression prevention efforts, and suggest that research aim to help older, non-traditional students or graduating students manage the transition from college to the work force. PMID:24714056

  10. Temperament, Character, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Focusing on Affect

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Danilo; Kerekes, Nóra; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Archer, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA). The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy) between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (N = 304) were categorized into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling” (high PA, low NA), “high affective” (high PA, high NA), “low affective” (low PA, low NA), and “self-destructive” (low PA, high NA). Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The “self-fulfilling” profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness). “Self-destructive” adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development. PMID:22844588

  11. Adolescent coping profiles differentiate reports of depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Herres, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N=982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age=16.04, SD=0.73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver et al., 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies.

  12. Preventing internalizing symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: a synthesis across Familias Unidas trials.

    PubMed

    Perrino, Tatiana; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Brincks, Ahnalee; Howe, George; Beardslee, William; Sandler, Irwin; Brown, C Hendricks

    2014-12-01

    Studies document that there are efficacious interventions to prevent adolescent depression and internalizing symptoms, including several family-focused interventions. Questions remain about for whom interventions work (moderation) and by what mechanisms they work (mediation) to prevent internalizing symptoms. Unfortunately, single trials are often underpowered to address moderation and mediation, an issue addressed in this paper. This synthesis study combined individual-level, longitudinal data from 721 adolescents across 3 randomized clinical trials of Familias Unidas, a family-focused prevention intervention for Hispanic youth. Using integrative data analysis (IDA) methods applied to trials, the study examined intervention moderation and mediation effects on internalizing symptoms. Baseline internalizing symptoms were a significant moderator of the intervention's effects on internalizing symptoms, while baseline externalizing symptoms did not moderate intervention effects. Baseline parent-adolescent communication, a modifiable risk factor and hypothesized mechanism by which the intervention works, significantly moderated the intervention's effects. Specifically, the intervention was more efficacious in its impact on internalizing symptoms for youth with lower initial levels of parent-adolescent communication compared to those with higher communication levels. Moderated mediation analyses showed that parent-adolescent communication changes mediated the intervention's effects on internalizing symptoms, with stronger effects for those with poorer baseline communication. Results suggest a potential benefit of identifying youth risks prior to interventions, and targeting specific modifiable mediators that lead to reductions of internalizing problems of adolescents. Findings also highlight advantages of utilizing data from combined trials and IDA for examining intervention moderators and mediators.

  13. Research Review: The Role of Cytokines in Depression in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Natalie T.; Scott, James G.; Wray, Naomi R.; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Baune, Bernhard T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: While cytokines have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression in adults, the potential role in younger age groups such as adolescents is less clear. This article therefore reviews the literature (a) to explore the relationship between cytokines and depression in adolescents, and (b) to examine how cytokines may be related…

  14. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Service Use among Adolescents with Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Janet R.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of treatment for major depression in adolescents. This study examined differences in mental health service use in non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents who experienced an episode of major depression. Method: Five years of data (2004-2008) were pooled…

  15. Psychopathology in the Adolescent Offspring of Parents with Panic Disorder and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Amritha S.; Srinivasan, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of psychiatric diagnosis and psychopathology in adolescent offspring of parents with panic disorder, depression and normal controls. Methods: Adolescent offspring (11-16 years) of parents with a diagnosis of panic disorder and major depression, and normal controls were interviewed using Missouri Assessment of Genetics…

  16. Cross-Situational Coping with Peer and Family Stressors in Adolescent Offspring of Depressed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Keller, Gary; Merchant, Mary Jane; Benson, Molly; Compas, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    Offspring of depressed parents are faced with significant interpersonal stress both within their families and in peer relationships. The present study examined parent and self-reports of adolescents' coping in response to family and peer stressors in 73 adolescent children of parents with a history of depression. Correlational analyses indicated…

  17. Applying Depression-Distortion Hypotheses to the Assessment of Peer Victimization in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether adolescents' depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior were associated with discrepancies between self- and peer-reports of peer victimization experiences. A sample of 203 10th-grade adolescents completed self-report measures of victimization and depressive symptoms as well as peer nominations of victimization and…

  18. School-Related Stress and Depression in Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feurer, D. Paige; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined school-related stress and depression in adolescents with and without learning disabilities. A total of 87 students (38 learning-disabled and 49 nondisabled) from secondary schools in Calgary completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and on school-related stress. Results indicated that the adolescents with LD reported…

  19. Relational Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Moderating Effects of Mother, Father, and Peer Emotional Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Tracy L.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence heralds a unique period of vulnerability to depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined relational victimization in adolescents' peer relationships as a unique predictor of depressive symptoms among a primarily (85%) Caucasian sample of 540 youth (294 females) concurrently and across a 6-year period. The moderating effects of…

  20. Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…

  1. Alcohol Use and Depression among African-American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; Irvin, Deborah M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent…

  2. The Role of Readiness to Change in Response to Treatment of Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Silva, Susan G.; Rohde, Paul; Small, David M.; Murakami, Jessica L.; High, Robin R.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of readiness to change on treatment outcome was examined among 332 adolescents (46% male, 74% Caucasian), ages 12 through 17 years (M = 14.6, SD = 1.5), with major depressive disorder who were participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS). TADS is a randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of…

  3. Psychosocial Factors in Adolescent and Young Adult Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms: Causal or Correlational Associations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Haslimeier, Claudia; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2007-01-01

    Using a large longitudinal representative community sample, this study identified three groups of subjects who were depressed either in pre-adolescence, late adolescence or early adulthood, and matched by age and gender to controls without depression. The 90th percentile on one or two self-reported symptom scales [i. e. the Center for…

  4. A Pilot Study of Adjunctive Family Psychoeducation in Adolescent Major Depression: Feasibility and Treatment Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Mark; Boyle, Michael; McCleary, Lynn; Miller, Jennifer; Steele, Margaret; Duku, Eric; Offord, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To obtain preliminary evidence of the feasibility and effectiveness of adjunctive family psychoeducation in adolescent major depressive disorder. Method: Participants were from outpatient clinics in Hamilton and London, Ontario. Over 24 months, 41 adolescents ages 13 through 18 years meeting major depressive disorder criteria were…

  5. The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    n/a; n/a

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study is a multicenter, randomized clinical trial sponsored by the NIMH. This study is designed to evaluate the short- and long-term effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with major depressive disorder: fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, their combination, and, acutely,…

  6. Expanding Behavioral Activation to Depressed Adolescents: Lessons Learned in Treatment Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Elizabeth; Schloredt, Kelly; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Martell, Christopher; Dimidjian, Sona

    2011-01-01

    Depression during adolescence represents a significant public health concern. It is estimated that up to 20% of adolescents experience an episode of depression that interferes with academic and social functioning and is associated with an increased risk for self-harm. Although significant progress has been made in the last decade in treating…

  7. The Interplay of Loneliness and Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence: Exploring the Role of Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanhalst, Janne; Klimstra, Theo A.; Luyckx, Koen; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Goossens, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Based on current theories of depression, reciprocal links between loneliness and depressive symptoms are expected to occur. However, longitudinal studies on adolescent samples are scarce and have yielded conflicting results. The present five-wave longitudinal study from mid- to late adolescence (N = 428, M age at T1 = 15.22 years; 47% female)…

  8. Pain and Sleep-Wake Disturbances in Adolescents with Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Caitlin B.; Murphy, Lexa K.; Palermo, Tonya M.; Clarke, Gregory M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) assess and compare sleep disturbances (including daytime and nighttime sleep patterns) in adolescents with depressive disorders and healthy peers, (b) examine the prevalence of pain in adolescents with depressive disorders and healthy peers, and (c) examine pubertal development, pain intensity, and depressive…

  9. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: The Contributions of Weight-Related Concerns and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Christine A.; Halpern, Carolyn T.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence was evaluated using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The theoretical model under examination was primarily informed by the gender-additive model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence…

  10. Gender-Specific Development of Nonverbal Behaviours and Mild Depression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Beek, Yolanda; Van Dolderen, Marlies S. M.; Demon Dubas, Judith J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Individual differences in depressive symptoms have been linked with social skill deficits in adults and children, yet empirical studies on adolescents are lacking. The present research examines age and gender differences in nonverbal behaviour between mildly depressed and nondepressed (pre-) adolescents during conversations with an…

  11. 5-HTTLPR X Stress in Adolescent Depression: Moderation by MAOA and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priess-Groben, Heather A.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2013-01-01

    Depression surges in adolescence, especially among girls. Most evidence indicates that the short allele of a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) interacts with stress to influence the onset of depression. This effect appears to be less robust in adolescents, particularly among boys, and may be moderated…

  12. Adolescent Depression: Relationships of Self-Report to Intellectual and Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manikam, Ramasamy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Self-report measures of depression, general psychopathology, and social skills were administered to 100 adolescents ranging from moderate mental retardation to above normal intelligence. Adolescents with mental retardation reported more depression and general psychopathology symptoms. Adaptive behavior functioned as a moderator variable, mediating…

  13. Toward Guidelines for Evidence-Based Assessment of Depression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Daniel N.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Olino, Thomas M.

    2005-01-01

    We aim to provide a starting point toward the development of an evidence-based assessment of depression in children and adolescents. We begin by discussing issues relevant to the diagnosis and classification of child and adolescent depression. Next, we review the prevalence, selected clinical correlates, course, and treatment of juvenile…

  14. The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Methods and Message at 12 Weeks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy…

  15. Acute Time to Response in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher; Emslie, Graham; Silva, Susan; McNulty, Steve; Walkup, John; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Feeny, Nora; Casat, Charles; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Robins, Michele; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the time to response for both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: Adolescents (N = 439, ages 12 to 17 years) with major depressive disorder were randomized to fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or pill placebo…

  16. Cognitive Features Associated with Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Directionality and Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Carolyn A.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    In this study we examined cognitive features that have been posited to contribute to depressive vulnerability in adolescents. Using a longitudinal sample of 331 young adolescents followed from 6th to 7th grade, cross-lagged structural equation analyses were conducted. Controlling for baseline levels of depressive, conduct, and anxiety symptoms,…

  17. Brief Report: Relationships between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Neissaar, Inga

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between changes in physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Participants were 277 urban adolescent girls. Physical activity was measured using the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall and depressive symptoms were assessed using questionnaire. Data were collected on three occasions over a 3-year…

  18. Reduced nucleus accumbens reactivity and adolescent depression following early-life stress.

    PubMed

    Goff, B; Gee, D G; Telzer, E H; Humphreys, K L; Gabard-Durnam, L; Flannery, J; Tottenham, N

    2013-09-26

    Depression is a common outcome for those having experienced early-life stress (ELS). For those individuals, depression typically increases during adolescence and appears to endure into adulthood, suggesting alterations in the development of brain systems involved in depression. Developmentally, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a limbic structure associated with reward learning and motivation, typically undergoes dramatic functional change during adolescence; therefore, age-related changes in NAcc function may underlie increases in depression in adolescence following ELS. The current study examined the effects of ELS in 38 previously institutionalized children and adolescents in comparison to a group of 31 youths without a history of ELS. Consistent with previous research, the findings showed that depression was higher in adolescents than children with a history of ELS. Additionally, functional magnetic resonance imaging results showed atypical NAcc development, where the ELS group did not show a typical increase in NAcc reactivity during adolescence. Consequently, the ELS group showed NAcc hypoactivation during adolescence, and lower NAcc reactivity was correlated with higher depression scores. The results have important implications for understanding how ELS may influence increases in depression via neural development during the transition to adolescence and highlight the importance of identifying at-risk individuals in childhood, a potential critical period for depression-targeted intervention. PMID:23262241

  19. School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: A Benchmarking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Kaplinski, Heather; Gudmundsen, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression delivered in health clinics and counseling centers in four high schools. Outcomes were benchmarked to results from prior efficacy trials. Fifty adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorders were treated by eight doctoral-level psychologists who followed a…

  20. Alliance and Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Kaplinski, Heather Crisp; McMakin, Dana L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Fifty-four adolescents met criteria for a depressive disorder and were treated in school-based clinics. Alliance was measured after the third session from both therapist and…

  1. Functioning and Quality of Life in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Silva, Susan; Wells, Karen; Casat, Charles; Waslick, Bruce; Simons, Anne; Reinecke, Mark; Weller, Elizabeth; Kratochvil, Christopher; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Robins, Michele; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Obective: To test whether 12-week treatment of major depression improved the level of functioning, global health, and quality of life of adolescents. Method: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study was a multisite, randomized clinical trial of fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical…

  2. Integrating Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Pharmacotherapy in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Albano, Anne Marie; Findling, Robert L.; Kratochvil, Christopher; Walkup, John

    2005-01-01

    Recent evidence from the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) suggests that combining cognitive behavioral and pharmacological treatments holds the most promise for ameliorating depression among adolescents. This article describes lessons learned during the TADS trial about how to integrate these two treatments in the care of…

  3. Reduced Nucleus Accumbens Reactivity and Adolescent Depression following Early-life Stress

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Bonnie; Gee, Dylan G.; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Flannery, Jessica; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a common outcome for those having experienced early life stress (ELS). For those individuals, depression typically increases during adolescence and appears to endure into adulthood, suggesting alterations in the development of brain systems involved in depression. Developmentally, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a limbic structure associated with reward learning and motivation, typically undergoes dramatic functional change during adolescence; therefore, age-related changes in NAcc function may underlie increases in depression in adolescence following ELS. The current study examined the effects of ELS in 38 previously institutionalized children and adolescents in comparison to a group of 31 youth without a history of ELS. Consistent with previous research, the findings showed that depression was higher in adolescents than children with a history of ELS. Additionally, fMRI results showed atypical NAcc development, where the ELS group did not show a typical increase in NAcc reactivity during adolescence. Consequently, the ELS group showed NAcc hypoactivation during adolescence, and lower NAcc reactivity was correlated with higher depression scores. The results have important implications for understanding how ELS may influence increases in depression via neural development during the transition to adolescence and highlight the importance of identifying at-risk individuals in childhood, a potential critical period for depression-targeted intervention. PMID:23262241

  4. Testing a Gender Additive Model: The Role of Body Image in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Stice, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence that adolescent girls are at greater risk of developing depression than adolescent boys, risk factor models that account for this difference have been elusive. The objective of this research was to examine risk factors proposed by the "gender additive" model of depression that attempts to partially explain the increased…

  5. Selected Executive Skills in Adolescents with Recent First Episode Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyte, Zoe A.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: To investigate whether recent first episode major depression in adolescence is characterised by selected executive difficulties in attentional flexibility, behavioural inhibition and decision-making. Methods: Selected executive functions were compared in adolescents with recent (past year) first episode major depression (n = 30) and…

  6. Prediction of Postpartum Social Support and Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Cross, Rene; Williams, Beverly; Simpson, Theresa

    2004-01-01

    Many pregnant adolescents remain in school, creating unique challenges for professionals to meet their educational and health needs. In this descriptive pilot study of pregnant adolescents (n = 26), 68% demonstrated symptoms of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In addition, there was an…

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szigethy, Eva; Whitton, Sarah W.; Levy-Warren, Anna; DeMaso, David Ray; Weisz, John; Beardslee, William R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression in physically ill adolescents. Method: In an open trial, 11 adolescents (12-17 years) with inflammatory bowel disease and either major or minor depression underwent 12 sessions of a manual-based CBT enhanced by social skills, physical illness…

  8. Specific Coping Behaviors in Relation to Adolescent Depression and Suicidal Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific…

  9. Ethnicity and Adolescent Depression: Prevalence, Access to Services, and Promising Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Amanda E.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is more common among adolescents of ethnic minority backgrounds, who also are less likely to receive professional help. This article presents information about prevalence of depression and service use across ethnic groups, and then outlines several promising intervention programs that are designed for adolescents suffering from…

  10. The Relationship between Adolescent Depression and a History of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of depression among adolescents attending family planning clinics, and to determine the relationship among depression, a history of sexual abuse, and other risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 279 minority females. Results of the study indicated that 40 adolescents (14.3%) scored at or…

  11. Depressive Symptoms and Somatic Complaints among Zambian Adolescents: Associations with Stress and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neese, Angela L.; Pittman, Laura D.; Hunemorder, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the possible links between perceived stress, coping strategies, depression, and somatic complaints, which have often been supported in other populations, in a school-based sample of Zambian adolescents ages 11-19 years ("N" = 230; 60% males). Zambian adolescents reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms and somatic…

  12. Interpersonal Theory and Depressed Adolescents: An Overview of Method and Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellin, Elizabeth Anne

    In an attempt of fill the gap in theoretical and empirical information available for treatment of adolescent depression, interpersonal therapy for adolescents (IPT-A) was developed. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a brief, time-limited therapy originally developed for use with adults diagnosed with major depression. Several outcome studies…

  13. Maternal Parenting Behaviors and Adolescent Depression: The Mediating Role of Rumination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gate, Michael A.; Watkins, Edward R.; Simmons, Julian G.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Schwartz, Orli S.; Whittle, Sarah; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that rumination is an important vulnerability factor for adolescent depression. Despite this, few studies have examined environmental risk factors that might lead to rumination and, subsequently, depression in adolescence. This study examined the hypothesis that an adverse family environment is a risk factor for…

  14. Attachment to Parents, Best Friend, and Romantic Partner: Predicting Different Pathways to Depression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolese, Stephanie K.; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Doyle, Anna Beth

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that insecurely-attached adolescents are at risk for depression, but little is known about factors that may influence or explain this vulnerability. The present study focuses on close relationships during adolescence and their association with depression. Specifically, the objectives were to investigate (1) the role of working…

  15. A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for the Development of Depression and Disordered Eating in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…

  16. The Influence of Familial Support and Dysfunctional Attitudes on Depression and Delinquency in an Adolescent Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Genevieve; Marcotte, Diane; Bouffard, Therese

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the role of familial support and dysfunctional attitudes in depression, delinquency and the concomitance of these disorders in an adolescent population from a middle-class community in the Trois-Rivieres area. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Mesure d'adaptation sociale et personnelle pour adolescents quebecois-MASPAQ…

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Depressive Symptomology and Self-Concept in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Marjorie; Enders, Craig; Dietz, Samantha; Dixon, Jennifer; Cavendish, Wendy Morrison

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the trajectories of depressive symptomology and self-concept in adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 and to determine whether primary school teacher ratings of adaptive and maladaptive behavior predict self-reported depressive symptoms and self-concept in adolescence. This study is part of an…

  18. A Latent Class Analysis of Depressive and Externalizing Symptoms in Nonreferred Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezulis, Amy; Vander Stoep, Ann; Stone, Andrea L.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Both depressive and externalizing symptoms are common in adolescence and often co-occur. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents' patterns of depressive and externalizing symptoms can be differentiated into discrete classes and whether these classes are best distinguished by the number or type of symptoms. We examined whether…

  19. Reciprocal, Longitudinal Associations among Adolescents' Negative Feedback-Seeking, Depressive Symptoms, and Peer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borelli, Jessica L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined reciprocal associations among adolescents' negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, perceptions of friendship quality, and peer-reported social preference over an 11-month period. A total of 478 adolescents in grades 6-8 completed measures of negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, friendship quality,…

  20. Predictors and Moderators of Acute Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, John; Rohde, Paul; Simons, Anne; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher; Reinecke, Mark; Feeny, Norah; Wells, Karen; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, David; Kennard, Betsy; Robins, Michele; Ginsburg, Golda; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors and moderators of response to acute treatments among depressed adolescents (N = 439) randomly assigned to fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), both fluoxetine and CBT, or clinical management with pill placebo in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS). Method: Potential baseline…

  1. Executive functioning moderates the relationship between motivation and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Lopez-Vergara, Hector I; Colder, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the association between adolescent depressive symptoms and components of executive functioning (EF), including planning (Tower of London), set-shifting (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task), and inhibition (Stop Signal Task) in a community sample of 12-14 year olds. Further, EF was tested as a moderator of motivation (as operationalized by revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory) effects on depressive symptoms. Results suggested that planning ability was associated with depressive symptoms. Furthermore, planning ability moderated the relationship between motivation (fight-flight- freeze system; FFFS) and depressive symptoms, such that among adolescents with poor planning ability the FFFS positively predicted depressive symptoms, but among adolescents with strong planning ability the FFFS negatively predicts depressive symptoms. Neither set-shifting nor inhibition was associated with depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the need to consider multiple components of EF and to integrate motivational and executive dysfunction models to the study of depression. PMID:23105161

  2. Executive functioning moderates the relationship between motivation and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Lopez-Vergara, Hector I; Colder, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the association between adolescent depressive symptoms and components of executive functioning (EF), including planning (Tower of London), set-shifting (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task), and inhibition (Stop Signal Task) in a community sample of 12-14 year olds. Further, EF was tested as a moderator of motivation (as operationalized by revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory) effects on depressive symptoms. Results suggested that planning ability was associated with depressive symptoms. Furthermore, planning ability moderated the relationship between motivation (fight-flight- freeze system; FFFS) and depressive symptoms, such that among adolescents with poor planning ability the FFFS positively predicted depressive symptoms, but among adolescents with strong planning ability the FFFS negatively predicts depressive symptoms. Neither set-shifting nor inhibition was associated with depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the need to consider multiple components of EF and to integrate motivational and executive dysfunction models to the study of depression.

  3. Depressive symptoms and problematic internet use among adolescents: analysis of the longitudinal relationships from the cognitive-behavioral model.

    PubMed

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel

    2014-11-01

    Problematic Internet use-frequently called Internet addiction or compulsive use-represents an increasingly widespread problem among adolescents. The objective of this study was to analyze the temporal and reciprocal relations between the presence of depressive symptoms and various components of problematic Internet use (i.e., the preference for online relationships, use of the Internet for mood regulation, deficient self-regulation, and the manifestation of negative outcomes). Consequently, a longitudinal design was employed with two times separated by a 1 year interval. The sample consisted of 699 adolescents (61.1% girls) between 13 and 17 years of age. The results indicated that depressive symptoms at time 1 predicted an increase in preference for online relationships, mood regulation, and negative outcomes after 1 year. In turn, negative outcomes at time 1 predicted an increase in depressive symptoms at time 2. These results entail several practical implications for the design of prevention programs and the treatment of problematic Internet use.

  4. An Efficacy/effectiveness Study of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Adolescents with Comorbid Major Depression and Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Clarke, Gregory N.; Mace, David E.; Jorgensen, Jenel S.; Seeley, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effectiveness of the Adolescent Coping With Depression (CWD-A) course, a cognitive-behavioral group intervention for depressed adolescents with comorbid conduct disorder. Method: Between 1998 and 2001, 93 nonincarcerated adolescents (ages 13-17 years) meeting criteria for major depressive disorder and conduct disorder were…

  5. Adapting Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adolescents Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma: A Case Study with Two Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePrince, Anne P.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that interpersonal trauma increases risk for adolescent and adult depression. Findings from 4 clinical trials for adolescent depression show poorer response to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) among depressed adolescents with a trauma history than youth without such a history. This paper reports…

  6. Anger, anxiety, and depression in early adolescents from intact and divorced families.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Adela; Yarcheski, Thomas J

    2003-08-01

    This study examined differences in anger, anxiety, and depression between early adolescents from divorced families and early adolescents from intact families. To control for extraneous variables, 24 early adolescents from divorced families were matched with 24 early adolescents from intact families according to gender, age, race, and grade in school. All responded to measures of state anger, state anxiety, and depression. Using the t test, one of the three hypotheses was supported. Statistically significant differences were found in state anger, but not in state anxiety or depression, between the two groups. Implications for nursing are addressed.

  7. Depressed Adolescents' Pupillary Response to Peer Acceptance and Rejection: The Role of Rumination.

    PubMed

    Stone, Lindsey B; Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Stroud, Laura R; Nelson, Eric E; Dahl, Ronald E; Jones, Neil P

    2016-06-01

    Heightened emotional reactivity to peer feedback is predictive of adolescents' depression risk. Examining variation in emotional reactivity within currently depressed adolescents may identify subgroups that struggle the most with these daily interactions. We tested whether trait rumination, which amplifies emotional reactions, explained variance in depressed adolescents' physiological reactivity to peer feedback, hypothesizing that rumination would be associated with greater pupillary response to peer rejection and diminished response to peer acceptance. Twenty currently depressed adolescents (12-17) completed a virtual peer interaction paradigm where they received fictitious rejection and acceptance feedback. Pupillary response provided a time-sensitive index of physiological arousal. Rumination was associated with greater initial pupil dilation to both peer rejection and acceptance, and diminished late pupillary response to peer acceptance trials only. Results indicate that depressed adolescents high on trait rumination are more reactive to social feedback regardless of valence, but fail to sustain cognitive-affective load on positive feedback. PMID:26271345

  8. Empirically Derived Subtypes of Adolescent Depression: Latent Profile Analysis of Co-Occurring Symptoms in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Keith C.; Ostrander, Rick; Walkup, John T.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    A latent profile analysis was conducted on the co-occurring symptoms of 423 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder as part of the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS), a multisite, randomized treatment trial. The participants had a mean (SD) age of 14.6 (1.5) years; of the sample, 45.6% was male and 73.8% was white.…

  9. Intergenerational Discrepancies of Parental Control among Chinese American Families: Links to Family Conflict and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Syed, Moin; Takagi, Miyuki

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how discrepancies between adolescents' and parents' endorsement of parental control contribute to adolescent depressive symptoms. Family conflict was hypothesized to mediate the link between parent-adolescent discrepancies and depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 166 pairs of Chinese American adolescents and their…

  10. Sex differences in patterns of relations between family interactions and depressive symptoms in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Smojver-Ažić, Sanja; Bezinović, Petar

    2011-01-01

    family-based preventive and intervention programs for depression in adolescents. PMID:21853541

  11. Major depression in mothers predict reduced ventral striatum activation in adolescent female offspring with and without depression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior research has identified reduced reward-related brain activation as a promising endophenotype for the early identification of adolescents with major depressive disorder. However, it is unclear whether reduced reward-related brain activation constitutes a true vulnerability for major depressive ...

  12. Risk factors for depressive symptoms in adolescent pregnancy in a late-teen subsample.

    PubMed

    Koleva, Hristina; Stuart, Scott

    2014-04-01

    Depression in adolescent pregnancy is common but underrecognized and can be associated with negative medical outcomes. This brief report examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and various demographic and obstetrical risk factors, as well as the use of antidepressants in pregnant adolescents of late teenage years. Data were derived from a relatively large sample (506 women) recruited from university-based and community mental health centers in Iowa. A cross-sectional analysis did not reveal significant statistical associations between the risk factors and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory). Antidepressant use was very low (3.7 %), and adolescents with higher depression scores were more likely to take medications. In conclusion, screening for depression in pregnant adolescents should be universal, regardless of demographic and obstetrical risk factors, and promptly addressed.

  13. Developing a Culturally Appropriate Depression Prevention Program: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardemil, Esteban V.; Kim, Saeromi; Davidson, Tatiana; Sarmiento, Ingrid A.; Ishikawa, Rachel Zack; Sanchez, Monica; Torres, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of the first author and his colleagues in the development and implementation of a depression prevention program that specifically targets Latina mothers. Building on the earlier papers that highlight the underutilization of mental health services by Latinos in general, this paper will make the case that the…

  14. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

    PubMed

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Sieh, Dominik Sebstian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (p<.01) than the comparison group. Adolescents of single parents reported more internalizing problems (p<.01) and externalizing problems (p<.05) than children from the other family types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (p<.001). Adolescents of depressed chronically ill parents were particularly vulnerable to internalizing problems (interaction effect, p<.05). Older children and girls, and especially older girls, displayed more internalizing problems and stress. It can be concluded that growing up with a chronically ill parent in a family with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of

  15. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

    PubMed

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Sieh, Dominik Sebstian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (p<.01) than the comparison group. Adolescents of single parents reported more internalizing problems (p<.01) and externalizing problems (p<.05) than children from the other family types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (p<.001). Adolescents of depressed chronically ill parents were particularly vulnerable to internalizing problems (interaction effect, p<.05). Older children and girls, and especially older girls, displayed more internalizing problems and stress. It can be concluded that growing up with a chronically ill parent in a family with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of

  16. School-Based Prevention of Depression: A Randomised Controlled Study of the "beyondblue" Schools Research Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Michael G.; Pfeiffer, Sara; Spence, Susan H.; Bond, Lyndal; Graetz, Brian; Kay, Debra; Patton, George; Sheffield, Jeanie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Depressive disorders are experienced by 3-5% of the adolescent population at any point of time. They adversely affect adolescent development in a range of areas and greatly increase risk for suicide. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a universal intervention designed to reduce depressive symptoms among students…

  17. Too Many Friends: Social Integration, Network Cohesion and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falci, Christina; McNeely, Clea

    2009-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we examine associations among social integration (network size), network cohesion (alter-density), perceptions of social relationships (e.g., social support) and adolescent depressive symptoms. We find that adolescents with either too large or too small a network have higher levels of…

  18. Self-Perceived Competence as a Mediator between Maternal Feedback and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquez, Farrah; Cole, David A.; Searle, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Self-report, other-report, clinical interview, and behavioral observations of evaluative maternal feedback (e.g., positive feedback, criticism), adolescent depressive symptoms, and self-perceived competence were obtained from 72 adolescents and their mothers. Most path analyses supported the hypothesis that adolescent self-perceived competence…

  19. Parenting Style, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use in Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Emily J.; Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Pasch, Lauri A.

    2013-01-01

    This study of 151 Mexican American adolescents ages 12 to 15 examined the relationship between parenting and adolescents' self-reported level of depressive symptoms and substance use 6 months and 1 year later. Adolescents and their parents were recruited from a large health-maintenance organization and interviewed at three time points. Lower…

  20. Research Knowledge among the Participants in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Silva, Susan; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Waslick, Bruce; Hughes, Carroll W.; Prentice, Ernest D.; May, Diane E.; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    A study examined the extent to which parents and adolescents participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) understood the study. The results concluded that most were well-informed, and also parents were overall better informed than adolescents.

  1. Social Skills and Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence: Social Support as a Mediator in Girls versus Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Wendy; Karevold, Evalill; Roysamb, Espen; Gustavson, Kristin; Mathiesen, Kristin S.

    2013-01-01

    The current population-based study of Norwegian adolescents examined gender-specific patterns in the prospective association between social skills in early adolescence (age 12.5; n = 566) and changes in depressive symptoms from early to late adolescence (age 16.5; n = 375). Further, a potential mediation effect of social support (from peers,…

  2. Connectedness and suicide prevention in adolescents: pathways and implications.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Janis; Wyman, Peter A; Moore, Sarah R

    2014-06-01

    Adolescent suicide is a major public health concern. Stressing the need for public health-based solutions, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified "connectedness" as one means of pursuing this agenda. To advance this effort in suicide prevention with adolescents, (1) consistencies and variation in the literature overtly linking connectedness to suicide thoughts and behaviors (STB) are reviewed, (2) three more specific mechanistic pathways are proposed whereby connectedness may influence STB, and (3) several implications related to use of connectedness as a public health framework for adolescent suicide prevention and intervention are outlined.

  3. The role of the kynurenine pathway in suicidality in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Kailyn A L; Case, Julia A C; Khan, Omar; Ricart, Thomas; Hanna, Amira; Alonso, Carmen M; Gabbay, Vilma

    2015-06-30

    The neuroimmunological kynurenine pathway (KP) has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults and adolescents, most recently in suicidality in adults. The KP is initiated by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which degrades tryptophan (TRP) into kynurenine (KYN) en route to neurotoxins. Here, we examined the KP in 20 suicidal depressed adolescents-composed of past attempters and those who expressed active suicidal intent-30 non-suicidal depressed youth, and 22 healthy controls (HC). Plasma levels of TRP, KYN, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), and KYN/TRP (index of IDO) were assessed. Suicidal adolescents showed decreased TRP and elevated KYN/TRP compared to both non-suicidal depressed adolescents and HC. Findings became more significantly pronounced when excluding medicated participants, wherein there was also a significant positive correlation between KYN/TRP and suicidality. Finally, although depressed adolescents with a history of suicide attempt differed from acutely suicidal adolescents with respect to disease severity, anhedonia, and suicidality, the groups did not differ in KP measures. Our findings suggest a possible specific role of the KP in suicidality in depressed adolescents, while illustrating the clinical phenomenon that depressed adolescents with a history of suicide attempt are similar to acutely suicidal youth and are at increased risk for completion of suicide.

  4. Family Economic Stress, Quality of Paternal Relationship, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescent Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Tenah K. A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed. PMID:26617454

  5. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children. PMID:24653641

  6. A qualitative process evaluation of classroom-based cognitive behaviour therapy to reduce adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John A; Phillips, Rhiannon; Cook, Ellen; Georgiou, Lucy; Stallard, Paul; Sayal, Kapil

    2014-06-01

    Small scale trials indicate that classroom-based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) for adolescents has good reach and can help prevent depression. However, under more diverse everyday conditions, such programmes tend not to show such positive effects. This study examined the process of implementing a classroom-based CBT depression prevention programme as part of a large (n = 5,030) randomised controlled trial across eight UK secondary schools which was not found to be effective (PROMISE, ISRCTN19083628). The views of young people (n = 42), teachers (n = 12) and facilitators (n = 16) involved in the Resourceful Adolescent Programme (RAP) were obtained via focus groups and interviews which were thematically analysed. The programme was considered to be well structured and contain useful content, particularly for younger pupils. However, challenges associated with implementation were its age appropriateness for all year groups, its perceived lack of flexibility, the consistency of quality of delivery, the competing demands for teacher time and a culture where academic targets were prioritised over personal, social and health education. Whilst schools are convenient locations for introducing such programmes and allow good reach, the culture around improving well-being of young people in schools, increasing engagement with teachers and young people and sustaining such programmes are issues that need addressing. PMID:24905241

  7. Prospective Reciprocal Relations between Physical Activity and Depression in Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Jerstad, Sarah J.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective Although research has found an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents, few studies have examined this relation prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical activity. Method Data from a longitudinal study involving annual assessments of 496 adolescent girls (M age = 13, SD 0.7) followed over a 6-year period were analyzed to address these questions. Results Physical activity significantly reduced risk for future increases in depressive symptoms and risk for onset of major/minor depression and depressive symptoms and major/minor depression significantly reduced future physical activity, controlling for several covariates, though predictive effects were modest. Conclusions Results support a bidirectional relation between exercise and depression and imply that interventions that increase physical activity may reduce risk for depression among this high-risk population. PMID:20350037

  8. [Complementary treatment methods for depression in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Dolle, Kathrin; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Depressive disorders are among the more common mental illnesses around the world, about 1- 3% of prepubertal children and 6% of postpubertal children and adolescents are affected. They markedly impair psychosocial development and are associated with higher rate of morbidity and mortality throughout life. Many physicians are unsure about which treatment approaches are effective and how the treatment should be planned. A systematic literature search was carried out in electronic databases and study registries and as a manual search. More than 450 studies (mostly randomized controlled trials = RCTs) were identified and summarized in evidence tables. The ensuing recommendations were agreed upon in a consensus conference. The review summarizes the evidence of complementary treatment methods. The evidence for complementary treatment methods (art and music therapy, sleep deprivation, exercise, electroconvulsive therapy, massage, transcranial magnetic stimulation, relaxation, bibliotherapy, computer based therapy, light therapy, omega-3 treatment) is low or there is no evidence due to missing studies or studies of poor quality. For some methods, i. e. light therapy, relaxation and stress reduction and sleep deprivation there is limited indication for effectiveness without sufficient evidence for a practical guidance. There is an urgent need for adequately informative comparative studies on treatment of depression in children and adolescents considering also complementary methods.

  9. [Complementary treatment methods for depression in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Dolle, Kathrin; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Depressive disorders are among the more common mental illnesses around the world, about 1- 3% of prepubertal children and 6% of postpubertal children and adolescents are affected. They markedly impair psychosocial development and are associated with higher rate of morbidity and mortality throughout life. Many physicians are unsure about which treatment approaches are effective and how the treatment should be planned. A systematic literature search was carried out in electronic databases and study registries and as a manual search. More than 450 studies (mostly randomized controlled trials = RCTs) were identified and summarized in evidence tables. The ensuing recommendations were agreed upon in a consensus conference. The review summarizes the evidence of complementary treatment methods. The evidence for complementary treatment methods (art and music therapy, sleep deprivation, exercise, electroconvulsive therapy, massage, transcranial magnetic stimulation, relaxation, bibliotherapy, computer based therapy, light therapy, omega-3 treatment) is low or there is no evidence due to missing studies or studies of poor quality. For some methods, i. e. light therapy, relaxation and stress reduction and sleep deprivation there is limited indication for effectiveness without sufficient evidence for a practical guidance. There is an urgent need for adequately informative comparative studies on treatment of depression in children and adolescents considering also complementary methods. PMID:24707770

  10. The Role of Social Relationships in the Association between Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Maurizi, Laura K; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Granillo, M Teresa; Delva, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    While research has established that depression interferes with academic achievement, less is understood about the processes by which social relationships may buffer the relationship between depression and academic outcomes. In this study we examined the role of positive relationships in the school, family and peer contexts in the association between depressive symptoms and academic achievement among 894 adolescents aged 12-17 years living in Santiago, Chile. Depressive symptoms were associated with lower levels of academic achievement; parental monitoring, school belonging, positive mother relationships, and having academically inclined peers moderated this relationship, though some interactions differed by sex and age. Implications for promoting the academic success of adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms are discussed.

  11. Daily life with depressive symptoms: Gender differences in adolescents' everyday emotional experiences.

    PubMed

    Frost, Allison; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Chung, Alissa Levy; Adam, Emma K

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a prevalent and debilitating illness facing many adolescents, especially adolescent girls, whose risk for this disorder is approximately twice that of boys. Many studies have identified mechanisms that place girls at higher risk for depression during adolescence. Few, however, have examined differences in the everyday emotional experiences of boys and girls with varying levels of depressive symptoms. Using the Experience Sampling Method, this study investigated the roles of gender and depressive symptomatology in the emotional experiences of a community sample of youth (11-18 year-olds) from the Sloan 500 Family Study. Females with higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely than females with fewer depressive symptoms and all males to experience strong negative emotions and to attribute the cause of these emotions to other people. These results suggest that emotional reactivity in interpersonal contexts is especially important to understand gender differences in the daily experience of depressive symptoms. PMID:26107805

  12. Daily life with depressive symptoms: Gender differences in adolescents' everyday emotional experiences.

    PubMed

    Frost, Allison; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Chung, Alissa Levy; Adam, Emma K

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a prevalent and debilitating illness facing many adolescents, especially adolescent girls, whose risk for this disorder is approximately twice that of boys. Many studies have identified mechanisms that place girls at higher risk for depression during adolescence. Few, however, have examined differences in the everyday emotional experiences of boys and girls with varying levels of depressive symptoms. Using the Experience Sampling Method, this study investigated the roles of gender and depressive symptomatology in the emotional experiences of a community sample of youth (11-18 year-olds) from the Sloan 500 Family Study. Females with higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely than females with fewer depressive symptoms and all males to experience strong negative emotions and to attribute the cause of these emotions to other people. These results suggest that emotional reactivity in interpersonal contexts is especially important to understand gender differences in the daily experience of depressive symptoms.

  13. Neural correlates of self-perceptions in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Kailyn A L; Colcombe, Stan; Henderson, Sarah E; Alonso, Carmen M; Milham, Michael P; Gabbay, Vilma

    2016-06-01

    Alteration in self-perception is a salient feature in major depression. Hyperactivity of anterior cortical midline regions has been implicated in this phenomenon in depressed adults. Here, we extend this work to depressed adolescents during a developmental time when neuronal circuitry underlying the sense of self matures by using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and connectivity analyses. Twenty-three depressed adolescents and 18 healthy controls (HC) viewed positive and negative trait words in a scanner and judged whether each word described them ('self' condition) or was a good trait to have ('general' condition). Self-perception scores were based on participants' endorsements of positive and negative traits during the fMRI task. Depressed adolescents exhibited more negative self-perceptions than HC. Both groups activated cortical midline regions in response to self-judgments compared to general-judgments. However, depressed adolescents recruited the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus more for positive self-judgments. Additionally, local connectivity of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex was reduced during self-reflection in depressed adolescents. Our findings highlight differences in self-referential processing network function between depressed and healthy adolescents and support the need for further investigation of brain mechanisms associated with the self, as they may be paramount to understanding the etiology and development of major depressive disorder. PMID:26943454

  14. Association between Cognitive Distortion, Type D Personality, Family Environment, and Depression in Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Hengfen; Zou, Shaohong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Depression prevalence and risk increase among adolescents are related to biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Little is known about the association between cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationships of cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Methods. A sample of Chinese adolescents with depression and the controls were investigated cross-sectionally with life orientation test-revised (LOT-R), type D personality Scale-14 (DS14), family environment scale (FES), and Zung self-depression scale (SDS); respectively, all scales were administered in Chinese. Results. Chinese-depressed adolescents showed more cognitive distortion, type D personality, and adverse family environment than control groups. Furthermore, lower level of Optimism, negative affectivity, and poor family cohesion may increase the risk of depression in Chinese adolescents. Conclusions. Our study indicates that lower level of Optimism, Negative Affectivity, and poor Family Cohesion factors were implicated to contribute to depression in Chinese adolescents. Lower level of optimism and negative affectivity may be crucial associated factors of depression among these samples. our findings pointed to the importance of broad screening and intervention of vulnerable population.

  15. Parental Depressive Feelings, Parental Support, and the Serotonin Transporter Gene as Predictors of Adolescent Depressive Feelings: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roekel, Eeske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Parental support and parental depressive feelings are found to be associated with depressive feelings in adolescent boys and girls, but results are inconsistent. In addition, the "5-HTTLPR" genotype has been found to interact with environmental stressors in predicting adolescents' depressive feelings, but this has not been examined longitudinally.…

  16. Cognitive Vulnerabilities and Depression versus Other Psychopathology Symptoms and Diagnoses in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Black, Shimrit K.; Young, Mathew E.; Goldstein, Kim E.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Boccia, Angelo S.; Matt, Lindsey M.; Boland, Elaine M.; Moore, Lauren C.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the concurrent associations between multiple cognitive vulnerabilities to depression featured in hopelessness theory, Beck's theory, and response styles theory and depressive symptoms and diagnoses in a sample of early adolescents. We also examined the specificity of these cognitive vulnerabilities to depression versus anxiety and…

  17. Abnormal Neural Sensitivity to Monetary Gains versus Losses among Adolescents at Risk for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, Dan; Kotov, Roman; Klein, Daniel N.; Hajcak, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder aggregates within families, although the mechanisms of transfer across generations are not well understood. In light of converging biological and behavioral evidence that depressive symptoms are associated with impaired reward processing, we examined whether adolescent girls with a parental history of depression would…

  18. Expression of Anger in Depressed Adolescents: The Role of the Family Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jennifer; Kuppens, Peter; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    The expression of anger is considered to be abnormal in depression, yet its role is only poorly understood. In the present study we sought to clarify this role by examining the moderating influence of the family environment on overall levels of anger expression and anger reactivity in depressed and non-depressed adolescents during conflictual…

  19. Parenting and Early Adolescent Internalizing: The Importance of Teasing Apart Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…

  20. Parental Maltreatment, Bullying, and Adolescent Depression: Evidence for the Mediating Role of Perceived Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeds, Pamela M.; Harkness, Kate L.; Quilty, Lena C.

    2010-01-01

    The support deterioration model of depression states that stress deteriorates the perceived availability and/or effectiveness of social support, which then leads to depression. The present study examined this model in adolescent depression following parent-perpetrated maltreatment and peer-perpetrated bullying, as assessed by a rigorous contextual…

  1. Retrospective and Prospective Cognitions in Adolescents: Anxiety, Depression, and Positive and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Helen; MacLeod, Andrew K.; Pote, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Research with anxious and depressed adults has suggested that anxiety is related to an increased anticipation of both negative memories and negative expectancies whereas depression is related to a reduction in positive memories and expectancies. The present study examined whether anxiety and depression in 123 school-aged adolescents would show the…

  2. Maternal Control and Adolescent Depression: Ethnic Differences among Clinically Referred Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Jo-Ann S.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Martinovich, Zoran

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship between perceived maternal control and depression for 11 urban adolescent girls seeking psychological services at an outpatient clinic. No relation between control and depression was found for Caucasian and Latina girls, but high control was linked to less depression among African American girls. Findings highlight the…

  3. Perceived Competence and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Attributional Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Seligman, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the interactive effects of depressive attributional style and multiple domains of perceived competence on depressive symptoms among 431 adolescents. Our structural equation modeling with latent factor interactions indicated that (1) for girls with a higher depressive attributional style, lower perceived competence…

  4. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…

  5. Suicidal Risk in Adolescent Residential Treatment: Being Female Is More Important than a Depression Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Danice L.; Jewell, Jeremy D.; Stevens, Amy L.; Crawford, Jessica D.; Thompson, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between gender and clinician diagnosis of a depressive disorder at intake on variables reflecting depression among adolescents in residential treatment. It was hypothesized that females diagnosed with a depressive disorder would have the highest scores on measures of suicide risk, the number of symptoms of a major…

  6. Subthreshold Depressive Disorder in Adolescents: Predictors of Escalation to Full-Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Daniel N.; Shankman, Stewart A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.

    2009-01-01

    The risk for the onset of full-syndrome depressive disorders from the subtreshold depressive disorder in adolescents is found to be at 67 percent. The variables that predict the progression to the full onset are: severity of depressive symptoms, medical conditions/ symptoms, history of suicidal ideation, history of anxiety disorder, and familial…

  7. Depression amongst Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong: An Evaluation of a Stress Moderation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Catalina S. M.; Hurry, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Stress has an established association with depression. However, not all adolescents experiencing stressors become depressed and it is helpful to identify potential resilience factors. The current study tests a theoretical extension of a stress-diathesis model of depression in a Chinese context, with stress, coping, family relationships, and…

  8. Identifying Trajectories of Adolescents' Depressive Phenomena: An Examination of Early Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Fleming, Charles B.; Abbott, Robert D.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined risk factors of childhood and early adolescent depressive symptomatology trajectories. This study examined self-report depressive symptomatology across a 6-year time period from 2nd to 8th grade to identify latent groups of individuals with similar patterns of depressive phenomena in a sample of 951 children (440 girls,…

  9. Prospective Reciprocal Relations between Physical Activity and Depression in Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerstad, Sarah J.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents has been found in research, this relation has seldom been examined prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical…

  10. Depression and Its Measurement in Verbal Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotham, Katherine; Unruh, Kathryn; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In a sample of 50 verbally fluent adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (age: 16-31 years; verbal IQ: 72-140), we examined the pattern of response and associations between scores on common measures of depressive symptoms, participant characteristics, and clinical diagnosis of depressive disorders. Beck Depression Inventory--Second…

  11. Face Emotion Processing in Depressed Children and Adolescents with and without Comorbid Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepman, Karen; Taylor, Eric; Collishaw, Stephan; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Studies of adults with depression point to characteristic neurocognitive deficits, including differences in processing facial expressions. Few studies have examined face processing in juvenile depression, or taken account of other comorbid disorders. Three groups were compared: depressed children and adolescents with conduct disorder (n = 23),…

  12. A Prospective Test of Cognitive Vulnerability Models of Depression with Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric; Burton, Emily; Fudell, Molly; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to provide a more rigorous prospective test of two cognitive vulnerability models of depression with longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results supported the cognitive vulnerability model in that stressors predicted future increases in depressive symptoms and onset of clinically significant major depression for…

  13. Trajectories of Individual Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Gender and Family Relationships as Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Depressive syndrome and disorders increase substantially during adolescence. Little is known, however, about how "individual" symptoms of depression change over the course of this developmental period. The present study examined within-person changes in symptom severity of each individual symptom of depression, utilizing longitudinal…

  14. Does the absence of a supportive family environment influence the outcome of a universal intervention for the prevention of depression?

    PubMed

    Spence, Susan H; Sawyer, Michael G; Sheffield, Jeanie; Patton, George; Bond, Lyndal; Graetz, Brian; Kay, Debra

    2014-05-01

    To date, universal, school-based interventions have produced limited success in the long-term prevention of depression in young people. This paper examines whether family relationship support moderates the outcomes of a universal, school-based preventive intervention for depression in adolescents. It reports a secondary analysis of data from the beyondblue schools research initiative. Twenty-five matched pairs of secondary schools were randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition (N = 5633 Grade 8 students). The multi-component, school-based intervention was implemented over a 3-year period, with 2 years of follow-up in Grades 11 and 12. For those available at follow-up, small but significantly greater reductions in depressive and anxiety symptoms and improvements in emotional wellbeing were found over time for the intervention group compared to the control among those who experienced low family relationship support in Grade 8. For those who did not experience low family relationship support in Grade 8, no significant effects of the invention were found over the control condition. This pattern of results was also found for the intent-to-treat sample for measures of depression and anxiety. Previous research may have overlooked important moderating variables that influence the outcome of universal approaches to the prevention of depression. The findings raise issues of the relative costs and benefits of universal versus targeted approaches to the prevention of depression. PMID:24828082

  15. Self-Referential Processing in Depressed Adolescents: A High-Density ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Stanton, Colin H.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the alarming increase in the prevalence of depression during adolescence, particularly among female adolescents, the pathophysiology of depression in adolescents remains largely unknown. Event-related potentials (ERPs) provide an ideal approach to investigate cognitive-affective processes associated with depression in adolescents, especially in the context of negative self-referential processing biases. In this study, healthy (n = 30) and depressed (n = 22) female adolescents completed a self-referential encoding task while ERP data were recorded. To examine cognitive-affective processes associated with self-referential processing, P1, P2, and late positive potential (LPP) responses to negative and positive words were investigated, and intracortical sources of scalp effects were probed using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). Additionally, we tested whether key cognitive processes (e.g., maladaptive self-view, self-criticism) previously implicated in depression related to ERP components. Relative to healthy female subjects, depressed females endorsed more negative and fewer positive words, and free recalled and recognized fewer positive words. With respect to ERPs, compared to healthy female adolescents, depressed adolescents exhibited greater P1 amplitudes following negative words, which was associated with a more maladaptive self-view and self-criticism. In both early and late LPP responses, depressed females showed greater activity following negative versus positive words, whereas healthy females demonstrated the opposite pattern. For both P1 and LPP, LORETA revealed reduced inferior frontal gyrus activity in response to negative words in depressed versus healthy female adolescents. Collectively, these findings suggest that the P1 and LPP reflect biased self-referential processing in female adolescents with depression. Potential treatment implications are discussed. PMID:25643205

  16. Examining the bidirectional relationship between physical activity, screen time, and symptoms of anxiety and depression over time during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gunnell, Katie E; Flament, Martine F; Buchholz, Annick; Henderson, Katherine A; Obeid, Nicole; Schubert, Nicholas; Goldfield, Gary S

    2016-07-01

    More physical activity (PA) and less screen time (ST) are positively associated with mental health in adolescents; however, research is limited by short-term designs and the exclusion of ST when examining PA. We examined: (a) changes in PA, ST, symptoms of depression, and symptoms of anxiety over four assessments spanning 11years, and (b) bidirectional relationships between initial PA, ST, and symptoms of depression and anxiety as predictors of change in each other during adolescence. Between 2006 and 2010, participants from Ottawa Canada (Time1; N=1160, Mean age=13.54years) completed questionnaires at four points covering the ages from 10 to 21years. Latent growth modeling was used. PA decreased over time whereas ST and symptoms of depression and anxiety increased over time. Controlling for sex, ethnicity, school location, zBMI, birth year, and parents' education, initially higher anxiety was associated with initially higher ST (covariance=.88, p<.05) and initially lower PA (covariance=-6.84, p=.07) independent of initial symptoms of depression. Higher initial depression was associated with higher initial ST (covariance=2.55, p<.05). Increases in anxiety were associated with increases in ST (covariance=.07, p=.06) and increases in depression (covariance=.41, p<.05). Examining bidirectional relationships, higher initial symptoms of depression predicted greater decreases in PA (b=-.28, p<.05). No other significant findings between initial PA, ST, anxiety, or depression were found as predictors of change in each other. Interventions targeting depression around age 13 may be useful to prevent further declines in PA. Similarly, interventions to reduce ST may be beneficial for concurrent reductions in symptoms of depression and anxiety, irrespective of PA. PMID:27090920

  17. Adolescent Suicide Assessment and Prevention: Empowerment for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulette, Carol A.

    Adolescent suicide has tripled in the past two decades and is considered to be a leading cause of death among America's youths. This increase has prompted much research on the assessment and prevention of adolescent suicide. Suicidologists have agreed there are no scientifically proven methods to assess which individual might attempt suicide.…

  18. An Adult Communication Skills Program to Prevent Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worden, John K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Conducted communication skills workshops to prevent cigarette smoking among adolescents by teaching adults how to help young people make responsible decisions and resist peer influences. One year later, 66% reported use of skills five or more times in the previous month, and significantly fewer adolescents in the high workshop intensity area…

  19. Measuring depression and stigma towards depression and mental health treatment among adolescents in an Arab-American community

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, R.M.; Farroukh, M.; Ismail, M.; Najda, J.; Sobh, H.; Hammad, A.; Dalack, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research that has examined the prevalence of depression and attitudes towards depression and mental health treatment in Arab-American adolescents; we sought to assess these in a predominantly Arab-American community in metro Detroit. A health survey of adolescents aged 12–17 years was conducted (n=98). Participants were recruited from two local community organizations in Dearborn, MI. Depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Depression Scale, and attitude towards depression and willingness to seek help for mental health conditions were assessed by the Self-Stigma of Depression Scale (SSDS). To assess whether attitudes might be affected by information about mental health treatment, adolescents were randomized to view either an educational video about mental health, or a control video before responding to questions about their willingness to seek help for mental health conditions. Overall, 14% of Arab-American adolescents in this study endorsed moderate or moderately severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 11), suggesting a need to increase awareness of and access to mental health services and screening for Arab-American youth. PMID:26257824

  20. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  1. Using Books to Prevent and Treat Adolescent Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardeck, John T.

    1991-01-01

    Presents strategies for using bibliotherapeutic process to prevent and treat adolescent alcohol and drug abuse. Definitions, goals, and principles of bibliotherapy are overviewed. Synopses of several useful books that focus on chemical dependency are presented. (Author)

  2. Digital gaming for HIV prevention with young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Enah, Comfort; Moneyham, Linda; Vance, David E; Childs, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    The search for intervention strategies appropriate for young adolescents has recently led to the use of digital games. Digital gaming interventions are promising because they may be developmentally appropriate for adolescent populations. The gaming approach also capitalizes on an inherent interest to adolescents and circumvents traditional barriers to access to prevention interventions faced in some geographical areas. Notwithstanding, research on gaming in HIV prevention is quite limited. In this review article, we examine the need for contextually relevant HIV prevention interventions among young adolescents. From this, we provide a theoretical framework for exploring contextually relevant HIV risk factors and a foundation for gathering and using input from the target population to adapt an existing game or to create a developmentally appropriate and contextually relevant HIV prevention game. PMID:22871481

  3. Adapting and Testing Telephone Based Depression Care Management Intervention for Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Pinto-Foltz, Melissa D.; Stein, Bradley; Usui, Wayne; Josephson, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose and Methods This Phase 1 clinical trial combined qualitative and quantitative methods to modify a collaborative care, telephone based, depression care management intervention for adolescent mothers, and to determine the acceptability, feasibility, and initial efficacy of the intervention in a sample of adolescent mothers (n=97) who were recruited from a Teen Parent Program. Outcomes included measures of depressive symptoms, functioning, and use of mental health services. Results Acceptability of the intervention was demonstrated, but feasibility issues related to the complex life challenges confronting the adolescent mother. Although only four adolescent mothers received mental health treatment, there was a trend for improved depressive symptoms over time. Conclusion Results of the study provide data for the need of further refinement of the intervention before a large clinical trial is conducted for adolescent mothers with symptoms of depression. PMID:20020164

  4. The association between negative attention biases and symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Susannah E.; Lau, Jennifer Y.F.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable time for the onset of depression. Recent evidence from adult studies suggests not only that negative attention biases are correlated with symptoms of depression, but that reducing negative attention biases through training can in turn reduce symptomology. The role and plasticity of attention biases in adolescent depression, however, remains unclear. This study examines the association between symptoms of depression and attention biases, and whether such biases are modifiable, in a community sample of adolescents. We report data from 105 adolescents aged 13–17 who completed a dot-probe measure of attention bias before and after a single session of visual search-based cognitive bias modification training. This is the first study to find a significant association between negative attention biases and increased symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents. Contrary to expectations, we were unable to manipulate attention biases using a previously successful cognitive bias modification task. There were no significant effects of the training on positive affect and only modest effects of the training, identified in post-hoc analyses, were observed on negative affect. Our data replicate those from the adult literature, which suggest that adolescent depression is a disorder associated with negative attention biases, although we were unable to modify attention biases in our study. We identify numerous parameters of our methodology which may explain these null training effects, and which could be addressed in future cognitive bias modification studies of adolescent depression. PMID:26539335

  5. Depressive Symptoms and Violence Exposure: Contributors to Repeat Pregnancies Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cheryl A.; Pierce, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Depressive symptoms and violence exposure (VE) often cooccur and have been recognized to influence childbearing; contribution to repeat pregnancy is unclear and examined in this article. This cross-sectional, descriptive, study screened for depressive symptoms and VE among 193 adolescent mothers at a large county hospital in Southwestern United States. Repeat pregnancy and depressive symptoms characterized one-third and one-quarter of adolescents, respectively. Despite minimal disclosure of VE, repeat pregnancy was significantly influenced by child abuse and past traumatic life experiences. Assessments and interventions with adolescents should focus on frequency of repeat pregnancies and symptoms of depression and VE. Nurses and childbirth educators are poised to offer birth control information and education, support, and resources highlighting depression and VE to adolescents. PMID:26834444

  6. Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory, Emotional Maltreatment, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Evidence of a Cognitive Vulnerability-Stress Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2012-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is associated with depression and may confer risk for the development of depressed mood, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated OGM as a predictor of depressive symptoms in early adolescence, particularly in the context of environmental stressors. We investigated whether OGM and emotional maltreatment would interact to predict prospective increases in depressive symptoms in early adolescents and whether these effects differed by race. Among 174 seventh-graders, OGM and familial emotional abuse interacted to predict depressive symptoms eight months later, controlling for initial depressive symptoms. Specifically, emotional abuse predicted increases in depressive symptoms among Caucasian adolescents with more OGM, but not among those with less OGM. This association was not significant for African American adolescents. These results provide support for a cognitive vulnerability-stress relationship between OGM and emotional abuse in early adolescence and suggest that these mechanisms of risk for depression may be specific to Caucasian adolescents. PMID:23186994

  7. Overgeneral autobiographical memory, emotional maltreatment, and depressive symptoms in adolescence: evidence of a cognitive vulnerability-stress interaction.

    PubMed

    Stange, Jonathan P; Hamlat, Elissa J; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2013-02-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is associated with depression and may confer risk for the development of depressed mood, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated OGM as a predictor of depressive symptoms in early adolescence, particularly in the context of environmental stressors. We investigated whether OGM and emotional maltreatment would interact to predict prospective increases in depressive symptoms in early adolescents and whether these effects differed by race. Among 174 seventh-graders, OGM and familial emotional abuse interacted to predict depressive symptoms eight months later, controlling for initial depressive symptoms. Specifically, emotional abuse predicted increases in depressive symptoms among Caucasian adolescents with more OGM, but not among those with less OGM. This association was not significant for African American adolescents. These results provide support for a cognitive vulnerability-stress relationship between OGM and emotional abuse in early adolescence and suggest that these mechanisms of risk for depression may be specific to Caucasian adolescents.

  8. Two prospective studies of changes in stress generation across depressive episodes in adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Morris, Matthew C; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Hellman, Natalie; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy

    2014-11-01

    The stress generation hypothesis was tested in two different longitudinal studies examining relations between weekly depression symptom ratings and stress levels in adolescents and emerging adults at varied risk for depression. The participants in Study 1 included 240 adolescents who differed with regard to their mothers' history of depressive disorders. Youth were assessed annually across 6 years (Grades 6-12). Consistent with the depression autonomy model, higher numbers of prior major depressive episodes (MDEs) were associated with weaker stress generation effects, such that higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted increases in levels of dependent stressors for adolescents with two or more prior MDEs, but depressive symptoms were not significantly related to dependent stress levels for youth with three or more prior MDEs. In Study 2, the participants were 32 remitted-depressed and 36 never-depressed young adults who completed a psychosocial stress task to determine cortisol reactivity and were reassessed for depression and stress approximately 8 months later. Stress generation effects were moderated by cortisol responses to a laboratory psychosocial stressor, such that individuals with higher cortisol responses exhibited a pattern consistent with the depression autonomy model, whereas individuals with lower cortisol responses showed a pattern more consistent with the depression sensitization model. Finally, comparing across the two samples, stress generation effects were weaker for older participants and for those with more prior MDEs. The complex, multifactorial relation between stress and depression is discussed.

  9. The Moderating Effect of Parental Illicit Substance Use Disorders on the Relation Between Adolescent Depression and Subsequent Illicit Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gorka, Stephanie M.; Shankman, Stewart A.; Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Previous research has demonstrated that depression and family history of illicit substance use disorders (ISUDs) are risk factors for the development of ISUDs. However, no study to date has examined whether these risk factors interact to predict onset. In addition, history of parental and sibling ISUDs have been identified as risk factors almost exclusively in healthy individuals and thus, it is unknown whether they confer unique risk among adolescents with a history of depression. METHODS The current study examined these questions using data from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP). DSM diagnoses of probands were assessed during 4-waves, first in adolescence (ages 14–18) and subsequently up until age 30. Lifetime DSM diagnoses of ISUDs in biological mothers, fathers, and siblings were obtained. RESULTS Proportional hazards model analyses indicated that there was a significant depression by parental ISUDs interaction. Among probands with parental ISUDs (and not among those without parental ISUDs), depression in adolescence was significantly associated with a shorter time to develop an ISUD. Sibling ISUDs were not associated with onset and did not interact with adolescent depression. CONCLUSION Prevention and intervention efforts targeted at this particularly at-risk group may be effective. PMID:22901413

  10. Mental health resilience in the adolescent offspring of parents with depression: a prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Collishaw, Stephan; Hammerton, Gemma; Mahedy, Liam; Sellers, Ruth; Owen, Michael J; Craddock, Nicholas; Thapar, Ajay K; Harold, Gordon T; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita

    2016-01-01

    mental health. Analyses accounting for parent depression severity were consistent, but frequent exercise only predicted better than expected mood-related mental health (β=–0·22; p=0·0004) not behavioural mental health, whereas index parents' expression of positive emotions predicted better than expected behavioural mental health (β=–0·16; p=0·01) not mood-related mental health. Multiple protective factors were required for offspring to be free of mental health problems (zero or one protective factor, 4% sustained good mental health; two protective factors, 10%; three protective factors, 13%, four protective factors, 38%; five protective factors, 48%). Interpretation Adolescent mental health problems are common, but not inevitable, even when parental depression is severe and recurrent. These findings suggest that prevention programmes will need to enhance multiple protective factors across different domains of functioning. Funding Sir Jules Thorn Charitable Trust, Economic and Social Research Council. PMID:26654748

  11. Rumination and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Adolescents: An Integration of Cognitive Vulnerabilities to Depression

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Samantha L.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    During adolescence, rates of depression dramatically increase and girls become twice as likely as boys to develop depression. Research suggests that overgeneral autobiographical memory and rumination are vulnerability factors for depressive symptoms in adolescence that may be triggered by stressful life events. The current longitudinal study included 160 early adolescents (Mage = 12.44 years, 60.0 % African American, 40.0 % Caucasian, and 56.2 % female). At baseline, adolescents completed measures of current depressive symptoms, rumination, and specificity of autobiographical memories. Approximately 9 months later, the adolescents completed measures of current depressive symptoms and stressful life events that had occurred between baseline and follow-up. Analyses indicated that girls with more overgeneral autobiographical memories in combination with higher levels of rumination were most vulnerable to experiencing increases in depressive symptoms following stressful life events. Additionally, retrieving more specific autobiographical memories appeared to buffer against the impact of negative life events on depressive symptoms among both boys and girls. Memory specificity may play a protective role in depression risk, suggesting that memory specificity training interventions may prove beneficial for adolescents. PMID:24449170

  12. The roles of parenting, church attendance, and depression in adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla; Choi, Won S; Kaur, Harsohena; Nollen, Nicole; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify contextual factors related to smoking among urban African-American and White adolescents. We administered a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial variables to 299 adolescents in an urban pediatric clinic in the Midwest. Results indicated that being female, older age, lower academic performance, depressive symptoms, less frequent church attendance, parental smoking, and parental attitudes toward smoking were related to adolescent smoking. After controlling for demographics, the multivariate model predicting adolescent smoking included depressive symptoms, less frequent church attendance, and parental disapproval of smoking. Given these findings, efforts to decrease adolescent smoking may be enhanced by attending to depressive symptoms demonstrated by adolescents as well as contextual factors including parental attitudes and church attendance.

  13. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent–child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent–adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID

  14. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID:26916841

  15. Longitudinal Reciprocal Relationships Between Discrimination and Ethnic Affect or Depressive Symptoms Among Chinese American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yang; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2015-11-01

    Discrimination plays an important role in the development of ethnic minority adolescents. However, previous studies have often adopted a unidirectional model examining the influence of discrimination on adolescent development, thus leaving the potential reciprocal relationship between them understudied. Moreover, there is a dearth of studies on Chinese Americans in the discrimination literature. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the reciprocal relationships between discrimination and two measures of adolescent outcomes (i.e., ethnic affect and depressive symptoms) from early adolescence to emerging adulthood in Chinese Americans. Participants were 444 adolescents (54 % female), followed at four-year intervals, beginning at 7th or 8th grade (M age.wave1 = 13.03) in 2002, for a total of three waves. An examination of cross-lagged autoregressive models revealed two major findings. First, in contrast to the rejection-identification model, perceived discrimination at early adolescence negatively related to ethnic affect at middle adolescence. Conversely, ethnic affect at early adolescence also negatively related to discrimination at middle adolescence. These results held the same direction but became insignificant from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Second, perceived discrimination positively related to depressive symptoms across the studied developmental periods, and depressive symptoms positively related to perceived discrimination from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. The strength of these longitudinal relationships did not change significantly across developmental periods or gender. These findings highlight the bidirectional relationship between perceived discrimination and adolescent outcomes; they also demonstrate the value of studying the discrimination experiences of Chinese Americans.

  16. Neural Reward Processing Mediates the Relationship between Insomnia Symptoms and Depression in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Casement, Melynda D.; Keenan, Kate E.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Emerging evidence suggests that insomnia may disrupt reward-related brain function—a potentially important factor in the development of depressive disorder. Adolescence may be a period during which such disruption is especially problematic given the rise in the incidence of insomnia and ongoing development of neural systems that support reward processing. The present study uses longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that disruption of neural reward processing is a mechanism by which insomnia symptoms—including nocturnal insomnia symptoms (NIS) and nonrestorative sleep (NRS)—contribute to depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Method: Participants were 123 adolescent girls and their caregivers from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. NIS and NRS were assessed annually from ages 9 to 13 years. Girls completed a monetary reward task during a functional MRI scan at age 16 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed at ages 16 and 17 years. Multivariable regression tested the prospective associations between NIS and NRS, neural response during reward anticipation, and the mean number of depressive symptoms (omitting sleep problems). Results: NRS, but not NIS, during early adolescence was positively associated with late adolescent dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) response to reward anticipation and depressive symptoms. DMPFC response mediated the relationship between early adolescent NRS and late adolescent depressive symptoms. Conclusions: These results suggest that NRS may contribute to depression by disrupting reward processing via altered activity in a region of prefrontal cortex involved in affective control. The results also support the mechanistic differentiation of NIS and NRS. Citation: Casement MD, Keenan KE, Hipwell AE, Guyer AE, Forbes EE. Neural reward processing mediates the relationship between insomnia symptoms and depression in adolescence. SLEEP 2016;39(2):439–447

  17. Adolescent pregnancy: an interpersonal skill training approach to prevention.

    PubMed

    Schinke, S P; Gilchrist, L D

    1977-01-01

    The research literature reports numerous negative consequences of adolescent pregnancy. Unfortunately, contemporary approaches to preventing teenage pregnancies have been largely unsuccessful. Recent evidence, however, suggests that interpersonal communication skill training may represent an important step in helping adolescents deal with their sexual and contraceptive behavior. This describes a pilot study of an interpersonal skill training model for sexually active inner-city teenagers. Results show that this training model is a feasible and attractive approach to modifying the youths' communication patterns. Findings indicate that such training is a fruitful direction for future pregnancy prevention research with the adolescent target population.

  18. DATE: Depressed adolescents treated with exercise: Study rationale and design for a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Carroll W.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Cleaver, Joseph; Greer, Tracy L.; Emslie, Graham J.; Kennard, Beth; Dorman, Shauna; Bain, Tyson; Dubreuil, Judy; Barnes, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    There is an important need for non-medication interventions for depressed youth. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using a standardized aerobic exercise regime to treat non-medicated clinically depressed adolescents based on adherence and completion rates, including 1) establishing effect sizes for the primary outcomes including the Chidren’s Depression Rating Scale – Revised (CDRS-R) and Actical (energy expenditure data) as well as selected secondary outcomes; (e.g., Clinical Global Improvement, depression rating scales, exercise logs, attitudes), and 2) determining whether moderate to strenuous exercise (12 kcal/kg/week [KKW]) versus a control stretching activity (<4 KKW) for 12 weeks leads to a clinically meaningful reduction in depressive symptoms and/or improved psychosocial functioning. The challenge is to develop an exercise intervention that can motivate a typically sedentary depressed adolescent to exercise on a regular basis. The goal is to demonstrate that exercise alone can provide an important and effective non-medication intervention for adolescent depression. This paper reports on the rationale and design of a pilot study which aims to inform the design of a larger trial to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic exercise to treat adolescent depression. After describing the case for exercise within the broader context of the prevalence of adolescent depression and other treatments, the paper describes the intervention and procedures for data collection. PMID:20454641

  19. Negative Inferential Style, Emotional Clarity, and Life Stress: Integrating Vulnerabilities to Depression in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Negative inferential style and deficits in emotional clarity have been identified as vulnerability factors for depression in adolescence, particularly when individuals experience high levels of life stress. However, previous research has not integrated these characteristics when evaluating vulnerability to depression. Method In the present study, a racially-diverse community sample of 256 early adolescents (ages 12 and 13) completed a baseline visit and a follow-up visit nine months later. Inferential style, emotional clarity, and depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline, and intervening life events and depressive symptoms were assessed at follow-up. Results Hierarchical linear regressions indicated that there was a significant three-way interaction between adolescents’ weakest-link negative inferential style, emotional clarity, and intervening life stress predicting depressive symptoms at follow-up, controlling for initial depressive symptoms. Adolescents with low emotional clarity and high negative inferential styles experienced the greatest increases in depressive symptoms following life stress. Emotional clarity buffered against the impact of life stress on depressive symptoms among adolescents with negative inferential styles. Similarly, negative inferential styles exacerbated the impact of life stress on depressive symptoms among adolescents with low emotional clarity. Conclusions These results provide evidence of the utility of integrating inferential style and emotional clarity as constructs of vulnerability in combination with life stress in the identification of adolescents at risk for depression. They also suggest the enhancement of emotional clarity as a potential intervention technique to protect against the effects of negative inferential styles and life stress on depression in early adolescence. PMID:23215673

  20. Adolescent Weight and Depressive Symptoms: For Whom is Weight a Burden?*

    PubMed Central

    Frisco, Michelle L.; Houle, Jason N.; Martin, Molly A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Adolescent weight and depressive symptoms are serious population health concerns in their own right and as they relate to each other. This study asks whether relationships between weight and depressive symptoms vary by sex and race/ethnicity because both shape experiences of weight and psychological distress. Methods Results are based on multivariate analyses of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data. Results There are no associations between adolescent girls’ weight and depressive symptoms, but these associations vary considerably among boys. Underweight is associated with depressive symptoms among all boys and subpopulations of White and Hispanic boys. Among Hispanic boys, those who are overweight (versus normal weight) have a lower probability of reporting depressive symptoms. Finally, among normal weight boys, Hispanics and Blacks are more likely to report depressive symptoms than Whites. Conclusions Findings are a reminder that understanding population health issues sometimes requires a focus on subpopulations, not simply the population as a whole. PMID:23585698

  1. Longitudinal associations between experienced racial discrimination and depressive symptoms in African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-04-01

    While recent evidence has indicated that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African American adolescents, most studies rely on cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal research designs. As a result, the direction and persistence of this association across time remains unclear. This article examines longitudinal associations between experienced racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among a community sample of African American adolescents (N = 504) from Grade 7 to Grade 10, while controlling for multiple alternative causal pathways. Sex was tested as a moderator of the link between experienced racial discrimination and later depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with depressive symptoms 1 year later across all waves of measurement. The link between experienced racial discrimination at Grade 7 and depressive symptoms at Grade 8 was stronger for females than males. Findings highlight the role of experienced racial discrimination in the etiology of depressive symptoms for African Americans across early adolescence.

  2. INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS DURING ADOLESCENCE AND YOUNG ADULTHOOD

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), we examine the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and depressive symptoms during adolescence and young adulthood (N = 1, 273) while controlling for time-stable and time-varying correlates. Results show temporal changes in depressive symptoms, such that increases in depressive symptoms correspond to IPV exposure. While prior work has theorized that certain populations may be at increased psychological vulnerability from IPV, results indicate that both perpetration and victimization are associated with increases in depressive symptoms for both men and women and irrespective of whether IPV exposure occurred in adolescence or young adulthood. Cumulative exposure to IPV does not appear to increase depressive symptoms beyond the effect observed for the most recent IPV exposure, but physical maltreatment by a parent does appear to diminish the effect of IPV perpetration on depressive symptoms for a small subset of the sample. PMID:24578395

  3. Overgeneral autobiographical memory and chronic interpersonal stress as predictors of the course of depression in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Griffith, James W; Mineka, Susan; Rekart, Kathleen Newcomb; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle G

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) predicts the course of depression in adolescents. As part of a larger longitudinal study of risk for emotional disorders, 55 adolescents with a past history of major depressive disorder or minor depressive disorder completed the Autobiographical Memory Test. Fewer specific memories predicted the subsequent onset of a major depressive episode (MDE) over a 16-month follow-up period, even when covarying baseline depressive symptoms. This main effect was qualified by an interaction between specific memories and chronic interpersonal stress: Fewer specific memories predicted greater risk of MDE onset over follow-up at high (but not low) levels of chronic interpersonal stress. Thus, our findings suggest that OGM, in interaction with chronic interpersonal stress, predicts the course of depression among adolescents, and highlight the importance of measuring interpersonal stress in OGM research.

  4. Depression.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Donna E; Gucciardi, Enza; Grace, Sherry L

    2004-08-25

    HEALTH ISSUE: Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial factors likely mediate the risks for depression incurred by biological influences. KEY FINDINGS: Data from the 1999 National Population Health Survey show that depression is more common among Canadian women, with an annual self-reported incidence of 5.7% compared with 2.9% in men. The highest rates of depression are seen among women of reproductive age. Predictive factors for depression include previous depression, feeling out of control or overwhelmed, chronic health problems, traumatic events in childhood or young adulthood, lack of emotional support, lone parenthood, and low sense of mastery. Although depression is treatable, only 43% of depressed women had consulted a health professional in 1998/99 and only 32.4% were taking antidepressant medication. People with lower education, inadequate income, and fewer contacts with a health professional were less likely to receive depression treatment. DATA GAPS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: A better understanding of factors that increase vulnerability and resilience to depression is needed. There is also a need for the collection and analysis of data pertaining to: prevalence of clinical anxiety; the prevalence of depression band 12 months after childbirth factors contributing to suicide contemplation and attempts among adolescent girls, current treatments for depression and their efficacy in depressed women at different life stages; interprovincial variation in depression rates and hospitalizations and the impact and costs of depression on work, family, individuals, and society.

  5. Shared Etiology of Psychotic Experiences and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Zavos, Helena M S; Eley, Thalia C; McGuire, Philip; Plomin, Robert; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-09-01

    Psychotic disorders and major depression, both typically adult-onset conditions, often co-occur. At younger ages psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms are often reported in the community. We used a genetically sensitive longitudinal design to investigate the relationship between psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms in adolescence. A representative community sample of twins from England and Wales was employed. Self-rated depressive symptoms, paranoia, hallucinations, cognitive disorganization, grandiosity, anhedonia, and parent-rated negative symptoms were collected when the twins were age 16 (N = 9618) and again on a representative subsample 9 months later (N = 2873). Direction and aetiology of associations were assessed using genetically informative cross-lagged models. Depressive symptoms were moderately correlated with paranoia, hallucinations, and cognitive disorganization. Lower correlations were observed between depression and anhedonia, and depression and parent-rated negative symptoms. Nonsignificant correlations were observed between depression and grandiosity. Largely the same genetic effects influenced depression and paranoia, depression and hallucinations, and depression and cognitive disorganization. Modest overlap in environmental influences also played a role in the associations. Significant bi-directional longitudinal associations were observed between depression and paranoia. Hallucinations and cognitive disorganization during adolescence were found to impact later depression, even after controlling for earlier levels of depression. Our study shows that psychotic experiences and depression, as traits in the community, have a high genetic overlap in mid-adolescence. Future research should test the prediction stemming from our longitudinal results, namely that reducing or ameliorating positive and cognitive psychotic experiences in adolescence would decrease later depressive symptoms.

  6. Teachers or Psychologists: Who Should Facilitate Depression Prevention Programs in Schools?

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Melanie S.; Adelson, Jill L.; Patak, Margarete A.; Pössel, Patrick; Hautzinger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluates a depression prevention program for adolescents led by psychologists vs. teachers in comparison to a control. The universal school-based prevention program has shown its efficacy in several studies when implemented by psychologists. The current study compares the effects of the program as implemented by teachers versus that implemented by psychologists under real-life conditions. A total of 646 vocational track 8th grade students from Germany participated either in a universal prevention program, led by teachers (n = 207) or psychologists (n = 213), or a teaching-as-usual control condition (n = 226). The design includes baseline, post-intervention, and follow-up (at 6 and 12 months post-intervention). The cognitive-behavioral program includes 10 sessions held in a regular school setting in same-gender groups and is based on the social information-processing model of social competence. Positive intervention effects were found on the change in girls’ depressive symptoms up to 12 months after program delivery when the program was implemented by psychologists. No such effects were found on boys or when program was delivered by teachers. The prevention program can successfully be implemented for girls by psychologists. Further research is needed for explanations of these effects. PMID:24837667

  7. Adolescent depression. Epidemiology, nosology, life stress and social network. Minireview based on a doctoral thesis.

    PubMed

    Olsson, G

    1998-01-01

    The study engaged a total population of 16-17-year-old urban high-school students and 2300 (93%) were screened for depression and previous suicide attempts. Adolescents with high depression scores in self-evaluation (12.3%) or reporting previous suicide attempts (2.4%) were diagnostically interviewed together with one control for each, matched for gender and educational program. After the interview self-ratings were completed regarding social network, family climate, and life events. Major depression was prevalent during the last year in 5.8% and during life time in 11.4%, 4 girls for every boy. A depression with remaining symptoms for a year or more was the most common type. Dysthymia without major depressive episodes was diagnosed in 1.1%, two girls for every boy. Short hypomanic episodes had been experienced by 13.2% of those with major depressive disorder. Anxiety disorder was comorbid to depression in one half and conduct disorder in one forth of the depressed adolescents. Alcohol was abused by 6.5% and used regularly by another 12%. Other drugs were used by 6.5% of depressed adolescents and not at all by controls. The depressed used tobacco twice as frequently as non-depressed. Social network and family climate were compared within the originally matched pairs. Adolescents with long-lasting depressions had a smaller and unsatisfying social network. They also had experienced many stressful life events related to family adversities, while those with shorter depressive episodes had stress related to the peer group. Depressed adolescents with comorbid conduct disorder reported insufficient support from the close network and a more negative family climate. PMID:9923068

  8. Depressive symptomatology, weight status and obesogenic risk among Australian adolescents: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hoare, Erin; Millar, Lynne; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Nichols, Melanie; Malakellis, Mary; Swinburn, Boyd; Allender, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Adolescence is a period of increased risk for mental health problems and development of associated lifestyle risk behaviours. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between obesogenic risk factors, weight status, and depressive symptomatology in a cohort of Australian adolescents. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The study used repeated measures data from the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) It's Your Move project, an Australian community-based obesity prevention intervention. Intervention effect was non-significant therefore intervention and comparison groups were combined in this study. Participants Total sample was 634 secondary school students (female n=338, male n=296) with mean age 13 years (SD=0.6) at baseline (2012) and 15 years (SD=0.6) at follow-up (2014) recruited from 6 government secondary schools in the ACT. Primary and secondary outcomes measures Primary outcome was depressive symptomatology measured by Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes were weight status, physical activity, screen time and diet related measures. Results Increased physical activity was associated to lower depressive symptomatology among males (OR=0.35, p<0.05). Sweet drink (OR=1.15, p<0.05) and takeaway consumption (OR=1.84, p<0.05) were associated with higher levels of depressive symptomatology among females at follow-up. Males who were classified as overweight or obese at baseline, and remained so over the study period, were at increased risk of depressive symptomatology at follow-up (b=1.63, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.92). Inactivity among males over the 2-year study period was predictive of higher depressive symptomatology scores at follow-up (b=2.55, 95% CI 0.78 to 4.32). For females, those who increased their consumption of takeaway foods during the study period were at increased risk for developing depressive symptomatology (b=1.82, 95% CI −0.05 to 3.71). Conclusions There are multiple, probably complex

  9. Prevention of Recurrence of Major Depression among Emerging Adults by a Group Cognitive-Behavioral/Interpersonal Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Erin S.; Craighead, Linda Wilcoxon; Brosse, Alisha L.; Hauser, Monika; Madsen, Joshua W.; Craighead, W. Edward

    2012-01-01

    Background Among the most serious sequelae to an initial episode of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) during adolescence is the significant increase in the probability of recurrence. This study reports on an integrated CBT/IPT program, provided in a group format, that was developed to decrease the rate of MDD recurrence in emerging adults. Methods Participants were 89 young adults who were not depressed at study entry but had experienced MDD during adolescence. Participants were assigned to a CBT/IPT prevention program or to an assessment only control condition and were followed through the first 2 years of college. Results Risk for MDD recurrence was reduced more than 50% for the prevention program participants compared to assessment only controls. The intervention also conferred beneficial effects on academic performance for those students who completed the majority of the group sessions. Limitations The study included a self-selected sample of emerging adults who were aware of their history of depression. Due to the small sample size, it will be important to evaluate similar interventions in adequately-powered trials to determine if this is a replicable finding. Conclusions With 51% of the assessment only participants experiencing a MDD recurrence during the first 2 years of college, these findings support the need for programs designed to prevent MDD recurrence in young adults. The current program, based on IPT and CBT principles, appears to reduce the rate of MDD recurrence among previously depressed emerging adults. PMID:23021821

  10. Adolescent suicide prevention. Current research and social policy implications.

    PubMed

    Garland, A F; Zigler, E

    1993-02-01

    The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters. PMID:8442571

  11. Longitudinal effects of hostility, depression, and bullying on adolescent smoking initiation

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Jie W.; Cen, Steven; Mouttapa, Michele; Johnson, Andy C.; Unger, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the associations between smoking initiation and, hostility, depressive symptoms, and bullying (bullies and bully-victims) among a culturally diverse sample of 1771 adolescents who reported never having smoked at baseline. Methods Data were from a longitudinal school-based experimental trial of smoking prevention programs in Southern California. Students were surveyed annually while in the 6th, 7th, and 8th grades. All students in the 24 participating schools were invited to participate in the study during the 6th grade. Results The risk of smoking initiation was significantly higher among students who score higher on hostility and depressive symptoms, and were bully-victims. Conclusions The findings suggest that tobacco prevention programs should include strategies of managing hostile feelings and negative affect as part of the curriculum. In addition, it may be helpful to identify youth who score high on these psychosocial factors and teach them skills to handle interpersonal conflict and negative feelings to prevent their involvement in substance use. PMID:21575819

  12. Altered Cerebral Perfusion in Executive, Affective, and Motor Networks During Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Tiffany C.; Wu, Jing; Shin, David D.; Liu, Thomas T.; Tapert, Susan F.; Yang, Guang; Connolly, Colm G.; Frank, Guido K.W.; Max, Jeffrey E.; Wolkowitz, Owen; Eisendrath, Stuart; Hoeft, Fumiko; Banerjee, Dipavo; Hood, Korey; Hendren, Robert L.; Paulus, Martin P.; Simmons, Alan N.; Yang, Tony T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective While substantial literature has reported regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities in adults with depression, these studies commonly necessitated the injection of radioisotopes into subjects. The recent development of arterial spin labeling (ASL), however, allows for noninvasive measurements of rCBF. Currently, no published ASL studies have examined cerebral perfusion in adolescents with depression. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine baseline cerebral perfusion in adolescent depression using a newly developed ASL technique: pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL). Method 25 medication-naive adolescents (ages 13–17 years) diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 26 well-matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Baseline rCBF was measured via a novel PCASL method that optimizes tagging efficiency. Results Voxel-based whole brain analyses revealed significant frontal, limbic, paralimbic, and cingulate hypoperfusion in the group with depression (p<0.05, corrected). Hyperperfusion was also observed within the subcallosal cingulate, putamen, and fusiform gyrus (p<0.05, corrected). Similarly, region-of-interest analyses revealed amygdalar and insular hypoperfusion in the group with depression, as well as hyperperfusion in the putamen and superior insula (p<0.05, corrected). Conclusions Adolescents with depression and healthy adolescents appear to differ on rCBF in executive, affective, and motor networks. Dysfunction in these regions may contribute to the cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor symptoms commonly present in adolescent depression. These findings point to possible biomarkers for adolescent depression that could inform early interventions and treatments and establishes a methodology for using PCASL to noninvasively measure rCBF in clinical and healthy adolescent populations. PMID:24074474

  13. The Cross-Sectional Association between Diet Quality and Depressive Symptomology amongst Fijian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Rachael; Millar, Lynne; Allender, Steven; Snowdon, Wendy; Waqa, Gade; Jacka, Felice; Moodie, Marj; Petersen, Solveig; Swinburn, Boyd

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between diet quality and depressive symptomology amongst a community-based sample of Fijian adolescents. Methods Participants included 7,237 adolescents (52.6% girls; mean age 15.6 years) at baseline (2005) and 2,948 (56% girls; mean age 17.4 years) at follow-up (2007/2008), from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities Project. Intervention schools (n = 7) were selected from Nasinu, near Suva on the main Fijian island Viti Levu, and comparison schools (n = 11) were chosen from towns on the opposite, west side of the island. A dietary questionnaire was used to measure diet quality. Factor analysis clustered dietary variables into two unique and independent factors, referred to as healthy diet quality and unhealthy diet quality. Depressive symptomology was assessed via the emotional subscale of the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Both measures were self-reported and self-administered. Multiple linear regression was used to test cross-sectional associations (at baseline and follow-up) between diet quality and depressive symptomology. Variables controlled for included gender, age, ethnicity, study condition, BMI-z scores, and physical activity. Findings Strong, positive dose-response associations between healthy diet and high emotional scores (lower depressive symptomology) were found in cross-sectional analyses at baseline and follow-up, among boys and girls. No association was found between emotional health and unhealthy diet. Conclusions This study suggests that cross-sectional relationships exist between a high quality diet during adolescence and less depressive symptoms, however more evidence is required to determine if these two variables are linked causally. Trial population health strategies that use dietary interventions as a mechanism for mental health promotion provide an opportunity to further test these associations. If this is indeed a true relationship, these forms of interventions have the potential to

  14. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Arroyo, Dalton; Hidalgo, Luis; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Chedraui, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06-4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43-6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged. PMID:21461335

  15. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Arroyo, Dalton; Hidalgo, Luis; Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Chedraui, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged. PMID:21461335

  16. The trajectories of adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms over the course of a transdiagnostic treatment.

    PubMed

    Queen, Alexander H; Barlow, David H; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2014-08-01

    Anxiety and depressive disorders commonly co-occur during adolescence, share multiple vulnerability factors, and respond to similar psychosocial and pharmacological interventions. However, anxiety and depression may also be considered distinct constructs and differ on some underlying properties. Prior research efforts on evidence-based treatments for youth have been unable to examine the concurrent trajectories of primary anxiety and depressive concerns across the course of treatment. The advent of transdiagnostic approaches for these emotional disorders in youth allows for such examination. The present study examined the separate trajectories of adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms over the course of a transdiagnostic intervention, the Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Adolescence (UP-A; Ehrenreich et al., 2008), as well as up to six months following treatment. The sample included 59 adolescents ages 12-17 years old (M=15.42, SD=1.71) who completed at least eight sessions of the UP-A as part of an open trial or randomized, controlled trial across two treatment sites. Piecewise latent growth curve analyses found adolescent self-rated anxiety and depressive symptoms showed similar rates of improvement during treatment, but while anxiety symptoms continued to improve during follow-up, depressive symptoms showed non-significant improvement after treatment. Parent-rated symptoms also showed similar rates of improvement for anxiety and depression during the UP-A to those observed for adolescent self-report, but little improvement after treatment across either anxiety or depressive symptoms. To a certain degree, the results mirror those observed among other evidence-based treatments for youth with anxiety and depression, though results hold implications for future iterations of transdiagnostic treatments regarding optimization of outcomes for adolescents with depressive symptoms.

  17. Peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Henje Blom, E; Han, L K M; Connolly, C G; Ho, T C; Lin, J; LeWinn, K Z; Simmons, A N; Sacchet, M D; Mobayed, N; Luna, M E; Paulus, M; Epel, E S; Blackburn, E H; Wolkowitz, O M; Yang, T T

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that adults with major depressive disorder have shorter telomere length and reduced hippocampal volumes. Moreover, studies of adult populations without major depressive disorder suggest a relationship between peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume. However, the relationship of these findings in adolescents with major depressive disorder has yet to be explored. We examined whether adolescent major depressive disorder is associated with altered peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume, and whether these measures relate to one another. In 54 unmedicated adolescents (13-18 years) with major depressive disorder and 63 well-matched healthy controls, telomere length was assessed from saliva using quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, and bilateral hippocampal volumes were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. After adjusting for age and sex (and total brain volume in the hippocampal analysis), adolescents with major depressive disorder exhibited significantly shorter telomere length and significantly smaller right, but not left hippocampal volume. When corrected for age, sex, diagnostic group and total brain volume, telomere length was not significantly associated with left or right hippocampal volume, suggesting that these cellular and neural processes may be mechanistically distinct during adolescence. Our findings suggest that shortening of telomere length and reduction of hippocampal volume are already present in early-onset major depressive disorder and thus unlikely to be only a result of accumulated years of exposure to major depressive disorder. PMID:26556285

  18. Girls’ Challenging Social Experiences in Early Adolescence Predict Neural Response to Rewards and Depressive Symptoms1

    PubMed Central

    Casement, Melynda D.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Hipwell, Alison; McAloon, Rose L.; Hoffmann, Amy M.; Keenan, Kathryn; Forbes, Erika E.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental models of psychopathology posit that exposure to social stressors may confer risk for depression in adolescent girls by disrupting neural reward circuitry. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between early adolescent social stressors and later neural reward processing and depressive symptoms. Participants were 120 girls from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. Low parental warmth, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms were assessed when the girls were 11 and 12 years old, and participants completed a monetary reward guessing fMRI task and assessment of depressive symptoms at age 16. Results indicate that low parental warmth was associated with increased response to potential rewards in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), striatum, and amygdala, whereas peer victimization was associated with decreased response to potential rewards in the mPFC. Furthermore, concurrent depressive symptoms were associated with increased reward anticipation response in mPFC and striatal regions that were also associated with early adolescent psychosocial stressors, with mPFC and striatal response mediating the association between social stressors and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with developmental models that emphasize the adverse impact of early psychosocial stressors on neural reward processing and risk for depression in adolescence. PMID:24397999

  19. Peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Henje Blom, E; Han, L K M; Connolly, C G; Ho, T C; Lin, J; LeWinn, K Z; Simmons, A N; Sacchet, M D; Mobayed, N; Luna, M E; Paulus, M; Epel, E S; Blackburn, E H; Wolkowitz, O M; Yang, T T

    2015-11-10

    Several studies have reported that adults with major depressive disorder have shorter telomere length and reduced hippocampal volumes. Moreover, studies of adult populations without major depressive disorder suggest a relationship between peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume. However, the relationship of these findings in adolescents with major depressive disorder has yet to be explored. We examined whether adolescent major depressive disorder is associated with altered peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume, and whether these measures relate to one another. In 54 unmedicated adolescents (13-18 years) with major depressive disorder and 63 well-matched healthy controls, telomere length was assessed from saliva using quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, and bilateral hippocampal volumes were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. After adjusting for age and sex (and total brain volume in the hippocampal analysis), adolescents with major depressive disorder exhibited significantly shorter telomere length and significantly smaller right, but not left hippocampal volume. When corrected for age, sex, diagnostic group and total brain volume, telomere length was not significantly associated with left or right hippocampal volume, suggesting that these cellular and neural processes may be mechanistically distinct during adolescence. Our findings suggest that shortening of telomere length and reduction of hippocampal volume are already present in early-onset major depressive disorder and thus unlikely to be only a result of accumulated years of exposure to major depressive disorder.

  20. Depression Symptom Trajectories and Associated Risk Factors among Adolescents in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Stapinski, Lexine A.; Montgomery, Alan A.; Heron, Jon; Jerrim, John; Vignoles, Anna; Araya, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period for studying the development of depression, with studies in Europe and North America showing a pattern of elevated risk that begins in early adolescence and continues to increase as adolescents age. Few studies have examined the course of adolescent depression and associated risk factors in low and middle-income countries. This longitudinal cohort study examined depression symptom trajectories and risk factors in a sample of socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents in Chile (n = 2,508). Data were collected over an 18-month period as part of a clinical trial for secondary students aged 12 to 18 (median age 14). Clinical levels of depression were prevalent in this sample at baseline (35% for girls and 28% for boys); yet latent growth models of symptom trajectories revealed a pattern of decreasing symptoms over time. There was evidence of an anxiety-depression developmental pathway for girls, with elevated anxiety levels initially predicting poorer depression outcomes later on. Poor problem-solving skills were associated with initial depression levels but did not predict the course of depressive symptoms. Critically, the declining symptom trajectories raise important methodological issues regarding the effects of repeated assessment in longitudinal studies. PMID:24147131

  1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WEIGHT PERCEPTION, GENDER, AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AMONG RURAL ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Puskar, Kathryn; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Fertman, Carl; Ren, Dianxu

    2009-01-01

    Research findings indicate a relationship between weight perception and depression in adolescents. This study explored the relationship between weight perception, gender, and depressive symptoms in rural adolescents. Among 623 rural adolescents who completed a health inventory and a depression scale, 75 participants (n = 62 females; n = 13 males) had depressive symptoms and were used in data analysis. A two-way ANOVA model was used to evaluate the effects of weight perception and gender on depressive symptoms in rural adolescents. Although the 2-way ANOVA was not significant, there was a statistical significant finding for females who reported perceived weight problems and depression. The interaction between gender and weight perception was of marginal statistical significance (p = 0.07). Females who perceived a problem with their weight had higher depressive scores compared to females who did not perceive a problem with their weight (p = 0.0002), however no difference was observed for males. Implications are for rural nurses to screen adolescents for depressive symptoms and their weight perception during health care visits, with emphasis on females. PMID:20556226

  2. Peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume in adolescents with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Henje Blom, E; Han, L K M; Connolly, C G; Ho, T C; Lin, J; LeWinn, K Z; Simmons, A N; Sacchet, M D; Mobayed, N; Luna, M E; Paulus, M; Epel, E S; Blackburn, E H; Wolkowitz, O M; Yang, T T

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that adults with major depressive disorder have shorter telomere length and reduced hippocampal volumes. Moreover, studies of adult populations without major depressive disorder suggest a relationship between peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume. However, the relationship of these findings in adolescents with major depressive disorder has yet to be explored. We examined whether adolescent major depressive disorder is associated with altered peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume, and whether these measures relate to one another. In 54 unmedicated adolescents (13–18 years) with major depressive disorder and 63 well-matched healthy controls, telomere length was assessed from saliva using quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, and bilateral hippocampal volumes were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. After adjusting for age and sex (and total brain volume in the hippocampal analysis), adolescents with major depressive disorder exhibited significantly shorter telomere length and significantly smaller right, but not left hippocampal volume. When corrected for age, sex, diagnostic group and total brain volume, telomere length was not significantly associated with left or right hippocampal volume, suggesting that these cellular and neural processes may be mechanistically distinct during adolescence. Our findings suggest that shortening of telomere length and reduction of hippocampal volume are already present in early-onset major depressive disorder and thus unlikely to be only a result of accumulated years of exposure to major depressive disorder. PMID:26556285

  3. Can it be done? Implementing adolescent clinical preventive services.

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, E M; Adams, S H; Lustig, J L; Millstein, S G; Camfield, K; El-Diwany, S; Volpe, S; Irwin, C E

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the implementation of an intervention to increase the delivery of adolescent preventive services within a large managed care organization. Target health areas were tobacco, alcohol, sexual behavior, and safety (seat belt and helmet use). DATA SOURCE/STUDY DESIGN: Adolescent reports of clinician screening and counseling were obtained from adolescents who attended well visits with their primary care providers. A prepost study design was used to evaluate the preventive services intervention. The intervention had three components: (1) 89 clinicians from three outpatient pediatric clinics attended a training to increase the delivery of preventive services; (2) customized adolescent screening and provider charting forms were integrated into the clinics; and (3) the resources of a health educator were provided to the clinics. DATA COLLECTION: Following a visit, adolescents completed surveys reporting on clinician screening and counseling for each of the target risk areas. Preimplementation (three months), 104 adolescents completed surveys. Postimplementation of the training, tools, and health educator intervention, 211 adolescents completed surveys (five months). For 18 months postimplementation clinicians delivered services and 998 adolescents completed surveys. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chi-square analyses of changes in screening from preimplementation to postimplementation showed that screening increased in all areas (p < .000), with an average increase in screening rates from 47 percent to 94 percent. Postimplementation counseling in all areas also increased significantly, with an average increase in counseling rates from 39 percent to 91 percent. There were slight decreases in screening from postimplementation to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers support for the efficacy of providing training, tools, and resources as a method for increasing preventive screening and counseling of adolescents across multiple risky health behaviors during a

  4. Negative thinking: a key factor in depressive symptoms in Thai adolescents.

    PubMed

    Charoensuk, Sukjai

    2007-01-01

    Negative thinking, self-esteem, parental bonding, and everyday stressors are factors related to depressive symptoms in studies conducted in the United States, but they have been rarely explored in Thailand. An understanding of factors influencing depressive symptoms in Thai youth will lead to the development of interventions to decrease depressive symptoms among this age group. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of parental bonding, everyday stressors, self-esteem, and negative thinking on depressive symptoms among Thai adolescents. A random sample of 812 high school students in Chon Buri, Thailand, participated in the study. The prevalence of depressive symptoms varied from 20-21% depending on the measures used. Negative thinking was the best predictor of depressive symptoms in Thai adolescents. Negative thinking also mediated the effects of parental bonding, everyday stressors, and self-esteem on depressive symptoms. PMID:17130007

  5. Beyond Assimilation: Contributions of Sociodemographic Factors and Social Supports to Disparities in Depressive Symptoms Between Immigrant and Native Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardo, Jennifer Braga

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of assimilation, sociodemographic factors, and social supports to depressive symptoms in immigrant adolescents, using Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 4,263). Immigrant adolescents reported more risk factors and higher levels of depressive symptoms than native…

  6. Fat Bias and Weight-Related Teasing Prevention among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyairi, Maya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement a weight-related teasing prevention program and evaluate the effectiveness of the program among adolescents. One hundred forty-three students in 7th-grade in health classes at the middle school were asked to participate in the study. The weight-related teasing prevention program was implemented as part of…

  7. Counselors Can Make a Difference in Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Larry; Reddick, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    Asserts that school counselors can play vital role in the prevention of adolescent suicide. Lists warning signs of suicide risk and characteristics of at-risk students. Presents set of guidelines for helping potential suicide victims. Sees key to teenage suicide prevention to be communication skills. Identifies components for suicide prevention…

  8. Peer selection and socialization in adolescent depression: the role of school transitions.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Natalie P; Mrug, Sylvie; Borch, Casey; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated homophily in depressive symptoms among adolescent friends, resulting from both peer selection and socialization processes. However, developmental differences and the role of school transitions in these processes have not been elucidated. A sample of 367 (51% female) adolescents was followed from 6th to 11th grade to investigate prospective relationships between adolescents' and their friends' depressive symptoms in middle school and in high school. Results revealed that students selected friends with similar levels of depressive symptoms after each school transition. Additionally, friends appeared to socialize adolescents to become more similar in depressive affect in late middle school years. These findings suggest normative selection effects after school transitions, followed by socialization effects in middle school, but not high school.

  9. Organized activity involvement, depressive symptoms, and social adjustment in adolescents: ethnicity and socioeconomic status as moderators.

    PubMed

    Randall, Edin T; Bohnert, Amy M

    2009-10-01

    The current cross-sectional study investigated the links between various dimensions of organized activity involvement and depressive symptoms, loneliness, and peer victimization in an ethnically and economically diverse sample of adolescents (N = 152; 58% female). Results indicate that adolescents who were involved in organized activities for more years also reported lower levels of loneliness. There was evidence of diminishing returns when adolescents were very highly involved in organized activities; those who were either under- or over-involved reported the highest levels of depressive symptoms. Conversely, findings indicate that adolescents who participated in a narrow or wide range of activity contexts reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. In addition, results suggested that the relation between organized activity involvement and adjustment differs among adolescents from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Findings from the current study also underscore the importance of considering multiple indices of activity involvement when assessing its association with adjustment.

  10. Adolescents with depressive symptoms and their challenges with learning in school.

    PubMed

    Humensky, Jennifer; Kuwabara, Sachiko A; Fogel, Joshua; Wells, Corrie; Goodwin, Brady; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W

    2010-10-01

    We examine school performance among 83 adolescents at risk for major depression. Negative mood interfered with subjective measures of school performance, including ability to do well in school, homework completion, concentrate in class, interact with peers, and going to class. No significant relationships were found for mood and objective measures of school performance (school attendance, English, and Math grades). Students with a college-educated parent had stronger performance in objective measures (school attendance and Math grades), whereas males had lower English grades. In qualitative interviews, adolescents reported that negative thinking led to procrastination, which led to poor school performance, which led to more negative thinking. Adolescents with depressive symptoms that do not meet the threshold for referral report struggles in school. Understanding the specific challenges faced by adolescents with even low levels of depressive symptoms can help school nurses, teachers, and parents identify appropriate interventions to help adolescents succeed in school. PMID:20606058

  11. Adolescents with Depressive Symptoms and their Challenges with Learning in School

    PubMed Central

    Humensky, Jennifer; Kuwabara, Sachiko A.; Fogel, Joshua; Wells, Corrie; Goodwin, Brady; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.

    2013-01-01

    We examine school performance among 83 adolescents at-risk for major depression. Negative mood interfered with subjective measures of school performance, including ability to do well in school, homework completion, concentrate in class, interact with peers, and going to class. No significant relationships were found for mood and objective measures of school performance (school attendance, English and math grades). Students with a college-educated parent had stronger performance in objective measures (school attendance and math grades), while males had lower English grades. In qualitative interviews, adolescents reported that negative thinking led to procrastination, which led to poor school performance, which led to more negative thinking. Adolescents with depressive symptoms that do not meet the threshold for referral report struggles in school. Understanding the specific challenges faced by adolescents with even low levels of depressive symptoms can help school nurses, teachers, and parents identify appropriate interventions to help adolescents succeed in school. PMID:20606058

  12. Association Between Media Use in Adolescence and Depression in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Swanier, Brandi; Georgiopoulos, Anna M.; Land, Stephanie R.; Fine, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Context Although certain media exposures have been linked to the presence of psychiatric conditions, few studies have investigated the association between media exposure and depression. Objective To assess the longitudinal association between media exposure in adolescence and depression in young adulthood in a nationally representative sample. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting and Participants We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to investigate the relationship between electronic media exposure in 4142 adolescents who were not depressed at baseline and subsequent development of depression after 7 years of follow-up. Main Outcome Measure Depression at follow-up assessed using the 9-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression Scale. Results Of the 4142 participants (47.5% female and 67.0% white) who were not depressed at baseline and who underwent follow-up assessment, 308 (7.4%) reported symptoms consistent with depression at follow-up. Controlling for all covariates including baseline Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression Scale score, those reporting more television use had significantly greater odds of developing depression (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.08 [1.01-1.16]) for each additional hour of daily television use. In addition, those reporting more total media exposure had significantly greater odds of developing depression (1.05 [1.0004-1.10]) for each additional hour of daily use. We did not find a consistent relationship between development of depressive symptoms and exposure to videocassettes, computer games, or radio. Compared with young men, young women were less likely to develop depression given the same total media exposure (odds ratio for interaction term, 0.93 [0.88-0.99]). Conclusion Television exposure and total media exposure in adolescence are associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms in young adulthood, especially in young men. PMID:19188540

  13. Remission and Residual Symptoms after Short-Term Treatment in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto; Curry, John; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Hughes, Jennifer; Feeny, Norah; Weller, Elizabeth; Sweeney, Michael; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Ginsburg, Golda; Emslie, Graham; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain remission rates in depressed youth participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS), a multisite clinical trial that randomized 439 adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) to a 12-week treatment of fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical…

  14. Maternal Sadness and Adolescents' Responses to Stress in Offspring of Mothers with and without a History of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Fear, Jessica M.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Reising, Michelle M.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined maternal sadness and adolescents' responses to stress in the offspring (n = 72) of mothers with and without a history of depression. Mothers with a history of depression reported higher levels of current depressive symptoms and exhibited greater sadness during interactions with their adolescent children (ages 11-14) than…

  15. Early Adolescent Depression Symptoms and School Dropout: Mediating Processes Involving Self-Reported Academic Competence and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroga, Cintia V.; Janosz, Michel; Bisset, Sherri; Morin, Alexandre J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Research on adolescent well-being has shown that students with depression have an increased risk of facing academic failure, yet few studies have looked at the implications of adolescent depression in the process of school dropout. This study examined mediation processes linking depression symptoms, self-perceived academic competence, and…

  16. A randomized trial of the Positive Thoughts and Action program for depression among early adolescents.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Carolyn A; Violette, Heather D; Duong, Mylien T; Cruz, Rick A; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the outcomes of a group-based cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention (Positive Thoughts and Actions [PTA]) tailored to youth in middle school with a brief, individually administered supportive intervention (Individual Support Program [ISP]). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 120 early adolescents (72 girls, 48 boys; age = 11-15 years) who had elevated depressive symptoms and were selected from a school-based population. Measures of internalizing problems, externalizing problems, personal adjustment, school problems, and interpersonal relations were obtained from parents, youth, and/or teachers at preintervention (Time 1) and postintervention (Time 2, 5-7 months after preintervention). General linear model repeated measures analyses yielded a significant Group × Time interaction on youth-reported, but not parent-reported, depressive symptoms and internalizing symptoms. Youth in the PTA group showed greater decreases following intervention compared to youth who received ISP, yielding effect sizes (Cohen's d) of 0.36 for depressive symptoms, 95% CI [-.02, .73], and 0.44, 95% CI [.05, .82], for internalizing symptoms. PTA youth also showed improvements in their personal adjustment (sense of inadequacy, self-esteem), and parent-reported social skills, but no differences emerged between groups for externalizing symptoms, school problems, or interpersonal relationships. Cognitive-behavioral preventive interventions in which youth engage in personal goal-setting and practice social-emotional skills, such as PTA, may be beneficial for the reduction of depressive symptoms over and above general support and empathy. PMID:23560384

  17. 8-Year Prospective Study of Depressive Symptoms and Change in Insulin from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether depressive symptoms predict change in fasting insulin among adolescents followed into young adulthood. We hypothesized that higher depressive symptoms would predict increased insulin and that puberty and race/ethnicity would moderate this relationship. Methods Data came from the Princeton School District Study, a school-based longitudinal cohort of non-Hispanic black and white adolescents (2001–2011). Depressive symptoms, fasting insulin, and body mass index (BMI) were measured at baseline (adolescence) and eight years later (young adulthood) in 685 participants. Puberty was assessed using a validated protocol measuring sex steroids and physical changes. The primary outcome was change in fasting insulin. Analyses accounted for age, sex, race, parental education, baseline insulin, BMI z, puberty, and time to follow up. Results At baseline, depressive symptoms were correlated with insulin (rho = .13, p = .001). High baseline insulin predicted insulin change (B = −11.50, SE = 2.30, p< .001). Depressive symptoms also predicted insulin change, but only for pubertal adolescents (B = −.23, SE = .11, p = .038). This relationship was moderated by race (p < .047); depressive symptoms predicted insulin change only among pubertal black adolescents ( p= .030), not whites (p = .49), and in the direction opposite that hypothesized (Bblacks = −.51, SE = .23). Post-hoc analyses revealed pubertal black adolescents with high depressive symptoms had the highest baseline insulin, which stayed high across the follow up period. Conclusions Among pubertal black adolescents, elevated depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk for sustained hyperinsulinemia from adolescence into adulthood. These youths may be particularly vulnerable for type 2 diabetes. PMID:26368574

  18. Adolescents' electronic media use at night, sleep disturbance, and depressive symptoms in the smartphone age.

    PubMed

    Lemola, Sakari; Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Brand, Serge; Dewald-Kaufmann, Julia F; Grob, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Adolescence is a time of increasing vulnerability for poor mental health, including depression. Sleep disturbance is an important risk factor for the development of depression during adolescence. Excessive electronic media use at night is a risk factor for both adolescents' sleep disturbance and depression. To better understand the interplay between sleep, depressive symptoms, and electronic media use at night, this study examined changes in adolescents' electronic media use at night and sleep associated with smartphone ownership. Also examined was whether sleep disturbance mediated the relationship between electronic media use at night and depressive symptoms. 362 adolescents (12-17 year olds, M = 14.8, SD = 1.3; 44.8% female) were included and completed questionnaires assessing sleep disturbance (short sleep duration and sleep difficulties) and depressive symptoms. Further, participants reported on their electronic media use in bed before sleep such as frequency of watching TV or movies, playing video games, talking or text messaging on the mobile phone, and spending time online. Smartphone ownership was related to more electronic media use in bed before sleep, particularly calling/sending messages and spending time online compared to adolescents with a conventional mobile phone. Smartphone ownership was also related to later bedtimes while it was unrelated to sleep disturbance and symptoms of depression. Sleep disturbance partially mediated the relationship between electronic media use in bed before sleep and symptoms of depression. Electronic media use was negatively related with sleep duration and positively with sleep difficulties, which in turn were related to depressive symptoms. Sleep difficulties were the more important mediator than sleep duration. The results of this study suggest that adolescents might benefit from education regarding sleep hygiene and the risks of electronic media use at night. PMID:25204836

  19. Adolescents' electronic media use at night, sleep disturbance, and depressive symptoms in the smartphone age.

    PubMed

    Lemola, Sakari; Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Brand, Serge; Dewald-Kaufmann, Julia F; Grob, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Adolescence is a time of increasing vulnerability for poor mental health, including depression. Sleep disturbance is an important risk factor for the development of depression during adolescence. Excessive electronic media use at night is a risk factor for both adolescents' sleep disturbance and depression. To better understand the interplay between sleep, depressive symptoms, and electronic media use at night, this study examined changes in adolescents' electronic media use at night and sleep associated with smartphone ownership. Also examined was whether sleep disturbance mediated the relationship between electronic media use at night and depressive symptoms. 362 adolescents (12-17 year olds, M = 14.8, SD = 1.3; 44.8% female) were included and completed questionnaires assessing sleep disturbance (short sleep duration and sleep difficulties) and depressive symptoms. Further, participants reported on their electronic media use in bed before sleep such as frequency of watching TV or movies, playing video games, talking or text messaging on the mobile phone, and spending time online. Smartphone ownership was related to more electronic media use in bed before sleep, particularly calling/sending messages and spending time online compared to adolescents with a conventional mobile phone. Smartphone ownership was also related to later bedtimes while it was unrelated to sleep disturbance and symptoms of depression. Sleep disturbance partially mediated the relationship between electronic media use in bed before sleep and symptoms of depression. Electronic media use was negatively related with sleep duration and positively with sleep difficulties, which in turn were related to depressive symptoms. Sleep difficulties were the more important mediator than sleep duration. The results of this study suggest that adolescents might benefit from education regarding sleep hygiene and the risks of electronic media use at night.

  20. Major depression during interferon-α treatment: vulnerability and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lotrich, Francis E.

    2009-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) during interferons (IFN-α) treatment can occur within a few months of therapy, and shares many homologies with other forms of MDD, Most patients are resilient to the side effect ofinterferon-induced depression (IFN-MDD), but 15% to 40% are vulnerable. Several studies have employed antidepressants to prevent the incidence of an IFN-MDD episode, and the results suggest that prophylactic antidepressants may be specifically useful in those with pre-existing subthreshold depressive symptoms andlor a history of prior MDD episodes. Several other potential markers of vulnerability for IFN-MDD have been implicated in assessments of nondepressed patients before they start IFN-α These include poor sleep quality, premorbid elevations in inflammatory cytokines, genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin system, personality, and social support. The interplay of these factors strongly predicts who is at risk for IFN-MDD, and indicates several potentially modifiable targets for the personalized prevention of IFN-MDD, PMID:20135899