Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.
Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…
Bann, Carla; Higgins, Rosemary; Vohr, Betty
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extremely preterm infants and infants born to adolescent mothers are at risk for adverse developmental. The objectives were to evaluate development and behavior outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born to adolescent mothers <20 compared with adult mothers ≥20 years and to identify socioeconomic risk factors that affect outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of 211 infants >27 weeks of adolescent mothers and 1723 infants of adult mothers at Neonatal Research Network centers from 2008 to 2011. Groups were compared and regression models were run to predict 18- to 22-month adverse outcomes. Primary outcomes were Bayley-III scores, neurodevelopmental impairment, and Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment problem scores (BITSEA/P) ≥75th percentile. RESULTS: Adolescent mothers were more often single, Hispanic, less educated, and had public insurance. By 18 to 22 months, their children had significantly increased rates of having lived ≥3 places (21% vs 9%), state supervision (7% vs 3%), rehospitalization (56% vs 46%), and BITSEA/P ≥75th percentile (50% vs 32%) and nonsignificant Bayley-III language scores <85 (56% vs 49%, P = .07). In regression analysis, children of adolescent mothers were more likely to have BITSEA/P ≥75th percentile (relative risk 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.08–2.07). Living ≥3 places and nonwhite race were predictors of adverse behavior. State supervision was an independent predictor of each Bayley-III composite <70 and neurodevelopmental impairment. CONCLUSIONS: ELBW infants of adolescent mothers experience high social and environmental risks that are associated with adverse behavior outcomes. These findings inform the need for comprehensive follow-up, coordinated care services, and behavior interventions for ELBW infants of adolescent mothers. PMID:25963007
Jahromi, Laudan B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Lara, Ethelyn E.
Infants of adolescent mothers are at increased risk for negative developmental outcomes. Given the high rate of pregnancy among Mexican-origin adolescent females in the US, the present study examined health characteristics at birth and developmental functioning at 10 months of age in a sample of 205 infants of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers.…
The mission of schools has broadened beyond academics to address risk behaviors such as substance use, delinquency, and socialization problems. With an estimated 3.4% of all U.S. youth being homeschooled, this study examines how U.S. homeschoolers fare on these outcomes given their lack of access to these school services. Adolescents (ages 12-17) from the 2002 through 2011 National Surveys of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were divided based on school status (home vs. traditional schooling) and religious affiliation (stronger vs. weaker). Controlling for demographic differences, homeschoolers with weaker religious ties were three times more likely to report being behind their expected grade level and two and a half times more likely to report no extracurricular activities in the prior year than their traditionally schooled counterparts. This group was also more likely to report lax parental attitudes toward substance use. Findings suggest homeschoolers with weaker religious ties represent an at-risk group.
Dekker, Marielle C.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; van Lang, Natasja D. J.; Bongers, Ilja L.; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.
Background: Limited information is available on gender differences and young-adult poor outcome in children and adolescents following distinct developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms. Methods: Parent information on depressive symptoms of 4- to 18-year-olds from an ongoing Dutch community-based longitudinal multiple-cohort study (N =…
Gracia, Enrique; Fuentes, Maria C.; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol
This article analyzed perceptions of neighborhood violence of Spanish adolescents (N = 1,015) from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families, and its association with three sets of developmental outcomes (psychological, behavioral, and academic). Tests of main and interactive effects were conducted to answer research…
Byrne, Michelle L; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Mitchell, Sarah A; Allen, Nicholas B
Depression often has its first onset during adolescence and is associated with obesity. Furthermore, inflammatory processes have been implicated in both depression and obesity, although research amongst adolescents is limited. This review explores associations between depression and obesity, depression and inflammation, and obesity and inflammation from a developmental perspective. The temporal relations between these factors are examined to explore whether obesity and elevated inflammation act as either risk factors for, or outcomes of, adolescent-onset depression. Sex differences in these processes are also summarized. We propose a model whereby increases in sex hormones during puberty increase risk for depression for females, which can lead to obesity, which in turn increases levels of inflammation. Importantly, this model suggests that inflammation and obesity are outcomes of adolescent depression, rather than initial contributing causes. Further research on biological and psychosocial effects of sex hormones is needed, as is longitudinal research with children and adolescents.
Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie
The first aim of the present study was to examine associations between different aspects of adolescent friendship relations (i.e., frequency of contact with friends, trust in friends, and perceived friends' deviance) on one hand, and adolescent problem behavior and self-esteem on the other hand. The second aim was to determine whether the findings…
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana; Shen, Yishan; Murtuza, Mohammed
"Tiger parenting," as described by Chua (2011), has put parenting in Asian American families in the spotlight. The current study identified parenting profiles in Chinese American families and explored their effects on adolescent adjustment. In a three-wave longitudinal design spanning eight years, from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, adolescents (54% female), fathers and mothers from 444 Chinese American families reported on eight parenting dimensions (e.g., warmth and shaming) and six developmental outcomes (e.g., GPA and academic pressure). Latent profile analyses on the eight parenting dimensions demonstrated four parenting profiles: supportive, tiger, easygoing, and harsh parenting. Over time, the percentage of parents classified as tiger parents decreased among mothers but increased among fathers. Path analyses showed that the supportive parenting profile, which was the most common, was associated with the best developmental outcomes, followed by easygoing parenting, tiger parenting, and harsh parenting. Compared with the supportive parenting profile, a tiger parenting profile was associated with lower GPA and educational attainment, as well as less of a sense of family obligation; it was also associated with more academic pressure, more depressive symptoms and a greater sense of alienation. The current study suggests that, contrary to the common perception, tiger parenting is not the most typical parenting profile in Chinese American families, nor does it lead to optimal adjustment among Chinese American adolescents.
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana; Shen, Yishan; Murtuza, Mohammed
“Tiger parenting,” as described by Chua (2011), has put parenting in Asian American families in the spotlight. The current study identified parenting profiles in Chinese American families and explored their effects on adolescent adjustment. In a three-wave longitudinal design spanning eight years, from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, adolescents (54% female), fathers and mothers from 444 Chinese American families reported on eight parenting dimensions (e.g., warmth and shaming) and six developmental outcomes (e.g., GPA and academic pressure). Latent profile analyses on the eight parenting dimensions demonstrated four parenting profiles: supportive, tiger, easygoing, and harsh parenting. Over time, the percentage of parents classified as tiger parents decreased among mothers but increased among fathers. Path analyses showed that the supportive parenting profile, which was the most common, was associated with the best developmental outcomes, followed by easygoing parenting, tiger parenting, and harsh parenting. Compared with the supportive parenting profile, a tiger parenting profile was associated with lower GPA and educational attainment, as well as less of a sense of family obligation; it was also associated with more academic pressure, more depressive symptoms and a greater sense of alienation. The current study suggests that, contrary to the common perception, tiger parenting is not the most typical parenting profile in Chinese American families, nor does it lead to optimal adjustment among Chinese American adolescents. PMID:23646228
Malone, Patrick S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.
This study examined gender differences in trajectories of delinquent behaviors over a 6-year period in adolescence and differential outcomes of these diverse developmental pathways. Participants were 754 children who were part of a longitudinal study of the development of early starting conduct problems. Four trajectory patterns were identified across grades 7–12: increasing, desisting, chronic, and nonproblem groups. Although the proportion of boys and girls varied across the pathways, both genders were represented on these trajectories. Boys were more represented on the chronic and desisting trajectories; girls were more represented in the nonproblem group. However, the proportion of boys and girls was similar in the increasing trajectory. Trajectory membership significantly predicted age 19 outcomes for partner violence, risky sexual behavior and depression, and the risk conferred on these negative adjustment outcomes did not vary by gender. The overall pattern was characterized by poor outcomes at age 19 for youth in both the chronic and the increasing trajectories. The major conclusion is that, other than base rate differences, developmental patterns and outcomes for girls mimic those previously found for boys. PMID:20602164
Jahromi, Laudan B.; Guimond, Amy B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Toomey, Russell B.
This study examined parenting knowledge among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 191; M[subscript age] = 16.26 years), family contextual factors associated with adolescents' parenting knowledge, and toddlers' (M[subscript age] = 2.01 years) subsequent developmental outcomes. Data came from home interviews and direct child…
Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamzah, Azimi; Ismail, Ismi Arif; Suandi, Turiman; Hamzah, Siti Raba'ah; Dahalan, Dzuhailmi; Idris, Fazilah
Despite existing research on the contribution of social context and religiosity to adolescent behavioral outcomes, few studies have attempted to explore this topic among Muslim adolescents in non-Western settings, looking at both positive and negative outcomes. In response to this gap, the current study explored the effects of three dimensions of…
Levy-Shiff, Rachel; And Others
Examined the role of biological factors, such as perinatal complications, and psychological factors, such as maternal attitudes, in predicting developmental outcomes in preterm children. Findings support the main effects model of biological and environmental factors in explaining developmental psychopathology, but also the interactional model, as…
Bonds, Darya D.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Winslow, Emily; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Millsap, Roger E.
Using data from a 6-year longitudinal follow-up sample of 240 youth who participated in a randomized experimental trial of a preventive intervention for divorced families with children ages 9–12, the current study tested alternative cascading pathways by which the intervention decreased symptoms of internalizing disorders, symptoms of externalizing disorders, substance use, and risky sexual behavior, and increased self-esteem and academic performance in mid-to late-adolescence (15–19 years old). It was hypothesized that the impact of the program on adolescent adaptation outcomes would be explained by progressive associations between program-induced changes in parenting and youth adaptation outcomes. The results supported a cascading model of program effects in which the program was related to increased mother-child relationship quality, which was related to subsequent decreases in child internalizing problems, which then was related to subsequent increases in self-esteem and decreases in symptoms of internalizing disorders in adolescence. The results also were consistent with a model in which the program was related to increased maternal effective discipline, which was related to subsequent decreases in child externalizing problems, which then was related to subsequent decreases in symptoms of externalizing disorders, less substance use and better academic performance in adolescence. There were no significant differences in the model based on level of baseline risk or adolescent gender. These results provide support for a cascading pathways model of child and adolescent development. PMID:20883581
Muratori, Pietro; Lochman, John E; Manfredi, Azzurra; Milone, Annarita; Nocentini, Annalaura; Pisano, Simone; Masi, Gabriele
The present study investigated trajectories of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnosis followed-up from childhood to adolescence, to explore possible predictors of these trajectories, and to individuate adolescent clinical outcomes. A sample of 59 Italian referred children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder (53 boys and 6 girls, 21 with Conduct Disorder) was followed up from childhood to adolescence. CU traits were assessed with CU-scale of the Antisocial Process Screening Device-parent report. Latent growth curve models showed that CU traits are likely to decrease linearly from 9 to 15 years old, with a deceleration in adolescence (from 12 to 15). There was substantial individual variability in the rate of change of CU traits over time: patients with a minor decrease of CU symptoms during childhood were at increased risk for severe behavioral problems and substance use into adolescence. Although lower level of socio-economic status and lower level of parenting involvement were associated to elevated levels of CU traits at baseline evaluation, none of the considered clinical and environmental factors predicted the levels of CU traits. The current longitudinal research suggests that adolescent outcomes of Disruptive Behavior Disorder be influenced by CU traits trajectories during childhood.
Benner, Aprile D; Kim, Su Yeong
In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial and job instability) were associated with parents' economic stress. Economic stress and economic status were related to parental depressive symptoms, which, in turn, were associated with more hostile and coercive parenting, less nurturing and involved parenting, and greater interparental hostility. Finally, mothers' hostile and coercive parenting were directly related to both adolescents' academic and sociobehavioral outcomes, whereas fathers' nurturing and involved parenting related to academic but not sociobehavioral outcomes.
Briguglio, Marilena; Pinelli, Lorenzo; Giordano, Lucio; Ferraris, Alessandro; Germanò, Eva; Micheletti, Serena; Severino, Mariasavina; Bernardini, Laura; Loddo, Sara; Tortorella, Gaetano; Ormitti, Francesca; Gasparotti, Roberto; Rossi, Andrea; Valente, Enza Maria
Pontine Tegmental Cap Dysplasia (PTCD) is a recently described, rare disorder characterized by a peculiar cerebellar and brainstem malformation. Nineteen patients have been reported to date, of which only one in the adolescent age, and data on the clinical, cognitive and behavioural outcome of this syndrome are scarce. Here we describe three adolescent patients with PTCD. All presented bilateral deafness and multiple cranial neuropathies, variably associated with skeletal, cardiac and gastro-intestinal malformations. Feeding and swallowing difficulties, that are often causative of recurrent aspiration pneumonias and death in the first years of life, completely resolved with age in all three patients. Neuropsychological assessment showed borderline to moderate cognitive impairment, with delay in adaptive functioning, visual-spatial and language deficits. Two of three patients also showed mild behavioural problems, although their overall socialization abilities were well preserved. Cochlear implantation in two patients significantly improved their relational and learning abilities. Fibre tractography confirmed the abnormal bundle of transversely oriented fibres forming the typical pontine "tegmental cap" and absence of decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles, supporting the hypothesis that PTCD results from abnormal axonal guidance and/or migration.These data indicate that PTCD may have a favourable long-term outcome, with borderline cognitive deficit or even normal cognition and partially preserved speech.
Pontine Tegmental Cap Dysplasia (PTCD) is a recently described, rare disorder characterized by a peculiar cerebellar and brainstem malformation. Nineteen patients have been reported to date, of which only one in the adolescent age, and data on the clinical, cognitive and behavioural outcome of this syndrome are scarce. Here we describe three adolescent patients with PTCD. All presented bilateral deafness and multiple cranial neuropathies, variably associated with skeletal, cardiac and gastro-intestinal malformations. Feeding and swallowing difficulties, that are often causative of recurrent aspiration pneumonias and death in the first years of life, completely resolved with age in all three patients. Neuropsychological assessment showed borderline to moderate cognitive impairment, with delay in adaptive functioning, visual-spatial and language deficits. Two of three patients also showed mild behavioural problems, although their overall socialization abilities were well preserved. Cochlear implantation in two patients significantly improved their relational and learning abilities. Fibre tractography confirmed the abnormal bundle of transversely oriented fibres forming the typical pontine "tegmental cap" and absence of decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles, supporting the hypothesis that PTCD results from abnormal axonal guidance and/or migration. These data indicate that PTCD may have a favourable long-term outcome, with borderline cognitive deficit or even normal cognition and partially preserved speech. PMID:21651769
Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong
In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial, and job instability)…
BROOK, JUDITH S.; LEE, JUNG YEON; BROWN, ELAINE N.; FINCH, STEPHEN J.; BROOK, DAVID W.
Summary Longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence into adulthood were examined for adverse life-course outcomes among African-Americans and Puerto Ricans. Data for marijuana use were analyzed at four points in time and on participants’ personality attributes, work functioning, and partner relations in adulthood using growth mixture modeling. Each of the three marijuana-use trajectory groups (maturing-out, late-onset, and chronic marijuana-users) had greater adverse life-course outcomes than a non or low-use trajectory group. The chronic marijuana-use trajectory group was highly associated with criminal behavior and partners’ marijuana use in adulthood. Treatment programs for marijuana use should also directly address common adverse life-course outcomes which users may already be experiencing. PMID:21675549
Caruthers, Allison S; Van Ryzin, Mark J; Dishion, Thomas J
Adolescent study participants who engaged in a brief, family-centered intervention (the Family Check-Up, FCU) were later assessed for the intervention's effects on high-risk sexual behavior (HRSB) in early adulthood (age 22). Participants (N = 998 adolescents and their families) were randomly assigned to a family-centered intervention in sixth grade and were offered a gated, multilevel intervention that included (a) a school-based family resource center, (b) the FCU, and (c) more intensive, family-based treatment. All services were voluntary, but high-risk families were actively recruited into the FCU. Approximately 23% of the intervention families engaged in the FCU and approximately 18% engaged in more intensive treatment. Using an intent-to-treat design, we found that the direct effect of the FCU on HRSB was not significant; however, an analysis of the developmental processes indicated that intervention families demonstrated improved family relationship quality when compared to control families, which in turn resulted in lower levels of HRSB in early adulthood. Furthermore, the significant effect of family relationship quality on HRSB was mediated by differences in parental monitoring and early sexual activity, and these effects varied as a function of gender and ethnicity. Indirect effects of the FCU on HRSB were significant via multiple different pathways. The implications of these findings for enhancing the impact of family-centered interventions are discussed.
Luciana, Monica; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.
Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health problem, particularly given the negative brain and behavioral consequences that often occur during and following acute intoxication. Negative outcomes appear to be especially pronounced when substance use is initiated in the early adolescent years, perhaps due to neural adaptations that increase risk for substance use disorders into adulthood. Recent models to explain these epidemiological trends have focused on brain-based vulnerabilities to use as well as neurodevelopmental aberrations associated with initiation of use in substance naïve samples or through the description of case-control differences between heavy users and controls. Within this research, adolescent alcohol and marijuana users have shown relative decreases in regional gray matter volumes, substance-specific alterations in white matter volumes, deviations in microstructural integrity in white matter tracts that regulate communication between subcortical areas and higher level regulatory control regions, and deficits in functional connectivity. How these brain anomalies map onto other types of youth risk behavior and later vulnerabilities represent major questions for continued research. This special issue addresses these compelling and timely questions by introducing new methodologies, empirical relationships, and perspectives from major leaders in this field. PMID:26589541
Luciana, Monica; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W
Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health problem, particularly given the negative brain and behavioral consequences that often occur during and following acute intoxication. Negative outcomes appear to be especially pronounced when substance use is initiated in the early adolescent years, perhaps due to neural adaptations that increase risk for substance use disorders into adulthood. Recent models to explain these epidemiological trends have focused on brain-based vulnerabilities to use as well as neurodevelopmental aberrations associated with initiation of use in substance naïve samples or through the description of case-control differences between heavy users and controls. Within this research, adolescent alcohol and marijuana users have shown relative decreases in regional gray matter volumes, substance-specific alterations in white matter volumes, deviations in microstructural integrity in white matter tracts that regulate communication between subcortical areas and higher level regulatory control regions, and deficits in functional connectivity. How these brain anomalies map onto other types of youth risk behavior and later vulnerabilities represent major questions for continued research. This special issue addresses these compelling and timely questions by introducing new methodologies, empirical relationships, and perspectives from major leaders in this field.
Coniglio, Susan J.; Blackman, James A.
Literature on developmental and psychosocial outcomes of childhood leukemia is reviewed, focusing on preschool-age children. Studies are categorized in terms of outcome measures: intelligence/achievement, neuropsychological, memory/attention, and psychosocial tests. Evidence suggests that preschool children with leukemia are at high risk for…
Manning, M. Lee
Notes that the middle school years can be difficult for young adolescents as they face new and challenging developmental tasks. Provides a brief overview of Robert Havighurst's developmental theory. Proposes developmental tasks specifically for ten- to fifteen-year-olds in increasingly diverse schools and society. (PM)
Rafferty, Yvonne; Griffin, Kenneth W; Lodise, Michelle
This longitudinal study examined the influence of parenting behaviors, well-being, and risk factors of low-income adolescent mothers on the cognitive and language abilities of children from infancy to age 3. Participants consisted of 1,240 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project. Data were collected using structured interviews with the mothers and from videotaped mother-child interactions during play activities when children were approximately 14 months old and again at 36 months of age. Positive parenting behaviors exhibited toward the 14-month-old children predicted gains in both cognitive and language abilities more so than did maternal well-being, risk factors within the family setting, and demographic risk factors. Gains in cognitive abilities from infancy to age 3 were predicted by supportive parenting, higher family resources, and lower family conflict when children were infants. Gains in language abilities were predicted by supportive parenting, support for language and learning in the home environment, and higher family resources when children were infants. Finally, path analyses showed that maternal age had an indirect effect on child cognitive and language abilities at age 3 through effects on parenting behaviors. Older mothers were more likely to be supportive during play at age 14 months, which in turn promoted enhanced developmental outcomes at age 3. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.
Wyman, Peter A.
The 2012 National Strategy for Suicide Prevention expands the current suicide prevention paradigm by including a strategic direction aimed at promoting healthy populations. Childhood and adolescence are key suicide prevention window periods, yet knowledge of suicide prevention pathways through universal interventions is limited (Aspirational Goal 11). Epidemiologic evidence suggests that prevention programs in normative social systems such as schools are needed for broad suicide prevention impact. Prevention trial results show that current universal prevention programs for children and young adolescents are effective in reducing adolescent emotional and behavioral problems that are risk factors for suicidal behavior, and in the case of the Good Behavior Game, suicide attempts. A developmentally sequenced upstream suicide prevention approach is proposed: (a) childhood programs to strengthen a broad set of self-regulation skills through family and school-based programs, followed by (b) adolescent programs that leverage social influences to prevent emerging risk behaviors such as substance abuse and strengthen relationships and skills. Key knowledge breakthroughs needed are evidence linking specific intervention strategies to reduced suicidal behaviors and mortality and their mechanisms of action. Short- and long-term objectives to achieve these breakthroughs include combining evidence from completed prevention trials, increasing motivators for prevention researchers to assess suicide-related outcome, and conducting new trials of upstream interventions in populations using efficient designs acceptable to communities. In conclusion, effective upstream prevention programs have been identified that modify risk and protective factors for adolescent suicide, and key knowledge breakthroughs can jump-start progress in realizing the suicide prevention potential of specific strategies. PMID:25145747
Hildyard, Kathryn L.; Wolfe, David A.
This article reviews the effects of child neglect on three developmental periods: infancy/preschool, school-aged and younger adolescents, and older adolescents and adults. The severe cognitive and academic deficits, the social withdrawal and limited peer interactions, and the internalizing problems of neglected children relative to physically…
Cleverley, Kristin; Szatmari, Peter; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael; Lipman, Ellen
Objective: Two common subtypes of aggression (physical and indirect) have been shown to develop concurrently throughout childhood and to uniquely predict maladjustment. However, nothing is known about psychiatric outcomes of joint trajectories of physical aggression (PA) and indirect aggression (IA) in emerging adulthood. Method: Trajectories of…
Abrahamson, Richard F.
The significance of adolescent literature has been judged on the basis of the developmental tasks encountered by the main character. One writer has identified eight developmental tasks that teenagers must undertake as they move toward adulthood: discovering one's sex role in our culture, developing relationships with peers, achieving an easy…
Developmentally informed research on the effectiveness of clinical trials: a primer for assessing how developmental issues may influence treatment responses among adolescents with alcohol use problems.
Wagner, Eric F
The goal of this article is to familiarize readers with the adolescent developmental issues and processes most likely to affect responses to treatment for alcohol use problems. Although the need for research that blends developmental science and treatment outcome research is widely acknowledged, scant information exists about developmentally informed approaches to treatment research with alcohol-abusing teens. Exactly how developmental issues may influence treatment responses among adolescents with alcohol use problems remains an open question. In the hope of moving developmentally informed research forward, this article reports findings from a literature review regarding the degree to which developmental issues and processes have been considered in adolescent alcohol treatment research. Moreover, promising concepts and methods from applied developmental science are discussed, as are various developmental processes and transitions that may influence adolescent risk behavior. Finally, guidance is provided regarding how applied developmental science conceptualizations and methods may be incorporated successfully into randomized, clinical trials with adolescents with alcohol use problems.
van Domburgh, L; Vermeiren, R; Blokland, A A J; Doreleijers, Th A H
Heterogeneity of re-offending patterns was studied in a group of 287 male early onset offenders who were first arrested before age 12. By combining data on the frequency and severity of offending as registered by the police over a 5-year follow-up period, three delinquent trajectories were identified; low, escalating, and high level re-offenders. Predicting group membership by individual and environmental characteristics known to the police at the time of the first arrest proved difficult. Compared to low level re-offenders, escalators were older and more often came from disadvantaged neighborhoods. High level re-offenders were also older at onset, more often had a non-Western ethnic background, and initially committed more vandalism. Furthermore, at the first police encounter, the police reacted more severely towards those who later became high level re-offenders. Finally, high and escalating re-offenders more often had other adverse outcomes, such as criminal victimization and Child Welfare Agency involvement.
Shaffer, Anne; Yates, Tuppett M.; Egeland, Byron R.
Objectives: This investigation examined developmental pathways between childhood emotional maltreatment and adaptational outcomes in early adolescence. This study utilized a developmental psychopathology perspective in adopting a multidimensional approach to the assessment of different forms of emotional maltreatment and later adjustment outcomes.…
Adolescent pregnancy may occur when childhood developmental needs have not been met adequately. Once the needs have been identified, intervention for the adolescent and her child can be tailored to fill developmental gaps. (Author/MT)
Green, Kerry M; Musci, Rashelle J; Matson, Pamela A; Johnson, Renee M; Reboussin, Beth A; Ialongo, Nicholas S
Urban populations disproportionately experience poor sexual outcomes, including high rates of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. However, the contribution of substance use across adolescence to poor sexual outcomes in young adulthood has not been investigated in depth, despite offering opportunities for more targeted prevention. This study aimed to estimate joint trajectories of adolescent alcohol and marijuana use to determine if they relate differently to four sexual outcomes: multiple sexual partners, sex without a condom, teenage pregnancy, and contraction of a sexually transmitted infection in young adulthood (by age 25). Data came from a longitudinal study of urban youth followed from age 6 to age 25, with annual assessments during adolescence and young adulthood (n = 608). The sample showed high levels of sexual risk, with young adults on average having sex without a condom once in the past month, 28.5% having multiple sexual partners in the past month, one quarter having contracted a sexually transmitted infection, and over 60% of the women being pregnant as a teenager and 36% of the men having gotten a partner pregnant. Applying longitudinal latent profile analysis to estimate joint trajectories of alcohol and marijuana use from grades 8-12, we identified four classes representing high dual use, moderate alcohol use, moderate alcohol use with increasing marijuana use, and non-use. Class membership differently predicted all four outcomes investigated with high dual users having the highest level of teenage pregnancy and the increasing marijuana trajectory having the highest risk of engaging with multiple sexual partners in the past month. Results suggest implications for both sexual risk and substance use prevention for urban youth.
Honig, Alice Sterling
Among children of teenage mothers the probability of developmental problems and physical risks is increased$by the mother's physical and social youthfulness and lack of life experience and skills. Some problems of these children stem from adolescent parents' own struggles with tasks unique to their stage of life. Lack of information regarding…
The focus of this newsletter is on the interaction between two major developmental stages: adolescence and middle age. Research and theories about each stage are presented separately, followed by a discussion of how the two occur within the family structure. This discussion may be useful to teachers, counselors, employers, or researchers working…
Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva
What predicts adults' entrepreneurial intentions? Utilizing a cross-sectional sample of 496 German scientists, we investigated a path model for the effects of entrepreneurial personality (Big Five profile), control beliefs, and recalled early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence (early inventions, leadership, commercial activities) on two…
Whitson, Melissa L.; Martinez, Andrew; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.
Adolescent mothers and their children are at risk for a myriad of negative outcomes. This study examined risk and protective factors and their impact on a sample (N=172) of impoverished adolescent mothers. Multiple regression analyses revealed that depressed adolescent mothers report higher levels of parenting stress, and that their children are more at risk for maltreatment and are developmentally behind other babies. In addition, adolescent mothers with restricted social support have babies who are at higher risk for maltreatment. Finally, mothers who were older during pregnancy were more likely to stay in school. Implications for program development are discussed. PMID:25378892
Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; De Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.
In this study, we investigated if the association between parental divorce and depressive symptoms changes during early adolescence and if developmental patterns are similar for boys and girls. Data were collected in a prospective population cohort of Dutch adolescents (N = 2,149), aged 10 - 15 years. Outcome variables were self-reported and…
Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong
Aims To examine the relationship between personality, pregnancy and birth outcomes in adolescents Background Personality has been shown to be a strong predictor of many health outcomes. Adolescents who become pregnant have worse birth outcomes than adults. Design Cross-sectional study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (baseline, 1994-1995; follow-up, 2007-2008). Methods The study sample was 6529 girls, 820 of whom reported on pregnancy outcomes for a teenage birth. Personality data was taken from the Mini International Personality Item Pool personality tool, which measures the five-factor personality traits of neuroticism, conscientiousness, intellect/imagination, extraversion and agreeableness. Logistic regression was used to predict teen pregnancy and linear regression was used to predict birth weight and gestational age with adjustment for confounders and stratification by race. Results Agreeableness and intellect/imagination were associated with a reduced likelihood of becoming pregnant as an adolescent, while neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion were all associated with an increased likelihood of becoming pregnant. Higher neuroticism was associated with lower birth weight and gestational age among Black girls, but not non-Black. Conscientiousness was associated with lower gestational age among non-Black girls. No relationships were found with extraversion or agreeableness and birth outcomes. Receiving late or no prenatal care was associated with higher intellect/imagination. Conclusions Personality is understudied with respect to pregnancy and birth outcomes compared with other health outcomes. Such research could help professionals and clinicians design and target programs that best fit the characteristics of the population most likely to need them, such as those with high neuroticism. PMID:25040691
De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
This 4-wave longitudinal study examines developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of parent-adolescent relationships by assessing parental support, conflict with parents, and parental power. A total of 951 early adolescents (50.4% boys) and 390 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Univariate and multivariate growth curve analyses…
Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.
This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from age 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from age 5 to 15. Analyses indicated distinct physical discipline trajectory groups that varied in frequency of physical discipline and rate of change. In both samples, family ecological disadvantage differentiated the trajectory groups; in the first sample, early child externalizing also differentiated the groups. Controlling for early childhood externalizing, the minimal/ceasing trajectory groups were associated with the lowest levels of subsequent adolescent antisocial behavior in both samples and with parent-adolescent positive relationship quality in the second sample. PMID:19765007
Swanson, Mark E; Dicianno, Brad E
Based on the experience of 2 physicians from physiatry and developmental pediatrics, this article proposes a framework for improving care and outcomes for children with spina bifida. The combined skills of physiatrists and developmental pediatricians, along with other disciplines, can form the ideal team to manage the complex issues faced by this population. The developmental pediatrician is best suited for directing care for younger children through the elementary and middle school years, during which time behavioral and educational issues are prominent. As the child assumes more responsibility for self-management in adolescence, the physiatrist is ideally suited to provide major clinical input that improves functional outcomes. The addition of the discipline of physiatry to traditional, developmentally oriented pediatric interdisciplinary teams can add the much needed dimensions of activity and participation, and improve functional outcomes at the adult level by encouraging activities in adolescence that lead to full participation in adulthood.
De Goede, Irene H A; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim H J
This 4-wave longitudinal study examines developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of parent-adolescent relationships by assessing parental support, conflict with parents, and parental power. A total of 951 early adolescents (50.4% boys) and 390 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Univariate and multivariate growth curve analyses showed that support declined from early to middle adolescence for boys and girls and increased from middle to late adolescence for girls, while stabilizing for boys. Conflict was found to temporarily increase during middle adolescence. Parental power (relative power and dominance of parents) decreased from early to late adolescence. Results indicated that: (1) parent-adolescent relationships become more egalitarian during adolescence, (2) parents perceived by adolescents as powerful are viewed as supportive, especially in early adolescence, and (3) perceived conflict with parents is related to but not an impetus for changes in parent-adolescent relationships towards more equality.
Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed
Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545
Shek, Daniel T. L.; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C. F.
Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661
Examined whether chronic illness causes delays in adolescents' perceived developmental status, using annually-completed questionnaires from insulin-dependent and healthy adolescents. Found that, in first year of study, diabetic adolescents reported delays in physical maturity and an independent lifestyle compared with healthy peers. Overall…
Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François
This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for…
Wehby, George L.; Halpern, Carolyn T.
Objective We assessed the associations between developmental disabilities and indicators of socioeconomic outcomes (i.e., educational attainment, employment status, occupation type, subjective perception of socioeconomic status [SES], income, and wage rate) among young U.S. adults aged 24–33 years. Methods We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=13,040), a nationally representative study of U.S. adolescents in grades 7–12 during the 1994–1995 school year. Young adult outcomes (i.e., educational attainment, employment status, income, occupation, and subjective SES) were measured in Wave IV (2008 for those aged 24–33 years). Multivariate methods controlled for sociodemographic characteristics and other relevant variables. Results Nearly 12% of this sample presented with a physical or cognitive disability. Respondents with physical disabilities had lower educational attainment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57, 0.85) and ranked themselves in lower positions on the subjective SES ladder (OR=0.71, 95% CI 0.57, 0.87) than those without a physical disability. Compared with individuals without disabilities, young adults with a cognitive disability also had lower educational attainment (OR=0.41, 95% CI 0.33, 0.52) and, when employed, were less likely to have a professional/managerial occupation (OR=0.50, 95% CI 0.39, 0.64). Young adults with disabilities also earned less annually (–$10,419.05, 95% CI –$4,954.79, –$5,883.37) and hourly (–$5.38, 95% CI –$7.64, –$3.12) than their non-disabled counterparts. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of considering multiple developmental experiences that may contribute to learning and work achievements through the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. PMID:25931625
Dahmen, Brigitte; Firk, Christine; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate
Adolescent mothers and their children are exposed to multiple psychosocial risk factors and represent a high-risk group for adverse developmental outcomes. It is not the mother's young age alone which contributes to the developmental risk of the mother-child dyad. Rather, both the combination of risks, such as poverty, domestic violence, dysfunctional family relationships, or a psychiatric disorder, all of which predispose to adolescent pregnancy, as well as the strains of parenthood during the mother's own developmental stage add to the psychosocial risks of children of teenage mothers. Early motherhood can lead to lower levels of education and a lower socioeconomic status. In addition, there is a higher risk for psychopathology in both the teenage mother and her child. This article provides an overview of the current research findings regarding adolescent parenting and its associated risks. Risk factors leading to early motherhood are reviewed and associated with differences in parenting behaviors and the developmental outcomes of their children. This article will conclude with a short overview on intervention programs for adolescent mothers and their children. Further research is needed to develop age-appropriate support programs for adolescent mothers and their children to cope with the complexity of risks and improve their developmental trajectories.
Bowers, Edmond P.; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Geldhof, G. John; Nikitin, Jana; von Eye, Alexander; Lerner, Richard M.
This study assessed 1574 Grades 5 to 11 youth (63.6% female) from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD), a longitudinal study involving U.S. adolescents, to assess if patterns of intentional self regulation (ISR) existed; whether these trajectories differed in relation to several Grade 5 parenting characteristics; and whether ISR…
Savolainen, Jukka; Hughes, Lorine A.; Mason, W. Alex; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma K.; Kivivuori, Janne; Taanila, Anja M.
Data from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study (n = 4,645) were used to examine the influence of mid-adolescent (age 15) school outcomes on late-adolescent (ages 17-19) risk of criminal conviction. Consistent with social-developmental theories of offending, we found that poor academic performance and reduced school attachment increase the…
Cotton, Sian; McGrady, Meghan E; Rosenthal, Susan L
The relationship between religious/spiritual (R/S) factors and adolescent health outcomes has been studied for decades; however, the R/S measurement tools used may not be developmentally relevant for adolescents. A systematic literature review was conducted to review and evaluate trends in measuring R/S in adolescent health outcomes research. In this review a total of 100 articles met criteria for inclusion. Relatively few (n = 15) included adolescent-specific R/S measures or items accounting for developmentally relevant issues such as parental religiosity or age-appropriate language. Future R/S and health research with adolescents would be strengthened by incorporating developmentally relevant R/S measurement tools, psychometrics, and multidimensional measures.
Cook, L D
The psychosocial difficulties that usually accompany learning disabilities are examined from a framework of developmental theory, particularly that of Erik Erikson. The implications of this perspective for treatment of adolescents with learning problems is discussed, and a specific program described.
Connolly, Jennifer; McIsaac, Caroline
Our objective was to examine the prevalence and developmental significance of romantic break-ups in adolescence, a relatively unexplored area of study. We examined their occurrence in a sample of 910 adolescents, first noting the frequency of these events across age, gender, and romantic experience, and then analyzing the dissolution explanations…
Obradovic, Jelena; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Yates, Tuppett M.; Carlson, Eilzabeth A.; Egeland, Byron
This study represents a developmentally informed, empirically validated examination of competence across multiple domains (Social, Cognitive, Emotional well-being), gender and age (early childhood, middle childhood, early adolescence, middle adolescence). Competence indicators were created and the structure of these domains was tested using…
Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas
Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…
Atkins, Leslie A.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; McLeroy, Kenneth
Surveyed adolescents and their parents regarding the effects of 10 youth developmental assets on adolescent tobacco use. Results highlighted a strong relationship between having any of nine assets and not smoking. Important assets included having adult, parental, and peer role models; family communication; good use of time; religion; effective…
Proctor, Susan E.
Traditional pregnancy prevention strategies employed with older teens and adults do not recognize significant developmental differences between early adolescents and other age groups. Methods that compliment, reflect, and are consistent with the developmental needs of the young teen provide the best approaches to teen pregnancy prevention.…
Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François
This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for boys and girls. From age 14 to 19 (but not from age 12 to 14) a linear decrease in parental control was found for both genders. For girls, parent-child communication decreased in early adolescence, as indicated by decreasing parental solicitation, decreasing adolescent disclosure, and increasing secrecy. Girls' communication with parents intensified in middle adolescence, as indicated by increasing parental solicitation, increasing adolescent disclosure, and decreasing adolescent secrecy. For boys, disclosure declined in early adolescence, but secrecy and solicitation were stable throughout adolescence. Parental knowledge decreased from age 12 to 19 for both genders but was temporarily stable for middle adolescent girls. The meaning of these developmental changes, their timing, and gender differences are discussed.
Settles, Regan E; Smith, Gregory T
Adolescent alcohol and drug use disorders pose significant risks to adolescents' future functioning. Unfortunately, relapse rates following treatment for these disorders are high. The newest generation of interventions, designed in part to address this problem, place greater focus on the developmental needs of adolescents. In this review, we highlight the importance and promise of this progress in the field. We also argue for a further, more complete, integration of development and treatment: Instead of a focus on developmental issues as part of the process of substance use treatment, we argue for an approach in which healthy development is an outcome of equal importance to changes in substance use and risk behaviors. From this perspective, treatment should address the skills necessary for social, emotional, achievement, and identity development, with substance abuse understood as one example of dysfunctional development. We argue that this approach holds the greatest promise for providing adolescents in treatment with the skills they need to maintain successful post-treatment trajectories. In this paper, we offer theory underlying this perspective, a definition of the outcomes of healthy development that can guide researchers and clinicians, as well as proposals for both researchers and clinicians to continue to push the developmental sensitivity of adolescent substance use treatment forward.
Lundborg, Petter; Nilsson, Anton; Rooth, Dan-Olof
Whereas a large literature has shown the importance of early life health for adult socioeconomic outcomes, there is little evidence on the importance of adolescent health. We contribute to the literature by studying the impact of adolescent health status on adult labor market outcomes using a unique and large-scale dataset covering almost the entire population of Swedish males. We show that most types of major conditions have long-run effects on future outcomes, and that the strongest effects result from mental conditions. Including sibling fixed effects or twin pair fixed effects reduces the magnitudes of the estimates, but they remain substantial.
Since Dan Olweus's seminal work on bullying in the 1970's (Olweus, 1978), there has been a concerted effort by investigators to identify the confluence of factors that contribute to peer victimization and its role in psychosocial development. Although the cause and consequences of peer victimization may include underlying, age-invariant processes, the manifestation of these factors is, in part, driven by the developmental stage being studied. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of peer victimization requires an explicit developmental perspective. This paper examines how peer victimization in adolescence is unique from other developmental periods. Changes in the nature of peer victimization, associated risk factors, the contexts in which victimization is experienced, and the psychosocial outcomes affected are addressed. A primary focus is how maturational processes and interpersonal contexts characteristic of adolescence contribute to changes in victimization, with the objective of informing future research directions and the development of effective interventions.
Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K
Social responsibility is a value orientation, rooted in democratic relationships with others and moral principles of care and justice, that motivates certain civic actions. Given its relevance for building stronger relationships and communities, the development of social responsibility within individuals should be a more concerted focus for developmental scholars and youth practitioners. During childhood and adolescence, the developmental roots of individuals' social responsibility lie in the growth of executive function, empathy and emotion regulation, and identity. Efforts to cultivate children and adolescents' social responsibility in the proximal settings of their everyday lives should emphasize modeling prosocial behaviors, communicating concerns for others, and creating opportunities to practice civic skills.
Pedlow, C. Teal; Carey, Michael P.
Context Despite awareness of the need to design developmentally-appropriate sexual risk reduction interventions for adolescents, limited information exists to identify the aspects of intervention design or content that make an intervention “developmentally appropriate.” Objectives (a) To clarify the rationale for designing developmentally-appropriate interventions, (b) to review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adolescent sexual risk reduction interventions, (c) to identify developmentally-appropriate strategies, (d) to examine the relationship between developmental appropriateness and sexual risk outcomes, and (e) to provide recommendations for research. Study Selection Studies (n = 24) published before 2003 that evaluated a risk reduction intervention, sampled adolescents, used a RCT study design, and evaluated sexual behavior outcomes. Results Content analysis indicated that the interventions tested were often tailored to the cognitive level of adolescents, as indicated by the use of exercises on decision-making, goal-setting and planning, and concrete explanation of abstract concepts. Interventions also addressed the social influences of risky sex such as peer norms and provided communication skills training. Overall, the interventions tested in RCTs were more effective in delaying the onset of sexual activity than in promoting abstinence among sexually-active youth. Interventions with booster sessions were effective in reducing sexual risk behavior. The use of process measures, linked with developmental constructs, was rare. However, improvements in sexual communication skills and perceived norms for safer sex were associated with reductions in sexual risk outcomes. Conclusions Developmental transitions during adolescence influence sexual behavior, and need to be considered when developing and evaluating risk reduction interventions for youth. Future research should assess process measures of key developmental constructs as well as risk behavior and
Padrón, Iván; Rodrigo, María Jose; de Vega, Manuel
We report a study that examined the existence of a cognitive developmental paradox in the counterfactual evaluation of decision-making outcomes. According to this paradox adolescents and young adults could be able to apply counterfactual reasoning and, yet, their counterfactual evaluation of outcomes could be biased in a salient socio-emotional context. To this aim, we analyzed the impact of health and social feedback on the counterfactual evaluation of outcomes in a laboratory decision-making task involving short narratives with the presence of peers. Forty risky (e.g., taking or refusing a drug), forty neutral decisions (e.g., eating a hamburger or a hotdog), and emotions felt following positive or negative outcomes were examined in 256 early, mid- and late adolescents, and young adults, evenly distributed. Results showed that emotional ratings to negative outcomes (regret and disappointment) but not to positive outcomes (relief and elation) were attenuated when feedback was provided. Evidence of development of cognitive decision-making capacities did also exist, as the capacity to perform faster emotional ratings and to differentially allocate more resources to the elaboration of emotional ratings when no feedback information was available increased with age. Overall, we interpret these findings as challenging the traditional cognitive developmental assumption that development necessarily proceeds from lesser to greater capacities, reflecting the impact of socio-emotional processes that could bias the counterfactual evaluation of social decision-making outcomes. PMID:27152127
Bloch, H Spencer
This clinical study is organized around the treatment of a late adolescent who feared suiciding impulsively during an immobilizing depression and who proceeded to develop other severe symptoms. Yet he steadfastly refused to take medication and objected to seeing a therapist as well. His reason was an overriding wish to deal with his difficulties himself, a feature of his normal developmental imperative to emancipate to a young-adult level of psychological autonomy. Thus, the therapeutic task was to simultaneously hold him in treatment while supporting that normal developmental requisite. Elaborating upon this integration of the psychodynamic and the developmental is the major purpose of this study.
Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin
This study compared the achievement of developmental tasks by 158 adolescents with visual impairments to that of 158 sighted adolescents. The groups did not differ in the fulfillment of 9 of 11 tasks. However, those with visual impairments were less successful in peer-group integration and forming intimate relationships. (Contains 4 tables.)
LYNNE-LANDSMAN, SARAH D.; BRADSHAW, CATHERINE P.; IALONGO, NICHOLAS S.
Developmental models highlight the impact of early risk factors on both the onset and growth of substance use, yet few studies have systematically examined the indirect effects of risk factors across several domains, and at multiple developmental time points, on trajectories of substance use and adult adjustment outcomes (e.g., educational attainment, mental health problems, criminal behavior). The current study used data from a community epidemiologically defined sample of 678 urban, primarily African American youth, followed from first grade through young adulthood (age 21) to test a developmental cascade model of substance use and young adult adjustment outcomes. Drawing upon transactional developmental theories and using growth mixture modeling procedures, we found evidence for a developmental progression from behavioral risk to adjustment problems in the peer context, culminating in a high-risk trajectory of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use during adolescence. Substance use trajectory membership was associated with adjustment in adulthood. These findings highlight the developmental significance of early individual and interpersonal risk factors on subsequent risk for substance use and, in turn, young adult adjustment outcomes. PMID:20883591
Schwartz, Seth J.; Rosiers, Sabrina Des; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José
The present study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (mean age 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning. PMID:23848416
Schwartz, Seth J; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Unger, Jennifer B; Knight, George P; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José
This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (Mage = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning.
Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Kastner, Julia; Petermann, Franz; Jekauc, Darko; Worth, Annette; Bos, Klaus
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) as well as overweight and obesity are of increasing importance in the study of human development. Data on the relation between DCD and obesity in adolescence are of particular interest because both phenomena are unlikely to disappear with age. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of…
Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey
Growth curve modelling was used to examine developmental trajectories of sociometric and perceived popularity across eight years in adolescence, and the effects of gender, overt aggression, and relational aggression on these trajectories. Participants were 303 initially popular students (167 girls, 136 boys) for whom sociometric data were…
Cook, Louisa D.
The psychosocial difficulties that usually accompany learning disabilities are examined from a framework of developmental theory, particularly that of Erik Erikson. The implications of this perspective for treatment of adolescents with learning problems is discussed, and the summer residential program at Goddard College described. (Author)
Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Flanagan, Constance A.
Social responsibility can be defined as a set of prosocial values representing personal commitments to contribute to community and society. Little is known about developmental change--and predictors of that change--in social responsibility during adolescence. The present study used an accelerated longitudinal research design to investigate the…
Rassart, Jessica; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Eva; Apers, Silke; Moons, Philip
The present study examined associations between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) using a longitudinal trajectory approach. Adolescents with CHD were selected from the database of pediatric and congenital cardiology of the University Hospitals Leuven. A total of 429 adolescents (M age = 16 at T1) participated in the present study, comprising four measurement waves spanning approximately 3 years. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify trajectory classes of parenting and perceived health. Whereas adolescents from democratic households reported the most favorable health outcomes, adolescents from authoritarian, overprotective, and psychologically controlling families (all characterized by relatively high levels of psychological control) showed an increased risk for poor perceived health over time. Hence, the present study found substantial developmental associations between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with CHD. Future research should investigate whether working on the parent-adolescent relationship can foster patients' health.
Eslinger, Paul J.; Flaherty-Craig, Claire V.; Benton, Arthur L.
The neuropsychological bases of cognitive, social, and moral development are minimally understood, with a seemingly wide chasm between developmental theories and brain maturation models. As one approach to bridging ideas in these areas, we review 10 cases of early prefrontal cortex damage from the clinical literature, highlighting overall clinical…
Ben-Eliyahu, Adar; Rhodes, Jean E.; Scales, Peter
In this study, we examined the characteristics of adolescents' deep interests or "sparks," the role of relationships in supporting the development of sparks, and whether having a spark was associated with positive developmental outcomes. Participants included 1,860 15 years olds from across the United States who participated in the…
Reitz, Anne K.; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso; Asendorpf, Jens B.
Immigrant youth differ in their adaptation, which is judged on the basis of how well they deal with developmental and acculturative tasks. While immigrant adolescents are faced with the realities of 2 different cultures, they also have to master age-salient tasks, such as self-efficacy and identity development. To get a better insight into the…
Reitz, Anne K; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso; Asendorpf, Jens B
Immigrant youth differ in their adaptation, which is judged on the basis of how well they deal with developmental and acculturative tasks. While immigrant adolescents are faced with the realities of 2 different cultures, they also have to master age-salient tasks, such as self-efficacy and identity development. To get a better insight into the interplay of developmental and acculturative tasks and their relationship with family functioning, we used 3-wave longitudinal data over a 2-year period from 13-year-old immigrant students (N = 609) in Athens, Greece. Cross-lagged models revealed that family functioning and acculturation were resources for the mastery of developmental tasks. Involvement in the host culture prospectively predicted self-efficacy beliefs, and involvement in the ethnic culture prospectively predicted ethnic identity. These effects increased over time. Family functioning prospectively predicted self-efficacy and ethnic identity. These effects decreased over time. The findings suggest that a well-functioning family, for early adolescents, and being involved in the host culture and in ethnic cultures, for middle adolescents, are particularly important resources to master the tasks of their developmental period. Our findings underscore the importance of developmentally sensitive approaches and the need to account for acculturative challenges in order to understand individual differences in immigrant youth adaptation.
Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K; Flanagan, Constance A
Social responsibility can be defined as a set of prosocial values representing personal commitments to contribute to community and society. Little is known about developmental change-and predictors of that change-in social responsibility during adolescence. The present study used an accelerated longitudinal research design to investigate the developmental trajectory of social responsibility values and ecological assets across family, school, community, and peer settings that predict these values. Data come from a 3-year study of 3,683 U.S. adolescents enrolled in upper-level elementary, middle, and high schools in rural, semiurban, and urban communities. Social responsibility values significantly decreased from age 9 to 16 before leveling off in later adolescence. Family compassion messages and democratic climate, school solidarity, community connectedness, and trusted friendship, positively predicted within-person change in adolescents' social responsibility values. These findings held after accounting for other individual-level and demographic factors and provide support for the role of ecological assets in adolescents' social responsibility development. In addition, fair society beliefs and volunteer experience had positive between- and within-person associations with social responsibility values. The manuscript discusses theoretical and practical implications of the conclusion that declines in ecological assets may partly explain age-related declines in social responsibility values. (PsycINFO Database Record
Welsh, Janet A.; Viana, Andres G.
This study followed the development of a sample of 106 (67 girls) internationally adopted children over a period of 18 months. Children were adopted from five birth regions, including China, Korea, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and other Asian countries. Mean age at adoption was 11 months. Mothers completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) at 6, 12, and 24 months post-adoption, assessing children's gross and fine motor, communicative, personal-social, and problem solving skills. Results revealed that the sample as a whole demonstrated linear improvement over time in most developmental domains, but children with initially low scores remained significantly lower than other children at the 18-month follow-up. At the first time point, communication was the domain where children most commonly experienced delays. Children with medical problems had significantly lower developmental scores than those without medical diagnoses. ASQ scores were unrelated to age at adoption, but significant differences by birth country region were found. Across most domains, children adopted from Eastern Europe showed generally lower scores than children adopted from other birth regions. PMID:23908583
Yamada, Samantha; Pepler, Debra; Jiang, Depeng; Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Craig, Wendy; Connolly, Jennifer
Longitudinal data from 746 adolescents in Toronto, Canada (54% females), was gathered in eight waves over seven years (1995 through 2001), beginning when the youths were 10 to 12 years old (mean age = 11.8, SD = 1.2 years). Five trajectories of substance use were identified: chronic-high, childhood onset-rapid high, childhood onset-moderate,…
Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dahl, Ronald E
In this article, we consider how to leverage some of the rapid advances in developmental neuroscience in ways that can improve adolescent health. We provide a brief overview of several key areas of scientific progress relevant to these issues. We then focus on two examples of important health problems that increase sharply during adolescence: sleep problems and affective disorders. These examples illustrate how an integrative, developmental science approach provides new insights into treatment and intervention. They also highlight a cornerstone principle: how a deeper understanding of potentially modifiable factors-at key developmental inflection points along the trajectory toward clinical disorders-is beginning to inform, and may eventually transform, a broad range of innovative early intervention strategies to improve adolescent health.
Haller, Moira; Handley, Elizabeth; Chassin, Laurie; Bountress, Kaitlin
Using a high-risk community sample (N = 405), the current study examined developmental cascades among substance use, affiliation with substance use promoting peers, and academic achievement over an 18-year period and tested whether these pathways mediated the influence of parental alcoholism on adult alcohol and drug use disorders. Results showed that the influence of parental alcoholism on adult drug disorders was mediated by developmental cascades across all three domains, whereas the influence of parental alcoholism on adult alcohol disorders was mediated through affiliation with substance use promoting peers and persistence in binge drinking. Adolescent drug use had more implications for adult outcomes than did adolescent alcohol use, which was less likely to spill over into other domains of functioning. Findings indicated that adolescent risk factors had indirect rather than unique effects on adult substance use disorders, suggesting that adolescent risk is not immutable and is largely mediated by later influences. PMID:20883589
Broidy, Lisa M.; Tremblay, Richard E.; Brame, Bobby; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John L.; Laird, Robert; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Loeber, Rolf; Lynam, Donald R.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Vitaro, Frank
This study used data from 6 sites and 3 countries to examine the developmental course of physical aggression in childhood and to analyze its linkage to violent and nonviolent offending outcomes in adolescence. The results indicate that among boys there is continuity in problem behavior from childhood to adolescence and that such continuity is especially acute when early problem behavior takes the form of physical aggression. Chronic physical aggression during the elementary school years specifically increases the risk for continued physical violence as well as other nonviolent forms of delinquency during adolescence. However, this conclusion is reserved primarily for boys, because the results indicate no clear linkage between childhood physical aggression and adolescent offending among female samples despite notable similarities across male and female samples in the developmental course of physical aggression in childhood. PMID:12661883
Mills, Kathryn L; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Clasen, Liv S; Giedd, Jay N; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne
Regions of the human brain develop at different rates across the first two decades of life, with some maturing before others. It has been hypothesized that a mismatch in the timing of maturation between subcortical regions (involved in affect and reward processing) and prefrontal regions (involved in cognitive control) underlies the increase in risk-taking and sensation-seeking behaviors observed during adolescence. Most support for this 'dual systems' hypothesis relies on cross-sectional data, and it is not known whether this pattern is present at an individual level. The current study utilizes longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to describe the developmental trajectories of regions associated with risk-taking and sensation-seeking behaviors, namely, the amygdala, nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Structural trajectories of gray matter volumes were analyzed using FreeSurfer in 33 participants aged 7-30 years, each of whom had at least three high-quality MRI scans spanning three developmental periods: late childhood, adolescence and early adulthood (total 152 scans). The majority of individuals in our sample showed relatively earlier maturation in the amygdala and/or NAcc compared to the PFC, providing evidence for a mismatch in the timing of structural maturation between these structures. We then related individual developmental trajectories to retrospectively assessed self-reported risk-taking and sensation-seeking behaviors during adolescence in a subsample of 24 participants. Analysis of this smaller sample failed to find a relationship between the presence of a mismatch in brain maturation and risk-taking and sensation-seeking behaviors during adolescence. Taken together, it appears that the developmental mismatch in structural brain maturation is present in neurotypically developing individuals. This pattern of development did not directly relate to self-reported behaviors at an individual level in our sample
Kripke, Clarissa Calliope
Disability is a natural part of the human experience. To maximize potential, adolescents with disabilities require multidisciplinary transition planning and life-skill training. Health care professionals can reduce barriers to accessing health care. They can encourage self-determination and connect patients to self-advocacy organizations. They can facilitate smooth transitions to adult health care services. Careful descriptions of a patient's baseline traits and function are critical, not only to assist in person centered planning processes, but to ensure that new caregivers and clinicians have the information they need to recognize changes in function or behavior that can signal illness.
Both the intensity and prevalence of violence and delinquency among children and adolescents have continued to rise during the past fifteen years. Efforts to counteract this development may benefit from recent evidence from developmental psychopathology and neurobiology. A model proposed by Moffitt describes two developmental pathways into antisocial problem behavior: one path characterized by an early onset and a stable course of symptoms ("life-course persistent") and the other by an episodic ("adolescence-limited") occurrence of anti-social behavior. While in the latter the specific developmental tasks and life circumstances of adolescence play a major role in the pathogenesis, persistent antisocial behavior is perceived to be a result of a transactional process between child and environment. Apart from psychosocial factors, biological predispositions (genetic susceptibility) and psychological dispositions (temperament and personality characteristics) are of primary interest. The recent progress in neurobiological and personality research promises significant insights into the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. Integrating these approaches may help in targeting prevention and early intervention programs to high-risk groups and may thus contribute to improving their effectiveness.
Johnson, Sara B.; Jones, Vanya C.
In adolescence, there is a complex interaction among physical, cognitive, and psychosocial developmental processes, culminating in greater risk-taking and novelty-seeking. Concurrently, adolescents face an increasingly demanding environment, which results in heightened vulnerability to injury. In this paper, we provide an overview of developmental considerations for adolescent injury interventions based on developmental science including findings from behavioral neuroscience and psychology. We examine the role that typical developmental processes play in the way adolescents perceive and respond to risk and how this integrated body of developmental research adds to our understanding of how to do injury prevention with adolescents. We then highlight strategies to improve the translation of developmental research into adolescent injury prevention practice, calling on examples of existing interventions including graduated driver licensing. PMID:20876765
Proctor, S E
Traditional pregnancy prevention strategies employed with adults and older teens do not recognize significant developmental differences between early adolescents and other age groups. Methods that compliment, reflect, and are consistent with developmental needs of the young teen provide cogent approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. Particular emphasis should be placed on interpersonal relationships and their importance in the young woman's life, especially the relationship between the young teen and her parents. Developing and improving all relationships instrumental in positively affecting teen decision-making represent potent approaches to pregnancy prevention. The axioms of Piaget, Erikson, and Mercer are examined in regard to cognitive, social, emotional, and psychosexual development in the 12-14 year old. Young teens' responses to sex education as well as their use of contraception are reviewed in relation to developmental theory.
Vaivre-Douret, Laurence; And Others
Reports developmental outcomes of a child who experienced a tracheostomy and had prolonged hospitalization and psychomotor therapy in an intensive care unit. Found a pattern of delay in speech and language production with no hearing loss, no cognitive impairment, an average level of fine motor disorders, no behavioral disorders, and normal…
Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Del Giudice, Marco
This article discusses 3 ways in which adaptive developmental mechanisms may produce maladaptive outcomes. First, natural selection may favor risky strategies that enhance fitness on average but which have detrimental consequences for a subset of individuals. Second, mismatch may result when organisms experience environmental change during…
Fox, Nathan A.; Porges, Stephen W.
Addresses the utility of a noninvasive measure of cardiac vagal tone in predicting developmental outcome among infants at risk for cognitive disabilities. Results suggest that measurement of cardiac vagal tone may provide an important means for assessing risk in birth-stressed populations. (Author/RH)
Smith, Timothy B.; Boyce, Glenna C.
This paper presents results of a preliminary study which evaluated medical birth data as potential predictors of developmental outcome, and developed and tested an instrument designed for this purpose. Forty low birthweight children, all of whom had experienced neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage, were evaluated at school age (66 months) on the…
Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Fang, Hua; Johnson, Craig; Stopp, Christian; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Respass, Jennifer
Smoking during pregnancy is a persistent public health problem that has been linked to later adverse outcomes. The neonatal period--the first month of life--carries substantial developmental change in regulatory skills and is the period when tobacco metabolites are cleared physiologically. Studies to date mostly have used cross-sectional designs…
Sitnick, Stephanie; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke
This study examined developmentally-salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting, maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers’ depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24029248
Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W
This study examined developmentally salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting and maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence, were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers' depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed.
Boeltzig, Heike; Timmons, Jaimie C; Butterworth, John
This paper provides a current snapshot of employment outcomes for individuals with developmental disabilities who had recently entered integrated employment (individual and group supported jobs) with the support of a community rehabilitation provider. Individual outcomes are based on an analysis of the National Survey of Community Rehabilitation Providers conducted between 2004 and 2005 by the Institute for Community Inclusion at the University of Massachusetts in Boston. Survey results show that the majority of respondents with developmental disabilities worked part-time in individual jobs, predominantly in the entry-level service industry; earned above federal minimum wage; and received paid time off. Differences in employment outcomes by type of integrated employment model are discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the findings.
Eiden, Rina D.; Lessard, Jared; Colder, Craig R.; Livingston, Jennifer; Casey, Meghan; Leonard, Kenneth E.
A developmental cascade model for adolescent substance use beginning in infancy was examined in a sample of children with alcoholic and nonalcoholic parents. The model examined the role of parents' alcohol diagnoses, depression and antisocial behavior in a cascading process of risk via 3 major hypothesized pathways: first, via parental…
Gander, Manuela; Sevecke, Kathrin; Buchheim, Anna
In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. Articles for inclusion in this review were identified from PsychINFO (1966–2013), Sciencedirect (1970–2013), Psychindex (1980–2013), and Pubmed (1980–2013). First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition. PMID:26321974
Gander, Manuela; Sevecke, Kathrin; Buchheim, Anna
In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. Articles for inclusion in this review were identified from PsychINFO (1966-2013), Sciencedirect (1970-2013), Psychindex (1980-2013), and Pubmed (1980-2013). First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition.
Whitson, Melissa L.; Martinez, Andrew; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.
Adolescent mothers and their children are at risk for a myriad of negative outcomes. This study examined risk and protective factors and their impact on a sample (N = 172) of impoverished adolescent mothers. Multiple regression analyses revealed that depressed adolescent mothers report higher levels of parenting stress and that their children are…
Eshbaugh, Elaine M.
The relationship between being an adolescent child of a teen mother and sexuality-related outcomes was investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents whose mothers were teenagers at first birth were more likely to have had sex by age 16 than other adolescents. Gender moderated this effect, as this relationship…
Beesdo, Katja; Knappe, Susanne; Pine, Daniel S.
This review summarizes findings on the epidemiology and etiology of anxiety disorders among children and adolescents including separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, also highlighting critical aspects of diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. Childhood and adolescence is the core risk phase for the development of anxiety symptoms and syndromes, ranging from transient mild symptoms to full-blown anxiety disorders. This article critically reviews epidemiological evidence covering prevalence, incidence, course, and risk factors. The core challenge in this age span is the derivation of developmentally more sensitive assessment methods. Identification of characteristics that could serve as solid predictors for onset, course, and outcome will require prospective designs that assess a wide range of putative vulnerability and risk factors. This type of information is important for improved early recognition and differential diagnosis as well as prevention and treatment in this age span. PMID:19716988
Eiden, Rina D; Lessard, Jared; Colder, Craig R; Livingston, Jennifer; Casey, Meghan; Leonard, Kenneth E
A developmental cascade model for adolescent substance use beginning in infancy was examined in a sample of children with alcoholic and nonalcoholic parents. The model examined the role of parents' alcohol diagnoses, depression and antisocial behavior in a cascading process of risk via 3 major hypothesized pathways: first, via parental warmth/sensitivity from toddler to kindergarten age predicting higher parental monitoring in middle childhood through early adolescence, serving as a protective pathway for adolescent substance use; second, via child low self-regulation in the preschool years to a continuing externalizing behavior problem pathway leading to underage drinking and higher engagement with substance using peers; and third, via higher social competence from kindergarten age through middle childhood being protective against engagement with delinquent and substance using peers, and leading to lower adolescent substance use. The sample consisted of 227 intact families recruited from the community at 12 months of child age. Results were supportive for the first 2 pathways to substance use in late adolescence. Among proximal, early adolescent risks, engagement with delinquent peers and parent's acceptance of underage drinking were significant predictors of late adolescent alcohol and marijuana use. The results highlight the important protective roles of maternal warmth/sensitivity in early childhood to kindergarten age, parental monitoring in middle childhood, and of child self-regulation in the preschool period as reducing risk for externalizing behavior problems, underage drinking, and engagement with delinquent peers in early adolescence. Specific implications for the creation of developmentally fine-tuned preventive intervention are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Needham, Belinda L.; Grunden, Leslie N.; Farb, Amy Feldman
Using a variant of the ecological-transactional model and developmental theories of delinquency on a nationally representative sample of adolescents, the current study explored the ecological predictors of violent victimization, perpetration, and both for three different developmental stages during adolescence. We examined the relative influence…
Killoren, Sarah E; Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J
Given the negative developmental risks associated with adolescent motherhood, it is important to examine the sociocultural context of adolescent mothers' lives to identify those most at risk for poor outcomes. Our goals were to identify profiles of Mexican-origin pregnant adolescents' cultural orientations and their attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and to investigate how these profiles were linked to adolescents' pregnancy intentions, family resources, and short-term family, educational, and parenting outcomes. With a sample of 205 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers, we identified three profiles based on cultural orientations and attitudes toward teen pregnancy: Bicultural-Moderate Attitudes, Acculturated-Moderate Attitudes, and Enculturated-Low Attitudes. The results indicated that enculturated pregnant adolescents had the least favorable attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and the lowest levels of family income, pregnancy intentions, pregnancy support, and educational expectations compared to acculturated and bicultural pregnant adolescents; acculturated adolescents (with the highest family income and high levels of pregnancy support) had the highest levels of parenting efficacy 10 months postpartum. Our findings suggest that enculturated adolescent mothers (with less positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from educational support programs and enculturated and bicultural adolescent mothers (with moderately positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from programs to increase parenting efficacy. Such targeted interventions may, in turn, reduce the likelihood of adolescent mothers experiencing negative educational and parenting outcomes.
Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey
Growth curve modelling was used to examine developmental trajectories of sociometric and perceived popularity across eight years in adolescence, and the effects of gender, overt aggression, and relational aggression on these trajectories. Participants were 303 initially popular students (167 girls, 136 boys) for whom sociometric data were available in Grades 5-12. The popularity and aggression constructs were stable but non-overlapping developmental dimensions. Growth curve models were run with SAS MIXED in the framework of the multilevel model for change [Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press]. Sociometric popularity showed a linear change trajectory; perceived popularity showed nonlinear change. Overt aggression predicted low sociometric popularity but an increase in perceived popularity in the second half of the study. Relational aggression predicted a decrease in sociometric popularity, especially for girls, and continued high-perceived popularity for both genders. The effect of relational aggression on perceived popularity was the strongest around the transition from middle to high school. The importance of growth curve models for understanding adolescent social development was discussed, as well as specific issues and challenges of growth curve analyses with sociometric data.
Zaroff, Charles M; Morrison, Chris; Ferraris, Nina; Weiner, Howard L; Miles, Daniel K; Devinsky, Orrin
In Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), neurological dysfunction, usually in association with epilepsy, is responsible for the greatest degree of disease-related disability. Epilepsy surgery is increasingly recognized as a therapeutic option given the often medication-resistant nature of the disease. Seven subjects with medically refractory epilepsy associated with TSC, who underwent surgery at a tertiary care epilepsy center and in whom both preoperative and postoperative neuropsychological data were available, were examined. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and in one case, the WISC-III were utilized. Postoperatively, the composite standard scores declined in six of the seven subjects, although for the most part this decline was quite modest (8 points or less in 5/6 subjects). The mean overall developmental/intellectual quotients were comparable across assessments (preoperative M = 55, SD = 20.3; postoperative M = 49 SD = 16.6). Good outcomes appeared to be related to seizure relief. Age estimates of developmental level indicated developmental progress in the majority of subjects in the current sample, and may yield greater clinical information for individuals with developmental delay than do standard scores.
Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.
Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior. We obtained data on 1044 ID-adolescents, aged…
Mitchell, D. B.; Hauser-Cram, P.
Background: The importance of positive parent-adolescent relationships is stressed in research on adolescents, although very little is known about this relationship when a teen has developmental disabilities (DD). We investigated the relationships of adolescents with disabilities with their mothers and their fathers in order to answer a number of…
DeMauro, Sara B.; D'Agostino, Jo Ann; Bann, Carla; Bernbaum, Judy; Gerdes, Marsha; Bell, Edward F.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; D'Angio, Carl; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary; Hintz, Susan R.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Natarajan, Girija; Nelin, Leif; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Sanchez, Pablo J.; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J.; Truog, William; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Vohr, Betty; Walsh, Michele C.; Kirpalani, Haresh
Objectives To evaluate the neurodevelopmental outcomes of very preterm (<30 weeks) infants who underwent tracheostomy. Study design Retrospective cohort study from 16 centers of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network over 10 years (2001-2011). Infants who survived to at least 36 weeks (N=8,683), including 304 infants with tracheostomies, were studied. Primary outcome was death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI, a composite of one or more of: developmental delay, neurologic impairment, profound hearing loss, severe visual impairment) at a corrected age of 18-22 months. Outcomes were compared using multiple logistic regression. We assessed impact of timing, by comparing outcomes of infants who underwent tracheostomy before and after 120 days of life. Results Tracheostomies were associated with all neonatal morbidities examined, and with most adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Death or NDI occurred in 83% of infants with tracheostomies and 40% of those without [odds ratio (OR) adjusted for center 7.0 (95%CI, 5.2-9.5)]. After adjustment for potential confounders, odds of death or NDI remained higher [OR 3.3 (95%CI, 2.4-4.6)], but odds of death alone were lower [OR 0.4 (95%CI, 0.3-0.7)], among infants with tracheostomies. Death or NDI was lower in infants who received their tracheostomies before, rather than after, 120 days of life [adjusted OR 0.5 (95%CI, 0.3-0.9)]. Conclusions Tracheostomy in preterm infants is associated with adverse developmental outcomes, and cannot mitigate the significant risk associated with many complications of prematurity. These data may inform counseling about tracheostomy in this vulnerable population. PMID:24472229
Rice, Frances; Lifford, Kate J.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita
Objective: To assess the value of maternal and self-ratings of adolescent depression by investigating the extent to which these reports predicted a range of mental health and functional outcomes 4 years later. The potential influence of mother's own depressed mood on her ratings of adolescent depression and suicidal ideation on adolescent outcome…
Mahoney, Joseph L.; Vest, Andrea E.
Concern exists that youth who spend a lot of time participating in organized out-of-school activities (e.g., sports) are at-risk for poor developmental outcomes. This concern--called the over-scheduling hypothesis--has primarily been assessed in terms of adolescent adjustment. This longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of 1,115…
Cotton, Sian; Zebracki, Kathy; Rosenthal, Susan L; Tsevat, Joel; Drotar, Dennis
Religion/spirituality is important to adolescents, is usually considered a protective factor against a host of negative health outcomes, and is often included in adolescent health outcomes research. Previous reviews of the relationship among spirituality, religion, and adolescent health have been limited by scope, focusing primarily on distal aspects of religion/spirituality (e.g., attendance at religious services). We reviewed the literature examining proximal domains of religion/spirituality (e.g., spiritual coping) in adolescent health outcomes research. Constructs such as spiritual coping and religious decision-making were the ones most often studied and were generally positively associated with health outcomes. Measurement of proximal domains, associations of proximal domains with health outcomes, methodological issues and recommendations for future research were covered in this review.
Adolescence has long been regarded as a transition from childhood to adulthood. More recently it is become a concern of those wishing to avoid adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. Most of this effort has been focused on behavioural risk factors such as tobacco and excessive alcohol use, physical exercise habits, dietary habits, as well as sexual and injury-related behaviours. The concern is that these habits are established during adolescence, continue into adulthood, and come to constitute ongoing risk factors for adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. There is good reason to criticize this approach. These behaviours are themselves shaped by adolescents' living and working conditions and even then constitute a small proportion of the variance predicting adverse health outcomes during adulthood. More complex models of how adolescence serves as a gateway to adult health outcomes are presented. These are the socio-environmental, public policy, and political economy approaches. The argument is made that adolescence is a period during which public policy plays an especially important role in predicting future health outcomes. Yet, these public policies influence health all across the life span with adolescence providing only one of many important periods during which public policy shapes health prospects during middle and later adulthood. Ultimately one should consider a range of approaches ranging from the behavioural to the political to examine how adolescence serves as a gateway towards future adult prospects. An Adolescent Gateway Towards Adult Health Model is provided to assist in this process.
The study examined age and gender differences in leadership aspirations among teenage adolescents. It was hypothesized that adolescents' valence, self-efficacy and attribution perceptions about leadership would be predictive of their aspirations to leadership. Altogether 52 fourth form and 78 seventh form high school students completed a questionnaire measuring (a) overall leadership aspirations, (b) 13 valence-instrumentality expectancies for 13 leadership outcomes, (c) self-efficacy perceptions, and (d) attributions of effective leadership. The results revealed significant gender differences in valence scores and significant age differences in self-efficacy and attribution measures. Regression analyses indicated that fourth formers' leadership aspirations were significantly predicted from their "ease-of-success" self-efficacy expectation; whereas seventh formers from either valence perceptions (males) or self-efficacy and attribution scores (females). These results were discussed in the context of the valence and self-efficacy models of career decision-making processes and attribution theory.
Chan, Yupo; Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Chowdhury, Parimal; Leszczynska, Danuta; Patterson, Tucker A.; Tarasenko, Olga
Representatives of Arkansas medical, research and educational institutions have gathered over the past four years to discuss the relationship between functional developmental perturbations and their neurological consequences. We wish to track the effect on the nervous system by developmental perturbations over time and across species. Except for perturbations, the sequence of events that occur during neural development was found to be remarkably conserved across mammalian species. The tracking includes consequences on anatomical regions and behavioral changes. The ultimate goal is to develop a predictive model of long-term genotypic and phenotypic outcomes that includes developmental insults. Such a model can subsequently be fostered into an educated intervention for therapeutic purposes. Several datasets were identified to test plausible hypotheses, ranging from evoked potential datasets to sleep-disorder datasets. An initial model may be mathematical and conceptual. However, we expect to see rapid progress as large-scale gene expression studies in the mammalian brain permit genome-wide searches to discover genes that are uniquely expressed in brain circuits and regions. These genes ultimately control behavior. By using a validated model we endeavor to make useful predictions.
Myers, Mark G.; Prochaska, Judith J.
Although tobacco use is reported by the majority of substance use disordered (SUD) youth, little work has examined tobacco focused interventions with this population. The present study is an initial investigation of the effect of a tobacco use intervention on adolescent SUD treatment outcomes. Participants were adolescents in SUD treatment taking…
Essau, Cecilia A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Olaya, Beatriz; Seeley, John R.
Background Anxiety disorders are associated with adverse psychosocial functioning, and are predictive of a wide range of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Objective The present study examined the associations between anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence and psychosocial outcomes at age 30, and sought to address the extent to which psychopathology after age 19 mediated these relations. Method Eight hundred and sixteen participants from a large community sample were interviewed twice during adolescence, at age 24, and at age 30. They completed self-report measures of psychosocial functioning and semi-structured diagnostic interviews during adolescence and young adulthood. Results Childhood anxiety only predicted less years of completed education at age 30, whereas adolescent anxiety predicted income, unemployment, maladjustment, poor coping skills, more chronic stress and life events. Adult major depressive disorder (MDD) was the only disorder predicted by childhood anxiety, whereas adolescent anxiety predicted MDD, substance (SUD) and alcohol abuse/dependence (AUD) in adulthood. No adult psychopathology mediated the relationship between childhood anxiety disorders and psychosocial outcomes at age 30. Adult MDD, SUD and AUD partially or completely mediated the association between adolescent anxiety and most domains of psychosocial functioning at age 30. Limitations The participants are ethically and geographically homogenous, and changes in the diagnostic criteria and the interview schedules across the assessment periods. Conclusion Adolescent anxiety, compared to childhood anxiety, is associated with more adverse psychosocial outcomes at age 30. Adolescent anxiety affects negative outcomes at age 30 directly and through MDD, SUD and AUD. PMID:24456837
Harrington, Richard; Pickles, Andrew; Aglan, Azza; Harrington, Val; Burroughs, Heather; Kerfoot, Michael
Objective: To describe the early adult psychopathological and social outcomes of adolescents who deliberately poisoned themselves. Method: Prospective cohort study with a 6-year follow-up of 132 of 158 (84%) adolescents who, between ages 11 and 16 years, had taken part in a randomized trial of a brief family intervention after deliberate…
Mendle, Jane; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.
Though often discussed as though it were a discrete event, puberty comprises one segment of a larger developmental continuum and is notable for rapid transformation across a multitude of domains. Research suggests that an earlier rate of pubertal maturation in girls correlates with a number of detrimental outcomes compared with on-time or later maturation. The present review synthesizes the research on negative psychological sequelae of early pubertal timing in adolescent girls. Emphasis is on three theoretical perspectives by which precocious development is believed to affect the emergence of adverse outcomes: biological, psychosocial, and selection effects. PMID:20740062
Shivers, Carolyn M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.
Siblings of brothers or sisters with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are important but understudied family members. As many previous studies have relied on parent report of sibling outcomes, the use of sibling self-report is an important addition to the research. This study assessed the feelings of adolescent siblings toward…
Spieker, Susan J; Campbell, Susan B; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J; Roisman, Glenn I
This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at ages 8-11 in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) were created by combining the highest rating for each item across mother and teacher reports. Longitudinal analyses were conducted using Latent Curve Models of RAgg with PAgg as a time-varying covariate, with all parameters allowed to vary by gender. Boys and girls had different growth parameters of RAgg. Girls' RAgg intercept was higher and the slope was not different from zero; boys' RAgg intercept was lower and the slope declined. Mother-child conflict in early childhood predicted RAgg intercept for both boys and girls, but maternal harsh control and sensitivity were also uniquely predictive for girls, whereas center care was uniquely predictive for boys. RAgg intercept predicted adolescent self-reports of depression for girls and delinquency and risk-taking for both boys and girls; the magnitude of the association with risk-taking was significantly greater for boys.
Growing evidence suggests heterogeneity within interpersonal-callous (IC) youth based on co-occurring anxiety. The developmental validity of this proposed taxonomy remains unclear however, as most previous research is cross-sectional and/or limited to adolescence. We aimed to identify low-anxiety (IC/ANX−) and high-anxiety (IC/ANX+) IC variants, and compare these groups on (a) early risk exposures, (b) psychiatric symptoms from midchildhood to early adolescence, and (c) school-based functioning. Using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a prospective epidemiological birth cohort, model-based cluster analysis was performed on children with complete age-13 IC and anxiety scores (n = 6,791). Analysis of variance was used to compare resulting clusters on (a) prenatal and postnatal family adversity and maternal psychopathology, and harsh parenting; (b) developmental differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), emotional difficulties, and low pro-social behavior at 7, 10, and 13 years; and (c) teacher-reported discipline problems, along with standardized test performance. We identified a 4-cluster solution: “typical,” “low,” “IC/ANX−”, and “IC/ANX+.” IC/ANX+ youth showed the highest prenatal and postnatal levels of family adversity and maternal psychopathology, highest levels of ADHD, CD, ODD, and emotional difficulties, greatest discipline problems, and lowest national test scores (all p < .001). IC/ANX+ also showed a distinct pattern of increasing psychopathology from age 7 to 13 years. Adolescent IC subtypes were successfully validated in ALSPAC across multiple raters using prenatal and early postnatal risk, repeated measures of psychopathology, and school-based outcomes. Greater prenatal environmental risk among IC/ANX+ youth suggests an important target for early intervention. PMID:27977232
López-Romero, Laura; Romero, Estrella; Villar, Paula
Developmental heterogeneity of youth conduct problems has been widely assumed, leading to the identification of distinctive groups at particular risk of more serious problems later in development. The present study intends to expand the main results of a prior study focused on identifying developmental trajectories of conduct problems (Stable-low, Stable-high, and Decreasing), by analyzing their developmental course and related outcomes during middle/late adolescence and early adulthood. Two follow-up studies were conducted 10 and 12 years after the initial study with 115 and 122 youths respectively (mean = 17.29 and 19.18). Overall results underline that the Early-onset persistent group showed the highest risk-profile; the Childhood-limited group revealed a moderate level of later maladjustment; and the Adolescence-onset group, currently identified, showed a significant peak of risk particularly in middle/late adolescence. These findings provide a more comprehensive representation of youth conduct problems, and open new means of discussion in terms of preventive intervention.
Washington, Amy; Dunham, Mardis
This study compared early parenting practices and adolescent behavior to determine whether parental attachment-promoting behaviors in the first year of life were associated with psychosocial adjustment in teenagers. The mothers of 22 adolescents completed a behavioral assessment of their teenager and an inventory of their recollected parenting…
Malyon, Alan K.
Relates the special problems of the homosexual adolescent, focusing specifically on negative social bias and its effect on the adolescent's psychological development and identity formation. (Author/CM)
Hardy, Sam A.; Walker, Lawrence J.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Woodbury, Ryan D.; Hickman, Jacob R.
The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes.…
Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R
The quality of parent-child relationships has a significant impact on adolescent developmental outcomes, especially mental health. Given the lack of research on rural adolescent mental health in general and rural parent-child relationships in particular, the current longitudinal study explores how rural adolescents' (N = 2,617) perceptions of parenting practices effect their mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, aggression, self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction) over a 1 year period. Regression models showed that current parenting practices (i.e., in Year 2) were strongly associated with current adolescent mental health outcomes. Negative current parenting, manifesting in parent-adolescent conflict, was related to higher adolescent anxiety, depression, and aggression and lower self-esteem, and school satisfaction. Past parent-adolescent conflict (i.e., in Year 1) also positively predicted adolescent aggression in the present. Current positive parenting (i.e., parent support, parent-child future orientation, and parent education support) was significantly associated with less depression and higher self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction. Past parent education support was also related to current adolescent future optimism. Implications for practice and limitations were discussed.
Goldston, David B.; Daniel, Stephanie Sergent; Erkanli, Alaattin; Reboussin, Beth A.; Mayfield, Andrew; Frazier, Patricia H.; Treadway, Sarah L.
The purpose of this prospective, naturalistic study was to examine the relationships between suicide attempts and contemporaneous psychiatric disorders, and developmental changes in these relationships from adolescence to young adulthood. The sample consisted of 180 adolescents, 12-19 years of age at hospitalization, repeatedly assessed for up to…
Kail, Robert V.; Ferrer, Emilio
The primary aim of the present study was to examine longitudinal models to determine the function that best describes developmental change in processing speed during childhood and adolescence. In one sample, children and adolescents (N = 503) were tested twice over an average interval of 2 years on two psychometric measures of processing speed:…
Qian, Ying; Shuai, Lan; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Qian, Qiu-Jin; Wang, Yufeng
This study examined the developmental trajectories of executive function (EF) of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Han Chinese. Five hundred and fifteen children and adolescents with ADHD and 249 healthy controls took part in this study. All of them were administered four EF tests capturing…
Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina Renee; Bartholomae, Suzanne
Background: Intervention models to promote healthy adolescent development highlight the importance of developmentally appropriate practice (DAP); however, scant resources identifying DAP in relation to the relevant research are available. With the increased professionalization of youth work and the expanding research on adolescent development,…
Brittian, Aerika S.
This article examines the development of African American adolescents' identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents' healthy development. Different personological theories…
Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.
The investigators compared the perceived attainment of developmental tasks by 181 German adolescents with hearing loss and 254 peers without hearing loss. The adolescents with hearing loss were attending special schools for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. On average, the two groups perceived similar levels of success across the assessed…
Englund, Michelle M.; Siebenbruner, Jessica
This study extends previous research investigating the developmental pathways predicting adolescent alcohol and marijuana use by examining the cascading effects of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and academic competence in the prediction of use and level of use of these substances in adolescence. Participants (N = 191) were drawn from a…
Donaldson, Gordon A., Jr.
Current developmental theory and research are inadequate in explaining the development of rural youth, but a mid-1970s study of adolescents from a small Maine community provided three patterns of growth and suggested four lessons for social service professionals who work with rural adolescents. The study of "Sawyer, Maine" (a pseudonym)…
Rimmer, J. H.; Yamaki, K.; Davis Lowry, B. M.; Wang, E.; Vogel, L. C.
Background: To explore the prevalence of obesity and related secondary conditions associated with obesity in adolescents with intellectual/developmental disabilities (IDD). Methods: In total, 461 parents of adolescents with IDD (M = 14.9 year, SD = 1.9) across 49 US states completed a web-based survey containing questions related to their child's…
Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri
Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using…
Zheng, Yao; Cleveland, H. Harrington
Most research examining gender differences in developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior does not consider subtypes of antisocial behavior and is difficult to generalize due to small non-representative samples. The current study investigated gender difference in developmental trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood while addressing…
Minch, Laura M.
Individuals with developmental disabilities are vulnerable to sexual abuse, and are often denied access to sexuality education. Public schools have vague curricula regarding sexuality education for general education students, curricula to which adolescents with developmental disabilities do not have access. The current study sought to determine…
Hardan, Antonio Y.; Jou, Roger J.; Handen, Benjamin L.
A retrospective study was conducted in a clinic specialized in treating individuals with developmental disabilities to examine the effectiveness and tolerability of quetiapine in children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorders. Ten consecutive outpatients (age = 12.0 [plus or minus] 5.1 years) treated with quetiapine (dose = 477…
Scales, Peter C.; Benson, Peter L.; Dershem, Larry; Fraher, Kathleen; Makonnen, Raphael; Nazneen, Shahana; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Titus, Sarah
"Kishoree Kontha" ("Adolescent Girls' Voices") was implemented in Bangladeshi villages to build the developmental assets (e.g., support from others, social competencies) of rural girls through peer education in social skills, literacy, and school learning. The Developmental Assets Profile (DAP) measured the project's impact on…
Rizopoulos, Lisa Anne; Wolpert, Gloria
Adolescents with developmental delays are often included in generale ducation classes, even though their abilities aren't aligned with middle school learning demands. Teachers in inclusive classes may not have the required education or the experience to teach students with developmental delays. Therefore, teachers require effective reading…
Jahromi, Laudan B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Zeiders, Katharine H.
Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for developmental delays. Less is known about the heterogeneity in these children's developmental trajectories, and factors associated with different patterns of development. This longitudinal study used latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to identify distinct trajectories in children of Mexican-origin…
Frolli, A.; Piscopo, S.; Conson, M.
Background: Individuals with fragile-X syndrome exhibit developmental delay, hyperexcitation and social anxiety; they also show lack of attention and hyperactivity. Few studies have investigated whether levels of functioning change with increasing age. Here, we explored developmental changes across adolescence in the cognitive and behavioural…
Adams, Zachary W.; Moreland, Angela; Cohen, Joseph R.; Lee, Robert C.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Self-Brown, Shannon; Briggs, Ernestine C.
Objective Exposure to multiple traumatic events (polyvictimization) is a reliable predictor of deleterious health outcomes and risk behaviors in adolescence. The current study extends the literature on the prevalence and consequences of adolescent trauma exposure by (a) empirically identifying and characterizing trauma exposure profiles in a large, ethnically diverse, multi-site, clinical sample of adolescents, and (b) evaluating relations among identified profiles with demographic characteristics and clinical correlates. Method Data from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set were used to identify and characterize victimization profiles using latent class analysis in a sample of 3,485 adolescents (ages 13–18, 63% female, 35.7% White, 23.2% Black/African American, 35.0% Hispanic/Latino). Multiple measures of psychological distress and risk behaviors were evaluated as covariates of trauma exposure classes. Results Five trauma exposure classes, or profiles, were identified. Four classes—representing approximately half the sample—were characterized by polyvictimization. Polyvictimization classes were differentiated on number of trauma types, whether emotional abuse occurred, and whether emotional abuse occurred over single or multiple developmental epochs. Unique relations with demographic characteristics and mental health outcomes were observed. Discussion Results suggest polyvictimization is not a unidimensional phenomenon but a diverse set of trauma exposure experiences with unique correlates among youth. Further research on prevention of polyvictimization and mechanisms linking chronic trauma exposure, gender, and ethnicity to negative outcomes is warranted. PMID:26958417
Koning, Ina M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E E; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
Previous studies on general parenting have demonstrated the relevance of strict parenting within a supportive social context for a variety of adolescent behaviors, such as alcohol use. Yet, alcohol-specific parenting practices are generally examined as separate predictors of adolescents' drinking behavior. The present study examined different developmental profiles of alcohol-specific parenting (rule-setting, quality and frequency of communication about alcohol use) and how these patterns relate to the initiation and growth of adolescents' drinking. A longitudinal sample of 883 adolescents (47 % female) including four measurements (between ages 12 and 16) was used. Latent class growth analysis revealed that five classes of parenting could be distinguished. Communication about alcohol appeared to be fairly stable over time in all parenting classes, whereas the level of rule-setting declined in all subgroups of parents as adolescents grow older. Strict rule-setting in combination with a high quality and frequency of communication was associated with the lowest amount of drinking; parents scoring low on all these behaviors show to be related to the highest amount of drinking. This study showed that alcohol-specific rule-setting is most effective when it coincides with a good quality and frequency of communication about alcohol use. This indicates that alcohol-specific parenting behaviors should be taken into account as an alcohol-specific parenting context, rather than single parenting practices. Therefore, parent-based alcohol interventions should not only encourage strict rule setting, the way parents communicate with their child about alcohol is also of major importance.
Holtz, Casey A.; Carrasco, Jennifer M.; Mattek, Ryan J.; Fox, Robert A.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an in-home parent management program for toddlers with behavior problems and developmental delays by comparing outcomes for a group of toddlers with developmental delays (n = 27) and a group of toddlers without developmental delays (n = 27). The majority of children lived in single…
Hodara, Michelle; Xu, Di
Nationally, about two thirds of community college students are referred to developmental education. Thus far, research on the effectiveness of developmental education has focused on students' academic outcomes; in this paper, we examine the economic consequences of developmental education for students. Using longitudinal student-unit record data…
Gummerum, Michaela; Chu, Maria T
Theories of morality maintain that punishment supports the emergence and maintenance of moral behavior. This study investigated developmental differences in the role of outcomes and the violator's intentions in second-party punishment (where punishers are victims of a violation) and third-party punishment (where punishers are unaffected observers of a violation). Four hundred and forty-three adults and 8-, 12-, and 15-year-olds made choices in mini-ultimatum games and newly-developed mini-third-party punishment games, which involved actual incentives rather than hypothetical decisions. Adults integrated outcomes and intentions in their second- and third-party punishment, whereas 8-year-olds consistently based their punishment on the outcome of the violation. Adolescents integrated outcomes and intentions in second- but not third-party punishment.
Laursen, Brett; Hartl, Amy C
Loneliness is typically defined in terms of feeling states. In this review, we take a somewhat different approach, describing loneliness in terms of perceived social isolation. Vulnerabilities to perceived social isolation differ across the lifespan. Unique properties of adolescence are identified that carry special risk for perceived social isolation. These include (but are not limited to) developmental changes in companions, developmental changes in autonomy and individuation, identity exploration, cognitive maturation, developmental changes in social perspective taking, and physical maturation. Scholars are encouraged to consider loneliness through the lens of perceived social isolation so as to better understand how the experience of physical isolation varies across adolescence.
Hardy, Sam A; Walker, Lawrence J; Olsen, Joseph A; Woodbury, Ryan D; Hickman, Jacob R
The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes. Data came from a local school sample (Data Set 1: N = 510 adolescents; 10-18 years of age) and a national online sample (Data Set 2: N = 383 adolescents; 15-18 years of age) of adolescents and their parents. All outcome measures were parent-report (Data Set 1: altruism, moral personality, aggression, and cheating; Data Set 2: environmentalism, school engagement, internalizing, and externalizing), whereas other variables were adolescent-report. The 20-item Moral Ideal Self Scale showed good reliability, factor structure, and validity. Structural equation models demonstrated that, even after accounting for moral identity internalization, in Data Set 1 moral ideal self positively predicted altruism and moral personality and negatively predicted aggression, whereas in Data Set 2 moral ideal self positively predicted environmentalism and negatively predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Further, purpose and social responsibility mediated most relations between moral ideal self and the outcomes in Data Set 2. Moral ideal self was unrelated to age but differentially predicted some outcomes across age. Girls had higher levels of moral ideal self than boys, although moral identity did not differentially predict outcomes between genders. Thus, moral ideal self is a salient element of moral identity and may play a role in morally relevant adolescent outcomes.
Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Fang, Hua; Johnson, Craig; Stopp, Christian; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Respass, Jennifer
Smoking during pregnancy is a persistent public health problem that has been linked to later adverse outcomes. The neonatal period, the first month of life, carries substantial developmental change in regulatory skills, and is the period when tobacco metabolites are cleared physiologically. Studies to date mostly have used cross-sectional designs that limit characterizing potential impacts of prenatal tobacco exposure on the development of key self-regulatory processes and cannot disentangle short-term withdrawal effects from residual exposure-related impacts. In this study, pregnant participants (N = 304) were recruited prospectively during pregnancy and smoking was measured at multiple time points, using both self report and biochemical measures. Neonatal attention, irritable reactivity, and stress dysregulation were examined longitudinally at three time points during the first month of life, and physical growth indices were measured at birth. Tobacco-exposed infants showed significantly poorer attention skills after birth, and the magnitude of the difference between exposed and non-exposed groups attenuated across the neonatal period. In contrast, exposure-related differences in irritable reactivity were not evident and stable across the first month of life, but differed only marginally at 4-weeks of age. Third trimester smoking was associated with pervasive, deleterious, dose-response impacts on physical growth measured at birth, whereas nearly all smoking indicators throughout pregnancy predicted level and growth rates of early attention. The observed neonatal pattern is consistent with the neurobiology of tobacco on the developing nervous system and fits with developmental vulnerabilities observed later in life. PMID:21038943
Debast, Inge; Rossi, Gina; Feenstra, Dineke; Hutsebaut, Joost
Criterion D of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) refers to a possible onset of personality disorders (PDs) in adolescence and in Section II the development/course in adolescence is described by some typical characteristics for several PDs. Yet, age-specific expressions of PDs are lacking in Section III. We urgently need a developmentally sensitive assessment instrument that differentiates developmental and contextual changes on the one hand from expressions of personality pathology on the other hand. Therefore we investigated which items of the Severity Indices for Personality Problems-118 (SIPP-118) were developmentally sensitive throughout adolescence and adulthood and which could be considered more age-specific markers requiring other content or thresholds over age groups. Applying item response theory (IRT) we detected differential item functioning (DIF) in 36% of the items in matched samples of 639 adolescents versus 639 adults. The DIF across age groups mainly reflected a different degree of symptom expressions for the same underlying level of functioning. The threshold for exhibiting symptoms given a certain degree of personality dysfunction was lower in adolescence for areas of personality functioning related to the Self and Interpersonal domains. Some items also measured a latent construct of personality functioning differently across adolescents and adults. This suggests that several facets of the SIPP-118 do not solely measure aspects of personality pathology in adolescents, but likely include more developmental issues. (PsycINFO Database Record
Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Gayles, Jochebed G
The current study tested a developmental-contextual model of depressive symptomatology among Mexican-origin, female early and middle adolescents and their mothers. The final sample comprised 271 dyads. We examined the interrelations among cultural (i.e., acculturation dissonance), developmental (i.e., pubertal development and autonomy expectation discrepancies), and interpersonal (i.e., mother-daughter conflict and maternal supportive parenting) factors in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms. For both early and middle adolescents, maternal support was negatively associated with mother-daughter conflict and depressive symptoms. Mother-daughter autonomy expectation discrepancies were positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but this association was found only among early adolescents. Further, mother-daughter acculturation dissonance was positively associated with mother-daughter conflict but only among middle adolescents. Findings call for concurrently examining the interface of developmental, relational, and cultural factors in predicting female adolescents' depressive symptomatology and the potential differences by developmental stage (e.g., early vs. middle adolescence).
Stolyarova, Alexandra; Izquierdo, Alicia
Adolescent behavior is typified by increased risk-taking, reward- and novelty-seeking, as well as an augmented need for social and environmental stimulation. This behavioral phenotype may result from alterations in outcome valuation or reward learning. In the present set of experiments, we directly compared adult and adolescent animals on tasks measuring both of these processes. Additionally, we examined developmental differences in dopamine D1-like receptor (D1R), dopamine D2-like receptor (D2R), and polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) expression in animals that were trained on an effortful reward valuation task, given that these proteins play an important role in the functional development of the amygdala-prefrontocortical (PFC) circuit and mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. We found that adolescent animals were not different from adults in appetitive associative learning, but exhibited distinct pattern of responses to differences in outcome values, which was paralleled by an enhanced motivation to invest effort to obtain larger rewards. There were no differences in D2 receptor expression, but D1 receptor expression was significantly reduced in the striatum of animals that had experiences with reward learning during adolescence compared to animals that went through the same experiences in adulthood. We observed increased levels of PSA-NCAM expression in both PFC and amygdala of late adolescents compared to adults that were previously trained on an effortful reward valuation task. PSA-NCAM levels in PFC were strongly and positively associated with high effort/reward (HER) choices in adolescents, but not in adult animals. Increased levels of PSA-NCAM expression in adolescents may index increased structural plasticity and represent a neural correlate of a reward sensitive endophenotype.
Stolyarova, Alexandra; Izquierdo, Alicia
Adolescent behavior is typified by increased risk-taking, reward- and novelty-seeking, as well as an augmented need for social and environmental stimulation. This behavioral phenotype may result from alterations in outcome valuation or reward learning. In the present set of experiments, we directly compared adult and adolescent animals on tasks measuring both of these processes. Additionally, we examined developmental differences in dopamine D1-like receptor (D1R), dopamine D2-like receptor (D2R), and polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) expression in animals that were trained on an effortful reward valuation task, given that these proteins play an important role in the functional development of the amygdala-prefrontocortical (PFC) circuit and mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. We found that adolescent animals were not different from adults in appetitive associative learning, but exhibited distinct pattern of responses to differences in outcome values, which was paralleled by an enhanced motivation to invest effort to obtain larger rewards. There were no differences in D2 receptor expression, but D1 receptor expression was significantly reduced in the striatum of animals that had experiences with reward learning during adolescence compared to animals that went through the same experiences in adulthood. We observed increased levels of PSA-NCAM expression in both PFC and amygdala of late adolescents compared to adults that were previously trained on an effortful reward valuation task. PSA-NCAM levels in PFC were strongly and positively associated with high effort/reward (HER) choices in adolescents, but not in adult animals. Increased levels of PSA-NCAM expression in adolescents may index increased structural plasticity and represent a neural correlate of a reward sensitive endophenotype. PMID:25999830
Fay, Kristen; Lerner, Richard M
Eating disorders, and related issues (e.g., body dissatisfaction, weight control behaviors), represent pressing and prevalent health problems that affect American adolescents with alarming frequency and potentially chronic consequences. However, more longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the developmental processes that increase or maintain risk for, and that protect against, eating- and weight-related problems among adolescents. Accordingly, the current study used longitudinal data from 1,050 male and female (68.0 %) adolescents (Grades 9-11)-the majority of whom were European Americans (72.2 %)-who participated in the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development to (a) describe trajectories of adolescents' eating pathology and body dissatisfaction, (b) identify individual and contextual correlates of these pathways, (c) examine whether trajectories of eating pathology and body dissatisfaction related to adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (d) elucidate whether sports participation moderated associations between specific trajectories of eating pathology and body dissatisfaction and adolescents' depressive symptoms. Results suggest that the diverse pathways of eating pathology and body dissatisfaction that exist across middle adolescence, in combination with adolescents' sports participation, have important implications for the positive and problematic development of our youth. In addition, the findings underscore the need to evaluate the interindividual differences that exist in regard to how sports participation may relate positively and negatively to developmental outcomes.
Kiesner, Jeff; Poulin, François
Stewart, Robert A. C., Ed.
This is the first of a two-volume collection of research-based readings dealing with the New Zealand adolescent. This volume deals with home, school, socio-emotional and sexual influences on adolescent development. The following topics are included: the generation gap; sex education in the schools; venereal disease; adolescent hopes and fears;…
De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
This five-wave study aims to investigate the development of adolescents' perceptions of support, negative interaction, and power in best friendships from ages 12 to 20 years. Furthermore, gender differences and linkages between the three dimensions are explored. A total of 593 early adolescents (53.6% boys) and 337 middle adolescents (43.3% boys)…
Petersen, Anne C.; And Others
Research has identified several factors which may be stressful in early adolescence, including school change, puberty, and family changes. This study used a longitudinal cohort sequential design to examine whether stressful changes in early adolescence have impact beyond early adolescence. Of the 335 sixth graders initially sampled, 169 were…
Hill, Nancy E.; Bromell, Lea; Tyson, Diana F.; Flint, Roxanne
Adolescence is marked by change and renegotiation in almost every arena--biological, social, and cognitive development; identity development; changes in peer relations and friendships; a renegotiation of family relationships, especially the parent-adolescent relationship; and school transitions. Further, for African Americans, adolescence is also…
Molet, J; Heins, K; Zhuo, X; Mei, Y T; Regev, L; Baram, T Z; Stern, H
Vulnerability to emotional disorders including depression derives from interactions between genes and environment, especially during sensitive developmental periods. Across evolution, maternal care is a key source of environmental sensory signals to the developing brain, and a vast body of work has linked quantitative and qualitative aspects of maternal care to emotional outcome in children and animals. However, the fundamental properties of maternal signals, that promote advantageous vs pathological outcomes in the offspring, are unknown and have been a topic of intense study. We studied emotional outcomes of adolescent rats reared under routine or impoverished environments, and used mathematical approaches to analyze the nurturing behaviors of the dams. Unexpectedly, whereas the quantity and typical qualities of maternal care behaviors were indistinguishable in the two environments, their patterns and rhythms differed drastically and influenced emotional outcomes. Specifically, unpredictable, fragmented maternal care patterns translated into high-entropy rates of sensory signals to the offspring in the impoverished cages. During adolescence, these offspring had significant reductions in sucrose preference and in peer-play, two independent measures of the ability to experience pleasure. This adolescent anhedonia, often a harbinger of later depression, was not accompanied by measures of anxiety or helplessness. Dopaminergic pleasure circuits underlying anhedonia are engaged by predictable sequences of events, and predictable sensory signals during neonatal periods may be critical for their maturation. Conversely, unpredictability maternal-derived signals may disrupt these developmental processes, provoking anhedonia. In sum, high-entropy and fragmented patterns of maternal-derived sensory input to the developing brain predicts, and might promote, the development of anhedonia in rodents, with potential clinical implications. PMID:26731439
Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Zheng, Yao; Plomin, Robert; Viding, Essi
The development of conduct problems in childhood and adolescence is associated with adverse long-term outcomes, including psychiatric morbidity. Although genes constitute a proven factor of stability in conduct problems, less is known regarding their role in conduct problems' developmental course (i.e. systematic age changes, for instance linear increases or decreases).Mothers rated conduct problems from age 4 to 16 years in 10,038 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study. Individual differences in the baseline level (.78; 95% CI: .68-.88) and the developmental course of conduct problems (.73; 95% CI: .60-.86) were under high and largely independent additive genetic influences. Shared environment made a small contribution to the baseline level but not to the developmental course of conduct problems. These results show that genetic influences not only contribute to behavioural stability but also explain systematic change in conduct problems. Different sets of genes may be associated with the developmental course versus the baseline level of conduct problems. The structure of genetic and environmental influences on the development of conduct problems suggests that repeated preventive interventions at different developmental stages might be necessary to achieve a long-term impact.
Villanti, Andrea; Boulay, Marc; Juon, Hee-Soon
Previous studies of social influences on adolescent smoking have focused on peers and parents, using data collected prior the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement. This study used the 2004 wave of the National Youth Tobacco Survey to examine associations between peer smoking, smoking at home, tobacco-related media exposure, and smoking behavior during early and middle adolescence. Findings indicate that peer smoking and smoking at home remain strongly associated with current smoking among early and middle adolescents, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity and exposure to tobacco industry and anti-tobacco media. The magnitude of the association between peer smoking and current smoking decreases from early adolescence to middle adolescence while the association between smoking at home and current smoking is static across developmental stage. Exposure to tobacco-related media is associated with increased current and former smoking in both early and middle adolescence.
Jenkins, M. E.
Adolescent girls (N=21) treated for anorexia nervosa in a hospital operating a strict refeeding program were examined 3 years after treatment. Outcome was considered good for 10 girls, intermediate for 4 girls, and poor for 5 girls. Found lack of separation from parents at follow-up. Discusses relevance of findings to treatment approach and to…
Doran, Scott M.; Harvey, Mark T.; Horner, Robert H.
People with developmental disabilities sleep less and experience higher incidence of clinical sleep disorders than the general population. Exploring the neurophysiology linking sleep with daytime performance in patients with developmental disabilities is now possible using minimally sufficient sleep and sleep-sensitive behavioral assays. Although…
Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Hodara, Michelle; Cho, Sung-Woo; Xu, Di
To support the long-term success of underprepared students, many community colleges are experimenting with accelerated developmental education models, which allow students to complete remediation and enroll in college-level math and English within a shorter time frame. This study examines three developmental acceleration programs, including two in…
Miers, Anne C; Blöte, Anke W; Heyne, David A; Westenberg, P Michiel
It is argued that the adolescent onset of social anxiety disorder (SAD) may be partly attributable to an increase in avoidance of social situations across this period. The current cohort-sequential study investigated developmental pathways of social avoidance in adolescence and examined the explanatory role of social anxiety and negative cognitive processes. A community sample of youth (9-21 years, N=331) participated in a four-wave study. Trajectory analyses revealed two pathways: an increased avoidance pathway and a low avoidance pathway. The pathways were hardly distinguishable at age 9 and they steadily diverged across adolescence. Logistic regression analyses showed that social anxiety and post-event rumination were significantly related to the increased avoidance pathway; anticipatory processing and self-focused attention were not. The findings suggest that adolescence is a key developmental period for the progression of social avoidance among youth who show relatively high levels of social anxiety and post-event rumination.
Constructing, Quantifying, and Validating an Adverse Outcome Pathway for Vascular Developmental Toxicity The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for embryonic vascular disruption1 leading to a range of adverse prenatal outcomes was recently entered into the AOP wiki and accepted as par...
Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.
This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…
Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gayles, Jochebed G.
The current study tested a developmental-contextual model of depressive symptomatology among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin females and their mothers. The final sample was comprised of 271 dyads. We examined the interrelations among cultural (i.e., acculturation dissonance), developmental (i.e., pubertal development and autonomy expectation discrepancies), and interpersonal (i.e., mother-daughter conflict and maternal supportive parenting) factors in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms. For both early and middle adolescents, maternal support was negatively associated with mother-daughter conflict and depressive symptoms. Importantly, mother-daughter autonomy expectation discrepancies were positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but this association was found only among early adolescents. Further, mother-daughter acculturation dissonance was positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but only among middle adolescents. Findings call for concurrently examining the interface of developmental, relational, and cultural factors in predicting female adolescents’ depressive symptomatology and the potential differences by developmental stage (e.g., early vs. middle adolescence) PMID:21967564
Fagan, Jeffrey; Piquero, Alex R.
Recent case law and social science both have claimed that the developmental limitations of adolescents affect their capacity for control and decision making with respect to crime, diminishing their culpability and reducing their exposure to punishment. Social science has focused on two concurrent adolescent developmental influences: the internalization of legal rules and norms that regulate social and antisocial behaviors, and the development of rationality to frame behavioral choices and decisions. The interaction of these two developmental processes, and the identification of one domain of socialization and development as the primary source of motivation or restraint in adolescence, is the focus of this article. Accordingly, we combine rational choice and legal socialization frameworks into an integrated, developmental model of criminality. We test this framework in a large sample of adolescent felony offenders who have been interviewed at six-month intervals for two years. Using hierarchical and growth curve models, we show that both legal socialization and rational choice factors influence patterns of criminal offending over time. When punishment risks and costs are salient, crime rates are lower over time. We show that procedural justice is a significant antecedent of legal socialization, but not of rational choice. We also show that both mental health and developmental maturity moderate the effects of perceived crime risks and costs on criminal offending. PMID:20148123
Conroy, James W.; Ferris, Charles S.; Irvine, Ron
Opportunities for community employment of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities are limited, and have not improved over the past quarter century of interest and effort. This report provides the findings from an outcome study of this issue. Twenty-seven people with intellectual and developmental disability, residents in Kent…
Simonsen, Monica L.; Neubert, Debra A.
Community employment outcomes were examined for 338 transitioning youth with intellectual and other developmental disabilities in one state 18 months after exiting public school. All transitioning youth received ongoing Developmental Disability agency funding. The majority of transitioning youth (57.1%) were engaged in sheltered or nonwork…
Chandy, J M; Blum, R W; Resnick, M D
This study examined the gender differences in outcomes related to school performance, suicidal involvement, disordered eating behaviors, sexual risk taking, substance use, and delinquent behaviors of male (n = 370) and female teenagers (n = 2,681) who self-reported a history of sexual abuse. It was found that female adolescents, by and large, engaged in internalizing behaviors and males in externalizing behaviors. Male adolescents were found to be at higher risk than females in poor school performance, delinquent activities, and sexual risk taking. Female adolescents, on the other hand, showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior as well as disordered eating. Females showed more frequent use of alcohol. However, male adolescents exhibited more extreme use of alcohol and more frequent and extreme use of marijuana. Among index female adolescents, protective factors against adverse correlates included a higher emotional attachment to family, being religious or spiritual, presence of both parents at home, and a perception of overall health. Factors that augmented adverse correlates for them included a stressful school environment due to perceived high levels of substance use in and around school, worry of sexual abuse, maternal alcohol consumption, and physical abuse. For male adolescents, maternal education and parental concern appeared to be protective factors.
This paper addresses variables related to child and adolescent saving and explains the development of skills and behaviors that facilitate saving from an economic socialization perspective. References are made to the differences between the economic world of children, adolescents, and adults as well as to existing theories of saving. Children's…
Pouwels, J Loes; Salmivalli, Christina; Saarento, Silja; van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N
The aim of this study was to determine how trajectory clusters of social status (social preference and perceived popularity) and behavior (direct aggression and prosocial behavior) from age 9 to age 14 predicted adolescents' bullying participant roles at age 16 and 17 (n = 266). Clusters were identified with multivariate growth mixture modeling (GMM). The findings showed that participants' developmental trajectories of social status and social behavior across childhood and early adolescence predicted their bullying participant role involvement in adolescence. Practical implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Choi, Sumi; Hutchison, Brian; Lemberger, Matthew E.; Pope, Mark
This study tested the developmental trajectories of career maturity (CM) and parental attachment (PA), the longitudinal influence of both, and gender as a moderator. Findings showed developmental progressions in adolescents' PA and CM over 4 years. The change in PA was positively related to the developmental change in CM. For gender, there was a…
Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia; Smith, Erin N.; Silberman, Stephanie G.; Wood, Lauren
Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for poor developmental outcomes. This study is among the first to examine how cultural, family, and parenting factors prospectively predict the cognitive and language development of children of young Latina mothers (N=170; Mage = 17.9 years). Mothers were interviewed and observed interacting with their children at 18 months (W1). Children were tested at 18 (W1) and 24 (W2) months. Mothers’ cultural orientation (W1) was related to aspects of the childrearing environment (W1), which in turn had implications for the children's development (W2). Specifically, a stronger orientation toward American culture was related to higher mother-reported engagement in parenting by their own mothers (grandmothers), which in turn predicted stronger gains in cognitive and expressive language functioning from W1 to W2. A stronger Latino orientation related to the display of more directiveness and greater mother-reported engagement by the children's biological fathers; directiveness, in turn, predicted fewer gains in cognitive functioning only when father engagement was low and did not predict expressive language development. Finally, mothers’ display of more positive affect, a stronger American orientation, and higher grandmother engagement uniquely predicted gains in W2 expressive language functioning. Implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:26454205
Grau, Josefina M; Duran, Petra A; Castellanos, Patricia; Smith, Erin N; Silberman, Stephanie G; Wood, Lauren E
Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for poor developmental outcomes. This study is among the first to examine how cultural, family, and parenting factors prospectively predict the cognitive and language development of children of young Latina mothers (N=170; Mage=17.9 years). Mothers were interviewed and observed interacting with their children at 18 months (W1). Children were tested at 18 (W1) and 24 (W2) months. Mothers' cultural orientation (W1) was related to aspects of the childrearing environment (W1), which in turn had implications for the children's development (W2). Specifically, a stronger orientation toward American culture was related to higher mother-reported engagement in parenting by their own mothers (grandmothers), which in turn predicted stronger gains in cognitive and expressive language functioning from W1 to W2. A stronger Latino orientation related to the display of more directiveness and greater mother-reported engagement by the children's biological fathers; directiveness, in turn, predicted fewer gains in cognitive functioning only when father engagement was low and did not predict expressive language development. Finally, mothers' display of more positive affect, a stronger American orientation, and higher grandmother engagement uniquely predicted gains in W2 expressive language functioning. Implications for intervention are discussed.
Jones, Jason D; Fraley, R Chris; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Stern, Jessica A; Lejuez, C W; Shaver, Phillip R; Cassidy, Jude
Few studies have examined stability and change in attachment during adolescence. This 5-year longitudinal study (a) examined whether prototype or revisionist developmental dynamics better characterized patterns of stability and change in adolescent attachment (at T1, N = 176; Mage = 14.0 years, SD = 0.9), (b) tested potential moderators of prototype-like attachment stability, and (c) compared attachment stability in adolescence to stability in adulthood. The results supported the prototype model, which assumes that there is a stable, enduring factor underlying stability and change in attachment. Exploratory moderation analyses revealed that family conflict, parental separation or divorce, minority status, and male sex might undermine the prototype-like stability of adolescent attachment. Stability of attachment was lower in adolescence relative to adulthood.
Louden, Jenifer H.; Kamara, Sheku G.
This report describes a 7-week pilot study conducted to estimate probable participation rates for a planned substance abuse treatment outcomes study. The pilot program tested whether acceptable response rates might be obtained by contacting clients whose records had been examined by an earlier study (retrospective) or by contacting current clients…
Mburu, Gitau; Hodgson, Ian; Kalibala, Sam; Haamujompa, Choolwe; Cataldo, Fabian; Lowenthal, Elizabeth D; Ross, David
Introduction As adolescents living with HIV gain autonomy over their self-care and begin to engage in sexual relationships, their experiences of being informed about their HIV status and of telling others about their HIV status may affect their ability to cope with having the disease. Methods In 2010, we conducted a qualitative study among adolescents aged 10–19 living with HIV in Zambia, and with their parents and health care providers. Through interviews and focus group discussions, we explored the disclosure of HIV status to adolescents living with HIV; adolescents’ disclosure of their status to others; and the impact of both forms of disclosure on adolescents. Results Our study identified three main barriers to disclosure of HIV status: local norms that deter parents from communicating with their children about sexuality; fear of HIV stigma; and an underlying presumption that adolescents would not understand the consequences of a HIV diagnosis on their lives and relationships. With regard to adolescents’ disclosure of their HIV status to their sexual partners, our study identified fear of rejection as a common barrier. In rare cases, open family conversations about HIV helped adolescents come to terms with a HIV diagnosis. Findings indicated that disclosure had various outcomes at the individual and interpersonal levels. At the individual level, some adolescents described being anxious, depressed and blaming themselves after being told they had HIV. At the interpersonal level, disclosure created opportunities for adolescents to access adherence support and other forms of psychosocial support from family members and peers. At the same time, it occasionally strained adolescents’ sexual relationships, although it did not always lead to rejection. Conclusions There is a need for public health interventions that guide adolescents living with HIV, their parents and families through the disclosure process. Such interventions should help parents to assess and
Ludolph, P S; Westen, D; Misle, B; Jackson, A; Wixom, J; Wiss, F C
Adult criteria for borderline personality disorder distinguished a group of 27 inpatient adolescent girls from 23 nonborderline inpatient female comparison subjects. The two groups were compared on retrospectively assessed variables measuring psychological, familial, and constitutional factors. Variables most likely to predict borderline personality disorder included history of disrupted attachments, maternal neglect, maternal rejection, grossly inappropriate parental behavior, number of mother and father surrogates, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. Families of borderline adolescents were chronically disrupted, particularly during the patients' early childhoods. The traumatic childhood experiences of the borderline adolescents were similar to those of adults with borderline personality disorder in recent studies.
Van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A. C.
Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a large…
Everall, Robin D.; Bostik, Katherine E.; Paulson, Barbara L.
Adolescence is a developmental transition period during which there are profound transformations in emotional, cognitive, and behavioral systems. Despite being a time of rapid development and increasing rates of suicidality, limited research has examined possible interrelationships. Through the use of a case study, this paper illustrates the role…
Hofer, Manfred, Ed.; Youniss, James, Ed.; Noack, Peter, Ed.
Individuation theory is rooted in the belief that it is a major developmental task for adolescents to establish their identity while simultaneously maintaining a relationship with their parents. Building on the individuation paradigm, the researchers contributing to this edited volume zeroed in on discourse as a critical mechanism through which…
Haber, Mason G.; Toro, Paul A.
This paper reviews and evaluates the literatures on children in families that are homeless and on adolescents who are homeless on their own. After presenting several emerging theoretical approaches, we propose a broad ecological-developmental perspective that recognizes that, although persons in these groups often lack resources and experience…
Hanson, Ronald H.
The enuresis of a hearing-impaired, developmentally disabled adolescent was corrected through the use of an auditory alarm and specific training procedures. The young man progressed from wetting the bed every night to being consistently dry after five weeks of treatment. He has remaind dry for over two years. (Author/CL)
Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Duku, Eric; Vaccarella, Liezanne; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Boyle, Michael H.
Objective: The objective of this study was to chart the developmental trajectories of high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from early childhood to adolescence using the presence and absence of structural language impairment (StrLI) as a way of differentiating autism from Asperger syndrome (AS). Method: Sixty-four…
Selfhout, M. H. W.; Branje, S. J. T.; Meeus, W. H. J.
This study examined friendship types in developmental trajectories of perceived closeness and balanced relatedness. In addition, differences between friendship types in the development of constructive problem solving and depression were examined. Questionnaire data of five annual waves were used from two adolescent cohorts (cohort 1: M = 12.41…
Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.; Melching, Jessica A.; Kuhn, Emily S.
Adolescents use various strategies to manage their parents' access to information. This study tested developmental change in strategy use, longitudinal associations between disclosing and concealing strategies, and longitudinal associations linking disclosing and concealing strategies with antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. Self-report…
Chirico, Daniele; O'Leary, Deborah; Cairney, John; Haluka, Karen; Coverdale, Nicole S.; Klentrou, Panagiota; Hay, John; Faught, Brent E.
Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as obesity and reduced cardio-respiratory fitness. It has also been shown that adolescents with probable DCD (p-DCD) have elevated cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV) compared to typically developing (TD)…
California State Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Retardation.
This curriculum for developmentally disabled adolescents and adults contains assessment conditions and performance criteria for evaluating client acquisition of a total of 646 independent living skills in five areas. While the content of the curriculum is in an area known as independent living, it is also prevocational in as much as it covers a…
Westenberg, P. Michiel; Gullone, Eleonora; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Heyne, David A.; King, Neville J.
Using cross-sectional (N=910) and longitudinal (N = 261) data from Gullone and King's (1993,1997) studies of normal fear in children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years, the normative developmental pattern of social evaluation fear and the continuity of individual differences were investigated. Participants' responses were analysed according to two…
This study examined adolescent developmental experiences and participation in extracurricular activities. Providing youth with multiple channels to nurture their development and acknowledge their interests and strengths can play a significant role in their holistic growth. This is a descriptive study of a mixed-methods design (quantitative and…
Roeser, Robert W.; Pinela, Cristi
Adolescence is a developmental period of risk, as well as a window of opportunity for cultivating positive development and thriving. It is characterized by simultaneous changes in the brain, body, mind, and social domains that offer a platform for building new skills and habits. This chapter discusses the role that secular forms of mindfulness and…
Diniz, Eva; da Rosa Piccolo, Luciane; de Paula Couto, Maria Clara Pinheiro; Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Helena Koller, Silvia
This study investigated children and adolescents' school performance over time focusing on two variables that may influence it: developmental context and gender. The sample comprised 627 participants (M[subscript age]?=?11.13, SD?=?1.8), 51% of them female, from grade one to eight, living either with family (n?=?474) or in care institutions…
This preliminary study compares the coping strategies used by 100 ultraorthodox Jewish parents and 100 secular Jewish parents for dealing with adolescent children with developmental disorders. The parents completed two questionnaires on the sense of stress-related personal growth and the sense of coherence. The ultraorthodox parents reported a…
Katz, Phyllis A.; Ksansnak, Keith R.
Explored developmental patterns of gender traditionality and flexibility in 479 children and adolescents. Found that age was positively associated with self-flexibility (a composite of gender-related preferences and self-ratings) and tolerance for others engaged in gender-atraditional behavior. Most variables assessed contributed significantly and…
Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John E.; Zucker, Robert A.
The identification of developmentally specific windows at which key predictors of adolescent substance use are most influential is a crucial task for informing the design of appropriately targeted substance use prevention and intervention programs. The current study examined effects of conduct problems and depressive symptomatology on changes in…
Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Belliston, Lara M.
This study examined the cultural and developmental significance of maternal and paternal parenting processes (closeness, support, monitoring, communication, conflict, and peer approval) for measures of anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescents from Hungary, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States (N = 6,935). Across all cultural…
Alvarado, Melissa; Ricard, Richard J.
This study examined the confluence of developmental assets, ethnic identity, and acculturative stress in the prediction of thriving among Hispanic adolescents. Thriving is used to encompass youth who are not only doing well now but who are also on the trajectory toward overall success. Study participants included 130 self-reported Hispanic middle…
Dror, Raheli; Malinger, Gustavo; Ben-Sira, Liat; Lev, Dorit; Pick, Chaim G; Lerman-Sagie, Tally
An enlarged cisterna magna can be identified during routine ultrasound screening in the second half of pregnancy. It is important to be able to give an accurate prognosis. We evaluated the developmental outcome of these children. A total of 29 fetuses with a large cisterna magna identified in utero were compared to 35 children with a normal fetal ultrasound. The children were evaluated by the Gesell Developmental Schedules and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale. The study group showed a significantly worse performance in the Gesell test. However, the overall performance for both groups was within normal limits. Four children in the study group had a borderline developmental quotient. Both groups performed similarly in the Peabody test. Walking age was significantly delayed in the study group. Children with an enlarged cisterna magna may be at risk for mild developmental delay. In cases of nonisolated enlargement of the cisterna magna, the outcome may be guarded.
Tavernier, Royette; Choo, Sungsub B; Grant, Kathryn; Adam, Emma K
Adolescence is a sensitive period for changes in both sleep and affect. Although past research has assessed the association between affect and sleep among adolescents, few studies have examined both trait (typical) and day-to-day changes in affect, and fewer still have specifically examined negative social evaluative emotions (e.g. embarrassment) in relation to sleep. Both between- and within-person variations in daily affect were examined in relation to four objectively-measured sleep outcomes (sleep hours; sleep latency; sleep efficiency; and length of wake bouts) among adolescents. Participants (N = 77 high-school students; 42.9% female; M = 14.37 years) wore an actiwatch and completed daily-diaries for 3 days. The results of hierarchical linear models (controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, parental employment status, income, puberty and caffeine) indicated that negative social evaluative emotions and high-arousal affective experiences generally predicted poor sleep outcomes, whereas low-arousal affective experiences were associated with good sleep outcomes. Specifically, at the person level, adolescents reporting higher negative social evaluative emotions had shorter average sleep hours, and those experiencing higher anxiety–nervousness had longer wake bouts. In addition, individuals experiencing more dysphoria (sad, depressed, lonely) had longer average sleep hours and shorter wake bouts, while those experiencing more calmness had shorter sleep latencies. At the within-person level, individuals had longer sleep latencies following days that they had experienced high-arousal positive affect (e.g. excitement), and had longer wake bouts following days they had experienced more negative social evaluative emotions. The results highlight the detrimental effects of negative social evaluative emotions and high-arousal affective states for adolescent sleep.
Tavernier, Royette; Choo, Sungsub B; Grant, Kathryn; Adam, Emma K
Summary Adolescence is a sensitive period for changes in both sleep and affect. Although past research has assessed the association between affect and sleep among adolescents, few studies have examined both trait (typical) and day-to-day changes in affect, and fewer still have specifically examined negative social evaluative emotions (NSEE; e.g., embarrassment) in relation to sleep. We examined both between- and within-person variations in daily affect in relation to four objectively-measured sleep outcomes (sleep hours, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, and length of wake bouts) among adolescents. Participants (N = 77 high school students, 42.9% female; M = 14.37 years) wore an actiwatch and completed daily diaries for 3 days. Results of hierarchical linear models (controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, parental employment status, income, puberty, and caffeine) indicated that NSEE and high arousal affective experiences generally predicted poor sleep outcomes, whereas low arousal affective experiences were associated with good sleep outcomes. Specifically, at the person level, adolescents reporting higher NSEE had shorter average sleep hours, and those experiencing higher anxiety-nervousness had longer wake bouts. In addition, individuals experiencing more dysphoria (sad, depressed, lonely) had longer average sleep hours and shorter wake bouts, while those experiencing more calmness had shorter sleep latencies. At the within person level, individuals had longer sleep latencies following days that they had experienced high arousal positive affect (e.g., excitement) and had longer wake bouts following days they had experienced more NSEE. Results highlight the detrimental effects of NSEE and high arousal affective states for adolescent sleep. PMID:26365539
Ozechowski, Timothy J; Becker, Sara J; Hogue, Aaron
The Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) model is widely recommended as part of routine visits in pediatric primary care despite a dearth of evidence on its effectiveness, feasibility, and developmental appropriateness for adolescents in this setting. The purpose of this article is to explicate ways that SBIRT may be tailored to better serve adolescents in primary care under a set of recommended adaptations that we refer to collectively as SBIRT-A or Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment for Adolescents. Each component of the SBIRT-A framework incorporates recommendations to optimize developmental fit with adolescents based on extant empirical research, developmental theory, and well-documented barriers to service delivery in primary care. Commonalities across proposed adaptations include reliance upon proactive methods to identify and engage youth; innovation in service delivery aimed at improving the consistency and reach of interventions; and a family-focused approach to engagement, assessment, and intervention. Specific recommendations include taking advantage of every clinical encounter with the family to screen, involving caregivers in assessments and brief interventions, leveraging technology to administer brief interventions and booster sessions, and patient- and family-centered procedures for treatment referral and engagement. The adaptations proposed in this article have the potential to enhance the detection of adolescents with SU problems in primary care, the consistency of intervention provision, and engagement of this typically recalcitrant population into appropriate treatment.
Harris, Millie; Penfold, Robert B; Hawkins, Ariane; Maccombs, Jared; Wallace, Bryan; Reynolds, Brady
Adolescent cigarette smoking rates remain a significant public health concern, and as a result there is a continued need to understand factors that contribute to an adolescent's ability to reduce or quit smoking. Previous research suggests that impulsive behavior may be associated with treatment outcomes for smoking. The current research (N = 81) explored 3 dimensions of impulsive behavior as predictors of treatment response from a social-cognitive type program for adolescent smokers (i.e., Not On Tobacco; N-O-T). Measures included laboratory assessments of delay discounting, sustained attention, and behavioral disinhibition. A self-report measure of impulsivity was also included. Adolescent smokers who had better sustained attention were more likely to reduce or quit smoking by the end of treatment. No other measures of impulsivity were significantly associated with treatment response. From these findings, an adolescent smoker's ability to sustain attention appears to be an important behavioral attribute to consider when implementing smoking cessation programs such as N-O-T.
Rounds-Bryant, Jennifer L.; Staab, Jennifer
Compared background, pre-treatment characteristics, and post-treatment outcomes of African American, Hispanic, and white adolescent substance abusers participating in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies for Adolescents (DATOS-A). Found that patients were similar with respect to basic pre-treatment demographics. Compared to white adolescents,…
Hunt, Jenny; Wheatley, Malcolm
To date there is limited research examining the use of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) with adolescents in secure care. The aim of this article is to examine the inter-rater reliability, concurrent validity and clinical utility of HoNOSCA in an adolescent secure psychiatric unit. Twenty-four…
Zachik, Albert A; Naylor, Michael W; Klaehn, Robert L
Child and adolescent psychiatrists are in a unique position to provide administrative and clinical leadership to public agencies. In mental health, services for children and adolescents in early childhood, school, child welfare, and juvenile justice settings, transition-aged youth programs, workforce development, family and youth leadership programs, and use of Medicaid waivers for home- and community-based service system development are described. In child welfare, collaboration between an academic child psychiatry department and a state child welfare department is described. In developmental disabilities, the role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist administrator is described providing administrative leadership, clinical consultation, quality review, and oversight of health and behavioral health plans for persons with developmental disabilities.
Englund, Michelle M; Siebenbruner, Jessica
This study extends previous research investigating the developmental pathways predicting adolescent alcohol and marijuana use by examining the cascading effects of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and academic competence in the prediction of use and level of use of these substances in adolescence. Participants (N=191) were drawn from a longitudinal study of first-born children of low-income mothers. Using data from ages 7, 9, 12, and 16 years, a series of nested two-part (semi-continuous) path models from a developmental cascade modeling framework were compared. Controlling for gender, SES, mother's age at child's birth, and minority status, we found (a) within-domain rank-order stability across time, (b) significant cross-domain effects over time, (c) higher externalizing symptoms significantly predicted use of alcohol and marijuana as well as higher levels of use in adolescence, and (d) higher levels of academic competence significantly added to the prediction of use of alcohol.
Fernández Santos, Diana M.; Figueroa-Cosme, Wanda I.; María de los, A. Gómez; Maysonet-Cruz, Johanna; Miranda-Díaz, Christine; Sepúlveda-Santiago, Mario; Ríos-Olivares, Eddy; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.
Introduction Teenagers are the fastest growing group of newly HIV-infected persons. Consequently, a support model for HIV risk reduction was designed and implemented for early adolescents in Puerto Rico. Objective The purpose of this article is to assess changes in developmental factors and HIV risk behaviors among early adolescents after three years of follow-up of an intervention and a non-intervention group. Methods This prospective cohort study followed 135 early adolescents who were enrolled in the ASUMA (A Supportive Model for HIV Risk Reduction in Early Adolescents) Project. The study was performed in two public and two private junior schools. Baseline and three follow-up self-administered questionnaires were given. We examined sociodemographic factors, HIV risk behavior and developmental factors. Results 48% were in the intervention group and 51.1% were controls. Most adolescents were aged 12 years; 47.4% were males; 75.6% reported not having risk behaviors and 24.4% reported having risk behaviors at anytime in their lifespan. A significant decrease in the HIV risk behaviors median was observed among the intervention group (P<.05), while a non-significant increase was found among adolescents in the control group. At the end of the implementation phase, positive improvement in the developmental factors were observed in the intervention group (P<.05). Conclusions Our study suggests that the ASUMA project curriculum had a positive effect on developmental factors and HIV risk behaviors, as proposed in our conceptual framework. Also, this study illustrates the importance of the creation of culturally appropriate instruments and interventions to reach the goal of HIV/AIDS reduction. PMID:20521399
Identifying mechanisms that explain the children's differential vulnerability to violence exposure is an important research focus. Developmentally sensitive theories and methods are recommended to better understand children's risk and resilience to violence exposure. Examples are provided of promising research that links violence exposure to…
Mello, Zena R
Adolescents' future expectations are a potentially important precursor of adult attainment and may illuminate how males and females vary in schooling and work. Thus, this longitudinal study examined gender variation in developmental trajectories of educational and occupational expectations from adolescence to adulthood and in connection to corresponding adult attainment. National data (NELS:88) including individuals aged 14 to 26 and hierarchical linear modeling analyses yielded several findings: Males and females had similar developmental trajectories of educational expectations from adolescence to adulthood with the sample average expecting to attend college. Probabilities of expecting a professional occupation were lower for males than females. Adolescent educational and occupational expectations predicted corresponding attainment in adulthood, although the relationship varied by gender. Males who reported high occupational expectations in adolescence had higher occupational attainment in adulthood compared to males with low occupational expectations, whereas females' adult occupational attainment did not vary by their adolescent occupational expectations. Gender variation in expectations and attainment is discussed in light of historical changes, and future directions of research are proposed.
Delgado, Christine E. F.
Special education outcomes were evaluated for 3,608 children (2,513 males) with a preschool history of developmental disability. Sixty-six percent of the children had an identified disability in fourth grade. The percentage of children with a disability at outcome varied across preschool disability categories from 54% to 96%. The consistency of…
Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Line, E. A.; Watt, Helen J.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.
Background: Developmental language disorder is a heterogeneous diagnostic category. Little research has compared the long-term outcomes of children with different subtypes of language impairment. Aims: To determine whether the pattern of language impairment in childhood related to language and literacy outcomes in adulthood. Methods & Procedures:…
Brizzolara, Daniela; Gasperini, Filippo; Pfanner, Lucia; Cristofani, Paola; Casalini, Claudia; Chilosi, Anna M
Specific language impairment (SLI) diagnosed in the pre-school years is frequently associated with reading and writing difficulties at school age. The nature of this relationship is unclear, despite the availability of a large number of studies, mostly on English speaking children. Phonological processing deficits have been considered the prominent cause of both difficulties. However recent findings in both children with SLI and in children with reading difficulties are not easily accommodated within a single dimensional model explaining the relationship between oral and written language deficits. Our study focuses on the long-term reading and spelling outcome in relation to preschool oral language skills in a group of Italian adolescents with a documented history of SLI. Sixteen Italian adolescents diagnosed as SLI at our Hospital in the pre-school years and 32 normal controls were submitted to an extensive assessment of oral and written language skills. At a group level SLI adolescents had weak oral and written language skills in almost all tests. Results show that reading difficulties have some features in common with those of Italian developmental dyslexics but also have distinct characteristics, since reading accuracy and written comprehension, usually relatively spared in Italian developmental dyslexics, were impaired in adolescents with SLI. Longitudinal analyses showed that expressive morpho-syntactic and lexical abilities at pre-school age were the oral language skills that best predicted reading and spelling outcomes in adolescents with SLI. However, also children with severe phonological impairment in the absence of other oral language deficits showed later literacy difficulties, although less severe and mainly limited to reading accuracy. Our study supports the notion that there is a complex relationship between oral and written language difficulties which may change at different developmental time points, not captured by a single deficit model, but
Zhou, Hua; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Fengshan; Dang, Gengting; Liu, Zhongjun
Abstract Reports on adolescent patients with cervical myelopathy who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion are scarce. However, to our knowledge, no cases of expansive laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy associated with progressive neurological deficit after a series of conservative treatment, caused by both disc herniation and developmental cervical spinal canal stenosis, have been reported. From January 2006 to July 2012, we retrospectively studied 3 patients in late adolescence presenting with cervical myelopathy who underwent expansive unilateral open-door laminoplasty at our hospital. The outcomes after the surgery were evaluated according to the Japanese Orthopedic Association scores. Symptoms presented by these patients were due to both disc herniation and developmental cervical spinal canal stenosis. No major complications occurred after the surgical procedures. The median follow-up time was 66 months (range 36–112 months). The Japanese Orthopedic Association scores after surgery showed a significant increase. Long-term outcomes after surgery were satisfactory according to the evaluation criteria for the Japanese Orthopedic Association scores. However, the ranges of motion of the cervical spine decreased, especially the ranges of motion on flexion after surgery showed a significant decrease. Expansive laminoplasty is helpful for older adolescent patients with cervical myelopathy due to both disc herniation and developmental cervical spinal canal stenosis, presenting with progressive neurological deficit after long conservative treatment. PMID:26937923
van der Put, Claudia; van Vugt, Eveline S; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Hendriks, Jan
The present study aimed to examine differences in psychosocial and developmental characteristics between Adolescent Females who have committed Sexual Offenses (AFSOs; n = 40), Adolescent Females who have committed nonsexual Violent Offenses (AFVOs; n = 533), and Adolescent Males who have committed Sexual Offenses (AMSO, n = 743). Results showed that AFSOs and AMSOs were remarkably similar, whereas AFSOs and AFVOs were remarkably different on the measured variables. Compared to AFVOs, AFSOs less often had antisocial friends and problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school) and family (e.g., parental problems, poor authority and control, and run away from home). Victimization of sexual abuse outside the family and social isolation were found to be more common in AFSOs than in AFVOs. Victimization of sexual abuse outside the family was the only specific characteristic of female adolescent sexual offending, as this was more common in AFSOs than in both AMSOs and AFVOs.
Rosen, Lisa H.; Beron, Kurt J.; Underwood, Marion K.
An upward extension of the Revised Social Experience Questionnaire (Paquette & Underwood, 1999) was tested in a sample of adolescents followed longitudinally from 7th through 10th grade. We hypothesized that a 2-factor model with overt and social victimization factors would fit the data better than would a unidimensional model (a single…
Ryan, Joseph P.; Hernandez, Pedro M.; Herz, Denise
The difficulties that adolescents encounter as they age out of the foster care system are numerous and fairly well documented. Such difficulties include poor health, lack of affordable housing, low-wage employment, limited educational opportunities, and unreliable or nonexistent familial support. These difficulties often increase the likelihood of…
Karcher, Michael, J.; Fischer, Kurt, W.
This study explores the psychometric properties of a proposed sequence of socioemotional cognitive skills in the domain of intergroup understanding as assessed by interview and questionnaire data from 91 Caucasian and Hispanic adolescents. The proposed sequence of skills was measured under two support conditions to test hypotheses about a…
Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.
Although numerous studies have established a link between alcohol use and partner violence in adulthood, little research has examined this relation during adolescence. The current study used multivariate growth models to examine relations between alcohol use and dating aggression across Grades 8 through 12, controlling for shared risk factors…
Xie, Yiqiong; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Harville, Emily Wheeler
Background Recommendations for preconception care usually include optimal nutrition and physical activity, but these have not been tested extensively for their relationship with birth outcomes such as low birthweight and preterm birth. Methods Data from Waves I, II and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) contractual dataset were utilized. In Wave I in-home interview, participants were asked to recall their frequency of having five types of food on the previous day, including milk, fruit, vegetables, grains, and sweets. At Wave II, participants reported the previous day's intake of 55 items, and results were categorized into high-calorie sweet, high-calorie non-sweet, and low-calorie food. At Wave I in-home interview, participants were also asked how many times in a week or during the past week they were involved in types of physical activity. At Wave IV, female participants reported pregnancies and birth outcomes. Multivariable linear regression analysis with survey weighting was used to predict birthweight and gestational age. Results There were no associations between reported food intake and birth outcomes. Girls who engaged in more episodes of active behavior had higher birthweights (p<0.01), but hours of sedentary behavior was not associated with birthweight. Multivariable analysis also indicated a u-shaped association between BMI and birthweight (p for quadratic term=0.01). Conclusion Adolescents who are more physically active prior to pregnancy have more positive birth outcomes as represented by birthweight. PMID:26233291
Figueroa-Cosme, Wanda I.; Miranda, Christine; Fernandez, Diana M.; Maysonet, Johanna; Ramon, Raul O.
Background Adolescence is associated with risky behaviors related with social and developmental factors. Objectives were to describe social and developmental factors affecting Puerto Rican early adolescent by gender and type of school at study entry. Methods Cross-sectional study design. The study group was composed by 168 seventh grade adolescents from private and public schools. Descriptive and non-parametric comparisons were performed. Results Significance differences among proportions for gender by type of school were found in the following variables: self-esteem and HIV/AIDS attitudes in public school and peer pressure and sensation seeking in private school Discussion Our study revealed that public school adolescents are characterized by males with higher self-esteem and less attitude for HIV/AIDS, while in private school the males has more peer pressure and seeking sensation than females. Future studies could analyze factors related with changes in developmental factors, this step is important to evaluate the effectiveness of ASUMA interventions. PMID:23875519
Chaiton, Michael; Contreras, Gisèle; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M.; O’Loughlin, Erin; Low, Nancy C. P.; Karp, Igor; Barnett, Tracie A.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer
Objective: This study describes developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms in adolescents and examines the association between trajectory group and mental health outcomes in young adulthood. Methods: Depressive symptoms were self-reported every three months from grade seven through grade 11 by 1293 adolescents in the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study and followed in young adulthood (average age 20.4, SD=0.7, n=865). Semi-parametric growth modeling was used to identify sex-specific trajectories of depressive symptoms. Results: Three distinct trajectory groups were identified: 50% of boys and 29% of girls exhibited low, decreasing levels of depressive symptoms; 14% of boys and 28% of girls exhibited high and increasing levels; and 36% of boys and 43% of girls exhibited moderate levels with linear increase. Trajectory group was a statistically significant independent predictor of depression, stress, and self-rated mental health in young adulthood in boys and girls. Boys, but not girls, in the high trajectory group had a statistically significant increase in the likelihood of seeking psychiatric care. Conclusions: Substantial heterogeneity in changes in depressive symptoms over time was found. Because early depressive symptoms predict mental health problems in young adulthood, monitoring adolescents for depressive symptoms may help identify those most at risk and in need of intervention. PMID:23667355
Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose
This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…
Brent, David A.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Masten, Ann S.; Porta, Giovanna; Walker Payne, Monica
The aim of this study is to assess the impact of sudden parental bereavement on subsequent attainment of developmental competencies. This longitudinal study reports on 126 youth bereaved by sudden parental death (suicide, accident, or natural death) and 116 demographically similar nonbereaved controls assessed at 9, 21, 33, and 62 months after…
Putnam, Frank W.
From amnesia to auditory hallucinations, the symptoms of pathological dissociation are among the most devastating effects of childhood maltreatment. Ways in which therapists can provide a comprehensive developmental approach to understanding, diagnosing, and treating this challenging clinical population are presented in this text. After reviewing…
Hardan, Antonio; Sahl, Robert
A study of 233 children with developmental disorders and mental illness found that the most common psychiatric diagnoses were oppositional defiant disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pica, organic mental disorder, and autism were more often encountered in low functioning individuals, while depressive and speech/language…
Hardan, Antonio; Sahl, Robert
A study examined suicidality in 223 children with developmental disorders (ages 4 to 18) and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Twenty percent experienced either suicidal ideation, threats of, or attempts at suicide, with hanging being most frequently considered. Suicidality was most often encountered in individuals with oppositional defiant…
Herman, Keith C.; Wang, Kenneth; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas
This study examined the developmental trajectories of maladaptive perfectionism over a 7-year period among African American youth living in an urban setting (N = 547). In particular, the study attempted to determine whether two maladaptive aspects of perfectionism (socially prescribed and self-critical) changed over time and could be distinguished…
Patel, Sita G.; Clarke, Annette V.; Eltareb, Fazia; Macciomei, Erynn E.; Wickham, Robert E.
Family stressors predict negative psychological outcomes for immigrant adolescents, yet little is known about how such stressors interact to predict school outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive role of family stressors on school outcomes for newcomer adolescent immigrants. Using a convergent parallel mixed-methods…
Mitchell, Darcy B; Szczerepa, Alexandra; Hauser-Cram, Penny
Family cohesion relates to positive outcomes for both parents and children. Maintaining cohesion may be especially challenging for families of adolescents with developmental disabilities, yet this has been studied infrequently in this group. We investigated cohesion in these families, particularly with respect to partner stress, using the notion of the 'spillover effect' as a model. Adolescents with disabilities and their parents participated. Parents reported on teen adaptive and problem behaviours and on marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and family cohesion. The stress of one partner was tested as a predictor of the quality of family cohesion reported by the other. Adolescent behaviour problems were negative predictors of family cohesion in mothers, and marital satisfaction positively predicted cohesion for both parents. Above other factors, greater partner stress predicted poorer family cohesion for both fathers and mothers. Marital satisfaction acted as a suppressor of this relation. To improve the overall climate of families, care providers should take into consideration individual relationships, including the marital relationship. In addition, the possibility of spillover from one individual to another should be recognized as a factor in family functioning. Family-centred practices are likely to lead to greater feelings of cohesion and overall better individual and family well-being.
Fernell, Elisabeth; Wilson, Philip; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Bourgeron, Thomas; Neville, Brian; Taylor, David; Minnis, Helen; Gillberg, Christopher
We draw attention to a number of important considerations in the arguments about screening and outcome of intervention in children with autism and other developmental disorders. Autism screening in itself never provides a final clinical diagnosis, but may well identify developmental deviations indicative of autism-or of other developmental disorders-that should lead to referral for further clinical assessment. Decisions regarding population or clinic screening cannot be allowed to be based on the fact that prospective longitudinal RCT designs over decades could never be performed in complex developmental disorders. We propose an alternative approach. Early screening for autism and other developmental disorders is likely to be of high societal importance and should be promoted and rigorously evaluated.
Boden, Joseph M; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John
This paper examines the relationship between self-esteem in adolescence and later mental health, substance use, and life and relationship outcomes in adulthood. The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of approximately 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Lower levels of self-esteem at age 15 were associated with greater risks of mental health problems, substance dependence, and lower levels of life and relationship satisfaction at ages 18, 21, and 25. Adjustment for potentially confounding factors reduced the strength of these associations to either moderate or statistically nonsignificant levels. It was concluded that the effects of self-esteem during adolescence on later developmental outcomes were weak, and largely explained by the psychosocial context within which self-esteem develops.
Shek, Daniel T L; Wong, Keri K
Adolescent developmental issues, such as mental health problems, substance abuse, and egocentric behavior, of university students are examined. This conceptual review generally shows that although there are related issues among university students deserving greater attention, there is a general lack of systematic prevention or positive youth development programs adopting the principle of universal prevention. In contrast to the abundance of universal adolescent prevention and positive youth development programs specifically designed for high school students, similar programs are grossly lacking in the university educational context. This paper highlights the factors contributing to such negligence in university education and the possible strategies that can be adopted to help university students develop in a holistic manner.
Piersma, Harry L.; And Others
Administered Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory at admission and discharge to 215 hospitalized adolescent psychiatric patients. Found significant mean score differences for both internalizing (affective disorder) and externalizing (disruptive behavior disorder) adolescents. Internalizing adolescents reported significantly greater distress at…
Hida, Kazutoshi; Yano, Shunsuke; Sasamori, Toru; Hamauch, Shuji; Koyanagi, Izumi; Houkin, Kiyohiro
Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Purpose To compare long-term results of surgery with the outcomes of symptomatic and asymptomatic tethered cord syndrome (TCS) in children and adolescents and to assess the surgery duration for those with TCS. Overview of Literature Pediatric patients with TCS continue to pose significant diagnostic and management challenges. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 31 patients (16 males, 15 females) with TCS, including 21 with lumbosacral lipoma. All were surgically treated between 1989 and 2015. They were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic TCS groups. The results of the treatment were summarized and analyzed using a non-parametric Mann–Whitney U test. Results Nineteen patients had symptomatic TCS and 12 had asymptomatic TCS. Patients had a median age of 34 months (range, 0–201 months). The median follow-up period was 116 months (range, 7–223 months). Of the 19 symptomatic TCS patients, preoperative deficits improved after surgery in two (10.5%) and remained stable in 17 (89.5%) patients. One of the 12 asymptomatic TCS (8.3%) patients showed an exacerbated illness after surgery, and one in 11 patients remained stable (11.7%). There were significant differences in monthly age at surgery, preoperative bowel and bladder dysfunction, neurological function, presence/absence of clean intermittent catheterization introduction, and presence/absence of motor disorder at final follow-up (all p<0.05). In the univariate analysis, the presence/absence of preoperative bowel and bladder dysfunction, and symptoms were strongly associated with the risk of children and adolescents with TCS (p<0.05). Conclusions Early accurate diagnosis and adequate surgical release might lead to successful outcomes in children and adolescents with TCS. Surgical untethering is a safe and effective method for treatment of children with TCS. PMID:27790325
Villeneuve, Michelle; Hutchinson, Nancy L.
Collaborative consultation has been widely adopted in school-based occupational therapy practice; however, limited research has examined how collaboration between educators and occupational therapists contributes to students' outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe the nature of collaborative working in two cases of school-based…
Shaffer, Anne; Egeland, Byron
This study investigated the transmission of boundary dissolution (BD) in parent-child relationships from parental behaviors observed in early childhood to adolescent behaviors observed at age 13 and relations to adolescent psychosocial adaptation. The goals of the study are (a) to examine the developmental relation of early childhood BD to several…
Swinton, Akilah D.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi
Developmental, gender, and academic domain differences in causal attributions and the influence of attributions on classroom engagement were explored longitudinally in 115 African American adolescents. In Grades 8 and 11, adolescents reported attributions for success and failure in math, English and writing, and science. In Grade 11, English and…
Maenner, Matthew J; Smith, Leann E; Hong, Jinkuk; Makuch, Renee; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R
Background Activity limitations are an important and useful dimension of disability, but there are few validated measures of activity limitations for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. Objective/Hypothesis To describe the development of the Waisman Activities of Daily Living (W-ADL) Scale for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities, and systematically evaluate its measurement properties according to an established set of criteria. Methods The W-ADL was administered among four longitudinally-studied groups of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities: 406 with autism; 147 with fragile-X syndrome; 169 with Down syndrome, and 292 with intellectual disability of other or unknown origin. The W-ADL contains 17 activities and each is rated on a 3-point scale (0=“does not do at all”, 1=“does with help”, 2=“independent”), and a standard set of criteria were used to evaluate its measurement properties. Results Across the disability groups, Cronbach’s alphas ranged from 0.88 to 0.94, and a single-factor structure was most parsimonious. The W-ADL was reliable over time, with weighted kappas between 0.92 and 0.93. Criterion and construct validity were supported through substantial associations with the Vineland Screener, need for respite services, caregiving burden, and competitive employment. No floor or ceiling effects were present. There were significant group differences in W-ADL scores by maternally-reported level of intellectual disability (mild, moderate, severe, profound). Conclusions The W-ADL exceeded the recommended threshold for each quality criterion the authors evaluated. This freely-available tool is an efficient measure of activities of daily living for surveys and epidemiological research concerning adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. PMID:23260606
Burrow, Anthony L.; Tubman, Jonathan G.; Finley, Gordon E.
The current study investigated group differences in adolescent adjustment by adoption status and adoption subtype in a national sample, in contrast to group differences based on developmental stage or gender. Secondary analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were performed to describe group differences in a broad range of…
Handley, Elizabeth D.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante
The current study examined the prospective association between child maltreatment and the development of substance use disorder (SUD) in adolescence with the aim of investigating pathways underlying this relation, as well as genetic moderation of these developmental mechanisms. Specifically, we tested whether youth who experienced maltreatment prior to age 8 were at risk for the development of marijuana dependence in adolescence by way of a childhood externalizing pathway and a childhood internalizing pathway. Moreover, we tested whether variation in FKBP5 CATT haplotype moderated these pathways. The participants were 326 children (n=179 maltreated; n=147 nonmaltreated) assessed across two waves of data collection (childhood: ages 7–9 and adolescence: ages 15–18). Results indicated that higher levels of child externalizing symptoms significantly mediated the effect of child maltreatment on adolescent marijuana dependence symptoms for individuals with 1–2 copies of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype only. We did not find support for an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence, nor did we find evidence of moderation of the internalizing pathway by FKBP5 haplotype variation. Findings extend previous research by demonstrating that whether a maltreated child will traverse an externalizing pathway toward SUD in adolescence is dependent on FKBP5 genetic variation. PMID:26535939
Tarrant, Mark; MacKenzie, Liam; Hewitt, Lisa A
This study applied a social identity perspective to the study of adolescent self-concept and social development. British adolescents aged 14-15 years (N=114) completed a questionnaire which asked them to: (i) rate their degree of identification with a school-based friendship group; (ii) complete a measure of multi-dimensional self-concept; and (iii) report their experiences of a variety of personal, relational and socio-institutional (e.g., achieving economic independence) developmental tasks. Compared to low identifiers, participants who were highly identified with a friendship group reported highest levels of self-esteem; and these differences were most marked in non-academic domains of self. High identifiers also displayed higher levels of general self-esteem and reported more positive experiences of personal and relational developmental tasks. The discussion focuses on the potential benefits to understanding of social developmental processes that can be derived from a consideration of adolescents' subjective appraisals of their peer relations.
Fanniff, Amanda M; Schubert, Carol A; Mulvey, Edward P; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Piquero, Alex R
Juveniles who have committed sexual offenses are subject to specialized treatment and policies based on their assumed unique dangerousness, despite contradictory evidence. Limited information is available regarding risk factors and their relationships to outcomes in this population. The comparative frequency and predictive utility of empirically supported risk factors for general delinquency were examined using data from the Pathways to Desistance study. Adolescent males who committed sexual offenses (n = 127) were compared to adolescent males who committed non-sexual offenses (n = 1021). At the start of the study, the sample ranged in age from 14 to 18 (M = 16.00, SD = 1.12) and self-identified as primarily African American (44 %), Latino (29 %), or White (25 %). Outcomes were measured over 7 years and included general and sexual recidivism, involvement in school and work, and positive relationships with peers and adults. The results indicated a few small differences in the presence of risk factors and their relationship to outcomes, with many similarities. Juveniles who have committed sexual offenses had equivalent general recidivism but higher sexual recidivism, though this rate was low (7.87 %, or 10 of the 127 adolescents who had committed sexual offenses). New clinical and policy approaches may be needed given the similarities between groups.
Herbers, Janette E.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Chen, Chin-Chih
School mobility has been shown to increase the risk of poor achievement, behavior problems, grade retention, and high school drop-out. Using data over 25 years from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, we investigated the unique risk of school moves on a variety of young adult outcomes including educational attainment, occupational prestige, depression symptoms, and criminal arrests. We also investigated how the timing of school mobility, whether earlier or later in the academic career, may differentially predict these outcomes over and above associated risks. Results indicate that students who experience more school changes between kindergarten and twelfth grade are less likely to complete high school on time, complete fewer years of school, attain lower levels of occupational prestige, are more likely to experience symptoms of depression, and are more likely to be arrested as adults. Furthermore, the number of school moves predicted above and beyond associated risks such as residential mobility and family poverty. When timing of school mobility was examined, results indicated more negative outcomes associated with moves later in the grade school career, particularly between fourth and eighth grade. PMID:23627959
Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, J Dennis; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Orr, Donald P
Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development in sexual self-concept (sexual openness, sexual esteem and sexual anxiety) over a four year time frame; (2) describe the relationship of these trajectories with changes in sexual behavior. We found significant transactional effects between these dimensions and behavior: sexual self-concept evolved during adolescence in a manner consistent with less reserve, less anxiety and greater personal comfort with sexuality and sexual behavior. Moreover, we found that sexual self-concept results from sexual behavior, as well as regulates future behavior.
Mills, Kathryn L; Lalonde, François; Clasen, Liv S; Giedd, Jay N; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne
Social cognition provides humans with the necessary skills to understand and interact with one another. One aspect of social cognition, mentalizing, is associated with a network of brain regions often referred to as the 'social brain.' These consist of medial prefrontal cortex [medial Brodmann Area 10 (mBA10)], temporoparietal junction (TPJ), posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and anterior temporal cortex (ATC). How these specific regions develop structurally across late childhood and adolescence is not well established. This study examined the structural developmental trajectories of social brain regions in the longest ongoing longitudinal neuroimaging study of human brain maturation. Structural trajectories of grey matter volume, cortical thickness and surface area were analyzed using surface-based cortical reconstruction software and mixed modeling in a longitudinal sample of 288 participants (ages 7-30 years, 857 total scans). Grey matter volume and cortical thickness in mBA10, TPJ and pSTS decreased from childhood into the early twenties. The ATC increased in grey matter volume until adolescence and in cortical thickness until early adulthood. Surface area for each region followed a cubic trajectory, peaking in early or pre-adolescence before decreasing into the early twenties. These results are discussed in the context of developmental changes in social cognition across adolescence.
Klostermann, Susan; Connell, Arin; Stormshak, Beth
Various developmental models have attempted to explain the relationship between antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms in youth, often proposing intermediary processes such as social and academic functioning. However, few studies have tested these developmental models fully, particularly in mixed gender samples. The current study strives to fill this gap in the literature, examining these processes in an early adolescent sample. Results indicated both direct and indirect paths between antisocial behavior and depression. In addition, potentially important gender differences were found. These results underscore the importance of examining direct and indirect links between symptoms of depression and anti-social behavior, and suggest that there may be important developmental differences between girls and boys in the relationship between these symptoms.
Cleveland, H. Harrington; Vandenbergh, David J.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve
Aggression-related problems such as assault and homicide among adolescents and young adults exact considerable social and economic costs. Although progress has been made, additional research is needed to help combat this persistent problem. Several lines of research indicate that parental hostility is an especially potent predictor of adolescent aggression, although most longitudinal research has focused on clarifying the direction of effects. In this study, we used longitudinal data from the PROSPER project (N = 580; 54.8 % female), a primarily rural Caucasian preventative intervention sample, to examine developmental change in early- to mid-adolescent aggressive behavior problems (age 11–16 years). In addition, we examined maternal hostility as a predictor of developmental change in aggression and the PROSPER preventative intervention, designed to reduce substance use and aggression, as a potential influence on this association. Lastly, several studies indicate that variation in the DRD4 7-repeat gene moderates both parenting and intervention influences on externalizing behavior. Accordingly, we examined the potential moderating role of DRD4. As hypothesized, there was a significant maternal hostility by intervention interaction indicating that the intervention reduced the negative impact of maternal hostility on adolescent change in aggressive behavior problems. DRD4 7-repeat status (7+ vs. 7−) further conditioned this association whereby control group 7+ adolescents with hostile mothers showed increasing aggressive behavior problems. In contrast, aggression decreased for 7+ adolescents with similarly hostile mothers in the intervention. Implications for prevention are discussed as well as current perspectives in candidate gene-by-environment interaction research. PMID:25319639
The role of vitamin status in the development of the brain and the subsequent functioning of the brain was considered. There are data with a range of vitamins, from animal studies and human studies in developing countries, suggesting that a clinical deficiency during the critical period when the brain is developing causes permanent damage. To date there is, however, with the exception of cases of clinical deficiency such as those that might be associated with a vegan diet, little evidence that variations in the diet of those living in industrialised countries have a lasting developmental influence. Similarly, later in life clinical deficiencies of various vitamins disrupt cognition although there is to date limited evidence that variations in the intake of single vitamins in industrialised societies influence functioning. It may well be, however, unreasonable to expect that vitamins examined in isolation will be associated with differences in cognitive functioning. The output of the brain reflects millions of metabolic processes, each potentially susceptible to any of a range of vitamins. A diet poor in one respect is likely to be poor in other respects as well. As such, the preliminary reports in double-blind placebo-controlled trials that aspects of cognition and behaviour respond to supplementation with multi-micronutrients may indicate the way forward.
Koning, Ina M.; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.
Previous studies on general parenting have demonstrated the relevance of strict parenting within a supportive social context for a variety of adolescent behaviors, such as alcohol use. Yet, alcohol-specific parenting practices are generally examined as separate predictors of adolescents' drinking behavior. The present study examined different…
Cluver, Lucie D; Hodes, Rebecca J; Sherr, Lorraine; Mark Orkin, F; Meinck, Franziska; Lim Ah Ken, Patricia; Winder-Rossi, Natalia E; Wolfe, Jason; Vicari, Marissa
Introduction Advances in biomedical technologies provide potential for adolescent HIV prevention and HIV-positive survival. The UNAIDS 90–90–90 treatment targets provide a new roadmap for ending the HIV epidemic, principally through antiretroviral treatment, HIV testing and viral suppression among people with HIV. However, while imperative, HIV treatment and testing will not be sufficient to address the epidemic among adolescents in Southern and Eastern Africa. In particular, use of condoms and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remain haphazard, with evidence that social and structural deprivation is negatively impacting adolescents’ capacity to protect themselves and others. This paper examines the evidence for and potential of interventions addressing these structural deprivations. Discussion New evidence is emerging around social protection interventions, including cash transfers, parenting support and educational support (“cash, care and classroom”). These interventions have the potential to reduce the social and economic drivers of HIV risk, improve utilization of prevention technologies and improve adherence to ART for adolescent populations in the hyper-endemic settings of Southern and Eastern Africa. Studies show that the integration of social and economic interventions has high acceptability and reach and that it holds powerful potential for improved HIV, health and development outcomes. Conclusions Social protection is a largely untapped means of reducing HIV-risk behaviours and increasing uptake of and adherence to biomedical prevention and treatment technologies. There is now sufficient evidence to include social protection programming as a key strategy not only to mitigate the negative impacts of the HIV epidemic among families, but also to contribute to HIV prevention among adolescents and potentially to remove social and economic barriers to accessing treatment. We urge a further research and programming agenda: to actively combine
Byrd, Amy L; Hawes, Samuel W; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A
Youth with a callous interpersonal style, consistent with features of adult psychopathy (e.g., lack of guilt, deceitful), are at risk for exhibiting severe and protracted antisocial behaviors. However, no studies have examined changes that occur in interpersonal callousness (IC) from childhood to adolescence, and little is known about the influence of early child, social, and contextual factors on trajectories of IC. The current study examined distinct patterns of IC across childhood and adolescence and associations with early risk factors. Participants were an at-risk sample of 503 boys (56% African American) assessed annually from around ages 7-15. Analyses examined child (anger dysregulation, fearfulness), social (peer, family, maltreatment), and contextual (psychosocial adversity) factors associated with teacher-reported IC trajectories across childhood and adolescence. Using latent class growth analysis, five trajectories of IC were identified (early-onset chronic, childhood-limited, adolescent-onset, moderate, low). Approximately 10% of boys followed an early-onset chronic trajectory, and a roughly equal percent of youth followed childhood-limited trajectory (10%) or an adolescent-onset trajectory (12%) of IC across development. Specifically, half of the boys with high IC in childhood did not continue to exhibit significant levels of these features into adolescence, whereas an equal proportion of youth with low IC in childhood demonstrated increasing levels during the transition to adolescence. Boys in the early-onset chronic group were characterized by the most risk factors and were differentiated from those with childhood-limited and adolescent-onset IC only by higher conduct problems, fearlessness, and emotional abuse/neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental models of IC and several avenues for early targeted interventions.
Ruttle, Paula L.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Susman, Elizabeth J.
Substantial research has implicated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes independently in adolescent mental health problems, though this literature remains largely inconclusive. Given the cross-talk between the HPA and HPG axes and their increased activation in adolescence, a dual-axis approach that examines both axes simultaneously is proposed to predict the emergence and persistence of adolescent mental health problems. After briefly orienting readers to HPA and HPG axis functioning, we review the literature examining associations between hormone levels and changes with behavior during adolescence. Then, we provide a review of the literature supporting examination of both axes simultaneously and present the limited research that has taken a dual-axis approach. We propose future directions including consideration of between-person and within-person approaches to address questions of correlated changes in HPA and HPG hormones. Potential moderators are considered to increase understanding of the nuanced hormone–behavior associations during key developmental transitions. PMID:24729154
Marceau, Kristine; Ruttle, Paula L; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Essex, Marilyn J; Susman, Elizabeth J
Substantial research has implicated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes independently in adolescent mental health problems, though this literature remains largely inconclusive. Given the cross-talk between the HPA and HPG axes and their increased activation in adolescence, a dual-axis approach that examines both axes simultaneously is proposed to predict the emergence and persistence of adolescent mental health problems. After briefly orienting readers to HPA and HPG axis functioning, we review the literature examining associations between hormone levels and changes with behavior during adolescence. Then, we provide a review of the literature supporting examination of both axes simultaneously and present the limited research that has taken a dual-axis approach. We propose future directions including consideration of between-person and within-person approaches to address questions of correlated changes in HPA and HPG hormones. Potential moderators are considered to increase understanding of the nuanced hormone-behavior associations during key developmental transitions.
Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T
While numerous studies have established a link between alcohol use and partner violence in adulthood, little research has examined this relation during adolescence. The current study used multivariate growth models to examine relations between alcohol use and dating aggression across grades 8 through 12 controlling for shared risk factors (common causes) that predict both behaviors. Associations between trajectories of alcohol use and dating aggression were reduced substantially when common causes were controlled. Concurrent associations between the two behaviors were significant across nearly all grades but no evidence was found for prospective connections from prior alcohol use to subsequent dating aggression or vice versa. Findings suggest that prevention efforts should target common causes of alcohol use and dating aggression.
Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn
The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer…
Siantz, Mary Lou de Leon; Smith, M. Shelton
Examined parental factors correlated with developmental outcomes among 60 Mexican American migrant farmworker children. Found that maternal parenting style accounted for a significant amount of the variance in child behavior problems reported by the mothers, whereas maternal social support helped to explain the variance in peer acceptance reported…
Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi; Abubakar, Amina
Sub-Saharan Africa is home to millions of HIV-affected children. These children are likely to experience multiple developmental delays. In this chapter, I present data highlighting compromised neurobehavioral, mental health, and scholastic outcomes for children affected by HIV. Furthermore, I discuss biomedical factors (e.g., disease severity and…
This article provides an analysis of developmental discourses underpinning preschool physical education in Scotland's Curriculum for Excellence. Implementing a post-structural perspective, the article examines the preschool experiences and outcomes related to physical education as presented in the Curriculum for Excellence "health and…
Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA.
This report discusses the importance of school-family partnership strategies and practices that enable schools to work together to benefit all children. It refers to several studies that had positive outcomes. It also defines school-family partnerships and explains the benefits of such partnerships. (AMT)
Klötze, Paula; Gerber, Friederike; Croy, Ilona; Hummel, Thomas
Aim of the current work was to examine developmental changes in adolescents’ olfactory performance and personal significance of olfaction. In the first study olfactory identification abilities of 76 participants (31 males and 45 females aged between 10 and 18 years; M = 13.8, SD = 2.3) was evaluated with the Sniffin Stick identification test, presented in a cued and in an uncued manner. Verbal fluency was additionally examined for control purpose. In the second study 131 participants (46 males and 85 females aged between 10 and 18 years; (M = 14.4, SD = 2.2) filled in the importance of olfaction questionnaire. Odor identification abilities increased significantly with age and were significantly higher in girls as compared to boys. These effects were especially pronounced in the uncued task and partly related to verbal fluency. In line, the personal significance of olfaction increased with age and was generally higher among female compared to male participants. PMID:27332887
Devenish, Bethany; Hooley, Merrilyn; Mellor, David
Socioeconomic status (SES) is a significant risk factor for negative adolescent development outcomes. Identifying the pathways between SES and these outcomes may inform interventions for adolescents from this demographic. We conducted a systematic literature review of eight databases for studies investigating pathways between SES and adolescent psychosocial outcomes. A total of 59 articles met inclusion criteria. Significant risk factors identified include economic stress, chaos in the home, and violence in the community. These risk factors appear to be mediated through parent depression, conflict between parents, parenting practices, and adolescent resilience. Interventions focusing on the identified risk factors are recommended.
Fine, Adam; Mahler, Alissa; Steinberg, Laurence; Frick, Paul J; Cauffman, Elizabeth
Social ecological theories and decades of supporting research suggest that contexts exert a powerful influence on adolescent delinquency. Individual traits, such as impulse control, also pose a developmental disadvantage to adolescents through increasing risk of delinquency. However, such individual differences may also predispose some youth to struggle more in adverse environments, but also to excel in enriched environments. Despite the prominence of impulse control in both developmental and criminological literatures, researchers are only beginning to consider impulse control as an individual characteristic that may affect developmental outcomes in response to environmental input. Using a racially diverse (Latino 46 %; Black 37 %; White 15 %; other race 2 %) sample of 1,216 first-time, male, juvenile offenders from the longitudinal Crossroads Study, this study examined key interactions between baseline impulse control and the home, school, and neighborhood contexts in relation to delinquency within the following 6 months. The results indicated that even after accounting for prior delinquency, youth in more negative home, school, and neighborhood contexts engaged in the same amount of delinquency in the following 6 months regardless of their level of impulse control. However, the effects of positive home, school, and neighborhood contexts on delinquency were stronger for youth with moderate or high impulse control and minimally affected youth with low impulse control. The findings suggest two risk factors for delinquency: low impulse control as a dispositional vulnerability that operates independently of developmental context, and a second that results from a contextual vulnerability.
Bjork, James M; Pardini, Dustin A
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has illuminated the development of human brain function. Some of this work in typically-developing youth has ostensibly captured neural underpinnings of adolescent behavior which is characterized by risk-seeking propensity, according to psychometric questionnaires and a wealth of anecdote. Notably, cross-sectional comparisons have revealed age-dependent differences between adolescents and other age groups in regional brain responsiveness to prospective or experienced rewards (usually greater in adolescents) or penalties (usually diminished in adolescents). These differences have been interpreted as reflecting an imbalance between motivational drive and behavioral control mechanisms, especially in mid-adolescence, thus promoting greater risk-taking. While intriguing, we caution here that researchers should be more circumspect in attributing clinically significant adolescent risky behavior to age-group differences in task-elicited fMRI responses from neurotypical subjects. This is because actual mortality and morbidity from behavioral causes (e.g. substance abuse, violence) by mid-adolescence is heavily concentrated in individuals who are not neurotypical, who rather have shown a lifelong history of behavioral disinhibition that frequently meets criteria for a disruptive behavior disorder, such as conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. These young people are at extreme risk of poor psychosocial outcomes, and should be a focus of future neurodevelopmental research.
Doussard-Roosevelt, Jane A.; And Others
Used heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) assessed at 33 to 35 weeks gestational age to predict developmental outcome at 3 years for very low birth weight infants. Found that RSA measures predicted developmental outcome beyond effects of birth weight, medical risk, and socioeconomic status. For infants < 1,000 grams, RSA maturation…
Madkour, Aubrey S.; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W.
Background: Adverse birth outcomes are more common among adolescent versus adult mothers, but little is known about school-based services that may improve birth outcomes in this group. Methods: Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Girls and women who gave birth to singleton live infants…
Boeninger, Daria K.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Feldman, Betsy J.; Conger, Rand D.
Although suicide ideation, plans, and attempts increase during adolescence, it remains unclear whether boys' and girls' risk for these outcomes peaks at different ages. We used longitudinal categorical data ("never," "once," "2+ times") from the Family Transitions Project (N = 1,248 rural European Americans, ages 11-19) to investigate whether…
Greenfield, Patricia; Yan, Zheng
With this special section on children, adolescents, and the Internet, we survey the state of a new field of inquiry in developmental psychology. This field is important because developmentalists need to understand how children and adolescents live in a new, massive, and complex virtual universe, even as they carry on their lives in the real world. We have selected six empirical articles to showcase various aspects of child and adolescent development in this virtual universe. These articles reflect three major themes of this new field: communication on the Internet; cognitive development, academic achievement, and the Internet; and adolescents in a globalized Internet world. These three sections reflect one of our major editorial goals: to sample various relevant aspects of development as they relate to the Internet. The selection of articles reflects a second editorial goal: to sample both the positive and negative aspects of the virtual world in which children and adolescents are increasingly living. Another of our editorial goals was to sample as large an age range as possible. We also utilized a very broad definition of development. Last but not least, we sought out and found methodological diversity.
Fowler, Patrick J; Motley, Darnell; Zhang, Jinjin; Rolls-Reutz, Jennifer; Landsverk, John
In this longitudinal study, we tested whether adolescent maltreatment and out-of-home placement as a response to maltreatment altered developmental patterns of sexual risk behaviors in a nationally representative sample of youth involved in the child welfare system. Participants included adolescents aged 13 to 17 (M = 15.5, SD = 1.49) at baseline (n = 714), followed over 18 months. Computer-assisted interviews were used to collect self-reported sexual practices and experiences of physical and psychological abuse at both time points. Latent transition analyses were used to identify three patterns of sexual risk behaviors: abstainers, safe sex with multiple partners, and unsafe sex with multiple partners. Most adolescents transitioned to safer sexual behavior patterns over time. Adolescents exhibiting the riskiest sexual practices at baseline were most likely to report subsequent abuse and less likely to be placed into out-of-home care. Findings provide a more nuanced understanding of sexual risk among child welfare-involved adolescents and inform practices to promote positive transitions within the system.
van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret
Adolescence is an important period for the development of relationships between immigrants and non-immigrants, yet little is known about how problematic personality traits affect adolescents' relationships with and attitudes toward immigrants. This work identified the roles of intergroup relationships and one dimension of problematic personality traits, namely callous-unemotional traits, in the development of adolescents' tolerance and prejudice. Three annual measurements of a large community sample (N = 1,542) of non-immigrant adolescents (M age = 15.31 at first measurement; 50.2% girls) were used to show that tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants represent two dimensions with distinct developmental trajectories from early to late adolescence. Callous-unemotional traits predicted fewer decreases in prejudice toward immigrants, yet were not directly associated with tolerance. Intergroup friendships predicted stronger increases in tolerance, which, in turn, predicted decreases in prejudice toward immigrants. Thus, tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants seem to be differentially influenced by social experiences and problematic personality traits.
Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Gogtay, Nitin; Greenstein, Deanna K; Wells, Elizabeth Molloy; Wallace, Gregory L; Clasen, Liv S; Blumenthal, Jonathan D; Lerch, Jason; Zijdenbos, Alex P; Evans, Alan C; Thompson, Paul M; Giedd, Jay N
Human total brain size is consistently reported to be approximately 8-10% larger in males, although consensus on regionally specific differences is weak. Here, in the largest longitudinal pediatric neuroimaging study reported to date (829 scans from 387 subjects, ages 3 to 27 years), we demonstrate the importance of examining size-by-age trajectories of brain development rather than group averages across broad age ranges when assessing sexual dimorphism. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we found robust male/female differences in the shapes of trajectories with total cerebral volume peaking at age 10.5 in females and 14.5 in males. White matter increases throughout this 24-year period with males having a steeper rate of increase during adolescence. Both cortical and subcortical gray matter trajectories follow an inverted U shaped path with peak sizes 1 to 2 years earlier in females. These sexually dimorphic trajectories confirm the importance of longitudinal data in studies of brain development and underline the need to consider sex matching in studies of brain development.
Garcia, Antonio R; Pecora, Peter J; Harachi, Tracy; Aisenberg, Eugene
Child welfare practitioners are confronted with the responsibility of relying on best practice to ensure children in foster care transition successfully into adulthood after leaving the foster care system. Yet, despite recent reforms and efforts to address their needs, research clearly shows that foster care alumni are still more likely to experience negative developmental outcomes compared to adults in the general population. The purpose of this study was to better understand how child-serving systems of care adequately prepare racially diverse foster care alumni to thrive. Controlling for gender, age, placement instability, and circumstances of exit from foster care, study findings highlighted salient racial and ethnic differences relative to which factors predicted the odds of mental health, education, and employment outcomes. Implications for developing and implementing culturally sensitive, evidence-based prevention and intervention programs to promote positive developmental outcomes among racially diverse foster care alumni are discussed.
Coll, Cynthia Garcia, Ed.; Marks, Amy Kerivan, Ed.
Many academic and public policies promote rapid immigrant assimilation. Yet, researchers have recently identified an emerging pattern, known as the "immigrant paradox," in which assimilated children of immigrants experience diminishing developmental outcomes and educational achievements. This volume examines these controversial findings by asking…
Willoughby, Teena; Good, Marie; Adachi, Paul J C; Hamza, Chloe; Tavernier, Royette
The adolescent age period is often characterized as a health paradox because it is a time of extensive increases in physical and mental capabilities, yet overall mortality/morbidity rates increase significantly from childhood to adolescence, often due to preventable causes such as risk taking. Asynchrony in developmental time courses between the affective/approach and cognitive control brain systems, as well as the ongoing maturation of neural connectivity are thought to lead to increased vulnerability for risk taking in adolescence. A critical analysis of the frequency of risk taking behaviors, as well as mortality and morbidity rates across the lifespan, however, challenges the hypothesis that the peak of risk taking occurs in middle adolescence when the asynchrony between the different developmental time courses of the affective/approach and cognitive control systems is the largest. In fact, the highest levels of risk taking behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use, often occur among emerging adults (e.g., university/college students), and highlight the role of the social context in predicting risk taking behavior. Moreover, risk taking is not always unregulated or impulsive. Future research should broaden the scope of risk taking to include risks that are relevant to older adults, such as risky financial investing, gambling, and marital infidelity. In addition, a lifespan perspective, with a focus on how associations between neural systems and behavior are moderated by context and trait-level characteristics, and which includes diverse samples (e.g., divorced individuals), will help to address some important limitations in the adolescent brain development and risk taking literature.
Trentacosta, Christopher J; Criss, Michael M; Shaw, Daniel S; Lacourse, Eric; Hyde, Luke W; Dishion, Thomas J
This study investigated the development of mother-son relationship quality from ages 5 to 15 in a sample of 265 low-income families. Nonparametric random effects modeling was utilized to uncover distinct and homogeneous developmental trajectories of conflict and warmth; antecedents and outcomes of the trajectory groups also were examined. Four conflict trajectory groups and 3 warmth trajectory groups were identified. Difficult temperament in early childhood discriminated both conflict and warmth trajectory group membership (TGM), and adult relationship quality in early childhood was related to warmth trajectories. In addition, conflict TGM differentiated youth antisocial behavior during adolescence, and warmth trajectories predicted adolescent peer relationship quality and youth moral disengagement. Implications for socialization processes are discussed.
Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Criss, Michael M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Lacourse, Eric; Hyde, Luke W.; Dishion, Thomas J.
This study investigated the development of mother-son relationship quality from ages 5 to 15 in a sample of 265 low-income families. Non-parametric random effects modeling was utilized to uncover distinct and homogeneous developmental trajectories of conflict and warmth; antecedents and outcomes of the trajectory groups also were examined. Four conflict trajectory groups and three warmth trajectory groups were identified. Difficult temperament in early childhood discriminated both conflict and warmth trajectory group membership (TGM), and adult relationship quality in early childhood was related to warmth trajectories. In addition, conflict TGM differentiated youth antisocial behavior during adolescence, and warmth trajectories predicted adolescent peer relationship quality and youth moral disengagement. Implications for socialization processes are discussed. PMID:21883153
Wright, Aidan G.C.; Zalewski, Maureen; Hallquist, Michael N.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.
Major gains toward understanding the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) pathology, which is typically first noted during adolescence, have been made. The present study addresses a gap in our understanding of within-person change in BPD symptoms across adolescence and contributes to the limited literature on outcomes associated with adolescent BPD. Using an at-risk community sample of girls (N=2,450), bivariate latent growth curve models were used to analyze the co-development of BPD symptoms with eight domains of psychosocial functioning (e.g., social skills, sexual behavior) across ages 14–17. Findings revealed moderate to strong effect sizes for the associations between BPD symptoms and every domain of psychosocial functioning, suggesting that the development of BPD was coupled with poorer outcomes across development. These results highlight the increased need for extending advancements in the adult PD literature to research on PDs in adolescence, and for greater recognition of adolescent BPD in clinical settings. PMID:26067158
Myles-Worsley, Marina; Weaver, Starla; Blailes, Francisca
Aim Depressive symptoms are common in the early prodromal phase of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. The objectives of the present study were to retrospectively examine the severity of depressive symptoms and their relationship to positive symptoms over the developmental course of adolescent-onset psychosis (AO-PSY). Methods The subjects were 62 unmedicated adolescents with DSM-IV psychosis and 104 normal controls from a Pacific island isolate with an elevated prevalence of schizophrenia. We used a modified K-SADS-PL to assess adolescents for a full range of Axis I psychopathology and quantified severity of depressive and positive symptoms over the adolescent’s lifespan. Results Among AO-PSY subjects, 84% reported abnormal levels of depressive symptoms with mean onset 1.3 years prior to transition to psychosis. In 60% of the AO-PSY subjects with depressive symptoms, positive symptoms began first. A continuous linear increase in depressive symptom severity over the developmental course of illness mirrored the steady rise in positive symptom severity as psychosis emerged. Conclusions We found that it is typically a combination of positive symptoms and depressive symptoms building in parallel that leads from the prodrome to frank psychosis. These results suggest that depressive symptoms represent more of an integral component of disease progression than an independent risk factor that predicts transition to early onset psychosis. PMID:19079763
Moilanen, Kristin L; Shaw, Daniel S; Maxwell, Kari L
The current study was initiated to increase understanding of developmental cascades in childhood in a sample of at-risk boys (N = 291; 52% White). Mothers, teachers, and boys reported on boys' externalizing problems, internalizing difficulties, and academic competence. Consistent with hypotheses regarding school-related transitions, high levels of externalizing problems were associated with both low levels of academic competence and high levels of internalizing problems during the early school-age period, and with elevations in internalizing problems during the transition to adolescence. Low levels of academic competence were associated with high levels of internalizing problems in middle childhood, and with high levels of externalizing problems during the transition from elementary school to middle school. Shared risk factors played a minimal role in these developmental cascades. Results suggest that there are cascading effects of externalizing problems and academic competence in childhood and early adolescence, and that some cascading effects are more likely to occur during periods of school-related transitions. Implications of developmental cascade effects for research and intervention are discussed.
Moilanen, Kristin L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Maxwell, Kari L.
The current study was initiated to increase understanding of developmental cascades in childhood in a sample of at-risk boys (N = 291; 52% White). Mothers, teachers, and boys reported on boys’ externalizing problems, internalizing difficulties, and academic competence. Consistent with hypotheses regarding school-related transitions, high levels of externalizing problems were associated with both low levels of academic competence and high levels of internalizing problems during the early school-age period, and with elevations in internalizing problems during the transition to adolescence. Low levels of academic competence were associated with high levels of internalizing problems in middle childhood, and with high levels of externalizing problems during the transition from elementary school to middle school. Shared risk factors played a minimal role in these developmental cascades. Results suggest that there are cascading effects of externalizing problems and academic competence in childhood and early adolescence, and that some cascading effects are more likely to occur during periods of school-related transitions. Implications of developmental cascade effects for research and intervention are discussed. PMID:20576184
Liddle, Howard A.; Rowe, Cynthia L.; Dakof, Gayle A.; Henderson, Craig E.; Greenbaum, Paul E.
Research has established the dangers of early onset substance use for young adolescents and its links to a host of developmental problems. Because critical developmental detours can begin or be exacerbated during early adolescence, specialized interventions that target known risk and protective factors in this period are needed. This controlled…
Zitsman, Jeffrey L; Inge, Thomas H; Reichard, Kirk W; Browne, Allen F; Harmon, Carroll M; Michalsky, Marc P
The past four decades have witnessed a marked rise in the number of children and adolescents with obesity. Severe obesity has also become increasingly prevalent. More young patients who have obesity are being referred for weight management and weight loss surgery, thus posing new challenges to both the medical personnel who care for them as well as the institutions in which that care is provided. This manuscript is generated from the material presented at the Education Day symposium entitled "Surgical Care of the Obese Child" held at the 42nd Annual Meeting of the American Pediatric Surgical Association in Palm Desert, CA, on May 22, 2011. Herein the presenters at the symposium update the material addressing evaluation of a young person for weight loss surgery (including the team approach to patient evaluation and institutional infrastructure and responsibilities). The procedures most frequently available to young patients with obesity are identified, and current outcomes, trends, and future direction are also discussed.
Blomfield, Corey J; Barber, Bonnie L
Extracurricular activities provide adolescents with a number of positive personal and interpersonal developmental experiences. This study investigated whether developmental experiences that occurred during extracurricular activities were linked to a more positive self-concept for Australian adolescents, and whether this link was particularly salient for youth from disadvantaged schools. Adolescents (N = 1,504, 56% Female) from 26 diverse high schools across Western Australia were surveyed. The findings revealed that adolescents from low socio-economic status schools who participated in extracurricular activities had a more positive general self-worth and social self-concept than adolescents from similar socio-economic schools who did not participate in any extracurricular activities. Furthermore, the positive developmental experiences that occurred during extracurricular activities predicted a more positive general self-worth and social and academic self-concept, and this link was stronger for youth from low SES schools. These findings suggest that the developmental experiences afforded by extracurricular activities may foster positive adolescent development.
Leprince, Tanguy; Sauveplane, Dominique; Ricadat, Elise; Seigneur, Étienne; Marioni, Gabrielle
During the last few years, specific support devices and even dedicated units for teenagers and young adults (TYAs - patients grouped in the 15-25 years age group) appeared in oncology. If the existing literature review allows identifying many written work related to the experience of cancer during adolescence, resources about "young adults" are not only far less abundant, but rarely give the definition of what is a "young adult". Based on this observation, it appears necessary, at this stage of our practice, to question the definition and psychosocial outcomes of those psychiatrists and psychologists also call "young adults". Are they so different compared to teenagers? Do they have their own specificities? Based on the analysis of the general literature, we will seek to define the highlights of this moment of life and to identify their specific psychosocial and developmental outcomes. Thus, we will be able to study more accurately the experience of young adults facing cancer and the associated psychological side effects. Based on this analysis, we will present the issues which seemed to be specific in the psychological support of young adults and their relatives.
Drevon, Daniel D; Almazan, Elbert P; Jacob, Susan; Rhymer, Katrina N
Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study datasets, this study examined whether natural mentoring relationships during adolescence were associated with young adult outcomes among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons. Outcomes in three domains were investigated: education and employment, psychological wellbeing, and substance use and abuse. Results indicated that LGB persons reporting natural mentors during adolescence were about three times as likely to graduate from high school as those without. Discussion surrounds strategies to foster mentoring relationships within the school environment or community.
Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
This study examined the developmental course and adjustment correlates of time with peers from age 8 to 18. On 7 occasions over 8 years, the two eldest siblings from 201 European American, working- and middle-class families provided questionnaire and/or phone diary data. Multilevel models revealed that girls’ time with mixed/opposite-sex peers increased beginning in middle childhood, but boys’ time increased beginning in early adolescence. For both girls and boys, time with same-sex peers peaked in mid-adolescence. At the within-person level, unsupervised time with mixed/opposite-sex peers longitudinally predicted problem behaviors and depressive symptoms, and supervised time with mixed/opposite-sex peers longitudinally predicted better school performance. Findings highlight the importance of social context in understanding peer involvement and its implications for youth development. PMID:24673293
Huang, David Y C; Murphy, Debra A; Hser, Yih-Ing
This study examined the trajectories of sexual risk behaviors among adolescents from ages 15 to 23, and factors associated with those trajectories. The sample was 5,419 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using group-based trajectory modeling, five distinctive trajectory groups were identified. The High group had a high and increased risk trajectory over the observed ages. The Decreased group had a risk trajectory that accelerated before age 19, but decreased afterwards. The risk trajectories of the Increased-Early and Increased-Late groups were low at age 15, but increased significantly starting at ages 16 and 18 for the groups, respectively. Participants in the Low group remained at low risk over time. Sexual risk behaviors were also positively associated with alcohol use, marijuana use, and delinquency. Results highlight the need for intervention efforts to consider developmental timing of sexual risk behaviors and their associations with other problem behaviors.
Zhong, Suyu; He, Yong; Shu, Hua; Gong, Gaolang
Human brain asymmetries have been well described. Intriguingly, a number of asymmetries in brain phenotypes have been shown to change throughout the lifespan. Recent studies have revealed topological asymmetries between hemispheric white matter networks in the human brain. However, it remains unknown whether and how these topological asymmetries evolve from adolescence to young adulthood, a critical period that constitutes the second peak of human brain and cognitive development. To address this question, the present study included a large cohort of healthy adolescents and young adults. Diffusion and structural magnetic resonance imaging were acquired to construct hemispheric white matter networks, and graph-theory was applied to quantify topological parameters of the hemispheric networks. In both adolescents and young adults, rightward asymmetry in both global and local network efficiencies was consistently observed between the 2 hemispheres, but the degree of the asymmetry was significantly decreased in young adults. At the nodal level, the young adults exhibited less rightward asymmetry of nodal efficiency mainly around the parasylvian area, posterior tempo-parietal cortex, and fusiform gyrus. These developmental patterns of network asymmetry provide novel insight into the human brain structural development from adolescence to young adulthood and also likely relate to the maturation of language and social cognition that takes place during this period.
Bornstein, Marc H; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T D
Two independent prospective longitudinal studies that cumulatively spanned the age interval from 4 years to 14 years used multiwave designs to investigate developmental associations between language and behavioral adjustment (internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Altogether 224 children, their mothers, and teachers provided data. Series of nested path analysis models were used to determine the most parsimonious and plausible paths among the three constructs over and above stability in each across age and their covariation at each age. In both studies, children with poorer language skills in early childhood had more internalizing behavior problems in later childhood and in early adolescence. These developmental paths between language and behavioral adjustment held after taking into consideration children's nonverbal intellectual functioning, maternal verbal intelligence, education, parenting knowledge, and social desirability bias, as well as family socioeconomic status, and they applied equally to girls and boys.
Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.
Two independent prospective longitudinal studies that cumulatively spanned the age interval from 4 years to 14 years used multi-wave designs to investigate developmental associations between language and behavioral adjustment (internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Altogether 224 children, their mothers, and teachers provided data. Series of nested path analysis models were used to determine the most parsimonious and plausible paths among the three constructs over and above stability in each across age and their covariation at each age. In both studies, children with poorer language skills in early childhood had more internalizing behavior problems in later childhood and in early adolescence. These developmental paths between language and behavioral adjustment held after taking into consideration children’s nonverbal intellectual functioning, maternal verbal intelligence, education, parenting knowledge, and social desirability bias, as well as family socioeconomic status, and they applied equally to girls and boys. PMID:23880396
Skehan, Brian; Davis, Maryann
Transitional age youth (TAY) are in a discrete developmental stage, different from both adolescents and mature adults. Serious mental illness can result in their delayed psychosocial development and morbidity. Systemic, provider, and individual barriers result in poor access to care for these youth, potentially impeding their transition to mature adulthood. Current strategies for TAY treatment include patient centered care, vocational and educational support, and shared decision making. There is a paucity of evidence-based practices to effectively treat this population or provide practice guidelines. The research required to do so should be a priority.
This review of studies on clinical and nonclinical populations explores outcomes of adoption and developmental issues for adolescents, and in particular, developmental problems for adopted adolescents. Studies on nonclinical populations demonstrate that adoption is a highly successful form of substitute care. Prospective longitudinal studies show…
Tak, Hyeong Jun; Kim, Jin Hyun; Son, Su Min
We investigated the radiologic developmental process of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) using subcomponent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis in typically developing volunteers. DTI data were acquired from 96 consecutive typically developing children, aged 0–14 years. AF subcomponents, including the posterior, anterior, and direct AF tracts were analyzed. Success rates of analysis (AR) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values of each subcomponent tract were measured and compared. AR of all subcomponent tracts, except the posterior, showed a significant increase with aging (P < 0.05). Subcomponent tracts had a specific developmental sequence: First, the posterior AF tract, second, the anterior AF tract, and last, the direct AF tract in identical hemispheres. FA values of all subcomponent tracts, except right direct AF tract, showed correlation with subject's age (P < 0.05). Increased AR and FA values were observed in female subjects in young age (0–2 years) group compared with males (P < 0.05). The direct AF tract showed leftward hemispheric asymmetry and this tendency showed greater consolidation in older age (3–14 years) groups (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrated the radiologic developmental patterns of the AF from infancy to adolescence using subcomponent DTI analysis. The AF showed a specific developmental sequence, sex difference in younger age, and hemispheric asymmetry in older age. PMID:27482222
Weeks, Murray; Ploubidis, George B; Cairney, John; Wild, T Cameron; Naicker, Kiyuri; Colman, Ian
This study examined longitudinal pathways through three domains of adaptation from ages 4-5 to 14-15 (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and academic competence) towards depressive symptoms at age 16-17. Participants were 6425 Canadian children followed bi-annually as part of the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth. Within-domain (i.e., stability) effects were moderate in strength. We found longitudinal cross-domain effects across one time point (i.e., one-lag cascades) between internalizing and externalizing in early childhood (positive associations), and between academic competence and externalizing in later childhood and adolescence (negative associations). We also found cascade effects over multiple time points (i.e., multi-lag cascades); lower academic competence at age 4-5 and greater internalizing at age 6-7 predicted greater age 12-13 externalizing, and greater age 6-7 externalizing predicted greater age 16-17 depression. Important pathways towards adolescent depression include a stability path through childhood and adolescent internalizing, as well as a number of potential paths involving all domains of adaptation, highlighting the multifactorial nature of adolescent depression.
Stanton, B; Black, M; Feigelman, S; Ricardo, I; Galbraith, J; Li, X; Kaljee, L; Keane, V; Nesbitt, R
The creation of developmentally and culturally appropriate data-gathering instruments is necessary as health researchers and interventionists expand their investigations to community-based minority adolescent populations. The creation of such instruments is a complex process, requiring the integration of multiple data-gathering and analytic approaches. Recent efforts have delineated several issues to be considered in survey design for minority populations: community collaboration; problem conceptualization; application of the presumed model of behavioral change; and dialect and format of delivery. This paper describes the process of creating a culturally and developmentally appropriate, theoretically grounded instrument for use in monitoring the impact of an AIDS educational intervention on the behavior and health outcomes of urban African-American pre-adolescents and early adolescents. Three phases of research were involved: preliminary (and ongoing) ethnographic research including extensive participant observation, as well as, focus group and individual interviews with 65 youths; construction and testing of the preliminary instrument involving two waves of pilot testing (N1 = 57; N2 = 45); and, finalization of the instrument including reliability testing and assessment of tool constructs and selection of the mode of delivery (involving 2 additional waves of pilot testing (N3 = 91; N4 = 351). The essential role played by the community in all phases of instrument development is underscored.
Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T
The current study examined the role of heavy alcohol use in the developmental process of desistance in physical dating aggression during adolescence. Using longitudinal data spanning grades 8 through 12 we tested the hypotheses that (a) higher levels of early heavy alcohol use would be associated with decreased deceleration from dating aggression during late adolescence and (b) higher levels of heavy alcohol use during time-points in late adolescence would be contemporaneously associated with elevated levels of dating aggression at those same time points. Contrary to expectations, findings indicate that the effects of both early and continuing heavy alcohol use on dating aggression were strong during early adolescence but tended to diminish over time. Unexpectedly, the contemporaneous effects of alcohol use on dating aggression were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Implications for prevention and for understanding developmental relations between the two behaviors are discussed.
Bailey, J.M.; Levin, E.D.
BACKGROUND FireMaster® 550 (FM 550) is the second most commonly used flame retardant (FR) product in consumer goods and has been detected in household dust samples. However, neurobehavioral effects associated with exposure have not been characterized in detail. We investigated the behavioral effects of FM 550 in zebrafish to facilitate the integration of the cellular and molecular effects of FM 550 with its behavioral consequences. The effects of developmental FM 550 exposure on zebrafish larvae swimming shortly after the end of exposure as well as the persisting effects of this exposure on adolescent behavior were studied. In addition, the acute effects of FM 550 on behavior with exposure during adolescence in zebrafish were studied. METHODS Developmental exposure to 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1 mg/L of FM 550 via immersion spanned 0–5 days post fertilization, with larval testing on day 6 and adolescent testing on days 40–45. Acute adolescent (45 dpf) exposure was to 0, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/L of FM 550 via immersion, for 24 hrs, with testing 2 hr or 1 week later. The vehicle condition was colony tank water with .0004% (developmental) or .0012% (adolescent) DMSO. Zebrafish behavior was characterized across several domains including learning, social affiliation, sensorimotor function, predator escape, and novel environment exploration. RESULTS Persisting effects of developmental FM 550 exposure included a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in social behavior among all dose groups. Acute FM550 exposure during adolescence caused hypoactivity and reduced social behavior (p’s < 0.05) when the fish were tested 2 hr after exposure. These effects were attenuated at the 1 week post exposure testing point. DISCUSSION Taken together, these data indicate that FM 550 may cause persisting neurobehavioral alterations to social behavior in the absence of perturbations along other behavioral domains and that developmental exposure is more costly to the organism than acute adolescent exposure
Background Maternal educational attainment has been associated with birth outcomes among adult mothers. However, limited research explores whether academic performance and educational aspiration influence birth outcomes among adolescent mothers. Methods Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used. Adolescent girls whose first pregnancy occurred after Wave I, during their adolescence, and ended with a singleton live birth were included. Adolescents’ grade point average (GPA), experience of ever skipping a grade and ever repeating a grade, and their aspiration to attend college were examined as predictors of birth outcomes (birthweight and gestational age; n = 763). Univariate statistics, bivariate analyses and multivariable models were run stratified on race using survey procedures. Results Among Black adolescents, those who ever skipped a grade had higher offspring’s birthweight. Among non-Black adolescents, ever skipping a grade and higher educational aspiration were associated with higher offspring’s birthweight; ever skipping a grade was also associated with higher gestational age. GPA was not statistically significantly associated with either birth outcome. The addition of smoking during pregnancy and prenatal care visit into the multivariable models did not change these associations. Conclusions Some indicators of higher academic performance and aspiration are associated with better birth outcomes among adolescents. Investing in improving educational opportunities may improve birth outcomes among teenage mothers. PMID:24422664
Morón-Nozaleda, María Goretti; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Rodríguez-Toscano, Elisa; Arango, Celso; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; de la Serna, Elena; Espliego, Ana; Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Romero, Soledad; Baeza, Immaculada; Sugranyes, Gisela; Moreno, Carmen; Moreno, Dolores
The aim of this is to describe psychopathology, functioning and symptom dimensions accounting for subthreshold manifestations and developmental status in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder ("high-risk offspring"). The study population comprised 90 high-risk offspring (HR-offspring) and 107 offspring of community control parents (CC-offspring). Direct clinical observations and parental and offspring reports based on selected standardized clinical scales were used to assess offspring threshold and subthreshold diagnoses, symptoms and functioning. All outcomes were compared between the whole HR-offspring and CC-offspring samples and then by developmental status. After controlling for potential confounders, HR-offspring showed significantly poorer adjustment for childhood (r = 0.18, p = 0.014) and adolescence (r = 0.21, p = 0.048) than CC-offspring, as well as more emotional problems (r = 0.24, p = 0.001) and higher depression scores (r = 0.16, p = 0.021). As for differences in lifetime categorical diagnoses (threshold and subthreshold) between HR-offspring and CC-offspring, the prevalence of disruptive disorders was higher in pre-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 12.78 [1.45-112.42]), while prevalence of mood disorders was higher in post-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 3.39 [1.14-10.06]). Post-pubertal HR-offspring presented more prodromal (r = 0.40, p = 0.001), negative (r = 0.38, p = 0.002), manic (r = 0.22, p = 0.035) and depressive (r = 0.23, p = 0.015) symptoms than pre-pubertal HR-offspring, as well as more peer relationship problems (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), poorer childhood adjustment (r = 0.22, p = 0.044) and worse current psychosocial functioning (r = 0.27, p = 0.04). Externalizing psychopathology is more prevalent in pre-pubertal HR-offspring, while depressive and prodromal symptoms leading to functional impairment are more prominent in post-pubertal HR-offspring. Developmental approaches and
Doren, Bonnie; Gau, Jeff M.; Lindstrom, Lauren E.
A secondary analysis was conducted of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 to examine (a) main effects of parents' school and postschool outcome expectations on the actual outcomes achieved, (b) demographic moderators, and (c) adolescent autonomy as a mediator of parent expectations and outcomes. Parent expectations were found to…
Simmons, Jessica L; Whelan, James P; Meyers, Andrew W; Wickwire, Emerson M
Most high school adolescents have reported past year gambling, and males gamble more frequently and problematically than females. Ethnic minority adolescents appear to be gambling at a higher rate than Caucasian adolescents. There is evidence indicating that adolescent gambling outcome expectancies are correlated with gambling behavior, but limited evidence that this relation differs by gender. In the present study gender was evaluated as a moderator in the relation between gambling outcome expectancies and gambling behaviors in an African-American high school sample. Males gambled more frequently, gambled more problematically and held more positive gambling outcome expectancies than females. Gender was found to moderate the relations between gambling frequency and the expectations of material gain, affect, self-evaluation and parental approval. Gender also moderated the relations between gambling problems and expectations of affect and self-evaluation. These findings should inform future adolescent gambling prevention and intervention programs.
Lee, Yoona; Liu, Xiaodong; Watson, Malcolm W
This longitudinal study investigated the timing effect of bullying on developmental trajectories of externalizing behaviors from middle childhood to adolescence. We focused on the relation of (a) only an early experience of bullying (i.e., desisters) to subsequent externalizing behaviors in adolescence and (b) only a late experience of bullying (i.e., late-onsetters) to the concurrent externalizing behaviors in adolescence. Their trajectories of externalizing behaviors were compared with the persisters and to the non-experience group. Individual growth curve modeling was conducted using 440 child-mother dyads from the Springfield Child Development Project, a community-representative, longitudinal study over a 6-year period that included four time interviews. We modeled the changes in child aggression and delinquency from 7 to 19 years of age as a function of bully status group. Results indicated that the levels of aggression and delinquency for the desisters decreased over time (with the cessation of bullying in adolescence) and were significantly lower than those of the persisters and similar to those of the non-involved group at the end of the trajectory (cessation effect). For the late-onsetters, the level of delinquency increased over time (with the onset of bullying behaviors in adolescence) and were significantly higher than those of the non-involved group and similar to those of the persisters at the end of the trajectory (onset effect). The aggression for the late-onsetters, however, did not support the onset effect. This study implies that we need to pay more attention to intervening for late-onset.
Ciechanski, Patrick; Zewdie, Ephrem; Kirton, Adam
Transcallosal fibers facilitate interhemispheric networks involved in motor tasks. Despite their clinical relevance, interhemispheric motor control systems have not been completely defined in the developing brain. The objective of this study was to examine the developmental profile of transcallosal inhibition in healthy children and adolescents. Nineteen typically-developing right-handed participants were recruited. Two transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms assessed transcallosal inhibition: ipsilateral silent periods (iSP) and paired-pulse interhemispheric inhibition (IHI). TMS was applied to the motor hotspot of the first dorsal interosseous muscle. Resting motor threshold (RMT), iSP latency, duration and suppression strength, and paired-pulse IHI were measured from both hemispheres. The Purdue Pegboard Test assessed unimanual motor function. Hemispheric differences were evident for RMT and iSP latency and suppression strength, where the left hemisphere had a lower RMT, prolonged latency and greater suppression strength. iSP duration showed hemispheric symmetry. RMT and iSP latency decreased with age, whereas iSP suppression strength increased. Females showed shorter iSP latency. Children typically displayed IHI, although hemispheric differences were observed. iSP suppression strength was uniquely associated with IHI within individuals. iSP duration correlated with motor performance. TMS can characterize transcallosal inhibition in normal children and adolescents with effects of age, directionality, gender, and motor performance. Establishing this developmental profile of interhemispheric interactions will advance understanding and therapeutic strategies for pediatric motor disorders such as cerebral palsy.
Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ng, Johan Yau Yin; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Vlachopoulos, Symeon; Katartzi, Ermioni S; Nikitaras, Nikitas
Predictors and outcomes of weight concerns in pre-adolescent and adolescent girls are well known, but few models have incorporated concerns reported directly by mothers as a predictor, and both eating and exercise outcomes. Using questionnaires, a comprehensive model of 232 pre-adolescent and early adolescent girls' weight concerns, eating restraint, and exercise behavior was tested. Structural equation modeling showed that daughters' weight concerns were predicted primarily by their perceptions of their mothers' concerns about the daughters' weight, as well as by daughters' BMI, appearance conversations with friends, and perceived media pressure. Mothers' concerns with their daughters' weight were indirectly associated with daughters' own concerns, via the daughters' perceptions of their mothers' concerns. Daughters' concerns with their weight were a strong predictor of eating restraint, but not exercise behavior.
Li, Abby A.; Lowe, Kimberly A.; McIntosh, Laura J.; Mink, Pamela J.
Developmental neurobehavioral outcomes attributed to exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) obtained from epidemiologic and animal studies published before June 2010 were reviewed for risk assessment purposes. For epidemiological studies, this review considered (1) overall strength of study design, (2) specificity of CPF exposure biomarkers, (3) potential for bias, and (4) Hill guidelines for causal inference. In the case of animal studies, this review focused on evaluating the consistency of outcomes for developmental neurobehavioral endpoints from in vivo mammalian studies that exposed dams and/or offspring to CPF prior to weaning. Developmental neuropharmacologic and neuropathologic outcomes were also evaluated. Experimental design and methods were examined as part of the weight of evidence. There was insufficient evidence that human developmental exposures to CPF produce adverse neurobehavioral effects in infants and children across different cohort studies that may be relevant to CPF exposure. In animals, few behavioral parameters were affected following gestational exposures to 1 mg/kg-d but were not consistently reported by different laboratories. For postnatal exposures, behavioral effects found in more than one study at 1 mg/kg-d were decreased errors on a radial arm maze in female rats and increased errors in males dosed subcutaneously from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 4. A similar finding was seen in rats exposed orally from PND 1 to 21 with incremental dose levels of 1, 2, and 4 mg/kg-d, but not in rats dosed with constant dose level of 1 mg/kg-d. Neurodevelopmental behavioral, pharmacological, and morphologic effects occurred at doses that produced significant brain or red blood cell acetylcholinesterase inhibition in dams or offspring. PMID:22401178
Padilla-Walker, Laura M
The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of the appropriateness of maternal discipline across social domains and how domain-appropriateness was related to adolescents' prosocial and antisocial behaviors via adolescents' personal prosocial values. A total of 133 adolescents (54% girls; mean age = 16.23 years, SD = 1.27) completed questionnaires in their classrooms at school. Results suggest that adolescents perceived mothers as responding differently to their misbehavior and perceived different maternal discipline as appropriate as a function of the domain into which the misbehavior fit. Findings also suggest that domain-appropriateness of maternal discipline was related to adolescent outcomes (directly, and indirectly via personal values), suggesting the importance of domain-appropriate maternal discipline during adolescence.
Scales, Peter C.; Foster, Karen C; Mannes, Marc; Horst, Megan A; Pinto, Kristina C; Rutherford, Audra
This article reports the connections among urban students' school-business partnership experiences, developmental assets or strengths they report in their lives, and positive developmental outcomes. Surveys were completed by 429 9th-to 12th-grade Hispanic and African American students, mostly low income in an inner-city high school, and 76…
Lock, James; Couturier, Jennifer; Agras, W. Stewart
Objective: To describe the relative effectiveness of a short versus long course of family-based therapy (FBT) for adolescent anorexia nervosa at long-term follow-up. Method: This study used clinical and structured interviews to assess psychological and psychosocial outcomes of adolescents (ages 12-18 years at baseline) who were previously treated…
Coneus, Katja; Laucht, Manfred
This paper investigates the impact of early noncognitive skills on social outcomes in adolescence. The child's attention span, approach, prevailing mood and distractibility in early childhood may be crucial predictors for school achievements, health risk behavior, delinquency and autonomy as adolescent. We investigate this issue using a…
Grella, Christine E.; Joshi, Vandana; Hser, Yih-Ing
This study examined the relationship between treatment processes and posttreatment abstinence using data from the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Studies for Adolescents (N = 810), with a focus on differences between adolescents with and without a comorbid mental disorder. The majority of the sample (62%) was diagnosed with at least one co-occurring…
Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Stitzer, Maxine A.; Clemmey, Philip; Kolodner, Ken; Fishman, Marc J.
Objective: To characterize baseline depressive symptoms among substance-abusing adolescents and determine their association with post residential treatment substance use outcomes. Method: In total, 153 adolescents (mean age 6.6 years, plus or minus 0.11) entering residential treatment were assessed at intake and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Beck…
Mellin, Elizabeth Anne
In an attempt of fill the gap in theoretical and empirical information available for treatment of adolescent depression, interpersonal therapy for adolescents (IPT-A) was developed. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a brief, time-limited therapy originally developed for use with adults diagnosed with major depression. Several outcome studies…
Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista
Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…
Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verte, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid
This study investigates the impact of several types of exposure to terror attacks on adolescents' psychological outcomes in the context of ongoing terror. A total of 913 adolescents (51 girls) aged 12 to 18 years (12-13.6 = 33%; 13.7-15.6 = 38%; 15.7-18 = 28%) took part in the study. Detailed data were collected concerning objective, subjective…
Gervan, Shannon; Granic, Isabela; Solomon, Tracy; Blokland, Kirsten; Ferguson, Bruce
The association between paternal involvement in therapy, adolescent outcomes and maternal depression was examined within the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an empirically supported, family- and community-based treatment for antisocial adolescents. Ninety-nine families were recruited from five mental health agencies providing MST. We…
Shelef, Karni; Diamond, Gary M.; Diamond, Guy S.; Liddle, Howard A.
In this study, the authors examined the relation between adolescent and parent therapeutic alliances and treatment outcome among 65 substance-abusing adolescents receiving multidimensional family therapy. Observer ratings of parent alliance predicted premature termination from treatment. Observer ratings, but not self-report, of adolescent…
There is a dearth of knowledge about the health outcomes of resilience during adolescence, making the study of health-related outcomes of resilience important. The purpose of this study was to develop a theory-based just-identified model and to test the direct and indirect effects of resilience on hope, well-being, and health-promoting lifestyle in middle adolescents. The study used a correlational design. The final sample consisted of 311 middle adolescents, aged 15 to 17, who were recruited from a public high school. Participants responded to instrument packets in classroom settings. The structural equation model was tested with the LISREL 8.80 software program. All seven hypotheses were supported at a statistically significant level (p < .001). The results supported the theoretical propositions and the previous empirical findings that were used to create the theoretical model of health-related outcomes of resilience. Alternate models of outcomes of resilience need to be tested on adolescents.
Shtasel-Gottlieb, Zoë; Palakshappa, Deepak; Yang, Fanyu; Goodman, Elizabeth
Purpose To explore the association between developmental assets (characteristics, experiences, and relationships that shape healthy development) and food insecurity among adolescents from a low-income, urban community. Methods This mixed methods study occurred in two phases. In Phase 1, using a census approach, 2350 6-12th graders from the public school district completed an anonymous survey that included the Development Assets Profile (DAP), youth self-report form of the Core Food Security Module, and demographic questions. Logistic and multinomial regression analyses determined independent associations between developmental assets and food security adjusting for demographics. In Phase 2, 20 adult key informant interviews and four semi-structured student focus groups were performed to explain findings from Phase 1. Results On average, DAP scores were consistent with national norms. Food insecurity was prevalent; 14.9% reported low food security and 8.6% very low food security (VLFS). Logistic regression revealed that higher DAP was associated with lower odds of food insecurity (OR=.96, 95% CI=.95-.97); family assets drove this association(OR=.93, 95% CI=.91-.95). In multinomial regression modeling, these associations persisted and, paradoxically, higher community assets were also associated with VLFS (ORVLFS=1.08, 95% CI=1.04-1.13). Qualitative analyses suggested that greater need among VLFS youth led to increased connections to community resources despite barriers to access such as stigma, home instability, and cultural differences. Conclusion Food insecurity is a pervasive problem among adolescents from low-income communities and is associated with lower developmental assets, particularly family assets. That community assets were higher among VLFS youth underscores the importance of community-level resources in struggling areas. PMID:25620305
Van Lissa, Caspar J; Hawk, Skyler T; Meeus, Wim H J
The current study investigated whether manipulations of affective and cognitive empathy have differential effects on observed behavior and self-reported outcomes in adolescent-mother conflict discussions. We further examined how these situational empathy inductions interact with preexisting empathic dispositions. To promote ecological validity, we conducted home visits to study conflict discussions about real disagreements in adolescent-mother relationships. We explored the roles of sex, age, and maternal support and power as covariates and moderators. Results indicated that the affective empathy manipulation had no significant effects on behavior, although a trend in the hypothesized direction suggested that affective empathy might promote active problem solving. The cognitive empathy manipulation led to lower conflict escalation and promoted other-oriented listening for adolescents low in dispositional cognitive empathy. State-trait interactions indicated that the empathy manipulations had significant effects on self-reported outcomes for adolescents lower in dispositional empathic concern. For these adolescents, both manipulations promoted outcome satisfaction, but only the cognitive manipulation promoted perceived fairness. This suggests that cognitive empathy, in particular, allows adolescents to distance themselves from the emotional heat of a conflict and listen to mothers' point of view, leading to outcomes perceived as both satisfying and fair. These findings are relevant for interventions and clinicians because they demonstrate unique effects of promoting affective versus cognitive empathy. Because even these minimal manipulations promoted significant effects on observed behavior and self-reported outcomes, particularly for low-empathy adolescents, stronger structural interventions are likely to have marked benefits.
Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R; Rose, Roderick A
The current study examined multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of rural adolescents. Using ecological and social capital theories, we explored the impact of positive and negative proximal processes, social capital, and contextual characteristics (i.e., school and neighborhood) on adolescent aggression. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, which is a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle and high school students from 40 public schools in two rural, low income counties in North Carolina. A three-level HLM model (N = 4,056 at Wave 1, 4,251 at Wave 2, and 4,256 at Wave 3) was estimated to predict factors affecting the change trajectories of aggression. Results indicated that negative proximal processes in the form of parent-adolescent conflict, friend rejection, peer pressure, delinquent friends, and school hassles were significant predictors of aggression. In addition, social capital in the form of ethnic identity, religious orientation, and school satisfaction served as buffers against aggression. Negative proximal processes were more salient predictors than positive proximal processes. School and neighborhood characteristics had a minimal impact on aggression. Overall, rates of aggression did not change significantly over the 3-year study window. Findings highlight the need to intervene in order to decrease negative interactions in the peer and parent domains.
Negriff, Sonya; Elizabeth, J. Susman; Trickett, Penelope K.
There is strong evidence that early pubertal timing is associated with adolescent problem behaviors. However, there has been limited investigation of the mechanisms or developmental relationships. The present study examined longitudinal models incorporating pubertal timing, delinquency, and sexual activity in a sample of 454 adolescents (9–13 years old at enrollment; 47% females). Participants were seen for three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Characteristics of friendship networks (older friends, male friends, older male friends) were examined as mediators. Structural equation modeling was used to test these associations as well as temporal relationships between sexual activity and delinquency. Results showed that early pubertal timing at Time 1 was related to more sexual activity at Time 2, which was related to higher delinquency at Time 3, a trend mediation effect. None of the friendship variables mediated these associations. Gender or maltreatment status did not moderate the meditational pathways. The results also supported the temporal sequence of sexual activity preceding increases in delinquency. These findings reveal that early maturing adolescents may actively seek out opportunities to engage in sexual activity which appears to be risk for subsequent delinquency. PMID:21191640
Malter Cohen, M; Tottenham, N; Casey, B J
Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, with onset marked by puberty and the offset by relative independence from parents. Across species, it is a time of incredible change that carries increased risks and rewards. The ability of the individual to respond adequately to the mental, physical and emotional stresses of life during this time is a function of both their early environment and their present state. In this article, we focus on the effects that acute threat and chronic stress have on the brain and behavior in humans and rodents. First, we highlight developmental changes in frontolimbic function as healthy individuals transition into and out of adolescence. Second, we examine genetic factors that may enhance susceptibility to stress in one individual over another using translation from genetic mouse models to human neuroimaging. Third, we examine how the timing and nature of stress varies in its impact on brain and behavior. These findings are discussed in the context of implications for adolescent mental health and illness.
Slane, Jennifer D.; Klump, Kelly L.; McGue, Matthew; Iacono, William G.
Objective Research examining changes in eating disorder symptoms across adolescence suggests an increase in disordered eating from early to late adolescence. However, relevant studies have largely been cross-sectional in nature and most have not examined the changes in the attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders (e.g., weight concerns). This longitudinal study aimed to address gaps in the available data by examining the developmental trajectories of disordered eating in females from preadolescence into young adulthood. Method Participants were 745 same-sex female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study. Disordered eating was assessed using the Total Score, Body Dissatisfaction subscale, Weight Preoccupation subscale, and a combined Binge Eating and Compensatory Behavior subscale from the Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey assessed at the ages of 11, 14, 18, 21, and 25. Several latent growth models were fit to the data to identify the trajectory that most accurately captures the changes in disordered eating symptoms from 11 to 25 years. Results The best-fitting models for overall levels of disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, and weight preoccupation showed an increase in from 11 through 25 years. In contrast, bulimic behaviors increased to age of 18 and then stabilized to age of 25. Discussion The findings expanded upon extant research by investigating longitudinal, symptom specific, within-person changes and showing an increase in cognitive symptoms into young adulthood and the stability of disordered eating behaviors past late adolescence. PMID:24995824
Qin, Yanyun; Zhou, Ya; Fan, Fang; Chen, Shijian; Huang, Rong; Cai, Rouna; Peng, Ting
This longitudinal study examined the developmental trajectories of prosocial behavior and related predictors among adolescents exposed to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. At 6-, 18-, and 30-months postearthquake, we followed a sample of 1,573 adolescents. Self-report measures were used to assess earthquake exposure, postearthquake negative life events, prosocial behavior, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, social support, and coping style. Data were analyzed using growth mixture modeling and multinomial logistic regressions. Four trajectories of postearthquake prosocial behavior were identified in the sample: (a) high/enhancing (35.0%), (b) high/stable (29.4%), (c) low/declining (33.6%), and (d) low/steeply declining (2.0%). Female gender, more social support, and greater positive coping were significant factors related to a higher probability of developing the high/enhancing trajectory. These findings may be helpful for us to identify adolescents with poor prosocial behavior after exposure to earthquakes so as to provide them with appropriate intervention.
Yang, Yaling; Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Narr, Katherine L.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Hafzalla, George; Raine, Adrian; Thompson, Paul M.
Psychopathy is a clinical condition characterized by a failure in normal social interaction and morality. Recent studies have begun to reveal brain structural abnormalities associated with psychopathic tendencies in children. However, little is known about whether variations in brain morphology are linked to the developmental trajectory of psychopathic traits over time. In this study, structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data from 108 14-year-old adolescents with no history of substance abuse (54 males and 54 females) were examined to detect cortical thickness variations associated with psychopathic traits and individual rates of change in psychopathic traits from ages 9 to 18. We found cortical thickness abnormalities to correlate with psychopathic traits both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Specifically, at age 14, higher psychopathic scores were correlated with thinner cortex in the middle frontal gyrus, particularly in females, and thicker cortex in the superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus, particularly in males. Longitudinally, individual rates of change in psychopathic tendency over time were correlated with thicker cortex in the superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and posterior cingulate gyrus, particularly in males. Findings suggest that abnormal cortical thickness may reflect a delay in brain maturation, resulting in disturbances in frontal and temporal functioning such as impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and emotional dysregulation in adolescents. Thus, findings provide initial evidence supporting that abnormal cortical thickness may serve as a biomarker for the development of psychopathic propensity in adolescents. PMID:26017779
The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) conducted an evaluation of the developmental effects and pregnancy outcomes associated with cancer chemotherapy use during pregnancy in humans. The final NTP monograph was completed in May 2013 (available at http:// ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/36495). The incidence of cancer during pregnancy has been reported to occur from 17 to 100 per 100,000 pregnant women. Chemotherapy is a common treatment for cancer; however, most chemotherapy agents are classified as known or suspected human teratogens. Cancer chemotherapy use during pregnancy was selected for evaluation by the NTP because of the: (1) paucity of comprehensive reviews on the pregnancy outcomes following cancer chemotherapy use during pregnancy in humans, including the integration of the developmental animal toxicology literature with the observational studies in humans, and (2) growing public interest in the developmental effects of chemotherapy on offspring exposed to cancer chemotherapy during gestation due to the expected incidence of cancer diagnosed during pregnancy as women delay pregnancy to later ages. Of the approximately 110 cancer chemotherapeutic agents currently in use, the NTP monograph includes data on 56 agents used during 1,261 pregnancies for which pregnancy outcomes were documented. Overall, the NTP evaluation found that treatment with chemotherapy for cancer appeared to be associated with: (1) a higher rate of major malformations following exposure during the first trimester compared to exposure in the second and/or third trimester; (2) an increase the rate of stillbirth following exposure in the second and/ or third trimester; abnormally low levels of amniotic fluid (primarily attributable to Trastuzumab); and (3), also data are insufficient, impaired fetal growth and myelosuppression. Treatment with chemotherapy for cancer during pregnancy did not appear to increase spontaneous preterm birth, or impair
Fitch, R Holy; Alexander, Michelle L; Threlkeld, Steven W
Most researchers in the field of neural plasticity are familiar with the "Kennard Principle," which purports a positive relationship between age at brain injury and severity of subsequent deficits (plateauing in adulthood). As an example, a child with left hemispherectomy can recover seemingly normal language, while an adult with focal injury to sub-regions of left temporal and/or frontal cortex can suffer dramatic and permanent language loss. Here we present data regarding the impact of early brain injury in rat models as a function of type and timing, measuring long-term behavioral outcomes via auditory discrimination tasks varying in temporal demand. These tasks were created to model (in rodents) aspects of human sensory processing that may correlate-both developmentally and functionally-with typical and atypical language. We found that bilateral focal lesions to the cortical plate in rats during active neuronal migration led to worse auditory outcomes than comparable lesions induced after cortical migration was complete. Conversely, unilateral hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injuries (similar to those seen in premature infants and term infants with birth complications) led to permanent auditory processing deficits when induced at a neurodevelopmental point comparable to human "term," but only transient deficits (undetectable in adulthood) when induced in a "preterm" window. Convergent evidence suggests that regardless of when or how disruption of early neural development occurs, the consequences may be particularly deleterious to rapid auditory processing (RAP) outcomes when they trigger developmental alterations that extend into subcortical structures (i.e., lower sensory processing stations). Collective findings hold implications for the study of behavioral outcomes following early brain injury as well as genetic/environmental disruption, and are relevant to our understanding of the neurologic risk factors underlying developmental language disability in human
Luyckx, Koen; Teppers, Eveline; Klimstra, Theo A; Rassart, Jessica
Personality traits are hypothesized to be among the most important factors contributing to individual differences in identity development. However, longitudinal studies linking Big Five personality traits to contemporary identity models (in which multiple exploration and commitment processes are distinguished) are largely lacking. To gain more insight in the directionality of effect and the developmental interdependence of the Big Five and identity processes as forwarded in multilayered personality models, the present study assessed personality and identity in 1,037 adolescents 4 times over a period of 3 years. First, using cross-lagged path analysis, Big Five traits emerged as consistent predictors of identity exploration processes, whereas only one significant path from identity exploration to the Big Five was found. Second, using latent class growth analysis, 3 Big Five trajectory classes were identified, resembling the distinctions typically made between resilients, overcontrollers, and undercontrollers. These classes were characterized by different initial levels and (to a lesser extent) rates of change in commitment and exploration processes. In sum, important developmental associations linking personality traits to identity processes were uncovered, emphasizing the potential role of personality traits in identity development. Developmental implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Kaplow, Julie B; Layne, Christopher M; Pynoos, Robert S; Cohen, Judith A; Lieberman, Alicia
Two bereavement-related disorders are proposed for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V): Adjustment Disorder Related to Bereavement, to be located in the main body of the text as an official diagnostic entity; and Bereavement-Related Disorder, including a Traumatic Death Specifier, to be located in the Appendix as an invitation for further research. These diagnoses currently do not include developmentally informed criteria, despite the importance of developmental processes in the ways children and adolescents grieve. In this article, we draw upon a selective review of the empirical literature and expert clinical knowledge to recommend developmentally informed modifications and specifiers of the proposed criteria for both bereavement disorders and strategies to improve future research. This article is derived from an invited report submitted to the DSM-V Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Trauma, and Dissociative Disorders Sub-Work Group, and suggested modifications have received preliminary approval to be incorporated into the DSM-V at the time of this writing. Adoption of these proposals will have far-reaching consequences, given that DSM-V criteria will influence both critical treatment choices for bereaved youth and the next generation of research studies.
Whitmore, Ani S; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose A
This exploratory study examined the potential secondary outcome of an early augmented language intervention that incorporates speech-generating devices (SGD) on motor skill use for children with developmental delays. The data presented are from a longitudinal study by Romski and colleagues. Toddlers in the augmented language interventions were either required (Augmented Communication-Output; AC-O) or not required (Augmented Communication-Input; AC-I) to use the SGD to produce an augmented word. Three standardized assessments and five event-based coding schemes measured the participants' language abilities and motor skills. Toddlers in the AC-O intervention used more developmentally appropriate motor movements and became more accurate when using the SGD to communicate than toddlers in the AC-I intervention. AAC strategies, interventionist/parent support, motor learning opportunities, and physical feedback may all contribute to this secondary benefit of AAC interventions that use devices.
Developmental toxicology encompasses the study of developmental exposures, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms, pathogenesis, and outcomes potentially leading to adverse health effects. Manifestations of developmental toxicity include structural malformations, growth retardation, functi...
Carrillo, Maria; Ricci, Lesley A.; Melloni, Richard H.
In the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) glutamate activity has been implicated in the modulation of adolescent anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS)-induced aggression. The current study investigated the time course of adolescent AAS-induced neurodevelopmental and withdrawal effects on the glutamatergic system and examined whether these changes paralleled those of adolescent AAS-induced aggression. Glutamate activity in brain areas comprising the aggression circuit in hamsters and aggression were examined following 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of AAS treatment or 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following the cessation of AAS exposure. In these studies glutamate activity was examined using vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2). The onset of aggression was observed following 2 weeks exposure to AAS and continued to increase showing maximal aggression levels after 4 weeks of AAS treatment. This aggressive phenotype was detected after 2 weeks of withdrawal from AAS. The time-course of AAS-induced changes in latero anterior hypothalamus (LAH)-VGLUT2 closely paralleled increases in aggression. Increases in LAH-VGLUT2 were first detected in animals exposed to AAS for 2 weeks and were maintained up to 3 weeks following the cessation of AAS treatment. AAS treatment also produced developmental and long-term alterations in VGLUT2 expression within other aggression areas. However, AAS-induced changes in glutamate activity within these regions did not coincide with changes in aggression. Together, these data indicate that adolescent AAS treatment leads to alterations in the glutamatergic system in brain areas implicated in aggression control, yet only alterations in LAH-glutamate parallel the time course of AAS-induced changes in the aggressive phenotype. PMID:21500881
Carrillo, Maria; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H
In the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) glutamate activity has been implicated in the modulation of adolescent anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS)-induced aggression. The current study investigated the time course of adolescent AAS-induced neurodevelopmental and withdrawal effects on the glutamatergic system and examined whether these changes paralleled those of adolescent AAS-induced aggression. Glutamate activity in brain areas comprising the aggression circuit in hamsters and aggression levels were examined following 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of AAS treatment or 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks following the cessation of AAS exposure. In these studies glutamate activity was examined using vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2). The onset of aggression was observed following 2 weeks exposure to AAS and continued to increase showing maximal aggression levels after 4 weeks of AAS treatment. This aggressive phenotype was detected after 2 weeks of withdrawal from AAS. The time-course of AAS-induced changes in latero-anterior hypothalamus (LAH)-VGLUT2 closely paralleled increases in aggression. Increases in LAH-VGLUT2 were first detected in animals exposed to AAS for 2 weeks and were maintained up to 3 weeks following the cessation of AAS treatment. AAS treatment also produced developmental and long-term alterations in VGLUT2 expression within other aggression areas. However, AAS-induced changes in glutamate activity within these regions did not coincide with changes in aggression. Together, these data indicate that adolescent AAS treatment leads to alterations in the glutamatergic system in brain areas implicated in aggression control, yet only alterations in LAH-glutamate parallel the time course of AAS-induced changes in the aggressive phenotype.
Quint, Elisabeth H
Most obstetrician-gynecologists will encounter adolescents with disabilities in their practice, because developmental and physical disabilities are common in young patients (8.4%). Reproductive health issues such as puberty, sexuality, and menstruation can be more complicated for teenagers with disabilities and their families as a result of concerns surrounding menstrual hygiene, abuse risk, vulnerability, changes in seizure pattern, and altered mood. Teenagers with disabilities have gynecologic health care needs similar to those of their peers as well as unique needs related to their physical and cognitive issues. The gynecologic health visit for a teenager with disabilities should include an evaluation of the teenager's reproductive knowledge as well as an assessment of her abuse and coercion risk and her ability to consent to sexual activity. The menstrual history is focused on the effects of menstrual cycles on her daily life. Diagnostic testing is not different from other adolescents. Hormonal treatment is often requested by the patient and her family to alleviate abnormal bleeding, cyclic mood changes, dysmenorrhea, or a combination of these, to assist with menstrual hygiene, and to provide contraception. Menstrual manipulation can be used to induce complete amenorrhea, regulate cycles, or decrease regular menstrual flow. However, treatment risks and side effects may have a different effect on the lives of these adolescents. The comfort level of health care providers to respond to the special concerns of adolescents with disabilities is low, and several barriers exist. This review addresses the complex issues of puberty, menstruation, sexuality, abuse, and safety highlighting the distinctive needs of this population. The options and decisions around menstrual manipulation are highlighted in detail.
Ungar, Michael; Theron, Linda; Didkowsky, Nora
An exploratory qualitative study of 16 disadvantaged youth in 5 countries suggests that making both precocious and developmentally appropriate contributions to their families' well-being is advantageous to adolescents coping with chronic adversity. All youth were known to be doing well (as identified by community advisors) and showed patterns of…
This study compared the effectiveness of short-term developmental group counseling applying Gestalt-play versus cognitive-verbal approaches with Taiwanese adolescents. On a measure of behavioral and emotional strengths, teachers reported significant changes in students' overall behavioral and emotional strengths measured via total scores. Specific…
Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Maiano, Christophe; Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W.; Morizot, Julien; Janosz, Michel
Substantively, this study investigates potential heterogeneity in the developmental trajectories of anxiety in adolescence. Methodologically, this study demonstrates the usefulness of general growth mixture analysis (GGMA) in addressing these issues and illustrates the impact of untested invariance assumptions on substantive interpretations. This…
Hellings, Jessica A.; Cardona, Alicia M.; Schroeder, Stephen R.
The objective of this study was to examine long-term adverse events of risperidone in 19 children, adolescents, and adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and intellectual disability, continuing risperidone for a mean of 186.5 weeks, following a 46-week risperidone study. Nineteen individuals continued long-term follow-up after our…
Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.
The current study examined the role of heavy alcohol use in the developmental process of desistance in physical dating aggression during adolescence. Using longitudinal data spanning grades 8 through 12 we tested the hypotheses that (a) higher levels of early heavy alcohol use would be associated with decreased deceleration from dating aggression…
Kang, Ezer; Mellins, Claude Ann; Ng, Warren Yiu Kee; Robinson, Lisa-Gaye; Abrams, Elaine J.
Perinatal HIV infection in the US continues to evolve from a fatal pediatric illness to a chronic medical condition of childhood and adolescence. Although navigating this period is influenced by multi-leveled deprivations commonly experienced by low-income minority families, HIV alters the timing and experience of developmental milestones for many…
Volz, Jennifer L. Resetar; Cook, Clayton R.
This study examines developmental, clinical, gender, and ethnic group differences in preference in residentially placed children and adolescents. In addition, this study considers whether residentially placed youth prefer stimuli currently being used as rewards as part of a campuswide token economy system and whether youth would identify preferred…
Simmonds, Daniel J; Hallquist, Michael N; Asato, Miya; Luna, Beatriz
White matter (WM) continues to mature through adolescence in parallel with gains in cognitive ability. To date, developmental changes in human WM microstructure have been inferred using analyses of cross-sectional or two time-point follow-up studies, limiting our understanding of individual developmental trajectories. The aims of the present longitudinal study were to characterize the timing of WM growth and investigate how sex and behavior are associated with different developmental trajectories. We utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 128 individuals aged 8-28, who received annual scans for up to 5 years and completed motor and cognitive tasks. Flexible nonlinear growth curves indicated a hierarchical pattern of WM development. By late childhood, posterior cortical-subcortical connections were similar to adults. During adolescence, WM microstructure reached adult levels, including frontocortical, frontosubcortical and cerebellar connections. Later to mature in adulthood were major corticolimbic association tracts and connections at terminal gray matter sites in cortical and basal ganglia regions. These patterns may reflect adolescent maturation of frontal connectivity supporting cognitive abilities, particularly the protracted refinement of corticolimbic connectivity underlying cognition-emotion interactions. Sex and behavior also played a large role. Males showed continuous WM growth from childhood through early adulthood, whereas females mainly showed growth during mid-adolescence. Further, earlier WM growth in adolescence was associated with faster and more efficient responding and better inhibitory control whereas later growth in adulthood was associated with poorer performance, suggesting that the timing of WM growth is important for cognitive development.
Mitchell, Wendy G; Wooten, Amelia A; O'Neil, Sharon H; Rodriguez, Jenny G; Cruz, Rosa E; Wittern, Rachael
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS) produces long-term cognitive, behavioral, and motor deficits. Objective was to see if more aggressive treatment improved outcome. Assessment included opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome rating, developmental/cognitive and motor assessment, and adaptive behavior. Fourteen subjects completed testing. Nine had neuroblastoma. Onset was at 10 to 35 months; onset to diagnosis: 2 days to 14 months, and onset to first treatment: 5 days to 15 months. Initial treatment was corticotropin (12), oral steroids (3), plus intravenous immunoglobulin in all. Ten received rituximab, 5 cyclophosphamide. Age at testing ranged from 2.5 to 10.3 years. Adaptive Behavior Score (11 subjects), mean 93.5; estimated Intelligence Quotient/Developmental Quotient mean 93.5; Motor: mean 92.8. Residual opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome symptoms at the time of the evaluation were generally minor; opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome scores ranged from 0 to 6. Comparison to previously reported opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome subjects showed improved outcomes: Adaptive behavior, cognitive and motor scores were significantly higher (P < .001) in new subjects. Outcomes have improved with more aggressive immunosuppression, with most opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome survivors now functioning at or near normal.
Rienecke, Renee D.; Accurso, Erin C.; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel
The current study examined the relation between parental expressed emotion (EE) and treatment outcome among adolescents participating in a treatment study for adolescent anorexia nervosa, as well as its impact on family functioning. One hundred and twenty-one families were assigned to family-based treatment or adolescent-focused therapy. Paternal criticism predicted lesser improvement in eating disorder psychopathology at end of treatment. There was also a significant interaction between maternal hostility and treatment, indicating that adolescents whose mothers displayed hostility had greater increases in percent of expected body weight in adolescent-focused therapy than family-based treatment. In addition, maternal hostility predicted less improvement in general family functioning and family communication at the end of treatment. Findings suggest that maternal and paternal EE may differentially impact treatment outcome and should be directly attended to in clinical settings. Future research is needed to further explore ways in which parental EE can be effectively modified in treatment. PMID:26201083
Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jun, Hyun-Jin; Stapleton, Laura M.
Throughout adolescence, alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviors are associated with multiple problematic outcomes. Few studies have examined neighborhood-level predictors and individual and family-level sociodemographic variables to describe longitudinal trajectories of these problem behaviors. Therefore, this study investigated the unique contributions of neighborhood and sociodemographic factors in the shared development of aggressive behaviors and drinking in adolescents. We analyzed alcohol consumption frequency and frequency of aggressive behaviors using parallel process latent growth curve models with demographic indicators and neighborhood constructs as predictors. At all ages, alcohol use and aggression positively covaried. Male gender was associated with both aggressive episodes and alcohol use at age 12. African American ethnicity was associated with higher levels of early aggression. Higher neighborhood income was associated with lower levels of early aggression. Findings lend support to current efforts to curb early initiation of alcohol use and aggression. PMID:26413037
Roberts, Michael C; Lazicki-Puddy, Tammy A; Puddy, Richard W; Johnson, Rebecca J
This article summarizes the outcome findings of psychotherapy with adolescents through an examination of the research literature. In this problem-focused review of the research literature, we consider adolescent treatment of anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders, disruptive behavior disorders, multiple problems of adolescence, and health risk behaviors. The evidence base for the effectiveness of various psychotherapies for adolescents is mixed. Psychotherapy in general has been a ripe field in which unsupported approaches have grown, and this is certainly true for psychotherapeutic interventions with adolescents. Nonetheless, there is a growing body of evidence to support various types of interventions as effective for different presenting problems. Researchers and clinicians need to recognize the complexity of the diverse characteristics of adolescents, including variations of culture, race, ethnicity, gender, class, physical disability, family definitions and constellation, and sexual orientation. These require sensitivity, responsiveness, and competence by the therapist, but clinical research has not fully examined these considerations.
Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong
In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model’s generalizability. Specifically, mothers’ and fathers’ reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial and job instability) were associated with parents’ economic stress. Economic stress and economic status were related to parental depressive symptoms, which, in turn, were associated with more hostile and coercive parenting, less nurturing and involved parenting, and greater interparental hostility. Finally, mothers’ hostile and coercive parenting were directly related to both adolescents’ academic and sociobehavioral outcomes, whereas fathers’ nurturing and involved parenting related to academic but not sociobehavioral outcomes. PMID:20454605
de Haan, Amaranta D; Deković, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L; Stoltz, Sabine E M J; Prinzie, Peter
This study examined whether changes in children's self-reported Big Five dimensions are represented by (developmental) personality types, using a cohort-sequential design with three measurement occasions across 5 years (four cohorts, 9-12 years at T1; N = 523). Correlates of, and gender differences in, type membership were examined. Latent class growth modeling yielded three personality types: Resilients (highest initial levels on all Big Five), Overcontrollers (lowest Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Imagination), and Undercontrollers (lowest Benevolence, Conscientiousness). Gender differences in type membership were small. Warm parenting, but not overreactive discipline, in childhood was associated with type membership. The types differed in adjustment problems by the end of middle adolescence. Personality change more likely occurs at the level of dimensions within types than in type membership.
Steinberg, Laurence; Scott, Elizabeth S
The authors use a developmental perspective to examine questions about the criminal culpability of juveniles and the juvenile death penalty. Under principles of criminal law, culpability is mitigated when the actor's decision-making capacity is diminished, when the criminal act was coerced, or when the act was out of character. The authors argue that juveniles should not be held to the same standards of criminal responsibility as adults, because adolescents' decision-making capacity is diminished, they are less able to resist coercive influence, and their character is still undergoing change. The uniqueness of immaturity as a mitigating condition argues for a commitment to a legal environment under which most youths are dealt with in a separate justice system and none are eligible for capital punishment.
Gilman, Amanda B; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David; Howell, James C; Kosterman, Rick
Researchers have examined the predictors of adolescent gang membership, finding significant factors in the neighborhood, family, school, peers, and individual domains. However, little is known about whether risk and protective factors differ in predictive salience at different developmental periods. The present study examines predictors of joining a gang, tests whether these factors have different effects at different ages, and whether they differ by gender using the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) sample (n=808). By age 19, 173 participants had joined a gang. Using survival analysis, results showed that unique predictors of gang membership onset included living with a gang member, antisocial neighborhood, and antisocial peer influences in the previous year. No time or gender interactions with predictors were statistically significant.
Gilman, Amanda B.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David; Howell, James C.; Kosterman, Rick
Researchers have examined the predictors of adolescent gang membership, finding significant factors in the neighborhood, family, school, peers, and individual domains. However, little is known about whether risk and protective factors differ in predictive salience at different developmental periods. The present study examines predictors of joining a gang, tests whether these factors have different effects at different ages, and whether they differ by gender using the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) sample (n=808). By age 19, 173 participants had joined a gang. Using survival analysis, results showed that unique predictors of gang membership onset included living with a gang member, antisocial neighborhood, and antisocial peer influences in the previous year. No time or gender interactions with predictors were statistically significant. PMID:24882999
Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bosiger, Ruth; Metzke, Christa Winkler
Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the stability and correlates of adolescent suicidal risk across adolescence. Methods: Suicidal risk was studied longitudinally in N = 593 subjects in 1994, 1997, and 2001 at mean ages of 13, 16, and 20 years. Three partly overlapping suicidal risk groups were compared to three control groups…
Supple, Andrew J.; Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Frabutt, James M.; Plunkett, Scott W.; Sands, Tovah
This study examined the association between 3 components of ethnic identity (exploration, resolution, and affirmation) and factors related to family, neighborhood, and individual characteristics. The purpose was to identity factors that are positively associated with adolescent ethnic identity among a sample of 187 Latino adolescents with a mean…
Objet: Décrire la fonction motrice, la participation, les obstacles et les préférences en matière d'activité physique chez les adolescents avant et après un traitement du cancer et discuter de la promotion de l'activité physique dans le contexte des transitions du développement et du cancer. Méthode: Une étude transversale a utilisé les échelles d'autodéclaration et de déclaration par les parents du questionnaire Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) et des questions sur la participation et les préférences en matière d'activité physique afin de recueillir des données sur la mobilité des transferts, la mobilité de base, le fonctionnement dans les sports et le fonctionnement physique auprès de 80 adolescents et de 63 parents. Résultats: Les résultats du questionnaire PODCI pour les adolescents recevant un traitement étaient plus variables et considérablement plus bas que pour les adolescents qui avaient terminé leur traitement il y a plus de deux ans. La fatigue, la douleur, la santé en général et les recommandations du médecin étaient fréquemment désignées comme étant des obstacles à l'activité physique chez les adolescents qui reçoivent un traitement. Bon nombre d'entre eux n'atteignaient pas les niveaux d'activité physique recommandés. Les adolescents ont exprimé des préférences pour l'activité physique pratiquée avec des amis ou en famille, à la maison ou à l'école, dans l'après-midi ou le soir et dans des loisirs et des sports que les adolescents choisissent habituellement. Conclusions: Les capacités physiques, la participation et les obstacles en matière d'activité physique varient au cours du parcours du cancer. Les interventions devraient tenir compte de la variabilité ainsi que des préférences et des environnements des individus au cours des trajectoires et des transitions du traitement du cancer et du développement du jeune pour que ce dernier puisse adopter de saines habitudes de vie
Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Olthuis, Janine V.
Building on the theory of reasoned action (I. Ajzen & M. Fishbein, 1973, 1980; M. Fishbein & I. Ajzen, 1975) and expectancy theory, the authors examined the mediating role of alcohol expectancies in adolescent drinking behaviors by testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations (the extent to which these outcomes are perceived…
Stinchfield, Randy; Winters, Ken C.
The purposes of this study were to examine the clinical utility of the Personal Experience Inventory (PEI) Psychosocial scales to predict adolescent drug abuse treatment outcome. The role of psychosocial risk factors in predicting treatment outcome also has theoretical interest given that such factors have been associated with the development of…
Combs, Katie Massey; Hoag, Matthew J.; Roberts, Sean D.; Javorski, Stephen
Background: Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare (OBH) has arisen to fill a gap in mental health treatment. While research shows large positive changes in adolescent self-reports, little is known about predictors of change, longitudinal outcomes, and parent-reports of change. Objective This study sought to identify treatment outcomes up to 18 months…
Young, Jami F; Makover, Heather B; Cohen, Joseph R; Mufson, Laura; Gallop, Robert J; Benas, Jessica S
Given the frequent comorbidity of anxiety and depression, it is important to study the effects of depression interventions on anxiety and the impact of comorbid anxiety on depression outcomes. This article reports on pooled anxiety and depression data from two randomized trials of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a depression prevention program. Ninety-eight adolescents were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Outcome and predictor analyses were performed utilizing hierarchical linear models. IPT-AST adolescents had significantly greater reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms than SC adolescents during the intervention. Baseline anxiety symptoms predicted change in depressive symptoms for adolescents in both intervention conditions, with adolescents low in baseline anxiety demonstrating more rapid change in depressive symptoms than adolescents high in baseline anxiety. These findings indicate that IPT-AST is effective at decreasing both depressive and anxiety symptoms. For adolescents with comorbid symptoms of anxiety, there may be slower rates of change in depressive symptoms following prevention programs.
Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Hedberg, Åsa; Forssberg, Hans
While it is clear that the development of dexterous manipulation in children exhibits dramatic improvements over an extended period, it is difficult to separate musculoskeletal from neural contributors to these important functional gains. This is in part due to the inability of current methods to disambiguate improvements in hand strength from gains in finger dexterity (i.e., the dynamic control of fingertip force vectors at low magnitudes). We adapted our novel instrumentation to evaluate finger dexterity in 130 typically developing children between the ages of 4 and 16 yr. We find that finger dexterity continues to develop well into late adolescence and musculoskeletal growth and strength are poorly correlated with the improvements in dexterity. Importantly, because these behavioral results seem to mirror the known timelines of neuroanatomical development up to adolescence, we speculate that they reflect the functional benefits of such continual neural maturation. This novel perspective now enables the systematic study of the functional roles of specific neuroanatomical structures and their connectivity, maturity, and plasticity. Moreover, the temporal dynamics of the fingertip force vectors shows improvements in stability that provide a novel way to look at the maturation of finger control. From a clinical perspective, our results provide a practical means to chart functional development of dexterous manipulation in typically developing children and could be adapted for clinical use and for use in children with developmental disorders. PMID:23864371
Laird, Robert D; Marrero, Matthew D; Melching, Jessica A; Kuhn, Emily S
Adolescents use various strategies to manage their parents' access to information. This study tested developmental change in strategy use, longitudinal associations between disclosing and concealing strategies, and longitudinal associations linking disclosing and concealing strategies with antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. Self-report data (n = 218; 49% female; 49% European American, 47% African American) following Grades 5 (M age = 11 years, 11 months), 6, and 7 show that the use of disclosing strategies (e.g., telling all, telling if asked) following misbehavior declined while use of concealing strategies (e.g., omitting details, keeping secrets, lying) increased over time. Longitudinal links between strategies suggest a transactional process wherein infrequent disclosing is a gateway to concealment but concealment also predicts subsequent rank-order reductions in disclosure. Infrequent disclosing was associated with more subsequent antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms, whereas more antisocial behavior was associated with more subsequent concealment. Although absolute declines in disclosure and increases in concealment are normative, individual differences show that adolescents reporting low levels of disclosure, rather than high levels of concealment, appear to experience the most adjustment problems.
Ornoy, A; Michailevskaya, V; Lukashov, I; Bar-Hamburger, R; Harel, S
children born to drug-dependent parents raised at home may primarily result from severe environmental deprivation and the fact that one or both parents are addicted. The specific role of the in-utero heroin exposure in the determination of the developmental outcome of these children (if they do not have significant neurological damage), seems to be less important in comparison to the home environment.
Wynn, Julia; Aspelund, Gudrun; Zygmunt, Annette; Stolar, Charles JH.; Mychaliska, George; Butcher, Jennifer; Lim, Foong-Yen; Gratton, Teresa; Potoka, Douglas; Brennan, Kate; Azarow, Ken; Jackson, Barbara; Needelman, Howard; Crombleholme, Timothy; Zhang, Yuan; Duong, Jimmy; Arkovitz, Marc S.; Chung, Wendy K.; Farkouh, Christiana
Purpose To determine developmental outcomes and associated factors in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) at two years of age. Methods This is a multicenter prospective study of a CDH birth cohort. Clinical and socioeconomic data were collected. Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III) and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS-II) were performed at two years of age. Results BSID-III and VABS-II assessments were completed on 48 and 49 children, respectively. The BSID-III mean cognitive, language, and motor scores were significantly below the norm mean with average scores of 93 +/− 15, 95 +/−16, and 95 +/− 11. Ten percent (5/47) scored more than two standard deviations below the norm on one or more domains. VABS-II scores were similar to BSID-III scores with mean communication, daily living skills, social, motor, adaptive behavior scores of 97 +/−14, 94+/−16, 93 +/− 13, 97+/− 10, and 94 +/− 14. For the BSID-III, supplemental oxygen at 28 days, a prenatal diagnosis, need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and exclusive tube feeds at time of discharge were associated with lower scores. At two years of age, history of hospital readmission and need for tube feeds were associated with lower scores. Lower socioeconomic status correlated with lower developmental scores when adjusted for significant health factors. Conclusion CDH patients on average have lower developmental scores at two years of age compared to the norm. A need for ECMO, oxygen at 28 days of life, ongoing health issues and lower socioeconomic status are factors associated with developmental delays. PMID:24094947
Hillock-Dunn, Andrea; Wallace, Mark T
We live in a world rich in sensory information, and consequently the brain is challenged with deciphering which cues from the various sensory modalities belong together. Determinations regarding the relatedness of sensory information appear to be based, at least in part, on the spatial and temporal relationships between the stimuli. Stimuli that are presented in close spatial and temporal correspondence are more likely to be associated with one another and thus 'bound' into a single perceptual entity. While there is a robust literature delineating behavioral changes in perception induced by multisensory stimuli, maturational changes in multisensory processing, particularly in the temporal realm, are poorly understood. The current study examines the developmental progression of multisensory temporal function by analyzing responses on an audiovisual simultaneity judgment task in 6- to 23-year-old participants. The overarching hypothesis for the study was that multisensory temporal function will mature with increasing age, with the developmental trajectory for this change being the primary point of inquiry. Results indeed reveal an age-dependent decrease in the size of the 'multisensory temporal binding window', the temporal interval within which multisensory stimuli are likely to be perceptually bound, with changes occurring over a surprisingly protracted time course that extends into adolescence.
Ryan, Stacy R; Stanger, Catherine; Thostenson, Jeff; Whitmore, Jennifer J; Budney, Alan J
The current study examined the impact of disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) on substance use outcomes in an adolescent sample. Sixty-eight adolescents and their caregivers were randomized to one of two fourteen-week, outpatient treatments: Motivational Enhancement Therapy/Cognitive Behavior Therapy (MET/CBT)+Parent Management Training+Contingency Management (CM; experimental) and MET/CBT+Parent Drug Education (attention control). This study assessed abstinence, substance use, externalizing behavior, and parenting outcomes over five assessment periods for youth with DBD (DBD(+)) and without DBD (DBD(-)). Results showed DBD(+)/experimental adolescents reported fewer days of marijuana use than DBD(+)/control adolescents. Results also showed that parents of DBD(-) adolescents in the experimental condition reported significantly better parenting outcomes compared to DBD(-)/control. Substance abuse treatment for adolescents with DBD which includes a component such as contingency management and parent training has the potential to contribute to substance use outcomes. Such treatment strategies, however, should include additional support for parents.
O'Hearn, Kirsten; Tanaka, James; Lynn, Andrew; Fedor, Jennifer; Minshew, Nancy; Luna, Beatriz
A lack of typical age-related improvement from adolescence to adulthood contributes to face recognition deficits in adults with autism on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT). The current studies examine if this atypical developmental trajectory generalizes to other tasks and objects, including parts of the face. The CFMT tests recognition of whole faces, often with a substantial delay. The current studies used the immediate memory (IM) task and the parts-whole face task from the Let's Face It! battery, which examines whole faces, face parts, and cars, without a delay between memorization and test trials. In the IM task, participants memorize a face or car. Immediately after the target disappears, participants identify the target from two similar distractors. In the part-whole task, participants memorize a whole face. Immediately after the face disappears, participants identify the target from a distractor with different eyes or mouth, either as a face part or a whole face. Results indicate that recognition deficits in autism become more robust by adulthood, consistent with previous work, and also become more general, including cars. In the IM task, deficits in autism were specific to faces in childhood, but included cars by adulthood. In the part-whole task, deficits in autism became more robust by adulthood, including both eyes and mouths as parts and in whole faces. Across tasks, the deficit in autism increased between adolescence and adulthood, reflecting a lack of typical improvement, leading to deficits with non-face stimuli and on a task without a memory delay. These results suggest that brain maturation continues to be affected into adulthood in autism, and that the transition from adolescence to adulthood is a vulnerable stage for those with autism.
Carona, Carlos; Silva, Neuza; Moreira, Helena
Research on the quality of life (QL) of children/adolescents with psychological disorders has flourished over the last few decades. Given the developmental challenges of QL measurements in pediatric populations, the aim of this study was to ascertain the extent to which a developmental approach to QL assessment has been applied to pedopsychiatric QL research. A systematic literature search was conducted in three electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, SocINDEX) from 1994 to May 2014. Quantitative studies were included if they assessed the self- or proxy-reported QL of children/adolescents with a psychological disorder. Data were extracted for study design, participants, QL instruments and informants, and statistical approach to age-related specificities. The systematic review revealed widespread utilization of developmentally appropriate QL instruments but less frequent use of both self and proxy reports and an inconsistent approach to age group specificities. Methodological guidelines are discussed to improve the developmental validity of QL research for children/adolescents with mental disorders.
Vidisdottir, Sigridur Rosa; Richter, Svend
Studies have shown that it is necessary to create a database for dental maturity for every population and compare it to others. The present study is the first one for dental development in the Icelandic population the age range being 4-24 years. It will help in forensic dental age estimation and will also help dentists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists and other professionals who rely on developmental age assessment in children and adolescents. In this present retrospective cross-sectional study, dental maturity was determined in 1100 Icelandic children and adolescents from orthopantomograms (OPGs). The first 100 were used for a pilot study and the remaining 1000 for the main study. A total of 23 subjects were excluded. The sample consisted of 508 girls and 469 boys from the age of 4-24 years and a dental developmental scoring system was used as a standard for determination of dental maturity stages. A total of 200 OPGs were studied both on the left and right side and the remaining on the right side. Dental maturity was established for all teeth and both genders, when the sample permitted, from the beginning of crown formation to the root apex closure. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability test showed high reliability, R=0.982. Girls in Iceland reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 17.81 years of age for the maxillary and at 18.47 years for the mandibular teeth. Boys reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 18.00 years of age in the maxilla and 17.63 in the mandible. There was no significant difference between left and right side (r=0.95-1.00) and there was no gender difference, except in root formation in maxillary and mandibular canines where girls reached root completed earlier than boys. A reliable database has been established in Iceland for tooth development in the age range of 4-24 years, which is compatible with international studies. These results will help forensic odontologists and other professionals to estimate with
Scott, Mindy E.; Booth, Alan; King, Valarie; Johnson, David R.
Research indicates that closeness of the father-child bond following parental divorce is associated with better outcomes for children and adolescents. Unlike other investigations, this study takes a long-term developmental approach to understanding stability and change in postdivorce father-adolescent relationship closeness. Drawing on Add Health…
Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard; Randall, G Kevin; Mason, W Alex; Shin, Chungyeol
This study examined the mediated and moderated effects of a universal family-focused preventive intervention, delivered during young adolescence, on internalizing symptoms assessed in young adulthood. Sixth grade students (N=446; 52% female; 98% White) and their families from 22 rural Midwestern school districts were randomly assigned to the experimental conditions in 1993. Self-report questionnaires were administered at seven time points (pre-test to young adulthood-age 21) to those receiving the Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP) and to the control group. Results showed that growth factors of adolescent internalizing symptoms (grades 6-12) were predicted by ISFP condition and risk status (defined as early substance initiation). Moderation of the condition effect by risk status was found, with higher-risk adolescents benefitting more from the ISFP. Results also supported the hypothesis that the ISFP's effect on internalizing symptoms in young adulthood was mediated through growth factors of adolescents' internalizing symptoms; risk moderation, however, was only marginally significant in young adulthood. The relative reduction rate on clinical or subclinical levels of young adult internalizing symptoms was 28%, indicating that for every 100 young adults displaying clinical or subclinical levels of internalizing symptoms from school districts not offering an intervention, there could be as few as 72 displaying those levels of symptoms in school districts that offered middle school prevention programming. These findings highlight how the positive effects of family-focused universal interventions can extend to non-targeted outcomes and the related potential public-health impact of scaling up these interventions.
Grzeda, Mariusz T; Heron, Jon; von Gontard, Alexander; Joinson, Carol
To examine whether daytime wetting and bedwetting urinary incontinence (UI) in childhood and adolescence are associated with psychosocial problems in adolescence. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to examine the association between trajectories of UI from 4 to 9 years and self-reported psychosocial problems in adolescence (13-14 years) including depressive symptoms, peer victimisation, poor self-image and school experiences (negative perception of school and teachers, problems with peer relationships). Sample sizes ranged from 5162 (perception of teachers) to 5887 (self-image). We also examined associations between self-reported UI at 14 years and psychosocial problems. Relative to normative development, adolescents who experienced delayed development of bladder control had poorer self-image [standardised mean difference = 0.18 (95% CI 0.04, 0.32)], more negative perceptions of school [0.18 (0.02, 0.34)] and more problems with peer relationships at school [0.25 (0.10, 0.40)]. Persistent wetting (bedwetting with daytime wetting) in childhood was associated with increased problems with peer relationships in adolescence [0.19 (0.03, 0.34)]. The strongest associations between adolescent UI and psychosocial problems were found for daytime wetting (reference = no UI at 14 years): depressive symptoms [OR = 3.04 (95% CI 1.91-4.84)], peer victimisation [2.14 (1.48-3.10)], poor self-image (t = -8.49, p < 0.001) and problems with peer relationships (t = -4.69, p < 0.001). Children with delayed development of bladder control and persistent wetting have increased psychosocial problems in adolescence. Adolescents with UI reported a range of psychosocial problems and clinicians should be aware that they might require support from psychological services.
Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Smith, Douglas C; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D
Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment.
Labouliere, Christa D; Reyes, J P; Shirk, Stephen; Karver, Marc
Psychotherapy research reveals consistent associations between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes in the youth literature; however, past research frequently suffered measurement issues that obscured temporal relationships between alliance and symptomatology by measuring variables later in therapy, thereby precluding examination of important early changes. The current study aimed to explore the directions of effect between alliance and outcome early in therapy with adolescents by examining associations between first- and fourth-session therapeutic alliance and symptomatology. Thirty-four adolescents (∼63% female, 38% ethnic/racial minority) participated in a school-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescents with depression. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory at baseline and Session 4, and therapeutic alliance was coded from audiotapes of Sessions 1 and 4 by objective coders using the Alliance Observation Coding System. Autoregressive path analyses determined that first-session therapeutic alliance was a strong significant predictor of Session 4 depression symptoms, but pretreatment depression scores were not significantly predictive of subsequent therapeutic alliance. Adding reciprocal effects between alliance and depression scores did not adversely affect model fit, suggesting that reciprocal effects may exist. Early therapeutic alliance with adolescents is critical to fostering early gains in depressive symptomatology. Knowing alliance's subsequent effect on youth outcomes, clinicians should increase effort to foster a strong relationship in early sessions and additional research should be conducted on the reciprocal effects of therapeutic alliance and treatment outcome in adolescence.
Lundequist, Aiko; Böhm, Birgitta; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Forssberg, Hans; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
Aim The aim of this study was to investigate long-term cognitive outcome in a cohort of 18-year-olds born preterm and previously assessed at the age of 5.5. Methods We tested 134 adolescents born preterm with a very low birthweight of <1500 g and 94 term-born controls with a comprehensive cognitive battery at 18 years of age. The cohort was subdivided into 73 extremely preterm, 42 very preterm and 19 moderately preterm infants with gestational ages of 23–27, 28–31 and 32–36 weeks, respectively. The moderately preterm group was dominated by adolescents born small for gestational age. Results Very preterm adolescents performed on a par with term-born controls. In contrast, extremely preterm adolescents displayed inferior results on all cognitive tests, more so if they had suffered neonatal complications. Moderately preterm adolescents scored lower than very preterm and full-term born adolescents, particularly on complex cognitive tasks. Conclusion Adolescents born at 28 weeks of gestation or later, with appropriate birthweight and no perinatal complications, functioned like term-born peers at 18 years of age. Extremely preterm birth per se posed a risk for long-term cognitive deficits, particularly executive deficits. Adolescents born moderately preterm but small for gestational age were at risk of general cognitive deficits. PMID:25394225
Monk, Catherine; Spicer, Julie; Champagne, Frances A
Prenatal exposure to maternal stress, anxiety, and depression can have lasting effects on infant development with risk of psychopathology. Although the impact of prenatal maternal distress has been well documented, the potential mechanisms through which maternal psychosocial variables shape development have yet to be fully elucidated. Advances in molecular biology have highlighted the role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating gene activity, neurobiology, and behavior and the potential role of environmentally induced epigenetic variation in linking early life exposures to long-term biobehavioral outcomes. In this article, we discuss evidence illustrating the association between maternal prenatal distress and both fetal and infant developmental trajectories and the potential role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating these effects. Postnatal experiences may have a critical moderating influence on prenatal effects, and we review findings illustrating prenatal-postnatal interplay and the developmental and epigenetic consequences of postnatal mother-infant interactions. The in utero environment is regulated by placental function and there is emerging evidence that the placenta is highly susceptible to maternal distress and a target of epigenetic dysregulation. Integrating studies of prenatal exposures, placental function, and postnatal maternal care with the exploration of epigenetic mechanisms may provide novel insights into the pathophysiology induced by maternal distress.
Monk, Catherine; Spicer, Julie; Champagne, Frances A.
Prenatal exposure to maternal stress, anxiety, and depression can have lasting effects on infant development with consequences for risk of psychopathology. Though the impact of prenatal maternal distress has been well documented, the potential mechanisms through which maternal psychosocial variables shape development have yet to be fully elucidated. Advances in molecular biology have highlighted the role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating gene activity, neurobiology, and behavior and the potential role of environmentally-induced epigenetic variation in linking early life exposures to long-term biobehavioral outcomes. In this review, we discuss evidence illustrating the association between maternal prenatal distress and both fetal and infant developmental trajectories and the potential role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating these effects. Postnatal experiences may have a critical moderating influence on prenatal effects, and here we review findings illustrating prenatal-postnatal interplay and the developmental and epigenetic consequences of postnatal mother-infant interactions. The in utero environment is regulated by placental function and there is emerging evidence that the placenta is highly susceptible to maternal distress and a target of epigenetic dysregulation. Integrating studies of prenatal exposures, placental function, and postnatal maternal care with the exploration of epigenetic mechanisms may provide novel insights into the pathophysiology induced by maternal distress. PMID:23062303
Khanna, Rohit C; Foster, Allen; Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Mehta, Manohar K; Gogate, Parikshit M
Context: Bilateral pediatric cataracts are important cause of visual impairment in children. Aim: To study the outcome of bilateral pediatric cataract surgery in young children. Setting and Design: Retrospective case series in a tertiary center. Materials and Methods: Records of pediatric cataracts operated between January 2001 and December 2003, with a minimum follow-up of 3 months, were reviewed retrospectively. Statistical Methods: Independent sample t-test, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science, Chicago, USA) version 12. Results: 215/257 (83.7%) patients had a minimum follow-up of 3 months. The mean age of presentation to the hospital was 53 months (range: 0-168 months). Congenital cataract was present in 107 patients (58.2%) and developmental cataract in 77 patients (41.8%). The mean age at surgery was 55.2 months (range: 1-168 months). Out of 430 eyes, 269 (62.6%) had an intraocular lens implanted. The mean duration of follow-up was 13.1 months (range: 3-38 months). Pre-operatively, 102 patients (47.3%) had visual acuity <6/60, in the better eye, compared to 37 patients (17.2%) post-operatively (P < 0.001). Eighty-five patients (39.5%) had visual acuity >6/18. The most common early post-operative complication was fibrinous uveitis in 57 eyes (13.3%) and the most common delayed post-operative complication was posterior capsular opacification in 118 eyes (27.4%). The most important prognostic factor for poor outcome was congenital cataract (odds ratio [OR]: 26.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4-158.5) and total cataract (OR: 4.8; 95% CI, 1.3-17). PMID:23412523
Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn
The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer interactions and relationships, social problem solving and communication, social-affective and cognitive-executive processes, and their neural substrates. The model is illustrated by research on a specific form of childhood brain disorder, traumatic brain injury. The heuristic model may promote research regarding the neural and cognitive-affective substrates of children’s social development. It also may engender more precise methods of measuring impairments and disabilities in children with brain disorder and suggest ways to promote their social adaptation. PMID:17469991
Baghdadli, Amaria; Assouline, Brigitte; Sonie, Sandrine; Pernon, Eric; Darrou, Celine; Michelon, Cecile; Picot, Marie-Christine; Aussilloux, Charles; Pry, Rene
This study examines change in 152 children over an almost 10-year period (T1: 4.9 (plus or minus 1.3) years; T2: 8.1 (plus or minus 1.3) years; T3: 15(plus or minus 1.6) years) using a group-based, semi-parametric method in order to identify distinct developmental trajectories. Important deficits remain at adolescence in the adaptive abilities of…
Murray, B Lee
This case report is the story of my son's alleged abuse, told from my perspective. At the time, Jordan, a boy with Down syndrome, was 14 years old when his disclosure of sexual abuse by a school employee occurred. As part of the healing process, I use autoethnography to tell the story. I also describe and discuss a school-based program, which I developed and deliver, to provide sexual health promotion and sexual abuse prevention to adolescents with developmental disabilities.
Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong
Study objective To examine how parent-child relationships, parental control, and parental attitudes towards sex were related to pregnancy outcomes among adolescent mothers. Design Prospective cohort study. Parental report of relationship satisfaction, disapproval of adolescent having sex, discussion around sexual health, and sexual communication attitudes, and adolescent report of relationship satisfaction, parental control, and parental disapproval of sex were examined as predictors of self-reported birth outcomes. Weighted multivariable linear regression models were run incorporating interactions by race. Setting United States Participants 632 females who participated in Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally-representative sample of students enrolled in grades 7–12 in 1994–95 and followed up in 2007–2008 Main Outcome Measures birthweight and gestational age Results For Black adolescents, better parent-child relationship was associated with higher birthweight (0.14 kg, p<0.05) and gestational age (0.75 weeks, p<0.01), while higher parental disapproval of having sex (adjusted beta 0.15 kg, p<0.05) were associated with higher birthweight. For non-Black adolescents, a moderate amount of discussion of birth control was associated with higher birthweight (0.19 kg, p<0.01 and lower child-perceived parental disapproval of having sex was associated with higher birthweight (0.08 kg, p<0.05) and gestational age (0.37 weeks, p<0.05). Higher parental control was associated with a reduced likelihood of smoking during pregnancy and a greater likelihood of early prenatal care. Conclusion Parent-child relationships and attitudes about sex affect outcomes of pregnant adolescents. PMID:25023982
Chen, Chen-Ju; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Tang, Fu-In; Yu, Shu
Smoking-related outcome expectation and self-efficacy have been found to be associated with adolescent smoking initiation. There is, however, a lack of appropriate instruments to investigate early adolescents' smoking outcome expectations and antismoking self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Smoking Outcome…
Aglan, Azza; Kerfoot, Michael; Pickles, Andrew
Background: Prospective studies show that the adult outcomes of adolescents who deliberately harm themselves are marked by high rates of adversity and psychiatric disorders. The goal of this study was to identify pathways linking childhood risk factors to early adult outcomes of suicidal adolescents. Methods: A clinical sample of 158 adolescents…
Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W
Although infants born to adolescent mothers are at increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, little is known about contributors to birth outcomes in this group. Given past research linking partner abuse to adverse birth outcomes among adult mothers, we explored associations between pre-pregnancy verbal and physical dating violence and the birth weight and gestational age of infants born to adolescent mothers. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Waves I (1995/1996), II (1996), and IV (2007/2008) were analyzed. Girls whose first singleton live births occurred after Wave II interview and before age 20 (N = 558) self-reported infants' birth weight and gestational age at Wave IV. Dating violence victimization (verbal and physical) in the 18 months prior to Wave II interview was self-reported. Controls included Wave I age, parent education, age at pregnancy, time between reporting abuse and birth, and childhood physical and sexual abuse. Weighted multivariable regression models were performed separately by race (Black/non-Black).On average, births occurred 2 years after Wave II interview. Almost one in four mothers reported verbal dating violence victimization (23.6%), and 10.1% reported physical victimization. Birth weight and prevalence of verbal dating violence victimization were significantly lower in Black compared with non-Black teen mothers. In multivariable analyses, negative associations between physical dating abuse and birth outcomes became stronger as time increased for Black mothers. For example, pre-pregnancy physical dating abuse was associated with 0.79 kilograms lower birth weight (p< .001) and 4.72 fewer weeks gestational age (p< .01) for Black mothers who gave birth 2 years post-reporting abuse. Physical dating abuse was unassociated with birth outcomes among non-Black mothers, and verbal abuse was unassociated with birth outcomes for all mothers. Reducing physical dating violence in adolescent relationships prior to
Gao, Z; Chen, S; Pasco, D; Pope, Z
This meta-analysis synthesizes current literature concerning the effects of active video games (AVGs) on children/adolescents' health-related outcomes. A total of 512 published studies on AVGs were located, and 35 articles were included based on the following criteria: (i) data-based research articles published in English between 1985 and 2015; (ii) studied some types of AVGs and related outcomes among children/adolescents and (iii) had at least one comparison within each study. Data were extracted to conduct comparisons for outcome measures in three separate categories: AVGs and sedentary behaviours, AVGs and laboratory-based exercise, and AVGs and field-based physical activity. Effect size for each entry was calculated with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software in 2015. Mean effect size (Hedge's g) and standard deviation were calculated for each comparison. Compared with sedentary behaviours, AVGs had a large effect on health outcomes. The effect sizes for physiological outcomes were marginal when comparing AVGs with laboratory-based exercises. The comparison between AVGs and field-based physical activity had null to moderate effect sizes. AVGs could yield equivalent health benefits to children/adolescents as laboratory-based exercise or field-based physical activity. Therefore, AVGs can be a good alternative for sedentary behaviour and addition to traditional physical activity and sports in children/adolescents.
This study examines the role of racial/ethnic segregation and peer effects in shaping educational achievement and attainment, using multi-level modeling on a nationally representative sample of adolescents. As in many prior studies, school socioeconomic composition was a significant predictor of achievement and attainment for students of all…
Somers, Cheryl L.
This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential approach to teen pregnancy (TP) prevention called "Baby Think It Over," a computerized infant simulator, on adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding teen pregnancy and sexuality. Recently, a more realistic model called "Real Care Baby" was developed. The small amount of research on…
Liace, Lisa K.; Nunez, Jessica B.; Luckner, Amy E.
Teenage sexual activity has arguably received more attention in the national media as of late than ever before. One is inundated with information concerning everything from alarming rises in the incidence and prevalence rates of sexually transmitted infections in adolescents and young adults to the latest round of suspensions (or even arrests)…
Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.
Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth…
Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others
A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, and…
Goosby, Bridget J.
This study seeks to assess the impact of maternal psychological well-being on the depression and anxiety levels and social withdrawal in a sample of young African American and Caucasian adolescents between the ages of 10 and 14 (N = 854) using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 child sample. Analyses using structural equation…
Pawlby, Susan J.; Mills, Alice; Taylor, Alan; Quinton, David
Compares the friendships of girls (N=50) at risk for difficulties in early adult partnerships with those of 50 girls of the same age. Results indicate key differences in both romantic and non-romantic adolescent friendships between the two groups. Findings offer a clearer understanding of processes linking childhood adversity and poor adult…
Jensen, Lene Arnett; McKenzie, Jessica
This cultural-developmental interview study examined moral reasoning in relation to religious culture (evangelical, mainline Protestants), age (children, adolescents, adults), and moral issue (public, private; N = 120). Compared to adolescents and adults, children used more Ethic of Autonomy and less Ethic of Community reasoning. With age, differences between religious cultures became pronounced. Mainline adults invoked an Ethic of Divinity for private issues. Evangelical adolescents and adults used this ethic frequently, but more for public than private issues. These and other findings indicate that evangelical and mainline Protestants diverge on what should be society's moral lingua franca, and cast new and nuanced light on America's "culture wars." Results furthermore highlight comodulation of development and culture that requires life course research on moral reasoning.
Coyne, Sarah M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Day, Randal D; Harper, James; Stockdale, Laura
This study examined the relationship between parent-child social networking, connection, and outcomes for adolescents. Participants (491 adolescents and their parents) completed a number of questionnaires on social networking use, feelings of connection, and behavioral outcomes. Social networking with parents was associated with increased connection between parents and adolescents. Feelings of connection then mediated the relationship between social networking with parents and behavioral outcomes, including higher prosocial behavior and lower relational aggression and internalizing behavior. Conversely, adolescent social networking use without parents was associated with negative outcomes, such as increased relational aggression, internalizing behaviors, delinquency, and decreased feelings of connection. These results indicate that although high levels of social networking use may be problematic for some individuals, social networking with parents may potentially strengthen parent-child relationships and then lead to positive outcomes for adolescents.
Zerach, Gadi; Elsayag, Adi; Shefer, Shahar; Gabis, Lidia
In this study, we examined the relations between the severity of developmental outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) children and their mothers' stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, 4-16 years after birth. Israeli mothers (N = 78) of a cohort of extremely premature infants (24-27 weeks) born 4-16 years earlier were asked to report about the medical and developmental condition of their child and their current perceived stress and PTSD symptoms. Results show that mothers of ELBW children with normal development reported the lowest perceived stress compared with mothers of ELBW children with developmental difficulties. We also found that 25.6% of the mothers had the potential to suffer from PTSD following the birth of an ELBW child. Furthermore, the severity of prematurity developmental outcomes made a significant contribution to mothers' perceived stress. To sum, mothers of ELBW infants' perceived stress is related to their children's severity of prematurity developmental outcomes, 4-16 years after birth. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
Hauser, Stuart T.
Describes person-based follow-back design and narrative analyses to examine young adult developmental adaptation despite serious prior risks and adversity. Describes identification of competent young adults and narrative analysis method. Presents preliminary findings detailing content and structural themes involving individual constructions of…
Keijsers, Loes; Frijns, Tom; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim
This 4-wave study among 309 Dutch adolescents and their parents examined changes in adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control and their links with the development of delinquent activities. Annually, adolescents and both parents reported on adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control, and adolescents…
Shneyderman, Yuliya; Schwartz, Seth J
The present study was designed to test a model of contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behaviors and of sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. Using Waves I and II from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimated a structural model in which intrapersonal factors such as adolescents' attitudes about sex, perceived parental norms, knowledge about sexual health, and birth-control self-efficacy partially mediated the effects of contextual factors such as parent-adolescent relationship quality, school connectedness, and exposure to AIDS and pregnancy education on a number of risky sexual behaviors and outcomes: early sex initiation, sex under the influence of substances, condom use at last intercourse, and having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection. Different patterns of direct and mediated effects emerged for each sexual outcome. Results are discussed in terms of the complex interplay between environment and individual and in terms of how, when, and with whom to intervene in order to improve adolescent sexual health outcomes.
Robson, Stephen J; Campbell, Simone; McDonald, Janelle; Tremellen, Kelton; Carlin, Emily; Maybury, Genevieve
Although there is now considerable experience in obtaining sperm from a cadaver, there is little or no published data regarding pregnancy, birth and long-term childhood health and development outcomes when posthumous sperm is used in in vitro fertilisation (IVF). We report the results from treatment of four women undergoing IVF treatment using posthumously acquired human sperm from their deceased partners. In all cases, testicular tissue was obtained in a mortuary setting, and the duration from death to posthumous sperm retrieval ranged from 12 to 48 h. The age of women treated ranged from 31 to 41 years. Fertilization rates ranged from 40 to 100%. Singleton pregnancies were obtained for each of the four women. One pregnancy was complicated by preterm birth at 31 weeks; the other three delivered at term. One baby was growth restricted but morphologically normal; the other children had term birthweights in the normal range. All four children were have shown normal health and developmental outcomes, with the follow-up ranging from 1 to 7 years.
Van Ryzin, Mark J; Dishion, Thomas J
This study used an experimental, longitudinal field trial involving random assignment to the Family Check-Up (FCU) to explore the social ecology of adolescent antisocial behavior. A sample of 998 youths and their families was followed from early to late adolescence (age 12 to 18-19). In the intervention condition, 115 families (23%) elected to receive the FCU. In general, random assignment to the FCU in middle school was associated with reductions in late adolescence antisocial behavior (age 18-19). Variable-centered analyses revealed that the effects were mediated by reductions in family conflict from early to middle adolescence (age 12-15). The link between family conflict and antisocial behavior in turn was mediated by association with deviant peers at age 17; parental monitoring at age 17 was also influential but did not attain the status of a mediator. Person-oriented analyses suggested that the FCU was associated with declining trajectories of family conflict and rising trajectories of parental monitoring but was not associated with trajectories of deviant peer association. A dual-trajectory analysis indicated that the pathways to adolescent antisocial behavior were myriad and varied, suggesting new directions for developmental and intervention research.
Quinn, Catherine A; Bussey, Kay
Moral disengagement is a social cognitive process that has been extensively applied to transgressive behaviors, including delinquency, aggression and illicit substance use. However, there has been limited research on moral disengagement as it relates to underage drinking. The current study aimed to examine moral disengagement contextualized to underage drinking and its longitudinal relationship to alcohol use. Moreover, the social context in which adolescent alcohol use typically occurs was also considered, with a specific emphasis on the social sanctions, or social outcomes, that adolescents anticipate receiving from friends for their alcohol use. Adolescents were assessed across three time-points, 8 months apart. The longitudinal sample consisted of 382 (46% female) underage drinkers (12-16 years at T1). Parallel latent growth curve analysis was used to examine the bi-directional influence of initial moral disengagement, anticipated social outcomes, and alcohol use on subsequent growth in moral disengagement, anticipated social outcomes and alcohol use. The interrelation of initial scores and growth curves was also assessed. The findings revealed that, in the binary parallel analyses, initial moral disengagement and anticipated social outcomes both significantly predicted changes in alcohol use across time. Moreover, initial anticipated social outcomes predicted changes in moral disengagement. These findings were not consistently found when all three process analyses were included in a single model. The results emphasize the impact of social context on moral disengagement and suggest that by targeting adolescents' propensity to justify or excuse their drinking, as well as the social outcomes adolescents anticipate for being drunk, it may be possible to reduce their underage drinking.
Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Gangamma, Rashjmi
There is a dearth of research that examines the impact of family systems therapy on problems among sexually and/or physically abused youth. Given this void, differential outcome and predictors of substance use change were evaluated for abused, as, compared with nonabused, runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment as usual Abused adolescents reported lower family cohesion at baseline, although both abused and nonabused adolescents showed similar substance use reductions. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, we found that substance use changed with change in cohesion over time. These findings link change in family functioning to change in adolescent substance use, supporting family systems theory. Findings suggest that a potent target of intervention involves focus on increasing positive communication interactions. PMID:16933433
Sabates, Ricardo; Duckworth, Kathryn
This paper investigates whether mothers' participation in post-compulsory education impacts on children's relative inequalities across four developmental outcomes. The empirical analysis uses information from children born in 1958 in Britain. Mothers of the 1958 British cohort were affected by the 1947 school leaving age reform, which increased…
Urban, Jennifer Brown; Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Lerner, Richard M.
Extracurricular activities provide a key context for youth development, and participation has been linked with positive developmental outcomes. Using data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD), this study explored how the intentional self regulation ability of youth interacted with participation in extracurricular activities to…
Theokas, Christina; Lerner, Richard M.
The relations among observed ecological assets in youth's families, schools, and neighborhoods with positive and negative developmental outcomes were assessed with a sample of 646 fifth-grade youth. The majority of participants were Latino (37.5%) or European American (35.5%) and lived in 2-parent families. Ecological asset indicators were…
Yuan, Rui; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum
Drawing upon a sample of 1153 young people in Shanghai, China, this study investigates how agentic personality mediates between social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (family, friendship, association, and linking connection) and developmental outcomes during the transition to adulthood. The results of a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis provide a good fit for the sample as a whole. The overall findings support the hypotheses that a higher level of agentic personality, including resilience, self-efficacy, and self-esteem, is associated with higher levels of developmental outcomes. Agentic personality also mediates the effects of family, friendship, associational, and linking social capital on developmental outcomes. Family social capital is predictive of university students' identity achievement and academic achievement, but not of their mental health. Linking social capital is only predictive of identity achievement. Unexpectedly, friendship social capital and associational social capital are predictive of a lower level of academic achievement and mental health, respectively, despite their positive influences on all three developmental outcomes through their significant effects on agentic personality. The study provides empirical support for the importance of social capital in promoting young people's transition to adulthood. Implications for theory, practice, and policy are also discussed.
Williamson, Heather J.; Perkins, Elizabeth A.
Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) in the U.S. predominantly live with their family caregivers. As care delivery and support systems vary widely globally, consideration of caregiver outcomes specifically in the U.S. context is needed. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify U.S. family caregiver…
Clegg, J.; Hollis, C.; Mawhood, L.; Rutter, M.
Background: Little is known on the adult outcome and longitudinal trajectory of childhood developmental language disorders (DLD) and on the prognostic predictors. Method: Seventeen men with a severe receptive DLD in childhood, reassessed in middle childhood and early adult life, were studied again in their mid-thirties with tests of intelligence…
Odluyurt, Serhat; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Ersoy, Gulhan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of school counselor supervised peer tutoring intervention on meeting IEP outcomes of six inclusion students with developmental disabilities in a public elementary and secondary school. The effectiveness of this intervention was evaluated by using multiple probe design across students.…
van der Molen, E.; Vermeiren, R. R. J. M.; Krabbendam, A. A.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Doreleijers, T. A. H.; Jansen, L. M. C.
Background: Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Method: Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 SD = 0.6) years later in young adulthood (mean age = 20.0,…
Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.
Little is known about the adolescent risk factors and young adult health-related outcomes associated with running away from home. We examined these correlates of running away using longitudinal data from 4,329 youth (48% female, 85% white) who were followed from Grade 9 to age 21. Nearly 14% of the sample reported running away in the past year at…
McGeown, H. R.; Johnstone, E. C.; McKirdy, J.; Owens, D. C.; Stanfield, A. C.
Background: This study investigates the role of IQ, autistic traits and challenging behaviours in affecting adult outcomes among adolescents who receive special educational assistance. Methods: A total of 58 participants were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study. All received assessments of IQ, behavioural patterns (using the Childhood…
Arroyos-Jurado, Elsa; Paulsen, Jane S.; Ehly, Stewart; Max, Jeffrey E.
This study was conducted to examine the impact of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) on intellectual and academic outcomes postinjury. A comprehensive assessment of cognition, achievement, learning, and memory was administered to 27 children and adolescents 6 to 8 years post-TBI. Findings revealed that parent ratings of premorbid achievement…
Frisch, Dana; Msall, Michael E.
With medical advances, more individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) syndromes who reside in developed countries are surviving to adolescence and adulthood. However, there continues to be a paucity of research examining long-term health, functional activities, and participatory outcomes over their life-course. This article reviews the current…
Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed; Shirlow, Peter
This study examines the influence of social ecological risks within the domains of parenting, family environment, and community in the prediction of educational outcomes for 770 adolescents (49% boys, 51% girls, "M"?=?13.6 years, "SD"?=?2.0) living in a setting of protracted political conflict, specifically working class areas…
Balaban, Tammy; Hyde, Nellemarie; Colantonio, Angela
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often occurs during the years when individuals are aiming for vocational goals and acquiring skills needed to achieve vocational success. This exploratory study aimed to describe the perceived long-term impact on career outcomes for individuals who were hospitalized with a TBI during adolescence. This study used a…
Dotterer, Aryn M.; Wehrspann, Elizabeth
The present study examined the extent to which parent involvement in education was directly and indirectly (via school engagement) related to academic outcomes in an effort to more fully understand the school experiences of urban adolescents. Participants (80% racial/ethnic minority; n = 108) were in grades 6, 7 or 8. In the Fall and subsequent…
Examined the outcome of a mentoring program aimed at minimizing conduct problems for young adolescent children at risk for delinquent behavior, focusing on 13 mentors, each of whom was responsible for 1 at-risk child for 15 hours per week. Parent reports suggest significant decreases in problem behavior, but there were no significant changes in…
Le Grange, Daniel; Crosby, Ross D.; Lock, James
The predictors and moderators of treatment outcome for adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN) are explored among those who participated in family based treatment or individual supportive psychotherapy. It is concluded that family-based treatment of BN may be most effective in those cases with low levels of eating disorder psychopathology.
Bussing, Regina; Mason, Dana M.; Bell, Lindsay; Porter, Phillip; Garvan, Cynthia
Objective: To describe adolescent outcomes of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a diverse community sample. Method: ADHD screening of a school district sample of 1,615 students aged 5 to 11 years was followed by a case-control study 8 years later. High-risk youths meeting full (n = 94) and subthreshold (n = 75) DSM-IV…
Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.
Objective: To characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method: The study included 58 women from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. A total of 34 (M = 19.97 years old) met "DSM" criteria for ADHD in childhood, whereas the remaining 24 (M = 19.83 years old) did not. Self- and…
Shoffner, Marie F.; Newsome, Debbie; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Wachter Morris, Carrie A.
Perceptions developed and choices made during the preadolescent and early adolescent years may restrict or enrich youth's future career aspirations. These years are critical for acquiring and exploring academic and career-related interests. In addition, outcome expectations -- what youth believe will happen if they pursue certain interests, tasks,…
Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Gangamma, Rashmi
There is a dearth of research that examines the impact of family systems therapy on problems among sexually and/or physically abused youth. Given this void, differential outcome and predictors of substance use change were evaluated for abused, as compared with nonabused, runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment…
Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina
This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…
Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Skay, Carol
The objective of this study was to describe prevalent informal sources of information about sex and examine associations between informal sources of information about sex and sexual risk outcomes among sexually experienced adolescents. Work involved the secondary analysis of data from the Minnesota Student Survey, a statewide survey to monitor…
Young, Jami F.; Makover, Heather B.; Cohen, Joseph R.; Mufson, Laura; Gallop, Robert J.; Benas, Jessica S.
Given the frequent comorbidity of anxiety and depression, it is important to study the effects of depression interventions on anxiety and the impact of comorbid anxiety on depression outcomes. This article reports on pooled anxiety and depression data from two randomized trials of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a…
Background Although several determinants of global developmental delay (GDD) have been recognized, a significant number of children remain without definitive etiologic diagnosis. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of various prenatal and perinatal factors on the severity and outcome of developmental delay without definitive etiologic yield. Methods From March 2008 to February 2010, 142 children with developmental quotient (DQ) <70 and without definitive etiologic diagnosis, were included. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors known to be associated with disordered neonatal brain function were identified. Participants underwent a thorough investigation, an individualized habilitation plan was recommended, and the children were followed-up regularly for a period of 2 < years. The effect of prenatal and perinatal risk factors on the severity and outcome of GDD was assessed by regression analysis. Results The mean age at enrolment was 31 ± 12 < months, and the mean DQ 52.2 ± 11.4. Prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were found to be independently associated with lower DQ values. The mean DQ after the 2-year follow-up was 62.5 ± 12.7, and the DQ difference from the enrollment 10.4 ± 8.9 (median 10; range-10 to 42). DQ improvement (defined as a DQ difference?≥?median) was noted in 52.8% of the children. IUGR, low socio-economic status, and poor compliance to habilitation plan were found to be independently associated with poorer developmental outcomes. Conclusions Prematurity and IUGR were found to be significantly and independently related to the severity of GDD in cases without definitive etiologic yield. Poorer 2-year developmental outcome was associated with IUGR, low socioeconomic status and non compliance to habilitation plan. Prematurity was a significant determinant of the outcome only in association with the above mentioned factors. PMID:24521451
White, Susan W.; Smith, Laura A.; Schry, Amie R.
Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment…
Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa; Park, M Jane
Adolescents and young adults are avid Internet users. Online social media, such as social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), blogs, status updating sites (e.g., Twitter) and chat rooms, have become integral parts of adolescents' and young adults' lives. Adolescents are even beginning to enter the world of online dating with several websites dedicated to "teenage online dating." This paper reviews recent peer-reviewed literature and national data on 1) adolescents use of online social media, 2) gender differences in online social media and 3) potential positive and negative health outcomes from adolescents' online social media use. We also examine parental monitoring of adolescents' online activities. Given that parental supervision is a key protective factor against adolescent risk-taking behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that unmonitored Internet use may place adolescents' at significant risk, such as cyberbullying, unwanted exposure to pornography, and potentially revealing personal information to sexual predators.
Beveridge, Ryan M; Berg, Cynthia A
Current parent-adolescent behavioral interaction research highlights the importance of three elements of behavior in defining adaptive interactions: autonomy, control, and warmth vs. hostility. However, this research has largely addressed the developmental needs and psychosocial outcomes of adolescents, as opposed to parents, with a focus on how parent and adolescent behaviors influence adolescent adaptation. This paper utilizes both adolescent and mid-life developmental research, as well as parent-adolescent interaction research, to introduce a model for conceptualizing parent-adolescent interactions as a transactional process in which both parental and adolescent development are considered. Further, ideas are presented describing how adaptive parent-adolescent interactions may change across adolescence. The concept of collaboration is proposed as a conceptual tool for assessing one form of adaptive parent-adolescent interactions. The structural analysis of social behavior (SASB) is presented as a model for studying the complex reciprocal processes that occur in parent-adolescent interpersonal processes.
Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verté, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid
This study investigates the impact of several types of exposure to terror attacks on adolescents' psychological outcomes in the context of ongoing terror. A total of 913 adolescents (51% girls) aged 12 to 18 years (12-13.6 = 33%; 13.7-15.6 = 38%; 15.7-18 = 28%) took part in the study. Detailed data were collected concerning objective, subjective and "mixed" types of exposure to terror, as well as demographics, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), emotional and behavioral problems and overall psychological and psychiatric difficulties. Subjective exposure was found to be the most important contributor to adolescents' post-traumatic stress and other mental health problems in this context. Gender also had important effects. The effects of objective and mixed types of exposure, as well as age, were less prominent. We did find, however, that the more adolescents consulted media, the less they experienced behavioral and emotional problems. Given that subjective experiences appear to be the best factor in explaining mental health outcomes when adolescents are confronted with persistent terror, the cognitive and emotional dynamics along with the coping behavior linked to such experiences merit further investigation.
Curtis, Alexa C.; Waters, Catherine M.; Brindis, Claire
Context: Adolescence is a pivotal developmental period for the establishment of positive health and health practices. However, developmentally propelled risk behaviors coinciding with barriers to health services may increase the propensity for untoward health outcomes in adolescence. In addition, the sociocultural context of the rural environment…
Helgeson, Vicki S.; Palladino, Dianne K.; Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda
Background Emerging adulthood is a high-risk period for mental health problems and risk behaviors for youth generally and for physical health problems among those with type 1 diabetes. Purpose To examine whether adolescents’ relationships with parents and friends predict health and risk behaviors during emerging adulthood. Method Youth with and without diabetes were enrolled at average age 12 and followed for 7 years. Parent and friend relationship variables, measured during adolescence, were used to predict emerging adulthood outcomes: depression, risk behavior, and, for those with diabetes, diabetes outcomes. Results Parent relationship quality predicted decreased depressive symptoms and, for those with diabetes, decreased alcohol use. Parent control predicted increased smoking, reduced college attendance, and, for control participants, increased depressive symptoms. For those with diabetes, parent control predicted decreased depressive symptoms and better self-care. Friend relationship variables predicted few outcomes. Conclusions Adolescent parent relationships remain an important influence on emerging adults’ lives. PMID:24178509
Mugno, Diego; Ruta, Liliana; D'Arrigo, Valentina Genitori; Mazzone, Luigi
Background Little is known about the Quality of Life (QOL) in parents of children with developmental diseases as compared to other severe neurological or psychiatric disorders. Aims of the present study were: to evaluate QOL in parents of children affected by Pervasive Development Disorder (PDDs), Cerebral Palsy (CP) or Mental Retardation (MR) as compared to a control group (CG); to evaluate QOL of parents of patients with different types of PDDs, namely Autistic Disorder (AD), High Function Autism/Asperger Syndromes (HFA/AS) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PPD-NOS); and to compare the level of impairment in QOL of mothers and fathers within PDDs, CP, MR groups and between AD, HFA/AS, PDD-NOS sub-groups. Methods The sample consisted of 212 parents (115 mothers and 97 fathers) of 135 children or adolescents affected by PDDs, MR or CP. An additional sample of 77 parents (42 mothers and 35 fathers) of 48 healthy children was also included and used as a control group. QOL was assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Results Compared with parents of healthy children, parents in the PDDs group reported impairment in physical activity (p = 0.0001) and social relationships (p = 0.0001) and worse overall perception of their QOL (p = 0.0001) and health (p = 0.005). Scores in the physical (p = 0.0001), psychological (p = 0.0001) and social relationships domains (p = 0.0001) and in the physical (p = 0.0001) and social relationships (p = 0.0001) domains were lower compared to the MR group CP group respectively. Little differences were observed between MR, CP and control groups. The level of impairment of physical (p = 0.001) and psychological (p = 0.03) well-being were higher in mothers than in fathers in the PDDs and CP groups respectively; in the other groups, and across all the other domains of QQL impairment was similar. There were no statistically significant differences in the scores between the AD, HFA/AS and PDD-NOS sub-groups, but
Chung, P W; Chan, Symphorosa S C; Yiu, K W; Lao, Terence T H; Chung, Tony K H
OBJECTIVE. To study the presentations, diagnoses, and outcomes in adolescents with menstrual disorders. DESIGN. Prospective cohort study. SETTING. Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology Clinic, Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS. A total of 577 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. The presentations and diagnoses of adolescents with menstrual disorders were reviewed and their menstrual outcomes determined by a telephone survey. RESULTS. In all, 47% presented with menorrhagia, prolonged menstruation, and short menstrual cycles; 27% had secondary amenorrhoea, 12% had dysmenorrhoea, 11% had oligomenorrhoea, and 3% had primary amenorrhoea. Significant diagnoses included congenital genital tract anomalies, premature ovarian failure, anorexia nervosa, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Polycystic ovarian syndrome was diagnosed in 16% of the cohort. In all, 24% of these 577 patients had abnormal menstrual cycles 4 years later. Direct logistic regression analysis indicated a cycle length of more than 35 days at presentation (adjusted odds ratio=2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.5), previous diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (adjusted odds ratio=2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.4), and current body mass index of 23 kg/m(2) or higher (adjusted odds ratio=1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.0) were risk factors for persistently long menstrual cycle exceeding 35 days. Adolescents who were screened out with a definitive diagnosis after initial assessment were at low risk of persistently long menstrual cycles at follow-up (adjusted odds ratio=0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.8). CONCLUSIONS. Adolescent menstrual disorders should not be ignored. Long cycle, diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome at first consultation, and a current body mass index of 23 kg/m(2) or higher were statistically associated with persistent problems.
Serafini, Kelly; Shipley, Leandra; Stewart, David G.
The stages of change (Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, and Maintenance) have been well studied in adult populations. However, fewer studies have examined how the stages of change are related to adolescent substance use. Furthermore, there have been no studies that have examined how the stages of change relate to outcomes in a school-based intervention. To better capture adolescent motivation, we added an additional group to the Transtheoretical Model of Change, which we titled Coerced Action, to represent adolescents that made changes to their substance use despite low problem recognition (representing the internal motivation of Precontemplation and the change behaviors of the Action group). We then examined how the stages of change were related to a thorough assessment of substance use at baseline and corresponding treatment outcomes. Our sample consisted of 264 adolescents (mean age 16.1, 44.5% Caucasian, 37.5% female) who participated in an 8-week, school-based Motivational Enhancement intervention. Results indicated significant group differences across the stages of change in substance use patterns (alcohol use, negative consequences, affective dysregulation), as well as treatment outcomes (alcohol use and negative consequences). For instance, adolescents in the Action group demonstrated more negative consequences at 16 weeks follow-up than those in Precontemplation and Coerced Action, F(1, 3) = 8.23, p = .000. The Coerced Action group reported the most alcohol use at 16 weeks follow-up, although the finding was not significant when post-hoc tests were conducted. This study provides meaningful support for the assessment of motivation among adolescent substance users within school-based settings. PMID:26458191
Canfield, Allison R.; de Marchena, Ashley; Fein, Deborah
Purpose This study examined narrative quality of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using a well-studied “story goodness” coding system. Method Narrative samples were analyzed for distinct aspects of story goodness and rated by naïve readers on dimensions of story goodness, accuracy, cohesiveness, and oddness. Adolescents with high-functioning ASD were compared with adolescents with typical development (TD; n = 15 per group). A second study compared narratives from adolescents across three groups: ASD, TD, and youths with “optimal outcomes,” who were diagnosed with ASD early in development but no longer meet criteria for ASD and have typical behavioral functioning. Results In both studies, the ASD group's narratives had lower composite quality scores compared with peers with typical development. In Study 2, narratives from the optimal outcomes group were intermediate in scores and did not differ significantly from those of either other group. However, naïve raters were able to detect qualitative narrative differences across groups. Conclusions Findings indicate that pragmatic deficits in ASD are salient and could have clinical relevance. Furthermore, results indicate subtle differences in pragmatic language skills for individuals with optimal outcomes despite otherwise typical language skills in other domains. These results highlight the need for clinical interventions tailored to the specific deficits of these populations. PMID:27280731
Incardona, John P; Scholz, Nathaniel L
The developing fish heart is vulnerable to a diverse array of toxic chemical contaminants in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. Globally occurring examples of cardiotoxic agents include dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The disruption of cardiac function during the process of heart morphogenesis can lead to adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) that can negatively affect fish survival at hatching as well as later life stages. Proximal impacts include cardiogenic fluid accumulation (edema) and defects of the body axis and jaw that preclude larval feeding. More subtle changes in heart development can produce permanent structural defects in the heart that reduce cardiac output and swimming performance in older fish. In recent decades, the presence of edema in fish embryos and larvae has been a very common bioindicator of cardiotoxicity. However, the different ways that edema forms in fish from different habitats (i.e., freshwater vs. marine, pelagic vs. demersal) has not been rigorously examined. Oil spills are an important source of PAHs in fish spawning areas worldwide, and research is revealing how patterns of cardiogenic edema are shaped by species-specific differences in developmental anatomy and ionoregulatory physiology. Here we review the visible evidence for circulatory disruption across nine freshwater and marine fish species, exposed to crude oils from different parts of the world. We focus on the close interconnectedness of the cardiovascular and osmoregulatory systems during early development, and corresponding implications for fish in hyperosmotic and hyposmotic habitats. Finally, we suggest there may be poorly understood adverse outcomes pathways related to osmotic gradients and water movement within embryos, the latter causing extreme shifts in tissue osmolality.
Burstein, Marcy; Georgiades, Katholiki; Lamers, Femke; Swanson, Sonja A.; Cui, Lihong; He, Jian-Ping; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R.
Objective: The current study examined the sex- and age-specific structure and comorbidity of lifetime anxiety disorders among U.S. adolescents. Method: The sample consisted of 2,539 adolescents (1,505 females and 1,034 males) from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement who met criteria for "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…
Flanagan, Constance A.; Stout, Michael
Social trust (i.e., belief that people are generally fair and trustworthy) is important to the functioning of democracies, and trend studies show it has declined. We test hypotheses concerning the development of these beliefs in adolescence. Based on surveys of 1,535 adolescents collected over 2 years, we find that middle and late adolescents had…
Rowles, Brieana M; Findling, Robert L
Developmental disorders such as subaverage intelligence, pervasive developmental disorders, and genetic syndromes are frequently associated with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-like symptoms. While there are not pharmacological cures for these developmental disorders, coinciding ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms that contribute to difficulties in psychosocial functioning are frequently able to be addressed by pharmacotherapy. This article reviews what is known about the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacological interventions for the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from developmental disorders and comorbid ADHD/ADHD-like symptoms.
Tellegen, Cassandra L.; Sanders, Matthew R.
Parenting is central to the health and well-being of children. Children with developmental disabilities have been shown to be at increased risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. Parent training programs are effective interventions for improving child behavior and family functioning. This paper describes the outcomes of a brief 4-session parenting intervention (Primary Care Stepping Stones Triple P) targeting compliance and cooperative play skills in an 8-year-old girl with Asperger's disorder and ADHD combined type. The intervention was associated with decreases in child behavior problems, increases in parenting confidence, and decreases in dysfunctional parenting styles. This paper demonstrates that low-intensity parenting interventions can lead to significant improvements in child behavior and family functioning. Such brief interventions are cost effective, can be widely disseminated, and have been designed to be delivered within primary health care settings. Pediatricians can play a key role in identifying parents in need of assistance and in helping them access evidence-based parenting interventions. PMID:22928141
Manassaram, Deana M; Backer, Lorraine C; Moll, Deborah M
In this review we present an update on maternal exposure to nitrates in drinking water in relation to possible adverse reproductive and developmental effects, and also discuss nitrates in drinking water in the United States. The current standard for nitrates in drinking water is based on retrospective studies and approximates a level that protects infants from methemoglobinemia, but no safety factor is built into the standard. The current standard applies only to public water systems. Drinking water source was related to nitrate exposure (i.e., private systems water was more likely than community system water to have nitrate levels above the maximum contaminant limit). Animal studies have found adverse reproductive effects resulting from higher doses of nitrate or nitrite. The epidemiologic evidence of a direct exposure-response relationship between drinking water nitrate level and adverse reproductive effect is still not clear. However, some reports have suggested an association between exposure to nitrates in drinking water and spontaneous abortions, intrauterine growth restriction, and various birth defects. Uncertainties in epidemiologic studies include the lack of individual exposure assessment that would rule out confounding of the exposure with some other cause. Nitrates may be just one of the contaminants in drinking water contributing to adverse outcomes. We conclude that the current literature does not provide sufficient evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to nitrates in drinking water and adverse reproductive effects. Future studies incorporating individual exposure assessment about users of private wells--the population most at risk--should be considered.
Manassaram, Deana M.; Backer, Lorraine C.; Moll, Deborah M.
In this review we present an update on maternal exposure to nitrates in drinking water in relation to possible adverse reproductive and developmental effects, and also discuss nitrates in drinking water in the United States. The current standard for nitrates in drinking water is based on retrospective studies and approximates a level that protects infants from methemoglobinemia, but no safety factor is built into the standard. The current standard applies only to public water systems. Drinking water source was related to nitrate exposure (i.e., private systems water was more likely than community system water to have nitrate levels above the maximum contaminant limit). Animal studies have found adverse reproductive effects resulting from higher doses of nitrate or nitrite. The epidemiologic evidence of a direct exposure–response relationship between drinking water nitrate level and adverse reproductive effect is still not clear. However, some reports have suggested an association between exposure to nitrates in drinking water and spontaneous abortions, intrauterine growth restriction, and various birth defects. Uncertainties in epidemiologic studies include the lack of individual exposure assessment that would rule out confounding of the exposure with some other cause. Nitrates may be just one of the contaminants in drinking water contributing to adverse outcomes. We conclude that the current literature does not provide sufficient evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to nitrates in drinking water and adverse reproductive effects. Future studies incorporating individual exposure assessment about users of private wells—the population most at risk—should be considered. PMID:16507452
Myrick, Jessica Gall; Noar, Seth M; Kelley, Dannielle; Zeitany, Alexandra E
Background Unlike other types of cancer, skin cancer incidence rates are on the rise and adolescent females are particularly likely to tan indoors, a major risk factor. However, little research has examined the role of media use in encouraging or discouraging this dangerous behavior in this population. Aims To empirically assess the links between media use, indoor tanning-related outcome expectations, and behavioral intentions. Method A survey of adolescent females (N = 510) ages 15 to 18 in the Southeastern United States assessed demographics, types of media use, and indoor tanning intentions. Results Significant correlations between media use and indoor tanning outcome expectations were found. Use of interpersonal and social media (i.e., talking on the phone, texting, and online social media) were positively associated with positive outcome expectations about indoor tanning and negatively associated with negative outcome expectations. A path analysis revealed that interpersonal/social media use had indirect associations with indoor tanning intentions via tanning outcome expectations. Mass media use (e.g., news media, entertainment media, and magazines) was not significantly associated with most indoor tanning outcome expectations but did have a direct negative association with behavioral intentions. Discussion There are important relationships between media use, indoor tanning outcome expectations, and behavioral intentions. Interpersonal and social media use may help cultivate outcome expectations that encourage indoor tanning, which in turn may increase intentions to tan, while news media consumption in particular may reduce intentions to tan. Conclusion These findings highlight the social nature of adolescent females and point to specific intervention channels for reducing indoor tanning among this population.
Barnett, Marie; McDonnell, Glynnis; DeRosa, Antonio; Schuler, Tammy; Philip, Errol; Peterson, Lisa; Touza, Kaitlin; Jhanwar, Sabrina; Atkinson, Thomas M.; Ford, Jennifer S.
Purpose A cancer diagnosis during adolescence or young adulthood (AYA; defined as ages 15–39) generates unique medical and psychosocial needs as developmental milestones are simultaneously impacted. Past research highlights that AYAs’ experiences and psychosocial outcomes are different, and more research and attention is needed. We aimed to identify and synthesize literature regarding psychosocial outcomes, unique needs, and existing psychosocial interventions pertaining to individuals diagnosed with cancer exclusively during AYA, and to highlight areas for future research. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, and PsycINFO (via OVID). Grey literature was searched using key term variations and combinations. Overall, 15,301 records were assessed by two independent reviewers, with 38 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Results Data synthesis of the 38 articles was organized by four main themes based on quality of life and survivorship: physical well-being (7 studies), psychological well-being (8 studies), social well-being (9 studies), and survivorship care (14 studies). The paucity of studies for such broad inclusion criteria highlights that this population is often combined or subsumed under other age groups, missing needs unique to these AYAs. Conclusions AYA cancer survivors’ experiences are nuanced, with interacting variables contributing to post-treatment outcomes. AYAs require age-appropriate and flexible care, informational needs and treatment-related education that foster autonomy for long-term survivorship, as well as improved follow-up care and psychological outcomes. Implications for Cancer Survivors By incorporating these findings into practice, the informational and unmet needs of AYAs can be addressed effectively. Education and programming is lacking specific and general subject matter specific to AYAs, incorporating ranging needs at different treatment stages. PMID
Milburn, Norweeta G; Lightfoot, Marguerita
Adolescents in wartime US military families are a unique group of young people who are experiencing the usual milestones of adolescent development, including establishing their identities and becoming autonomous, while they face the challenges of military life such as multiple frequent moves, relocation, and parent deployment to combat settings. This paper reviews research on adolescents in wartime US military families, within the context of adolescent development, to identify their behavioral, emotional and academic risk status, and challenges and resources. Recommendations for future research and interventions to foster the healthy development of these adolescents are also provided.
Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Gregg, Noel
A longitudinal sample from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 was used to determine differences in work outcomes between (a) individuals with learning disabilities or emotional-behavior disorders and (b) individuals with or without disabilities. Twelve factors were arranged into individual, family, school-peer, and community categories.…
Molitor, Stephen J.; Langberg, Joshua M.; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D.; Dvorsky, Melissa R.; Evans, Steven W.
Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience a host of negative academic outcomes, and deficits in reading and mathematics abilities contribute to these academic impairments. Students with ADHD may also have difficulties with written expression, but there has been minimal research in this area and it is not clear…
Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Paddock, Susan M; Ebener, Patricia; Dahl, Jim; Mandell, Wallace
This study examined associations of a new multidimensional measure of therapeutic community (TC) treatment process, the Dimensions of Change Instrument (DCI), with treatment retention (n = 397) and posttreatment outcomes (n = 207) among adolescent residential clients. Adolescents who increased during the first 30 days in treatment on three of the eight DCI factors (Positive Self-Attitude and Commitment to Abstinence; Problem Recognition; Social Network) were more likely to stay in treatment for 90 days or more. Although change in DCI factor scores was not directly predictive of posttreatment outcomes, staying in treatment for 90 days or more increased the likelihood of attending 12-step meetings and having a 12-step sponsor after leaving treatment. Several demographic and pretreatment characteristics also predicted retention, posttreatment outcomes, or both. Much remains to be learned about how the TC treatment process produces positive outcomes for adolescents; however, results from this study highlight components of the treatment process that may be particularly important for practitioners to consider and monitor in their clients.
Balsa, Ana I; Homer, Jenny F; French, Michael T; Weisner, Constance M
Although the primary outcome of interest in clinical evaluations of addiction treatment programs is usually abstinence, participation in these programs can have a wide range of consequences. This study evaluated the effects of treatment initiation on substance use, school attendance, employment, and involvement in criminal activity at 12 months post-admission for 419 adolescents (aged 12 to 18) enrolled in chemical dependency recovery programs in a large managed care health plan. Instrumental variables estimation methods were used to account for unobserved selection into treatment by jointly modeling the likelihood of participation in treatment and the odds of attaining a certain outcome or level of an outcome. Treatment initiation significantly increased the likelihood of attending school, promoted abstinence, and decreased the probability of adolescent employment, but it did not significantly affect participation in criminal activity at the 12-month follow-up. These findings highlight the need to address selection in a non-experimental study and demonstrate the importance of considering multiple outcomes when assessing the effectiveness of adolescent treatment.
Rekker, Roderik; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim
This three-wave cohort-sequential longitudinal study (N = 1302) examined the development of two core political attitudes, economic egalitarianism and ethnocentrism, among Dutch youths between age 12 and 31. Longitudinal regression analyses revealed a curvilinear mean level development for both attitudes, reflecting an increased disagreement with economic redistribution and multiculturalism around late adolescence. Furthermore, attitudes became decreasingly polarized (i.e., less extreme) and increasingly stable with age. Finally, several effects of attitudes' correlates gradually changed: The effect of educational level on ethnocentrism increased with age, whereas the effect of gender diminished. Regional effects on ethnocentrism developed as youths resided in a new area. No age-related change was found in the effect of parental SES. Overall, these findings support the idea that attitudes mature during the formative phase of adolescence and that this process slows down during emerging adulthood. Furthermore, these results support developmental explanations for the association between attitudes and their correlates.
Duchesne, Stéphane; Ratelle, Catherine F
This longitudinal study investigated the links between adolescents' perceptions of attachment security in their relationships with their mothers and fathers and developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms in a community sample of 414 adolescents (45 % males). The participants were followed annually from age 11 (end of elementary school) to 16 (end of high school). Group-based trajectory modeling analyses conditional on risk and protective factors identified four trajectories of depressive symptoms across adolescence: moderate stable (MS; 54.57 % of the sample), low stable (LS; 27.16 %), moderate increasing (MI; 11.30 %), and high declining (HD; 6.97 %). Membership in the HD versus LS trajectory group was predicted by attachment security to both the mother and father at baseline (age 11), whereas attachment security to the mother increased the odds of belonging to the MS and MI groups. These relationships were statistically significant after controlling for gender, anxiety symptoms, and academic competence. The findings are discussed with respect to their contribution to attachment theory and the research on the complementary contributions of mothers and fathers to the prevention of depressive symptomatology during adolescence.
Resetar Volz, Jennifer L; Cook, Clayton R
This study examines developmental, clinical, gender, and ethnic group differences in preference in residentially placed children and adolescents. In addition, this study considers whether residentially placed youth prefer stimuli currently being used as rewards as part of a campuswide token economy system and whether youth would identify preferred stimuli that are not currently offered. The article discusses a survey devised specifically for the purpose of this study. Stimuli currently offered as rewards are listed and rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Results indicate that the majority of stimuli available within the token economy system were rated as preferred. Also, significant developmental, clinical, gender, and ethnic group differences are found, indicating the benefit of considering group-level characteristics when designing and implementing a groupwide token economy system. The implications of the results and directions for future research are discussed.
Kennedy, Angie C
The federal welfare reforms of 1996 mandated that all minor adolescent mothers receiving cash assistance must attend school and live at home to receive their cash grant. Though this law has been in place for over 8 years, little research has been done that explores the barriers facing adolescent mothers who try to attend school and live at home. Anecdotal and qualitative evidence from welfare reform evaluation studies suggests that violence may be just such a barrier. This article reviews the recent empirical literature on urban adolescent mothers' exposure to multiple forms of violence. The author delineates and critiques the existing research on the prevalence of and outcomes linked with exposure to community violence, witnessed parental violence, physical abuse within the family, and partner violence among this population. The article concludes with recommendations for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in light of the reviewed findings.
Kwok, Stephen Wai Hang; Lee, Paul Hong; Lee, Regina Lai Tong
Excessive electronic screen-based activities have been found to be associated with negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalences and patterns of smart device activities and the purposes and perceived outcomes related to smart device use, and the differences in patterns of smart device activities between adolescents who did and did not perceive these outcomes. The study was a cross-sectional survey of Hong Kong primary and secondary school students. Demographic characteristics, purpose and pattern of the activities, and frequencies of the outcomes were measured. Data from 960 adolescents aged 10-19 were analyzed. Nearly 86% of the sample use smart device daily. The one-week prevalence of perceived sleep deprivation, eye discomfort, musculoskeletal discomfort, family conflict and cyberbullying victimization related to smart device use were nearly 50%, 45%, 40%, 20% and 5% respectively. More than 25% of the respondents were at risk of negative outcomes related to smart device activities for more than 1 h per day, browsing and gaming on at least 4 days per week and watching TV/movies and posting on more than 2 days per week. Their patterns of smart device activities may put a significant number of them at risk of negative outcomes.
Kwok, Stephen Wai Hang; Lee, Paul Hong; Lee, Regina Lai Tong
Excessive electronic screen-based activities have been found to be associated with negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalences and patterns of smart device activities and the purposes and perceived outcomes related to smart device use, and the differences in patterns of smart device activities between adolescents who did and did not perceive these outcomes. The study was a cross-sectional survey of Hong Kong primary and secondary school students. Demographic characteristics, purpose and pattern of the activities, and frequencies of the outcomes were measured. Data from 960 adolescents aged 10–19 were analyzed. Nearly 86% of the sample use smart device daily. The one-week prevalence of perceived sleep deprivation, eye discomfort, musculoskeletal discomfort, family conflict and cyberbullying victimization related to smart device use were nearly 50%, 45%, 40%, 20% and 5% respectively. More than 25% of the respondents were at risk of negative outcomes related to smart device activities for more than 1 h per day, browsing and gaming on at least 4 days per week and watching TV/movies and posting on more than 2 days per week. Their patterns of smart device activities may put a significant number of them at risk of negative outcomes. PMID:28218719
Garber, Judy; Frankel, Sarah A; Herrington, Catherine G
Although some treatments for depression in children and adolescents have been found to be efficacious, the effects sizes have tended to be modest. Thus, there is considerable room to improve upon existing depression treatments. Some children may respond poorly because they do not yet have the cognitive, social, or emotional maturity needed to understand and apply the skills being taught in therapy. Therefore, treatments for depression may need to be tailored to match children's ability to both comprehend and implement the therapeutic techniques. This review outlines the steps needed for such developmental tailoring: (a) Specify the skills being taught in depression treatments; (b) identify what cognitive, social, and emotional developmental abilities are needed to attain these skills; (c) describe the normative developmental course of these skills and how to determine a child's developmental level; and (d) use this information to design an individualized treatment plan. Possible approaches to intervening include: alter the therapy to meet the child's level of development, train the child on the skills needed to engage in the therapy, or apply a dynamic assessment approach that integrates evaluation into treatment and measures children's current abilities as well as their potential.
Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W.
Background Although infants born to adolescent mothers are at increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, little is known about contributors to birth outcomes in this group. Given past research linking partner abuse to adverse birth outcomes among adult mothers, we explored associations between pre-pregnancy verbal and physical dating violence and the birthweight and gestational age of infants born to adolescent mothers. Methods Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Waves I (1995/96), II (1996), and IV (2007/08) were analyzed. Girls whose first singleton live births occurred after Wave II interview and before age 20 (n=558) self-reported infants’ birth weight and gestational age at Wave IV. Dating violence victimization (verbal and physical) in the 18 months prior to Wave II interview was self-reported. Controls included Wave I age; parent education; age at pregnancy; time between reporting abuse and birth; and childhood physical and sexual abuse. Weighted multivariable regression models were performed separately by race (Black/non-Black). Results On average, births occurred two years after Wave II interview. Almost one in four mothers reported verbal dating violence victimization (23.6%), and 10.1% reported physical victimization. Birthweight and prevalence of verbal dating violence victimization were significantly lower in Black compared to non-Black teen mothers. In multivariable analyses, negative associations between physical dating abuse and birth outcomes became stronger as time increased for Black mothers. For example, pre-pregnancy physical dating abuse was associated with 0.79 kilograms lower birthweight (p<.001) and 4.72 fewer weeks gestational age (p<0.01) for Black mothers who gave birth two years post-reporting abuse. Physical dating abuse was unassociated with birth outcomes among non-Black mothers, and verbal abuse was unassociated with birth outcomes for all mothers. Conclusions Reducing physical dating violence in
Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J; Kochanska, Grazyna
A developmental cascade from positive early parent-child relationship to child security with the parent to adaptive socialization outcomes, proposed in attachment theory and often implicitly accepted but rarely formally tested, was examined in 100 mothers, fathers, and children followed from toddler age to preadolescence. Parent-child Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) was observed in lengthy interactions at 38, 52, 67, and 80 months; children reported their security with parents at age eight. Socialization outcomes (parent- and child-reported cooperation with parental monitoring and teacher-reported school competence) were assessed at age 10. Mediation was tested with PROCESS. The parent-child history of MRO significantly predicted both mother-child and father-child security. For mother-child dyads, security mediated links between history of MRO and cooperation with maternal monitoring and school competence, controlling for developmental continuity of the studied constructs. For father-child dyads, the mediation effect was not evident.
Bonner, Matthew R.; Hendy, Olfat; Abdel Rasoul, Gaafar; Wang, Kai; Olson, James R.; Rohlman, Diane S.
Pesticide-exposed adolescents may have a higher risk of neurotoxic effects because of their developing brains and bodies. However, only a limited number of studies have addressed this risk among adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare neurological outcomes from two cohorts of Egyptian adolescents working as pesticide applicators. In 2005 and 2009, two cohorts of male adolescents working as pesticide applicators for the cotton crop were recruited from Menoufia Governorate, Egypt. The same application schedule and pesticides were used at both times, including both organophosphorus, and pyrethroid compounds. Participants in both cohorts completed three neurobehavioral tests, health and exposure questionnaires, and medical and neurological screening examinations. In addition, blood samples were collected to measure butyryl cholinesterase (BChE) activity. Pesticide applicators in both cohorts reported more neurological symptoms and signs than non-applicators, particularly among participants in the 2005 cohort (OR ranged from 1.18 to 15.3). Except for one test (Trail Making B), there were no significant differences between either applicators or non-applicators of both cohorts on the neurobehavioral outcome measures (p > 0.05). The 2005 cohort showed greater inhibition of serum BChE activity than the 2009 cohort (p < 0.05). In addition, participants with depressed BChE activity showed more symptoms and signs than others without BChE depression (p < 0.05). Our study is the first to examine the consistency of health outcomes associated with pesticide exposure across two cohorts tested at different times from the same geographical region in rural Egypt. This similar pattern of findings across the two cohorts provides strong evidence of the health impact of exposure of adolescents to pesticides. PMID:28231336
Ismail, Ahmed A; Bonner, Matthew R; Hendy, Olfat; Abdel Rasoul, Gaafar; Wang, Kai; Olson, James R; Rohlman, Diane S
Pesticide-exposed adolescents may have a higher risk of neurotoxic effects because of their developing brains and bodies. However, only a limited number of studies have addressed this risk among adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare neurological outcomes from two cohorts of Egyptian adolescents working as pesticide applicators. In 2005 and 2009, two cohorts of male adolescents working as pesticide applicators for the cotton crop were recruited from Menoufia Governorate, Egypt. The same application schedule and pesticides were used at both times, including both organophosphorus, and pyrethroid compounds. Participants in both cohorts completed three neurobehavioral tests, health and exposure questionnaires, and medical and neurological screening examinations. In addition, blood samples were collected to measure butyryl cholinesterase (BChE) activity. Pesticide applicators in both cohorts reported more neurological symptoms and signs than non-applicators, particularly among participants in the 2005 cohort (OR ranged from 1.18 to 15.3). Except for one test (Trail Making B), there were no significant differences between either applicators or non-applicators of both cohorts on the neurobehavioral outcome measures (p > 0.05). The 2005 cohort showed greater inhibition of serum BChE activity than the 2009 cohort (p < 0.05). In addition, participants with depressed BChE activity showed more symptoms and signs than others without BChE depression (p < 0.05). Our study is the first to examine the consistency of health outcomes associated with pesticide exposure across two cohorts tested at different times from the same geographical region in rural Egypt. This similar pattern of findings across the two cohorts provides strong evidence of the health impact of exposure of adolescents to pesticides.
Molitor, Stephen J; Langberg, Joshua M; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Evans, Steven W
Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience a host of negative academic outcomes, and deficits in reading and mathematics abilities contribute to these academic impairments. Students with ADHD may also have difficulties with written expression, but there has been minimal research in this area and it is not clear whether written expression abilities uniquely contribute to the academic functioning of students with ADHD. The current study included a sample of 104 middle school students diagnosed with ADHD (Grades 6-8). Participants were followed longitudinally to evaluate whether written expression abilities at baseline predicted student grade point average (GPA) and parent ratings of academic impairment 18 months later, after controlling for reading ability and additional relevant covariates. Written expression abilities longitudinally predicted both academic outcomes above and beyond ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, medication use, reading ability, and baseline values of GPA and parent-rated academic impairment. Follow-up analyses revealed that no single aspect of written expression was demonstrably more impactful on academic outcomes than the others, suggesting that writing as an entire process should be the focus of intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record
Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Atwood, Katharine A.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee
Due to concerns over Thai adolescent risky behaviors, effective prevention strategies are needed. Determining the role neighborhood context plays in program engagement and outcomes may inform these strategies. This study includes 170 mother-adolescent pairs (M = 13.44, SD = 0.52) in Bangkok, Thailand in a prevention program for adolescent…
Tucker, Anita R.; Bettmann, Joanna E.; Norton, Christine L.; Comart, Casey
Background: Considering the sensitive ethical issues related to involuntary treatment of adolescents, research investigating youth transport practices and treatment outcomes is clearly needed. Youth transport is common practice in many private pay programs, including wilderness therapy programs. Objective: This study of 350 adolescents in…
Jacobs, Rachel H.; Silva, Susan G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Curry, John F.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; March, John S.
The effect of perfectionism on acute treatment outcomes was explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents (12-17 years of age) enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) who received cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), fluoxetine, a combination of CBT and FLX, or pill placebo. Measures…
Zhao, Xiaoquan; Cai, Xiaomei
The Tips From Former Smokers ("Tips") campaign in the United States primarily targets adult smokers, but considers adolescents an important secondary audience. This study examines the association between exposure to Tips and smoking outcomes in the adolescent population in the United States. We analyzed data from the 2013 National Youth…
Young, Jami F.; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura
This article reports on mother-child conflict as an outcome and moderator of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a preventive intervention for depression. Forty-one adolescents (average age = 13.37, SD = 1.19) with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Adolescents…
Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven C.; Elliott, Marc N.; Miu, Angela
Adolescent sexual health is a substantial problem in the United States, and two recent studies have linked adolescent sexual behavior and/or outcomes to youths' exposure to sex in the media. Both studies had longitudinal survey designs and used covariate-adjusted regression analysis. Steinberg and Monahan (2011) reanalyzed data from one of these…
Kim, Hyung Ryeol
By utilizing the data from 2009 International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS), this dissertation examines the extent to which countries vary in the pattern and magnitude of the discrepancy in civic outcomes among adolescents from differing family backgrounds. Among the many family background characteristics that may shape adolescents'…
Spruit, Anouk; Assink, Mark; van Vugt, Eveline; van der Put, Claudia; Stams, Geert Jan
Physical activity interventions are often implemented in the adolescent mental health care practice to prevent or treat psychosocial problems. To date, no systematic review of the effect of these physical activity interventions in adolescents has been conducted. In the current study, four multilevel meta-analyses were performed to assess the overall effect of physical activity interventions on externalizing problems, internalizing problems, self-concept, and academic achievement in adolescents. In addition, possible moderating factors were examined. In total, 57 studies reporting on 216 effect sizes were included, and the results showed significant small-to-moderate effects of physical activity interventions on externalizing problems (d=0.320), internalizing problems (d=0.316), self-concept (d=0.297), and academic achievement (d=0.367). Further, moderator analyses showed that outcome, study, sample, and intervention characteristics influenced the effects of physical activity interventions on psychosocial outcomes. Implications for theory and practice concerning the use of physical activity interventions in adolescent mental health care practice are discussed.
Costello, E. Jane; Maughan, Barbara
Background ‘Optimal outcomes’ of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders may mean the best possible outcome, or the best considering a child’s history. Most research into the outcomes of child and adolescent psychiatric disorder concentrates on the likelihood of adult illness and disability given an earlier history of psychopathology. Methods In this article we review the research literature (based on a literature search using PubMed, RePORT and Google Advanced Scholar databases) on optimal outcomes for young people with a history of anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, or substance use disorders in childhood or adolescence. We consider three types of risks that these children may run later in development: future episodes of the same disorder, future episodes of a different disorder, and functional impairment. The impact of treatment or preventative interventions on early adult functioning is briefly reviewed. Results We found that very few studies enabled us to answer our questions with certainty, but that in general about half of adults with a psychiatric history were disorder-free and functioning quite well in their 20s or 30s. However, their chance of functioning well was less than that of adults without a psychiatric history, even in the absence of a current disorder. Conclusions Among adults who had a psychiatric disorder as a child or adolescent, about half can be expected to be disorder-free as young adults, and of these about half will be free of significant difficulties in the areas of work, health, relationships, and crime. Optimal outcomes are predicted by a mixture of personal characteristics and environmental supports. PMID:25496295
Hodara, Michelle; Xu, Di
Many community college students start college in developmental education and leave before enrolling in college-level coursework or making much progress toward a degree; thus, developmental education courses represent the primary education these students receive. Using student-unit record data from two large community college systems linked to wage…
Magana, Sandra; Smith, Matthew J.
The impact of caring for a child with a developmental disability on the physical and mental health of Latina and Black American women was examined. We used the National Health Interview Survey to compare the health of older mothers who were co-residing with a child who had a developmental disability to the health of same age mothers without…
Keijsers, Loes; Frijns, Tom; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim
This 4-wave study among 309 Dutch adolescents and their parents examined changes in adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control and their links with the development of delinquent activities. Annually, adolescents and both parents reported on adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control, and adolescents reported on delinquent activities and parental support. Latent growth curve analyses revealed a linear decline in parental control between ages 13 and 16. Adolescent disclosure decreased gradually in adolescent reports and showed an L-shaped pattern in father reports and a V-shaped pattern in mother reports. A stronger increase in delinquent activities was related to a stronger decrease in disclosure in mother and adolescent reports and to lower levels of disclosure in father reports. The linkages between levels of disclosure and delinquent activities were stronger in families with high parental support than in families with lower support. Furthermore, in lower parental support families, a stronger decrease in paternal control was related to a stronger increase in delinquent activities. In high parental support families, however, a stronger decrease in adolescent-reported parental control was related to a less strong increase in delinquent activities.
Allan, Nicholas P; Capron, Daniel W; Lejuez, Carl W; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B
Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of anxiety psychopathology. This study prospectively examined the development of anxiety symptoms in a sample of 277 adolescents (M age = 11.52; 44 % female, 56 % male) over a 3 year period including the influence of anxiety sensitivity on this development. Further, this study investigated whether there were distinct classes of adolescents based on their anxiety symptom trajectories and including anxiety sensitivity as a predictor. Consistent with other reports, findings indicated an overall decline in anxiety symptoms over time in the sample. However, three classes of adolescents were found with distinct anxiety symptom trajectories and anxiety sensitivity was an important predictor of class membership. Adolescents with elevated anxiety sensitivity scores were more likely to be classified as having high and increasing anxiety symptoms over time versus having moderate to low and decreasing anxiety symptoms over time. There are important implications for identification of adolescents and children who are at risk for the development of an anxiety disorder.
Plaisier, Xanthe S.; Konijn, Elly A.
Adolescence is an important developmental stage during which both peers and the media have a strong influence. Both peer rejection and the use of morally adverse media are associated with negative developmental outcomes. This study examines processes by which peer rejection might drive adolescents to select antisocial media content by tying…
Brown, Eric C.; Catalano, Richard F.; Fleming, Charles B.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Abbott, Robert D.
Raising Healthy Children (RHC) is a preventive intervention designed to promote positive youth development by targeting developmentally appropriate risk and protective factors. In this study, the authors tested the efficacy of the RHC intervention on reducing adolescent alcohol, marijuana, and cigarette use. Ten public schools, which comprised 959…
Grimbos, Teresa; Granic, Isabela
The efficacy of Multisystemic therapy (MST) in treating adolescent aggression has been established, however, not all youth and their families benefit from MST. One reason for this treatment variability could be the failure to distinguish between different aggressive subtypes with different risk factors, developmental prognoses and treatment needs.…
Wallace, Jacqueline M; Milne, John S; Redmer, Dale A; Aitken, Raymond P
When pregnant adolescent sheep are overnourished to promote maternal growth during pregnancy, growth of the placenta is impaired and results in the premature delivery of low birth weight lambs relative to control-fed adolescents of equivalent age. These effects have been achieved by feeding two levels of the same complete diet. The present study evaluated the role of protein in pregnancy outcome in our adolescent sheep paradigm. Adolescent ewes were implanted with single embryos on day 4 post-oestrus. Thereafter ewes were offered ad libitum an isoenergetic diet (11.4 MJ metabolisable energy/kg DM) containing either 12% (basic, B) or 17% (extra, E) crude protein. At day 75 of gestation, half the pregnant ewes on each protein level were switched to yield four groups, BB, EE, BE and EB protein. A further optimally nourished control group received a moderate quantity of a ration (14% crude protein) designed to provide 100% of the estimated energy and protein requirement of the adolescent sheep according to stage of pregnancy. Pregnancy outcome was determined at term. Feed intakes were independent of protein level in the four groups of ewes fed ad libitum and were higher (P<0.001) than in the control group throughout. Maternal plasma urea concentrations reflected the current crude protein content of the diet offered and were elevated in the 17% compared with 12% protein groups (P<0.001). Within groups fed ad libitum, maternal plasma insulin, glucose, NEFA and homocysteine concentrations were largely independent of protein level. Gestation length, placental weight, lamb birth weight and initial colostrum yield were reduced (P<0.05) in all groups fed ad libitum relative to the optimally nourished control group. Similarly, total colostrum IgG, butterfat, lactose and crude protein content at parturition were attenuated in the ad libitum compared with the control groups. However, within ad libitum groups pregnancy outcome parameters were largely unaffected by level or timing
Crawford, Thomas N.; Cohen, Patricia; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Sneed, Joel R.; Brook, Judith S.
Personality disorder symptoms were investigated in a community sample of young people (n = 714) to assess their relationship over time with well-being during adolescence and the emergence of intimacy in early adulthood. Drawing on Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, changes in adolescent well-being were conceptualized as indirect…
Keijsers, Loes; Voelkle, Manuel C.; Maciejewski, Dominique; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans; Hiemstra, Marieke; Meeus, Wim
This study aimed to gain a better understanding of the normative declines in adolescent disclosure and maternal knowledge over the course of adolescence, by assessing the underlying monitoring processes. Multilevel structural equation models were applied to 15 assessments among 479 families across 5 years (13 years at T1, 57% boys, 11% low…
Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing
This study examined the trajectories of sexual risk behaviors among adolescents from ages 15 to 23 and factors associated with those trajectories. The sample was 5,419 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using group-based trajectory modeling, five distinctive trajectory groups were identified. The High group had a high…
Rubino, Tiziana; Prini, Pamela; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Zamberletti, Erica; Trusel, Massimo; Melis, Miriam; Sagheddu, Claudia; Ligresti, Alessia; Tonini, Raffaella; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Parolaro, Daniela
Current concepts suggest that exposure to THC during adolescence may act as a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. However, the molecular underpinnings of this vulnerability are still poorly understood. To analyze this, we investigated whether and how THC exposure in female rats interferes with different maturational events occurring in the prefrontal cortex during adolescence through biochemical, pharmacological and electrophysiological means. We found that the endocannabinoid system undergoes maturational processes during adolescence and that THC exposure disrupts them, leading to impairment of both endocannabinoid signaling and endocannabinoid-mediated LTD in the adult prefrontal cortex. THC also altered the maturational fluctuations of NMDA subunits, leading to larger amounts of gluN2B at adulthood. Adult animals exposed to THC during adolescence also showed increased AMPA gluA1 with no changes in gluA2 subunits. Finally, adolescent THC exposure altered cognition at adulthood. All these effects seem to be triggered by the disruption of the physiological role played by the endocannabinoid system during adolescence. Indeed, blockade of CB1 receptors from early to late adolescence seems to prevent the occurrence of pruning at glutamatergic synapses. These results suggest that vulnerability of adolescent female rats to long-lasting THC adverse effects might partly reside in disruption of the pivotal role played by the endocannabinoid system in the prefrontal cortex maturation.
McHale, Susan M.; Shanahan, Lilly; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Crouter, Ann C.; Booth, Alan
Girls' time in sex-typed leisure activities was studied across 2 years in middle childhood (n=98, M=8.2 years in Year 1), early adolescence (n=106, M=11.7 years), and middle adolescence (n=86, M=14.9 years). In annual home interviews, White middle-class girls, mothers, and fathers rated their gendered attitudes, interests, and personality…
Kandel, Denise B.; And Others
Predictors associated with adolescents' initiation into three cumulative stages of drug use--hard liquor, marihuana, and other illicit drugs--were investigated. The strongest predictors were prior involvement in deviant behavior (hard liquor); peer influence, and adolescent beliefs and values (marihuana); and relationship to parents, and…
Essex, Marilyn J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Hertzman, Clyde; Lam, Lucia L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Neumann, Sarah M. A.; Kobor, Michael S.
Fifteen-year-old adolescents (N = 109) in a longitudinal study of child development were recruited to examine differences in DNA methylation in relation to parent reports of adversity during the adolescents' infancy and preschool periods. Microarray technology applied to 28,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide sites within DNA derived from buccal…
Wray-Lake, Laura; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.
Longitudinal patterns in parents' reports of youth decision-making autonomy from ages 9 to 20 were examined in a study of 201 European American families with 2 offspring. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that decision-making autonomy increased gradually across middle childhood and adolescence before rising sharply in late adolescence. Social…
Tarrant, Mark; MacKenzie, Liam; Hewitt, Lisa A.
This study applied a social identity perspective to the study of adolescent self-concept and social development. British adolescents aged 14-15 years (N=114) completed a questionnaire which asked them to: (i) rate their degree of identification with a school-based friendship group; (ii) complete a measure of multi-dimensional self-concept; and…