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Sample records for adolescent depressive symptomology

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Depressive Symptomology and Self-Concept in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Marjorie; Enders, Craig; Dietz, Samantha; Dixon, Jennifer; Cavendish, Wendy Morrison

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the trajectories of depressive symptomology and self-concept in adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 and to determine whether primary school teacher ratings of adaptive and maladaptive behavior predict self-reported depressive symptoms and self-concept in adolescence. This study is part of an…

  2. Perceived Support from Adults, Interactions with Police, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptomology: An Examination of Sex, Race, and Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Sathasivam-Rueckert, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Several risk factors, including female sex, racial minority status, and family poverty, have been implicated in adolescents' depression. The present study focused on the role of one specific aspect of adolescents' ecological context, interactions with adults, in depressive symptomology. We examined the relationship between perceived support from…

  3. The Cross-Sectional Association between Diet Quality and Depressive Symptomology amongst Fijian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Rachael; Millar, Lynne; Allender, Steven; Snowdon, Wendy; Waqa, Gade; Jacka, Felice; Moodie, Marj; Petersen, Solveig; Swinburn, Boyd

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between diet quality and depressive symptomology amongst a community-based sample of Fijian adolescents. Methods Participants included 7,237 adolescents (52.6% girls; mean age 15.6 years) at baseline (2005) and 2,948 (56% girls; mean age 17.4 years) at follow-up (2007/2008), from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities Project. Intervention schools (n = 7) were selected from Nasinu, near Suva on the main Fijian island Viti Levu, and comparison schools (n = 11) were chosen from towns on the opposite, west side of the island. A dietary questionnaire was used to measure diet quality. Factor analysis clustered dietary variables into two unique and independent factors, referred to as healthy diet quality and unhealthy diet quality. Depressive symptomology was assessed via the emotional subscale of the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Both measures were self-reported and self-administered. Multiple linear regression was used to test cross-sectional associations (at baseline and follow-up) between diet quality and depressive symptomology. Variables controlled for included gender, age, ethnicity, study condition, BMI-z scores, and physical activity. Findings Strong, positive dose-response associations between healthy diet and high emotional scores (lower depressive symptomology) were found in cross-sectional analyses at baseline and follow-up, among boys and girls. No association was found between emotional health and unhealthy diet. Conclusions This study suggests that cross-sectional relationships exist between a high quality diet during adolescence and less depressive symptoms, however more evidence is required to determine if these two variables are linked causally. Trial population health strategies that use dietary interventions as a mechanism for mental health promotion provide an opportunity to further test these associations. If this is indeed a true relationship, these forms of interventions have the potential to

  4. Depressive Symptomology and Hostile Affect among Latinos Using Housing Rental Assistance: the AHOME Study.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Earle C; Fuster, Damaris; Suglia, Shakira F; Rosenbaum, Emily

    2015-08-01

    Studies show that those residing in households subsidized with federal housing vouchers exhibit fewer mental health problems than residents of public housing. The role of housing conditions and neighborhood quality in this relationship is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between rental assistance, housing and neighborhood conditions, and the risk of depressive symptomology and hostile affect among low-income Latino adults living in the Bronx, NY. Latino adults participating in the Affordable Housing as an Obesity Mediating Environment (AHOME) study were used for analysis. All AHOME participants were eligible for federal low-income housing rental assistance (n = 385) and living in the Bronx, New York (2010-2012). Housing (crowding and structural deficiencies) and neighborhood (physical disorder and social cohesion) were measured by questionnaire during in-home interview. Depressive symptomology was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Short Form, CES-D 10 (score ≥10). Hostile affect was measured using items from the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (score ≥ 4). Results suggest residents of Section 8 housing have similar levels of depressive symptomology and hostility compared to residents in public housing or those receiving no federal housing assistance. However, depressive symptomology was significantly associated with maintenance deficiencies [OR = 1.17; CI 1.02, 1.35] and social cohesion [OR = 0.71; CI 0.55, 0.93]. Hostility was significantly associated with perceived crowding [OR = 1.18; CI 1.16, 2.85], neighborhood physical disorder [OR = 1.94; CI 1.12, 3.40], and social cohesion [OR = 0.70; CI 0.50, 0.98]. Low-income housing assistance did not have an independent effect on mental health outcomes. However, characteristics of the housing and neighborhood environments were associated with depressive symptomology and hostility. PMID:26014382

  5. The Social Context of Depression Symptomology in Sexual Minority Male Youth: Determinants of Depression in a Sample of Grindr Users.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Jeremy J; Rice, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand which social context factors most influence depression symptomology among sexual minority male youth (SMMY). In 2011, 195 SMMY who use Grindr were recruited to complete an online survey in Los Angeles, California. Items focused on social context variables and depression symptomology. Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted using an ecological framework. The best fitting model accounted for 29.5% of the variance in depression. Experiences of homophobia, gay community connection, presence of an objecting network member, and emotional support were found to be significant predictors. Past experiences of homophobia continuing to affect youth indicates the need for intervention to reduction of homophobia in youths' social contexts. Interventions that teach youth skills to manage objecting viewpoints or help youth to reorganize their social networks may help to reduce the impact of an objecting network alter. PMID:26295497

  6. School-Based Supports for Adolescents with Depression: An Educator Training on Awareness and Intervention Strategies in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Danielle Leigh

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project is to review the literature on adolescent depression with a focus on prevalence, risk factors, symptomology, comorbidity, and the need for increased awareness within the secondary school system. Adolescent depression is one of the most overlooked, undertreated, and debilitating psychological disorders (Cicchetti &…

  7. Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dina M.

    Affective disorder is characterized by maladaptive changes in mood, attitudes, energy level, and physical status. These changes constitute the basic dimensions of depression. Depression results from a combination of genetic and experiential factors. There are sex differences and age differences with regard to depression, and there is a high…

  8. Depression in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan; Pine, Daniel S; Thapar, Ajay K

    2012-01-01

    Unipolar depressive disorder in adolescence is common worldwide but often unrecognised. The incidence, notably in girls, rises sharply after puberty and, by the end of adolescence, the 1 year prevalence rate exceeds 4%. The burden is highest in low-income and middle-income countries. Depression is associated with sub stantial present and future morbidity, and heightens suicide risk. The strongest risk factors for depression in adolescents are a family history of depression and exposure to psychosocial stress. Inherited risks, developmental factors, sex hormones, and psychosocial adversity interact to increase risk through hormonal factors and associated perturbed neural pathways. Although many similarities between depression in adolescence and depression in adulthood exist, in adolescents the use of antidepressants is of concern and opinions about clinical management are divided. Effective treatments are available, but choices are dependent on depression severity and available resources. Prevention strategies targeted at high-risk groups are promising. PMID:22305766

  9. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among immigrant-origin adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena

    2013-07-01

    Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PMID:23875851

  10. [Childhood and adolescent depression].

    PubMed

    Mikami, Katsunaka; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2007-09-01

    Depression is a common, chronic and recurrent disorder in children and adolescents. This article reviewed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, natural course and treatment (pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment) of major depressive disorder (MDD) in children and adolescents. Several randomized controlled trials have shown that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), in particular fluoxetine, and psychotherapeutic treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy are efficacious in children and adolescents with MDD. However, in Japan only three SSRIs (fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline) are currently available, and few clinicians are trained to deliver psychotherapeutic treatment. Further clinical researches on the treatment to children and adolescents with MDD are needed in Japan. PMID:17876994

  11. Depression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Noel M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, depression has been recognized widely in children and adolescents. However, even with what is known today about depression, many children and adolescents remain undiagnosed. Early recognition is imperative to prevent further episodes that may continue into adulthood. Depression in children and adolescents affects social…

  12. The association between negative attention biases and symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Susannah E.; Lau, Jennifer Y.F.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable time for the onset of depression. Recent evidence from adult studies suggests not only that negative attention biases are correlated with symptoms of depression, but that reducing negative attention biases through training can in turn reduce symptomology. The role and plasticity of attention biases in adolescent depression, however, remains unclear. This study examines the association between symptoms of depression and attention biases, and whether such biases are modifiable, in a community sample of adolescents. We report data from 105 adolescents aged 13–17 who completed a dot-probe measure of attention bias before and after a single session of visual search-based cognitive bias modification training. This is the first study to find a significant association between negative attention biases and increased symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents. Contrary to expectations, we were unable to manipulate attention biases using a previously successful cognitive bias modification task. There were no significant effects of the training on positive affect and only modest effects of the training, identified in post-hoc analyses, were observed on negative affect. Our data replicate those from the adult literature, which suggest that adolescent depression is a disorder associated with negative attention biases, although we were unable to modify attention biases in our study. We identify numerous parameters of our methodology which may explain these null training effects, and which could be addressed in future cognitive bias modification studies of adolescent depression. PMID:26539335

  13. One size does not fit all: Psychometric properties of the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) and symptomology among adolescents and young adults in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Erica; Singh, Kavita; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon; Robertson, Laura; Sherr, Lorraine; Halpern, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Poor mental health among is a major contributor to the burden of disease among adolescents. For this paper we use cross sectional survey data among a sample of 2,768 adolescent (aged 15-19) and 2,027 young adults (aged 20-24) living in Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe to calibrate the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) against the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20) and examined the performance indices of the SSQ based on various cut points for classification. The SSQ depression screening tool performed best with a cut point of five or more positive responses out of 14 questions, resulting in the following validation coefficients for adolescents and young adults respectively: AUC (0.83, 088); kappa statistic (0.64, 0.66); sensitivity (0.89, 0.95); specificity (0.94, 0.92); PPV (0.45, 0.55); NVP (0.99, 1.00). The modified SSQ cut point of five or more substantially increase the depression estimates for both age groups to align more closely with the SRQ-20 estimates. The prevalence of depression increased from 3.5% to 13.2% among adolescents and from 5.1% to 16.2% among young adults based on these revisions to the SSQ. Using a multivariate logistic regression model we isolated particular characteristics to test their association with the odds of being misclassified as non-depressed based on the conventional SSQ cut point. Findings suggest that adolescents who were orphaned (OR 1.48) or ever had sex (2.13) were at a significantly greater odds of being a false negative than their counterparts. Secondary education was significantly associated with false negative misclassification among young adults (OR 2.11). When retested using the modified cut point of five or greater, associations with misclassification disappeared. This study highlight that not all depression scales are appropriate for use among adolescents given their unique developmental stage. While using culturally-appropriate scales such as the SSQ is important, we strongly recommend modification to the cut point in

  14. Korean American Adolescent Depression and Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung; Cain, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM Korean American adolescents tend to experience more mental health problems than adolescents in other ethnic groups. METHODS The goal of this study was to examine the association between Korean American parent-adolescent relationships and adolescents’ depressive symptoms in 56 families. FINDINGS Thirty-nine percent of adolescents reported elevated depressive symptoms. Adolescents’ perceived low maternal warmth and higher intergenerational acculturation conflicts with fathers were significant predictors for adolescent depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS The findings can be used to develop a family intervention program, the aim of which would be to decrease adolescent depressive symptoms by promoting parental warmth and decreasing parent-adolescent acculturation conflicts. PMID:18429840

  15. Depressive symptomatology in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Duggal, S; Carlson, E A; Sroufe, L A; Egeland, B

    2001-01-01

    Antecedents of depressive symptomatology in childhood and adolescence were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of at-risk youth (n = 168) from families of lower socioeconomic status. Relations between family context factors, maternal depressive symptoms, and depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence were examined, with a focus on early family relationship factors rarely available for analysis in longitudinal data sets. Results suggest the possibility of etiological differences between depressive symptoms in childhood and in adolescence. Depressive symptomatology in childhood was predicted by the overall family context. Cumulative effects of maternal depressive symptomatology, early care lacking in emotional supportiveness, abuse, and family stressors were observed. Depressive symptomatology in adolescence, on the other hand, was specifically associated with maternal depression and early care lacking in emotional supportiveness. Moreover, an intriguing sex difference emerged: maternal depressive symptomatology was strongly associated with depressive symptomatology in adolescence for females, but for males supportive early care appeared more relevant. PMID:11346049

  16. Screening and managing depression in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jami F; Miller, Michelle R; Khan, Nida

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 10%–15% of adolescents will experience a major depressive episode. The risk factors associated with depression in adolescence include a family history of depression, being female, subthreshold depression, having a nonaffective disorder, negative cognitions, interpersonal conflict, low social support, and stressful life events. Despite the availability of measures to identify depressed adolescents and efficacious interventions to treat these adolescents, a large number of depressed adolescents go undetected and untreated. This review describes several screening measures that can be used to identify adolescents with elevated depression symptoms who would benefit from a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. If an adolescent is diagnosed with a depressive disorder, there are several efficacious treatment options, including pharmacotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, and interpersonal psychotherapy. The research supporting each of these approaches is outlined, and recommendations are made to help health professionals determine the appropriate course of treatment. Although existing treatments are effective for many depressed adolescents, approximately one-third of adolescents remain depressed following treatment. Continuing research is needed to enhance the efficacy of existing treatments for adolescent depression and to develop and study novel treatment approaches. PMID:24600264

  17. Depression in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dhavale, H S

    2001-01-01

    Childhood depression accounts for a substantial proportion of cases in child psychiatric clinics. Depression is more common in boys than girls in school age children and it becomes reverse during adolescents. The childhood depression can be wholly chemical, wholly due to psychological factors of a combination of both. The causes of depression can be discussed under three headings--genetic factors, biological factors and social factors. Some children display the classical symptoms of sadness, anxiety, restlessness, eating and sleeping problems while others present with physical problems like aches and pains which do not respond to treatment. Diagnosis depends on interview or questionnaire instruments to screen populations and some biological procedures to determine neuro-endocrine and other physical dysfunctions. Treatment consists of pharmacological treatment and psychological treatment. Tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin specific reuptake inhibitors and electroconvulsive therapy constitute pharmacological part of the treatment, whereas supportive, insight oriented, play, behaviour, family therapies and cognitive psychotherapy constitute psychological part. PMID:11480955

  18. A causal model of adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Brage, D; Meredith, W

    1994-07-01

    We examined how family strengths, parent-adolescent communication, self-esteem, loneliness, age, and gender interrelate, and how this interaction influences depression in adolescents. The data were collected on a written questionnaire completed by 156 adolescents who were attending public schools in four communities in the midwestern United States. We developed a causal model to explicate the relationships among the variables hypothesized to affect adolescent depression and analyzed the data using path analysis via the LISREL VII program. Results showed a good fit of the model to the data. Loneliness and self-esteem had a direct effect on adolescent depression. Self-esteem had an indirect effect on depression through loneliness. Age directly and indirectly influenced depression through loneliness. Gender was significantly related to depression through self-esteem. Family strengths indirectly affected depression through self-esteem. PMID:7932297

  19. Predictors of Depression in Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Lisa A.; Lancaster, Sandra

    2001-01-01

    Study examined factors associated with symptoms of depression in female adolescents. Specifically, the relationship between theoretically related measures-separation-individuation; interpersonal concerns; attachment style; parental representations-and symptoms of depression was investigated. The model developed explained interrelationships of…

  20. Emerging from Depression: Treatment of Adolescent Depression Using the Major Treatment Models of Adult Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Kathleen M.

    Noting that adolescents who commit suicide are often clinically depressed, this paper examines various approaches in the treatment of depression. Major treatment models of adult depression, which can be directly applied to the treatment of the depressed adolescent, are described. Major treatment models and selected research studies are reviewed in…

  1. Examining Minor and Major Depression in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Tejera, Gloria; Canino, Glorisa; Ramirez, Rafael; Chavez, Ligia; Shrout, Patrick; Bird, Hector; Bravo, Milagros; Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso; Ribera, Julio; Bauermeister, Jose

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that a large proportion of adolescents with symptoms of depression and substantial distress or impairment fail to meet the diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder (MDD). However, many of these undiagnosed adolescents may meet criteria for a residual category of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  2. [Electroconvulsive therapy in depressed adolescents].

    PubMed

    van Niel, M C; Hegeman, J M; van Megen, H J G M

    2007-08-11

    Two patients, young women aged 15 and 17, both suffering from major depression with psychotic features, were resistant to treatment with antidepressive regimen and psychotherapy. Both patients became severely suicidal and were subsequently successfully treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The second patient needed maintenance ECT once a month in order to stay in remission. Whereas ECT is a well-studied and accepted treatment option in adult psychiatry, in child psychiatry people are reluctant to even consider this option. This resistance is partly based on the possible side effects ofECT i.e. memory problems. As a result, the effect ofECT in adolescents has not yet been well studied. In 2004, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry proposed guidelines for the use of ECT in adolescents. Following these guidelines, the use ofECT in adolescents seems to be a safe treatment option, however further research to the effect of ECT in this age group is warranted. PMID:17822246

  3. The Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory Profiles of Depressed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Marion F.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated personality styles, concerns, and behaviors of depressed adolescents using Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (MAPI). Data from 332 high school students on Beck Depression Inventory and MAPI were reduced to 2 factors accounting for 65.1 percent of total variance, the first suggesting socially withdrawn, overtly recognizable…

  4. Who Expresses Depressive Affect in Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.; And Others

    Statistics suggest that the incidence of depression and suicide increase over the course of adolescence. Other research suggests that many indicators of well-being increase over the course of adolescence as well. This study investigated affective development during adolescence and examined the relationship of gender, normative developmental…

  5. Social Neuroscience of Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression is inherently multidisciplinary. Depressive disorders beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Psychopathology research has described depression's defining clinical and contextual features, and intervention research has characterized its response…

  6. The Emergence of Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.; Petersen, Anne C., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Twelve papers on the emergence and maintenance of severe clinical depression and depressive symptoms during adolescence are presented. Topics include parental influences, epidemiological data, depressive and negative affect, hormonal effects, preadolescent symptoms, sex differences, longitudinal studies with rhesus monkeys, suicidal ideation,…

  7. Listening Clearly: Alternative Treatments for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlasson, Terry D.

    2012-01-01

    For many years now, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and anti-depressant medications have been the primary treatments for adolescent depression. However, there are many youth today with mild to moderate depressive symptoms for whom these treatments are not necessary. This article briefly summarizes several alternative therapeutic approaches for…

  8. Latino Adolescents' Adjustment, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and the Mother-Adolescent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Rosalie; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Romo, Laura F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined associations between adolescent behaviors, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-adolescent relationships. Latina mothers and adolescents (111 dyads) completed questionnaires and participated in videotaped discussions. Mothers' depressive symptoms related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors and family…

  9. Neuropsychological deficits in adolescent unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Klimkeit, Ester I; Tonge, Bruce; Bradshaw, John L; Melvin, Glenn A; Gould, Kate

    2011-11-01

    Although neuropsychological deficits in adult depression are relatively well established, findings in children/adolescents have been inconsistent and thus require further investigation. The current study investigated verbal fluency (VF), cognitive speed, motor speed, and executive functions in adolescents with unipolar depression. Results indicated that adolescents with minor depression showed working memory deficits and poorer VF (letter task). Adolescents with major depression showed working memory deficits and processing speed deficits from the early stages of information processing to the later stages of motor output. Executive function deficits of set-shifting and response inhibition that are well established in adults were not found, but may reflect task differences. Thus, it appears that depression subtype or severity of symptoms may impact on neuropsychological functioning and may in part explain previous inconsistent results. PMID:21690097

  10. Adolescent Depression: Stress and Reward Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Admon, Roee; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a peak period for the onset of depression, and it is also a time marked by substantial stress as well as neural development within the brain reward circuitry. In the current review, we provide a selective overview of current animal and human research investigating the relationship among reward processes, stress, and depression. Three separate, but related, etiological models examine the differential roles that stress may play with regard to reward dysfunction and adolescent depression. First, the reward mediation model suggests that acute and chronic stress contribute to reward deficits, which in turn, potentiate depressive symptoms and/or increase the risk for depression. Second, in line with the stress generation perspective, it is plausible that premorbid reward-related dysfunction generates stress, in particular interpersonal stress, which then leads to the manifestation of depressive symptoms. Last, consistent with a diathesis-stress model, the interaction between stress and premorbid reward dysfunction may contribute to the onset of depression. Given the equifinal nature of depression, these models could shed important light on different etiological pathways during adolescence, particularly as they may relate to understanding the heterogeneity of depression. To highlight the translational potential of these insights, a hypothetical case study is provided as means of demonstrating the importance of targeting reward dysfunction in both assessment and treatment of adolescent depression. PMID:24704785

  11. Adolescent depression in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Ali, Akleema; Konings, Monique

    2006-02-01

    This study investigates depression in adolescents in Trinidad and Tobago and identifies any significant trends associated with its occurrence. A stratified random sample of 1.845 adolescent students from 24 schools was administered a questionnaire requesting demographic information and responses to the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale. In all, 14% of the sample was depressed. Depression was 2.18 times more likely to occur in females than males (17.9 % vs. 8.2 %). The peak age was 16 years with a rate of 15.9%. Both attendance at a religious institution and prayer with the family resulted in lower depression rates. Intact families had the lowest rate (11.7 %),while the reconstituted family had the highest rate (25.7 %). Individuals who had alcohol abuse in their family were 1.8 times more likely to be depressed than those without abuse. Adolescents from non-prestige schools were more likely to be depressed than those from prestige schools (p < 0.01). There were no ethnic differences in depression. The findings of this study are comparable to those of developed countries and provide guidelines for the planning and development of strategies for fighting depression in developing countries. PMID:16514507

  12. Peer Victimization, Depression, and Suicidiality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2008-01-01

    The association between specific types of peer victimization with depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents was examined. A self-report survey was completed by 2,342 high-school students. Regression analyses indicated that frequent exposure to all types of peer victimization was related to high risk of depression,…

  13. Depression and Suicide in Deaf Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, Carolyn J.; Bibby, Mary Ann

    1998-01-01

    This article shares one mother's experiences with the depression of her son and his friend who are both deaf. Findings from interviews with the two adolescents are provided, along with recommendations for educators, peers, and professionals for helping teenagers with deafness coping with depression and thoughts of suicide. (Contains references.)…

  14. Depressive Disorder in Highly Gifted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, P. Susan; Peterson, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Two case studies and clinical examples document the capacity of highly gifted adolescents to mask severe depressive disorder symptoms. Factors contributing to this masking phenomenon include shame for being incapacitated and unable to resolve their dilemma; depression's signature cognitive confusion, which disengaged their coping mechanism; and…

  15. Social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms: A latent profile analysis of adolescents in military families.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Ebony; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the relationship between context-specific social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms among adolescents in active duty military families across seven installations (three of which were in Europe) (N = 1036) using a person-centered approach and a stress process theoretical framework. Results of the exploratory latent profile analysis revealed four distinct coping profiles: Disengaged Copers, Troubled Copers, Humor-intensive Copers, and Active Copers. Multinomial logistic regressions found no relationship between military-related stressors (parental separation, frequent relocations, and parental rank) and profile membership. Analysis of variance results revealed significant and meaningful differences between the coping profiles and depressive symptomology, specifically somatic symptoms, depressive affect, positive affect, and interpersonal problems. Post-hoc analyses revealed that Active Copers, the largest profile, reported the fewest depressive symptoms. Accordingly, frequent use of diverse, active coping behaviors was associated with enhanced resilience. Discussion is provided regarding the promotion of adaptive coping behaviors within this developmental period and the context of military family life. PMID:27372508

  16. Psychosocial treatment of depression and suicidality in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Stanley, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    Depression is a common disorder among adolescents and is associated with a high risk of suicide. Suicide is the third leading cause of death among adolescents in the United States. Currently, there are only two evidence-based psychotherapies for adolescence depression: cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy. Furthermore, psychosocial interventions that specifically target suicidal behavior in adolescents are even fewer in number than treatments for depression. This article will review the psychosocial interventions for depression and suicidality in adolescents and will describe a recently developed treatment that is under study for depressed suicidal adolescents. PMID:17277714

  17. Development and Validation of a Depression Scale for Asian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Chang, W. C.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Koh, Jessie B. K.; Leong, Joyce S. F.; Kee, Carolyn H. Y.; Seah, Cheryl K. F.

    2004-01-01

    Items covering both core and culture-specific facets of depression were generated based on literature review and clinical experience. They were modified following focus group discussions with depressed adolescents and adolescents in the community. The newly constructed Asian Adolescent Depression Scale (AADS) was administered to a clinical and a…

  18. Treatment of depression in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bostic, Jeff Q; Rubin, David H; Prince, Jefferson; Schlozman, Steven

    2005-05-01

    Depression occurs in children and adolescents, although it may appear differently in younger patients. Research suggests juvenile depression may respond to psychotherapy and to pharmacologic agents, and that antidepressants remain a valuable treatment for juveniles with depression. Diagnostic considerations in juveniles with mood symptoms are discussed. A brief overview is provided of the evidence supporting psychotherapy for juveniles with depression. Controlled antidepressant trials in juveniles with depression provide some support for the use of some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and little support for atypical antidepressants, tricyclic antidepressants, or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Evidence from suicide rates over time, autopsy findings among juvenile suicides, and impacts of antidepressant prescribing trends are related to the current controversy over suicidality and antidepressant use in juvenile patients. Based on this evidence, practical guidelines for treatment of juvenile depression are provided. PMID:15920388

  19. Prevention of Depression in Childhood and Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Tamar; Tandon, S Darius

    2016-04-01

    This article discusses strategies and programs used to prevent depression in children and adolescents. It describes the rationale for depression prevention and discusses prevention approaches in schools and other settings, highlighting examples of programs that have been empirically evaluated. Prevention effects are small but significant, comparable or greater in magnitude than adolescent prevention programs for other issues, including substance use and human immunodeficiency virus. Future research should include rigorous design features, including attention control groups, allocation concealment, larger sample sizes, longer follow-up assessments, and theory-driven tests of moderation and mediation, and should test larger-scale implementation of prevention programs. PMID:26980124

  20. Pubertal Timing and Vulnerabilities to Depression in Early Adolescence: Differential Pathways to Depressive Symptoms by Sex

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    Although research implicates pubertal processes in the emergence of the sex difference in depression during adolescence, few studies have examined how cognitive and affective vulnerabilities influence the effect of pubertal timing on depressive symptoms. The current study prospectively examined whether early pubertal timing predicted increases in depressive symptoms among adolescents with more negative cognitive styles and lower emotional clarity, and whether this risk was specific to adolescent girls. In a diverse sample of 318 adolescents, early pubertal timing predicted increases in depressive symptoms among adolescent boys and girls with more negative cognitive styles and adolescent girls with poor emotional clarity. These findings suggest that earlier pubertal maturation may heighten the risk of depression for adolescents with pre-existing vulnerabilities to depression, and that early-maturing adolescent girls with lower levels of emotional clarity may be particularly vulnerable to depressive symptoms, representing one pathway through which the sex difference in depression may emerge. PMID:24439622

  1. Adolescent Motherhood and Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…

  2. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  3. Body Image Change and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Judith M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the temporal association between body image and depressive symptoms in African American, Asian American, Hispanic American, and white adolescents. Found that girls were more influenced by body image change than boys. Compared to other ethnic groups, African American girls experienced a greater increase in psychological distress as body…

  4. Universal Adolescent Depression Prevention Programs: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Teresa D.

    2013-01-01

    Although the subject of adolescent depression has gained significant attention, little is being done in the way of primary prevention. The purpose of this article is to conduct a review of the literature through the lens of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework. This review was conducted utilizing several…

  5. Treating Depression and Oppositional Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Jordan, Neil; Silva, Susan G.; Rohde, Paul; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents with depression and high levels of oppositionality often are particularly difficult to treat. Few studies, however, have examined treatment outcomes among youth with both externalizing and internalizing problems. This study examines the effect of fluoxetine, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), the combination of fluoxetine and CBT, and…

  6. Bullying, Depression, and Suicidality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin S.; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association between bullying behavior and depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents. Method: A self-report survey was completed by 9th-through 12th-grade students (n = 2342) in six New York State high schools from 2002 through 2004. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the association…

  7. Music Shifts Frontal EEG in Depressed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Martinez, Alex; Nawrocki, Thomas; Pickens, Jeffrey; Fox, Nathan A.; Schanberg, Saul

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen chronically depressed female adolescents listened to rock music for a 23-minute session. EEG was recorded and saliva samples were collected to determine the effects of the music on stress hormone cortisol levels. No differences were reported for mood state; however, cortisol levels decreased and relative right-frontal activation was…

  8. Primary care management of depression in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Haefner, Judy

    2016-06-19

    Depression is the most common mental health disorder in children and adolescents, and primary care is often the first point of contact for children and adolescents with depression. Depression impacts all areas of life, impairing academics and interactions with family and friends. The purpose of this article is to help NPs identify and treat children and adolescents presenting with depression in the primary care setting. PMID:27214067

  9. Does early adolescent sex cause depressive symptoms?

    PubMed

    Sabia, Joseph J

    2006-01-01

    A recent study by the Heritage Foundation (Rector, Johnson, & Noyes, 2003) found evidence of a positive relationship between early sexual intercourse and depressive symptoms. This finding has been used to bolster support for funding abstinence only sex education. However, promoting abstinence will only yield mental health benefits if there is a causal link between sexual intercourse and depression. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), I carefully examine the relationship between early teen sex and several measures of depression. Controlling for a wide set of individual level and family level observable characteristics, cross section estimates consistently show a significant positive relationship between early sexual activity for females and three measures of adverse mental health: self reported depression, a belief that one's life is not worth living, and serious thoughts of suicide. However, difference-in-difference estimates reflect no evidence of a significant relationship between early teen sex and depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that the positive association observed by Rector et al. (2003) can be explained by unmeasured heterogeneity. Thus, promoting abstinence among adolescents is unlikely to alleviate depressive symptoms PMID:16989034

  10. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III

    2007-01-01

    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  11. Developmentally informed pharmacotherapy for child and adolescent depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris

    2012-04-01

    This article reviews evidence-based pharmacotherapy for children and adolescents with depression. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) support the use of fluoxetine for the treatment of childhood and adolescent depression as well as escitalopram in the treatment of adolescent depression. To date, one RCT has demonstrated the effectiveness of sertraline or citalopram for the treatment of major depressive disorder in youth. Only a small number of RCTs for depression have included children, and none of these trials were adequately powered to detect differences in the efficacy of medication between children and adolescents. PMID:22537729

  12. Interpersonal Theory and Adolescents with Depression: Clinical Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Beamish, Patricia M.

    2002-01-01

    This article provides mental health counselors with information about the prevalence and course of adolescent depression, other empirically tested treatments for adolescent depression, an explanation of Interpersonal psychotherapy for adolescents (IPT-A) treatment protocol, and results of outcome studies on the effectiveness of IPT-A. Suggestions…

  13. Mental Health and Functional Outcomes of Maternal and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Frances; Lifford, Kate J.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of maternal and self-ratings of adolescent depression by investigating the extent to which these reports predicted a range of mental health and functional outcomes 4 years later. The potential influence of mother's own depressed mood on her ratings of adolescent depression and suicidal ideation on adolescent outcome…

  14. A Qualitative Study of Mexican American Adolescents and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornos, Laura B.; Mika, Virginia Seguin; Bayles, Bryan; Serrano, Alberto C.; Jimenez, Roberto L.; Villarreal, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Depressive disorders are present in a high percentage of Mexican American adolescents. Among the US Mexican American population, suicide is the fourth leading cause of death among 10- to 19-year-olds. Little research, however, has focused on Mexican American adolescents' knowledge and views about depression and seeking help for depression. Results…

  15. Cognitive Measures of Adolescent Depression: Unique or Unitary Constructs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Silva, Susan G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Tonev, Simon; Hoyle, Rick H.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Reinecke, Mark A.; Curry, John F.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of several self-report questionnaires assessing depression-relevant cognitions frequently employed in clinical research was examined in a sample of 390 adolescents (M age = 14.54; 216 girls; 74% Caucasian) with current major depressive disorder enrolled in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study. A four-factor…

  16. Depression and the Maternal Behavior of Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colletta, Nancy Donohue

    The rates of depression among a sample of 75 adolescent mothers were studied in order to investigate the relationship of environmental stress and support to depressive symptomatology and to investigate the relationship between depression and adolescents' interactions with their children. The Stress, Support, and Family Functioning Interview,…

  17. Prevention and Intervention of Depression in Asian-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieu, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…

  18. Differentiating Adolescent Self-Injury from Adolescent Depression: Possible Implications for Borderline Personality Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hsiao, Ray C.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Yaptangco, Mona; Linehan, Marsha M.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Self-inflicted injury (SII) in adolescence marks heightened risk for suicide attempts, completed suicide, and adult psychopathology. Although several studies have revealed elevated rates of depression among adolescents who self injure, no one has compared adolescent self injury with adolescent depression on biological, self-, and informant-report…

  19. Indicators of Adolescent Depression and Relationship Progression in Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg-Thoma, Sara E.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent depression may be associated with future relationship problems that have long-term consequences given the developmental importance and health benefits of forming committed unions in emerging adulthood. The authors examined associations between emotional and behavioral indicators of adolescent depression (depressive symptoms, alcohol problems, and suicidal ideation) and romantic relationship and union formation and dissolution in emerging adulthood (n = 14,146) using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Adolescent alcohol problems were associated with more romantic relationships in emerging adulthood. Emerging adults with depressive symptoms or alcohol problems in adolescence were significantly more likely to enter into a cohabiting union, and those with adolescent alcohol problems were less likely to marry. Cohabiting emerging adults with a history of adolescent depressive symptoms were less likely to marry, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with a decreased likelihood of cohabitation dissolution. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24465056

  20. Indicators of Adolescent Depression and Relationship Progression in Emerging Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sandberg-Thoma, Sara E; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent depression may be associated with future relationship problems that have long-term consequences given the developmental importance and health benefits of forming committed unions in emerging adulthood. The authors examined associations between emotional and behavioral indicators of adolescent depression (depressive symptoms, alcohol problems, and suicidal ideation) and romantic relationship and union formation and dissolution in emerging adulthood (n = 14,146) using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Adolescent alcohol problems were associated with more romantic relationships in emerging adulthood. Emerging adults with depressive symptoms or alcohol problems in adolescence were significantly more likely to enter into a cohabiting union, and those with adolescent alcohol problems were less likely to marry. Cohabiting emerging adults with a history of adolescent depressive symptoms were less likely to marry, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with a decreased likelihood of cohabitation dissolution. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24465056

  1. The Temporal Relation between Depression and Comorbid Psychopathology in Adolescents at Varied Risk for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallerani, Catherine M.; Garber, Judy; Martin, Nina C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined the temporal comorbidity of depressive disorders with anxiety, externalizing, and substance use disorders in adolescents who varied in risk for depression. Methods: Participants were 240 adolescents and their mothers who had either a history of depression (high-risk, n = 185) or were lifetime-free of psychiatric…

  2. Development of an Adolescent Depression Ontology for Analyzing Social Data.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyesil; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Song, Tae-Min; Jeon, Eunjoo; Kim, Ae Ran; Lee, Joo Yun

    2015-01-01

    Depression in adolescence is associated with significant suicidality. Therefore, it is important to detect the risk for depression and provide timely care to adolescents. This study aims to develop an ontology for collecting and analyzing social media data about adolescent depression. This ontology was developed using the 'ontology development 101'. The important terms were extracted from several clinical practice guidelines and postings on Social Network Service. We extracted 777 terms, which were categorized into 'risk factors', 'sign and symptoms', 'screening', 'diagnosis', 'treatment', and 'prevention'. An ontology developed in this study can be used as a framework to understand adolescent depression using unstructured data from social media. PMID:26262398

  3. Pharmacotherapy in depressed children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Taurines, Regina; Gerlach, Manfred; Warnke, Andreas; Thome, Johannes; Wewetzer, Christoph

    2011-09-01

    In children and adolescents, antidepressants are used in the treatment of depressive symptoms and several other psychiatric conditions. In the treatment of mild and moderate depressive symptoms, non-pharmacological approaches such as psychotherapy play a major role, a severe symptomatology may demand a combination with antidepressants. As first-choice medication for the treatment of juvenile depression, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine is recommended, due to its efficacy and approval. As second-choice antidepressants the SSRIs sertraline, escitalopram and citalopram might be used. Other antidepressants - such as tricyclic antidepressants, α(2)-adrenoceptor antagonists, selective noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) - may be alternatively used, but not as first- or second-choice medications. In the case of "off-label" use, patients and parents have to be carefully informed prior to the start of medication, after a thorough risk-benefit analysis. In the following overview we address a general framework, therapeutic strategies and the issues of antidepressant pharmacotherapy for the treatment of unipolar depression in childhood and adolescence. PMID:21905988

  4. Correlation between bullying and clinical depression in adolescent patients

    PubMed Central

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari

    2011-01-01

    A literature review of the associations between involvement in bullying and depression is presented. Many studies have demonstrated a concurrent association between involvement in bullying and depression in adolescent population samples. Not only victims but also bullies display increased risk of depression, although not all studies have confirmed this for the bullies. Retrospective studies among adults support the notion that victimization is followed by depression. Prospective follow-up studies have suggested both that victimization from bullying may be a risk factor for depression and that depression may predispose adolescents to bullying. Research among clinically referred adolescents is scarce but suggests that correlations between victimization from bullying and depression are likely to be similar in clinical and population samples. Adolescents who bully present with elevated numbers of psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric and social welfare treatment contacts. PMID:24600274

  5. Obesity and depression in adolescence and beyond: Reciprocal risks

    PubMed Central

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.; Iacono, William G.; Legrand, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obesity and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) are associated, but evidence about how they relate over time is conflicting. The goal of this study was to examine prospective associations between depression and obesity from early adolescence through early adulthood. Methods Participants were drawn from a statewide, community-based, Minnesota sample. MDD and obesity with onsets by early adolescence (by age 14), late adolescence (between 14 and 20), and early adulthood (ages 20 to 24) were assessed via structured interview (depression) and study-measured height and weight. Results Cross-sectional results indicated that depression and obesity with onsets by early adolescence were concurrently associated, but the same was not true later in development. Prospective results indicated that depression by early adolescence predicted the onset of obesity (odds ratio=3.76, confidence interval= 1.33–10.59) during late adolescence among females. Obesity that developed during late adolescence predicted the onset of depression (odds ratio=5.89, confidence interval= 2.31–15.01) during early adulthood among females. Conclusions For girls, adolescence is a high risk period for the development of this comorbidity, with the nature of the risk varying over the course of adolescence. Early adolescent-onset depression is associated with elevated risk of later onset obesity, and obesity, particularly in late adolescence, is associated with increased odds of later depression. Further investigation into the mechanisms of these effects and the reasons for the observed gender and developmental differences is needed. Prevention programs focused on early-onset cases of depression and adolescent-onset cases of obesity, particularly among females, may help in reducing risk for this form of comorbidity. PMID:24480863

  6. Depressed Adolescents and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders: Are There Differences in the Presentation of Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, David Marc; Simons, Anne D.; Yovanoff, Paul; Silva, Susan G.; Lewis, Cara C.; Murakami, Jessica L.; March, John

    2008-01-01

    Patterns and correlates of comorbidity, as well as differences in manifest depressive profiles were investigated in a sample of depressed adolescents. A sub-sample of the youth were characterized as belonging to either a "Pure" depression group, an "Internalizing" group (depression and co-occurring internalizing disorders), or an "Externalizing"…

  7. Components of Adolescent Depression in a Cross-Cultural Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Margaret

    Alaska has the highest rate in the nation of depression, alcohol and drug abuse, and adolescent suicide. The prevention of depression and suicide is complex because of many impinging variables. Data from a sample of 40 adolescents referred to a residential treatment center in Alaska revealed that a rapid change in life style of the Alaskan natives…

  8. Should Screening for Depression among Children and Adolescents Be Demedicalized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Allan V.; Wakefield, Jerome C.

    2009-01-01

    The criteria for diagnosing depressive disorders fails to place the symptoms of intense sadness in the context of major losses in life, and separating normal sadness from depressive disorder among adolescents is especially difficult. Suggested modifications to the screening of suicidal ideation among adolescents are also presented.

  9. Rest-Activity Cycles in Childhood and Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, Roseanne; Hoffmann, Robert; Emslie, Graham; Rintelman, Jeanne; Moore, Jarrette; Lewis, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To quantify circadian rhythms in rest-activity cycles in depressed children and adolescents. Method: Restactivity cycles were evaluated by actigraphy over five consecutive 24-hour periods in 100 children and adolescents, including 59 outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 41 healthy normal controls. Total activity, total…

  10. Longitudinal Course of Adolescent Depression: Neuroendocrine and Psychosocial Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Uma; Hammen, Constance L.; Poland, Russell E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The study examined whether cortisol measures are associated with the clinical course of depression in adolescents. Furthermore, the study evaluated whether the relationship between cortisol and clinical course is moderated by environmental stress and/or social support. Method: Fifty-five adolescents with depression (age range 13-18…

  11. The Roles of Sex, Gender, and Coping in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Cindy Ellen; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Froh, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of coping and masculinity in higher rates of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls, as compared to boys. A model was designed and tested through path analysis, which involved the variables of sex, gender, problem-focused coping, rumination, and distraction. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale and the Bem…

  12. Adolescent Sexual Activity: Links between Relational Context and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Lee, Joanna M.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of the relational context of adolescent sexual activity on depressive symptoms. The present study examined trajectories of depressive symptoms among 6,602 adolescents (44% male, 60% White) taken from a nationally representative study (Add Health). Sexually active youth in romantic and casual relationships were…

  13. Managing depression in childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes depression (a syndrome of low mood/irritability/lack of pleasure with associated physical and cognitive symptoms) in children and adolescents. It aims to help GPs to recognise more cases of it. It discusses why some young people do become depressed and will describe the treatments which are available, and how treatment may be implemented in the primary care setting. Current UK NICE guidelines recommend that: (i) psychological treatments should be offered as first-line treatment for moderate to severe depression and persistent mild depression; (ii) if this is not effective after four to six sessions, co-existing factors such as social stresses and family discord should be considered and addressed; (iii) an antidepressant (fluoxetine) should only be considered after four to six sessions; (iv) antidepressants should only be offered in conjunction with psychological treatment. These guidelines are not in full agreement with large randomised controlled trials that demonstrate that fluoxetine is more effective than CBT; and that show equivocal benefit of combined fluoxetine and CBT over fluoxetine alone. Part of the reason for the predominance of psychological treatments in these guidelines is the small but significant risk of suicidality with fluoxetine. PMID:26042160

  14. Identifying genetic predictors of depression risk: 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms are associated with rumination and co-rumination in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Lindsey B.; McGeary, John E.; Palmer, Rohan H. C.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite research supporting moderate heritability of depression, efforts to replicate candidate gene associations to depression have yielded inconsistent results. We tested whether Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR exhibit utility as genetic markers of depression risk, testing for replicable associations to cognitive and interpersonal endophenotypes of depression (rumination and co-rumination), and further exploring developmental and sex moderation. Method: In Study I, 228 youth (ages 8–14) of mothers with or without a history of MDD during the child's lifetime were recruited from the community. Replication tests were carried out in Study II, a sample of 87 youth with similar recruitment. Results: In Study I, the Val66Met single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was associated with rumination in adolescents, but not children, such that adolescents homozygous for the Val allele reported higher rumination levels. Further, a cumulative genetic score (CGS) (Val66Val and 5-HTTLPR) predicted higher levels of co-rumination, specifically among adolescent girls. Both genetic associations maintained significance after covarying for current depressive symptomology, and the other endophenotype. Finally, both genetic associations exhibited similar effect sizes in Study II, although results did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Results replicate a previously reported association between the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val allele and rumination in adolescents, and provide preliminary support for a CGS predictive of co-rumination in adolescent girls. The current study indicates that candidate genes may demonstrate utility as consistent genetic markers of depression risk when focused on specific phenotypes, and supports the need to explore potential differential effects of developmental stage and sex. However, given the small sample sizes and possibility of chance findings, these results should be interpreted with caution pending replication. PMID:24312122

  15. Adolescents' Perceptions of Family Connectedness, Intrinsic Religiosity, and Depressed Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Merten, Michael J.; Robinson, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 248 ninth and tenth grade students at public high schools, we examined adolescents' perceptions of family connectedness, intrinsic religiosity, and adolescents' gender in relation to depressed mood and whether intrinsic religiosity and gender moderated the association of aspects of family connectedness to adolescent depressed…

  16. Loneliness, Depression, and Epistemological Relativity in Early and Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; And Others

    Epistemological loneliness refers to the isolation adolescents may experience as the result of cognitive relativism, ushered in by the emergence of formal operational thought. To examine the relationship between cognitive relativity, epistemological loneliness, and depression in adolescence, 108 adolescents (29 seventh graders, 29 ninth graders,…

  17. Exercise for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Dopp, Richard R.; Mooney, Ann J.; Armitage, Roseanne; King, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms and decreased aerobic exercise, yet the relationship between exercise and clinical depression among adolescents requires further examination. This study assessed the feasibility of a 12-week intervention designed to increase exercise for adolescents with depressive disorders: Will a teenager with depression exercise? Methods. Participants were 13 adolescents with depression reporting low levels of aerobic exercise. They completed a 12-week intervention (15 supervised exercise sessions and 21 independent sessions). Exercise was measured through the aerobic exercise Questionnaire, actigraphy, and heart-rate monitoring. Depression was measured with the Children's Depression Rating Scale, Revised, and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report. Results. All participants who started the intervention completed the protocol, attending all supervised exercise sessions. Actigraphy verified 81% adherence to the protocol's independent sessions. Analysis of secondary outcomes showed a significant increase in exercise levels and a significant decrease in depression severity. Initially, ten participants were overweight or obese, and three were healthy weight. After 12 weeks of exercise, the number of participants in the healthy-weight category doubled. Conclusions. Adolescents suffering from depression can complete a rigorous protocol requiring structured increases in aerobic exercise. Participants showed significant increases in exercise, and significant decreases in depressive symptoms. PMID:22888415

  18. Genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms in Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent depression is common and has become a major public health concern in China, yet little research has examined the etiology of depression in Chinese adolescents. In the present study, genetic and environmental influences on Chinese adolescent depressive symptoms were investigated in 1,181 twin pairs residing in Beijing, China (ages 11-19 years). Child- and parent-versions of the children's depression inventory were used to measure adolescents' depressive symptoms. For self-reports, genetic factors, shared environmental factors, and non-shared environmental factors accounted for 50, 5, and 45 % of the variation in depressive symptoms, respectively; for parent-reports, genetic factors, shared environmental factors, and non-shared environmental factors accounted for 51, 18, and 31 % of the variation, respectively. These estimates are generally consistent with previous findings in Western adolescents, supporting the cross-cultural generalizability of etiological model of adolescent depression. Neither qualitative nor quantitative sex differences were found in the etiological model. Future studies are needed to investigate how genes and environments work together (gene-environment interaction, gene-environment correlation) to influence depression in Chinese adolescents. PMID:24311200

  19. Suicide and depression in childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, B. D.; Golombek, H.

    1974-01-01

    Suicide and depression in children and adolescents are reviewed. The true incidence of suicide in the pediatric population is not known because of under-reporting; suicide is, however, considered as a leading cause of death in this age group. Suicide in young children often reflects an immature comprehension of the state of death, combined with a wish to alter an intolerable living situation or to punish individuals significant in his environment. At age 14 the incidence of suicide increases markedly. These acts of self-destruction reflect a developmental process that follows puberty. During this period the youth experiences an impoverishment of values and controls, as well as an intensification of emotions and needs, resulting in extreme disequilibrium. In the late adolescent, as in the adult, suicide occurs commonly in response to real or imagined loss. Specific guidelines are set out for the assessment and management of the depressed and suicidal youth. Community and medical measures of a prophylactic nature are recommended in the belief that the rising incidence of suicide can be halted through an intensification of efforts on the part of the medical profession. PMID:4599484

  20. Sex Differences in the Expression of Depression in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Pierre; Joly, Elisabeth

    1988-01-01

    Examination of 249 Quebec adolescents on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) revealed in 67.8 percent of the cases that depressed males show a symptomatology characterized by irritability, work inhibition, social withdrawal and sleep disturbance. Depressed females present symptoms characterized by body image distortion, weight loss, loss of…

  1. Family Heritage and Depression Guides: Family and Peer Views Influence Adolescent Attitudes about Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Agnor, Chrystal

    2007-01-01

    While adolescents tend to under-use professional mental health services for depression, they informally seek health-related information from parents and peers. In this study, we interviewed 15 adolescents to examine how the views and behaviours of others influence teens' decisions about seeking care for depression. Using a grounded theory…

  2. [Possibilities of group psychological correction of depressiveness among adolescents].

    PubMed

    Markeviciūte, Aurelija; Gostautas, Antanas; Pilkauskiene, Ina

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of psychological correction in groups to decrease depressiveness among senior schoolchildren. Data of 87 (53 girls and 34 boys) depressive schoolchildren, who participated in the sessions for developing communication skills were analyzed. Depressiveness was assessed by the Depression scale of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory for Adolescents. Communication skills training method consisted of ten structured hourly sessions. The effectiveness of psychological correction was assessed by the Abbreviated self-awareness scale and the Depression scale of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory for Adolescents. The results showed decrease in depressiveness and self-worth both among boys and girls (p<0.005). Among boys decrease in average present self-worth scores was noted, while among girls decrease in average present self-worth and average self-worth deviation. Depressiveness as well as self-worth decreased better among boys and girls, which had attended most sessions (p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS. Psychological correction enabled adolescents to decrease the manifestation of depressiveness, and to increase their self-worth: they became more active, communicable, optimistic and in a better mood. Depressiveness among boys decreased better among adolescents, who attended most sessions. Depressiveness decreased better among girls irrespective of their involvement in the sessions, and among actively involved boys. Self-awareness among boys and girls increased better among adolescents, who attended most sessions. Self-awareness increased better among girls irrespective of their involvement in the sessions, and among actively involved boys. PMID:12878825

  3. Cultural identity, explanatory style, and depression in Navajo adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rieckmann, Traci R; Wadsworth, Martha E; Deyhle, Donna

    2004-11-01

    This study investigated the interrelationships among cultural identity, explanatory style, and depression in Navajo adolescents. A total of 332 (197 female, 135 male) Navajo adolescents completed 7 self-report measures. These data were used to create, via structural equation modeling, a series of factor models and full structural models. Analyses indicated that current factor structures for explanatory style and depression are adequate for use with Navajo adolescents. Increased control and predictability and limited duration of stressful encounters were both predictive of decreased symptoms of depression. Higher levels of Navajo cultural identity had a modest effect in terms of reducing depression. Other factors, such as perceived discrimination and urban/reservation domicile, are important to study to provide an increased understanding of depression among Navajo adolescents. PMID:15554799

  4. Self-Concept, Early Childhood Depression and School Retention as Predictors of Adolescent Depression in Urban Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles-Pina, Rebecca A.; Defrance, Emily; Cox, Deborah L.

    2008-01-01

    The role that early school retention, early childhood depression and self-concept had on levels of depression in 191 urban Hispanic adolescents was investigated. This exploratory study used a purposeful sample to study relationships and thus causality cannot be inferred. Statistically significant gender differences were found for depression with…

  5. Nocturnal indicators of increased cardiovascular risk in depressed adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Waloszek, Joanna M; Woods, Michael J; Byrne, Michelle L; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Murray, Greg; Raniti, Monika; Allen, Nicholas B; Trinder, John

    2016-04-01

    Depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adults, and recent literature suggests preclinical signs of cardiovascular risk are also present in depressed adolescents. No study has examined the effect of clinical depression on cardiovascular factors during sleep. This study examined the relationship between clinical depression and nocturnal indicators of cardiovascular risk in depressed adolescent girls from the general community (13-18 years old; 11 clinically depressed, eight healthy control). Continuous beat-to-beat finger arterial blood pressure and heart rate were monitored via Portapres and electrocardiogram, respectively. Cardiovascular data were averaged over each hour for the first 6 h of sleep, as well as in 2-min epochs of stable sleep that were then averaged within sleep stages. Data were also averaged across 2-min epochs of pre-sleep wakefulness and the first 5 min of continuous non-rapid eye movement sleep to investigate the blood pressure dipping response over the sleep-onset period. Compared with controls, depressed adolescents displayed a similar but significantly elevated blood pressure profile across sleep. Depressed adolescents had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressures across the entire night (P < 0.01), as well as during all sleep stages (P < 0.001). Depressed adolescents also had higher blood pressure across the sleep-onset period, but the groups did not differ in the rate of decline across the period. Higher blood pressure during sleep in depressed adolescent females suggests that depression has a significant association with cardiovascular functioning during sleep in adolescent females, which may increase risk for future cardiovascular pathology. PMID:26543013

  6. Development and persistence of depressive symptoms in adolescents with CHD.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Goossens, Eva; Apers, Silke; Oris, Leen; Moons, Philip

    2016-08-01

    Patients with CHD are vulnerable to psychiatric disorders. The present study compared baseline depressive symptoms between adolescents with CHD and community adolescents, and also assessed the development and persistence of depressive symptoms in patients. We examined the implications of persistent depressive symptoms towards quality of life and patient-reported health. In total, 296 adolescents with CHD participated in a four-wave longitudinal study, with 9-month intervals, and completed measures of depressive symptoms - Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) - at time points one to four and of quality of life - linear analogue scale (LAS) - and patient-reported health - LAS and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory - at T (time) 4. Information about diagnosis, disease complexity, and previous heart surgery was collected from medical records. At T1, 278 patients were matched 1:1 with community adolescents, based on sex and age. The findings of this study indicate that patients scored significantly lower on depressive symptoms compared with community adolescents. Depressive symptoms in the total patient sample were stable over time and were unrelated to disease complexity. Based on conventional cut-off scores of the CES-D, substantial individual differences existed in the extent to which depressive symptoms persisted over time: 12.2% of the patients reported elevated depressive symptoms at minimally three out of the four time points. Especially physical functioning, cardiac symptoms, and patient-reported health at T4 were predicted by persistent depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the level of depressive symptoms at T4. Our findings indicate that those involved in the care of adolescents with CHD should remain vigilant to persistent depressive symptoms and arrange timely referral to mental healthcare services. PMID:27365113

  7. The Involvement of Genes in Adolescent Depression: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Liangwei; Yao, Shuqiao

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the roles of genetic factors in the development of depression in adolescents and young adults. However, there are few systematic reviews that update our understanding of adolescent depression with the biological findings identifying the roles of gene expression and/or polymorphism(s). This review systematically summarized the findings that clearly identified the contribution of a gene to the risk of depression in adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 years old and young adults between the ages of 20 and 25 years old. Data were obtained through searching PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. A total of 47 studies on early adolescence and three studies on young adults were included in the current review. Most articles studied genes in the serotonergic system (n = 26), dopaminergic system (n = 3), and the Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) gene (n = 12). 92.3% of studies (24/26) identified positive associations of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with depressive illness or depressive symptoms. 83.3% of studies (10/12) found positive association between BDNF Val66Met genotype and adolescent depressive symptoms. More studies should be conducted on the 18 genes reported in a few studies to clarify their roles in the risk for adolescent depression. PMID:26733829

  8. Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety and Depression in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; King, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of heightened vulnerability for the onset of internalizing psychopathology. Characterizing developmental patterns of symptom stability, progression, and co-occurrence is important in order to identify adolescents most at risk for persistent problems. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms and four classes of anxiety symptoms (separation anxiety, social phobia, GAD, and physical anxiety) across early adolescence, prospective associations of depression and anxiety trajectories with one another, and variation in trajectories by gender. A diverse sample of early adolescents (N=1065) was assessed at three time points across a one-year period. All classes of anxiety symptoms declined across the study period and depressive symptoms remained stable. In between-individual analysis, adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms experienced less decline over time in symptoms of physical, social, and separation anxiety. Consistent associations were observed between depression and anxiety symptom trajectories within-individuals over time, such that adolescents who experienced a higher level of a specific symptom type than would be expected given their overall symptom trajectory were more likely to experience a later deflection from their average trajectory in other symptoms. Within-individual deflections in physical, social, and GAD symptoms predicted later deflections in depressive symptoms, and deflections in depressive symptoms predicted later deflections in separation anxiety and GAD symptoms. Females had higher levels of symptoms than males, but no evidence was found for variation in symptom trajectories or their associations with one another by gender or by age. PMID:24996791

  9. Interpersonal factors associated with depression in adolescents: are these consistent with theories underpinning interpersonal psychotherapy?

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Gabrielle; Spence, Susan H; Donovan, Caroline L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether depressed adolescents differed from non-depressed adolescents in terms of constructs consistent with those that are proposed to underpin interpersonal psychotherapy. In particular, it was hypothesized that compared with non-depressed adolescents, depressed adolescents would demonstrate a greater number of negative life events associated with interpersonal loss and major life transitions, a more insecure attachment style and poorer communication skills, interpersonal relationships and social support. Thirty-one clinically diagnosed depressed adolescents were matched with 31 non-depressed adolescents on age, gender and socio-economic status. The 62 participants were aged between 12 and 19 years and comprised 18 male and 44 female adolescents. On a self-report questionnaire, depressed adolescents reported a greater number of negative interpersonal life events, a less secure attachment style and scored higher on all insecure attachment styles compared with the non-depressed adolescents. In addition, depressed adolescents demonstrated lower levels of social skill (on both adolescent and parent report), a poorer quality of relationship with parents (on both adolescent and parent report) and lower social competence (adolescent report only). Parents of depressed adolescents also reported more negative parental attitudes and behaviours towards their adolescent compared with parents of non-depressed adolescents. Thus, the results of this study are consistent with the constructs underlying interpersonal psychotherapy and suggest their usefulness in the assessment, conceptualization and treatment of adolescent depression. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23801523

  10. Maternal Depressive Symptoms During Childhood and Risky Adolescent Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Maeve E.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Wild, T. Cameron; Hoglund, Wendy L.G.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maternal depression is a risk factor for adolescent depression; however, the effect of childhood exposure to maternal depression on adolescent engagement in health risk behaviors (eg, substance use, delinquency) is unclear. METHODS: We examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms (child’s age 4–15) and engagement in health risk behaviors at age 16 to 17 by using data from 2910 mother–youth pairs in a nationally representative prospective Canadian cohort. Maternal depressive trajectories were estimated through finite mixture modeling, and multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and engagement in various health risk behaviors (linear regression) and age of debut of various behaviors (Cox regression). RESULTS: Five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms were found: recurrent maternal symptoms, midchildhood exposure to maternal symptoms, adolescent exposure to maternal symptoms, mild maternal symptoms, and low symptoms. Adolescents exposed to maternal depressive symptoms during middle childhood were more likely to use common substances (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana), engage in violent and nonviolent delinquent behavior, and have an earlier debut ages of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hallucinogen use. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, particularly in middle childhood, is associated with greater and earlier engagement in health risk behaviors. PMID:25535266

  11. Depression in children and adolescents. When "moodiness" merits special attention.

    PubMed

    Shugart, Margaret A; Lopez, Elda M

    2002-09-01

    Depression does occur in children and adolescents and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, identification and treatment of depression are essential. Referral to a mental health clinician, preferably a child and adolescent psychiatrist, is important for suicide evaluation, psychotherapy, and management of complicated medication treatment regimens. The SSRIs are most often used in youngsters because of their favorable side effect profiles and their efficacy as documented in some double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. PMID:12360657

  12. The relation of weight change to depressive symptoms in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    FELTON, JULIA; COLE, DAVID A.; TILGHMAN-OSBORNE, CARLOS; MAXWELL, MELISSA A.

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders lists weight gain or weight loss as a symptom of depression at all ages, but no study of adolescent depression has examined its relation to actual (not just self-reported) weight change. In the current longitudinal study, 215 adolescents provided physical and self-report measures of change in weight, body mass, and body fat over a 4-month time interval. They also completed psychological measures of body dissatisfaction, problematic eating attitudes, and depressive symptoms. The relation between physical measures of weight change and depressive symptoms varied with age. These relations were explained by individual differences in body dissatisfaction, eating attitudes, and behaviors, leading to questions about weight change as a symptom of depression in adolescence. PMID:20102656

  13. The role of peer rejection in adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Platt, Belinda; Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2013-09-01

    Adolescence is a period of major risk for depression, which is associated with negative personal, social, and educational outcomes. Yet, in comparison to adult models of depression, very little is known about the specific psychosocial stressors that contribute to adolescent depression, and whether these can be targeted by interventions. In this review, we consider the role of peer rejection. First, we present a comprehensive review of studies using innovative experimental paradigms to understand the role of peer rejection in adolescent depression. We show how reciprocal relationships between peer rejection and depressive symptoms across adolescence powerfully shape and maintain maladaptive trajectories. Second, we consider how cognitive biases and their neurobiological substrates may explain why some adolescents are more vulnerable to the effects of, and perhaps exposure to, peer rejection compared to others. Finally, we draw attention to emerging cognitive and functional magnetic resonance imaging-based neurofeedback training, which by modifying aspects of information processing may promote more adaptive responses to peer rejection. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying adolescent depression may not only alleviate symptoms during a period of substantial developmental challenges, but may also reduce the burden of the disorder across the lifespan. PMID:23596129

  14. Depression and suicidality in the adolescents in Osijek, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Degmecić, Dunja; Filaković, Pavo

    2008-03-01

    Mood disorders in children and adolescents and their treatments have received increasing attention and clinical investigation over the last few decades. The core features of mood disorders are essentially the same across the life span. Developmental level, however, appears to influence the expression of certain mood symptoms with greater frequency than other within the framework of depressive disorders. Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death in children between the ages of 10 and 15 years and the third leading cause of death among the adolescents and young adults 15-25 years. In this article the authors presents cross-sectional study done on the sample of 286 adolescents. Adolescents fulfilled self-rating scale Beck Depression Inventory for the screening of the depression and suicidality. In our sample 3.85% of the adolescents fulfilled the criteria for severe depressive episode and the 5.94% of the adolescents fulfilled criteria for moderate depressive episode. Also on the item of suicidality (Item 9) 0.7% of the adolescents had very high score, while 8.4 had significant score for the suicidal risk. Our results are in concordance with similar epidemiological studies done world while. PMID:18496908

  15. Romantic and Sexual Activities, Parent-Adolescent Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Joanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Starr, Lisa R.; Miller, Melissa Ramsay; Yoneda, Athena; Hershenberg, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Building on evidence that romantic experiences are associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence, we examined their bidirectional association, as well as the role of sexual activity and parent-adolescent stress in their association. Data were collected from 71 early adolescent girls (M age 13.45 years; SD = 0.68) and their primary caregiver…

  16. Perceived Parental Monitoring, Adolescent Disclosure, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamza, Chloe A.; Willoughby, Teena

    2011-01-01

    Parental monitoring has long been stressed as an important parenting practice in reducing adolescents' susceptibility to depressive symptoms. Reviews have revealed, however, that measures of monitoring have been confounded with parental knowledge, and that the role of adolescent disclosure has been neglected. In the present study, adolescents (N =…

  17. School Climate, Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms among Asian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…

  18. Cyberbullying Victimisation in Adolescence: Relationships with Loneliness and Depressive Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit; Heiman, Tali; Eden, Sigal

    2012-01-01

    Cyberbullying is deliberate, aggressive activity carried out through digital means. Cybervictimisation in adolescence may be related to negative psychosocial variables such as loneliness and depressive mood. The purpose of the present study, the first of its kind in Israel, was to examine the association between adolescent cybervictimisation and…

  19. Factors Predicting Rural Chinese Adolescents' Anxieties, Fears and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Zhang, Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study examined age, gender, birth order and self-perceived level of achievement and popularity, as predictors of anxieties, fears and depression in Chinese adolescents. A sample of 398 rural Chinese adolescents participated in this study. Gender, academic performance and popularity have been found to make the greatest contributions to the…

  20. Adolescent Depression and Time Spent with Parents and Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desha, Laura N.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Ziviani, Jenny M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines adolescent depressive symptoms and the quantity and quality of time spent by adolescents with their parents and siblings. We use measures of the quality of relationships with parents and siblings as proxy indicators for the quality of time spent with these social partners. The study emphasizes the salience of parent…

  1. Is There an Epidemic of Child or Adolescent Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, E. Jane; Erkanli, Alaattin; Angold, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Background: Both the professional and the general media have recently published concerns about an "epidemic" of child and adolescent depression. Reasons for this concern include (1) increases in antidepressant prescriptions, (2) retrospective recall by successive birth cohorts of adults, (3) rising adolescent suicide rates until 1990, and (4)…

  2. Substance Use and the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Vitiello, Benedetto; Ryan, Neal; Birmaher, Boris; Mayes, Taryn; Onorato, Matthew; Zelazny, Jamie; Brent, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Despite the known association between substance use disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD) among adolescents, little is known regarding substance use among adolescents with MDD. Method: Youths with MDD who had not improved after an adequate selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor trial (N = 334) were enrolled in the Treatment of…

  3. Perfectionism, Rumination, Worry, and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Gordon L.; Coulter, Lisa-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.; Nepon, Taryn

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined trait perfectionism, automatic perfectionistic thoughts, rumination, worry, and depressive symptoms in early adolescents. A group of 81 elementary school students in Grades 7 and 8 completed 5 questionnaires: the Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory, the Children's Response Styles…

  4. Peer Contagion and Adolescent Depression: The Role of Failure Anticipation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the mechanisms underlying peer contagion of depressive symptoms in adolescence. Five annual measurements of data were gathered from a large (N = 842) community-based network of adolescents (M = 14.3 years at first measurement). Results showed that, after controlling for selection and deselection of friends on the…

  5. Factors Associated with Deliberate Self-Harm Behaviour among Depressed Adolescent Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuisku, Virpi; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Ruuttu, Titta; Marttunen, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether depressed adolescent outpatients with deliberate self-harm behaviour (DSH) differed from non-suicidal depressed adolescent outpatients in depressive and anxiety symptoms, alcohol use, perceived social support and number of negative life-events. Depressed adolescent outpatients (n = 155) aged 13-19 years were interviewed…

  6. Examining Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory as a Risk Factor for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawal, Adhip; Rice, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying risk factors for adolescent depression is an important research aim. Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a feature of adolescent depression and a candidate cognitive risk factor for future depression. However, no study has ascertained whether OGM predicts the onset of adolescent depressive disorder. OGM was…

  7. Links among Attachment-Related Cognitions and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen R.; Burwell, Rebecca A.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the role of self-evaluative and support-seeking processes as mediators of the relation between maternal representations and depressive symptoms in a sample of 168 young adolescents. Representations of mother as unavailable, unresponsive, and unsupportive were associated with depressive symptoms measured by semistructured interview and…

  8. The Association between Family Factors and Depressive Disorders in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the familial factors (parental psychopathology and attachment to parents) in depressed adolescents. Another aim was to compare level of psychosocial impairment, use of mental health services, suicidal ideation and attempt, and the clinical features of depression (e.g., severity and age of onset) among…

  9. Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Do Learning Difficulties Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether learning difficulties play a role in depressive symptoms, 658 Finnish adolescents were asked to complete scales for depression three times during the transition to post-comprehensive education. They also reported on their learning difficulties and feelings of inadequacy as a student. The results showed that learning difficulties…

  10. Depression, Meaninglessness, and Substance Abuse in "Normal" and Hospitalized Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnier, Richard T.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships among depression, meaninglessness, suicide ideation, and substance abuse among 48 high school students and 113 adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Correlational analyses indicated that high school students who viewed themselves negatively, were depressed, or who had found little meaning in their lives were more likely to…

  11. Depressive Symptoms Among Adolescent Students in Greek High Schools

    PubMed Central

    Zacharopoulou, Vasiliki; Tsironi, Maria; Zyga, Sofia; Gialama, Fotini; Zacharopoulou, Georgia; Grammatikopoulos, Ilias; Avraam, Nikolaos; Prezerakos, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms in adolescence have been a subject of considerable controversy in terms of their nature, severity and identification. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the presence of depressive symptoms in Greek adolescent high school students and to explore the relationship between depressive symptoms and sociodemographic characteristics. For that purpose, a cross-sectional study design was conducted in two public schools in Megalopolis, Greece, from April 2012 to July 2012, using a self-administered questionnaire based on DSM-IV. The target population involved 222 high school students and the response rate was 74.75%. Data was analyzed using trend χ2 test, student’s t-test and bivariate analysis. The analysis of survey data was conducted using the SPSS (19.0). Main findings demonstrate that 3.6% had symptoms of major depressive episode. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were significantly higher in girls, while statistically significant relationships were found between students’ physical (P<0.01) and mental health (P<0.008), students’ experiences in school (P<0.02), students’ experiences with friends (P<0.008) and the frequency of depressive symptoms. Overall, the study results reveal that depressive symptoms can occur in adolescents. Early diagnosis, as well as the need for psychological care at adolescence is necessary for the prevention of major depressive disorders. PMID:26973952

  12. Depressive Symptoms Among Adolescent Students in Greek High Schools.

    PubMed

    Zacharopoulou, Vasiliki; Tsironi, Maria; Zyga, Sofia; Gialama, Fotini; Zacharopoulou, Georgia; Grammatikopoulos, Ilias; Avraam, Nikolaos; Prezerakos, Panagiotis

    2014-11-01

    Depressive symptoms in adolescence have been a subject of considerable controversy in terms of their nature, severity and identification. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the presence of depressive symptoms in Greek adolescent high school students and to explore the relationship between depressive symptoms and sociodemographic characteristics. For that purpose, a cross-sectional study design was conducted in two public schools in Megalopolis, Greece, from April 2012 to July 2012, using a self-administered questionnaire based on DSM-IV. The target population involved 222 high school students and the response rate was 74.75%. Data was analyzed using trend χ(2) test, student's t-test and bivariate analysis. The analysis of survey data was conducted using the SPSS (19.0). Main findings demonstrate that 3.6% had symptoms of major depressive episode. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were significantly higher in girls, while statistically significant relationships were found between students' physical (P<0.01) and mental health (P<0.008), students' experiences in school (P<0.02), students' experiences with friends (P<0.008) and the frequency of depressive symptoms. Overall, the study results reveal that depressive symptoms can occur in adolescents. Early diagnosis, as well as the need for psychological care at adolescence is necessary for the prevention of major depressive disorders. PMID:26973952

  13. Dynamics of Affective Experience and Behavior in Depressed Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Leve, Craig; Davis, Betsy; Shortt, Joann Wu; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2009-01-01

    Background: Depression is often characterized as a disorder of affect regulation. However, research focused on delineating the key dimensions of affective experience (other than valence) that are abnormal in depressive disorder has been scarce, especially in child and adolescent samples. As definitions of affect regulation center around processes…

  14. Adolescents with Major Depression Demonstrate Increased Amygdala Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tony T.; Simmons, Alan N.; Matthews, Scott C.; Tapert, Susan F.; Frank, Guido K.; Max, Jeffrey E.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Lansing, Amy E.; Brown, Gregory; Strigo, Irina A.; Wu, Jing; Paulus, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional neuroimaging studies have led to a significantly deeper understanding of the underlying neural correlates and the development of several mature models of depression in adults. In contrast, our current understanding of the underlying neural substrates of adolescent depression is very limited. Although numerous studies have…

  15. Trait Rumination, Depression, and Executive Functions in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Clara A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2014-01-01

    Although deficits in executive functions have been linked with both depression and rumination in adulthood, the nature of the relationship between these constructs is not well understood and remains understudied in adolescence. The present study examined the relationship of rumination and depression to deficits in executive functions in early adolescence, a critical developmental period for the emergence of depression and rumination and the development of executive functions. Participants were 486 early adolescents (52.7% female; 47.1% African American, 48.8% Caucasian; 4.2% Biracial/Multiracial/Other; M age = 12.88 years; SD = .62) and their mothers, recruited through local schools. Measures included (a) a semi-structured diagnostic interview of the mother and adolescent, (b) youth self-report forms assessing depressive symptoms and trait rumination, (c) mother-report forms assessing demographic information, and (d) behavioral tests of executive function (sustained, selective and divided attention, attentional set shifting, and working memory). Gender moderated rumination-set shifting associations, such that rumination predicted better set shifting in boys only. The current level of depressive symptoms moderated rumination-sustained attention associations, such that rumination predicted better sustained attention in those with low levels of depressive symptoms and worse sustained attention in those with high levels of depressive symptoms. Rumination did not predict performance on other measures of executive functions. Likewise, depressive symptoms and diagnosis were not associated with executive functions. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24839132

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Murray, David M.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To assess prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms in young adolescents and examine associations between symptoms and sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Methods: Cross-sectional survey data from 3621 seventh grade students from 16 middle schools were analyzed. Results: Elevated depressive symptoms were reported by 40% of girls…

  17. Trait rumination, depression, and executive functions in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Clara A; Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2015-01-01

    Although deficits in executive functions have been linked with both depression and rumination in adulthood, the nature of the relationship between these constructs is not well understood and remains understudied in adolescence. The present study examined the relationship of rumination and depression to deficits in executive functions in early adolescence, a critical developmental period for the emergence of depression and rumination and the development of executive functions. Participants were 486 early adolescents (52.7% female; 47.1% African American, 48.8% Caucasian; 4.2% Biracial/Multiracial/Other; M age = 12.88 years; SD = .62) and their mothers, recruited through local schools. Measures included (a) a semi-structured diagnostic interview of the mother and adolescent, (b) youth self-report forms assessing depressive symptoms and trait rumination, (c) mother-report forms assessing demographic information, and (d) behavioral tests of executive function (sustained, selective and divided attention, attentional set shifting, and working memory). Gender moderated rumination-set shifting associations, such that rumination predicted better set shifting in boys only. The current level of depressive symptoms moderated rumination-sustained attention associations, such that rumination predicted better sustained attention in those with low levels of depressive symptoms and worse sustained attention in those with high levels of depressive symptoms. Rumination did not predict performance on other measures of executive functions. Likewise, depressive symptoms and diagnosis were not associated with executive functions. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24839132

  18. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

  19. Sex Differences in Adolescent Depression: Stress Exposure and Reactivity Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Mermelstein, Robin; Roesch, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Stress exposure and reactivity models were examined as explanations for why girls exhibit greater levels of depressive symptoms than boys. In a multiwave, longitudinal design, adolescents' depressive symptoms, alcohol usage, and occurrence of stressors were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months later (N=538; 54.5% female; ages 13-18, average…

  20. Suicidal behavior in adolescents with comorbid depression and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Ganz, D; Sher, L

    2009-06-01

    Depression, alcohol abuse and suicidality each continue to threaten adolescent populations throughout the world. The comorbidity between these diseases has been found to be up to 73% with consistent positive correlations between adolescent drinking, depression and suicidality. Alcohol abuse, depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents have also been found to have biochemical and genetic correlates. This article explores the contributing and causative factors and directional models underlying such prevalent comorbidities. Alcohol use is shown to be both a distal and proximal cause of suicide attempts in adolescent populations. Individuals with both alcoholism and depression who attempt or complete suicide often present with significantly high levels of aggression and impulsivity. These factors may be caused or nuanced by poor or underdeveloped coping skills as well as other comorbid psychiatric conditions. Such behaviors, alone or in comorbidity, may be a consequence of childhood abuse, social pressures, low self-esteem and/or delinquency- all of which may be particularly salient among adolescent populations. Such adolescent stressors are implicated as the cause for the self-medication model. Some studies suggest that depression encourages alcohol use as self-medication and then leads to suicidality, while others imply that the initial alcohol consumption is responsible for increasing depressive and suicidal symptoms in adolescents. This article discusses the social stigma associated with alcoholism, depression and suicidality, and how that may serve to enhance these disorders in adolescent populations. Many directional models are presented based on past research and as suggestions for future research. There is a lot that can be done by clinicians, legal and educational professionals and society at large that may help to prevent and treat such problems. PMID:19461576

  1. Neighbourhood Factors and Depression among Adolescents in Four Caribbean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Roger C.; Halliday, Sharon; Morris, Amrie; Clarke, Nelson; Wilson, Rosemarie N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Past research suggests that perceived neighbourhood conditions may influence adolescents' emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of perceived neighbourhood conditions with depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of perceived neighbourhood conditions with levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of the academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Neighbourhood Characteristics Questionnaire along with the BDI-II. Social cohesion, attachment to the neighbourhood, neighbourhood quality, neighbourhood crime, and neighbourhood disorder scales were created by summing the relevant subscales of the Neighbourhood Characteristics Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of perceived neighbourhood conditions to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yr). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. Overall, Jamaican adolescents perceived their neighbourhoods in a more positive manner than those in the Bahamas, St. Vincent and St. Kitts and Nevis. Results of a series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses suggested that a different pattern of neighbourhood factors for each island were associated with depressive symptoms. However, neighbourhood factors were more highly associated with depressive symptoms for Jamaican students than for students in the other three islands. Conclusions

  2. [Drug treatment of depression in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Grøholt, Berit

    2011-11-15

    Antidepressants may increase suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents with depression, and should be used with great care. The article provides an overview of research that may guide the clinician when treating depression in young people. No medication should be given without a thorough evaluation of diagnoses and psychosocial problems. Psychoeducation and psychotherapy should be tried before medication is started. Fluoxetine is the first choice for depression. If it is not effective, a switch to another SSRI may prove effective. SSRIs are found to be more efficacious in adolescents than in children. PMID:22085951

  3. Executive Attention Impairment in Adolescents With Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sommerfeldt, Sasha L; Cullen, Kathryn R; Han, Georges; Fryza, Brandon J; Houri, Alaa K; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Neural network models that guide neuropsychological assessment practices are increasingly used to explicate depression, though a paucity of work has focused on regulatory systems that are under development in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsystems of attention related to executive functioning including alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks, as well as sustained attention with varying working memory load, in a sample of depressed and well adolescents. Neuropsychological functioning in 99 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 63 adolescent healthy controls (M = 16.6 years old) was assessed on the Attention Network Test (ANT) and the Continuous Performance Test, Identical Pairs. Adolescents with MDD, particularly those who were not medicated, were slower to process conflict (slower reaction time on the Executive Attention scale of the ANT) compared to controls, particularly for those who were not undergoing psychopharmacological treatment. Tentative evidence also suggests that within the MDD group, orienting performance was more impaired in those with a history of comorbid substance use disorder, and alerting was more impaired in those with a history of a suicide attempt. Adolescents with depression showed impaired executive attention, although cognitive performance varied across subgroups of patients. These findings highlight the importance of examining neurocognitive correlates associated with features of depression and suggest an avenue for future research to help guide the development of interventions. PMID:26566871

  4. Executive Attention Impairment in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfeldt, Sasha L.; Cullen, Kathryn R.; Han, Georges; Fryza, Brandon J.; Houri, Alaa K.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neural network models that guide neuropsychological assessment practices are increasingly used to explicate depression, though a paucity of work has focused on regulatory systems that are under development in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsystems of attention related to executive functioning including alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks, as well as sustained attention with varying working memory load, in a sample of depressed and well adolescents. Method Neuropsychological functioning in 99 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 63 adolescent healthy controls (M = 16.6 years old) was assessed on the Attention Network Task (ANT) and the Continuous Performance Test, Identical Pairs (CPT). Results Adolescents with MDD, particularly those who were not medicated, were slower to process conflict (slower reaction time on the executive attention scale of the ANT) compared to controls, particularly for those who were not undergoing psychopharmacological treatment. Tentative evidence also suggests that within the MDD group, orienting performance was more impaired in those with a history of comorbid substance use disorder, and alerting was more impaired in those with a history of a suicide attempt. Conclusions Adolescents with depression showed impaired executive attention, although cognitive performance varied across subgroups of patients. These findings highlight the importance of examining neurocognitive correlates associated with features of depression and suggest an avenue for future research to help guide the development of interventions. PMID:26566871

  5. [A psychosocial perspective of depressive symptoms in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Aragão, Thais Araújo; Coutinho, Maria da Penha de Lima; de Araújo, Ludgleydson Fernandes; Castanha, Alessandra Ramos

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the social representations (SR) of depression among adolescents on high school level. Two hundred and twenty-two (222) adolescents of both sexes (53% male and 47% female), aged between 14 and 19 years and attending the first, second and third grades of high school participated in the study. The instruments used were: the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for selecting the sample, using 17 as a cut point. The adolescents who achieved this score were invited to participate in the second part of this study consisting of semi-structured interviews and application of Free Association Tests with the stimulus words: depression, depressed person and me. It was verified that the adolescents anchored their SR of depression as synonym for pain, grief, misfortune, hatred, death, discouragement, anxiety, solitude and tears. The SR elaborated by the social actors of this study revealed a similarity with the conception/description, as described in psychiatry. The purpose of this study besides helping to understand the suffering provoked by depressive symptoms is to contribute to a better quality of life of these adolescents. PMID:19197415

  6. Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Status during the Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters (TASA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Stanley, Barbara; Bukstein, Oscar; Kennard, Betsy D.; Compton, Scott; Coffey, Barbara; Cwik, Mary F.; Posner, Kelly; Wagner, Ann; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Capasso, Lisa; Mayes, Taryn; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake; Barnett, Shannon; Zelazny, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the course of depression during the treatment of adolescents with depression who had recently attempted suicide. Method: Adolescents (N = 124), ages 12 to 18 years, with a 90-day history of suicide attempt, a current diagnosis of depressive disorder (96.0% had major depressive disorder), and a Children's Depression Rating…

  7. Social Problem-Solving among Adolescents Treated for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire – Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19775677

  8. Prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Cheong, Siew Man; Mahadir Naidu, Balkish; Kaur, Gurpreet; Manickam, Mala A; Mat Noor, Malisa; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Depression among adolescents has been recognized as a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the Malaysia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 were analyzed with additional data from the validated DASS21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress) questionnaire. The study revealed that 17.7% of respondents had depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis further showed that feeling lonely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.99; 95% CI = 2.57-3.47), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.63-2.44), using drugs (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.21-2.82), and being bullied (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.60-1.99) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Lack of parental supervision, alcohol use, and tobacco use were also significant risk factors. Addressing depressive symptoms among adolescents may have implications for managing their risks of being bullied and substance use. This study also highlights the need to further investigate depressive symptoms among adolescents of Indian ethnicity. PMID:25070697

  9. Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

  10. Childhood psychological maltreatment subtypes and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Paul, Elise; Eckenrode, John

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to understand how subtypes and the timing of psychological maltreatment contribute to adolescent depressive symptoms at age 14. The sample included 638 youth from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). At age 12, youth reported experiences of psychological maltreatment (degradation, isolating, and terrorizing), physical abuse (endangerment and physical injury), and sexual abuse that occurred before and during elementary school/last year. Multivariable regression models were conducted separately for females and males at each of the two time periods and accounted for demographics, primary caregiver depressive symptoms, other maltreatment subtypes, and youth-reported age 12 depressive symptoms. For girls, caregiver degradation was the only maltreatment subtype that contributed unique variance to depressive symptoms. Degradation before elementary school and chronic degradation had a stronger impact on depression symptoms. Only caregiver isolating behaviors during elementary school/last year and chronic isolation predicted depressive symptoms in boys. These results suggest that childhood psychological maltreatment is multi-dimensional and is implicated in the etiology of adolescent depressive symptoms. Future prevention efforts should consider parental psychological maltreatment in reducing risk for adolescent depression. PMID:26105164

  11. Characteristics, correlates, and outcomes of childhood and adolescent depressive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Uma; Chen, Li-Ann

    2009-01-01

    Depressive illness beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Therefore, understanding the disorder during this developmental stage is critical for determining its etiology and course, as well as for deveiopinq effective intervention straieqies. This paper summarizes current knoviedqe reqardinq the etiology, phenomenoiogy, correlates, natural course, and consequences of unipolar depression in children and adolescents. Using adult depression as a framevork, the unique aspects of childhood and adolescence are considered in order to better understand depression within a developmental context. The data suggest that the clinical presentation, correlates, and natural course of depression are remarkably similar across the lifespan. There are, however, important developmental differences. Specifically, the familial and psychological context in which depression develops in youngsters is associated with variability in the frequency and nature of depressive symptoms and comorbid conditions among children and adolescents. Maturational differences have also been identified in the neurobiological correlates of depression. These developmental differences may be associated with the observed variability in clinical response to treatment and longitudinal course. Characterization of the developmental differences will be helpful in developing more specific and effective interventions for youngsters, thereby allowing them to reach their full potential as adults. PMID:19432387

  12. Comorbidity between depression and disordered eating in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Santos, Melissa; Richards, C Steven; Bleckley, M Kathryn

    2007-12-01

    Depression is one of the most common mental health disorders seen in adolescence. Low self-esteem, lack of social support and poor body image have been found to be risk factors for depression. However, these risk factors have not adequately explained why adolescent female rates of depressive episodes rise to almost twice that of males. This study had three purposes. The first is to identify the prevalence and comorbidity of depressive and disordered eating symptoms in a sample of high school students. The second is to examine predictors of depressive and disordered eating symptoms. Finally, a model predicting depressive symptoms is examined. Significant depressive and disordered eating symptomatology and a high level of comorbidity were observed in this sample. Predictors of depressive and disordered eating symptoms were similar for both genders. Finally, a model predicting depressive symptoms, via body image factors, was found to be supported in both boys and girls. The results of this study suggest that males and females are more similar than different, regarding predictors of depressive symptoms and disordered eating symptoms. PMID:17950932

  13. Depression and AIDS Preventive Self-efficacy Among Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Effectively reducing adolescents' risky sexual behaviors has been an urgent need since the HIV/AIDS infections among young people has been acknowledged as a priority. Self-efficacy has been considered playing an essential role in behavioral changes, and depressed individuals may demonstrate lower self-efficacy. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to gain insights into self-reported depression among 16-18 years-old Taiwanese adolescents as well as to explore psychosocial predictors of AIDS preventive self-efficacy. A convenience sample of 734 adolescents from southern Taiwan was recruited, and several reliable and valid questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, odds ratio, independent t-test, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were utilized to analyze data. Results showed that the differences in self-reported depression and in the AIDS preventive self-efficacy varied by gender, substance use, and having sexual experience. Furthermore, depression was a significant predictor of AIDS preventive self-efficacy while controlling the covariates. This study suggests that gender and mental health status such as depression may play significant roles in AIDS preventive self-efficacy. Nurses and health care providers should take the influence of mental health into consideration when designing AIDS preventive interventions for male and female Taiwanese adolescents. The provided information may also enhance psychiatric nurses' capability to provide care and to enhance the prevention of HIV infection for adolescents. PMID:26804507

  14. Treating depression in children and adolescents: what options now?

    PubMed

    Varley, Christopher K

    2006-01-01

    There have been significant developments in the understanding of depression in children and adolescents in the past few years, including an increased recognition that significant depressive illness occurs in this patient group. Pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments are used to manage depression in children and adolescents, and there is evidence from randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of benefit for both approaches. However, not all medication trials have been positive. In addition, there have been increasing concerns about specific safety issues related to the use of medications to treat depression, with an overall finding of mood-related adverse effects, including suicide attempts, in 4% of active drug versus 2% of placebo recipients in controlled trials involving children and adolescents. This has resulted in regulatory actions in a number of countries that have ranged from the declaration of contraindication for most antidepressants (in Great Britain), to relegation of antidepressants to a second-line intervention (in New Zealand) to a Black Box warning (in the US). It can be concluded that best practice combines treatment with both medication and psychotherapy, and that important safety issues must be monitored carefully when children and adolescents are treated for depression. On balance, there appears to be evidence of the benefit for antidepressant medications in children and adolescents, which outweigh safety concerns. PMID:16396520

  15. Functional connectivity of negative emotional processing in adolescent depression

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Tiffany C.; Yang, Guang; Wu, Jing; Cassey, Pete; Brown, Scott D.; Hoang, Napoleon; Chan, Melanie; Connolly, Colm G.; Blom, Eva Henje; Duncan, Larissa G.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Paulus, Martin P.; Max, Jeffrey E.; Patel, Ronak; Simmons, Alan N.; Yang, Tony T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and its connected circuitry have been heavily implicated in emotional functioning in adolescent-onset major depressive disorder (MDD). While several recent studies have examined sgACC functional connectivity (FC) in depressed youth at rest, no studies to date have investigated sgACC FC in adolescent depression during negative emotional processing. METHODS Nineteen medication-naïve adolescents with MDD and 19 matched healthy controls (HCL) performed an implicit fear facial affect recognition task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We defined seeds in bilateral sgACC and assessed FC using the psychophysiological interaction method. We also applied cognitive behavioral modeling to estimate group differences in perceptual sensitivity in this task. Finally, we correlated connectivity strength with clinical data and perceptual sensitivity. RESULTS Depressed adolescents showed increased sgACC-amygdala FC and decreased sgACC-fusiform gyrus, sgACC-precuneus, sgACC-insula, and sgACC-middle frontal gyrus FC compared to HCL (p<0.05, corrected). Among the MDD, sgACC-precuneus FC negatively correlated with depression severity (p<0.05, corrected). Lastly, MDD adolescents exhibited poorer perceptual sensitivity in the task than HCL, and individual differences in perceptual sensitivity significantly correlated with sgACC FC and depression scores (p<0.05, corrected). LIMITATIONS Subjects were clinically homogenous, possibly limiting generalizability of the findings. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent depression is associated with biased processing of negative stimuli that may be driven by sgACC dysregulation and may possibly lead to an imbalance among intrinsic functional brain networks. This work also establishes the use of combining neuroimaging and cognitive behavioral modeling methods to investigate cognitive and neural differences between psychiatric and healthy populations. PMID:24268546

  16. Developmental trajectories of anxiety and depression in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Katie A; King, Kevin

    2015-02-01

    Adolescence is a period of heightened vulnerability for the onset of internalizing psychopathology. Characterizing developmental patterns of symptom stability, progression, and co-occurrence is important in order to identify adolescents most at risk for persistent problems. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms and four classes of anxiety symptoms (GAD, physical symptoms, separation anxiety, and social anxiety) across early adolescence, prospective associations of depression and anxiety trajectories with one another, and variation in trajectories by gender. A diverse sample of early adolescents (N = 1,065) was assessed at three time points across a one-year period. All classes of anxiety symptoms declined across the study period and depressive symptoms remained stable. In between-individual analysis, adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms experienced less decline over time in symptoms of physical, social, and separation anxiety. Consistent associations were observed between depression and anxiety symptom trajectories within-individuals over time, such that adolescents who experienced a higher level of a specific symptom type than would be expected given their overall symptom trajectory were more likely to experience a later deflection from their average trajectory in other symptoms. Within-individual deflections in GAD, physical, and social symptoms predicted later deflections in depressive symptoms, and deflections in depressive symptoms predicted later deflections in GAD and separation anxiety symptoms. Females had higher levels of symptoms than males, but no evidence was found for variation in symptom trajectories or their associations with one another by gender or by age. PMID:24996791

  17. Collaborative Care for Adolescents With Depression in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Laura P.; Ludman, Evette; McCauley, Elizabeth; Lindenbaum, Jeff; Larison, Cindy; Zhou, Chuan; Clarke, Greg; Brent, David; Katon, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Up to 20%of adolescents experience an episode of major depression by age 18 years yet few receive evidence-based treatments for their depression. OBJECTIVE To determine whether a collaborative care intervention for adolescents with depression improves depressive outcomes compared with usual care. DESIGN Randomized trial with blinded outcome assessment conducted between April 2010 and April 2013. SETTING Nine primary care clinics in the Group Health system in Washington State. PARTICIPANTS Adolescents (aged 13–17 years) who screened positive for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item [PHQ-9] score ≥10) on 2 occasions or who screened positive and met criteria for major depression, spoke English, and had telephone access were recruited. Exclusions included alcohol/drug misuse, suicidal plan or recent attempt, bipolar disorder, developmental delay, and seeing a psychiatrist. INTERVENTIONS Twelve-month collaborative care intervention including an initial in-person engagement session and regular follow-up by master’s-level clinicians. Usual care control youth received depression screening results and could access mental health services through Group Health. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was change in depressive symptoms on a modified version of the Child Depression Rating Scale–Revised (CDRS-R; score range, 14–94) from baseline to 12 months. Secondary outcomes included change in Columbia Impairment Scale score (CIS), depression response (≥50% decrease on the CDRS-R), and remission (PHQ-9 score <5). RESULTS Intervention youth (n = 50), compared with those randomized to receive usual care (n = 51), had greater decreases in CDRS-R scores such that by 12 months intervention youth had a mean score of 27.5 (95%CI, 23.8–31.1) compared with 34.6 (95%CI, 30.6–38.6) in control youth (overall intervention effect: F2,747.3 = 7.24, P < .001). Both intervention and control youth experienced improvement on the CIS with no significant

  18. A Study of the Predictive Validity of the Children's Depression Inventory for Major Depression Disorder in Puerto Rican Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Medina, Carmen L.; Bernal, Guillermo; Rossello, Jeannette; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the predictive validity of the Children's Depression Inventory items for major depression disorder (MDD) in an outpatient clinic sample of Puerto Rican adolescents. The sample consisted of 130 adolescents, 13 to 18 years old. The five most frequent symptoms of the Children's Depression Inventory that best predict the…

  19. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p < .05). In contrast to previous research on Caribbean parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the

  20. Testing the temporal relationship between maternal and adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ruth C; Clark, Shaunna L; Dahne, Jennifer; Stratton, Kelcey J; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2015-01-01

    Transactional models have been used to explain the relationship between maternal depression and child behavioral problems; however, few studies have examined transactional models for maternal depression and adolescent depression and anxiety. Using an autoregressive cross-lagged analysis, we examined the longitudinal association between maternal and adolescent depression to determine the extent to which maternal depression influences adolescent depression and anxiety, and vice versa, over the course of a 4-year period. Participants were a community sample of 277 mother-adolescent dyads with offspring 10 to 14 years of age at the 1st year used in the analyses (43.7% female; 35% African American, 2.9% Hispanic/Latino). Depressive symptoms were assessed using maternal self-report (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale; Radloff, 1977), and adolescent depression and anxiety were assessed by self-report (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale; Chorpita, Yim, Moffitt, Umemoto, & Francis, 2000). The final model, χ(2)(14) = 23.74, p = .05 (TLI = .97, CFI = .98, RMSEA = .05), indicated that maternal depression was significantly associated with adolescent depression 2 years later. Of interest, adolescent depression did not significantly predict maternal depression, and the association between maternal and adolescent depression was not moderated by gender, age, or ethnicity. The association between maternal depression and adolescent anxiety was weaker than that observed for adolescent depression. Results suggest that the transaction model of maternal depression may not extend to adolescent depression and anxiety. Furthermore, maternal depression can have an enduring effect on adolescent depression, and continued research and clinical monitoring over extended periods is warranted. PMID:24702257

  1. Social determinants of adolescent depression: an examination of racial differences.

    PubMed

    Respress, Brandon N; Morris, Diana L; Gary, Faye A; Lewin, Linda C; Francis, Shelley A

    2013-07-01

    Conventional behavior theories that assert adolescent risk behaviors are determined by peer and parental relationships are being challenged as research begins to consider broader socioenvironmental factors. This study, using data from the Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (Add Health), Wave II, Public Use Data, and the Social Determinants of Adolescent Risk Behaviors (SDOARB) framework, examines relationships among socioeconomic status (SES), academic performance, perceived peer prejudice, and perceived teacher discrimination as predictors of depressive symptoms among high school adolescents. Overall, the study found that GPA was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms across all three racial groups (Black, White, and Other Minority). Teacher discrimination predicted depressive symptoms among White and Other minority adolescents, but not Black adolescents. These findings suggest the need for interventions within schools for both students and teachers around racial differences in perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. Failure to address overt and covert subtleties of discrimination and prejudice within schools and policies which affect these interpersonal dynamics may have a significant impact on the overall mental wellbeing of adolescents. PMID:23875556

  2. Prevention of Depression in At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Judy; Clarke, Gregory N; Robin Weersing, V; Beardslee, William R.; Brent, David A.; Gladstone, Tracy R. G.; DeBar, Lynn L.; Lynch, Frances L.; D’Angelo, Eugene; Hollon, Steven D.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Iyengar, Satish

    2009-01-01

    Context Adolescent offspring of depressed parents are at markedly increased risk of developing depressive disorders. Although some smaller targeted prevention trials have found that depression risk can be reduced, these results have yet to be replicated and extended to large-scale, at-risk populations in different settings. Objective To determine the effects of a group cognitive behavioral (CB) prevention program compared with usual care in preventing the onset of depression. Design, Setting, and Participants A multicenter randomized controlled trial conducted in 4 US cities in which 316 adolescent (aged 13–17 years) offspring of parents with current or prior depressive disorders were recruited from August 2003 through February 2006. Adolescents had a past history of depression, current elevated but sub-diagnostic depressive symptoms, or both. Assessments were conducted at baseline, after the 8-week intervention, and after the 6-month continuation phase. Intervention Adolescents were randomly assigned to the CB prevention program consisting of 8 weekly, 90-minute group sessions followed by 6 monthly continuation sessions or assigned to receive usual care alone. Main Outcome Measure Rate and hazard ratio (HR) of a probable or definite depressive episode (ie, depressive symptom rating score of ≥4) for at least 2 weeks as diagnosed by clinical interviewers. Results Through the postcontinuation session follow-up, the rate and HR of incident depressive episodes were lower for those in the CB prevention program than for those in usual care (21.4% vs 32.7%; HR, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40–0.98). Adolescents in the CB prevention program also showed significantly greater improvement in self-reported depressive symptoms than those in usual care (coefficient,−1.1; z = −2.2; P = .03). Current parental depression at baseline moderated intervention effects (HR, 5.98; 95% CI, 2.29–15.58; P = .001). Among adolescents whose parents were not depressed at

  3. Adolescent Depression: Stressful Interpersonal Contexts and Risk for Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Hammen, Constance

    2009-08-01

    High rates of diagnosable depression in adolescence, especially among young women, present challenging clinical and research issues. Depression not only portends current maladjustment but may also signal risk for recurrent or chronic depression and its associated impairment. Because depression is most often a response to stressful events and circumstances, it is important to understand the stress context itself. Individuals with depression histories are known to contribute to the occurrence of interpersonal and other stressors at a high rate, and for young women particularly, the occurrence of interpersonal stressors and conditions in turn predicts recurrences of depression, in a vicious cycle. Interpersonal dysfunction in early adolescence predicts the likelihood of continuing maladaptive functioning in peer, family, romantic, and parenting roles. The transmission of depression from one generation to the next involves not only heritable factors but also the likelihood that depressed youth become caught in life contexts of marital and parenting discord that portend dysfunction for their offspring and continuing depression for themselves. PMID:20161119

  4. Does Personality Predict Depression and Use of an Internet-Based Intervention for Depression among Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Vangberg, Hans Christian B.; Lillevoll, Kjersti R.; Waterloo, Knut; Eisemann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background. Focus upon depression and prevention of its occurrence among adolescents is increasing. Novel ways of dealing with this serious problem have become available especially by means of internet-based prevention and treatment programs of depression and anxiety. The use of Internet-based intervention programs among adolescents has revealed some difficulties in implementation that need to be further elucidated. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between personality and adolescent depression and the characteristics of users of an Internet-based intervention program. Method. The Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI), the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE) and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) have been administered to a sample (n = 1234) of Norwegian senior high-school students. Results. Multiple regression analysis revealed associations between depression and gender, and several JTCI domains and facets. In line with previous findings in adults, high Harm Avoidance and low Self-Directedness emerged as the strongest predictors of adolescent depressive symptoms. Further, in logistic regression analysis with the covariates JTCI, GSE and CES-D, the only significant variables predicting use/non-use were the CES-D and the temperament domain Reward Dependence. Conclusion. The results in this study revealed level of depressive symptoms as the strongest predictor of the use of the Internet based intervention and that personality might provide useful information about the users. PMID:22928095

  5. Ethnicity and adolescent depression: the case of Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Chen, I G; Roberts, R E; Aday, L A

    1998-10-01

    This paper is concerned with whether an instrument developed in the U.S. may identify lower rates of major depression among Chinese, because its content may not cover culture-specific symptoms of depression. Data were obtained from approximately 952 Anglo and Chinese American middle school students, aged 10 to 17 years, in the Teen Life Changes Survey conducted in the spring of 1994. We investigated the hypothesis that rates of missing values would be higher, the mean score for total depression items would be lower, and internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the DSM Scale for Depression (DSD) would be lower for Chinese American adolescents compared with Anglo American adolescents. We also examined whether response functions on the DSD item would differ for these two groups. Only the latter was observed. Five of 26 items in the DSD exhibited differential functioning between Anglo and Chinese students. The results suggest that the lower prevalence of depression was not due to the ethnocentric character of the instrument in the Chinese sample. Stronger immunity to depression or other cultural factors may contribute to the lower rate of depression for the Chinese American adolescents in the Teen Life Changes study. PMID:9788639

  6. Relapse and Recurrence Prevention in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Anne D.; Rohde, Paul; Kennard, Betsy D.; Robins, Michele

    2005-01-01

    Relapse and recurrence in adolescent depression are important problems. Much less is known about relapse prevention compared to the acute treatment of depression in adolescents. Based on previous research, theoretical predictions, and clinical experience, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) protocol was designed to determine…

  7. Service Use and Costs of Care for Depressed Adolescents: Who Uses and Who Pays?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domino, Marisa Elena; Burns, Barbara J.; Mario, Jeremy; Reinecke, Mark A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Weller, Elizabeth B.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; May, Diane E.; Feeny, Norah C.; Robins, Michele; Hallin, Mary J.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is common in adolescence and is associated with significant morbidity and family burden. Little is known about service use by depressed adolescents. The purpose of this article is to report the patterns of services use and costs for participants in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study sample during the 3…

  8. The Relation between Eating- and Weight-Related Disturbances and Depression in Adolescence: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawana, Jennine S.; Morgan, Ashley S.; Nguyen, Hien; Craig, Stephanie G.

    2010-01-01

    Depression often emerges during adolescence and persists into adulthood. Thus, it is critical to study risk factors that contribute to the development of depression in adolescence. One set of risk factors that has been recently studied in adolescent depression research is eating- and weight-related disturbances (EWRDs). EWRDs encompass negative…

  9. Processes of Change in CBT of Adolescent Depression: Review and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Christian A.; Auerbach, Randy P.; DeRubeis, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of research supports the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression. The mechanisms through which CBT exerts its beneficial effects on adolescent patients suffering from depression, however, remain unclear. The current article reviews the CBT for adolescent depression process literature. Our review…

  10. The Effectiveness of a School-Based Adolescent Depression Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Karen L.; Kastelic, Elizabeth A.; Hess, Sally G.; Cox, Todd S.; Gonzales, Lizza C.; Mink, Sallie P.; DePaulo, J. Raymond, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to decrease the suicide rate in adolescents, many interventions have focused on school-based suicide prevention programs. Alternatively, depression education in schools might be effective in decreasing the morbidity, mortality, and stigma associated with adolescent depression. The Adolescent Depression Awareness Program (ADAP)…

  11. Can Developmental Changes in Inhibition and Peer Relationships Explain Why Depressive Symptoms Increase in Early Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Katharine Ann; Dix, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Why do depressive symptoms increase during adolescence? Because inhibition and poor peer relationships predict adolescents' depressive symptoms concurrently, we hypothesized that adolescents who cope with the stresses of this period by becoming increasingly inhibited may experience increasing depressive symptoms both directly and due to increased…

  12. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Depression in Urban Adolescent Females: Implications for Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor

    Despite an increased interest in adolescent depression from theoretical and clinical perspectives, there have been few attempts to investigate depression in non-clinical populations. To identify demographic, sociocultural, and behavioral factors related to adolescent depression in a non-clinical population of urban adolescent females, a racially…

  13. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents (IPT-A): A Case Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Elisabeth Baerg; Mufson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the treatment of a depressed adolescent (15 years of age) boy using Interpersonal Psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). IPT-A is an empirically supported psychosocial intervention for adolescents suffering from a depressive episode. It is delivered as an individual psychotherapy with a minimum of parental…

  14. Impact of Comorbid Anxiety in an Effectiveness Study of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of comorbid anxiety on treatment for adolescent depression in an effectiveness study of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). Method: A randomized clinical trial was conducted from April 1, 1999, through July 31, 2002. Sixty-three depressed adolescents, ages 12 to 18, received either IPT-A…

  15. Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training: An Indicated Preventive Intervention for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Background: Indicated interventions for adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms may help decrease rates of depression. The current study reports on the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group indicated preventive intervention. Methods: Forty-one adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were…

  16. Anxiety, stress, depression, and psychosocial functioning of Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamlesh; Junnarkar, Mohita; Sharma, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifetime prevalence of depression and anxiety increases from 1% of the population under age 12 years to ~17%-25% of the population by the end of adolescence. The greatest increase in new cases occurs between 15-18 years. Indian empirical studies have reported a prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the range between 14.4% and 31.7%; thus, affecting psychosocial functioning. Aims: The objectives of the current study were to (i) examine the psychometric properties of the DASS and SDQ on Indian adolescents, (ii) explore the role of socio- demographic variablesand (iii) examine if there was any difference between school going and school dropouts. Methodology: Data from 1812 students, aged 12-19 years was collected with mean age = 15.67 years (SD =1.41 years). The participants were administered a booklet containing demographic questionnaire and psychometric scales such as DASS-21 (Henry & Crawford, 2005; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1999) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). Statistical Analysis: Structure validation, correlational analysis and multivariate analysis. Results and Conclusions: The results of validation indicated that English and Hindi version of 3 factor model of DASS and 2 factor model of SDQ was an acceptable model fit. It was noted that early adolescents were high on prosocial behaviour whereas late adolescents were high on difficulties score. Females were higher than males on prosocial behaviour. Adolescents residing in rural areas differed from their urban counterparts on prosocial behaviour and anxiety. Government school going adolescents differed from private school going adolescents on prosocial behaviour, stress and anxiety. Negative perception of relationship with family affected adolescents difficulties score, depression and stress. Similarly, negative perception of self-concept leads to higher difficulties score and lower prosocial behaviour score. The school going adolescents differed from non-school going

  17. Using Music Techniques To Treat Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, C. Bret; Robinson, Beth; Bradley, Loretta J.; Davis, Kenneth

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a school-based therapy program using music for teenagers (N=19) who demonstrated depressive symptoms. Pre- and post-testing indicated a significant decrease in depressive symptoms. Offers recommendations for further research. (Author/MKA)

  18. Parental marital discord and treatment response in depressed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Meredith M; Reinecke, Mark A; Silva, Susan G; March, John S

    2011-04-01

    Evidence suggests that parental marital discord contributes to the development of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children and adolescents. Few studies, however, have examined the association between parental marital discord and youth's response to treatment. The present study examined the impact of interparental discord on treatment response in a randomized control trial of adolescents with major depression enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Participants were 260 adolescents from two-parent households randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or placebo (PBO). Logistic regressions revealed that parental marital discord interacted with youth gender and co-morbid oppositionality symptoms to predict group differences in treatment response. PMID:20957515

  19. Concurrent Trajectories of Change in Adolescent and Maternal Depressive Symptoms in the TORDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Curby, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Depression has a heightened prevalence in adolescence, with approximately 15 % of adolescents experiencing a major depressive episode by age 18. Depression in adolescence also poses a risk for future distress and impairment. Despite treatment advances, many adolescents relapse after initial remission. Family context may be an important factor in the developmental trajectory of adolescent depression, and thus in enhancing treatment. This study examined concurrent change over time in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the context of the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study. Participants were 334 adolescents (mean age: 16; SD: 1.6; 70 % female, 84 % Caucasian), and their mothers (n = 241). All adolescents were clinically depressed when they entered the study and had received previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Adolescents received acute treatment for 12 weeks and additional treatment for 12 more weeks. Adolescent depression and suicidal ideation were assessed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks, while maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks. Latent basis growth curve analyses showed a significant correlation over 72 weeks between trajectories of maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms, supporting the hypothesis of concurrent patterns of change in these variables. The trajectories were correlated more strongly in a subsample that included only dyads in which mothers reported at least one depressive symptom at baseline. Results did not show a correlation between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms change in tandem, and that treatment for adolescent depression can benefit the wider family system. Notably, most mothers in this sample had subclinical depressive symptoms. Future research might explore these trajectories in dyads with more severely depressed mothers

  20. Coping with the Stress of Parental Depression II: Adolescent and Parent Reports of Coping and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Langrock, Adela M.; Keller, Gary; Merchant, Mary Jane; Benson, Molly A.; Reeslund, Kristen; Champion, Jennifer E.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined associations between adolescents' self-reports and parents' reports of adolescents' exposure to family stress, coping, and symptoms of anxiety/depression and aggression in a sample of 78 adolescent offspring of depressed parents. Significant cross-informant correlations were found between adolescents' reports of family stress,…

  1. [Vulnerability to depression in children and adolescents: update and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Michel, G; Mouren-Siméoni, M-C

    2002-01-01

    Depression in children and adolescents is associated with poor psychosocial functioning, high psychiatric comorbidity, risk of recurrent episodes or onset of bipolar disorder. These findings emphasize the importance of early identification of children and adolescents having elevated risk for future depression and further development, evaluation and greater availability of prevention strategies. Our review aims an update about depressive vulnerability in children and adolescents in the perspective of better identification of at-risk populations and targeting of prevention programs. Psychopathology, in particular anxiety and disruptive disorders are well identified risk-factors for later depression. Subclinical depressive symptomatology, also termed "demoralization", also identifies high-risk populations, likely to become incident cases of depression. It is still unclear whether this condition is prodromal depression, a specific clinical entity or the expression of biological and/or cognitive vulnerability. Familial risk for depressive disorders involves both genetic and psychosocial factors. Marital discord, poor communication and dysfunctional parenting practices are often present in families with affective disorders and can be implicated in increased depressive vulnerability in the offspring. Research on individual vulnerability in children and adolescents has focused on temperamental and cognitive characteristics. Temperament traits describe individual differences in reactivity and behavior. High emotionality, defined as the tendency to become upset easily and intensely has been associated with an increased risk for subsequent major depression. However, as the majority of high scorers will not become depressive cases, emotionality should not be the only criterion for selection of at-risk populations. Cognitive style including poor self esteem, low social competence and negative attributions are also associated with increased likelihood of depressive symptoms, but

  2. Depression and the social developmental context of adolescence.

    PubMed

    Aseltine, R H; Gore, S; Colten, M E

    1994-08-01

    This article examines the interrelations of personal and social factors in fostering longitudinal patterns of depressive symptoms, using 3 waves of data from high school students in the Boston area. Previously depressed and nondepressed youths differed markedly in their emotional responsiveness to family and friend relations. Chronically depressed youths were unresponsive to family problems, but were highly reactive to peer relations. Among previously asymptomatic youths, family relations exerted greater effects on depressed mood than relations with peers. Further analyses suggest a process through which chronic family turmoil shapes long-term mental health while also intensifying the distancing from family and investment in peer relationships that typically occurs in adolescence. Findings illustrate the importance of modeling transactions between personal and environmental factors in research on adolescent mental health and development. PMID:7932062

  3. The relations among abuse, depression, and adolescents' autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca J; Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Glisky, Elizabeth; McCloskey, Laura A

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the relations among early and recent experiences with abuse, depression, and adolescents' autobiographical memory in a longitudinal study of family violence. Participants' (N = 134) exposure to violence was documented when they were 6 to 12 years old and again when they were 12 to 18 years old. The second assessment included measures of depression and autobiographical memory for childhood experiences. Memory problems were more consistently related to current circumstances than childhood abuse history. For instance, depressive symptoms were associated with increased rates of "overgeneral" childhood memories. Recent exposure to family violence predicted more overgeneral memories, shorter memories, and lower rates of negative memories. The patterns suggest that adolescents currently stressed by depression or family violence might strategically avoid the details of past experiences to regulate affect. PMID:15901224

  4. Social skills and depression in adolescent substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Van Hasselt, V B; Null, J A; Kempton, T; Bukstein, O G

    1993-01-01

    The present study provided an assessment of social skills and depression in adolescent substance abusers hospitalized in an inpatient psychiatric setting. Level of social skill was evaluated using the Adolescent Assertion Expression Scale and the Loneliness Scale. Depression and related problems were examined through administration of the Beck Depression Inventory. Beck Hopelessness Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Comparisons with normative values and clinical cut-offs (by gender) indicated that female adolescent substance abusers were less submissive and more aggressive than normative counterparts; male substance abusers exhibited less assertiveness. In addition, mild to moderate levels of depression were evident in both female and male substance abusers. Further, results of correlational analyses revealed several significant relationships between measures of social skills and depression. Results are discussed in terms of: (a) the need for finer grained analyses of social functioning in adolescent substance abusers, (b) the potential value of skills intervention for a subgroup of these individuals, and (c) the need for longitudinal data to more clearly explicate patterns and sequencing of social (mal)adjustment, affective disorder, and onset of substance abuse in this population. PMID:8465682

  5. Internet addiction, adolescent depression, and the mediating role of life events: finding from a sample of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linsheng; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Zhihua; Sun, Yehuan; Wu, Hongyan; Ye, Dongqing

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of life events in the relation between Internet addiction and depression using an adolescent sample in China. A total of 3507 urban adolescent students were asked to complete the questionnaires including Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, and demographic characteristics. Path analyses demonstrated that life events fully mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression. Specificity for the mediating role of life events was demonstrated in comparison to alternative competing mediation models. The findings support our hypothesis that the effect of Internet addiction on adolescent depression is mediated by the life events. Further research is required to test the temporal relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression and explore mechanisms underlying the pathways leading to adolescent depression. PMID:25178955

  6. Achieving adolescent adherence to treatment of major depression

    PubMed Central

    Staton, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    When treatments are ordered for adolescent major depression, or for other adolescent medical illnesses, adherence and clinical outcomes are likely to be unsatisfactory, unless 4 basic principles of the medical treatment of adolescent illness are implemented. These comprise providing effective patient and parent/caregiver education, establishing effective patient and caregiver therapeutic alliances, providing effective treatment, and managing other factors associated with treatment adherence as indicated. The goals of treatment are to achieve the earliest possible response and remission. Failure to treat adolescent major depression successfully has potentially serious consequences, including worsened adherence, long-term morbidity, and suicide attempt. Accordingly, prescribed treatment must be aggressively managed. Doses of an antidepressant medication should be increased as rapidly as can be tolerated, preferably every 1–2 weeks, until full remission is achieved or such dosing is limited by the emergence of unacceptable adverse effects. A full range of medication treatment options must be employed if necessary. Treatment adherence, occurrence of problematic adverse effects, clinical progress, and safety must be systematically monitored. Adolescents with major depression must be assessed for risk of harm to self or others. When this risk appears significant, likelihood of successful outcomes will be enhanced by use of treatment plans that comprehensively address factors associated with treatment nonadherence. Abbreviated and comprehensive plans for the treatment of potentially fatal adolescent illnesses are outlined in this review. PMID:24600263

  7. Therapist Strategies for Building Involvement in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungbluth, Nathaniel J.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between 9 therapist behaviors and client involvement in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Analyses included 42 adolescents who met criteria for a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or adjustment disorder with depressed mood) and who were…

  8. Risk Factors Linking Maternal Depressed Mood to Growth in Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Rebecca C.; Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal depression has been implicated in the development of adolescent substance use. Conceptualizing depression as a continuum, the aims of this study are to (a) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood and risk factors associated with adolescent substance use; (b) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood…

  9. Health effects of perceived racial and religious bullying among urban adolescents in China: a cross-sectional national study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Stephen W; Spittal, Patricia M

    2013-07-01

    Research concerning ethnocultural bullying and adolescent health in China remains extremely limited. This study among Chinese urban adolescents examines associations between ethnocultural bullying and eight health-related outcomes: suicidal ideation, suicide planning, depressive symptomology, anxiety symptomatology, fighting, injury intentionally inflicted by another, smoking and moderate/heavy alcohol consumption. Data were obtained from the World Health Organisation's 2003 Chinese Global School-based Health Survey, a cross-sectional national survey of urban adolescents in four Chinese cities. The analytic sample size was n = 8182, which represented a sampling frame of 769,835 adolescents. Statistical analysis was conducted using generalised linear mixed effects models and sampling weights. Prevalence of ethnocultural bullying was significantly higher in Urumqi, Xinjiang province (2.08%) compared with Beijing municipality (0.72%) or Wuhan, Hubei province (0.67%). Compared to participants who were not bullied, religious bullying victimisation was significantly associated with suicidal ideation, injury intentionally inflicted by another and depressive symptomology. Racial bullying victimisation was significantly associated with suicidal ideation, injury intentionally inflicted by another and among females but not males, depressive symptomology. Health effects of ethnocultural bullying appear to be distinct from that of bullying in general. Additional research on ethnocultural adolescent health issues in China is warranted. PMID:23713464

  10. Trajectories of Depressed Mood from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Effects of Pubertal Timing and Adolescent Dating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Biehl, Michael C.; Ge, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    The effects of pubertal timing and adolescent dating on trajectories of depressed mood from early adolescence to young adulthood were examined among youths who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results showed that for both boys and girls, the trajectories of depressed mood between the ages of 12 and 23 took an…

  11. Prevalence of diagnosed depression in adolescents with history of concussion

    PubMed Central

    Chrisman, Sara P.D.; Richardson, Laura P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies in adults have suggested concussion and other brain injury presents a risk factor for depression. The goal of our study was to analyze the association between previous concussion and current depression diagnosis in a large nationally-representative adolescent dataset. Methods Retrospective cohort study using the National Survey of Children’s Health 2007–2008, a nationally-representative survey conducted via random digit dialing. Data were obtained by parental report. We included youth 12–17 years old without a current concussion (N=36,060), and evaluated the association between previous concussion (binary) and current depression diagnosis (binary) using multiple logistic regression to control for age, sex, parental mental health and socioeconomic status. Results After controlling for age, sex, parental mental health, and socioeconomic status, history of concussion was associated with a 3.3 fold greater risk for depression diagnosis (95%CI: 2.0–5.5). Other factors significantly associated with depression diagnosis included poor or fair parental mental health (OR: 3.7, 95%CI: 2.8–4.9), and older age (15–17 years vs. 12–14 years, OR: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1–1.8). Sex of the subject was not significantly related to depression diagnosis. Being above 200% of the poverty level was associated with approximately a 50% decreased risk of depression diagnosis (95%CI: 35–70%). Conclusions History of concussion was associated with a higher prevalence of diagnosed depression in a large nationally-representative adolescent dataset. Clinicians should screen for depression in their adolescent patients with concussion. Future studies should confirm this association using prospective methodology, and examine potential treatment approaches. PMID:24355628

  12. Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA): Week 24 Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn; Porta, Giovanna; Vitiello, Benedetto; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Spirito, Anthony; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Kennard, Betsy; DeBar, Lynn; McCracken, James; Strober, Michael; Onorato, Matthew; Zelazny, Jamie; Keller, Marty; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to report on the outcome of participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial after 24 weeks of treatment, including remission and relapse rates and predictors of treatment outcome. Method Adolescents (ages 12–18 years) with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-resistant depression were randomly assigned to either a medication switch alone (alternate SSRI or venlafaxine) or a medication switch plus cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). At week 12, responders could continue in their assigned treatment arm and nonresponders received open treatment (medication and/or CBT) for 12 more weeks (24 weeks total). The primary outcomes were remission and relapse, defined by the Adolescent Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation as rated by an independent evaluator. Results Of 334 adolescents enrolled in the study, 38.9% achieved remission by 24 weeks, and initial treatment assignment did not affect rates of remission. Likelihood of remission was much higher (61.6% versus 18.3% ) and time to remission was much faster among those who had already demonstrated clinical response by week 12. Remission was also higher among those with lower baseline depression, hopelessness, and self-reported anxiety. At week 12, lower depression, hopelessness, anxiety, suicidal ideation, family conflict, and absence of comorbid dysthymia, anxiety, and drug/alcohol use and impairment also predicted remission. Of those who responded by week 12, 19.6% had a relapse of depression by week 24. Conclusions Continued treatment for depression among treatment-resistant adolescents results in remission in approximately one-third of patients, similar to adults. Eventual remission is evident within the first 6 weeks in many, suggesting that earlier intervention among non-responders could be important. PMID:20478877

  13. Genetic Heterogeneity in Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms in Response to Victimization.

    PubMed

    Gottfredson, Nisha C; Foshee, Vangie A; Ennett, Susan T; Haberstick, Brett; Smolen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study had two objectives: first, to determine the degree to which experiences of victimization by peers during adolescence led to a subsequent rise in depressive symptoms, and second, to identify genetic markers that predict depressive reactivity to victimization. We used a cohort sequential design to obtain a longitudinal sample of 1,475 adolescents (3,263 observations) in Grades 8 to 12 (56% female; 47% Black, 46% White). Multilevel growth curve models were used to assess whether victimization predicted depressive symptoms 6 months later, beyond baseline trajectories for depressive symptoms. We modeled the interactive effects of peer victimization with three genetic polymorphisms (on 5-HTTLPR, DRD2 TaqIA, and BDNF Val66Met) on depressive symptoms. Although victimization predicted subsequent depressive symptoms, there was substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect of victimization. Val alleles, associated with higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) functioning, predicted more sensitivity to victimization. Neither DRD2 TaqIA, a marker associated with dopaminergic functioning, nor 5-HTTLPR, a marker associated with serotonin activity, was associated with sensitivity to victimization. The social stress of peer victimization triggers depressive symptoms most strongly in individuals who are homozygous for the Val allele on the BDNF Val/Met polymorphism. This polymorphism has been linked with sensitivity to social defeat in animal models. Future research should explore behavioral, cognitive, and emotional explanations of the effects of BDNF Val/Met on responsivity to victimization. PMID:24819687

  14. Childhood and Adolescent Anxiety and Depression: Beyond Heritability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franic, Sanja; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Ligthart, Lannie; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To review the methodology of behavior genetics studies addressing research questions that go beyond simple heritability estimation and illustrate these using representative research on childhood and adolescent anxiety and depression. Method: The classic twin design and its extensions may be used to examine age and gender differences in…

  15. Social Context in School: Its Relation to Adolescents' Depressive Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulard, Aurore; Quertemont, Etienne; Gauthier, Jean-Marie; Born, Michel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of various school-related factors on adolescents' depressive mood, including prosocial behavior, verbal aggression, and relationships with teachers. The data used in this study were collected in the context of a larger survey on victimization in secondary schools from the French Community of Belgium. Participants…

  16. Stress Generation and Adolescent Depression: Contribution of Interpersonal Stress Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the proposal that ineffective responses to common interpersonal problems disrupt youths' relationships, which, in turn, contributes to depression during adolescence. Youth (86 girls, 81 boys; M age = 12.41, SD = 1.19) and their primary female caregivers participated in a three-wave longitudinal study. Youth completed a…

  17. Dysfunctional Cognitions Associated with Adolescent Depression: Findings across Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study examined differences in reported depressive symptomatology and related dysfunctional cognitions in nonhandicapped, learning-disabled, and seriously emotionally disturbed adolescents from both public school and juvenile correction settings. No significant main effect was found for differences across label, but consequential differences…

  18. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  19. Depressed Mood and Body Weight: Exploring Race Differences in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Christie-Mizell, C. Andre

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this article examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence. The authors also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Their findings indicate that over a 4-year…

  20. Body Dissatisfaction, Dietary Restraint, Depression, and Weight Status in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…

  1. Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression in Canadian and Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Abela, John R. Z.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare diathesis-stress and transactional models of cognitive vulnerability to depression in samples of Canadian (n = 118) and Chinese (n = 405) adolescents. We utilized a six-month multi-wave, longitudinal design in order to examine whether (a) perceived control moderated the association between the…

  2. Selective Neurocognitive Impairments in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Georges; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Jepsen, Susie; Ballard, Kristin; Nelson, Megan; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Cullen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether major depression in adolescence is characterized by neurocognitive deficits in attention, affective decision making, and cognitive control of emotion processing. Neuropsychological tests including the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs, the Attention Network…

  3. Overweight, Body Image, and Depression in Asian and Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bin; Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Johnson, C. Anderson; Wu, Qiaobing; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Methods: Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body…

  4. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents Living in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peden, Ann R.; Reed, Deborah B.; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this pilot study were to examine prevalence of depressive symptoms among rural adolescents and identify related social and environmental variables. Methods: A convenience sample of 299 14- to 18-year-old agriculture class students at 5 rural high schools in Kentucky and Iowa completed a survey that included demographic…

  5. Academic Performance, Popularity, and Depression Predict Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany M.; Sanders, Christopher E.

    2003-01-01

    Eighty-nine high school seniors completed a questionnaire on their feelings and activities, including their use of drugs. Adolescents with a low grade point average, high popularity, and high depression were more likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, and smoke marijuana than were their peers. Cigarette and alcohol use predicted marijuana use,…

  6. Sertraline in Children and Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Craig L.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Rynn, Moira; Ambrosini, Paul; Landau, Phyllis; Yang, Ruoyong; Wohlberg, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore time to first response and time to first persistent response of sertraline versus placebo and compare these parameters between children (6-11 years old, n = 177) and adolescents (12-17 years old, n = 199) with major depressive disorder. Method: A 10-week placebo-controlled treatment was followed by a 24-week open-label…

  7. Older Romantic Partners and Depressive Symptoms During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2010-01-01

    Although developmental theory predicts that adolescent romantic relationships have important benefits, empirical evidence suggests that they may also carry substantial psychosocial risk. This study uses data from 4,948 respondents (50% female) in Wave I and Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the association between involvement with an older romantic partner and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Ordinary least squares regression models compared Wave II depressive symptoms among respondents with older partners (defined as an age difference of 2 or more years) to respondents with same-age or younger partners, controlling for baseline depressive symptoms and sociodemographic characteristics. Ten percent of females and two percent of males reported having an older romantic partner at Wave II. Among females only, involvement with an older romantic partner was associated with a modest but significant increase in depressive symptoms between waves. This association was largely mediated by increases in substance use. Findings suggest that involvement with an older male partner during adolescence may increase the risk of poor emotional outcomes among females. PMID:20424899

  8. The Relations Among Abuse, Depression, and Adolescents' Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca J.; Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Glisky, Elizabeth; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations among early and recent experiences with abuse, depression, and adolescents' autobiographical memory in a longitudinal study of family violence. Participants' (N = 134) exposure to violence was documented when they were 6 to 12 years old and again when they were 12 to 18 years old. The second assessment included…

  9. The depression distress amplification model in adolescents: A longitudinal examination of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, depression and suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Capron, Daniel W; Allan, Nicholas P; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Leen-Feldner, Ellen; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents with comorbid anxiety and depression are at significantly increased risk of suicide. The recently proposed depression distress amplification model appears to have promise for explaining the relations between anxiety, depression, and suicidality, but it has not been tested in adolescents. Participants were 524 adolescents followed over two years. Baseline data for the current report were collected by trained interviewers while the adolescents were in eighth grade. Data were obtained in the same manner when the adolescents were in tenth grade. Baseline anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns significantly predicted suicidal ideation two years later, above and beyond baseline suicidal ideation and depression. Further, consistent with the depression distress amplification model, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns interacted with depressive symptoms to predict suicidal ideation. This report extends the empirical and theoretical support for a relationship between anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns and suicidality. PMID:25754194

  10. Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler’s (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842

  11. Depression in adolescents and young adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eliza M.; Rosenstein, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer are at risk for depression due to disruptions in their developmental trajectory, greater physical symptom burden, and increased likelihood of developing aggressive disease. Rates of depression and other psychological disorders are substantially higher in AYAs with cancer when compared with older adults. Psychiatrists caring for these patients must consider the age-appropriate developmental context of these patients along with familial and medical factors that may influence the presentation and treatment of depression. Previous research suggests that psychosocial interventions specifically designed for AYA patients are promising, but studies of psychopharmacology treatments for depression are lacking. There is a pressing need for prospective studies and controlled clinical trials that evaluate the optimal strategies for treating depression in this patient group. PMID:26246791

  12. Sexual minority status, peer harassment, and adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler's (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842

  13. Specificity of Stress Generation: A Comparison of Adolescents with Depressive, Anxiety, and Comorbid Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Nicole P.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with a history of depression experience more stress that is dependent in part on their own actions. However, it is unclear whether stress generation is a unique feature of depression, or a universal process that is also present in other types of psychopathology, such as anxiety disorders. The current study addressed this issue by comparing adolescents with a history of “pure” (i.e., non-comorbid) depressive disorders, pure anxiety disorders, comorbid depression and anxiety, and no disorder, on their levels of dependent and independent stress. Results indicated that adolescents with pure depression experienced more dependent stress than adolescents with pure anxiety, and adolescents with any internalizing diagnosis experienced more dependent stress than controls. Further, adolescents with comorbid depression and anxiety reported the highest levels of stress generation. The results suggest that while stress generation may be more strongly associated with depression than anxiety in adolescence, it is not unique to depression. PMID:22724042

  14. Effects of an early intervention group program for anxious and depressed adolescents: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Muris, P; Bogie, N; Hoogsteder, A

    2001-04-01

    The Resourceful Adolescent Program is an early intervention program designed to enhance psychological resilience in adolescents with emotional problems. Eight adolescents with high anxious and/or depressive symptoms were treated with this 11-session group program. Treatment effects were examined by means of self-report questionnaires of anxiety, depression, and self-efficacy. Pre- and postintervention data showed reductions in anxiety and depression scores and a concomitant increase in adolescents' self-efficacy. PMID:11351893

  15. Depression and school performance in middle adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Fröjd, Sari A; Nissinen, Eeva S; Pelkonen, Mirjami U I; Marttunen, Mauri J; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2008-08-01

    The study aimed to investigate the associations between different levels of depression with different aspects of school performance. The target population included 2516 7th-9th grade pupils (13-17 years) of whom 90% completed the questionnaire anonymously in the classroom. Of the girls 18.4% and of the boys 11.1% were classified as being depressed (R-Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Finnish version of the 13-item BDI). The lower the self-reported grade point average (GPA) or the more the GPA had declined from the previous term, the more commonly the adolescents were depressed. Depression was associated with difficulties in concentration, social relationships, self-reliant school performance and reading and writing as well as perceiving schoolwork as highly loading. The school performance variables had similar associations with depression among both sexes when a wide range of depression was studied but gender differences appeared when studying the severe end of the depression scale. Our study indicates that pupils reporting difficulties in academic performance should be screened for depression. PMID:17949806

  16. The dysfunctional attitudes scale: psychometric properties in depressed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Gregory M; Park, Jong-Hyo; Essex, Marilyn J; Klein, Marjorie H; Silva, Susan G; Hoyle, Rick H; Curry, John F; Feeny, Norah C; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher J; Pathak, Sanjeev; Reinecke, Mark A; Rosenberg, David R; Weller, Elizabeth B; March, John S

    2009-11-01

    The psychometric properties and factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale were examined in a sample of 422 male and female adolescents (ages 12-17) with current major depressive disorder. The scale demonstrated high internal consistency (alpha = .93) and correlated significantly with self-report and interview-based measures of depression. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a correlated 2-factor model, with scales corresponding to perfectionism and need for social approval, provided a satisfactory fit to the data. The goodness-of-fit was equivalent across sexes and age groups. The findings support the use of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale and its subscales in the assessment of clinically depressed adolescents. PMID:20183662

  17. Depression and life satisfaction among European and Confucian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stankov, Lazar

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare adolescents from Europe and Confucian Asia on measures of psychological constructs that reflect either maladjustment or positive outlook on life. Empirical findings are reported based on N = 7,167 secondary school students (15 years old) from Confucian Asia (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan) and from Europe (Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Serbia, and Latvia with 2 nationalities-Latvian and Russian). Participants' responses were used to assess several aspects of personality and psychopathology, in addition to well-being, social attitudes, and parental styles. Exploratory factor analysis of these measures produced 4 factors: Depression, Life Satisfaction, Toughness and Modesty. Adolescents from Confucian countries show higher levels of Depression and lower levels of Life Satisfaction in comparison to their European counterparts. The most potent influences on Depression and Life Satisfaction were found to be Toughness and Parental Warmth variables, both of which are, in turn, linked to differences between regions/cultures. PMID:23914959

  18. Parent Involvement in CBT Treatment of Adolescent Depression: Experiences in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Karen C.; Albano, Anne Marie

    2005-01-01

    The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) evaluated the short- and long-term effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) alone, fluoxetine alone, and their combination, relative to pill placebo, and the 12-week treatment effects were recently published (TADS Team, 2004). Results showed that treatment that combined CBT with…

  19. Intention to seek depression treatment in adolescent mothers and a comparison group of adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M Cynthia; Usui, Wayne; Pinto-Foltz, Melissa; Rakestraw, Vivian Leffler

    2009-02-01

    The aims of the study were (a) to determine the efficacy of the theory of reasoned action in predicting intention to seek depression treatment in adolescent mothers (n = 64) and a comparison group of adolescent girls (n = 65) and (b) to explore the role of empirically suggested variables (e.g., social support and current symptoms of depression) in increasing the explanatory power of the model. Findings between the two groups differed. Subjective norms, but not attitude, was a significant predictor of intention to seek depression treatment in adolescent mothers (F = 4.82, P = .00; R(2) = .14). In the comparison group of adolescent girls, both attitude and subjective norms predicted intention to seek depression treatment (F = 8.56, P = .00, R(2) = .22). The addition of depressive symptoms and social support increased the explanatory power of the model in the comparison group of adolescent girls (R(2) change = 0.10, P = .02) but resulted in the deletion of subjective norms from the regression equation. Implications for further research and practice are discussed. PMID:19216987

  20. Protective Factors Against Depression and Suicidal Behaviour in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Jean-Jacques; Labelle, Réal; Berthiaume, Claude; Royer, Chantal; St-Georges, Marie; Ricard, Dominique; Abadie, Pascale; Gérardin, Priscille; Cohen, David; Guilé, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether protective factors in the Protection for Adolescent Depression Study (PADS) moderate the impact of stressful events on depression and suicidal behaviour in the community and a clinical setting; and to study the influence of sex. Method: Participants were 283 adolescents from the community and 119 from a mood disorder clinic in Montreal. The participants were evaluated on 6 instruments measuring individual risk and protective factors. Descriptive analyses and univariate and multiple logistic regression models were carried out. Results: Risk factors predicted higher levels of depression and presence of suicidal behaviour, and protective factors predicted lower levels of depression and absence of suicidal behaviour, as expected under the vulnerability-resilience stress model. Several sex differences were observed in terms of the predictive power of risk factors (for example, hopelessness among girls and keep to themselves among boys) and protective factors (for example, focusing on the positive among girls and self-discovery among boys). Conclusions: Findings from the PADS suggest that protective factors moderate the impact of stress on depression and suicidal behaviour. Developing protection appears important in the presence of chronic conditions, such as depressive disorders, to reduce the likelihood of further episodes. The influence of sex makes it all the more relevant to target different factors for boys and girls to increase protection and decrease risk in prevention and intervention programs. PMID:25886672

  1. Mother-Child Conflict and Its Moderating Effects on Depression Outcomes in a Preventive Intervention for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on mother-child conflict as an outcome and moderator of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a preventive intervention for depression. Forty-one adolescents (average age = 13.37, SD = 1.19) with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Adolescents…

  2. Facets of loneliness and depression among Chinese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lau, S; Chan, D W; Lau, P S

    1999-12-01

    The authors examined the relation among different facets of loneliness and depression in a sample of 6,356 Chinese children and adolescents from Grades 4-9. Loneliness and depression were closely related among the primary (Grades 4-6) and secondary (Grades 7-9) students, both boys and girls. Although the different facets of loneliness were predictive of the various facets of depression, peer-related loneliness and aloneness were more predictive of depression in both groups than was parent-related loneliness. The students in Grades 5 and 6 scored lower for loneliness but a little higher for depression than did the students in Grade 4. The students in Grades 8 and 9 scored higher than the students in Grade 7 for loneliness and depression. The primary boys scored higher than the primary girls for both loneliness and depression. Among the secondary students, there was no difference between the scores of the boys and those of the girls for loneliness, but the boys scored lower than the girls for depression. PMID:10646306

  3. Increased Ventricular Cerebrospinal Fluid Lactate in Depressed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Kailyn A. L.; Mao, Xiangling; Case, Julia A. C.; Kang, Guoxin; Shungu, Dikoma C.; Gabbay, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly examined as a potential pathogenic event in psychiatric disorders, although its role early in the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction in medication-free adolescents with MDD through in vivo measurements of neurometabolites using high-spatial resolution multislice/multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods Twenty-three adolescents with MDD and 29 healthy controls, ages 12–20, were scanned at 3T and concentrations of ventricular cerebrospinal fluid lactate, as well as N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), total creatine (tCr), and total choline (tCho) in the bilateral caudate, putamen, and thalamus were reported. Results Adolescents with MDD exhibited increased ventricular lactate compared to healthy controls [F(1, 41) = 6.98, p = .01]. However, there were no group differences in the other neurometabolites. Dimensional analyses in the depressed group showed no relation between any of the neurometabolites and symptomatology, including anhedonia and fatigue. Conclusions Increased ventricular lactate in depressed adolescents suggests mitochondrial dysfunction may be present early in the course of MDD; however it is still not known whether the presence of mitochondrial dysfunction is a trait vulnerability of individuals predisposed to psychopathology or a state feature of the disorder. Therefore, there is a need for larger multimodal studies to clarify these chemical findings in the context of network function. PMID:26802978

  4. Romantic Functioning and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls: The Moderating Role of Parental Emotional Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Sara J.; Davila, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    This study tested associations between adolescent romantic functioning and depressive symptoms and predicted that adolescents with emotionally unavailable parents would be most likely to show an association between poor romantic functioning and depressive symptoms. Data collected from 80 early adolescent nonreferred girls (average age of 13.45; SD…

  5. Depressive Symptoms, Stress, and Support: Gendered Trajectories from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Sarah O.; Brown, J. Scott; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Stressful transitions in adolescence increase depressive symptoms, especially among girls. However, little is known about this risk as adolescents mature into young adulthood, especially about how parental support affects depression trajectories during this period. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this analysis…

  6. Interpersonal Theory and Music Techniques: A Case Study for a Family With a Depressed Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, C. Bret; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2005-01-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-A) is a brief, time-limited therapy developed for use with adolescents diagnosed with major depression. IPT-A has been shown to be effective with adolescents in family counseling milieus. Music therapy techniques also have been successfully used to treat adolescent depression. This article provides mental health…

  7. Effects of Grandmother Coresidence and Quality of Family Relationships on Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Spencer, Michael S.; Spieker, Susan J.; Gilchrist, Lewayne D.

    1998-01-01

    Considers the main and interactive effects of grandmother coresidence, family cohesion, and young mother conflict with grandmother on adolescent reports of depressive symptoms in a sample of predominantly low-income adolescent mothers. Adolescent mothers with the greatest depressive symptoms were found to be those who coresided with grandmothers…

  8. Maternal Socialization of Positive Affect: The Impact of Invalidation on Adolescent Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Marie B. H.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relations among maternal socialization of positive affect (PA), adolescent emotion regulation (ER), and adolescent depressive symptoms. Two hundred early adolescents, 11-13 years old, provided self-reports of ER strategies and depressive symptomatology; their mothers provided self-reports of socialization responses to…

  9. What Do Mothers Make Adolescents Feel Guilty about? Incidents, Reactions, and Relation to Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donatelli, Jo-Ann L.; Bybee, Jane A.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    We found mothers' history of depression and symptoms of depression among their adolescent children were both associated with the type of events that mothers made adolescents feel guilty about and with the mothers' reactions to those events. Adolescents (20 male, 23 female) described incidents in which their mothers made them feel guilty and what…

  10. Transporting Evidence-Based Therapy for Adolescent Depression to the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Heather L.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen R.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the Adolescent Mood Project (Project AMP), a study transporting an evidence-based, cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for adolescent depression from the university lab setting to a school-based setting. Extant research on the psychosocial treatment of adolescent depression is reviewed and rationale for transporting evidence…

  11. Depressive Symptoms among Native and Immigrant Adolescents in Norway: The Role of Gender and Urbanization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fandrem, Hildegunn; Sam, David L.; Roland, Erling

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates depressive symptoms among 3,431 adolescents aged 13-15 years. The sample comprises both native Norwegian and immigrant adolescents living in Norway. The main finding of the study is that the level of depressive symptoms is significantly higher among the immigrant adolescents than their Norwegian counterparts. When analysed…

  12. Decision Making Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among African-American Adolescents: Implications for Prevention Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwumabua, Jebose O.; Duryea, Elias J.; Wong, S. P.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and decision making among a non-clinical sample of low-income African American adolescents. Data from the Children's Depression Inventory and Flinders Adolescent Decision Making Questionnaire indicated that there was a significant correlation between adolescents' self-reported depressive…

  13. Anxiety and depression in adolescents in urban and rural China.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Therese; Ding, Qu Jian

    2005-04-01

    The goal was to assess rates of anxiety and depression in adolescents in two areas of Zhejiang Province, China. A cross-sectional survey was carried-out using a self-report questionnaire developed for this study. Participants were middle school students (age range 13-16 years) in an urban and a rural setting. There were 1576 completed questionnaires. Symptoms of anxiety sufficient to interfere with enjoyment of life, relaxation, and sleep were common (48%, 40%, and 27%, respectively). School-related problems were the predominant sources of worry. One third reported a history of depression, 16% had at times felt life was not worth living, and 9% reported that they had attempted suicide. Girls were more likely to report symptoms of depression. Patterns of help-seeking showed reliance on friends and parents; only 1% had sought professional help. There were no significant differences in anxiety and depression between one-child and multisibling families. PMID:15941121

  14. Overweight, Body Image, and Depression in Asian and Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bin; Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Johnson, C. Anderson; Wu, Qiaobing; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Methods Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body image dissatisfaction, and depressive symptoms. Results Significant mediation effect was found only in Asian girls (mediation effect=0.16, P<0.05) and girls with high acculturation (mediation effect=0.17, P<0.05). Overweight significantly predicted higher body image dissatisfaction, which in turn was significantly related to depressive symptoms. Conclusion Our findings help understanding the association of overweight and experience of depressive symptoms. PMID:20218759

  15. A Preliminary Study of Functional Connectivity in Comorbid Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Kathryn R.; Gee, Dylan G.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Gabbay, Vilma; Hulvershorn, Leslie; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Bell, Christopher J.; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) begins frequently in adolescence and is associated with severe outcomes, but the developmental neurobiology of MDD is not well understood. Research in adults has implicated fronto-limbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD, particularly in relation to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Developmental changes in brain networks during adolescence highlight the need to examine MDD-related circuitry in teens separately from adults. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined functional connectivity in adolescents with MDD (n=12) and healthy adolescents (n=14). Seed-based connectivity analysis revealed that adolescents with MDD have decreased functional connectivity in a subgenual ACC-based neural network that includes the supragenual ACC (BA 32), the right medial frontal cortex (BA 10), the left inferior (BA 47) and superior frontal cortex (BA 22), superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), and the insular cortex (BA 13). These preliminary data suggest that MDD in adolescence is associated with abnormal connectivity within neural circuits that mediate emotion processing. Future research in larger, un-medicated samples will be necessary to confirm this finding. We conclude that hypothesis-driven, seed-based analyses of resting state fMRI data hold promise for advancing our current understanding of abnormal development of neural circuitry in adolescents with MDD. PMID:19446602

  16. Serum cytokines and anxiety in adolescent depression patients: Gender effect.

    PubMed

    Pallavi, Pooja; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju; Sharma, Subhadra; Subramanium, Arulselvi; Shamshi, Farah; Sengupta, Utpal; Pandey, Ravindra M; Mukhopadhyay, Asok K

    2015-09-30

    The present study compares the serum cytokine levels between adolescent depression patients and healthy controls and assesses correlation between depression, anxiety scores and serum levels of eight cytokines. Study also checked the variation in serum levels with medication status (medication free/naïve vs. patients on medication). Following clinical and psychometric assessment of 77 adolescent (aged 13-18 years) depression patients (49 males and 28 females; 56 medication free/naïve) and 54 healthy controls (25 males, 29 females), eight cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β1 and IL-17A {denoted IL-17 throughout}) were measured in serum using ELISA. Depressed adolescents had significantly high levels of IL-2 (p<0.001) and IL-6 (p=0.03) as compared to controls. The female population skewed the result of one cytokine (IL-6) in patients. Anxiety scores showed positive correlation (only in female patients) with IL-1β, IL-10 and negative correlation with TGF-β1 and IL-17. The gender effect in relationship between anxiety and cytokines was not straightforward. On comparing study groups on the medication/naïve status, IL-2 and TGF-β1 showed significant difference between the groups (p<0.001, p=0.007 higher in medicated). Depression in adolescents was associated with elevation of proinflammatory serum cytokines with a gender bias for females. Anxiety scores correlated negatively with TGF-β1 and IL-17. PMID:26163725

  17. Parental emotion socialization in clinically depressed adolescents: Enhancing, and dampening positive affect

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Shortt, Joann Wu; Allen, Nicholas B.; Davis, Betsy; Hunter, Erin; Leve, Craig; Sheeber, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study compared parental socialization of adolescent positive affect in families of depressed and healthy adolescents. Participants were 107 adolescents (42 boys) aged 14 - 18 years and their parents. Half of the participants met criteria for major depressive disorder and the others were demographically matched adolescents without emotional or behavioral disorders. Results based on multi-source questionnaire and interview data indicated that mothers and fathers of depressed adolescents were less accepting of adolescents’ positive affect and more likely to use strategies that dampen adolescents’ positive affect than were parents of healthy adolescents. Additionally, fathers of depressed adolescents exhibited fewer responses likely to enhance the adolescents’ positive affect than were fathers of healthy adolescents. These findings build on those of previous work in examining parental responses to adolescent emotions, focusing on positive emotions and including both mothers and fathers. PMID:23942826

  18. Efficacy of an Internet-Based Intervention Targeted to Adolescents with Subthreshold Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarushka, Marta Maria

    2011-01-01

    Depression during adolescence is highly prevalent with as many as 20% experiencing a major depressive episode by the age of 18. Adolescent depression causes significant impairment across life areas including school functioning, such as poor academic performance and decreased academic achievement. Despite the existence of many evidence-based…

  19. Stress Generation in Adolescent Depression: The Moderating Role of Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkness, Kate L.; Lumley, Margaret N.; Truss, Alanna E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the role of childhood abuse and neglect and depression recurrence in moderating the generation of stressful life events in adolescent depression. Maltreatment history and stressful life events were assessed using two rigorous contextual interviews and rating systems. In a sample of 59 community depressed adolescents we…

  20. Emerging Depression Is Associated with Face Memory Deficits in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Choate, Victoria R.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Pine, Daniel S.; Keenan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between memory for previously encoded emotional faces and depression symptoms assessed over 4 years in adolescent girls. Investigating the interface between memory deficits and depression in adolescent girls may provide clues about depression pathophysiology. Method: Participants were 213 girls recruited from…

  1. The Association between Humor and Depression in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients and High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiheit, Stacy R.; Overholser, James C.; Lehnert, Kim L.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined relationship between a sense of humor and symptoms of depression among adolescents. Findings on measures of humor and depression for 140 adolescents revealed that a sense of humor can be reliably measured and may be inversely related to symptoms of depression. (LBT)

  2. A Comparison of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Sertraline, and Their Combination for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Glenn A.; Tonge, Bruce J.; King, Neville J.; Heyne, David; Gordon, Michael S.; Klimkeit, Ester

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate cognitive-behavioral therapy, antidepressant medication alone, and combined CBT and antidepressant medication in the treatment of depressive disorders in adolescents. Method: Seventy-three adolescents (ages 12-18 years) with a primary diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or depressive disorder…

  3. MODERATE TO SEVERE DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AMONG ADOLESCENT MOTHERS FOLLOWED FOUR YEARS POSTPARTUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to examine race/ethnic differences in depressive symptoms among adolescent mothers during the first four years postpartum. A prospective study of 623 adolescent mothers, 18 years or younger followed four years after delivery. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depress...

  4. Understanding the Sex Difference in Vulnerability to Adolescent Depression: An Examination of Child and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhart, Nicole K.; Shih, Josephine H.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in risk factors associated with adolescent depression in a large sample of boys and girls. Moderation and mediation explanatory models of the sex difference in likelihood of depression were examined. Findings indicate that the factors associated with depression in adolescent boys and girls are quite similar. All…

  5. The Adolescent Mattering Experience: Gender Variations in Perceived Mattering, Anxiety, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Andrea L.; Scheidegger, Corey; McWhirter, J. Jeffries

    2009-01-01

    Individuals who perceive that they matter to others are likely to experience lower anxiety and depression levels. The effects of young adolescents' perceived mattering on their anxiety and depression levels were examined. Results indicated that female adolescents reported lower anxiety levels but greater depression levels than did male…

  6. Depressive Symptoms and Romantic Relationship Qualities from Adolescence through Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Examination of Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vujeva, Hana M.; Furman, Wyndol

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated the negative consequences of depression on adolescents' functioning in peer and family relationships, but little work has examined how depressive symptoms affect the quality of adolescents' and emerging adults' romantic relationships. Five waves of data on depressive symptoms, romantic relationship conflict,…

  7. [Depressive disorders in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Preiss, Maike; Remschmidt, Helmut

    2007-11-01

    Childhood depressive disorders are a health risk that need to be taken seriously due to their potential associated complications. A literature search of previously published studies about this subject utilizing PubMed, Psycontent and Psyndex has been performed. The data has been analyzed and the results discussed critically. It becomes apparent that few studies focus on depressive disorders in children and not much consideration is given to possible gender-related differences. Further investigation is needed in regard to epidemiology, symptoms, comorbid factors and duration of these disorders including studying the children's developmental psychopathology. It is especially essential to establish adequate pharmaco- and psychotherapeutic treatments to ameliorate prognosis, progression and persistence of depressive disorders in children. PMID:18357969

  8. Parent-child acculturation, parenting, and adolescent depressive symptoms in Chinese immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Li, Jing; Huang, Xuan; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2009-06-01

    Using a sample of 388 father-adolescent and 399 mother-adolescent dyads in Chinese immigrant families, the current investigation tested Portes and Rumbaut's (1996) assertion that generational dissonance may indicate a family context that places children at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Study findings suggest that a high discrepancy in father-adolescent acculturation levels relates significantly to more adolescent depressive symptoms. The study further demonstrates that the quality of the parenting relationship between fathers and adolescents operates as a mediator between father-adolescent acculturation discrepancy and adolescent depressive symptoms. Specifically, a high level of discrepancy in American orientation between fathers and adolescents is associated with unsupportive parenting practices, which, in turn, are linked to more adolescent depressive symptoms. These relationships are significant even after controlling for the influence of family socioeconomic status and parents' and adolescents' sense of discrimination within the larger society. PMID:19586205

  9. The Temporal Relation between Depression and Comorbid Psychopathology in Adolescents at Varied Risk for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Gallerani, Catherine M.; Garber, Judy; Martin, Nina C.

    2009-01-01

    Background This study examined the temporal comorbidity of depressive disorders with anxiety, externalizing, and substance use disorders in adolescents who varied in risk for depression. Methods Participants were 240 adolescents and their mothers who had either a history of depression (high-risk, n=185) or were lifetime-free of psychiatric disorders (low-risk, n=55). Children (54.2% females) were first evaluated in 6th grade (mean age = 11.86, SD = .57) with the K-SADS-PL to assess current and lifetime diagnoses, and then annually through 12th grade with the A-LIFE to assess diagnoses since the previous evaluation. Results For girls, the rate of depression was high regardless of prior anxiety, whereas for boys, the odds that those with prior subthreshold anxiety would have subsequent subthreshold depression were 1.5 times those of boys with no prior subthreshold anxiety, controlling for risk. In addition, the odds that girls with prior substance use disorders would have a threshold depressive disorder subsequently were three times those of girls with no prior substance use disorders, controlling for risk. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of early detection of various forms of psychopathology in youth who then can be targeted for intervention. The prospective paths to comorbidity differed by sex, thus suggesting that interventions need to be constructed with sensitivity to these distinct diagnostic trajectories. PMID:19874429

  10. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  11. Does Early Adolescent Sex Cause Depressive Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    A recent study by the Heritage Foundation (Rector, Johnson, & Noyes, 2003) found evidence of a positive relationship between early sexual intercourse and depressive symptoms. This finding has been used to bolster support for funding abstinence only sex education. However, promoting abstinence will only yield mental health benefits if there is a…

  12. Rumination, anxiety, depressive symptoms and subsequent depression in adolescents at risk for psychopathology: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. Methods Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. Results We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p = 0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p < 0.0005), after adjustment for prior levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Conclusion High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression. PMID:24103296

  13. ADHD Symptomology and Impairment: Relevance to Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Joy

    2010-01-01

    ADHD is a pervasive and persistent condition which continues into adulthood with a prevalence rate of 5%. Research demonstrates that 2% to 4% of the college learner population is affected by ADHD and, interestingly enough, ADHD symptomology prevalence rates have been shown to be higher than expected within the general college population. ADHD is a…

  14. Validation of Edinburgh postnatal depression scale for adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M Cynthia; Usui, Wayne M; Nering, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale has widespread use internationally with adult women, but few psychometric properties have been described for samples of adolescent mothers. The purpose of this paper is to validate the psychometric properties of the EPDS in a sample of adolescent mothers (n = 149) in a southern, urban area of the United States. Internal consistency reliability was .88. Principal components analysis supported a two factor structure accounting for 60% of variance. Results of item response theory analysis suggest that the EPDS and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale have similar psychometric properties. This data can be used to provide evidence of construct validity of the EPDS. The study provides a foundation for further psychometric testing of the instrument. PMID:19639384

  15. DEPRESSED AFFECT AND HISTORICAL LOSS AMONG NORTH AMERICAN INDIGENOUS ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Walls, Melissa L.; Johnson, Kurt D.; Morrisseau, Allan D.; McDougall, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the prevalence and correlates of perceived historical loss among 459 North American Indigenous adolescents aged 11–13 years from the northern Midwest of the United States and central Canada. The adolescents reported daily or more thoughts of historical loss at rates similar to their female caretakers. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that our measure of perceived historical loss and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale were separate but related constructs. Regression analysis indicated that, even when controlling for family factors, perceived discrimination, and proximal negative life events, perceived historical loss had independent effects on adolescent’s depressive symptoms. The construct of historical loss is discussed in terms of Indigenous ethnic cleansing and life course theory. PMID:20052631

  16. Oseltamivir (tamiflu) induced depressive episode in a female adolescent.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sungho; Joung, Yoo Sook

    2010-12-01

    Oseltamivir was developed for prophylactic and therapeutic use against influenza, specifically targeting the viral enzyme's highly-conserved active site. In recent years, there have been case reports of neuropsychiatric events during or after oseltamivir treatment, in Japan and other countries. However, a search of the literature revealed no such cases in South Korea. We present the case of a 15-year-old female adolescent diagnosed with depressive episode after taking oseltamivir. Oseltamivir is generally well tolerated. Its most frequent adverse effects include nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. In influenza patients taking oseltamivir, neuropsychiatric adverse events include delirium, behavioral disturbance, suicide, delusion, panic attack, convulsion, depressed mood, loss of consciousness, etc. Reportedly, such neuropsychiatric adverse events were more common in children than in adults and generally occurred within 48 hours of administration. Here, we report a retrospective review case of an oseltamivir-related neuropsychiatric event in a female adolescent in South Korea. PMID:21253416

  17. Relational victimization and depressive symptoms in adolescence: moderating effects of mother, father, and peer emotional support.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Tracy L; Leadbeater, Bonnie J

    2011-05-01

    Adolescence heralds a unique period of vulnerability to depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined relational victimization in adolescents' peer relationships as a unique predictor of depressive symptoms among a primarily (85%) Caucasian sample of 540 youth (294 females) concurrently and across a 6-year period. The moderating effects of emotional support received from mothers, fathers, and peers on the association between relational victimization and adolescents' depressive symptoms were also investigated. Findings revealed that adolescents who were relationally victimized consistently had higher depressive symptoms than their non-victimized peers. However, high levels of emotional support from fathers buffered this relationship over time. Emotional support from mothers and peers also moderated the longitudinal relationship between relational victimization and depressive symptoms, with high levels of support predicting increases in adolescents' symptoms. Relational victimization presents a clear risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence, and emotional support may serve either a protective or vulnerability-enhancing role depending on the source of support. PMID:20577897

  18. Maternal and Peer Regulation of Adolescent Emotion: Associations with Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lougheed, Jessica P; Craig, Wendy M; Pepler, Debra; Connolly, Jennifer; O'Hara, Arland; Granic, Isabela; Hollenstein, Tom

    2016-07-01

    Emotion socialization by close relationship partners plays a role in adolescent depression. In the current study, a microsocial approach was used to examine how adolescents' emotions are socialized by their mothers and close friends in real time, and how these interpersonal emotion dynamics are related to adolescent depressive symptoms. Participants were 83 adolescents aged 16 to 17 years who participated in conflict discussions with their mothers and self-nominated close friends. Adolescents' positive and negative emotions, and mothers' and peers' supportive regulation of adolescent emotions, were coded in real time. Two multilevel survival analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework predicted the hazard rate of (1) mothers' supportive regulation of adolescents' emotions, and (2) peers' supportive regulation of adolescents' emotions. The likelihood of maternal supportiveness, regardless of adolescent emotions, was lower for adolescents with higher depressive symptoms. In addition, peers were less likely to up-regulate adolescent positive emotions at higher levels of adolescent depressive symptoms. The results of the current study support interpersonal models of depression and demonstrate the importance of real-time interpersonal emotion processes in adolescent depressive symptoms. PMID:26419667

  19. Adolescent-Onset Depression: Are Obesity and Inflammation Developmental Mechanisms or Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Byrne, Michelle L; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Mitchell, Sarah A; Allen, Nicholas B

    2015-12-01

    Depression often has its first onset during adolescence and is associated with obesity. Furthermore, inflammatory processes have been implicated in both depression and obesity, although research amongst adolescents is limited. This review explores associations between depression and obesity, depression and inflammation, and obesity and inflammation from a developmental perspective. The temporal relations between these factors are examined to explore whether obesity and elevated inflammation act as either risk factors for, or outcomes of, adolescent-onset depression. Sex differences in these processes are also summarized. We propose a model whereby increases in sex hormones during puberty increase risk for depression for females, which can lead to obesity, which in turn increases levels of inflammation. Importantly, this model suggests that inflammation and obesity are outcomes of adolescent depression, rather than initial contributing causes. Further research on biological and psychosocial effects of sex hormones is needed, as is longitudinal research with children and adolescents. PMID:25666100

  20. Neural Aspects of Inhibition Following Emotional Primes in Depressed Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Colich, Natalie L; Foland-Ross, Lara C; Eggleston, Caitlin; Singh, Manpreet K; Gotlib, Ian H

    2016-01-01

    Adults diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) have been found to be characterized by selective attention to negative material and by impairments in their ability to disengage from, or inhibit the processing of, negative stimuli. Altered functioning in the frontal executive control network has been posited to underlie these deficits in cognitive functioning. We know little, however, about the neural underpinnings of inhibitory difficulties in depressed adolescents. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 18 adolescents diagnosed with MDD and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (CTLs) while they performed a modified affective Go/No-Go task that was designed to measure inhibitory control in the presence of an emotional distractor. Participants were presented with either a happy or a sad face, followed by a go or a no-go target to which they either made or inhibited a motor response. A group (MDD, CTL) by valence (happy, sad) by condition (go, no-go) analysis of variance indicated that MDD adolescents showed attenuated BOLD response in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and in the occipital cortex bilaterally, to no-go targets that followed a sad, but not a happy, face. Adolescents diagnosed with MDD showed anomalous recruitment of prefrontal control regions during inhibition trials, suggesting depression-associated disruption in neural underpinnings of the inhibition of emotional distractors. Given that the DLPFC is associated with the maintenance of goal-relevant information, it is likely that sad faces differentially capture attention in adolescents with MDD and interfere with task demands requiring inhibition. PMID:25635920

  1. Depressive Symptoms and Health-Related Risk-Taking in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, C. Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear…

  2. Identifying Cognitive and Interpersonal Predictors of Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Ho, Moon Ho-Ringo; Kim, Judy C.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging research has begun to examine cognitive and interpersonal predictors of stress and subsequent depression in adolescents. This research is critical as cognitive and interpersonal vulnerability factors likely shape expectations, perspectives, and interpretations of a given situation prior to the onset of a stressor. In the current study, adolescents (n=157; boys=64, girls=93), ages 12 to 18, participated in a 6-month, multi-wave longitudinal study examining the impact of negative cognitive style, self-criticism, and dependency on stress and depression. Results of time-lagged, idiographic multilevel analyses indicate that depressogenic attributional styles (i.e., composite score and weakest link approach) and self-criticism predict dependent interpersonal, but not noninterpersonal stress. Moreover, the occurrence of stress mediates the relationship between cognitive vulnerability and depressive symptoms over time. At the same time, self-criticism predicts above and beyond depressogenic attributional styles (i.e., composite and weakest link approach). In contrast to our hypotheses, dependency does not contribute to the occurrence of stress, and additionally, no gender differences emerge. Taken together, the findings suggest that self-criticism may be a particularly damaging vulnerability factor in adolescence, and moreover, it may warrant greater attention in the context of psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:24398789

  3. Identifying cognitive and interpersonal predictors of adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Randy P; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Kim, Judy C

    2014-08-01

    Emerging research has begun to examine cognitive and interpersonal predictors of stress and subsequent depression in adolescents. This research is critical as cognitive and interpersonal vulnerability factors likely shape expectations, perspectives, and interpretations of a given situation prior to the onset of a stressor. In the current study, adolescents (n = 157; boys=64, girls=93), ages 12 to 18, participated in a 6-month, multi-wave longitudinal study examining the impact of negative cognitive style, self-criticism, and dependency on stress and depression. Results of time-lagged, idiographic multilevel analyses indicate that depressogenic attributional styles (i.e., composite score and weakest link approach) and self-criticism predict dependent interpersonal, but not noninterpersonal stress. Moreover, the occurrence of stress mediates the relationship between cognitive vulnerability and depressive symptoms over time. At the same time, self-criticism predicts above and beyond depressogenic attributional styles (i.e., composite and weakest link approach). In contrast to our hypotheses, dependency does not contribute to the occurrence of stress, and additionally, no gender differences emerge. Taken together, the findings suggest that self-criticism may be a particularly damaging vulnerability factor in adolescence, and moreover, it may warrant greater attention in the context of psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:24398789

  4. Immune system dysregulation in adolescent major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Vilma; Klein, Rachel G.; Alonso, Carmen M.; Babb, James S.; Nishawala, Melissa; De Jesus, Georgette; Hirsch, Glenn S.; Hottinger-Blanc, Pauline M.Z.; Gonzalez, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence suggests that immune system dysregulation is associated with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in adults. This study extends this work to adolescent MDD to examine the hypotheses of immune system dysregulation in adolescents with MDD, as manifested by significantly: (i) elevated plasma levels of cytokines (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1β, and IL-4); and (ii) Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance shifted toward Th1 as indexed by increased IFN-γ/IL-4. Method Thirty adolescents with MDD (19 females; 13 medication-free/naïve; ages 12–19) of at least 6 weeks duration and a minimum severity score of 40 on the Children’s Depression Rating Scale—Revised, and 15 healthy comparisons (8 females), group-matched for age, were enrolled. Plasma cytokines were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mann–Whitney test was used to compare subjects with MDD and controls. Results Adolescents with MDD had significantly elevated plasma IFN-γ levels (3.38 ± 11.8 pg/ml versus 0.37 ± 0.64 pg/ml; p<0.003), and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio (16.6 ± 56.5 versus 1.76 ± 2.28; p = 0.007). A trend for IL-6 to be elevated in the MDD group was also observed (1.52 ± 2.88 pg/ml versus 0.49 ± 0.90 pg/ml; p=0.09). Importantly, findings remained evident when medicated subjects were excluded. Conclusions Findings suggest that immune system dysregulation may be associated with adolescent MDD, with an imbalance of Th1/Th2 shifted toward Th1, as documented in adult MDD. Larger studies with medication-free adolescents should follow. PMID:18790541

  5. [Chronotype and depression in adolescents – a review].

    PubMed

    Keller, Lena Katharina; Zöschg, Sarah; Grünewald, Barbara; Roenneberg, Till; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with depressive disorders experience symptoms in relation to sleep behavior and daily rhythmicity. However, the multifaceted associations between sleep, depression and circadian rhythms are not fully understood. During the past years, the concept of chronotypehas become increasingly popular in research. The Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) derives chronotype from sleep timing on work-free days and therefore represents a biological measure for the circadian clock, whereas the Morningness-Eveningness-Questionnaire(MEQ) assesses chronotype as a subjective preference for different activities at specific times of day. Chronotype changes with age, with adolescents and young adults being especially late types. We conducted a systematic literature research and identified studies that explore the association between chronotype (MEQ, MCTQ) and depressive symptoms or depressive disorders. Most of the studies showed an association between a late chronotype and depressive symptomatology. However, it is still unclear what is cause and effect. We propose a bidirectional relationship: On the one hand, due to reduced social and physical activity, depressed patients get less daylight which causes their chronotype to delay. On the other hand, a discrepancy between internal time (directed by the circadian clock) and external time (such as early school- or works tarting times) can cause problems PMID:27008901

  6. Parent–Child Acculturation, Parenting, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Li, Jing; Huang, Xuan; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of 388 father–adolescent and 399 mother–adolescent dyads in Chinese immigrant families, the current investigation tested Portes and Rumbaut's (1996) assertion that generational dissonance may indicate a family context that places children at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Study findings suggest that a high discrepancy in father–adolescent acculturation levels relates significantly to more adolescent depressive symptoms. The study further demonstrates that the quality of the parenting relationship between fathers and adolescents operates as a mediator between father–adolescent acculturation discrepancy and adolescent depressive symptoms. Specifically, a high level of discrepancy in American orientation between fathers and adolescents is associated with unsupportive parenting practices, which, in turn, are linked to more adolescent depressive symptoms. These relationships are significant even after controlling for the influence of family socioeconomic status and parents’ and adolescents’ sense of discrimination within the larger society. PMID:19586205

  7. Developmental pathways linking childhood and adolescent internalizing, externalizing, academic competence, and adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Murray; Ploubidis, George B; Cairney, John; Wild, T Cameron; Naicker, Kiyuri; Colman, Ian

    2016-08-01

    This study examined longitudinal pathways through three domains of adaptation from ages 4-5 to 14-15 (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and academic competence) towards depressive symptoms at age 16-17. Participants were 6425 Canadian children followed bi-annually as part of the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth. Within-domain (i.e., stability) effects were moderate in strength. We found longitudinal cross-domain effects across one time point (i.e., one-lag cascades) between internalizing and externalizing in early childhood (positive associations), and between academic competence and externalizing in later childhood and adolescence (negative associations). We also found cascade effects over multiple time points (i.e., multi-lag cascades); lower academic competence at age 4-5 and greater internalizing at age 6-7 predicted greater age 12-13 externalizing, and greater age 6-7 externalizing predicted greater age 16-17 depression. Important pathways towards adolescent depression include a stability path through childhood and adolescent internalizing, as well as a number of potential paths involving all domains of adaptation, highlighting the multifactorial nature of adolescent depression. PMID:27288965

  8. Maternal Positive and Negative Interaction Behaviors and Early Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Adolescent Emotion Regulation as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Marie B. H.; Schwartz, Orli S.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relation between mothers' positive and negative interaction behaviors during mother-child interactions and the emotion regulation (ER) and depressive symptoms of their adolescent offspring. Event-planning (EPI) and problem-solving interactions (PSI) were observed in 163 mother-adolescent dyads, and adolescents also provided…

  9. Friendships and Family Support Reduce Subsequent Depressive Symptoms in At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Gibson, Jenny L.; St Clair, Michelle C.; Owens, Matt; Brodbeck, Jeannette; Dunn, Valerie; Lewis, Gemma; Croudace, Tim; Jones, Peter B.; Kievit, Rogier A.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early life stress (ELS) consists of child family adversities (CFA: negative experiences that happened within the family environment) and/or peer bullying. ELS plays an important role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms and clinical disorders. Identifying factors that may reduce depressive symptoms in adolescents with ELS may have important public mental health implications. Methods We used structural equation modelling and examined the impact of adolescent friendships and/or family support at age 14 on depressive symptoms at age 17 in adolescents exposed to ELS before age 11. To this end, we used structural equation modelling in a community sample of 771 adolescents (322 boys and 477 girls) from a 3 year longitudinal study. Significant paths in the model were followed-up to test whether social support mediated or moderated the association between ELS and depressive symptoms at age 17. Results We found that adolescent social support in adolescence is negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in boys and girls exposed to ELS. Specifically, we found evidence for two mediational pathways: In the first pathway family support mediated the link between CFA and depressive symptoms at age 17. Specifically, CFA was negatively associated with adolescent family support at age 14, which in turn was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In the second pathway we found that adolescent friendships mediated the path between peer bullying and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational bullying was negatively associated with adolescent friendships at age 14, which in turn were negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In contrast, we did not find a moderating effect of friendships and family support on the association between CFA and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Friendships and/or family support in adolescence mediate the relationship between ELS and late adolescent depressive symptoms in boys and

  10. Temperament, Stress Reactivity, and Coping: Implications for Depression in Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Connor-Smith, Jennifer; Jaser, Sarah S.

    2004-01-01

    This article considers the role of temperament in the development of depression during childhood and adolescence. The features of depression in young people and aspects of temperament that are most relevant to depression are briefly reviewed. Studies that have tested the direct and indirect associations of temperament and depressive symptoms in…

  11. Early Onset Recurrent Subtype of Adolescent Depression: Clinical and Psychosocial Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Herr, Nathaniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Evaluated trajectories of adolescent depression and their correlates in a longitudinal study of a community sample: early onset (by age 15) with major depression (MDE) recurrence between 15 and 20; early onset with no recurrence; later onset of major depression after age 15 with and without recurrence by 20; and never-depressed.…

  12. It Takes Three: Selection, Influence, and De-Selection Processes of Depression in Adolescent Friendship Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this study tested a selection-influence-de-selection model of depression. This model explains friendship influence processes (i.e., friends' depressive symptoms increase adolescents' depressive symptoms) while controlling for two processes: friendship selection (i.e., selection of friends with similar levels of depressive symptoms)…

  13. The blues of adolescent romance: observed affective interactions in adolescent romantic relationships associated with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; Dishion, Thomas J; Overbeek, Geertjan; Burk, William J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-05-01

    We examined the associations between observed expressions of positive and negative emotions during conflict discussions and depressive symptoms during a 2-year period in a sample of 160 adolescents in 80 romantic relationships (M age = 15.48, SD = 1.16). Conflict discussions were coded using the 10-code Specific Affect Coding System. Depressive symptoms were assessed at the time of the observed conflict discussions (Time 1) and 2 years later (Time 2). Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Girls' expression of both positive and negative emotions at T1 was related to their own depressive symptoms at T2 (actor effect). Boys' positive emotions and negative emotions (actor effect) and girls' negative emotions (partner effect) were related to boys' depressive symptoms at T2. Contrary to expectation, relationship break-up and relationship satisfaction were unrelated to changes in depressive symptoms or expression of negative or positive emotion during conflict discussion. These findings underscore the unique quality of adolescent romantic relationships and suggest new directions in the study of the link between mental health and romantic involvement in adolescence. PMID:24198197

  14. Self-perceived competence as a mediator between maternal feedback and depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jacquez, Farrah; Cole, David A; Searle, Barbara

    2004-08-01

    Self-report, other-report, clinical interview, and behavioral observations of evaluative maternal feedback (e.g., positive feedback, criticism), adolescent depressive symptoms, and self-perceived competence were obtained from 72 adolescents and their mothers. Most path analyses supported the hypothesis that adolescent self-perceived competence completely mediates the relation between negative maternal feedback and adolescent depressive symptoms, even after controlling for prior levels of depression. Consistent with Cole's competency-based model of depression (D. A. Cole, 1990), these results suggest that high levels of negative maternal feedback (coupled with low levels of positive feedback) are associated with adolescent negative self-perceptions, which in turn place adolescents at risk for depressive symptoms. PMID:15305542

  15. Self-esteem mediates the effect of the parent-adolescent relationship on depression.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junmin; Ai, Hongshan

    2016-06-01

    There is a trend of rapid growth in both the level and occurrence of depression when people reach adolescence. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the parent-adolescent relationship on depression in adolescents, and mainly focused on the confirmation of the mediator role of self-esteem. A total of 364 senior middle school students accomplished the Parent-Adolescent Relationship Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. The results suggested that both parent-adolescent relationship and self-esteem were significantly correlated with depression. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between parent-adolescent relationship and depression. PMID:25030796

  16. Beyond a diagnosis: The experience of depression among clinically-referred adolescents.

    PubMed

    Midgley, Nick; Parkinson, Sally; Holmes, Josh; Stapley, Emily; Eatough, Virginia; Target, Mary

    2015-10-01

    Policy-makers have identified an urgent need to improve our ability to detect and diagnose depression in adolescents. This study aims to explore the lived experience of depression in clinically referred adolescents. 77 adolescents, aged between 11 and 17 with moderate to severe depression, were interviewed as part of a randomised controlled trial, using the Expectations of Therapy Interview. Data were analysed qualitatively using framework analysis, with a focus on how the adolescents spoke about their depression. The study identified five themes: 1) Misery, despair and tears; 2) Anger and violence towards self and others; 3) A bleak view of everything; 4) Isolation and cutting off from the world; and 5) The impact on education. Researchers and policy-makers need to develop an understanding of depression grounded in the experiences of adolescents to improve detection and diagnosis of depression. PMID:26325067

  17. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M

    2015-07-01

    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression. PMID:25938204

  18. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control.

    PubMed

    Werner, Lente L A A; der Graaff, Jolien Van; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T

    2016-08-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01 , 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers' psychological control use. Less empathic mothers may be less sensitive to adolescents' need for psychological autonomy, and thus prone to violating this need using psychological control, which may in turn predict adolescents' depressive symptoms. Moreover, according to interpersonal theory of depression (Coyne in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186-193. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.85.2.186 , 1976), adolescents' depressive symptoms may elicit rejecting responses, such as mothers' psychological control. For six waves, 497 adolescents (57 % boys, M age T1 = 13.03) annually completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control, while mothers reported on their empathy. Cross-lagged path analyses showed that throughout adolescence, both mothers' affective and cognitive empathy indirectly predicted boys' and girls' depressive symptoms, through psychological control. Additionally, depressive symptoms predicted psychological control for boys, and early adolescent girls. These results highlight the importance of (1) mothers' affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (2) taking gender into account when examining adolescent-effects. PMID:26627889

  19. Social problem solving among depressed adolescents is enhanced by structured psychotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Laura J.; Marshal, Michael P.; Burton, Chad M.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kolko, David; Duffy, Jamira N.; Brent, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Changes in adolescent interpersonal behavior before and after an acute course of psychotherapy were investigated as outcomes and mediators of remission status in a previously described treatment study of depressed adolescents. Maternal depressive symptoms were examined as moderators of the association between psychotherapy condition and changes in adolescents’ interpersonal behavior. Method Adolescents (n = 63, mean age = 15.6 years, 77.8% female, 84.1% Caucasian) engaged in videotaped interactions with their mothers before randomization to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), systemic behavior family therapy (SBFT), or nondirective supportive therapy (NST), and after 12–16 weeks of treatment. Adolescent involvement, problem solving and dyadic conflict were examined. Results Improvements in adolescent problem solving were significantly associated with CBT and SBFT. Maternal depressive symptoms moderated the effect of CBT, but not SBFT, on adolescents’ problem solving; adolescents experienced increases in problem solving only when their mothers had low or moderate levels of depressive symptoms. Improvements in adolescents’ problem solving were associated with higher rates of remission across treatment conditions, but there were no significant indirect effects of SBFT on remission status through problem solving. Exploratory analyses revealed a significant indirect effect of CBT on remission status through changes in adolescent problem solving, but only when maternal depressive symptoms at study entry were low. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary support for problem solving as an active treatment component of structured psychotherapies for depressed adolescents and suggest one Pathway by which maternal depression may disrupt treatment efficacy for depressed adolescents treated with CBT. PMID:24491077

  20. Adolescent depression, alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Deykin, E Y; Levy, J C; Wells, V

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was employed to ascertain the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol and substance abuse in a sample of 424 college students aged 16 to 19 years. Applying DSM III criteria, the prevalence of MDD was 6.8 per cent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 per cent; and of substance abuse 9.4 per cent. Alcohol abuse was associated with MDD, but not with other psychiatric diagnoses. Substance abuse was associated both with MDD and with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. The onset of MDD almost always preceded alcohol or substance abuse suggesting the possibility of self-medication as a factor in the development of alcohol or substance abuse. PMID:3492151

  1. 'It Was All My Fault'; Negative Interpretation Bias in Depressed Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Orchard, Faith; Pass, Laura; Reynolds, Shirley

    2016-07-01

    The extent to which cognitive models of development and maintenance of depression apply to adolescents is largely untested, despite the widespread application of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) for depressed adolescents. Cognitive models suggest that negative cognitions, including interpretation bias, play a role in etiology and maintenance of depression. Given that cognitive development is incomplete by the teenage years and that CBT is not superior to non-cognitive treatments in the treatment of adolescent depression, it is important to test the underlying model. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that interpretation biases are exhibited by depressed adolescents. Four groups of adolescents were recruited: clinically-referred depressed (n = 27), clinically-referred non-depressed (n = 24), community with elevated depression symptoms (n = 42) and healthy community (n = 150). Participants completed a 20 item ambiguous scenarios questionnaire. Clinically-referred depressed adolescents made significantly more negative interpretations and rated scenarios as less pleasant than all other groups. The results suggest that this element of the cognitive model of depression is applicable to adolescents. Other aspects of the model should be tested so that cognitive treatment can be modified or adapted if necessary. PMID:26471896

  2. Socioemotional development in adolescents at risk for depression: the role of maternal depression and attachment style.

    PubMed

    Murray, Lynne; Halligan, Sarah L; Adams, Gillian; Patterson, Paul; Goodyer, Ian M

    2006-01-01

    We examined the impact on adolescent socioemotional functioning of maternal postnatal depression (PND) and attachment style. We also investigated the role of earlier aspects of the child's development-attachment in infancy, and 5-year representations of family relationships. Ninety-one mother-child pairs, recruited in the postnatal period, were followed up at 13 years. Adolescents were interviewed about their friendships, and their level of emotional sensitivity and maturity were rated. Emotional sensitivity was heightened in girls whose mothers experienced PND; notably, its occurrence was also linked to insecure attachment in infancy and raised awareness of emotional components of family relationships at 5 years. High emotional sensitivity was also associated with adolescent depressed mood. Raised social maturity was predicted by a secure maternal attachment style and, for girls, by exposure to maternal PND. Precursors of adolescent social maturity were evident in the narrative coherence of 5-year family representations. Higher social maturity in the friendship interview was also associated with overall good adjustment. PMID:16600065

  3. The cyclical nature of depressed mood and future risk: Depression, rumination, and deficits in emotional clarity in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Liza M; Hamilton, Jessica L; Stange, Jonathan P; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-07-01

    Deficits in emotional clarity, the understanding and awareness of one's own emotions and the ability to label them appropriately, are associated with increased depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, few studies have examined factors associated with reduction in emotional clarity for adolescents, such as depressed mood and ruminative response styles. The present study examined rumination as a potential mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and changes in emotional clarity, focusing on sex differences. Participants included 223 adolescents (51.60% female, Mean age = 12.39). Controlling for baseline levels of emotional clarity, initial depressive symptoms predicted decreases in emotional clarity. Further, rumination prospectively mediated the relationship between baseline depressive symptoms and follow-up emotional clarity for girls, but not boys. Findings suggest that depressive symptoms may increase girls' tendencies to engage in repetitive, negative thinking, which may reduce the ability to understand and label emotions, a potentially cyclical process that confers vulnerability to future depression. PMID:25931160

  4. The cyclical nature of depressed mood and future risk: Depression, rumination, and deficits in emotional clarity in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Liza M.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in emotional clarity, the understanding and awareness of one’s own emotions and the ability to label them appropriately, are associated with increased depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, few studies have examined factors associated with reduction in emotional clarity for adolescents, such as depressed mood and ruminative response styles. The present study examined rumination as a potential mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and changes in emotional clarity, focusing on sex differences. Participants included 223 adolescents (51.60% female, Mean age = 12.39). Controlling for baseline levels of emotional clarity, initial depressive symptoms predicted decreases in emotional clarity. Further, rumination prospectively mediated the relationship between baseline depressive symptoms and follow-up emotional clarity for girls, but not boys. Findings suggest that depressive symptoms may increase girls’ tendencies to engage in repetitive, negative thinking, which may reduce the ability to understand and label emotions, a potentially cyclical process that confers vulnerability to future depression. PMID:25931160

  5. Temperament, Character, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Focusing on Affect

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Danilo; Kerekes, Nóra; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Archer, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA). The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy) between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (N = 304) were categorized into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling” (high PA, low NA), “high affective” (high PA, high NA), “low affective” (low PA, low NA), and “self-destructive” (low PA, high NA). Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The “self-fulfilling” profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness). “Self-destructive” adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development. PMID:22844588

  6. Adolescent coping profiles differentiate reports of depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Herres, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N=982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age=16.04, SD=0.73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver et al., 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies. PMID:26275359

  7. Temperament, character, and adolescents' depressive symptoms: focusing on affect.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Kerekes, Nóra; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Archer, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA). The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy) between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (N = 304) were categorized into four affective profiles: "self-fulfilling" (high PA, low NA), "high affective" (high PA, high NA), "low affective" (low PA, low NA), and "self-destructive" (low PA, high NA). Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The "self-fulfilling" profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness). "Self-destructive" adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development. PMID:22844588

  8. Prevention of Adolescent Depression in the Spanish-Speaking World

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Andrea B.; Cañizares, Catalina; Gómez, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency. PMID:24871258

  9. Anterior Cingulate Cortex γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Depressed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Vilma; Mao, Xiangling; Klein, Rachel G.; Ely, Benjamin A.; Babb, James S.; Panzer, Aviva M.; Alonso, Carmen M.; Shungu, Dikoma C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Anhedonia, a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD) and highly variable among adolescents with MDD, may involve alterations in the major inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter system of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Objective To test whether anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) GABA levels, measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, are decreased in adolescents with MDD. The associations of GABA alterations with the presence and severity of anhedonia were explored. Design Case-control, cross-sectional study using single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T. Setting Two clinical research divisions at 2 teaching hospitals. Participants Twenty psychotropic medication-free adolescents with MDD (10 anhedonic, 12 female, aged 12–19 years) with episode duration of 8 weeks or more and 21 control subjects group matched for sex and age. Main Outcome Measures Anterior cingulate cortex GABA levels expressed as ratios relative to unsuppressed voxel tissue water (w) and anhedonia scores expressed as a continuous variable. Results Compared with control subjects, adolescents with MDD had significantly decreased ACC GABA/w (t= 3.2; P<.003). When subjects with MDD were categorized based on the presence of anhedonia, only anhedonic patients had decreased GABA/w levels compared with control subjects (t=4.08; P<.001; PTukey<.001). Anterior cingulate cortex GABA/w levels were negatively correlated with anhedonia scores for the whole MDD group (r = −0.50; P = .02), as well as for the entire participant sample including the control subjects (r=−0.54; P<.001). Anterior cingulate cortex white matter was also significantly decreased in adolescents with MDD compared with controls (P=.04). Conclusions These findings suggest that GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, may be implicated in adolescent MDD and, more specifically, in those with anhedonia. In addition, use of a continuous rather than categorical scale of anhedonia, as in

  10. School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: A Benchmarking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Kaplinski, Heather; Gudmundsen, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression delivered in health clinics and counseling centers in four high schools. Outcomes were benchmarked to results from prior efficacy trials. Fifty adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorders were treated by eight doctoral-level psychologists who followed a…

  11. Alliance and Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Kaplinski, Heather Crisp; McMakin, Dana L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Fifty-four adolescents met criteria for a depressive disorder and were treated in school-based clinics. Alliance was measured after the third session from both therapist and…

  12. An Ecological Risk/Protective Factor Approach to Understanding Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jonathan; Goddard, H. Wallace

    2010-01-01

    We applied an ecological multiple risk/protective factor model to study factors related to depressive symptoms among adolescents. Participants were 39,740 adolescents who self-reported risk factors, protective factors, and depressive symptoms on a school-based survey. Results indicate that an index of multiple risk was related to increased…

  13. School-Related Stress and Depression in Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feurer, D. Paige; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined school-related stress and depression in adolescents with and without learning disabilities. A total of 87 students (38 learning-disabled and 49 nondisabled) from secondary schools in Calgary completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and on school-related stress. Results indicated that the adolescents with LD reported…

  14. Psychopathology in the Adolescent Offspring of Parents with Panic Disorder and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Amritha S.; Srinivasan, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of psychiatric diagnosis and psychopathology in adolescent offspring of parents with panic disorder, depression and normal controls. Methods: Adolescent offspring (11-16 years) of parents with a diagnosis of panic disorder and major depression, and normal controls were interviewed using Missouri Assessment of Genetics…

  15. Preventing Depression among Adolescent Girls: Pathways toward Effective and Sustainable Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Vicky Veitch; Dozois, David J. A.; Fisman, Sandra; DePace, JoAnne

    2008-01-01

    Up to 25% of adolescent girls experience an episode of major depression, at least twice the rate found with adolescent boys. In addition to reducing the suffering associated with depression, prevention efforts with this high-risk population have the potential to avert short- and long-term functional impairment, reduce the risk of associated mental…

  16. Cross-Situational Coping with Peer and Family Stressors in Adolescent Offspring of Depressed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Keller, Gary; Merchant, Mary Jane; Benson, Molly; Compas, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    Offspring of depressed parents are faced with significant interpersonal stress both within their families and in peer relationships. The present study examined parent and self-reports of adolescents' coping in response to family and peer stressors in 73 adolescent children of parents with a history of depression. Correlational analyses indicated…

  17. Expanding Behavioral Activation to Depressed Adolescents: Lessons Learned in Treatment Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Elizabeth; Schloredt, Kelly; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Martell, Christopher; Dimidjian, Sona

    2011-01-01

    Depression during adolescence represents a significant public health concern. It is estimated that up to 20% of adolescents experience an episode of depression that interferes with academic and social functioning and is associated with an increased risk for self-harm. Although significant progress has been made in the last decade in treating…

  18. Attachment to Parents, Best Friend, and Romantic Partner: Predicting Different Pathways to Depression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolese, Stephanie K.; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Doyle, Anna Beth

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that insecurely-attached adolescents are at risk for depression, but little is known about factors that may influence or explain this vulnerability. The present study focuses on close relationships during adolescence and their association with depression. Specifically, the objectives were to investigate (1) the role of working…

  19. Selected Executive Skills in Adolescents with Recent First Episode Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyte, Zoe A.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: To investigate whether recent first episode major depression in adolescence is characterised by selected executive difficulties in attentional flexibility, behavioural inhibition and decision-making. Methods: Selected executive functions were compared in adolescents with recent (past year) first episode major depression (n = 30) and…

  20. The Interplay of Loneliness and Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence: Exploring the Role of Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanhalst, Janne; Klimstra, Theo A.; Luyckx, Koen; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Goossens, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Based on current theories of depression, reciprocal links between loneliness and depressive symptoms are expected to occur. However, longitudinal studies on adolescent samples are scarce and have yielded conflicting results. The present five-wave longitudinal study from mid- to late adolescence (N = 428, M age at T1 = 15.22 years; 47% female)…

  1. Specific Coping Behaviors in Relation to Adolescent Depression and Suicidal Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific…

  2. Reduced Nucleus Accumbens Reactivity and Adolescent Depression following Early-life Stress

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Bonnie; Gee, Dylan G.; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Flannery, Jessica; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a common outcome for those having experienced early life stress (ELS). For those individuals, depression typically increases during adolescence and appears to endure into adulthood, suggesting alterations in the development of brain systems involved in depression. Developmentally, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a limbic structure associated with reward learning and motivation, typically undergoes dramatic functional change during adolescence; therefore, age-related changes in NAcc function may underlie increases in depression in adolescence following ELS. The current study examined the effects of ELS in 38 previously institutionalized children and adolescents in comparison to a group of 31 youth without a history of ELS. Consistent with previous research, the findings showed that depression was higher in adolescents than children with a history of ELS. Additionally, fMRI results showed atypical NAcc development, where the ELS group did not show a typical increase in NAcc reactivity during adolescence. Consequently, the ELS group showed NAcc hypoactivation during adolescence, and lower NAcc reactivity was correlated with higher depression scores. The results have important implications for understanding how ELS may influence increases in depression via neural development during the transition to adolescence and highlight the importance of identifying at-risk individuals in childhood, a potential critical period for depression-targeted intervention. PMID:23262241

  3. 5-HTTLPR X Stress in Adolescent Depression: Moderation by MAOA and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priess-Groben, Heather A.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2013-01-01

    Depression surges in adolescence, especially among girls. Most evidence indicates that the short allele of a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) interacts with stress to influence the onset of depression. This effect appears to be less robust in adolescents, particularly among boys, and may be moderated…

  4. The Influence of Familial Support and Dysfunctional Attitudes on Depression and Delinquency in an Adolescent Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Genevieve; Marcotte, Diane; Bouffard, Therese

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the role of familial support and dysfunctional attitudes in depression, delinquency and the concomitance of these disorders in an adolescent population from a middle-class community in the Trois-Rivieres area. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Mesure d'adaptation sociale et personnelle pour adolescents quebecois-MASPAQ…

  5. The Relationship between Adolescent Depression and a History of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of depression among adolescents attending family planning clinics, and to determine the relationship among depression, a history of sexual abuse, and other risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 279 minority females. Results of the study indicated that 40 adolescents (14.3%) scored at or…

  6. Effectiveness Study of a CBT-Based Adolescent Coping with Depression Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvik, Margit; Idsoe, Thormod; Bru, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Even though the efficacy of group-based cognitive behavioural interventions is well established both for adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorders as well as for adolescents with depressive symptoms, in order to prevent further development, there has been a call for effectiveness studies in real world settings. This study investigated…

  7. Integrating Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Pharmacotherapy in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Albano, Anne Marie; Findling, Robert L.; Kratochvil, Christopher; Walkup, John

    2005-01-01

    Recent evidence from the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) suggests that combining cognitive behavioral and pharmacological treatments holds the most promise for ameliorating depression among adolescents. This article describes lessons learned during the TADS trial about how to integrate these two treatments in the care of…

  8. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Service Use among Adolescents with Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Janet R.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of treatment for major depression in adolescents. This study examined differences in mental health service use in non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents who experienced an episode of major depression. Method: Five years of data (2004-2008) were pooled…

  9. Depressive Symptoms and Somatic Complaints among Zambian Adolescents: Associations with Stress and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neese, Angela L.; Pittman, Laura D.; Hunemorder, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the possible links between perceived stress, coping strategies, depression, and somatic complaints, which have often been supported in other populations, in a school-based sample of Zambian adolescents ages 11-19 years ("N" = 230; 60% males). Zambian adolescents reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms and somatic…

  10. Influence of a Family-Focused Substance Use Preventive Intervention on Growth in Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Spoth, Richard L.; Redmond, Cleve

    2007-01-01

    Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY) is a preventive intervention that targets parenting behaviors, family interaction patterns, and adolescent substance use, factors that have been shown to predict depression among teenagers. Effects of PDFY on trajectories of self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms from 6th through 12th grade were…

  11. Acute Time to Response in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher; Emslie, Graham; Silva, Susan; McNulty, Steve; Walkup, John; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Feeny, Nora; Casat, Charles; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Robins, Michele; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the time to response for both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: Adolescents (N = 439, ages 12 to 17 years) with major depressive disorder were randomized to fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or pill placebo…

  12. Psychosocial Factors in Adolescent and Young Adult Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms: Causal or Correlational Associations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Haslimeier, Claudia; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2007-01-01

    Using a large longitudinal representative community sample, this study identified three groups of subjects who were depressed either in pre-adolescence, late adolescence or early adulthood, and matched by age and gender to controls without depression. The 90th percentile on one or two self-reported symptom scales [i. e. the Center for…

  13. Interactive Effect of Substance Abuse and Depression on Adolescent Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Sara J.; Curry, John F.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the interactive effect of substance abuse and depression on social competence among 106 adolescent inpatients (57% female, 86% Caucasian). Substance abuse and depression were conceptualized using dimensional ratings of illness severity based on adolescent interviews, whereas social competence was conceptualized using parent…

  14. Brief Report: Relationships between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Neissaar, Inga

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between changes in physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Participants were 277 urban adolescent girls. Physical activity was measured using the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall and depressive symptoms were assessed using questionnaire. Data were collected on three occasions over a 3-year…

  15. The Role of Readiness to Change in Response to Treatment of Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Silva, Susan G.; Rohde, Paul; Small, David M.; Murakami, Jessica L.; High, Robin R.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of readiness to change on treatment outcome was examined among 332 adolescents (46% male, 74% Caucasian), ages 12 through 17 years (M = 14.6, SD = 1.5), with major depressive disorder who were participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS). TADS is a randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of…

  16. Testing a Gender Additive Model: The Role of Body Image in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Stice, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence that adolescent girls are at greater risk of developing depression than adolescent boys, risk factor models that account for this difference have been elusive. The objective of this research was to examine risk factors proposed by the "gender additive" model of depression that attempts to partially explain the increased…

  17. Prediction of Postpartum Social Support and Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Cross, Rene; Williams, Beverly; Simpson, Theresa

    2004-01-01

    Many pregnant adolescents remain in school, creating unique challenges for professionals to meet their educational and health needs. In this descriptive pilot study of pregnant adolescents (n = 26), 68% demonstrated symptoms of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In addition, there was an…

  18. Pain and Sleep-Wake Disturbances in Adolescents with Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Caitlin B.; Murphy, Lexa K.; Palermo, Tonya M.; Clarke, Gregory M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) assess and compare sleep disturbances (including daytime and nighttime sleep patterns) in adolescents with depressive disorders and healthy peers, (b) examine the prevalence of pain in adolescents with depressive disorders and healthy peers, and (c) examine pubertal development, pain intensity, and depressive…

  19. Adolescent Depression: Relationships of Self-Report to Intellectual and Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manikam, Ramasamy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Self-report measures of depression, general psychopathology, and social skills were administered to 100 adolescents ranging from moderate mental retardation to above normal intelligence. Adolescents with mental retardation reported more depression and general psychopathology symptoms. Adaptive behavior functioned as a moderator variable, mediating…

  20. The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    n/a; n/a

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study is a multicenter, randomized clinical trial sponsored by the NIMH. This study is designed to evaluate the short- and long-term effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with major depressive disorder: fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, their combination, and, acutely,…

  1. Reciprocal, Longitudinal Associations among Adolescents' Negative Feedback-Seeking, Depressive Symptoms, and Peer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borelli, Jessica L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined reciprocal associations among adolescents' negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, perceptions of friendship quality, and peer-reported social preference over an 11-month period. A total of 478 adolescents in grades 6-8 completed measures of negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, friendship quality,…

  2. Maternal Parenting Behaviors and Adolescent Depression: The Mediating Role of Rumination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gate, Michael A.; Watkins, Edward R.; Simmons, Julian G.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Schwartz, Orli S.; Whittle, Sarah; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that rumination is an important vulnerability factor for adolescent depression. Despite this, few studies have examined environmental risk factors that might lead to rumination and, subsequently, depression in adolescence. This study examined the hypothesis that an adverse family environment is a risk factor for…

  3. A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for the Development of Depression and Disordered Eating in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…

  4. Predictors and Moderators of Acute Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, John; Rohde, Paul; Simons, Anne; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher; Reinecke, Mark; Feeny, Norah; Wells, Karen; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, David; Kennard, Betsy; Robins, Michele; Ginsburg, Golda; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors and moderators of response to acute treatments among depressed adolescents (N = 439) randomly assigned to fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), both fluoxetine and CBT, or clinical management with pill placebo in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS). Method: Potential baseline…

  5. A Pilot Study of Adjunctive Family Psychoeducation in Adolescent Major Depression: Feasibility and Treatment Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Mark; Boyle, Michael; McCleary, Lynn; Miller, Jennifer; Steele, Margaret; Duku, Eric; Offord, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To obtain preliminary evidence of the feasibility and effectiveness of adjunctive family psychoeducation in adolescent major depressive disorder. Method: Participants were from outpatient clinics in Hamilton and London, Ontario. Over 24 months, 41 adolescents ages 13 through 18 years meeting major depressive disorder criteria were…

  6. Cognitive Features Associated with Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Directionality and Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Carolyn A.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    In this study we examined cognitive features that have been posited to contribute to depressive vulnerability in adolescents. Using a longitudinal sample of 331 young adolescents followed from 6th to 7th grade, cross-lagged structural equation analyses were conducted. Controlling for baseline levels of depressive, conduct, and anxiety symptoms,…

  7. Research Review: The Role of Cytokines in Depression in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Natalie T.; Scott, James G.; Wray, Naomi R.; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Baune, Bernhard T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: While cytokines have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression in adults, the potential role in younger age groups such as adolescents is less clear. This article therefore reviews the literature (a) to explore the relationship between cytokines and depression in adolescents, and (b) to examine how cytokines may be related…

  8. Ethnicity and Adolescent Depression: Prevalence, Access to Services, and Promising Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Amanda E.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is more common among adolescents of ethnic minority backgrounds, who also are less likely to receive professional help. This article presents information about prevalence of depression and service use across ethnic groups, and then outlines several promising intervention programs that are designed for adolescents suffering from…

  9. The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Methods and Message at 12 Weeks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy…

  10. Interpersonal Theory and Depressed Adolescents: An Overview of Method and Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellin, Elizabeth Anne

    In an attempt of fill the gap in theoretical and empirical information available for treatment of adolescent depression, interpersonal therapy for adolescents (IPT-A) was developed. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a brief, time-limited therapy originally developed for use with adults diagnosed with major depression. Several outcome studies…

  11. Alcohol Use and Depression among African-American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; Irvin, Deborah M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent…

  12. Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…

  13. Risk and Protective Factors for Depressive Symptoms in Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Darius S.; Solomon, Barry S.

    2009-01-01

    There is limited understanding of risk and protective factors associated with depression among African American adolescents living in impoverished, urban settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify a range of risk and protective factors associated with depressive symptoms among low-income urban African American adolescents. The…

  14. A Latent Class Analysis of Depressive and Externalizing Symptoms in Nonreferred Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezulis, Amy; Vander Stoep, Ann; Stone, Andrea L.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Both depressive and externalizing symptoms are common in adolescence and often co-occur. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents' patterns of depressive and externalizing symptoms can be differentiated into discrete classes and whether these classes are best distinguished by the number or type of symptoms. We examined whether…

  15. Functioning and Quality of Life in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Silva, Susan; Wells, Karen; Casat, Charles; Waslick, Bruce; Simons, Anne; Reinecke, Mark; Weller, Elizabeth; Kratochvil, Christopher; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Robins, Michele; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Obective: To test whether 12-week treatment of major depression improved the level of functioning, global health, and quality of life of adolescents. Method: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study was a multisite, randomized clinical trial of fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical…

  16. Gender-Specific Development of Nonverbal Behaviours and Mild Depression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Beek, Yolanda; Van Dolderen, Marlies S. M.; Demon Dubas, Judith J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Individual differences in depressive symptoms have been linked with social skill deficits in adults and children, yet empirical studies on adolescents are lacking. The present research examines age and gender differences in nonverbal behaviour between mildly depressed and nondepressed (pre-) adolescents during conversations with an…

  17. Adapting Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adolescents Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma: A Case Study with Two Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePrince, Anne P.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that interpersonal trauma increases risk for adolescent and adult depression. Findings from 4 clinical trials for adolescent depression show poorer response to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) among depressed adolescents with a trauma history than youth without such a history. This paper reports…

  18. An Efficacy/effectiveness Study of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Adolescents with Comorbid Major Depression and Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Clarke, Gregory N.; Mace, David E.; Jorgensen, Jenel S.; Seeley, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effectiveness of the Adolescent Coping With Depression (CWD-A) course, a cognitive-behavioral group intervention for depressed adolescents with comorbid conduct disorder. Method: Between 1998 and 2001, 93 nonincarcerated adolescents (ages 13-17 years) meeting criteria for major depressive disorder and conduct disorder were…

  19. Social Network Status and Depression among Adolescents: An Examination of Social Network Influences and Depressive Symptoms in a Chinese Sample

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Janet; Johnson, C. Anderson; Leventhal, Adam; Milam, Joel; Pentz, Mary Ann; Schwartz, David; Valente, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the well established influence of peer experiences on adolescent attitudes, thoughts, and behaviors, surprisingly little research has examined the importance of peer context and the increased prevalence of depressive symptoms accompanying the transition into adolescence. Examination of social networks may provide some insight into the role of peers in the vulnerability of some adolescents to depression. To address this issue, we leveraged an existing sample of 5,563 Chinese 10th graders to incorporate social network data into a multilevel regression model of depressive symptoms. We found that, in this sample, being nominated as a friend was more important than being nominated as most liked. Social network centrality was significantly associated with depression; those adolescents who were less connected were more likely to suffer from depression. The risk of depression for those who were marginal members of classroom social networks was substantial. These findings suggest that a social network perspective could help to increase the effectiveness of programs aimed at preventing adolescent depression. PMID:23226988

  20. Sexual intercourse among adolescent daughters of mothers with depressive symptoms from minority families.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jina; Cederbaum, Julie A; Hurlburt, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the association between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent engagement in sexual intercourse in a non-clinical sample of mothers and their adolescent daughters from minority families. The current study explores ways in which maternal depression, family factors, and adolescent sex interact. Data were from a cross-sectional study of 176 mother-daughter dyads, including a subset of mothers with HIV. Logistic regression analyses revealed that among mothers who were not current marijuana users, more maternal depressive symptoms was associated with daughters' engagement in sexual intercourse. Neither parent-child conflict nor parental involvement significantly mediated the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent sex. This study provides the first empirical evidence that non-clinical depressive symptoms in mothers are associated with adolescent engagement in sexual intercourse. PMID:27326541

  1. Depressed Adolescents' Pupillary Response to Peer Acceptance and Rejection: The Role of Rumination.

    PubMed

    Stone, Lindsey B; Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Stroud, Laura R; Nelson, Eric E; Dahl, Ronald E; Jones, Neil P

    2016-06-01

    Heightened emotional reactivity to peer feedback is predictive of adolescents' depression risk. Examining variation in emotional reactivity within currently depressed adolescents may identify subgroups that struggle the most with these daily interactions. We tested whether trait rumination, which amplifies emotional reactions, explained variance in depressed adolescents' physiological reactivity to peer feedback, hypothesizing that rumination would be associated with greater pupillary response to peer rejection and diminished response to peer acceptance. Twenty currently depressed adolescents (12-17) completed a virtual peer interaction paradigm where they received fictitious rejection and acceptance feedback. Pupillary response provided a time-sensitive index of physiological arousal. Rumination was associated with greater initial pupil dilation to both peer rejection and acceptance, and diminished late pupillary response to peer acceptance trials only. Results indicate that depressed adolescents high on trait rumination are more reactive to social feedback regardless of valence, but fail to sustain cognitive-affective load on positive feedback. PMID:26271345

  2. Relational stressors and depressive symptoms in late adolescence: rejection sensitivity as a vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Chango, Joanna M; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Allen, Joseph P; Schad, Megan M; Marston, Emily

    2012-04-01

    The role of rejection sensitivity as a critical diathesis moderating the link between adolescent relational stressors and depressive symptoms was examined using multi-method, multi-reporter data from a diverse community sample of 173 adolescents, followed from age 16 to 18. Relational stressors examined included emotional abuse, maternal behavior undermining adolescents' autonomy and relatedness, and lack of support from close peers. As hypothesized, multiple relational stressors were found to predict the future development of depressive symptoms, but as hypothesized predictions existed primarily for adolescents who were highly rejection sensitive. Results are discussed in terms of a diathesis-stress model of depression and suggest that though relational stressors have previously shown consistent modest links to depressive symptoms, understanding pre-existing intrapsychic vulnerabilities of the adolescent may be critical to identifying the processes by which such stressors lead to depressive symptoms. PMID:21927802

  3. Brief report: Explaining differences in depressive symptoms between African American and European American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; King, Vinetra; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    African American adolescents report more depressive symptoms than their European American peers, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This study examines whether risk factors in individual, family, school, and community domains explain these differences. African American and European American adolescents participating in the Birmingham Youth Violence Study (N = 594; mean age 13.2 years) reported on their depressive symptoms, pubertal development, aggressive and delinquent behavior, connectedness to school, witnessing violence, and poor parenting. Primary caregivers provided information on family income and their education level, marital status, and depression, and the adolescents' academic performance. African American adolescents reported more depressive symptoms than European American participants. Family socioeconomic factors reduced this difference by 29%; all risk factors reduced it by 88%. Adolescents' exposure to violence, antisocial behavior, and low school connectedness, as well as lower parental education and parenting quality, emerged as significant mediators of the group differences in depressive symptoms. PMID:26580552

  4. Brain Activity in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder Before and After Fluoxetine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Rongrong; Calley, Clifford S.; Hart, John; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Lu, Hanzhang; Kennard, Betsy D.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Emslie, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Major depression in adolescents is a significant public health concern because of its frequency and severity. To examine the neurobiological basis of depression in this population, the authors studied functional activation characteristics of the brain before and after antidepressant treatment in antidepressant-naive depressed adolescents and healthy comparison subjects. Method Depressed (N=19) and healthy (N=21) adolescents, ages 11 to 18 years, underwent functional MRI assessment while viewing fearful and neutral facial expressions at baseline and again 8 weeks later. The depressed adolescents received 8 weeks of open-label fluoxetine treatment after their baseline scan. Results Voxel-wise whole brain analyses showed that depressed youths have exaggerated brain activation compared with healthy comparison subjects in multiple regions, including the frontal, temporal, and limbic cortices. The 8 weeks of fluoxetine treatment normalized most of these regions of hyperactivity in the depressed group. Region-of-interest analyses of the areas involved in emotion processing indicated that before treatment, depressed youths had significantly greater activations to fearful relative to neutral facial expressions than did healthy comparison subjects in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally. Fluoxetine treatment decreased activations in all three regions, as compared with the repeat scans of healthy comparison subjects. Conclusions While effective treatments are available, the impact of depression and its treatment on the brain in adolescents is understudied. This study confirms increases in brain activation in untreated depressed adolescents and demonstrates reductions in these aberrant activations with treatment. PMID:22267183

  5. Executive functioning and self-reported depressive symptoms within an adolescent inpatient population.

    PubMed

    Kavanaugh, Brian; Holler, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Although the relationship between executive dysfunction and depressive disorders has been well established in the adult population, research within the adolescent population has produced mixed results. The present study examined executive-functioning subdomains in varying levels of self-reported depression within an adolescent inpatient sample diagnosed with primary mood disorders. Via retrospective chart review, the sample consisted of those adolescents (ages 13-18 years) who completed a combined psychological/neuropsychological assessment during hospitalization (N = 105). When the sample was divided into adolescents with mood disorders with self-reported depressive symptoms and adolescents with mood disorders without self-reported depressive symptoms, no differences in various executive functions were identified. There were also no correlations between overall self-reported depressive symptoms and overall executive functioning. However, there were negative correlations between select executive subdomains (e.g., problem solving and response inhibition) and certain depressive symptom subdomains (e.g., negative mood and interpersonal problems). Based on these findings, there was no difference in executive functions between mood disorders with depressive symptoms and mood disorders without depressive symptoms, although there may be select executive subdomains that are particularly involved in certain depressive symptoms, providing important information for the treatment of adolescent depression. PMID:24716871

  6. Intergenerational Discrepancies of Parental Control among Chinese American Families: Links to Family Conflict and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Syed, Moin; Takagi, Miyuki

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how discrepancies between adolescents' and parents' endorsement of parental control contribute to adolescent depressive symptoms. Family conflict was hypothesized to mediate the link between parent-adolescent discrepancies and depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 166 pairs of Chinese American adolescents and their…

  7. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  8. Major depression in mothers predict reduced ventral striatum activation in adolescent female offspring with and without depression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior research has identified reduced reward-related brain activation as a promising endophenotype for the early identification of adolescents with major depressive disorder. However, it is unclear whether reduced reward-related brain activation constitutes a true vulnerability for major depressive ...

  9. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

    PubMed

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Sieh, Dominik Sebstian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (p<.01) than the comparison group. Adolescents of single parents reported more internalizing problems (p<.01) and externalizing problems (p<.05) than children from the other family types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (p<.001). Adolescents of depressed chronically ill parents were particularly vulnerable to internalizing problems (interaction effect, p<.05). Older children and girls, and especially older girls, displayed more internalizing problems and stress. It can be concluded that growing up with a chronically ill parent in a family with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of

  10. Gender Differential Influences of Early Adolescent Risk Factors for the Development of Depressive Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemmler, Mark; Petersen, Anne C.

    2005-01-01

    Based on a model by Cyranowski, J., et al. (2000), Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 57: 21-27, adolescents at-risk for the development of depressive symptoms were identified. Adolescents were considered at-risk if they had 2 or more of the following early adolescent risk factors: (1) insecure parental attachment, (2) anxious/inhibited temperament, (3) low…

  11. Too Many Friends: Social Integration, Network Cohesion and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falci, Christina; McNeely, Clea

    2009-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we examine associations among social integration (network size), network cohesion (alter-density), perceptions of social relationships (e.g., social support) and adolescent depressive symptoms. We find that adolescents with either too large or too small a network have higher levels of…

  12. School Contextual Experiences and Longitudinal Changes in Depressive Symptoms from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, Thulitha; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the direct and multiplicative influences by adolescent school context experiences (disengagement and maltreatment) and contextual characteristics (school minority concentration and school aggregated family poverty) on changes in depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood. Adolescent experiences with…

  13. Self-Perceived Competence as a Mediator between Maternal Feedback and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquez, Farrah; Cole, David A.; Searle, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Self-report, other-report, clinical interview, and behavioral observations of evaluative maternal feedback (e.g., positive feedback, criticism), adolescent depressive symptoms, and self-perceived competence were obtained from 72 adolescents and their mothers. Most path analyses supported the hypothesis that adolescent self-perceived competence…

  14. Research Knowledge among the Participants in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Silva, Susan; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Waslick, Bruce; Hughes, Carroll W.; Prentice, Ernest D.; May, Diane E.; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    A study examined the extent to which parents and adolescents participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) understood the study. The results concluded that most were well-informed, and also parents were overall better informed than adolescents.

  15. Social Skills and Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence: Social Support as a Mediator in Girls versus Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Wendy; Karevold, Evalill; Roysamb, Espen; Gustavson, Kristin; Mathiesen, Kristin S.

    2013-01-01

    The current population-based study of Norwegian adolescents examined gender-specific patterns in the prospective association between social skills in early adolescence (age 12.5; n = 566) and changes in depressive symptoms from early to late adolescence (age 16.5; n = 375). Further, a potential mediation effect of social support (from peers,…

  16. Gender Differences in Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression and Behavior Problems in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvete, Esther; Cardenoso, Olga

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed gender differences in cognitive variables as an explanation for gender differences in depression and behavior problems; 856 adolescents (491 females and 365 males), aged 14-17, completed the Irrational Beliefs Scale for Adolescents, the Social Problem Solving Inventory--Revised Short Form, the adolescent version of the Burnett…

  17. Parenting Style, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use in Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Emily J.; Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Pasch, Lauri A.

    2013-01-01

    This study of 151 Mexican American adolescents ages 12 to 15 examined the relationship between parenting and adolescents' self-reported level of depressive symptoms and substance use 6 months and 1 year later. Adolescents and their parents were recruited from a large health-maintenance organization and interviewed at three time points. Lower…

  18. The role of the kynurenine pathway in suicidality in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Kailyn A L; Case, Julia A C; Khan, Omar; Ricart, Thomas; Hanna, Amira; Alonso, Carmen M; Gabbay, Vilma

    2015-06-30

    The neuroimmunological kynurenine pathway (KP) has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults and adolescents, most recently in suicidality in adults. The KP is initiated by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which degrades tryptophan (TRP) into kynurenine (KYN) en route to neurotoxins. Here, we examined the KP in 20 suicidal depressed adolescents-composed of past attempters and those who expressed active suicidal intent-30 non-suicidal depressed youth, and 22 healthy controls (HC). Plasma levels of TRP, KYN, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), and KYN/TRP (index of IDO) were assessed. Suicidal adolescents showed decreased TRP and elevated KYN/TRP compared to both non-suicidal depressed adolescents and HC. Findings became more significantly pronounced when excluding medicated participants, wherein there was also a significant positive correlation between KYN/TRP and suicidality. Finally, although depressed adolescents with a history of suicide attempt differed from acutely suicidal adolescents with respect to disease severity, anhedonia, and suicidality, the groups did not differ in KP measures. Our findings suggest a possible specific role of the KP in suicidality in depressed adolescents, while illustrating the clinical phenomenon that depressed adolescents with a history of suicide attempt are similar to acutely suicidal youth and are at increased risk for completion of suicide. PMID:25865484

  19. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children. PMID:24653641

  20. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cindy Y; Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S

    2014-02-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children. PMID:24653641

  1. Prospective Reciprocal Relations between Physical Activity and Depression in Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Jerstad, Sarah J.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective Although research has found an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents, few studies have examined this relation prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical activity. Method Data from a longitudinal study involving annual assessments of 496 adolescent girls (M age = 13, SD 0.7) followed over a 6-year period were analyzed to address these questions. Results Physical activity significantly reduced risk for future increases in depressive symptoms and risk for onset of major/minor depression and depressive symptoms and major/minor depression significantly reduced future physical activity, controlling for several covariates, though predictive effects were modest. Conclusions Results support a bidirectional relation between exercise and depression and imply that interventions that increase physical activity may reduce risk for depression among this high-risk population. PMID:20350037

  2. Neural correlates of self-perceptions in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Kailyn A L; Colcombe, Stan; Henderson, Sarah E; Alonso, Carmen M; Milham, Michael P; Gabbay, Vilma

    2016-06-01

    Alteration in self-perception is a salient feature in major depression. Hyperactivity of anterior cortical midline regions has been implicated in this phenomenon in depressed adults. Here, we extend this work to depressed adolescents during a developmental time when neuronal circuitry underlying the sense of self matures by using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and connectivity analyses. Twenty-three depressed adolescents and 18 healthy controls (HC) viewed positive and negative trait words in a scanner and judged whether each word described them ('self' condition) or was a good trait to have ('general' condition). Self-perception scores were based on participants' endorsements of positive and negative traits during the fMRI task. Depressed adolescents exhibited more negative self-perceptions than HC. Both groups activated cortical midline regions in response to self-judgments compared to general-judgments. However, depressed adolescents recruited the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus more for positive self-judgments. Additionally, local connectivity of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex was reduced during self-reflection in depressed adolescents. Our findings highlight differences in self-referential processing network function between depressed and healthy adolescents and support the need for further investigation of brain mechanisms associated with the self, as they may be paramount to understanding the etiology and development of major depressive disorder. PMID:26943454

  3. Association between Cognitive Distortion, Type D Personality, Family Environment, and Depression in Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Hengfen; Zou, Shaohong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Depression prevalence and risk increase among adolescents are related to biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Little is known about the association between cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationships of cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Methods. A sample of Chinese adolescents with depression and the controls were investigated cross-sectionally with life orientation test-revised (LOT-R), type D personality Scale-14 (DS14), family environment scale (FES), and Zung self-depression scale (SDS); respectively, all scales were administered in Chinese. Results. Chinese-depressed adolescents showed more cognitive distortion, type D personality, and adverse family environment than control groups. Furthermore, lower level of Optimism, negative affectivity, and poor family cohesion may increase the risk of depression in Chinese adolescents. Conclusions. Our study indicates that lower level of Optimism, Negative Affectivity, and poor Family Cohesion factors were implicated to contribute to depression in Chinese adolescents. Lower level of optimism and negative affectivity may be crucial associated factors of depression among these samples. our findings pointed to the importance of broad screening and intervention of vulnerable population. PMID:21747993

  4. Within-Person Changes in Individual Symptoms of Depression Predict Subsequent Depressive Episodes in Adolescents: a Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Kouros, Chrystyna D; Morris, Matthew C; Garber, Judy

    2016-04-01

    The current longitudinal study examined which individual symptoms of depression uniquely predicted a subsequent Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in adolescents, and whether these relations differed by sex. Adolescents (N = 240) were first interviewed in grade 6 (M = 11.86 years old; SD = 0.56; 54% female; 81.5% Caucasian) and then annually through grade 12 regarding their individual symptoms of depression as well as the occurrence of MDEs. Individual symptoms of depression were assessed with the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and depressive episodes were assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results showed that within-person changes in sleep problems and low self-esteem/excessive guilt positively predicted an increased likelihood of an MDE for both boys and girls. Significant sex differences also were found. Within-person changes in anhedonia predicted an increased likelihood of a subsequent MDE among boys, whereas irritability predicted a decreased likelihood of a future MDE among boys, and concentration difficulties predicted a decreased likelihood of an MDE in girls. These results identified individual depressive symptoms that predicted subsequent depressive episodes in male and female adolescents, and may be used to guide the early detection, treatment, and prevention of depressive disorders in youth. PMID:26105209

  5. [Complementary treatment methods for depression in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Dolle, Kathrin; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Depressive disorders are among the more common mental illnesses around the world, about 1- 3% of prepubertal children and 6% of postpubertal children and adolescents are affected. They markedly impair psychosocial development and are associated with higher rate of morbidity and mortality throughout life. Many physicians are unsure about which treatment approaches are effective and how the treatment should be planned. A systematic literature search was carried out in electronic databases and study registries and as a manual search. More than 450 studies (mostly randomized controlled trials = RCTs) were identified and summarized in evidence tables. The ensuing recommendations were agreed upon in a consensus conference. The review summarizes the evidence of complementary treatment methods. The evidence for complementary treatment methods (art and music therapy, sleep deprivation, exercise, electroconvulsive therapy, massage, transcranial magnetic stimulation, relaxation, bibliotherapy, computer based therapy, light therapy, omega-3 treatment) is low or there is no evidence due to missing studies or studies of poor quality. For some methods, i. e. light therapy, relaxation and stress reduction and sleep deprivation there is limited indication for effectiveness without sufficient evidence for a practical guidance. There is an urgent need for adequately informative comparative studies on treatment of depression in children and adolescents considering also complementary methods. PMID:24707770

  6. Parental Depressive Feelings, Parental Support, and the Serotonin Transporter Gene as Predictors of Adolescent Depressive Feelings: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roekel, Eeske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Parental support and parental depressive feelings are found to be associated with depressive feelings in adolescent boys and girls, but results are inconsistent. In addition, the "5-HTTLPR" genotype has been found to interact with environmental stressors in predicting adolescents' depressive feelings, but this has not been examined longitudinally.…

  7. Identifying Trajectories of Adolescents' Depressive Phenomena: An Examination of Early Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Fleming, Charles B.; Abbott, Robert D.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined risk factors of childhood and early adolescent depressive symptomatology trajectories. This study examined self-report depressive symptomatology across a 6-year time period from 2nd to 8th grade to identify latent groups of individuals with similar patterns of depressive phenomena in a sample of 951 children (440 girls,…

  8. A Prospective Test of Cognitive Vulnerability Models of Depression with Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric; Burton, Emily; Fudell, Molly; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to provide a more rigorous prospective test of two cognitive vulnerability models of depression with longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results supported the cognitive vulnerability model in that stressors predicted future increases in depressive symptoms and onset of clinically significant major depression for…

  9. Subthreshold Depressive Disorder in Adolescents: Predictors of Escalation to Full-Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Daniel N.; Shankman, Stewart A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.

    2009-01-01

    The risk for the onset of full-syndrome depressive disorders from the subtreshold depressive disorder in adolescents is found to be at 67 percent. The variables that predict the progression to the full onset are: severity of depressive symptoms, medical conditions/ symptoms, history of suicidal ideation, history of anxiety disorder, and familial…

  10. Neuroticism, Life Events and Negative Thoughts in the Development of Depression in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kercher, Amy J.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Schniering, Carolyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Theories of depression suggest that cognitive and environmental factors may explain the relationship between personality and depression. This study tested such a model in early adolescence, incorporating neuroticism, stress-generation and negative automatic thoughts in the development of depressive symptoms. Participants (896 girls, mean age 12.3…

  11. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…

  12. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Trajectories of Depressed Mood from Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Darce M.; Swendsen, Joel; Rose, Jennifer S.; Dierker, Lisa C.

    2008-01-01

    This study used semi-parametric group-based modeling to explore unconditional and conditional trajectories of self-reported depressed mood from ages 12 to 25 years. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,559), 4 distinct trajectories were identified: no depressed mood, stable low depressed mood, early…

  13. Change in Maternal Depressive Mood: Unique Contributions to Adolescent Functioning over Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amanda McCombs; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the relation of change in maternal depressed mood across time and adolescent functioning. Analyses revealed that increased depressed mood across one year predicted teacher reports of higher levels of externalizing and internalizing problems and lower levels of social competence. A static maternal depressive mood did not forecast…

  14. Parental Maltreatment, Bullying, and Adolescent Depression: Evidence for the Mediating Role of Perceived Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeds, Pamela M.; Harkness, Kate L.; Quilty, Lena C.

    2010-01-01

    The support deterioration model of depression states that stress deteriorates the perceived availability and/or effectiveness of social support, which then leads to depression. The present study examined this model in adolescent depression following parent-perpetrated maltreatment and peer-perpetrated bullying, as assessed by a rigorous contextual…

  15. Abnormal Neural Sensitivity to Monetary Gains versus Losses among Adolescents at Risk for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, Dan; Kotov, Roman; Klein, Daniel N.; Hajcak, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder aggregates within families, although the mechanisms of transfer across generations are not well understood. In light of converging biological and behavioral evidence that depressive symptoms are associated with impaired reward processing, we examined whether adolescent girls with a parental history of depression would…

  16. Maternal Control and Adolescent Depression: Ethnic Differences among Clinically Referred Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Jo-Ann S.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Martinovich, Zoran

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship between perceived maternal control and depression for 11 urban adolescent girls seeking psychological services at an outpatient clinic. No relation between control and depression was found for Caucasian and Latina girls, but high control was linked to less depression among African American girls. Findings highlight the…

  17. Depression and Its Measurement in Verbal Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotham, Katherine; Unruh, Kathryn; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In a sample of 50 verbally fluent adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (age: 16-31 years; verbal IQ: 72-140), we examined the pattern of response and associations between scores on common measures of depressive symptoms, participant characteristics, and clinical diagnosis of depressive disorders. Beck Depression Inventory--Second…

  18. Adolescent Depression: Assessing the Impact of Negative Cognitions and Socioenvironmental Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; Miller, Martin G.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the relative importance of socioenvironmental problems versus negative beliefs in explaining adolescent depression using a sample of high school students (N=423). Only one negative condition--low evaluation of self--was related to depression. Low parental support and employment problems were found to be predictors of depression and a…

  19. Brief Report: Delinquent Behaviour and Depression in Middle Adolescence: A Finnish Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritakallio, Minna; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Kivivuori, Janne; Rimpela, Matti

    2005-01-01

    A large number (N 50 569) of 14-16 year old Finnish adolescents taking part in the School Health Promotion Study were surveyed for delinquent behaviour in relation to depression. The results indicate a robust association between delinquency and depression. Among girls risk for depression varied between 1.3 and 3.1 according to various antisocial…

  20. Perceived Competence and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Attributional Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Seligman, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the interactive effects of depressive attributional style and multiple domains of perceived competence on depressive symptoms among 431 adolescents. Our structural equation modeling with latent factor interactions indicated that (1) for girls with a higher depressive attributional style, lower perceived competence…

  1. Face Emotion Processing in Depressed Children and Adolescents with and without Comorbid Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepman, Karen; Taylor, Eric; Collishaw, Stephan; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Studies of adults with depression point to characteristic neurocognitive deficits, including differences in processing facial expressions. Few studies have examined face processing in juvenile depression, or taken account of other comorbid disorders. Three groups were compared: depressed children and adolescents with conduct disorder (n = 23),…

  2. Prospective Reciprocal Relations between Physical Activity and Depression in Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerstad, Sarah J.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents has been found in research, this relation has seldom been examined prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical…

  3. Retrospective and Prospective Cognitions in Adolescents: Anxiety, Depression, and Positive and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Helen; MacLeod, Andrew K.; Pote, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Research with anxious and depressed adults has suggested that anxiety is related to an increased anticipation of both negative memories and negative expectancies whereas depression is related to a reduction in positive memories and expectancies. The present study examined whether anxiety and depression in 123 school-aged adolescents would show the…

  4. Depression amongst Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong: An Evaluation of a Stress Moderation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Catalina S. M.; Hurry, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Stress has an established association with depression. However, not all adolescents experiencing stressors become depressed and it is helpful to identify potential resilience factors. The current study tests a theoretical extension of a stress-diathesis model of depression in a Chinese context, with stress, coping, family relationships, and…

  5. Cognitive Vulnerabilities and Depression versus Other Psychopathology Symptoms and Diagnoses in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Black, Shimrit K.; Young, Mathew E.; Goldstein, Kim E.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Boccia, Angelo S.; Matt, Lindsey M.; Boland, Elaine M.; Moore, Lauren C.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the concurrent associations between multiple cognitive vulnerabilities to depression featured in hopelessness theory, Beck's theory, and response styles theory and depressive symptoms and diagnoses in a sample of early adolescents. We also examined the specificity of these cognitive vulnerabilities to depression versus anxiety and…

  6. Parenting and Early Adolescent Internalizing: The Importance of Teasing Apart Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…

  7. Expression of Anger in Depressed Adolescents: The Role of the Family Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jennifer; Kuppens, Peter; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    The expression of anger is considered to be abnormal in depression, yet its role is only poorly understood. In the present study we sought to clarify this role by examining the moderating influence of the family environment on overall levels of anger expression and anger reactivity in depressed and non-depressed adolescents during conflictual…

  8. Trajectories of Individual Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Gender and Family Relationships as Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Depressive syndrome and disorders increase substantially during adolescence. Little is known, however, about how "individual" symptoms of depression change over the course of this developmental period. The present study examined within-person changes in symptom severity of each individual symptom of depression, utilizing longitudinal…

  9. Stress and the Development of Cognitive Vulnerabilities to Depression Explain Sex Differences in Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    Although cognitive vulnerabilities to depression have received considerable empirical support, little research has evaluated the differential development of cognitive vulnerabilities in adolescent girls and boys. The current study examined the role of stressful life events, as well as sex differences in reactivity and exposure to stress, in the development of negative cognitive style and rumination in a multi-wave study of 382 adolescents. Path analyses indicated that interpersonal dependent stress predicted higher prospective levels of negative cognitive styles and rumination. Additionally, girls’ greater exposure to interpersonal dependent stress explained their higher levels of rumination, which accounted for girls’ higher levels of depressive symptoms than boys. These findings suggest that interpersonal dependent stress is a significant risk factor for the formation of cognitive vulnerabilities to depression during adolescence, and that the sex difference in depressive symptoms may result from girls’ greater exposure to interpersonal dependent stress and ruminative response style than boys. PMID:26509106

  10. Self-Referential Processing in Depressed Adolescents: A High-Density ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Stanton, Colin H.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the alarming increase in the prevalence of depression during adolescence, particularly among female adolescents, the pathophysiology of depression in adolescents remains largely unknown. Event-related potentials (ERPs) provide an ideal approach to investigate cognitive-affective processes associated with depression in adolescents, especially in the context of negative self-referential processing biases. In this study, healthy (n = 30) and depressed (n = 22) female adolescents completed a self-referential encoding task while ERP data were recorded. To examine cognitive-affective processes associated with self-referential processing, P1, P2, and late positive potential (LPP) responses to negative and positive words were investigated, and intracortical sources of scalp effects were probed using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). Additionally, we tested whether key cognitive processes (e.g., maladaptive self-view, self-criticism) previously implicated in depression related to ERP components. Relative to healthy female subjects, depressed females endorsed more negative and fewer positive words, and free recalled and recognized fewer positive words. With respect to ERPs, compared to healthy female adolescents, depressed adolescents exhibited greater P1 amplitudes following negative words, which was associated with a more maladaptive self-view and self-criticism. In both early and late LPP responses, depressed females showed greater activity following negative versus positive words, whereas healthy females demonstrated the opposite pattern. For both P1 and LPP, LORETA revealed reduced inferior frontal gyrus activity in response to negative words in depressed versus healthy female adolescents. Collectively, these findings suggest that the P1 and LPP reflect biased self-referential processing in female adolescents with depression. Potential treatment implications are discussed. PMID:25643205

  11. How Do I Feel About Feelings? Emotion Socialization in Families of Depressed and Healthy Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Erin C.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Shortt, Joann Wu; Davis, Betsy; Leve, Craig; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2010-01-01

    Emotional and cognitive changes that occur during adolescence set the stage for the development of adaptive or maladaptive beliefs about emotions. Although research suggests that parents’ behaviors and beliefs about emotions relate to children’s emotional abilities, few studies have looked at parental socialization of children’s emotions, particularly in families with depressed adolescents. The present study examined associations between parent and adolescent meta-emotion philosophies (MEP), defined as thoughts, reactions, and feelings about their own emotions. Additionally, adolescent depressive status was tested as a moderator of relationships between parents’ and adolescents’ MEP. One hundred and 52 adolescents, aged 14–18 (65.8% female), and their parents (148 mothers, 106 fathers) participated in a study on emotion socialization in families of depressed and healthy adolescents. Depressed adolescents (n = 75) and matched healthy adolescents (n = 77) were recruited based on research criteria for mental health status. The sample was largely Caucasian (82%) and of middle socioeconomic class status. Results indicated that mothers’ and fathers’ MEP about their children’s emotions were associated with adolescents’ MEP, although parents’ MEP about their own emotions was unrelated to adolescents’ MEP. Fathers’ MEP about children’s emotions made unique contributions to adolescents’ MEP across both adolescent groups. Adolescents’ depressive status moderated the relationship between mothers’ and adolescents’ MEP such that mothers’ MEP was particularly relevant for depressed adolescents. The continued influence of parents in the emotional lives of adolescents is discussed as well as differences in emotion socialization in families with depressed and healthy adolescents. PMID:20473712

  12. Measuring depression and stigma towards depression and mental health treatment among adolescents in an Arab-American community

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, R.M.; Farroukh, M.; Ismail, M.; Najda, J.; Sobh, H.; Hammad, A.; Dalack, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research that has examined the prevalence of depression and attitudes towards depression and mental health treatment in Arab-American adolescents; we sought to assess these in a predominantly Arab-American community in metro Detroit. A health survey of adolescents aged 12–17 years was conducted (n=98). Participants were recruited from two local community organizations in Dearborn, MI. Depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Depression Scale, and attitude towards depression and willingness to seek help for mental health conditions were assessed by the Self-Stigma of Depression Scale (SSDS). To assess whether attitudes might be affected by information about mental health treatment, adolescents were randomized to view either an educational video about mental health, or a control video before responding to questions about their willingness to seek help for mental health conditions. Overall, 14% of Arab-American adolescents in this study endorsed moderate or moderately severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 11), suggesting a need to increase awareness of and access to mental health services and screening for Arab-American youth. PMID:26257824

  13. Adapting and testing telephone-based depression care management intervention for adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M Cynthia; Foltz, Melissa Pinto; Stein, Bradley; Usui, Wayne; Josephson, Allan

    2010-08-01

    This phase 1 clinical trial combined qualitative and quantitative methods to modify a collaborative care, telephone-based, depression care management intervention for adolescent mothers and to determine the acceptability, feasibility, and initial efficacy of the intervention in a sample of adolescent mothers (n = 97) who were recruited from a Teen Parent Program. Outcomes included measures of depressive symptoms, functioning, and use of mental health services. Acceptability of the intervention was demonstrated, but feasibility issues related to the complex life challenges confronting the adolescent mother. Although only four adolescent mothers received mental health treatment, there was a trend for improved depressive symptoms over time. Results of the study provide data for the need of further refinement of the intervention before a large clinical trial is conducted for adolescent mothers with symptoms of depression. PMID:20020164

  14. Adapting and Testing Telephone Based Depression Care Management Intervention for Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Pinto-Foltz, Melissa D.; Stein, Bradley; Usui, Wayne; Josephson, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose and Methods This Phase 1 clinical trial combined qualitative and quantitative methods to modify a collaborative care, telephone based, depression care management intervention for adolescent mothers, and to determine the acceptability, feasibility, and initial efficacy of the intervention in a sample of adolescent mothers (n=97) who were recruited from a Teen Parent Program. Outcomes included measures of depressive symptoms, functioning, and use of mental health services. Results Acceptability of the intervention was demonstrated, but feasibility issues related to the complex life challenges confronting the adolescent mother. Although only four adolescent mothers received mental health treatment, there was a trend for improved depressive symptoms over time. Conclusion Results of the study provide data for the need of further refinement of the intervention before a large clinical trial is conducted for adolescent mothers with symptoms of depression. PMID:20020164

  15. The role of the kynurenine pathway in suicidality in adolescent major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Kailyn A. L.; Case, Julia A. C.; Khan, Omar; Ricart, Thomas; Hanna, Amira; Alonso, Carmen M.; Gabbay, Vilma

    2015-01-01

    The neuroimmunological kynurenine pathway (KP) has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults and adolescents, most recently in suicidality in adults. The KP is initiated by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which degrades tryptophan (TRP) into kynurenine (KYN) en route to neurotoxins. Here, we examined the KP in 20 suicidal depressed adolescents—composed of past attempters and those who expressed active suicidal intent—30 non-suicidal depressed youth, and 22 healthy controls (HC). Plasma levels of TRP, KYN, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and KYN/TRP (index of IDO) were assessed. Suicidal adolescents showed decreased TRP and elevated KYN/TRP compared to both non-suicidal depressed adolescents and HC. Findings became more significantly pronounced when excluding medicated participants, wherein there was also a significant positive correlation between KYN/TRP and suicidality. Finally, although depressed adolescents with a history of suicide attempt differed from acutely suicidal adolescents with respect to disease severity, anhedonia, and suicidality, the groups did not differ in KP measures. Our findings suggest a possible specific role of the KP in suicidality in depressed adolescents, while illustrating the clinical phenomenon that depressed adolescents with a history of suicide attempt are similar to acutely suicidal youth and are at increased risk for completion of suicide. PMID:25865484

  16. Preliminary examination of ethnic group differences in adolescent girls' attitudes toward depression treatments.

    PubMed

    Caporino, Nicole E; Chen, Jason I; Karver, Marc S

    2014-01-01

    Efficacious treatments are only valuable to the extent that they are used. Given ethnic disparities in mental health service utilization, this preliminary study examined differences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) adolescents' ratings of the acceptability of depression treatments and related constructs. Female high school students (N = 67; 54% Hispanic) read a vignette describing a depressed adolescent and rated the acceptability of four single treatments for depression (i.e., cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, family therapy, and pharmacotherapy) and three treatment combinations. Hispanic adolescents completed a self-report measure of acculturation and all adolescents were interviewed about their beliefs of the causes of depression. Results showed more similarities than differences between ethnic groups, with Hispanic and NHW adolescents favoring psychological treatments over pharmacotherapy. Among Hispanic participants, overall ratings of treatment acceptability were significantly higher for bicultural adolescents than Hispanic adolescents immersed predominantly in non-Hispanic culture. Hispanic and NHW adolescents generally showed similar beliefs about the causes of depression, with both groups endorsing personality and cognitions at high rates, but Hispanics were significantly less likely than NHWs to endorse trauma as a cause of depression. Implications for decreasing ethnic disparities in unmet need for treatment are discussed. PMID:23834256

  17. Coping strategies and depression in Puerto Rican adolescents: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Colomba, M V; Santiago, E S; Rosselló, J

    1999-02-01

    The use of inadequate coping strategies in stressful situations results in the development of depression in adolescents. This study identified coping strategies used by Puerto Rican adolescents and evaluated the relationship between coping and depression. Fifty-one adolescents participated in the study. Results indicated that the most frequently used coping strategy was developing positive perceptions about life situations. Significant differences were observed according to the severity of depressive symptoms. Investing in family relationships and developing positive perceptions about life situations seemed to reduce depression. Furthermore, the strategies of investing in family relationships and relieving tension through diversion were the variables with more predictive value for depression. The importance of exploring coping responses within the cultural context of the adolescent is discussed. PMID:15603240

  18. A confirmatory model for depression among Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R N; Hishinuma, Earl S; Goebert, Deborah A; Chang, Janice Y; Andrade, Naleen N; Nishimura, Stephanie T

    2005-02-01

    A confirmatory model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, and depression was developed (N = 140). The model incorporated the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), Major Life Events Scale, and Japanese Cultural Scale. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Cultural Scale and reported fewer depressive symptoms on the CES-D total and on 2 of the 3 CES-D factors than part-Japanese American adolescents. Predictors for depression were being Japanese American vs. part-Japanese American, female gender, and culturally intensified events. A significant interaction of behavior by self-identification was noted. The model had good overall fit and suggested that the formation of cultural identity may contribute to depressive symptoms experienced by adolescents, particularly adolescents of mixed heritage. PMID:15727494

  19. Depressive Symptoms and Violence Exposure: Contributors to Repeat Pregnancies Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cheryl A.; Pierce, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Depressive symptoms and violence exposure (VE) often cooccur and have been recognized to influence childbearing; contribution to repeat pregnancy is unclear and examined in this article. This cross-sectional, descriptive, study screened for depressive symptoms and VE among 193 adolescent mothers at a large county hospital in Southwestern United States. Repeat pregnancy and depressive symptoms characterized one-third and one-quarter of adolescents, respectively. Despite minimal disclosure of VE, repeat pregnancy was significantly influenced by child abuse and past traumatic life experiences. Assessments and interventions with adolescents should focus on frequency of repeat pregnancies and symptoms of depression and VE. Nurses and childbirth educators are poised to offer birth control information and education, support, and resources highlighting depression and VE to adolescents. PMID:26834444

  20. Relational Stressors and Depressive Symptoms in Late Adolescence: Rejection Sensitivity as a Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Allen, Joseph P.; Schad, Megan M.; Marston, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The role of rejection sensitivity as a critical diathesis moderating the link between adolescent relational stressors and depressive symptoms was examined using multi-method, multi-reporter data from a diverse community sample of 173 adolescents, followed from age 16 to 18. Relational stressors examined included emotional abuse, maternal behavior undermining adolescents’ autonomy and relatedness, and lack of support from close peers. As hypothesized, multiple relational stressors were found to predict the future development of depressive symptoms, but as hypothesized predictions existed primarily for adolescents who were highly rejection sensitive. Results are discussed in terms of a diathesis-stress model of depression and suggest that though relational stressors have previously shown consistent modest links to depressive symptoms, understanding pre-existing intrapsychic vulnerabilities of the adolescent may be critical to identifying the processes by which such stressors lead to depressive symptoms. PMID:21927802

  1. Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory, Emotional Maltreatment, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Evidence of a Cognitive Vulnerability-Stress Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2012-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is associated with depression and may confer risk for the development of depressed mood, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated OGM as a predictor of depressive symptoms in early adolescence, particularly in the context of environmental stressors. We investigated whether OGM and emotional maltreatment would interact to predict prospective increases in depressive symptoms in early adolescents and whether these effects differed by race. Among 174 seventh-graders, OGM and familial emotional abuse interacted to predict depressive symptoms eight months later, controlling for initial depressive symptoms. Specifically, emotional abuse predicted increases in depressive symptoms among Caucasian adolescents with more OGM, but not among those with less OGM. This association was not significant for African American adolescents. These results provide support for a cognitive vulnerability-stress relationship between OGM and emotional abuse in early adolescence and suggest that these mechanisms of risk for depression may be specific to Caucasian adolescents. PMID:23186994

  2. Overgeneral autobiographical memory, emotional maltreatment, and depressive symptoms in adolescence: evidence of a cognitive vulnerability-stress interaction.

    PubMed

    Stange, Jonathan P; Hamlat, Elissa J; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2013-02-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is associated with depression and may confer risk for the development of depressed mood, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated OGM as a predictor of depressive symptoms in early adolescence, particularly in the context of environmental stressors. We investigated whether OGM and emotional maltreatment would interact to predict prospective increases in depressive symptoms in early adolescents and whether these effects differed by race. Among 174 seventh-graders, OGM and familial emotional abuse interacted to predict depressive symptoms eight months later, controlling for initial depressive symptoms. Specifically, emotional abuse predicted increases in depressive symptoms among Caucasian adolescents with more OGM, but not among those with less OGM. This association was not significant for African American adolescents. These results provide support for a cognitive vulnerability-stress relationship between OGM and emotional abuse in early adolescence and suggest that these mechanisms of risk for depression may be specific to Caucasian adolescents. PMID:23186994

  3. Two prospective studies of changes in stress generation across depressive episodes in adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Morris, Matthew C; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Hellman, Natalie; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy

    2014-11-01

    The stress generation hypothesis was tested in two different longitudinal studies examining relations between weekly depression symptom ratings and stress levels in adolescents and emerging adults at varied risk for depression. The participants in Study 1 included 240 adolescents who differed with regard to their mothers' history of depressive disorders. Youth were assessed annually across 6 years (Grades 6-12). Consistent with the depression autonomy model, higher numbers of prior major depressive episodes (MDEs) were associated with weaker stress generation effects, such that higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted increases in levels of dependent stressors for adolescents with two or more prior MDEs, but depressive symptoms were not significantly related to dependent stress levels for youth with three or more prior MDEs. In Study 2, the participants were 32 remitted-depressed and 36 never-depressed young adults who completed a psychosocial stress task to determine cortisol reactivity and were reassessed for depression and stress approximately 8 months later. Stress generation effects were moderated by cortisol responses to a laboratory psychosocial stressor, such that individuals with higher cortisol responses exhibited a pattern consistent with the depression autonomy model, whereas individuals with lower cortisol responses showed a pattern more consistent with the depression sensitization model. Finally, comparing across the two samples, stress generation effects were weaker for older participants and for those with more prior MDEs. The complex, multifactorial relation between stress and depression is discussed. PMID:25422968

  4. Two Prospective Studies of Changes in Stress Generation across Depressive Episodes in Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Matthew C.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Hellman, Natalie; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    The stress generation hypothesis was tested in two different longitudinal studies examining relations between weekly depression symptom ratings and stress levels in adolescents and emerging adults at varied risk for depression. Participants in Study 1 included 240 adolescents who differed with regard to their mother’s history of depressive disorders. Youth were assessed annually across 6 years (Grades 6 through 12). Consistent with the depression autonomy model, higher numbers of prior major depressive episodes (MDEs) were associated with weaker stress generation effects, such that higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted increases in levels of dependent stressors for adolescents with ≤ 2 prior MDEs, but depressive symptoms were not significantly related to dependent stress levels for youth with ≥ 3 prior MDEs. In Study 2, participants were 32 remitted-depressed and 36 never-depressed young adults who completed a psychosocial stress task to determine cortisol reactivity and were re-assessed for depression and stress approximately eight months later. Stress generation effects were moderated by cortisol responses to a laboratory psychosocial stressor, such that individuals with higher cortisol responses exhibited a pattern consistent with the depression autonomy model, whereas individuals with lower cortisol responses showed a pattern more consistent with the depression sensitization model. Finally, comparing across the two samples, stress generation effects were weaker for older participants and for those with more prior MDEs. The complex, multi-factorial relation between stress and depression is discussed. PMID:25422968

  5. Neural Response to Reward as a Predictor of Rise in Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Judith K.; Olino, Thomas M.; McMakin, Dana L.; Ryan, Neal D.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by significant increases in the onset of depression, but also by increases in depressive symptoms, even among psychiatrically healthy youth. Disrupted reward function has been postulated as a critical factor in the development of depression, but it is still unclear which adolescents are particularly at risk for rising depressive symptoms. We provide a conceptual stance on gender, pubertal development, and reward type as potential moderators of the association between neural response to reward and rises in depressive symptoms. In addition, we describe preliminary findings that support claims of this conceptual stance. We propose that (1) status-related rewards may be particularly salient for eliciting neural response relevant to depressive symptoms in boys, whereas social rewards may be more salient for eliciting neural response relevant to depressive symptoms in girls and (2) the pattern of reduced striatal response and enhanced medial prefrontal response to reward may be particularly predictive of depressive symptoms in pubertal adolescents. We found that greater vmPFC activation when winning rewards predicted greater increases in depressive symptoms over two years, for boys only, and less striatal activation when anticipating rewards predicted greater increases in depressive symptoms over two years, for adolescents in mid to late pubertal stages but not those in pre to early puberty. We also propose directions for future studies, including the investigation of social vs. monetary reward directly and the longitudinal assessment of parallel changes in pubertal development, neural response to reward, and depressive symptoms. PMID:22521464

  6. Depression screening and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Depression is an important cause of disability among children and adolescents. Depression screening is one possible method for managing depression, and screening programs have been initiated in some school and medical settings. However, in 2005, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care and the United Kingdom National Institute of Clinical Excellence did not recommend depression screening among children and adolescents. By contrast, in 2009, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommended that all adolescents, but not younger children, be screened for depression in medical settings with integrated depression management services, although no trials of screening were identified. The objectives of this systematic review are to evaluate in children and adolescents the accuracy of depression screening tools; depression treatment efficacy; whether depression screening improves depression outcomes; and potential harms related to depression interventions and screening. Methods/design Data sources will include the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, LILACS and Web of Science, supplemented by reference harvesting of eligible articles, relevant systematic reviews, relevant guidelines and recommendations, and selected journals, and by searches for unpublished studies. Eligible studies will report data for children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years. Eligible diagnostic accuracy studies must compare a depression screening tool to a validated diagnostic interview for major depressive disorder and report diagnostic accuracy data. Eligible treatment studies must be randomized controlled trials of pharmacological, psychotherapeutic, or other depression treatments commonly available for children and adolescents in pediatric, primary-care, and family medicine settings. Eligible screening studies must be randomized controlled trials that compare depression outcomes between children or adolescents who underwent depression

  7. Rumination and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Adolescents: An Integration of Cognitive Vulnerabilities to Depression

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Samantha L.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    During adolescence, rates of depression dramatically increase and girls become twice as likely as boys to develop depression. Research suggests that overgeneral autobiographical memory and rumination are vulnerability factors for depressive symptoms in adolescence that may be triggered by stressful life events. The current longitudinal study included 160 early adolescents (Mage = 12.44 years, 60.0 % African American, 40.0 % Caucasian, and 56.2 % female). At baseline, adolescents completed measures of current depressive symptoms, rumination, and specificity of autobiographical memories. Approximately 9 months later, the adolescents completed measures of current depressive symptoms and stressful life events that had occurred between baseline and follow-up. Analyses indicated that girls with more overgeneral autobiographical memories in combination with higher levels of rumination were most vulnerable to experiencing increases in depressive symptoms following stressful life events. Additionally, retrieving more specific autobiographical memories appeared to buffer against the impact of negative life events on depressive symptoms among both boys and girls. Memory specificity may play a protective role in depression risk, suggesting that memory specificity training interventions may prove beneficial for adolescents. PMID:24449170

  8. Suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents: a review of empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Galaif, Elisha R; Sussman, Steve; Newcomb, Michael D; Locke, Thomas F

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is a serious health problem as it is currently the third leading cause of death for teenagers between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Depression, which is also a serious problem for adolescents, is the most significant biological and psychological risk factor for teen suicide. Alcohol use remains extremely widespread among today's teenagers and is related to both suicidality and depression. Suicidality refers to the occurrence of suicidal thoughts or suicidal behavior. The consensus in empirical research is that mental disorders and substance abuse are the most important risk factors in both attempted and completed adolescent suicide. Therefore, it is incumbent upon researchers to identify the factors that can lead to their prevention among today's youth. This review compiles the existing literature on suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents spanning over the past 15 years. Both Problem Behavior Theory and Stress-coping Theory can explain the relationships among suicidality, depression and alcohol use. The prevention of suicidality is critical, especially during the early school years, when it is associated with depression and alcohol use. Suicidality, depression and alcohol use are three phenomenon that noticeably increase in adolescence marking this time period as an ideal opportunity for prevention efforts to commence. Future empirical work is needed that will further assess the impact of adolescent depression and alcohol use on suicidality. In sum, this review of empirical research highlights critical results and limitations, as well as indicates a need for continued efforts in preventing suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:17458321

  9. Rumination and overgeneral autobiographical memory in adolescents: an integration of cognitive vulnerabilities to depression.

    PubMed

    Hamlat, Elissa J; Connolly, Samantha L; Hamilton, Jessica L; Stange, Jonathan P; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-04-01

    During adolescence, rates of depression dramatically increase and girls become twice as likely as boys to develop depression. Research suggests that overgeneral autobiographical memory and rumination are vulnerability factors for depressive symptoms in adolescence that may be triggered by stressful life events. The current longitudinal study included 160 early adolescents (Mage = 12.44 years, 60.0 % African American, 40.0 % Caucasian, and 56.2 % female). At baseline, adolescents completed measures of current depressive symptoms, rumination, and specificity of autobiographical memories. Approximately 9 months later, the adolescents completed measures of current depressive symptoms and stressful life events that had occurred between baseline and follow-up. Analyses indicated that girls with more overgeneral autobiographical memories in combination with higher levels of rumination were most vulnerable to experiencing increases in depressive symptoms following stressful life events. Additionally, retrieving more specific autobiographical memories appeared to buffer against the impact of negative life events on depressive symptoms among both boys and girls. Memory specificity may play a protective role in depression risk, suggesting that memory specificity training interventions may prove beneficial for adolescents. PMID:24449170

  10. Neural Reward Processing Mediates the Relationship between Insomnia Symptoms and Depression in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Casement, Melynda D.; Keenan, Kate E.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Emerging evidence suggests that insomnia may disrupt reward-related brain function—a potentially important factor in the development of depressive disorder. Adolescence may be a period during which such disruption is especially problematic given the rise in the incidence of insomnia and ongoing development of neural systems that support reward processing. The present study uses longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that disruption of neural reward processing is a mechanism by which insomnia symptoms—including nocturnal insomnia symptoms (NIS) and nonrestorative sleep (NRS)—contribute to depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Method: Participants were 123 adolescent girls and their caregivers from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. NIS and NRS were assessed annually from ages 9 to 13 years. Girls completed a monetary reward task during a functional MRI scan at age 16 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed at ages 16 and 17 years. Multivariable regression tested the prospective associations between NIS and NRS, neural response during reward anticipation, and the mean number of depressive symptoms (omitting sleep problems). Results: NRS, but not NIS, during early adolescence was positively associated with late adolescent dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) response to reward anticipation and depressive symptoms. DMPFC response mediated the relationship between early adolescent NRS and late adolescent depressive symptoms. Conclusions: These results suggest that NRS may contribute to depression by disrupting reward processing via altered activity in a region of prefrontal cortex involved in affective control. The results also support the mechanistic differentiation of NIS and NRS. Citation: Casement MD, Keenan KE, Hipwell AE, Guyer AE, Forbes EE. Neural reward processing mediates the relationship between insomnia symptoms and depression in adolescence. SLEEP 2016;39(2):439–447

  11. Associations Between Parental Attachment and Course of Depression Between Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Agerup, Tea; Lydersen, Stian; Wallander, Jan; Sund, Anne Mari

    2015-08-01

    A study of the associations of maternal, paternal and peer attachment with the course of depression from adolescence to young adulthood. In the Youth and Mental Health study 242 adolescents completed the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime version for depressive disorders at age 15 and 20. Attachment was measured with the inventory for parent and peer attachment, separately for mother, father, and peers, at age 15. Multinomial logistic regression, indicated insecure attachment relationships with both parents, but not with peers, and were associated with the course of depression. Less secure attachment to mothers was associated with becoming depressed. Less secure attachment to both parents was associated with becoming well and remaining depressed. These results suggest attachment relationships with parents as potential influences on the course of depression and may provide important framework for clinical work with adolescents and young adults. PMID:25319511

  12. Pubertal timing, sexual behaviour and self-reported depression in middle adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Kosunen, Elise; Rimpelä, Matti

    2003-10-01

    The associations between pubertal timing, sexual activity and self-reported depression were analysed in a population sample of 17,082 girls and 15,922 boys aged 14-16 as a par of a classroom survey. Pubertal timing was assessed by age at onset of menstruation (menarche) or ejaculations (oigarche). Sexual experiences elicited included kissing, light petting, heavy petting and intercourse. Self-reported depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory. Among girls, self-reported depression was associated with early puberty and intimate sexual relationship. Among boys depression was associated with very early and late puberty and experience of intercourse. Early puberty is a risk factor for self-reported depression. Intimate sexual relationships in middle adolescent are likely to indicate problems in adolescent development rather than successful adolescent passage. PMID:12972267

  13. Relational Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Moderating Effects of Mother, Father, and Peer Emotional Support

    PubMed Central

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence heralds a unique period of vulnerability to depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined relational victimization in adolescents’ peer relationships as a unique predictor of depressive symptoms among a primarily (85%) Caucasian sample of 540 youth (294 females) concurrently and across a 6-year period. The moderating effects of emotional support received from mothers, fathers, and peers on the association between relational victimization and adolescents’ depressive symptoms were also investigated. Findings revealed that adolescents who were relationally victimized consistently had higher depressive symptoms than their non-victimized peers. However, high levels of emotional support from fathers buffered this relationship over time. Emotional support from mothers and peers also moderated the longitudinal relationship between relational victimization and depressive symptoms, with high levels of support predicting increases in adolescents’ symptoms. Relational victimization presents a clear risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence, and emotional support may serve either a protective or vulnerability-enhancing role depending on the source of support. PMID:20577897

  14. Overgeneral autobiographical memory and chronic interpersonal stress as predictors of the course of depression in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Griffith, James W; Mineka, Susan; Rekart, Kathleen Newcomb; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle G

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) predicts the course of depression in adolescents. As part of a larger longitudinal study of risk for emotional disorders, 55 adolescents with a past history of major depressive disorder or minor depressive disorder completed the Autobiographical Memory Test. Fewer specific memories predicted the subsequent onset of a major depressive episode (MDE) over a 16-month follow-up period, even when covarying baseline depressive symptoms. This main effect was qualified by an interaction between specific memories and chronic interpersonal stress: Fewer specific memories predicted greater risk of MDE onset over follow-up at high (but not low) levels of chronic interpersonal stress. Thus, our findings suggest that OGM, in interaction with chronic interpersonal stress, predicts the course of depression among adolescents, and highlight the importance of measuring interpersonal stress in OGM research. PMID:21432666

  15. INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS DURING ADOLESCENCE AND YOUNG ADULTHOOD

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), we examine the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and depressive symptoms during adolescence and young adulthood (N = 1, 273) while controlling for time-stable and time-varying correlates. Results show temporal changes in depressive symptoms, such that increases in depressive symptoms correspond to IPV exposure. While prior work has theorized that certain populations may be at increased psychological vulnerability from IPV, results indicate that both perpetration and victimization are associated with increases in depressive symptoms for both men and women and irrespective of whether IPV exposure occurred in adolescence or young adulthood. Cumulative exposure to IPV does not appear to increase depressive symptoms beyond the effect observed for the most recent IPV exposure, but physical maltreatment by a parent does appear to diminish the effect of IPV perpetration on depressive symptoms for a small subset of the sample. PMID:24578395

  16. Shared Etiology of Psychotic Experiences and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Zavos, Helena M S; Eley, Thalia C; McGuire, Philip; Plomin, Robert; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-09-01

    Psychotic disorders and major depression, both typically adult-onset conditions, often co-occur. At younger ages psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms are often reported in the community. We used a genetically sensitive longitudinal design to investigate the relationship between psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms in adolescence. A representative community sample of twins from England and Wales was employed. Self-rated depressive symptoms, paranoia, hallucinations, cognitive disorganization, grandiosity, anhedonia, and parent-rated negative symptoms were collected when the twins were age 16 (N = 9618) and again on a representative subsample 9 months later (N = 2873). Direction and aetiology of associations were assessed using genetically informative cross-lagged models. Depressive symptoms were moderately correlated with paranoia, hallucinations, and cognitive disorganization. Lower correlations were observed between depression and anhedonia, and depression and parent-rated negative symptoms. Nonsignificant correlations were observed between depression and grandiosity. Largely the same genetic effects influenced depression and paranoia, depression and hallucinations, and depression and cognitive disorganization. Modest overlap in environmental influences also played a role in the associations. Significant bi-directional longitudinal associations were observed between depression and paranoia. Hallucinations and cognitive disorganization during adolescence were found to impact later depression, even after controlling for earlier levels of depression. Our study shows that psychotic experiences and depression, as traits in the community, have a high genetic overlap in mid-adolescence. Future research should test the prediction stemming from our longitudinal results, namely that reducing or ameliorating positive and cognitive psychotic experiences in adolescence would decrease later depressive symptoms. PMID:26994398

  17. Prevention of Depression in at-risk Adolescents: Longer-term Effects

    PubMed Central

    Beardslee, William R.; Brent, David A.; Weersing, V. Robin; Clarke, Gregory N.; Porta, Giovanna; Hollon, Steven D.; Gladstone, Tracy R.G.; Gallop, Robert; Lynch, Frances L.; Iyengar, Satish; DeBar, Lynn; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Context Adolescent offspring of depressed parents are at high risk for experiencing depressive disorders themselves. Objective To determine whether the positive effects of a group cognitive-behavioral prevention (CBP) program extended to longer term (multi-year) follow-up. Design, Setting, and Participants A four-site, randomized, controlled trial enrolled 316 adolescent (ages 13-17 years) offspring of parents with current and/or prior depressive disorders; adolescents had histories of depression, current elevated depressive symptoms, or both. Intervention The CBP program consisted of 8 weekly, 90-minute group sessions followed by 6 monthly continuation sessions. Adolescents were randomly assigned to either the CBP program or usual care (UC). Main Outcome Measure The primary outcome was a probable or definite episode of depression (Depression Symptom Rating score ≥; 4) for at least 2 weeks through the month 33 follow-up evaluation. Results Over the 33-month follow-up period, youths in the CBP condition had significantly fewer onsets of depressive episodes compared to those in UC. Parental depression at baseline significantly moderated the intervention effect. When parents were not depressed at intake, CBP was superior to UC (NNT ratio=6), whereas when parents were actively depressed at baseline, average onset rates between CBP and UC were not significantly different. A three-way interaction among intervention, baseline parental depression, and site indicated that the impact of parental depression on intervention effectiveness varied across sites. Conclusions The CBP program showed significant sustained effects compared to usual care in preventing the onset of depressive episodes in at-risk youth over a nearly three-year period. Important next steps will be to strengthen the CBP intervention to further enhance its preventive effects, improve intervention outcomes when parents are currently depressed, and conduct larger implementation trials to test the broader

  18. Engaging Depressed African American Adolescents in Treatment: Lessons From The AAKOMA PROJECT

    PubMed Central

    Breland-Noble, Alfiee M.; Burriss, Antoinette; Poole, H. Kathy

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe and illustrate means of engaging depressed African American adolescents in treatment. Twenty-eight youth participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Using grounded theory and transcript based analysis, they derived 5 themes describing African American adolescents’ experience of depression and suggested mechanisms for improving African American youth treatment engagement. Practitioners can educate African American youth about depression as a medical disorder, build trust, and apply innovative approaches to recognizing differential manifestations of depression in African American youth. PMID:20564682

  19. Adolescent depression. Epidemiology, nosology, life stress and social network. Minireview based on a doctoral thesis.

    PubMed

    Olsson, G

    1998-01-01

    The study engaged a total population of 16-17-year-old urban high-school students and 2300 (93%) were screened for depression and previous suicide attempts. Adolescents with high depression scores in self-evaluation (12.3%) or reporting previous suicide attempts (2.4%) were diagnostically interviewed together with one control for each, matched for gender and educational program. After the interview self-ratings were completed regarding social network, family climate, and life events. Major depression was prevalent during the last year in 5.8% and during life time in 11.4%, 4 girls for every boy. A depression with remaining symptoms for a year or more was the most common type. Dysthymia without major depressive episodes was diagnosed in 1.1%, two girls for every boy. Short hypomanic episodes had been experienced by 13.2% of those with major depressive disorder. Anxiety disorder was comorbid to depression in one half and conduct disorder in one forth of the depressed adolescents. Alcohol was abused by 6.5% and used regularly by another 12%. Other drugs were used by 6.5% of depressed adolescents and not at all by controls. The depressed used tobacco twice as frequently as non-depressed. Social network and family climate were compared within the originally matched pairs. Adolescents with long-lasting depressions had a smaller and unsatisfying social network. They also had experienced many stressful life events related to family adversities, while those with shorter depressive episodes had stress related to the peer group. Depressed adolescents with comorbid conduct disorder reported insufficient support from the close network and a more negative family climate. PMID:9923068

  20. Positive illusions in adolescents: the relationship between academic self-enhancement and depressive symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Noble, Rick N; Heath, Nancy L; Toste, Jessica R

    2011-12-01

    Positive illusions are systematically inflated self-perceptions of competence, and are frequently seen in areas of great difficulty. Although these illusions have been extensively documented in children and adults, their role in typical adolescent emotion regulation is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between positive illusions, depressive symptomatology, and school stress in a sample of 71 school-based adolescents. Findings revealed that adolescents who were achieving slightly below average in math significantly overestimated their performance, but adolescents did not overestimate their performance in spelling. Positive illusions in math were negatively related to depressive symptomatology. Implications for positive illusions theory are discussed. PMID:21695500

  1. Altered Cerebral Perfusion in Executive, Affective, and Motor Networks During Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Tiffany C.; Wu, Jing; Shin, David D.; Liu, Thomas T.; Tapert, Susan F.; Yang, Guang; Connolly, Colm G.; Frank, Guido K.W.; Max, Jeffrey E.; Wolkowitz, Owen; Eisendrath, Stuart; Hoeft, Fumiko; Banerjee, Dipavo; Hood, Korey; Hendren, Robert L.; Paulus, Martin P.; Simmons, Alan N.; Yang, Tony T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective While substantial literature has reported regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities in adults with depression, these studies commonly necessitated the injection of radioisotopes into subjects. The recent development of arterial spin labeling (ASL), however, allows for noninvasive measurements of rCBF. Currently, no published ASL studies have examined cerebral perfusion in adolescents with depression. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine baseline cerebral perfusion in adolescent depression using a newly developed ASL technique: pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL). Method 25 medication-naive adolescents (ages 13–17 years) diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 26 well-matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Baseline rCBF was measured via a novel PCASL method that optimizes tagging efficiency. Results Voxel-based whole brain analyses revealed significant frontal, limbic, paralimbic, and cingulate hypoperfusion in the group with depression (p<0.05, corrected). Hyperperfusion was also observed within the subcallosal cingulate, putamen, and fusiform gyrus (p<0.05, corrected). Similarly, region-of-interest analyses revealed amygdalar and insular hypoperfusion in the group with depression, as well as hyperperfusion in the putamen and superior insula (p<0.05, corrected). Conclusions Adolescents with depression and healthy adolescents appear to differ on rCBF in executive, affective, and motor networks. Dysfunction in these regions may contribute to the cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor symptoms commonly present in adolescent depression. These findings point to possible biomarkers for adolescent depression that could inform early interventions and treatments and establishes a methodology for using PCASL to noninvasively measure rCBF in clinical and healthy adolescent populations. PMID:24074474

  2. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Arroyo, Dalton; Hidalgo, Luis; Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Chedraui, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged. PMID:21461335

  3. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Arroyo, Dalton; Hidalgo, Luis; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Chedraui, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06-4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43-6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged. PMID:21461335

  4. The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) as measure of depression in Swedish adolescents. A normative study.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Tord; Svalander, Per; Litlere, Oeystein

    2006-01-01

    Self-rating scales are an economical and practical aid in the diagnostic work-up. However, normative data from the general population are needed to interpret scores. Four hundred and five adolescents selected to be fairly representative of the general population (both ethnical Swedes and born abroad) filled in a questionnaire containing the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and background data (including socio-economic status (SES). The CDI was reliable in terms of internal consistency (0.86) with a mean inter-item correlation of 0.18 and item-total score correlations ranging from 0.26 to 0.57. The CDI sub-scales (Negative Mood, Ineffectiveness, Anhedonia and Negative Self-esteem had good internal consistency values slightly above 0.60, except for sub-scale Interpersonal Problems with poor internal consistency (0.36). The 90th and 95th percentiles respectively were defined by scores 15 and 18 and above for boys and by scores 20 and 23 and above for girls. Common correlates of high scores were female gender, broken family but not SES, nor ethnicity. Also, some estimates of the convergent validity of the CDI were found in a Pearson correlation of 0.40 with the MASC total score and in the capacity of the CDI (predictive validity); OR = 1.1 in predicting suicidal ideation. The CDI has some, but as of yet not sufficient indications of being a valid and reliable measure of depression in adolescence and scores can be used to indicate, though not prove the absence or presence of, depression. PMID:16720513

  5. Negative thinking: a key factor in depressive symptoms in Thai adolescents.

    PubMed

    Charoensuk, Sukjai

    2007-01-01

    Negative thinking, self-esteem, parental bonding, and everyday stressors are factors related to depressive symptoms in studies conducted in the United States, but they have been rarely explored in Thailand. An understanding of factors influencing depressive symptoms in Thai youth will lead to the development of interventions to decrease depressive symptoms among this age group. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of parental bonding, everyday stressors, self-esteem, and negative thinking on depressive symptoms among Thai adolescents. A random sample of 812 high school students in Chon Buri, Thailand, participated in the study. The prevalence of depressive symptoms varied from 20-21% depending on the measures used. Negative thinking was the best predictor of depressive symptoms in Thai adolescents. Negative thinking also mediated the effects of parental bonding, everyday stressors, and self-esteem on depressive symptoms. PMID:17130007

  6. Striatum-Based Circuitry of Adolescent Depression and Anhedonia

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Vilma; Ely, Benjamin A.; Li, Qingyang; Bangaru, Saroja D.; Panzer, Aviva M.; Alonso, Carmen M.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Striatum-based circuits have been implicated in both major depressive disorder (MDD) and anhedonia, a symptom that reflects deficits of reward processing. Yet adolescents with MDD often exhibit a wide range of anhedonia severity. Addressing this clinical phenomenon, we aimed to use intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) to study striatum-based circuitry in relation to categorical diagnosis of MDD and anhedonia severity. Method A total of 21 psychotropic medication–free adolescents with MDD and 21 healthy controls (HC), group-matched for age and sex, underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) scans. Voxelwise maps indicating correlation strengths of spontaneous blood-oxygenation-level–dependent (BOLD) signals among 6 bilateral striatal seeds (dorsal caudate, ventral caudate, nucleus accumbens, dorsal-rostral putamen, dorsal-caudal putamen, ventral-rostral putamen) and the remaining brain regions were compared between groups. Relationships between striatal iFC and severity of MDD and anhedonia were examined in the MDD group. Analyses were corrected for multiple comparisons. Results Adolescents with MDD manifested increased iFC between all striatal regions bilaterally and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), as well as between the right ventral caudate and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). MDD severity was associated with iFC between the striatum and midline structures including the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, and dmPFC. However, distinct striatal iFC patterns involving the pregenual ACC, subgenual ACC, supplementary motor area, and supramarginal gyrus were associated with anhedonia severity. Conclusions Although MDD diagnosis and severity were related to striatal networks involving midline cortical structures, distinct circuits within the reward system were associated with anhedonia. PMID:23702452

  7. A Social–Interactional Model of the Development of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joseph P.; Insabella, Glenda; Porter, Maryfrances R.; Smith, Felicia D.; Land, Debbie; Phillips, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    This study used longitudinal, multimethod data to examine specific patterns of behavioral interaction with parents and peers that were hypothesized to predict increasing levels of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. Adolescents' struggles in establishing autonomy and relatedness in interactions with mothers, and a withdrawn, angry, or dependent pattern of behavior with a best friend, were assessed with observational and peer-report methods in a community sample of 143 adolescents, who were also assessed for levels of depressive symptoms at age 13 and with whom the authors followed up 1 year later. Study hypotheses were confirmed, with dysfunctional interaction patterns with parents and peers combining additively to account for substantial change variance in depressive symptoms over time. Results are interpreted as highlighting specific behavioral patterns that may be promising to address via psychosocial interventions targeting adolescent depression. PMID:16551143

  8. Childhood Adversity, Timing of Puberty and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carol; Tsai, Meng-Che; Lin, Chung-Ying; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Childhood adversity contributes to depressive symptoms in adolescence, but far less research has focused on an Asian context. This study aims to identify the long-term impact of childhood adversity on adolescents' depressive symptoms and whether this association is moderated by gender and early pubertal timing in Taiwan. Data in this study are from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey, a longitudinal study that surveyed and followed 4261 junior high school students in year 2001 (at age 13) and three more waves (at ages 15, 17, and 18). Conditional latent growth model results show that having adversity is positively associated with the intercept, but negatively associated with the linear trend of changes of depressive symptoms in adolescence (p < .01). Early pubertal timing is only positively associated with baseline levels for boys (p < .01). Both adversity and early pubertal timing contributes to depressive symptoms when adolescents start junior high school. PMID:26206735

  9. Adolescents with Depressive Symptoms and their Challenges with Learning in School

    PubMed Central

    Humensky, Jennifer; Kuwabara, Sachiko A.; Fogel, Joshua; Wells, Corrie; Goodwin, Brady; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.

    2013-01-01

    We examine school performance among 83 adolescents at-risk for major depression. Negative mood interfered with subjective measures of school performance, including ability to do well in school, homework completion, concentrate in class, interact with peers, and going to class. No significant relationships were found for mood and objective measures of school performance (school attendance, English and math grades). Students with a college-educated parent had stronger performance in objective measures (school attendance and math grades), while males had lower English grades. In qualitative interviews, adolescents reported that negative thinking led to procrastination, which led to poor school performance, which led to more negative thinking. Adolescents with depressive symptoms that do not meet the threshold for referral report struggles in school. Understanding the specific challenges faced by adolescents with even low levels of depressive symptoms can help school nurses, teachers, and parents identify appropriate interventions to help adolescents succeed in school. PMID:20606058

  10. Depressive symptoms and health-related risk-taking in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Testa, C Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear bike-helmets less often, and drive while drunk more frequently. Depressive symptoms did not correlate with reported condom use. The found relations were all mediated by reported levels of hopelessness. Reported levels of anhedonia and suicidality also mediated some of the found relations. Therefore, adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms, especially those reporting hopelessness, should be considered at jeopardy for a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors. PMID:20560751

  11. Early Adolescent Depression Symptoms and School Dropout: Mediating Processes Involving Self-Reported Academic Competence and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroga, Cintia V.; Janosz, Michel; Bisset, Sherri; Morin, Alexandre J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Research on adolescent well-being has shown that students with depression have an increased risk of facing academic failure, yet few studies have looked at the implications of adolescent depression in the process of school dropout. This study examined mediation processes linking depression symptoms, self-perceived academic competence, and…

  12. Maternal Sadness and Adolescents' Responses to Stress in Offspring of Mothers with and without a History of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Fear, Jessica M.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Reising, Michelle M.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined maternal sadness and adolescents' responses to stress in the offspring (n = 72) of mothers with and without a history of depression. Mothers with a history of depression reported higher levels of current depressive symptoms and exhibited greater sadness during interactions with their adolescent children (ages 11-14) than…

  13. Remission and Residual Symptoms after Short-Term Treatment in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto; Curry, John; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Hughes, Jennifer; Feeny, Norah; Weller, Elizabeth; Sweeney, Michael; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Ginsburg, Golda; Emslie, Graham; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain remission rates in depressed youth participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS), a multisite clinical trial that randomized 439 adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) to a 12-week treatment of fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical…

  14. Association Between Media Use in Adolescence and Depression in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Swanier, Brandi; Georgiopoulos, Anna M.; Land, Stephanie R.; Fine, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Context Although certain media exposures have been linked to the presence of psychiatric conditions, few studies have investigated the association between media exposure and depression. Objective To assess the longitudinal association between media exposure in adolescence and depression in young adulthood in a nationally representative sample. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting and Participants We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to investigate the relationship between electronic media exposure in 4142 adolescents who were not depressed at baseline and subsequent development of depression after 7 years of follow-up. Main Outcome Measure Depression at follow-up assessed using the 9-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression Scale. Results Of the 4142 participants (47.5% female and 67.0% white) who were not depressed at baseline and who underwent follow-up assessment, 308 (7.4%) reported symptoms consistent with depression at follow-up. Controlling for all covariates including baseline Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression Scale score, those reporting more television use had significantly greater odds of developing depression (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.08 [1.01-1.16]) for each additional hour of daily television use. In addition, those reporting more total media exposure had significantly greater odds of developing depression (1.05 [1.0004-1.10]) for each additional hour of daily use. We did not find a consistent relationship between development of depressive symptoms and exposure to videocassettes, computer games, or radio. Compared with young men, young women were less likely to develop depression given the same total media exposure (odds ratio for interaction term, 0.93 [0.88-0.99]). Conclusion Television exposure and total media exposure in adolescence are associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms in young adulthood, especially in young men. PMID:19188540

  15. Caretaking Behaviors by Adolescent Children of Mothers With and Without a History of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Jennifer E.; Jaser, Sarah S.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Simmons, Lauren; Potts, Jennifer E.; Shears, Angela R.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    In a sample of 72 mothers with and without a history of depression and their adolescent children, maternal depression history, current maternal depressive symptoms, intrusive and withdrawn parental behavior, and adolescent caretaking behaviors were examined as predictors of adjustment in these youth. Two types of caretaking behaviors were examined: emotional (e.g., caring for a parent’s emotional distress) and instrumental (e.g., looking after younger siblings). Although adolescents of mothers with and without a history of depression were comparable on levels of both types of caretaking, caretaking was associated with adolescents’ reports of anxiety–depression and mothers’ reports of social competence only for adolescents of mothers with a history of depression. Moreover, regression models showed that among children of mothers with a history of depression, emotional, but not instrumental, caretaking was related to adolescents’ anxiety–depression symptoms and social competence after controlling for current parental depressive symptoms and stressful parenting behaviors. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:19364210

  16. Brooding and reflection as explanatory of depressive symptoms in adolescents experiencing stressful life events.

    PubMed

    Young, Cara Calloway; Dietrich, Mary S; Lutenbacher, Melanie

    2014-03-01

    Delineating etiologic mechanisms of adolescent-onset depressive disorders has implications for advances in depression recognition and prevention. Two cognitive processes, namely brooding and reflection, may be instrumental in the development of depressive symptoms. Study aims were to (1) examine the relationships among brooding, reflection, dysfunctional attitudes, negative inferential style, stressful life events, and depressive symptoms and (2) determine the unique contributions of brooding and reflection to depressive symptoms in adolescents who are experiencing stressful life events. A secondary data analysis was conducted using cross-sectional data gathered via a web-based survey (N = 111) of 12-15 year olds. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlations, and hierarchical linear regression modeling were used to evaluate study aims. The final regression model explained approximately 73% of the variance in depressive symptoms (Multiple R = 0.85, p < .001). After controlling for each of the study variables, both brooding (beta = .48, p < .001) and reflection (beta = .33, p < .001) demonstrated unique contributions to the prevalence of depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that brooding and reflection are significant contributors to depressive symptoms in young adolescents experiencing stressful life events. With this knowledge, nurses are better equipped to identify adolescents at high risk for depressive symptoms and implement appropriate levels of intervention. PMID:24597582

  17. Adolescents' electronic media use at night, sleep disturbance, and depressive symptoms in the smartphone age.

    PubMed

    Lemola, Sakari; Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Brand, Serge; Dewald-Kaufmann, Julia F; Grob, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Adolescence is a time of increasing vulnerability for poor mental health, including depression. Sleep disturbance is an important risk factor for the development of depression during adolescence. Excessive electronic media use at night is a risk factor for both adolescents' sleep disturbance and depression. To better understand the interplay between sleep, depressive symptoms, and electronic media use at night, this study examined changes in adolescents' electronic media use at night and sleep associated with smartphone ownership. Also examined was whether sleep disturbance mediated the relationship between electronic media use at night and depressive symptoms. 362 adolescents (12-17 year olds, M = 14.8, SD = 1.3; 44.8% female) were included and completed questionnaires assessing sleep disturbance (short sleep duration and sleep difficulties) and depressive symptoms. Further, participants reported on their electronic media use in bed before sleep such as frequency of watching TV or movies, playing video games, talking or text messaging on the mobile phone, and spending time online. Smartphone ownership was related to more electronic media use in bed before sleep, particularly calling/sending messages and spending time online compared to adolescents with a conventional mobile phone. Smartphone ownership was also related to later bedtimes while it was unrelated to sleep disturbance and symptoms of depression. Sleep disturbance partially mediated the relationship between electronic media use in bed before sleep and symptoms of depression. Electronic media use was negatively related with sleep duration and positively with sleep difficulties, which in turn were related to depressive symptoms. Sleep difficulties were the more important mediator than sleep duration. The results of this study suggest that adolescents might benefit from education regarding sleep hygiene and the risks of electronic media use at night. PMID:25204836

  18. Dimensions of Adolescent Alcohol Involvement as Predictors of Young-Adult Major Depression*

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hawkins, J. David; Redmond, Cleve; Spoth, Richard L.; Shin, Chungyeol

    2010-01-01

    Objective Adolescent alcohol involvement may increase risk for young-adult depression; however, findings are mixed and important questions remain unanswered. Because alcohol involvement among teens is multidimensional, this study examined the extent to which four different adolescent alcohol dimensions (i.e., frequency of alcohol use, quantity of consumption, frequency of heavy episodic drinking, and frequency of problem use) were predictive of young-adult major depressive disorder (MDD). Method Participants in this prospective longitudinal study, which extended from age 11 to age 22, were 429 rural teens (including 222 girls) and their families. Self-reports of each dimension of adolescent alcohol involvement were obtained at ages 16 and 18. Depression diagnoses were obtained at age 22, using a structured interview. Analyses included adolescent depressed mood, measured via self-report at ages 16 and 18. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Results The multidimensional nature of adolescent alcohol involvement was best represented by a first-order problem-use factor and a second-order alcohol-intake factor comprised of quantity, frequency, and heavy drinking. After controlling for gender and depressed mood, adolescent problem use, but not alcohol intake, was a significant positive predictor of young-adult MDD. Conclusions Findings help clarify the link between alcohol involvement and depression and suggest that harm-reduction strategies may help prevent later mood disorders. PMID:18299769

  19. White Matter Correlates of Adolescent Depression: Structural Evidence for Frontolimbic Disconnectivity

    PubMed Central

    LeWinn, Kaja Z.; Connolly, Colm G.; Wu, Jing; Drahos, Miroslav; Hoeft, Fumiko; Ho, Tiffany C.; Simmons, Alan N.; Yang, Tony T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite the significant prevalence of adolescent depression, little is known about the neuroanatomical basis of this disorder. Functional dysregulation in frontolimbic circuitry has been suggested as a key neural correlate of adult and adolescent depression impeding emotional regulation. However, less is known about whether this dysregulation is overlaid on impaired white matter microstructure. Guided by neuroimaging findings, we test the a priori hypotheses that adolescent depression is associated with alterations in white matter microstructure in the 1) uncinate fasciculus (UF) and 2) cingulum bundles. Method Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) data were obtained on 52 unmedicated adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 42 matched controls. We calculated fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) for bilateral UF and cingulum. We also completed a voxelwise comparison of participants with depression and control participants using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Results Adolescents with depression had significantly lower FA and higher RD in bilateral UF; no significant differences were observed in cingulum. TBSS results additionally revealed lower FA values in the white matter associated with the limbic-cortical-striatal-thalamic circuit, corpus callosum, and anterior and superior corona radiata. Conclusion Unmedicated adolescent depression is associated with reduced fractional anisotropy in emotion regulatory networks, which may underlie the functional differences in frontolimbic circuitry characterizing depressive disorder. Given the relatively recent onset of depression in our sample, our findings in the context of the current literature provide preliminary evidence that reduced fractional anisotropy in the UF could be a predisposing risk factor for depression. PMID:25062597

  20. Body Image Distortions, Weight, and Depression in Adolescent Boys: Longitudinal Trajectories into Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Blashill, Aaron J; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among the U.S. population, yet research into prospective risk factors of depression among men is limited. Distorted body image is also prevalent among adolescent boys, and may be linked with elevated depression; however, longitudinal associations have rarely been measured. Thus, the aim of the current study was to assess the prospective relationship between forms of body image distortion and depressive symptoms among adolescent boys, into adulthood. Data were extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants were 2,139 U.S. adolescent boys (M age = 16) who were followed prospectively over 13-years (1996 to 2009), into adulthood. Longitudinal mixed-level modeling was employed to assess the temporal prediction of body image distortion on symptoms of depression. Results revealed that boys who were average weight and viewed themselves as either very underweight (very underweight distorted; Cohen's d = .47) or overweight (overweight distorted; Cohen's d = .29) reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms compared to boys who accurately viewed their weight as average; this effect remained constant over the 13-year study period. These findings indicated that distortions in body image, particularly extreme distortions, are risk factors for elevated depressive symptoms among adolescent boys, and persist into early adulthood. PMID:25383047

  1. Magnetic seizure therapy in an adolescent with refractory bipolar depression: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Yoshihiro; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Downar, Jonathan; Croarkin, Paul E; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Blumberger, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) has shown efficacy in adult patients with treatment-resistant depression with limited impairment in memory. To date, the use of MST in adolescent depression has not been reported. Here we describe the first successful use of MST in the treatment of an adolescent patient with refractory bipolar depression. This patient received MST in an ongoing open-label study for treatment-resistant major depression. Treatments employed a twin-coil MST apparatus, with the center of each coil placed over the frontal cortex (ie, each coil centered over F3 and F4). MST was applied at 100 Hz and 100% machine output at progressively increasing train durations. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and cognitive function was assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. This adolescent patient achieved full remission of clinical symptoms after an acute course of 18 MST treatments and had no apparent cognitive decline, other than some autobiographical memory impairment that may or may not be related to the MST treatment. This case report suggests that MST may be a safe and well tolerated intervention for adolescents with treatment-resistant bipolar depression. Pilot studies to further evaluate the effectiveness and safety of MST in adolescents warrant consideration. PMID:25382978

  2. Mother-reported parental weight talk and adolescent girls’ emotional health, weight control attempts, and disordered eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to explore the relationships between mothers’ report of parental weight talk about her daughter, herself, and others, and adolescent girls’ weight-related behaviors and cognitions among a socio-demographically diverse population of mothers and their adolescent daughters. Methods Data were drawn from the baseline assessment of 218 mother/adolescent daughter dyads. Mothers completed survey items regarding the frequency of weight talk by parents, and girls completed survey items assessing outcomes including body dissatisfaction, depressive symptomology, use of extreme weight control methods, and binge eating. Results More frequent comments to daughters about their weight were associated with higher depressive symptomology (p = 0.041), greater prevalence of extreme weight control behaviors (p = 0.040), and greater prevalence of binge eating (p = 0.048) among girls after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and girls’ standardized body mass index (BMI). For example, among girls whose parents never commented on their weight, 4.2% reported use of any extreme weight control behaviors, while 23.2% of girls whose parents frequently commented on their weight reported use of any of these behaviors. Mothers’ more frequent talk about their own weight, shape, or size was associated with lower self-worth (p = 0.007) and higher depressive symptomology (p = 0.004) among girls. Conclusions Frequent parental weight talk as perceived by mothers was associated with adolescent girls’ use of harmful weight control methods and poor psychological health, while no associations were found between weight talk and girls’ use of healthful weight control strategies. Interventions that help parents create a family environment that supports healthful activities while reducing weight-related talk may be particularly effective in decreasing the prevalence of harmful outcomes among adolescent girls. PMID:24999423

  3. A Test of a Cognitive Diathesis-Stress Generation Pathway in Early Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kercher, Amy; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates a pathway for depressive risk that integrates cognitive diathesis-stress and stress-generation theories, following Hankin and Abramson's (2001, "Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31"(4), 491-504) elaborated cognitive-diathesis transactional stress model. In this model, young adolescents with initial…

  4. Depressive Symptoms and Sexual Experiences among Early Adolescent Girls: Interpersonal Avoidance as Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershenberg, Rachel; Davila, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Building on the growing body of research that supports the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual activities in adolescence, we examined how individual differences in interpersonal avoidance and anxiety might moderate this association. Data were collected from 71 early adolescent girls (M age 13.45 years; SD = 0.68; 89% Caucasian)…

  5. The Relationship between Social Skills and Depression in Adolescent Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spirito, Anthony; And Others

    Although suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States, there are little empirical data available on psychological factors which may lead an adolescent to consider or attempt suicide. To address this issue, the relationships among depression, social skills, and severity of suicidal attempt were investigated in…

  6. A Pilot SMART for Developing an Adaptive Treatment Strategy for Adolescent Depression.

    PubMed

    Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith; Mufson, Laura; Westervelt, Ana; Almirall, Daniel; Murphy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility and acceptability of 4 adaptive treatment strategies (ATSs) for adolescent depression to plan for a subsequent full-scale clinical trial. The ATSs aim to address 2 questions that arise when personalizing treatment: (a) For adolescents treated with Interpersonal Psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A; Mufson et al., 2004 ), at what time point should therapists make the determination that the adolescent is not likely to respond if the initial treatment plan is continued (week 4 or week 8)? (b) For adolescents who are judged to need their treatment augmented, should the therapist increase the number of IPT-A sessions or add pharmacotherapy (fluoxetine)? A 16-week pilot sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART) was conducted with 32 adolescents (M age = 14.9) who had a diagnosis of major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or depressive disorder not otherwise specified. Adolescents were primarily female (75%) and Caucasian (84.4%). Data regarding the feasibility and acceptability of the study and treatment procedures and treatment response rates were collected. Week 4 was the more feasible and acceptable decision point for assessing need for a change to treatment. Adolescents, parents, and therapists reported a range of attitudes about medication and more intensive therapy as treatment options. Results from the pilot study have yielded additional research questions for the full-scale SMART and will improve our ability to successfully conduct the trial. PMID:25785788

  7. Differential Exposure and Reactivity to Interpersonal Stress Predict Sex Differences in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Josephine H.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that higher rates of depression in adolescent girls are explained by their greater exposure and reactivity to stress in the interpersonal domain in a large sample of 15-year-olds. Findings indicate that adolescent girls experienced higher levels of total and interpersonal episodic stress, whereas boys experienced…

  8. Participants' Experiences of an Early Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Adolescents with Symptoms of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bru, Lene; Solholm, Roar; Idsoe, Thormod

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been documented to be effective in treating depression in adolescence, but there is great variability in the clinical outcome of CBT trials. This may in part be due to variations in the content of, and emphasis on different CBT components. Moreover, little is known about adolescents' subjective experiences of…

  9. Parental Behaviors during Family Interactions Predict Changes in Depression and Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Orli S.; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective, longitudinal relations between parental behaviors observed during parent-adolescent interactions, and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in a community-based sample of 194 adolescents. Positive and negative parental behaviors were examined, with negative behaviors operationalized to…

  10. Pilot Study: Fluvoxamine Treatment for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Rubinstein, Maly; Shemesh, Eyal; Miller, Orit; Farbstein, Ilana; Klein, Anat; Weizman, Abraham; Apter, Alan; Yaniv, Isaac

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and benefit of fluvoxamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with cancer. Method: The study was conducted from 2001 to 2004 at a pediatric hematology-oncology center. Fifteen children and adolescents with cancer were treated with…

  11. Effect of Major Depression on the Self-Image of Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korhonen, Veijo; Laukkanen, Eila; Peiponen, Sirkka; Lehtonen, Johannes; Viinamaki, Heimo

    2001-01-01

    Studied the specific impact of major depressive disorder (MDD) on the self-image of adolescent boys and girls seeking outpatient treatment. Compared 68 adolescents with MDD and 39 with no psychiatric illness. Self-image among MDD patients was in general poorer than in the comparison group. The effect of MDD was more negative for girls than boys,…

  12. Similarity in Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents' Friendship Dyads: Selection or Socialization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Burk, William J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Larsen, Junilla K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Ciairano, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined friendship selection and socialization as mechanisms explaining similarity in depressive symptoms in adolescent same-gender best friend dyads. The sample consisted of 1,752 adolescents (51% male) ages 12-16 years (M = 13.77, SD = 0.73) forming 487 friend dyads and 389 nonfriend dyads (the nonfriend dyads served as a comparison…

  13. Longitudinal Associations between Perceived Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branje, Susan J. T.; Hale, William W., III; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined bidirectional paths between perceived parent-adolescent relationship quality and depressive symptoms, as well as the moderating role of sex, age, and personality type. 1313 Dutch adolescents (51% girls) from two cohorts (923 12-year olds and 390 16-year olds at Wave 1) reported on their personality, depressive…

  14. Vulnerability to Friends' Suicide Influence: The Moderating Effects of Gender and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ruth X.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines whether severity of depression reduces or intensifies the relationship between friends' suicide attempt and adolescent's own attempt to commit suicide, and whether there are gender differences in this interrelationship. Using logistic regression and data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents studied at 2 points…

  15. Parental Divorce and Offspring Depressive Symptoms: Dutch Developmental Trends during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; De Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated if the association between parental divorce and depressive symptoms changes during early adolescence and if developmental patterns are similar for boys and girls. Data were collected in a prospective population cohort of Dutch adolescents (N = 2,149), aged 10 - 15 years. Outcome variables were self-reported and…

  16. Relational Stressors and Depressive Symptoms in Late Adolescence: Rejection Sensitivity as a Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chango, Joanna M.; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Allen, Joseph P.; Schad, Megan M.; Marston, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The role of rejection sensitivity as a critical diathesis moderating the link between adolescent relational stressors and depressive symptoms was examined using multi-method, multi-reporter data from a diverse community sample of 173 adolescents, followed from age 16 to 18. Relational stressors examined included emotional abuse, maternal behavior…

  17. Adolescent Mental Health Literacy: Young People's Knowledge of Depression and Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, John R.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the mental health literacy of a group of adolescents, with particular reference to their ability to recognize symptoms of depression in their peers. Respondents were 202 Australian adolescents (122 males, 80 females) aged 15-17 years. Their mental health literacy was examined through a questionnaire that presented them with…

  18. Direction of Influence between Posttraumatic and Depressive Symptoms during Prolonged Exposure Therapy among Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderka, Idan M.; Foa, Edna B.; Applebaum, Edna; Shafran, Naama; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Our objective in the present study was to examine the temporal sequencing of posttraumatic and depressive symptoms during prolonged exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among children and adolescents. Method: Participants were 73 children and adolescents (56.2% female) between the ages of 8 and 18. Participants…

  19. Clarifying the Link between Parental Psychological Control and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Reciprocal versus Unidirectional Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenens, Bart; Luyckx, Koen; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Duriez, Bart; Goossens, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Research has demonstrated consistent positive associations between perceived parental psychological control and adolescents' depressive symptoms, but the direction of influence remains unclear. Using a cross-lagged longitudinal design in two samples of late (Study 1, N = 396) and middle (Study 2, N = 724) adolescents, this study compared three…

  20. Peer Selection and Socialization in Adolescent Depression: The Role of School Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Natalie P.; Mrug, Sylvie; Borch, Casey; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated homophily in depressive symptoms among adolescent friends, resulting from both peer selection and socialization processes. However, developmental differences and the role of school transitions in these processes have not been elucidated. A sample of 367 (51% female) adolescents was followed from 6th to 11th grade to…

  1. Interdependence of Depressive Symptoms, School Involvement, and Academic Performance between Adolescent Friends: A Dyadic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Chong Man; Tan, Cin Cin; Buhrmester, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Background: Friendships play an important role in the development of school involvement and academic performance during adolescence. This study examined the interdependence of depressive symptoms, school involvement, and academic performance between adolescent same-sex friends. Aims: Using cross-sectional data, we examined whether the link between…

  2. Perceptions and Satisfaction with Father Involvement and Adolescent Mothers' Postpartum Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescent mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms and their perceptions of amount of father care giving and satisfaction with father involvement with the baby. The sample included 100 adolescent mothers (ages 13-19; mainly African-American and Latina) whose partners were recruited for a randomized…

  3. Perceived Demands of Social Change and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents from Different Educational Tracks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Grümer, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed whether perceived demands associated with social change and coping with these demands are related to depressive symptoms in German adolescents from the highest versus middle/lowest educational track. Demands reflected an increase in uncertainty (e.g., risk for getting no job). Adolescents on the highest educational track perceived…

  4. Moderators of Peer Contagion: A Longitudinal Examination of Depression Socialization between Adolescents and Their Best Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined peer contagion of depressive symptoms over an 18-month interval within a sample of 100 11th-grade adolescents. Three types of peer contagion moderators were examined, including characteristics of adolescents (social anxiety, global self-worth), friends (level of friends' peer-perceived popularity), and the…

  5. Maltreatment and Depression in Adolescent Sexual Offenders with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Jessica Bleil; Hughes, Tammy L.; Sutton, Lawrence R.; Marshall, Stephanie N.; Crothers, Laura M.; Lehman, Cathryn; Paserba, Dave; Talkington, Vanessa; Taormina, Rochelle; Huang, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported presence and severity of abuse, neglect, and depressive symptoms for 43 adolescents adjudicated delinquent due to a sexual offense. Twenty-seven of the adolescent sexual offenders were also diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, and 16 did not carry an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Both groups…

  6. Neurobiology of Decision Making in Depressed Adolescents: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shad, Mujeeb U.; Bidesi, Anup P.; Chen, Li-Ann; Ernst, Monique; Rao, Uma

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Despite evidence that impaired reward- and risk-related behavior during adolescence can have potentially serious short- and long-term consequences, few studies have investigated the impact of depression on reward-related selection in adolescents. This study examined the relationship between reward-related behavior and prefrontal…

  7. Factors Associated with Recruitment and Screening in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Diane E.; Hallin, Mary J.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Puumala, Susan E.; Smith, Lynette S.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; Weller, Elizabeth B.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine factors associated with eligibility and randomization and consider the efficiency of recruitment methods. Method: Adolescents, ages 12 to 17 years, were telephone screened (N = 2,804) followed by in-person evaluation (N = 1,088) for the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study. Separate logistic regression models,…

  8. School Connectedness, Peer Attachment, and Self-Esteem as Predictors of Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millings, Abigail; Buck, Rhiannon; Montgomery, Alan; Spears, Melissa; Stallard, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that school connectedness (SC) may be a key determinant of adolescent mental health. Specifically, SC has been found to have a negative relationship with adolescent depression. In the current, cross sectional study, we examine whether the relationship between SC and symptoms of low mood is dampened or moderated by…

  9. Paternal Involvement in Multisystemic Therapy: Effects on Adolescent Outcomes and Maternal Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervan, Shannon; Granic, Isabela; Solomon, Tracy; Blokland, Kirsten; Ferguson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The association between paternal involvement in therapy, adolescent outcomes and maternal depression was examined within the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an empirically supported, family- and community-based treatment for antisocial adolescents. Ninety-nine families were recruited from five mental health agencies providing MST. We…

  10. Possible Insomnia Predicts Some Risky Behaviors among Adolescents when Controlling for Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catrett, Christina D.; Gaultney, Jane F.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether previously reported links between sleep and risk taking among adolescents (E. M. O'Brien & J. A. Mindell, 2005) are associated--concurrently, longitudinally, or both--with sleep or underlying depression. The present study analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 4,353 adolescents in the United States…

  11. Baseline Depressive Symptoms Predict Poor Substance Use Outcome Following Adolescent Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Stitzer, Maxine A.; Clemmey, Philip; Kolodner, Ken; Fishman, Marc J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To characterize baseline depressive symptoms among substance-abusing adolescents and determine their association with post residential treatment substance use outcomes. Method: In total, 153 adolescents (mean age 6.6 years, plus or minus 0.11) entering residential treatment were assessed at intake and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Beck…

  12. An Examination of the Pathways of Depressive Symptoms and Heavy Drinking from Adolescence to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Emily

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the dynamic interaction of heavy alcohol use and depressive symptoms at three points over a time period of 11 years from adolescence to adulthood using a subset of data from the nationally representative, multi-year, longitudinal data source, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Results revealed…

  13. The Impact of Maternal Depressive Symptoms on Adolescents' Aggression: Role of Parenting and Family Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Kelly L.; Farrell, Albert D.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found an association between mothers' depressive symptoms and their adolescents' involvement in aggression. The present study examined three mechanisms believed to account for this relation: parenting practices, family functioning, and informant discrepancy. Participants were a high-risk sample of 927 mother-adolescent dyads…

  14. Latent Variable Analysis of Coping, Anxiety/Depression, and Somatic Symptoms in Adolescents with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Boyer, Margaret C.; Stanger, Catherine; Colletti, Richard B.; Thomsen, Alexandra H.; Dufton, Lynette M.; Cole, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Reports of adolescents' coping with recurrent pain, symptoms of anxiety/depression, and somatic complaints were obtained from a sample of 164 adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain and their parents. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that coping consisted of 3 nonorthogonal factors: Primary Control Engagement Coping (problem solving,…

  15. Relationships between Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit substances among adolescents, addressing methodological limitations and potential confounding in the extant literature. The sample comprised adolescents who were surveyed in Grades 6 (n = 916), 9 (n = 804), and 11 (n = 791).…

  16. Onset of Alcohol or Substance Use Disorders Following Treatment for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, John; Silva, Susan; Rohde, Paul; Ginsburg, Golda; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Kirchner, Jerry; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Feeny, Norah; Albano, Anne Marie; Lavanier, Sarah; Reinecke, Mark; Jacobs, Rachel; Becker-Weidman, Emily; Weller, Elizabeth; Emslie, Graham; Walkup, John; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Burns, Barbara; Wells, Karen; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested whether positive response to short-term treatment for adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) would have the secondary benefit of preventing subsequent alcohol use disorders (AUD) or substance use disorders (SUD). Method: For 5 years, we followed 192 adolescents (56.2% female; 20.8% minority) who had participated in…

  17. Perceptions of Parental Support and Depressive Symptomatology among Black and White Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Antonucci, Toni C.; Jackson, James S.; Wolford, Monica L.; Osofsky, Joy D.

    1997-01-01

    Parental support and conflictive relationships in 48 black and white adolescent mothers (ages 14-19) were examined when their babies were 3 months old. Self-esteem and supportive relationships with fathers were negatively associated with depressive symptomatology among adolescent mothers. Differences in parental relationships and racial…

  18. Measurement Invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale across Gender and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…

  19. The Possible Role of the Kynurenine Pathway in Adolescent Depression with Melancholic Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbay, Vilma; Klein, Rachel G.; Katz, Yisrael; Mendoza, Sandra; Guttman, Leah E.; Alonso, Carmen M.; Babb, James S.; Hirsch, Glenn S.; Liebes, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) is acknowledged to be a heterogeneous disorder, no studies have reported on biological correlates of its clinical subgroups. This study addresses this issue by examining whether adolescent MDD with and without melancholic features (M-MDD and NonM-MDD) have distinct biological features…

  20. Emerging depression is associated with face memory deficits in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Choate, Victoria R.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Pine, Daniel S.; Keenan, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between memory for previously-encoded emotional faces and depression symptoms assessed over four years in adolescent girls. Investigating the interface between memory deficits and depression in adolescent girls may provide clues about depression pathophysiology. Method Participants were 213 girls recruited from a longitudinal, community-based study; the majority was African-American. Scores on depressive screening measures at age 8 were used to increase the base rate of depression. Depression symptoms and diagnoses were assessed annually for four years. In year four, when the girls were 12-13 years old, a face emotion encoding task was administered during which ratings were generated in response to sad, fearful, angry, and happy faces. A surprise memory task followed where participants identified which of two faces, displaying neutral expressions, they had seen previously. Results Girls with higher depression symptom levels from ages 9-12 years evidenced lower accuracy in identifying previously-encoded emotional faces. Controlling for IQ, higher depression symptom level was associated with a memory deficit specific to previously-encoded sad and happy faces. These effects were not moderated by race. Conclusions Individual differences in face memory deficits relate to individual differences in emerging, early adolescent depression, and may be vulnerability markers for depression. PMID:21241955

  1. Symptoms of Depression and Difficulty Initiating Sleep from Early Adolescence to Early Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Hayley, Amie C.; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Sivertsen, Børge; Wold, Bente; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A.; Øverland, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the direction of the relationship and degree of shared associations between symptoms of depression and difficulty initiating sleep (DIS) from early adolescence to early adulthood. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal assessment of the symptoms of depression-DIS association from early adolescence (age 13 y) to early adulthood (age 23 y). Setting: Hordaland, Norway. Participants: There were 1,105 individuals (55% male) who took part in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study (NLHB) and participated at least once across seven data collection waves during the years 1990–2000. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Characteristic data were obtained during the first assessment. Symptoms of depression and instances of DIS were assessed during each data collection wave. Symptoms of depression and DIS were associated in all data waves, and one-step cross-lagged bivariate correlations were significant and comparatively high for both factors. Structural equation modelling indicated that DIS and symptoms of depression at wave 1 remain relatively stable across waves (all P < 0.001), and a significant and consistent unidirectional cross-lagged effect was noted running from symptoms of depression to DIS from early adolescence to early adulthood. DIS is only marginally and inconsistently associated with the lagged symptoms of depression score across waves. Conclusions: These results suggest that symptoms of depression established in early adolescence are a moderate predictor of difficulty initiating sleep (DIS) in early adulthood, whereas the reverse association of DIS predicting depression was not convincingly supported. These findings are in contrast to previous findings that suggest sleep problems as a risk factor for the later development of depression. Citation: Hayley AC, Skogen JC, Sivertsen B, Wold B, Berk M, Pasco JA, Øverland S. Symptoms of depression and difficulty initiating sleep from early adolescence to early

  2. Depressive Symptoms among Children and Adolescents in Iran: A Confirmatory Factor Analytic Study of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Olaya, Beatriz; Pasha, Gholamreza; Gilvarry, Catherine; Bray, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Iranian translation of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) in school children and adolescents in Iran. The CES-DC is a 20-item self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. A total of 1,984 children and…

  3. How Do School Connectedness and Attachment to Parents Interrelate in Predicting Adolescent Depressive Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shochet, Ian M.; Homel, Ross; Cockshaw, Wendell D.; Montgomery, Danielle T.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we tested whether school connectedness mediated or moderated the effect of parental attachment on adolescent depressive symptoms. A sample of 153 secondary school students ranging from 8th to 12th grade were assessed using measures of parental attachment, school connectedness, and depressive symptoms. Independently, parental…

  4. A Multisite Psychotherapy and Medication Trial for Depressed Adolescents: Background and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Simons, Anne; Vitiello, Benedetto; Walkup, John; Emslie, Graham; Rosenberg, David; March, John S.

    2005-01-01

    The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is an NIMH-supported multisite clinical trial that compares the effectiveness of a depression-specific cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), medication management with fluoxetine (FLX), the combination of CBT and FLX (COMB), and medical management with pill placebo (PBO). TADS was…

  5. An Exploratory Analysis of the Impact of Family Functioning on Treatment for Depression in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeny, Norah C.; Silva, Susan G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; McNulty, Steven; Findling, Robert L.; Rohde, Paul; Curry, John F.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Pathak, Sanjeev M.; May, Diane E.; Kennard, Betsy D.; Simons, Anne D.; Wells, Karen C.; Robins, Michele; Rosenberg, David; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores aspects of family environment and parent-child conflict that may predict or moderate response to acute treatments among depressed adolescents (N = 439) randomly assigned to fluoxetine, cognitive behavioral therapy, their combination, or placebo. Outcomes were Week 12 scores on measures of depression and global impairment. Of…

  6. Relation of Early Menarche to Depression, Eating Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Comorbid Psychopathology among Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2001-01-01

    Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…

  7. Predicting Time to Recovery Among Depressed Adolescents Treated in Two Psychosocial Group Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Kaufman, Noah K.; Clarke, Gregory N.; Stice, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Aims were to identify the demographic, psychopathology, and psychosocial factors predicting time to major depressive disorder (MDD) recovery and moderators of treatment among 114 depressed adolescents recruited from a juvenile justice center and randomized to a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) condition or a life skills-tutoring control…

  8. Improving the Recognition of Depression in Adolescence: Can We Teach the Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moor, Stephanie; Maguire, Ann; McQueen, Hester; Wells, J. Elisabeth; Elton, Robert; Wrate, Robert; Blair, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a schools-based psychoeducational intervention designed to help teachers recognize the symptoms of clinical depression in their adolescent pupils. Around 151 teachers in eight high schools in Scotland, UK were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups and all received training on depression. The…

  9. Relations with Parents and with Peers, Temperament, and Trajectories of Depressed Mood during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Wanner, Brigitte; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Vitaro, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined (a) whether groups of children can be empirically identified with distinct longitudinal profiles of depressed mood from late childhood through early adolescence, (b) to what extent these different longitudinal depression profiles are predicted by problematic relations with parents, same-sex peers, and other-sex peers,…

  10. Vulnerability to Depression among Adolescents: Implications for Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinecke, Mark A.; Simons, Anne

    2005-01-01

    A range of factors, including early experience, parent-child interaction patterns, biological factors, and life events, have been associated with the development of depression among adolescents. Relations between early experience, attachment insecurity, and later depression may be mediated by failures to develop adaptive social skills, the…

  11. Early Adolescent Depressive Mood: Direct and Indirect Effects of Attributional Styles and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2012-01-01

    The present study used a cross-sectional survey design to examine how adolescent depressive mood was related to attributional styles and coping strategies with a sample of 326 youths (aged 8-14 years). With the cutting point adopted in the West, 20.9% of the current sample reported depressive symptoms. Regression analysis results show that, with…

  12. Adolescents with Learning Disabilities at Risk? Emotional Well-Being, Depression, Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntington, Deborah D.; Bender, William N.

    1993-01-01

    Research on self-concept, attributions, anxiety, depression, and suicide among adolescents with learning disability is examined for the purpose of detecting consistency of emotional and developmental indicators. Analysis indicates that these students appear to be at increased risk for severe depression and suicide. (Author/DB)

  13. Associations between Depression and Anxiety Symptoms with Retinal Vessel Caliber in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Madeline H.; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Hickie, Ian B.; Lu, Yi; MacGregor, Stuart; Medland, Sarah E.; Sun, Cong; Wong, Tien Y.; Wright, Margie; Zhu, Gu; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mackey, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous longitudinal studies suggest that depression and anxiety are associated with risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to test whether an association between depression and anxiety symptoms and retinal vessel caliber, an indicator of subclinical cardiovascular risk, is apparent as early as adolescence and young adulthood. Methods Participants were 865 adolescents and young adults who participated in the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study and the Twin Eye Study in Tasmania. Participants completed the Somatic and Psychological Health Report (SPHERE), including assessments of depression/anxiety and somatic symptom subscales, when they were M=16.5 years, and they underwent retinal imaging M=2.5 years later (range=2 years before to 7 years after the depression/anxiety assessment). Retinal vessel caliber was assessed using computer software. Results: Depression and anxiety symptoms were associated with wider retinal arteriolar caliber in this sample of adolescents and young adults (β=0.09, p=.016), even after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors (β=0.08, p=.025). Multiple regression analyses revealed that affective symptoms of depression/anxiety were associated with retinal vessel caliber independently of somatic symptoms. Conclusions Depression and anxiety symptoms are associated with measurable signs in the retinal microvasculature in early life, suggesting that pathological microvascular mechanisms may be operative in the association between depression and anxiety with cardiovascular disease starting as early as adolescence. PMID:25373892

  14. Parenting Behavior and the Occurrence and Co-occurrence of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms and Conduct Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Xiaojia; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluated prevalence of the co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and conduct problems in a community sample of 10th-grade adolescents participating in a four-year longitudinal study. Found that early hostile parent behavior increased the probability of later occurrence and co-occurrence of elevated depressive symptoms and conduct problems, whereas…

  15. In Search of HPA Axis Dysregulation in Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerry, John D.; Hastings, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in adults with major depressive disorder is among the most consistent and robust biological findings in psychiatry. Given the importance of the adolescent transition to the development and recurrence of depressive phenomena over the lifespan, it is important to have an integrative…

  16. Depression as a Moderator of Sociocultural Influences on Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Females and Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…

  17. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale with a Young Adolescent Population: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Glenn A.; Shadish, William R.; Murray, David M.; Kubik, Martha; Lytle, Leslie A.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.

    2006-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was developed to assess the population prevalence of depression. The CES-D was developed and normed on an adult population. Since the CES-D's publication, various studies have both used and psychometrically assessed the scale for older adolescent populations. However, we found no…

  18. Gender Differences in and Risk Factors for Depression in Adolescence: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Barker, Erin T.

    2004-01-01

    The current study used longitudinal data (N = 1322; 648 males, 674 females) from adolescents ages 12 to 19 years (in 1994) to investigate gender differences in and risk factors for depressive symptoms and major depressive episodes (MDEs). The sample had participated in three waves of Canada's National Population Health Survey (1994, 1996, and…

  19. The Relationship of Internet Use to Depression and Social Isolation among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Christopher E.; Field, Tiffany M.; Diego, Miguel; Kaplan, Michele

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether higher levels of Internet use are associated with depression and social isolation among adolescents. Eighty-nine high school seniors were administered a questionnaire that measured Internet use; relationships with mother, father, and peers; and depression. Low Internet users, as compared with high users, reported better…

  20. Altered White Matter Microstructure in Adolescents with Major Depression: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Kathryn R.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Muetzel, Ryan; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Houri, Alaa; Kurma, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Major depressive disorder (MDD) occurs frequently in adolescents, but the neurobiology of depression in youth is poorly understood. Structural neuroimaging studies in both adult and pediatric populations have implicated frontolimbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which measures white…

  1. Predictors of Suicide Ideation and Depression in Hong Kong Adolescents: Perceptions of Academic and Family Climates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Margaret T. Y.; Wong, Betty P.; Chow, Bonnie W.-Y.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The unique dimensions of perceptions of school and family contributing to depression and suicide ideation in Hong Kong adolescents were examined in two studies. In Study 1, among 327 Hong Kong Chinese female students ages 13-18, 47% reported some suicide ideation. Suicide ideation was significantly associated with depression, test anxiety,…

  2. Longitudinal Associations between Depressive Problems, Academic Performance, and Social Functioning in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verboom, Charlotte E.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Ormel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between depressive problems and three types of functioning in…

  3. Adolescent Subthreshold-Depression and Anxiety: Psychopathology, Functional Impairment and Increased Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balazs, Judit; Miklosi, Monika; Kereszteny, Agnes; Hoven, Christina W.; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Apter, Alan; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Cosman, Doina; Cotter, Padraig; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Marusic, Dragan; Postuvan, Vita; Resch, Franz; Saiz, Pilar A.; Sisask, Merike; Snir, Avigal; Tubiana, Alexandra; Varnik, Airi; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Subthreshold-depression and anxiety have been associated with significant impairments in adults. This study investigates the characteristics of adolescent subthreshold-depression and anxiety with a focus on suicidality, using both categorical and dimensional diagnostic models. Methods: Data were drawn from the Saving and Empowering…

  4. Stress and Emotional Reactivity as Explanations for Gender Differences in Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charbonneau, Anna M.; Mezulis, Amy H.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined whether certain types of stressful events and how individuals respond to these events would explain gender differences in depressive symptoms among adolescents. We hypothesized that certain stressful events would mediate the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. We also hypothesized that…

  5. Adolescent Mothers' Depression after the Birth of Their Babies: Weathering the Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmens, Donna A.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the experiences of adolescent mothers with depression following the birth of their babies. A sample of 20 participants, between the ages of 16 and 18, were asked to reflect upon and describe their thoughts, feelings, and perceptions about being depressed after the birth of their babies. Implications for practice and directions for future…

  6. Relations between Suicidal Ideation, Depression, and Emotional Autonomy from Parents in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla

    2010-01-01

    We examined the relations between depression, emotional autonomy quality-related constructs of separation and detachment, and suicidal ideation, focusing on the unique and common contribution that depression, separation and detachment made to suicidal ideation. We also examined gender differences. 403 adolescents, 196 boys and 207 girls, completed…

  7. Loneliness, Depressive Symptomatology, and Suicide Ideation in Adolescence: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasgaard, Mathias; Goossens, Luc; Elklit, Ask

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the first known longitudinal study of the relationship between loneliness, depressive symptoms, and suicide ideation in adolescence, in a stratified sample of high school students (Time 1 N = 1009; 57% female; Time 2 N = 541; 60% female). Cross-lagged structural equation modeling indicated that depressive symptoms led to more…

  8. Structure and Stress: Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Daniel E.; Wang, Victor; Dupre, Matthew E.; van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research into the social distribution of early life depression has yielded inconsistent results regarding the causes and course of subgroup depression disparities. This study examines the topic by analyzing National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, modeling gender and racial/ethnic differences in early life depression…

  9. Associations of Lifetime Depression with Trauma Exposure, Other Environmental Adversities, and Impairment in Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daviss, W. Burleson; Diler, Rasim S.; Birmaher, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common, potentially devastating comorbidity in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). Various environmental adversities are well-described as correlates of depression in general pediatric populations, but not in youth with ADHD. In 104 adolescents with ADHD, we examined potential environmental correlates of…

  10. Evaluating Mental Health Literacy and Adolescent Depression: What Do Teenagers "Know?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, John; Bruno, Michelle; Fernandes, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of depression increases markedly during adolescence, yet many youth are not receiving the support that they need. One factor that has been speculated as contributing to low rates of care is a lack of mental health literacy about depression and viable sources of support. This pilot study focused on mental health literacy as it…

  11. Prospective Relations between Bulimic Pathology, Depression, and Substance Abuse: Unpacking Comorbidity in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Burton, Emily M.; Shaw, Heather

    2004-01-01

    To elucidate the processes that contribute to the comorbidity between bulimic pathology, depression, and substance abuse, the authors tested the temporal relations between these disturbances with prospective data from adolescent girls (N = 496). Multivariate analyses indicated that depressive symptoms predicted onset of bulimic pathology but not…

  12. Testing Reciprocal Longitudinal Relations between Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Cong V.; Cole, David A.; Weiss, Bahr

    2012-01-01

    A 2-wave longitudinal study of young adolescents was used to test whether peer victimization predicts depressive symptoms, depressive symptoms predict peer victimization, or the 2 constructs show reciprocal relations. Participants were 598 youths in Grades 3 through 6, ages 8 to 14 (M = 10.9, SD = 1.2) at Wave 1. The sample was 50.7% female and…

  13. Age and Gender Differences in Depression across Adolescence: Real or "Bias"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…

  14. Effective Components of TORDIA Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Clarke, Greg N.; Weersing, V. Robin; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Shamseddeen, Wael; Porta, Giovanna; Berk, Michele; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham J.; Keller, Martin B.; Wagner, Karen D.; Brent, David A.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we conducted a secondary analysis of the Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) study to explore the impact of specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment components on outcome. In TORDIA, 334 youths (ages 12 to 18 years) with major depressive disorder who had failed to respond to an adequate…

  15. Case Study: Longitudinal Treatment of Adolescents with Depression and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szigethy, Eva; Carpenter, Johanna; Baum, Emily; Kenney, Elyse; Baptista-Neto, Lourival; Beardslee, William R.; DeMaso, David Ray

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess longitudinal maintenance of improvements in depression, anxiety, global functioning, and physical health perception in 11 adolescents at 6 and 12 months following completion of manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy. Method: Standardized instruments assessed follow-up changes in depression, anxiety, physical health, and…

  16. Poverty and Depressed Mood among Urban African-American Adolescents: A Family Stress Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Robinson, W. LaVome; Crawford, Isiaah; Li, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the role of family stress as a mediator of the relationship between poverty and depressed mood among 1,704 low-income, inner-city African-American adolescents. Nearly half of participants (47%) reported clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms. Being female, reporting higher levels of family stress, and scoring higher on a…

  17. Subtypes of Rumination in Adolescence: Associations between Brooding, Reflection, Depressive Symptoms, and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burwell, Rebecca A.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2007-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that rumination contributes to the maintenance or intensification of depressive symptoms among adults. This study examined associations between rumination and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. Using a short-term longitudinal design, we evaluated relations between subtypes of rumination and both depressive…

  18. Links between Friendship Relations and Early Adolescents' Trajectories of Depressed Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Lamarche, Veronique; Wanner, Brigitte; Vitaro, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent different types of friendship experiences (i.e., friendlessness, having depressed friends, and having nondepressed friends) are associated with early adolescents' longitudinal trajectories of depressed mood. On the basis of a sample of 201 youths (108 girls, 93 boys), we identified 3 distinct longitudinal…

  19. Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Adolescents: Associations with Depression and Six Domains of Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Lombard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to disentangle the influence of depression and self-esteem on suicidal behaviour in adolescence. Grades 8 and 11 students in Cape Town, South Africa (n=939) completed questionnaires assessing suicidal ideation and behaviour, depression, and self-esteem with respect to family, peers, school, sports/athletics, body image and global…

  20. Evaluation of a Group CBT Early Intervention Program for Adolescents with Comorbid Depression and Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wignall, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Depression and externalising behaviour disorders frequently occur together in adolescence and are associated with a marked increase in symptom severity and poorer outcome. Clinical treatment research and early intervention programs for depression have not addressed the specific cognitive and interpersonal deficits associated with comorbidity. This…