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Sample records for adolescent developmental outcomes

  1. Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…

  2. Developmental Outcomes of Extremely Preterm Infants Born to Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Bann, Carla; Higgins, Rosemary; Vohr, Betty

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extremely preterm infants and infants born to adolescent mothers are at risk for adverse developmental. The objectives were to evaluate development and behavior outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born to adolescent mothers <20 compared with adult mothers ≥20 years and to identify socioeconomic risk factors that affect outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of 211 infants >27 weeks of adolescent mothers and 1723 infants of adult mothers at Neonatal Research Network centers from 2008 to 2011. Groups were compared and regression models were run to predict 18- to 22-month adverse outcomes. Primary outcomes were Bayley-III scores, neurodevelopmental impairment, and Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment problem scores (BITSEA/P) ≥75th percentile. RESULTS: Adolescent mothers were more often single, Hispanic, less educated, and had public insurance. By 18 to 22 months, their children had significantly increased rates of having lived ≥3 places (21% vs 9%), state supervision (7% vs 3%), rehospitalization (56% vs 46%), and BITSEA/P ≥75th percentile (50% vs 32%) and nonsignificant Bayley-III language scores <85 (56% vs 49%, P = .07). In regression analysis, children of adolescent mothers were more likely to have BITSEA/P ≥75th percentile (relative risk 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.08–2.07). Living ≥3 places and nonwhite race were predictors of adverse behavior. State supervision was an independent predictor of each Bayley-III composite <70 and neurodevelopmental impairment. CONCLUSIONS: ELBW infants of adolescent mothers experience high social and environmental risks that are associated with adverse behavior outcomes. These findings inform the need for comprehensive follow-up, coordinated care services, and behavior interventions for ELBW infants of adolescent mothers. PMID:25963007

  3. Use of harsh physical discipline and developmental outcomes in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bender, Heather L; Allen, Joseph P; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Antonishak, Jill; Moore, Cynthia M; Kelly, Heather O'Beirne; Davis, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    A history of exposure to harsh physical discipline has been linked to negative outcomes for children, ranging from conduct disorder to depression and low self-esteem. The present study extends this work into adolescence, and examines the relationship of lifetime histories of harsh discipline to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing symptoms and to their developing capacities for establishing autonomy and relatedness in family interactions. Adolescent and parent reports of harsh discipline, independently coded observations of conflictual interactions, and adolescent reports of symptoms were obtained for 141 adolescents at age 16. Both parents' use of harsh discipline was related to greater adolescent depression and externalizing behavior, even when these effects were examined over and above the effects of other parenting measures known to account for these symptoms. Adolescents exposed to harsh discipline from mothers were also less likely to appear warm and engaged during an interaction task with their mothers. It is suggested that a history of harsh discipline is associated not only with social and emotional functioning, but also with the developmental task of autonomy and relatedness.

  4. Use of harsh physical discipline and developmental outcomes in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    BENDER, HEATHER L.; ALLEN, JOSEPH P.; McELHANEY, KATHLEEN BOYKIN; ANTONISHAK, JILL; MOORE, CYNTHIA M.; KELLY, HEATHER O’BEIRNE; DAVIS, STEVEN M.

    2012-01-01

    A history of exposure to harsh physical discipline has been linked to negative outcomes for children, ranging from conduct disorder to depression and low self-esteem. The present study extends this work into adolescence, and examines the relationship of lifetime histories of harsh discipline to adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing symptoms and to their developing capacities for establishing autonomy and relatedness in family interactions. Adolescent and parent reports of harsh discipline, independently coded observations of conflictual interactions, and adolescent reports of symptoms were obtained for 141 adolescents at age 16. Both parents’ use of harsh discipline was related to greater adolescent depression and externalizing behavior, even when these effects were examined over and above the effects of other parenting measures known to account for these symptoms. Adolescents exposed to harsh discipline from mothers were also less likely to appear warm and engaged during an interaction task with their mothers. It is suggested that a history of harsh discipline is associated not only with social and emotional functioning, but also with the developmental task of autonomy and relatedness. PMID:17241492

  5. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage.

  6. Family Context, Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers' Parenting Knowledge, and Children's Subsequent Developmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jahromi, Laudan B.; Guimond, Amy B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Toomey, Russell B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parenting knowledge among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 191; M age = 16.26 years), family contextual factors associated with adolescents' parenting knowledge, and toddlers' (M age = 2.01 years) subsequent developmental outcomes. Data came from home interviews and direct child assessments. Adolescents both under- and over-estimated children's developmental timing, and showed differences in their knowledge of specific developmental domains. Instrumental support from mother figures was positively linked to adolescents' knowledge accuracy, whereas emotional support was negatively related to adolescents' knowledge confidence. Furthermore, whereas mother figures' autonomy-granting was positively linked to knowledge confidence, psychological control was associated with less accurate adolescent parenting knowledge. Toddlers of adolescents with more accurate knowledge showed positive developmental functioning. Intervention implications are discussed. PMID:24004448

  7. Familism as a Predictor of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Developmental Outcomes for Adolescents in Armenian American Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Supple, Andrew J.; Plunkett, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated associations between familism, parent-adolescent relationships, and developmental outcomes for a sample of 97 Armenian adolescents in immigrant families. Our results suggested that adolescents emphasizing family needs over their own were more likely to report conformity to parents' wishes, respect for parental authority, and…

  8. Developmental Trajectories of Boys' and Girls' Delinquency: Sex Differences and Links to Later Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Malone, Patrick S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in trajectories of delinquent behaviors over a 6-year period in adolescence and differential outcomes of these diverse developmental pathways. Participants were 754 children who were part of a longitudinal study of the development of early starting conduct problems. Four trajectory patterns were identified…

  9. Perceived Neighborhood Violence, Parenting Styles, and Developmental Outcomes among Spanish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracia, Enrique; Fuentes, Maria C.; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzed perceptions of neighborhood violence of Spanish adolescents (N = 1,015) from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families, and its association with three sets of developmental outcomes (psychological, behavioral, and academic). Tests of main and interactive effects were conducted to answer research…

  10. Adolescent-Onset Depression: Are Obesity and Inflammation Developmental Mechanisms or Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Byrne, Michelle L; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Mitchell, Sarah A; Allen, Nicholas B

    2015-12-01

    Depression often has its first onset during adolescence and is associated with obesity. Furthermore, inflammatory processes have been implicated in both depression and obesity, although research amongst adolescents is limited. This review explores associations between depression and obesity, depression and inflammation, and obesity and inflammation from a developmental perspective. The temporal relations between these factors are examined to explore whether obesity and elevated inflammation act as either risk factors for, or outcomes of, adolescent-onset depression. Sex differences in these processes are also summarized. We propose a model whereby increases in sex hormones during puberty increase risk for depression for females, which can lead to obesity, which in turn increases levels of inflammation. Importantly, this model suggests that inflammation and obesity are outcomes of adolescent depression, rather than initial contributing causes. Further research on biological and psychosocial effects of sex hormones is needed, as is longitudinal research with children and adolescents.

  11. Mother-Child Discrepancy in Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Families Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Li, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Though growing attention has been devoted to examining informant discrepancies of family attributes in social science research, studies that examine how interactions between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning predict adolescent developmental outcomes in underprivileged families are severely lacking. The current study investigated the difference between mothers and adolescents in their reports of family functioning, as well as the relationships between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning and adolescent developmental outcomes in a sample of 432 Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years, 51.2 % girls, mean age of mothers = 43.5 years, 69.9 % divorced) experiencing economic disadvantage in Hong Kong. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to assess whether discrepancy in family functioning between mother reports and adolescent reports predicted resilience, beliefs in the future, cognitive competence, self-efficacy and self-determination of adolescents. The results indicated that adolescents reported family functioning more negatively than did their mothers. Polynomial regression analyses showed that the interaction term between mothers' reports and adolescents' reports of family functioning predicted adolescent developmental outcomes in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty. Basically, under poor adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescent development would be relatively better if their mothers reported more positive family functioning. In contrast, under good adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescents expressed better developmental outcomes when mothers reported lower levels of family functioning than those mothers who reported higher levels of family functioning. The findings provide insights on how congruency and discrepancy between informant reports of family functioning would influence adolescent development. Theoretical and practical implications of

  12. Mother-Child Discrepancy in Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Families Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Li, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Though growing attention has been devoted to examining informant discrepancies of family attributes in social science research, studies that examine how interactions between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning predict adolescent developmental outcomes in underprivileged families are severely lacking. The current study investigated the difference between mothers and adolescents in their reports of family functioning, as well as the relationships between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning and adolescent developmental outcomes in a sample of 432 Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years, 51.2 % girls, mean age of mothers = 43.5 years, 69.9 % divorced) experiencing economic disadvantage in Hong Kong. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to assess whether discrepancy in family functioning between mother reports and adolescent reports predicted resilience, beliefs in the future, cognitive competence, self-efficacy and self-determination of adolescents. The results indicated that adolescents reported family functioning more negatively than did their mothers. Polynomial regression analyses showed that the interaction term between mothers' reports and adolescents' reports of family functioning predicted adolescent developmental outcomes in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty. Basically, under poor adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescent development would be relatively better if their mothers reported more positive family functioning. In contrast, under good adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescents expressed better developmental outcomes when mothers reported lower levels of family functioning than those mothers who reported higher levels of family functioning. The findings provide insights on how congruency and discrepancy between informant reports of family functioning would influence adolescent development. Theoretical and practical implications of

  13. Does "Tiger Parenting" Exist? Parenting Profiles of Chinese Americans and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana; Shen, Yishan; Murtuza, Mohammed

    2013-03-01

    "Tiger parenting," as described by Chua (2011), has put parenting in Asian American families in the spotlight. The current study identified parenting profiles in Chinese American families and explored their effects on adolescent adjustment. In a three-wave longitudinal design spanning eight years, from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, adolescents (54% female), fathers and mothers from 444 Chinese American families reported on eight parenting dimensions (e.g., warmth and shaming) and six developmental outcomes (e.g., GPA and academic pressure). Latent profile analyses on the eight parenting dimensions demonstrated four parenting profiles: supportive, tiger, easygoing, and harsh parenting. Over time, the percentage of parents classified as tiger parents decreased among mothers but increased among fathers. Path analyses showed that the supportive parenting profile, which was the most common, was associated with the best developmental outcomes, followed by easygoing parenting, tiger parenting, and harsh parenting. Compared with the supportive parenting profile, a tiger parenting profile was associated with lower GPA and educational attainment, as well as less of a sense of family obligation; it was also associated with more academic pressure, more depressive symptoms and a greater sense of alienation. The current study suggests that, contrary to the common perception, tiger parenting is not the most typical parenting profile in Chinese American families, nor does it lead to optimal adjustment among Chinese American adolescents.

  14. Does “Tiger Parenting” Exist? Parenting Profiles of Chinese Americans and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana; Shen, Yishan; Murtuza, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    “Tiger parenting,” as described by Chua (2011), has put parenting in Asian American families in the spotlight. The current study identified parenting profiles in Chinese American families and explored their effects on adolescent adjustment. In a three-wave longitudinal design spanning eight years, from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, adolescents (54% female), fathers and mothers from 444 Chinese American families reported on eight parenting dimensions (e.g., warmth and shaming) and six developmental outcomes (e.g., GPA and academic pressure). Latent profile analyses on the eight parenting dimensions demonstrated four parenting profiles: supportive, tiger, easygoing, and harsh parenting. Over time, the percentage of parents classified as tiger parents decreased among mothers but increased among fathers. Path analyses showed that the supportive parenting profile, which was the most common, was associated with the best developmental outcomes, followed by easygoing parenting, tiger parenting, and harsh parenting. Compared with the supportive parenting profile, a tiger parenting profile was associated with lower GPA and educational attainment, as well as less of a sense of family obligation; it was also associated with more academic pressure, more depressive symptoms and a greater sense of alienation. The current study suggests that, contrary to the common perception, tiger parenting is not the most typical parenting profile in Chinese American families, nor does it lead to optimal adjustment among Chinese American adolescents. PMID:23646228

  15. Developmental trajectories of boys' and girls' delinquency: sex differences and links to later adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shari; Malone, Patrick S; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2010-10-01

    This study examined gender differences in trajectories of delinquent behaviors over a 6-year period in adolescence and differential outcomes of these diverse developmental pathways. Participants were 754 children who were part of a longitudinal study of the development of early starting conduct problems. Four trajectory patterns were identified across grades 7-12: increasing, desisting, chronic, and nonproblem groups. Although the proportion of boys and girls varied across the pathways, both genders were represented on these trajectories. Boys were more represented on the chronic and desisting trajectories; girls were more represented in the nonproblem group. However, the proportion of boys and girls was similar in the increasing trajectory. Trajectory membership significantly predicted age 19 outcomes for partner violence, risky sexual behavior and depression, and the risk conferred on these negative adjustment outcomes did not vary by gender. The overall pattern was characterized by poor outcomes at age 19 for youth in both the chronic and the increasing trajectories. The major conclusion is that, other than base rate differences, developmental patterns and outcomes for girls mimic those previously found for boys.

  16. Conduct Problems in Childhood and Adolescence: Developmental Trajectories, Predictors and Outcomes in a Six-Year Follow Up.

    PubMed

    López-Romero, Laura; Romero, Estrella; Andershed, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    Understanding youth conduct problems requires examination from a developmental perspective, analyzing distinctive pathways across childhood and adolescence, and identifying early predictors which will lead to specific adolescent outcomes. Bearing this in mind, developmental trajectories of conduct problems were identified from a person-oriented perspective, and using data collected from three waves over a six-year period, in a sample of Spanish children aged 6-11 at the onset of the study. Conduct problems showed five distinctive trajectories which were grouped into three major pathways in further analyses: Stable low, Stable high, and Decreasing. Associations with early personality and psychopathic traits, as well as with a wide range of adolescent behavioral and psychosocial outcomes were examined, revealing the Stable high group as exhibiting the highest risk profile. These results contribute to improving our knowledge about one of the most relevant problems in youth populations, and will help in refining interventions strategies by recognizing the developmental heterogeneity of the construct. PMID:25354563

  17. Family Context, Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers' Parenting Knowledge, and Children's Subsequent Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahromi, Laudan B.; Guimond, Amy B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Toomey, Russell B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parenting knowledge among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 191; M[subscript age] = 16.26 years), family contextual factors associated with adolescents' parenting knowledge, and toddlers' (M[subscript age] = 2.01 years) subsequent developmental outcomes. Data came from home interviews and direct child…

  18. Parenting, Community, and Religious Predictors of Positive and Negative Developmental Outcomes among Muslim Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamzah, Azimi; Ismail, Ismi Arif; Suandi, Turiman; Hamzah, Siti Raba'ah; Dahalan, Dzuhailmi; Idris, Fazilah

    2014-01-01

    Despite existing research on the contribution of social context and religiosity to adolescent behavioral outcomes, few studies have attempted to explore this topic among Muslim adolescents in non-Western settings, looking at both positive and negative outcomes. In response to this gap, the current study explored the effects of three dimensions of…

  19. Callous unemotional traits in children with disruptive behavior disorder: Predictors of developmental trajectories and adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Pietro; Lochman, John E; Manfredi, Azzurra; Milone, Annarita; Nocentini, Annalaura; Pisano, Simone; Masi, Gabriele

    2016-02-28

    The present study investigated trajectories of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnosis followed-up from childhood to adolescence, to explore possible predictors of these trajectories, and to individuate adolescent clinical outcomes. A sample of 59 Italian referred children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder (53 boys and 6 girls, 21 with Conduct Disorder) was followed up from childhood to adolescence. CU traits were assessed with CU-scale of the Antisocial Process Screening Device-parent report. Latent growth curve models showed that CU traits are likely to decrease linearly from 9 to 15 years old, with a deceleration in adolescence (from 12 to 15). There was substantial individual variability in the rate of change of CU traits over time: patients with a minor decrease of CU symptoms during childhood were at increased risk for severe behavioral problems and substance use into adolescence. Although lower level of socio-economic status and lower level of parenting involvement were associated to elevated levels of CU traits at baseline evaluation, none of the considered clinical and environmental factors predicted the levels of CU traits. The current longitudinal research suggests that adolescent outcomes of Disruptive Behavior Disorder be influenced by CU traits trajectories during childhood. PMID:26791396

  20. Developmental cascade effects of the New Beginnings Program on adolescent adaptation outcomes.

    PubMed

    McClain, Darya Bonds; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Winslow, Emily; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N; Millsap, Roger E

    2010-11-01

    Using data from a 6-year longitudinal follow-up sample of 240 youth who participated in a randomized experimental trial of a preventive intervention for divorced families with children ages 9-12, the current study tested alternative cascading pathways by which the intervention decreased symptoms of internalizing disorders, symptoms of externalizing disorders, substance use, and risky sexual behavior and increased self-esteem and academic performance in mid- to late adolescence (15-19 years old). It was hypothesized that the impact of the program on adolescent adaptation outcomes would be explained by progressive associations between program-induced changes in parenting and youth adaptation outcomes. The results supported a cascading model of program effects in which the program was related to increased mother-child relationship quality that was related to subsequent decreases in child internalizing problems, which then was related to subsequent increases in self-esteem and decreases in symptoms of internalizing disorders in adolescence. The results were also consistent with a model in which the program increased maternal effective discipline that was related to decreased child externalizing problems, which was related to subsequent decreases in symptoms of externalizing disorders, less substance use, and better academic performance in adolescence. There were no significant differences in the model based on level of baseline risk or adolescent gender. These results provide support for a cascading pathways model of child and adolescent development.

  1. Developmental Cascade Effects of the New Beginnings Program on Adolescent Adaptation Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bonds, Darya D.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Winslow, Emily; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from a 6-year longitudinal follow-up sample of 240 youth who participated in a randomized experimental trial of a preventive intervention for divorced families with children ages 9–12, the current study tested alternative cascading pathways by which the intervention decreased symptoms of internalizing disorders, symptoms of externalizing disorders, substance use, and risky sexual behavior, and increased self-esteem and academic performance in mid-to late-adolescence (15–19 years old). It was hypothesized that the impact of the program on adolescent adaptation outcomes would be explained by progressive associations between program-induced changes in parenting and youth adaptation outcomes. The results supported a cascading model of program effects in which the program was related to increased mother-child relationship quality, which was related to subsequent decreases in child internalizing problems, which then was related to subsequent increases in self-esteem and decreases in symptoms of internalizing disorders in adolescence. The results also were consistent with a model in which the program was related to increased maternal effective discipline, which was related to subsequent decreases in child externalizing problems, which then was related to subsequent decreases in symptoms of externalizing disorders, less substance use and better academic performance in adolescence. There were no significant differences in the model based on level of baseline risk or adolescent gender. These results provide support for a cascading pathways model of child and adolescent development. PMID:20883581

  2. Understanding Chinese American Adolescents' Developmental Outcomes: Insights From the Family Stress Model.

    PubMed

    Benner, Aprile D; Kim, Su Yeong

    2010-03-01

    In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial and job instability) were associated with parents' economic stress. Economic stress and economic status were related to parental depressive symptoms, which, in turn, were associated with more hostile and coercive parenting, less nurturing and involved parenting, and greater interparental hostility. Finally, mothers' hostile and coercive parenting were directly related to both adolescents' academic and sociobehavioral outcomes, whereas fathers' nurturing and involved parenting related to academic but not sociobehavioral outcomes. PMID:20454605

  3. Understanding Chinese American Adolescents' Developmental Outcomes: Insights from the Family Stress Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2010-01-01

    In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial, and job instability)…

  4. DEVELOPMENTAL TRAJECTORIES OF MARIJUANA USE FROM ADOLESCENCE TO ADULTHOOD: PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL ROLE OUTCOMES1,2

    PubMed Central

    BROOK, JUDITH S.; LEE, JUNG YEON; BROWN, ELAINE N.; FINCH, STEPHEN J.; BROOK, DAVID W.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence into adulthood were examined for adverse life-course outcomes among African-Americans and Puerto Ricans. Data for marijuana use were analyzed at four points in time and on participants’ personality attributes, work functioning, and partner relations in adulthood using growth mixture modeling. Each of the three marijuana-use trajectory groups (maturing-out, late-onset, and chronic marijuana-users) had greater adverse life-course outcomes than a non or low-use trajectory group. The chronic marijuana-use trajectory group was highly associated with criminal behavior and partners’ marijuana use in adulthood. Treatment programs for marijuana use should also directly address common adverse life-course outcomes which users may already be experiencing. PMID:21675549

  5. Developmental Outcome of Childhood Leukemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniglio, Susan J.; Blackman, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Literature on developmental and psychosocial outcomes of childhood leukemia is reviewed, focusing on preschool-age children. Studies are categorized in terms of outcome measures: intelligence/achievement, neuropsychological, memory/attention, and psychosocial tests. Evidence suggests that preschool children with leukemia are at high risk for…

  6. Introduction to the special issue: Substance use and the adolescent brain: Developmental impacts, interventions, and longitudinal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Luciana, Monica; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health problem, particularly given the negative brain and behavioral consequences that often occur during and following acute intoxication. Negative outcomes appear to be especially pronounced when substance use is initiated in the early adolescent years, perhaps due to neural adaptations that increase risk for substance use disorders into adulthood. Recent models to explain these epidemiological trends have focused on brain-based vulnerabilities to use as well as neurodevelopmental aberrations associated with initiation of use in substance naïve samples or through the description of case-control differences between heavy users and controls. Within this research, adolescent alcohol and marijuana users have shown relative decreases in regional gray matter volumes, substance-specific alterations in white matter volumes, deviations in microstructural integrity in white matter tracts that regulate communication between subcortical areas and higher level regulatory control regions, and deficits in functional connectivity. How these brain anomalies map onto other types of youth risk behavior and later vulnerabilities represent major questions for continued research. This special issue addresses these compelling and timely questions by introducing new methodologies, empirical relationships, and perspectives from major leaders in this field. PMID:26589541

  7. Introduction to the special issue: Substance use and the adolescent brain: Developmental impacts, interventions, and longitudinal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Luciana, Monica; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health problem, particularly given the negative brain and behavioral consequences that often occur during and following acute intoxication. Negative outcomes appear to be especially pronounced when substance use is initiated in the early adolescent years, perhaps due to neural adaptations that increase risk for substance use disorders into adulthood. Recent models to explain these epidemiological trends have focused on brain-based vulnerabilities to use as well as neurodevelopmental aberrations associated with initiation of use in substance naïve samples or through the description of case-control differences between heavy users and controls. Within this research, adolescent alcohol and marijuana users have shown relative decreases in regional gray matter volumes, substance-specific alterations in white matter volumes, deviations in microstructural integrity in white matter tracts that regulate communication between subcortical areas and higher level regulatory control regions, and deficits in functional connectivity. How these brain anomalies map onto other types of youth risk behavior and later vulnerabilities represent major questions for continued research. This special issue addresses these compelling and timely questions by introducing new methodologies, empirical relationships, and perspectives from major leaders in this field. PMID:26589541

  8. Child Neglect: Developmental Issues and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildyard, Kathryn L.; Wolfe, David A.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of child neglect on three developmental periods: infancy/preschool, school-aged and younger adolescents, and older adolescents and adults. The severe cognitive and academic deficits, the social withdrawal and limited peer interactions, and the internalizing problems of neglected children relative to physically…

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Physical and Indirect Aggression from Late Childhood to Adolescence: Sex Differences and Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleverley, Kristin; Szatmari, Peter; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael; Lipman, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Two common subtypes of aggression (physical and indirect) have been shown to develop concurrently throughout childhood and to uniquely predict maladjustment. However, nothing is known about psychiatric outcomes of joint trajectories of physical aggression (PA) and indirect aggression (IA) in emerging adulthood. Method: Trajectories of…

  10. Adolescent mothers and their children: changes in maternal characteristics and child developmental and behavioral outcome at school age.

    PubMed

    Camp, B W

    1996-06-01

    This study examines stability and change in characteristics of adolescent mothers from their child's infancy to school age, describes cognitive and behavioral characteristics of their children at school age, and reports on the relationship between maternal characteristics and child behavior and development at school age. Cognitive status and childrearing attitudes were assessed in 43 adolescent mothers (mean age 16.3 years) when their children were infants (Time 1) and again when children were school age (Time 2). At school age, mothers also completed the Louisville Behavior Checklist, and children were administered the Slosson Intelligence Test and the Wide Range Achievement Test. Significant correlations were obtained between maternal measures at Time 1 and Time 2, and no significant differences were observed between mean scores at Time 1 and Time 2 on any measures. Children demonstrated average intelligence, but mean achievement was almost 1 SD below average. Significantly more children had high scores than expected on scales for hyperactivity and academic disability. Except for maternal vocabulary, maternal measures obtained at Time 1 were not directly related to children's IQ or behavior problems. Maternal vocabulary and authoritarian and hostile childrearing attitudes assessed at Time 1 contributed independently to prediction of achievement test scores in a positive direction. Mothers' vocabulary at Time 2 and high or increased hostile childrearing attitudes contributed positively to prediction of child IQ. Mothers who still had high scores in authoritarian childrearing attitudes or whose scores increased had children with lower IQs. Changes in attitudes or contemporary measures of attitudes were also related to behavior problems at school age.

  11. The Ultimate Developmental Task in Adolescent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Richard F.

    The significance of adolescent literature has been judged on the basis of the developmental tasks encountered by the main character. One writer has identified eight developmental tasks that teenagers must undertake as they move toward adulthood: discovering one's sex role in our culture, developing relationships with peers, achieving an easy…

  12. The Relation of Emotional Maltreatment to Early Adolescent Competence: Developmental Processes in a Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Anne; Yates, Tuppett M.; Egeland, Byron R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This investigation examined developmental pathways between childhood emotional maltreatment and adaptational outcomes in early adolescence. This study utilized a developmental psychopathology perspective in adopting a multidimensional approach to the assessment of different forms of emotional maltreatment and later adjustment outcomes.…

  13. Entrepreneurial Intention as Developmental Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva

    2010-01-01

    What predicts adults' entrepreneurial intentions? Utilizing a cross-sectional sample of 496 German scientists, we investigated a path model for the effects of entrepreneurial personality (Big Five profile), control beliefs, and recalled early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence (early inventions, leadership, commercial activities) on two…

  14. Parental Divorce and Offspring Depressive Symptoms: Dutch Developmental Trends during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; De Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated if the association between parental divorce and depressive symptoms changes during early adolescence and if developmental patterns are similar for boys and girls. Data were collected in a prospective population cohort of Dutch adolescents (N = 2,149), aged 10 - 15 years. Outcome variables were self-reported and…

  15. Personality and adolescent pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the relationship between personality, pregnancy and birth outcomes in adolescents Background Personality has been shown to be a strong predictor of many health outcomes. Adolescents who become pregnant have worse birth outcomes than adults. Design Cross-sectional study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (baseline, 1994-1995; follow-up, 2007-2008). Methods The study sample was 6529 girls, 820 of whom reported on pregnancy outcomes for a teenage birth. Personality data was taken from the Mini International Personality Item Pool personality tool, which measures the five-factor personality traits of neuroticism, conscientiousness, intellect/imagination, extraversion and agreeableness. Logistic regression was used to predict teen pregnancy and linear regression was used to predict birth weight and gestational age with adjustment for confounders and stratification by race. Results Agreeableness and intellect/imagination were associated with a reduced likelihood of becoming pregnant as an adolescent, while neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion were all associated with an increased likelihood of becoming pregnant. Higher neuroticism was associated with lower birth weight and gestational age among Black girls, but not non-Black. Conscientiousness was associated with lower gestational age among non-Black girls. No relationships were found with extraversion or agreeableness and birth outcomes. Receiving late or no prenatal care was associated with higher intellect/imagination. Conclusions Personality is understudied with respect to pregnancy and birth outcomes compared with other health outcomes. Such research could help professionals and clinicians design and target programs that best fit the characteristics of the population most likely to need them, such as those with high neuroticism. PMID:25040691

  16. Adolescent Sex and Mass Media: A Developmental Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, John R.

    2000-01-01

    Media critics point to adolescents' exposure to "sexy" television and popular music. Developmental transitions lead to increased information seeking, and developmental tasks force adolescents to find information sources other than their parents, implying a link between sexy media and adolescent development. Media research informed by knowledge of…

  17. Developmental Changes in Adolescents' Perceptions of Relationships with Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This 4-wave longitudinal study examines developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of parent-adolescent relationships by assessing parental support, conflict with parents, and parental power. A total of 951 early adolescents (50.4% boys) and 390 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Univariate and multivariate growth curve analyses…

  18. Trajectories of Physical Discipline: Early Childhood Antecedents and Developmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from age 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from age 5 to 15. Analyses indicated distinct physical discipline trajectory groups that varied in frequency of physical discipline and rate of change. In both samples, family ecological disadvantage differentiated the trajectory groups; in the first sample, early child externalizing also differentiated the groups. Controlling for early childhood externalizing, the minimal/ceasing trajectory groups were associated with the lowest levels of subsequent adolescent antisocial behavior in both samples and with parent-adolescent positive relationship quality in the second sample. PMID:19765007

  19. Developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of relationships with their parents.

    PubMed

    De Goede, Irene H A; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2009-01-01

    This 4-wave longitudinal study examines developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of parent-adolescent relationships by assessing parental support, conflict with parents, and parental power. A total of 951 early adolescents (50.4% boys) and 390 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Univariate and multivariate growth curve analyses showed that support declined from early to middle adolescence for boys and girls and increased from middle to late adolescence for girls, while stabilizing for boys. Conflict was found to temporarily increase during middle adolescence. Parental power (relative power and dominance of parents) decreased from early to late adolescence. Results indicated that: (1) parent-adolescent relationships become more egalitarian during adolescence, (2) parents perceived by adolescents as powerful are viewed as supportive, especially in early adolescence, and (3) perceived conflict with parents is related to but not an impetus for changes in parent-adolescent relationships towards more equality.

  20. Music Preferences, Personality Style, and Developmental Issues of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Kelly D.; Fouts, Gregory T.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the personality characteristics and developmental issues of three groups of adolescent music listeners divided by preferred type of music. Findings for 164 adolescents show that each of the three music preference groups is inclined to demonstrate a unique profile of personality dimensions and developmental issues. (SLD)

  1. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  2. A brief overview of adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C F

    2011-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661

  3. A Brief Overview of Adolescent Developmental Problems in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C. F.

    2011-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661

  4. Chronic Disease and Perceived Developmental Progression in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    1998-01-01

    Examined whether chronic illness causes delays in adolescents' perceived developmental status, using annually-completed questionnaires from insulin-dependent and healthy adolescents. Found that, in first year of study, diabetic adolescents reported delays in physical maturity and an independent lifestyle compared with healthy peers. Overall…

  5. Developmental Changes in Parent-Child Communication throughout Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for…

  6. [Adolescent parenting – developmental risks for the mother-child dyad].

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Brigitte; Firk, Christine; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2013-11-01

    Adolescent mothers and their children are exposed to multiple psychosocial risk factors and represent a high-risk group for adverse developmental outcomes. It is not the mother's young age alone which contributes to the developmental risk of the mother-child dyad. Rather, both the combination of risks, such as poverty, domestic violence, dysfunctional family relationships, or a psychiatric disorder, all of which predispose to adolescent pregnancy, as well as the strains of parenthood during the mother's own developmental stage add to the psychosocial risks of children of teenage mothers. Early motherhood can lead to lower levels of education and a lower socioeconomic status. In addition, there is a higher risk for psychopathology in both the teenage mother and her child. This article provides an overview of the current research findings regarding adolescent parenting and its associated risks. Risk factors leading to early motherhood are reviewed and associated with differences in parenting behaviors and the developmental outcomes of their children. This article will conclude with a short overview on intervention programs for adolescent mothers and their children. Further research is needed to develop age-appropriate support programs for adolescent mothers and their children to cope with the complexity of risks and improve their developmental trajectories.

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Intentional Self Regulation in Adolescence: The Role of Parenting and Implications for Positive and Problematic Outcomes among Diverse Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Edmond P.; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Geldhof, G. John; Nikitin, Jana; von Eye, Alexander; Lerner, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed 1574 Grades 5 to 11 youth (63.6% female) from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD), a longitudinal study involving U.S. adolescents, to assess if patterns of intentional self regulation (ISR) existed; whether these trajectories differed in relation to several Grade 5 parenting characteristics; and whether ISR…

  8. Antisocial Propensity, Adolescent School Outcomes, and the Risk of Criminal Conviction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savolainen, Jukka; Hughes, Lorine A.; Mason, W. Alex; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma K.; Kivivuori, Janne; Taanila, Anja M.

    2012-01-01

    Data from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study (n = 4,645) were used to examine the influence of mid-adolescent (age 15) school outcomes on late-adolescent (ages 17-19) risk of criminal conviction. Consistent with social-developmental theories of offending, we found that poor academic performance and reduced school attachment increase the…

  9. Measurement of Religiosity/Spirituality in Adolescent Health Outcomes Research: Trends and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    McGrady, Meghan E.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between religious/spiritual (R/S) factors and adolescent health outcomes has been studied for decades; however, the R/S measurement tools used may not be developmentally relevant for adolescents. A systematic literature review was conducted to review and evaluate trends in measuring R/S in adolescent health outcomes research. In this review a total of 100 articles met criteria for inclusion. Relatively few (n = 15) included adolescent-specific R/S measures or items accounting for developmentally relevant issues such as parental religiosity or age-appropriate language. Future R/S and health research with adolescents would be strengthened by incorporating developmentally relevant R/S measurement tools, psychometrics, and multidimensional measures. PMID:20127172

  10. The adolescent with a learning disability: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Cook, L D

    1979-01-01

    The psychosocial difficulties that usually accompany learning disabilities are examined from a framework of developmental theory, particularly that of Erik Erikson. The implications of this perspective for treatment of adolescents with learning problems is discussed, and a specific program described.

  11. Long-term developmental outcomes of low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Klein, N K; Taylor, H G

    1995-01-01

    Advances in neonatal medicine have resulted in the increased survival of infants at lower and lower birth weight. While these medical success stories highlight the power of medical technology to save many of the tiniest infants at birth, serious questions remain about how these infants will develop and whether they will have normal, productive lives. Low birth weight children can be born at term or before term and have varying degrees of social and medical risk. Because low birth weight children are not a homogeneous group, they have a broad spectrum of growth, health, and developmental outcomes. While the vast majority of low birth weight children have normal outcomes, as a group they generally have higher rates of subnormal growth, illnesses, and neurodevelopmental problems. These problems increase as the child's birth weight decreases. With the exception of a small minority of low birth weight children with mental retardation and/or cerebral palsy, the developmental sequelae for most low birth weight infants include mild problems in cognition, attention, and neuromotor functioning. Long-term follow-up studies conducted on children born in the 1960s indicated that the adverse consequences of being born low birth weight were still apparent in adolescence. Adverse sociodemographic factors negatively affect developmental outcomes across the continuum of low birth weight and appear to have far greater effects on long-term cognitive outcomes than most of the biological risk factors. In addition, the cognitive defects associated with social or environmental risks become more pronounced as the child ages. Enrichment programs for low birth weight children seem to be most effective for the moderately low birth weight child who comes from a lower socioeconomic group. Continued research and attempts to decrease the rate of low birth weight and associated perinatal medical sequelae are of primary importance. Ongoing documentation of the long-term outcome of low birth weight

  12. Adolescents' Attachment Representations and Developmental Tasks in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra; Kivenson-Baron, Inbal

    2004-01-01

    The association between attachment representations and adolescents' coping with 3 developmental tasks of emerging adulthood-leaving home, advancing in the capacity for mature intimacy, and developing individuation-was examined. Israeli male adolescents (N = 88) were administered the Adult Attachment Interview during their high-school senior year.…

  13. Adolescents' Explanations for Romantic Dissolutions: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Jennifer; McIsaac, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the prevalence and developmental significance of romantic break-ups in adolescence, a relatively unexplored area of study. We examined their occurrence in a sample of 910 adolescents, first noting the frequency of these events across age, gender, and romantic experience, and then analyzing the dissolution explanations…

  14. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  15. Adolescent Tobacco Use: The Protective Effects of Developmental Assets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Leslie A.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; McLeroy, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed adolescents and their parents regarding the effects of 10 youth developmental assets on adolescent tobacco use. Results highlighted a strong relationship between having any of nine assets and not smoking. Important assets included having adult, parental, and peer role models; family communication; good use of time; religion; effective…

  16. Developmental changes in parent-child communication throughout adolescence.

    PubMed

    Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François

    2013-12-01

    This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for boys and girls. From age 14 to 19 (but not from age 12 to 14) a linear decrease in parental control was found for both genders. For girls, parent-child communication decreased in early adolescence, as indicated by decreasing parental solicitation, decreasing adolescent disclosure, and increasing secrecy. Girls' communication with parents intensified in middle adolescence, as indicated by increasing parental solicitation, increasing adolescent disclosure, and decreasing adolescent secrecy. For boys, disclosure declined in early adolescence, but secrecy and solicitation were stable throughout adolescence. Parental knowledge decreased from age 12 to 19 for both genders but was temporarily stable for middle adolescent girls. The meaning of these developmental changes, their timing, and gender differences are discussed.

  17. Adolescent health and adult labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Petter; Nilsson, Anton; Rooth, Dan-Olof

    2014-09-01

    Whereas a large literature has shown the importance of early life health for adult socioeconomic outcomes, there is little evidence on the importance of adolescent health. We contribute to the literature by studying the impact of adolescent health status on adult labor market outcomes using a unique and large-scale dataset covering almost the entire population of Swedish males. We show that most types of major conditions have long-run effects on future outcomes, and that the strongest effects result from mental conditions. Including sibling fixed effects or twin pair fixed effects reduces the magnitudes of the estimates, but they remain substantial.

  18. Epileptic encephalopathies: Optimizing seizure control and developmental outcome.

    PubMed

    Jehi, Lara; Wyllie, Elaine; Devinsky, Orrin

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive and developmental outcomes in patients with epileptic encephalopathy are hypothesized to result from an interplay between the underlying epileptic pathologic substrate and the acquired consequences of frequent and repetitive seizures and epileptiform discharges that often straddle the interictal and ictal boundaries. This article briefly reviews the evidence related to this assumption, presents critical questions that need to be answered to clarify this relationship, and advances a set of concrete steps that may help improve developmental patient outcomes. PMID:26293588

  19. Adolescent individuation: the culmination of a developmental line.

    PubMed

    Steinwand, G M

    1984-01-01

    Viewing adolescence in terms of individuation results in a theoretical conceptualization that departs from classic psychoanalytic drive theory and has specific implications for our understanding of adolescent identity formation. The attainment of ego identity at the close of adolescence is viewed here as a consequence of the progressive developmental line of individuation in which the individual progresses from a state of physical and emotional dependence to a position of psychological autonomy and adult object relationships. The normative, progressive, and adaptive aspects of this process have been deliberately emphasized. This emphasis is intended to promote a view of adolescence that tempers and complements the traditional psychoanalytic view, a view that tends to, at worst, ignore, and at best, undervalue, the significance of autonomous ego development during this developmental stage.

  20. Counterfactual Evaluation of Outcomes in Social Risk Decision-Making Situations: The Cognitive Developmental Paradox Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Padrón, Iván; Rodrigo, María Jose; de Vega, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    We report a study that examined the existence of a cognitive developmental paradox in the counterfactual evaluation of decision-making outcomes. According to this paradox adolescents and young adults could be able to apply counterfactual reasoning and, yet, their counterfactual evaluation of outcomes could be biased in a salient socio-emotional context. To this aim, we analyzed the impact of health and social feedback on the counterfactual evaluation of outcomes in a laboratory decision-making task involving short narratives with the presence of peers. Forty risky (e.g., taking or refusing a drug), forty neutral decisions (e.g., eating a hamburger or a hotdog), and emotions felt following positive or negative outcomes were examined in 256 early, mid- and late adolescents, and young adults, evenly distributed. Results showed that emotional ratings to negative outcomes (regret and disappointment) but not to positive outcomes (relief and elation) were attenuated when feedback was provided. Evidence of development of cognitive decision-making capacities did also exist, as the capacity to perform faster emotional ratings and to differentially allocate more resources to the elaboration of emotional ratings when no feedback information was available increased with age. Overall, we interpret these findings as challenging the traditional cognitive developmental assumption that development necessarily proceeds from lesser to greater capacities, reflecting the impact of socio-emotional processes that could bias the counterfactual evaluation of social decision-making outcomes. PMID:27152127

  1. Counterfactual Evaluation of Outcomes in Social Risk Decision-Making Situations: The Cognitive Developmental Paradox Revisited.

    PubMed

    Padrón, Iván; Rodrigo, María Jose; de Vega, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    We report a study that examined the existence of a cognitive developmental paradox in the counterfactual evaluation of decision-making outcomes. According to this paradox adolescents and young adults could be able to apply counterfactual reasoning and, yet, their counterfactual evaluation of outcomes could be biased in a salient socio-emotional context. To this aim, we analyzed the impact of health and social feedback on the counterfactual evaluation of outcomes in a laboratory decision-making task involving short narratives with the presence of peers. Forty risky (e.g., taking or refusing a drug), forty neutral decisions (e.g., eating a hamburger or a hotdog), and emotions felt following positive or negative outcomes were examined in 256 early, mid- and late adolescents, and young adults, evenly distributed. Results showed that emotional ratings to negative outcomes (regret and disappointment) but not to positive outcomes (relief and elation) were attenuated when feedback was provided. Evidence of development of cognitive decision-making capacities did also exist, as the capacity to perform faster emotional ratings and to differentially allocate more resources to the elaboration of emotional ratings when no feedback information was available increased with age. Overall, we interpret these findings as challenging the traditional cognitive developmental assumption that development necessarily proceeds from lesser to greater capacities, reflecting the impact of socio-emotional processes that could bias the counterfactual evaluation of social decision-making outcomes. PMID:27152127

  2. The developmental roots of social responsibility in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K

    2011-01-01

    Social responsibility is a value orientation, rooted in democratic relationships with others and moral principles of care and justice, that motivates certain civic actions. Given its relevance for building stronger relationships and communities, the development of social responsibility within individuals should be a more concerted focus for developmental scholars and youth practitioners. During childhood and adolescence, the developmental roots of individuals' social responsibility lie in the growth of executive function, empathy and emotion regulation, and identity. Efforts to cultivate children and adolescents' social responsibility in the proximal settings of their everyday lives should emphasize modeling prosocial behaviors, communicating concerns for others, and creating opportunities to practice civic skills.

  3. The developmental roots of social responsibility in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K

    2011-01-01

    Social responsibility is a value orientation, rooted in democratic relationships with others and moral principles of care and justice, that motivates certain civic actions. Given its relevance for building stronger relationships and communities, the development of social responsibility within individuals should be a more concerted focus for developmental scholars and youth practitioners. During childhood and adolescence, the developmental roots of individuals' social responsibility lie in the growth of executive function, empathy and emotion regulation, and identity. Efforts to cultivate children and adolescents' social responsibility in the proximal settings of their everyday lives should emphasize modeling prosocial behaviors, communicating concerns for others, and creating opportunities to practice civic skills. PMID:22147598

  4. Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

    2009-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…

  5. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Adolescent Sexual Risk and Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Ryman, Sephira G; Gillman, Arielle S; Weiland, Barbara J; Thayer, Rachel E; Bryan, Angela D

    2016-01-01

    Human adolescents engage in very high rates of unprotected sex. This behavior has a high potential for unintended, serious, and sustained health consequences including HIV/AIDS. Despite these serious health consequences, we know little about the neural and cognitive factors that influence adolescents' decision-making around sex, and their potential overlap with behaviorally co-occurring risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Thus, in this review, we evaluate the developmental neuroscience of sexual risk and alcohol use for human adolescents with an eye to relevant prevention and intervention implications.

  6. Testing a developmental cascade model of adolescent substance use trajectories and young adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    LYNNE-LANDSMAN, SARAH D.; BRADSHAW, CATHERINE P.; IALONGO, NICHOLAS S.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental models highlight the impact of early risk factors on both the onset and growth of substance use, yet few studies have systematically examined the indirect effects of risk factors across several domains, and at multiple developmental time points, on trajectories of substance use and adult adjustment outcomes (e.g., educational attainment, mental health problems, criminal behavior). The current study used data from a community epidemiologically defined sample of 678 urban, primarily African American youth, followed from first grade through young adulthood (age 21) to test a developmental cascade model of substance use and young adult adjustment outcomes. Drawing upon transactional developmental theories and using growth mixture modeling procedures, we found evidence for a developmental progression from behavioral risk to adjustment problems in the peer context, culminating in a high-risk trajectory of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use during adolescence. Substance use trajectory membership was associated with adjustment in adulthood. These findings highlight the developmental significance of early individual and interpersonal risk factors on subsequent risk for substance use and, in turn, young adult adjustment outcomes. PMID:20883591

  7. Developmental Outcomes after Early Prefrontal Cortex Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eslinger, Paul J.; Flaherty-Craig, Claire V.; Benton, Arthur L.

    2004-01-01

    The neuropsychological bases of cognitive, social, and moral development are minimally understood, with a seemingly wide chasm between developmental theories and brain maturation models. As one approach to bridging ideas in these areas, we review 10 cases of early prefrontal cortex damage from the clinical literature, highlighting overall clinical…

  8. Outcome Trajectories of Developmental Students in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Christine D.; Center, Bruce A.; Opsal, Christen L.; Medhanie, Amanuel; Jang, Yoo Jeong; Geise, Aaron C.

    2013-01-01

    This analysis explores student outcomes related to taking developmental English (i.e., reading and/or writing) and math classes in three community colleges in three different states, using institutional data from 7,898 students who began college in the fall of 2009 (Cohort 1) or fall 2010 (Cohort 2). We examine the outcome trajectories of students…

  9. Tracking Preschool Children with Developmental Delay: Third Grade Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Christine E. F.; Vagi, Sara J.; Scott, Keith G.

    2006-01-01

    Educational outcomes were evaluated for 2,046 preschool children identified with developmental delay. Results indicated that at third grade, 26% were in regular education and the remaining 74% were receiving special education services. The most common disability classifications at outcome were specific learning disabilities and educable mentally…

  10. Attainment of Developmental Tasks by Adolescents with Visual Impairments and Sighted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the achievement of developmental tasks by 158 adolescents with visual impairments to that of 158 sighted adolescents. The groups did not differ in the fulfillment of 9 of 11 tasks. However, those with visual impairments were less successful in peer-group integration and forming intimate relationships. (Contains 4 tables.)

  11. The Historical Emergence of Adolescence: Perspectives from Developmental Psychology and Adolescent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matter, Roxana Marie

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the literature from two distinct disciplines, developmental psychology and literature, reflecting the emergence of adolescence as a recognized stage in human development. Describes both cognitive and stage theories of adolescence and medieval concerns as well as twentieth century interest. (JAC)

  12. The Interest-Driven Pursuits of 15 Year Olds: "Sparks" and Their Association with Caring Relationships and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Eliyahu, Adar; Rhodes, Jean E.; Scales, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the characteristics of adolescents' deep interests or "sparks," the role of relationships in supporting the development of sparks, and whether having a spark was associated with positive developmental outcomes. Participants included 1,860 15 years olds from across the United States who participated in the…

  13. The Adolescent with a Learning Disability: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Louisa D.

    1979-01-01

    The psychosocial difficulties that usually accompany learning disabilities are examined from a framework of developmental theory, particularly that of Erik Erikson. The implications of this perspective for treatment of adolescents with learning problems is discussed, and the summer residential program at Goddard College described. (Author)

  14. Integrating Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities in a Residential Summer Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Mitchell S.

    This paper describes Camp Ramah, a residential summer camp in Central Ontario that offers a one month program for adolescents with developmental disabilities. Up to 15 special needs campers, ages 12-25, participate with up to 400 campers and 150 staff in a residential camping experience. Most campers have mild to moderate mental retardation, some…

  15. The adolescent with a learning disability: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Cook, L D

    1979-01-01

    The psychosocial difficulties that usually accompany learning disabilities are examined from a framework of developmental theory, particularly that of Erik Erikson. The implications of this perspective for treatment of adolescents with learning problems is discussed, and a specific program described. PMID:525512

  16. The Impact of Obesity on Developmental Coordination Disorder in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Kastner, Julia; Petermann, Franz; Jekauc, Darko; Worth, Annette; Bos, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) as well as overweight and obesity are of increasing importance in the study of human development. Data on the relation between DCD and obesity in adolescence are of particular interest because both phenomena are unlikely to disappear with age. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of…

  17. Developmental Change in Social Responsibility during Adolescence: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Flanagan, Constance A.

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility can be defined as a set of prosocial values representing personal commitments to contribute to community and society. Little is known about developmental change--and predictors of that change--in social responsibility during adolescence. The present study used an accelerated longitudinal research design to investigate the…

  18. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations With Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Rosiers, Sabrina Des; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (mean age 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning. PMID:23848416

  19. A closer look at the developmental interplay between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Rassart, Jessica; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Eva; Apers, Silke; Moons, Philip

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined associations between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) using a longitudinal trajectory approach. Adolescents with CHD were selected from the database of pediatric and congenital cardiology of the University Hospitals Leuven. A total of 429 adolescents (M age = 16 at T1) participated in the present study, comprising four measurement waves spanning approximately 3 years. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify trajectory classes of parenting and perceived health. Whereas adolescents from democratic households reported the most favorable health outcomes, adolescents from authoritarian, overprotective, and psychologically controlling families (all characterized by relatively high levels of psychological control) showed an increased risk for poor perceived health over time. Hence, the present study found substantial developmental associations between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with CHD. Future research should investigate whether working on the parent-adolescent relationship can foster patients' health. PMID:24819301

  20. Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety and Depression in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; King, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of heightened vulnerability for the onset of internalizing psychopathology. Characterizing developmental patterns of symptom stability, progression, and co-occurrence is important in order to identify adolescents most at risk for persistent problems. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms and four classes of anxiety symptoms (separation anxiety, social phobia, GAD, and physical anxiety) across early adolescence, prospective associations of depression and anxiety trajectories with one another, and variation in trajectories by gender. A diverse sample of early adolescents (N=1065) was assessed at three time points across a one-year period. All classes of anxiety symptoms declined across the study period and depressive symptoms remained stable. In between-individual analysis, adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms experienced less decline over time in symptoms of physical, social, and separation anxiety. Consistent associations were observed between depression and anxiety symptom trajectories within-individuals over time, such that adolescents who experienced a higher level of a specific symptom type than would be expected given their overall symptom trajectory were more likely to experience a later deflection from their average trajectory in other symptoms. Within-individual deflections in physical, social, and GAD symptoms predicted later deflections in depressive symptoms, and deflections in depressive symptoms predicted later deflections in separation anxiety and GAD symptoms. Females had higher levels of symptoms than males, but no evidence was found for variation in symptom trajectories or their associations with one another by gender or by age. PMID:24996791

  1. Developmental Aspects of Suicidal Behavior in Children and Developmentally Delayed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Gabrielle A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined the relationship between depression rates, IQ, knowledge of the finality of death, exposure to suicidal behavior and knowledge of suicide methods. Found that the effect of these factors differed between suicidal and nonsuicidal psychiatrically hospitalized children and developmentally delayed adolescents. Also found that the factors had…

  2. Mastering Developmental Transitions in Immigrant Adolescents: The Longitudinal Interplay of Family Functioning, Developmental and Acculturative Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitz, Anne K.; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso; Asendorpf, Jens B.

    2014-01-01

    Immigrant youth differ in their adaptation, which is judged on the basis of how well they deal with developmental and acculturative tasks. While immigrant adolescents are faced with the realities of 2 different cultures, they also have to master age-salient tasks, such as self-efficacy and identity development. To get a better insight into the…

  3. Neuroimaging of developmental psychopathologies: the importance of self-regulatory and neuroplastic processes in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Spessot, Alexandra L; Plessen, Kerstin J; Peterson, Bradley S

    2004-06-01

    Normal brain maturational and developmental processes, together with plastic reorganization of the brain in response to experiential demands, contribute to the acquisition of improved capacities for self-regulation and impulse control during adolescence. The frontal lobe is a main focus for these developmental and plastic processes during the transition from adolescence into adulthood. Tourette syndrome (TS), defined as the chronic presence of motor and vocal tics, has been increasingly conceptualized as a disorder of impaired self-regulatory control. This disordered control is thought to give rise to semicompulsory urges to perform the movements that constitute simple tics, complex tics, or compulsions. Neuroimaging studies suggest that the expression of the genetic diathesis to TS is influenced by genetic and nongenetic factors affecting activity-dependent reorganization of neuroregulatory systems, thereby influencing the phenotype, illness severity, and adult outcome of tic disorders. Similar developmental processes during adolescence likely determine the phenotype and natural history of a broad range of other complex neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood onset, and they likely contribute to the acquisition of improved self-regulatory capacities that characterize normal adolescent development.

  4. Mastering developmental transitions in immigrant adolescents: the longitudinal interplay of family functioning, developmental and acculturative tasks.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Anne K; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso; Asendorpf, Jens B

    2014-03-01

    Immigrant youth differ in their adaptation, which is judged on the basis of how well they deal with developmental and acculturative tasks. While immigrant adolescents are faced with the realities of 2 different cultures, they also have to master age-salient tasks, such as self-efficacy and identity development. To get a better insight into the interplay of developmental and acculturative tasks and their relationship with family functioning, we used 3-wave longitudinal data over a 2-year period from 13-year-old immigrant students (N = 609) in Athens, Greece. Cross-lagged models revealed that family functioning and acculturation were resources for the mastery of developmental tasks. Involvement in the host culture prospectively predicted self-efficacy beliefs, and involvement in the ethnic culture prospectively predicted ethnic identity. These effects increased over time. Family functioning prospectively predicted self-efficacy and ethnic identity. These effects decreased over time. The findings suggest that a well-functioning family, for early adolescents, and being involved in the host culture and in ethnic cultures, for middle adolescents, are particularly important resources to master the tasks of their developmental period. Our findings underscore the importance of developmentally sensitive approaches and the need to account for acculturative challenges in order to understand individual differences in immigrant youth adaptation.

  5. 77 FR 48995 - Draft National Toxicology Program (NTP) Monograph on Developmental Effects and Pregnancy Outcomes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Developmental Effects and Pregnancy Outcomes Associated With Cancer Chemotherapy Use During Pregnancy; Request... Pregnancy Outcomes Associated with Cancer Chemotherapy Use during Pregnancy (available by August 14, 2012... NTP Monograph on Developmental Effects and Pregnancy Outcomes Associated with Cancer Chemotherapy...

  6. Developmental perspectives on nutrition and obesity from gestation to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Layla; Fisher, Jennifer O; Mennella, Julie A; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Huang, Terry T

    2009-07-01

    Obesity results from a complex combination of factors that act at many stages throughout a person's life. Therefore, examining childhood nutrition and obesity from a developmental perspective is warranted. A developmental perspective recognizes the cumulative effects of factors that contribute to eating behavior and obesity, including biological and socioenvironmental factors that are relevant at different stages of development. A developmental perspective considers family, school, and community context. During gestation, risk factors for obesity include maternal diet, overweight, and smoking. In early childhood, feeding practices, taste acquisition, and eating in the absence of hunger must be considered. As children become more independent during middle childhood and adolescence, school nutrition, food marketing, and social networks become focal points for obesity prevention or intervention. Combining a multilevel approach with a developmental perspective can inform more effective and sustainable strategies for obesity prevention. PMID:19527595

  7. Promoting equal developmental opportunity and outcomes among America's children and youth: results from the National Promises Study.

    PubMed

    Scales, Peter C; Benson, Peter L; Moore, Kristin A; Lippman, Laura; Brown, Brett; Zaff, Jonathan F

    2008-03-01

    Building on a developmental framework positing five types of assets or inputs needed for children's development, referred to as promises, we investigated the extent to which American children and youth experience the five Promises articulated by the America's Promise Alliance. These are: (1) Caring Adults, (2) Safe Places and Constructive Use of Time, (3) A Healthy Start, (4) Effective Education, and (5) Opportunities to Make a Difference. Data came from a nationally representative poll designed to assess these five resources and involved more than 4,000 teenagers and their parents. Results showed that only a minority of young people experienced rich developmental nourishment (having 4-5 of the Promises). Males, older adolescents, adolescents of color, and adolescents from families with less education and lower parental annual incomes were significantly less likely to experience sufficient developmental opportunities and were also less likely to experience desirable developmental outcomes. However, among those young people who reported experiencing 4-5 Promises, the great majority of demographic differences in developmental outcomes were either eliminated or significantly reduced. The results suggest that increasing children's experience of these Promises would reduce developmental inequalities among America's young people. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: Longitudinal studies with representative samples will be necessary to further validate this approach and study causal contributions of assets, but this integration of Positive Youth Development frameworks holds great promise for theory, practice, and policy. PMID:18373201

  8. Developmental change in social responsibility during adolescence: An ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K; Flanagan, Constance A

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility can be defined as a set of prosocial values representing personal commitments to contribute to community and society. Little is known about developmental change-and predictors of that change-in social responsibility during adolescence. The present study used an accelerated longitudinal research design to investigate the developmental trajectory of social responsibility values and ecological assets across family, school, community, and peer settings that predict these values. Data come from a 3-year study of 3,683 U.S. adolescents enrolled in upper-level elementary, middle, and high schools in rural, semiurban, and urban communities. Social responsibility values significantly decreased from age 9 to 16 before leveling off in later adolescence. Family compassion messages and democratic climate, school solidarity, community connectedness, and trusted friendship, positively predicted within-person change in adolescents' social responsibility values. These findings held after accounting for other individual-level and demographic factors and provide support for the role of ecological assets in adolescents' social responsibility development. In addition, fair society beliefs and volunteer experience had positive between- and within-person associations with social responsibility values. The manuscript discusses theoretical and practical implications of the conclusion that declines in ecological assets may partly explain age-related declines in social responsibility values. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Developmental change in social responsibility during adolescence: An ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K; Flanagan, Constance A

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility can be defined as a set of prosocial values representing personal commitments to contribute to community and society. Little is known about developmental change-and predictors of that change-in social responsibility during adolescence. The present study used an accelerated longitudinal research design to investigate the developmental trajectory of social responsibility values and ecological assets across family, school, community, and peer settings that predict these values. Data come from a 3-year study of 3,683 U.S. adolescents enrolled in upper-level elementary, middle, and high schools in rural, semiurban, and urban communities. Social responsibility values significantly decreased from age 9 to 16 before leveling off in later adolescence. Family compassion messages and democratic climate, school solidarity, community connectedness, and trusted friendship, positively predicted within-person change in adolescents' social responsibility values. These findings held after accounting for other individual-level and demographic factors and provide support for the role of ecological assets in adolescents' social responsibility development. In addition, fair society beliefs and volunteer experience had positive between- and within-person associations with social responsibility values. The manuscript discusses theoretical and practical implications of the conclusion that declines in ecological assets may partly explain age-related declines in social responsibility values. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26619322

  10. Developmental Trajectories of Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Samantha; Pepler, Debra; Jiang, Depeng; Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Craig, Wendy; Connolly, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal data from 746 adolescents in Toronto, Canada (54% females), was gathered in eight waves over seven years (1995 through 2001), beginning when the youths were 10 to 12 years old (mean age = 11.8, SD = 1.2 years). Five trajectories of substance use were identified: chronic-high, childhood onset-rapid high, childhood onset-moderate,…

  11. When Do Adaptive Developmental Mechanisms Yield Maladaptive Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses 3 ways in which adaptive developmental mechanisms may produce maladaptive outcomes. First, natural selection may favor risky strategies that enhance fitness on average but which have detrimental consequences for a subset of individuals. Second, mismatch may result when organisms experience environmental change during…

  12. Prenatal Tobacco Exposure: Developmental Outcomes in the Neonatal Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Fang, Hua; Johnson, Craig; Stopp, Christian; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Respass, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a persistent public health problem that has been linked to later adverse outcomes. The neonatal period--the first month of life--carries substantial developmental change in regulatory skills and is the period when tobacco metabolites are cleared physiologically. Studies to date mostly have used cross-sectional designs…

  13. Developmental Outcome in a Tracheostomized Child: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaivre-Douret, Laurence; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports developmental outcomes of a child who experienced a tracheostomy and had prolonged hospitalization and psychomotor therapy in an intensive care unit. Found a pattern of delay in speech and language production with no hearing loss, no cognitive impairment, an average level of fine motor disorders, no behavioral disorders, and normal…

  14. Predictors of Developmental Outcomes for Infants Who Are Medically Fragile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy B.; Boyce, Glenna C.

    This paper presents results of a preliminary study which evaluated medical birth data as potential predictors of developmental outcome, and developed and tested an instrument designed for this purpose. Forty low birthweight children, all of whom had experienced neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage, were evaluated at school age (66 months) on the…

  15. Developmental cascades: Linking adolescent substance use, affiliation with substance use promoting peers, and academic achievement to adult substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Moira; Handley, Elizabeth; Chassin, Laurie; Bountress, Kaitlin

    2010-01-01

    Using a high-risk community sample (N = 405), the current study examined developmental cascades among substance use, affiliation with substance use promoting peers, and academic achievement over an 18-year period and tested whether these pathways mediated the influence of parental alcoholism on adult alcohol and drug use disorders. Results showed that the influence of parental alcoholism on adult drug disorders was mediated by developmental cascades across all three domains, whereas the influence of parental alcoholism on adult alcohol disorders was mediated through affiliation with substance use promoting peers and persistence in binge drinking. Adolescent drug use had more implications for adult outcomes than did adolescent alcohol use, which was less likely to spill over into other domains of functioning. Findings indicated that adolescent risk factors had indirect rather than unique effects on adult substance use disorders, suggesting that adolescent risk is not immutable and is largely mediated by later influences. PMID:20883589

  16. Physical Activity Participation and Preferences: Developmental and Oncology-Related Transitions in Adolescents Treated for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe motor function and participation in, barriers to, and preferences for physical activity (PA) in adolescents during and after treatment of cancer and to discuss PA promotion in the context of developmental and cancer transitions. Method: A cross-sectional survey study used the Transfer and Basic Mobility and Sports/Physical Functioning self-report and parent-report scales of the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) and questions about PA participation and preferences to collect information from 80 adolescents and 63 parents. Results: PODCI scores for adolescents receiving treatment were more variable and significantly lower than those of adolescents who had been off treatment for more than 2 years. Fatigue, pain, general health, and doctor's orders were frequently identified as barriers to PA for adolescents receiving treatment. Many did not achieve recommended levels of PA. The adolescents expressed preferences for being active with friends and family, at home or in school, in the afternoon or evening, and through daily recreational and sports activities typical of teenagers. Conclusions: Physical abilities and participation in and barriers to PA vary across the cancer journey. Interventions should be sensitive to variability and acknowledge individual preferences and environments throughout the trajectories and transitions of cancer treatment and youth development to achieve lifelong healthy lifestyles. PMID:26839461

  17. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Hayat, Matthew J.; Gross, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers’ attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95% CI [.97, .98], p < 0.001) and post-partum depressive symptomatology (b = .97, 95% CI [.96-.99], p = .03) were significant predictors of early childhood development. Women demonstrating higher avoidant attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad. PMID:23737011

  18. Adolescent development and risk of injury: Using developmental science to improve interventions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sara B.; Jones, Vanya C.

    2015-01-01

    In adolescence, there is a complex interaction among physical, cognitive, and psychosocial developmental processes, culminating in greater risk-taking and novelty-seeking. Concurrently, adolescents face an increasingly demanding environment, which results in heightened vulnerability to injury. In this paper, we provide an overview of developmental considerations for adolescent injury interventions based on developmental science including findings from behavioral neuroscience and psychology. We examine the role that typical developmental processes play in the way adolescents perceive and respond to risk and how this integrated body of developmental research adds to our understanding of how to do injury prevention with adolescents. We then highlight strategies to improve the translation of developmental research into adolescent injury prevention practice, calling on examples of existing interventions including graduated driver licensing. PMID:20876765

  19. Entering work: employment outcomes of people with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Boeltzig, Heike; Timmons, Jaimie C; Butterworth, John

    2008-09-01

    This paper provides a current snapshot of employment outcomes for individuals with developmental disabilities who had recently entered integrated employment (individual and group supported jobs) with the support of a community rehabilitation provider. Individual outcomes are based on an analysis of the National Survey of Community Rehabilitation Providers conducted between 2004 and 2005 by the Institute for Community Inclusion at the University of Massachusetts in Boston. Survey results show that the majority of respondents with developmental disabilities worked part-time in individual jobs, predominantly in the entry-level service industry; earned above federal minimum wage; and received paid time off. Differences in employment outcomes by type of integrated employment model are discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the findings.

  20. Cognitive Correlates of Adolescents' Aspirations to Leadership: A Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Ming

    1990-01-01

    Examined age and gender differences in leadership aspirations among adolescents (N=130) by measuring overall leadership aspirations, valence-instrumentality expectancies for leadership outcomes, self-efficacy perceptions, and attributions of effective leadership. Found significant gender differences in valence scores and age differences in…

  1. Precursors of Adolescent Substance Use from Early Childhood and Early Adolescence: Testing a Developmental Cascade Model

    PubMed Central

    Sitnick, Stephanie; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study examined developmentally-salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting, maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers’ depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24029248

  2. Precursors of adolescent substance use from early childhood and early adolescence: testing a developmental cascade model.

    PubMed

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W

    2014-02-01

    This study examined developmentally salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting and maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence, were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers' depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed.

  3. Developmental Cascade Model for Adolescent Substance Use from Infancy to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiden, Rina D.; Lessard, Jared; Colder, Craig R.; Livingston, Jennifer; Casey, Meghan; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    A developmental cascade model for adolescent substance use beginning in infancy was examined in a sample of children with alcoholic and nonalcoholic parents. The model examined the role of parents' alcohol diagnoses, depression and antisocial behavior in a cascading process of risk via 3 major hypothesized pathways: first, via parental…

  4. Cerebellar Growth and Behavioural & Neuropsychological Outcome in Preterm Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jennifer; Mitchell, Ann; Kalpakidou, Anastasia; Walshe, Muriel; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Nosarti, Chiara; Santosh, Paramala; Rifkin, Larry; Wyatt, John; Murray, Robin M.; Allin, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of social and cognitive development associated with changes in brain structure and function. These developmental changes may show an altered path in individuals born before 33 weeks' gestation (very preterm; VPT). The cerebellum is affected by VPT birth, but no studies have yet assessed the adolescent development of this…

  5. Differential developmental profiles of adolescents using sexually explicit internet material.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Overbeek, Geertjan; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2015-01-01

    This study used a person-centered approach to examine whether different developmental trajectories of boys' and girls' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) exist, which factors predict these trajectories, and whether sexual behavior develops differently for adolescents in these trajectories. A combination of latent class growth analysis on SEIM use and latent growth curve analysis on sexual behavior was used on four-wave longitudinal data of 787 eighth through tenth grade Dutch adolescents. Among boys, four SEIM use trajectories were identified, which were labeled Nonuse/Infrequent Use, Strongly Increasing Use, Occasional Use, and Decreasing Use. Among girls, a large Stable Nonuse/Infrequent Use and smaller Strongly Increasing Use and Stable Occasional Use trajectories were distinguished. Higher initial levels and/or stronger increases in SEIM use were predicted by demographic, social contextual, personal, and media use characteristics, including a stronger sexual interest, a higher degree of perceived realism regarding sexualized Internet content, and more permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, initial levels of and, to some extent, developmental changes in sexual behavior varied for boys and girls in the different SEIM use trajectories. Whereas some adolescents showed concurrent low levels, or parallel strong increases in SEIM use and sexual behavior, a subgroup of boys decreased their SEIM use while increasing their sexual behavior.

  6. Eating disorders in adolescence: attachment issues from a developmental perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gander, Manuela; Sevecke, Kathrin; Buchheim, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. Articles for inclusion in this review were identified from PsychINFO (1966–2013), Sciencedirect (1970–2013), Psychindex (1980–2013), and Pubmed (1980–2013). First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition. PMID:26321974

  7. Predictors of Parenting and Infant Outcomes for Impoverished Adolescent Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Melissa L.; Martinez, Andrew; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent mothers and their children are at risk for a myriad of negative outcomes. This study examined risk and protective factors and their impact on a sample (N = 172) of impoverished adolescent mothers. Multiple regression analyses revealed that depressed adolescent mothers report higher levels of parenting stress and that their children are…

  8. Sexuality-Related Outcomes of Adolescent Children of Teen Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between being an adolescent child of a teen mother and sexuality-related outcomes was investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents whose mothers were teenagers at first birth were more likely to have had sex by age 16 than other adolescents. Gender moderated this effect, as this relationship…

  9. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p < 0.001) and post-partum depressive symptomatology (b = .97, 95 % CI [.96-.99], p = 0.03) were significant predictors of early childhood development. Women demonstrating higher avoidant attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.

  10. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p < 0.001) and post-partum depressive symptomatology (b = .97, 95 % CI [.96-.99], p = 0.03) were significant predictors of early childhood development. Women demonstrating higher avoidant attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad. PMID:23737011

  11. The impact of obesity on developmental coordination disorder in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Kastner, Julia; Petermann, Franz; Jekauc, Darko; Worth, Annette; Bös, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) as well as overweight and obesity are of increasing importance in the study of human development. Data on the relation between DCD and obesity in adolescence are of particular interest because both phenomena are unlikely to disappear with age. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of obesity on severe DCD in adolescence. A total of 99 obese adolescents aged between 11 and 16 years and 99 normal-weight controls matched for age and gender were included in this cross-sectional study. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2 (age band 3) was used to determine subjects' stage of motor development. Results made clear that (i) obese show a higher severe DCD-risk in comparison to normal-weight adolescents (p<.01) which is (ii) most pronounced in balance (p<.01), and (iii) thereby rather appears in boys (p≤.10). Thus, our results at least do not exclude the possibility that obesity might have a detrimental effect on the etiopathology of DCD beyond childhood. Therefore, primary obesity prevention measures may additionally contribute to the prevention of a possible consolidation of severe DCD.

  12. Developmental Pathways among Adaptive Functioning and Externalizing and Internalizing Behavioral Problems: Cascades from Childhood into Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T D

    2013-01-01

    A developmental cascade describes a longitudinal cross-domain unique relation. Here, a 3-wave multivariate design and developmental cascade analysis were used to investigate pathways among adaptive functioning and externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems in a community sample of 134 children seen at 4, 10, and 14 years. Children, mothers, and teachers provided data. Nested path analytic models tested the plausible cascades among the three domains apart from their covariation at each age and rank-order stability across age. Adaptive functioning in early adolescence was predicted by early childhood adaptive functioning and externalizing behavioral problems, with both effects mediated by late childhood adaptive functioning and internalizing behavioral problems; externalizing behavioral problems in early adolescence were predicted by early childhood internalizing behavioral problems with the effect mediated by late childhood externalizing behavioral problems. These developmental cascades obtained independent of child intelligence; child age and maternal education and social desirability were also considered but were not related to any outcome variables. The findings suggest that strategically timed and targeted interventions designed to address young children's behavioral problems may return investment in terms of an enhanced epidemiology of adaptively functioning teens. PMID:23585713

  13. Developmental Pathways among Adaptive Functioning and Externalizing and Internalizing Behavioral Problems: Cascades from Childhood into Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2013-01-01

    A developmental cascade describes a longitudinal cross-domain unique relation. Here, a 3-wave multivariate design and developmental cascade analysis were used to investigate pathways among adaptive functioning and externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems in a community sample of 134 children seen at 4, 10, and 14 years. Children, mothers, and teachers provided data. Nested path analytic models tested the plausible cascades among the three domains apart from their covariation at each age and rank-order stability across age. Adaptive functioning in early adolescence was predicted by early childhood adaptive functioning and externalizing behavioral problems, with both effects mediated by late childhood adaptive functioning and internalizing behavioral problems; externalizing behavioral problems in early adolescence were predicted by early childhood internalizing behavioral problems with the effect mediated by late childhood externalizing behavioral problems. These developmental cascades obtained independent of child intelligence; child age and maternal education and social desirability were also considered but were not related to any outcome variables. The findings suggest that strategically timed and targeted interventions designed to address young children’s behavioral problems may return investment in terms of an enhanced epidemiology of adaptively functioning teens. PMID:23585713

  14. Assessing and Treating Aggression in Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities: A 20-Year Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Dixon, Dennis R.; Matson, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    Current methods of assessing and treating aggression in children and adolescents with developmental disabilities were reviewed. While a number of measures have been developed to assess aggression in the general population, there are relatively few assessment methods for use with children and adolescents with developmental disabilities. In all, 54…

  15. Experiences of Adolescents Participating in a Developmental Peer Group Counselling Career Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Janet N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study, part of a larger study that tested 6 counseling workshops based on a "Life Skills" developmental group model, involved a thematic analysis of taped descriptions of experiences of 27 adolescents in relation to their career aspirations and participation in an adolescent developmental peer counseling program at House of Shalom, a youth…

  16. The Sociocultural Context of Mexican-Origin Pregnant Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Teen Pregnancy and Links to Future Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Killoren, Sarah E; Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2016-05-01

    Given the negative developmental risks associated with adolescent motherhood, it is important to examine the sociocultural context of adolescent mothers' lives to identify those most at risk for poor outcomes. Our goals were to identify profiles of Mexican-origin pregnant adolescents' cultural orientations and their attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and to investigate how these profiles were linked to adolescents' pregnancy intentions, family resources, and short-term family, educational, and parenting outcomes. With a sample of 205 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers, we identified three profiles based on cultural orientations and attitudes toward teen pregnancy: Bicultural-Moderate Attitudes, Acculturated-Moderate Attitudes, and Enculturated-Low Attitudes. The results indicated that enculturated pregnant adolescents had the least favorable attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and the lowest levels of family income, pregnancy intentions, pregnancy support, and educational expectations compared to acculturated and bicultural pregnant adolescents; acculturated adolescents (with the highest family income and high levels of pregnancy support) had the highest levels of parenting efficacy 10 months postpartum. Our findings suggest that enculturated adolescent mothers (with less positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from educational support programs and enculturated and bicultural adolescent mothers (with moderately positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from programs to increase parenting efficacy. Such targeted interventions may, in turn, reduce the likelihood of adolescent mothers experiencing negative educational and parenting outcomes.

  17. Developmental Outcomes of Very Preterm Infants with Tracheostomies

    PubMed Central

    DeMauro, Sara B.; D'Agostino, Jo Ann; Bann, Carla; Bernbaum, Judy; Gerdes, Marsha; Bell, Edward F.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; D'Angio, Carl; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary; Hintz, Susan R.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Natarajan, Girija; Nelin, Leif; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Sanchez, Pablo J.; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J.; Truog, William; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Vohr, Betty; Walsh, Michele C.; Kirpalani, Haresh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the neurodevelopmental outcomes of very preterm (<30 weeks) infants who underwent tracheostomy. Study design Retrospective cohort study from 16 centers of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network over 10 years (2001-2011). Infants who survived to at least 36 weeks (N=8,683), including 304 infants with tracheostomies, were studied. Primary outcome was death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI, a composite of one or more of: developmental delay, neurologic impairment, profound hearing loss, severe visual impairment) at a corrected age of 18-22 months. Outcomes were compared using multiple logistic regression. We assessed impact of timing, by comparing outcomes of infants who underwent tracheostomy before and after 120 days of life. Results Tracheostomies were associated with all neonatal morbidities examined, and with most adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Death or NDI occurred in 83% of infants with tracheostomies and 40% of those without [odds ratio (OR) adjusted for center 7.0 (95%CI, 5.2-9.5)]. After adjustment for potential confounders, odds of death or NDI remained higher [OR 3.3 (95%CI, 2.4-4.6)], but odds of death alone were lower [OR 0.4 (95%CI, 0.3-0.7)], among infants with tracheostomies. Death or NDI was lower in infants who received their tracheostomies before, rather than after, 120 days of life [adjusted OR 0.5 (95%CI, 0.3-0.9)]. Conclusions Tracheostomy in preterm infants is associated with adverse developmental outcomes, and cannot mitigate the significant risk associated with many complications of prematurity. These data may inform counseling about tracheostomy in this vulnerable population. PMID:24472229

  18. Adolescent Civic Engagement and Adult Outcomes: An Examination among Urban Racial Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wing Yi; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Civic engagement in adolescence is encouraged because it is hypothesized to promote better civic, social, and behavioral outcomes. However, few studies have examined the effects of civic engagement on youth development over time. In particular, the long-term association between adolescent civic engagement and development among racial minority youth who are exposed to high levels of risk factors is understudied. Using data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS; N = 854; 56.6% were female; 93% were African Americans and 7% were Latinos), this study examined the associations between civic engagement in adolescence and outcomes during emerging adulthood among racial minority youth. Regression analyses found that civic engagement in adolescence is related to higher life satisfaction, civic participation, and educational attainment, and is related to lower rates of arrest in emerging adulthood. The findings suggest that adolescent civic engagement is most impactful in affecting civic and educational outcomes in emerging adulthood. The present study contributes to the literature by providing support for the long-term associations between adolescent civic engagement and multiple developmental domains in adulthood among an inner-city minority cohort. PMID:24878896

  19. Adolescent civic engagement and adult outcomes: an examination among urban racial minorities.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wing Yi; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2014-11-01

    Civic engagement in adolescence is encouraged because it is hypothesized to promote better civic, social, and behavioral outcomes. However, few studies have examined the effects of civic engagement on youth development over time. In particular, the long-term association between adolescent civic engagement and development among racial minority youth who are exposed to high levels of risk factors is understudied. Using data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS; N = 854; 56.6 % were female; 93 % were African Americans and 7 % were Latinos), this study examined the associations between civic engagement in adolescence and outcomes during emerging adulthood among racial minority youth. Regression analyses found that civic engagement in adolescence is related to higher life satisfaction, civic participation, and educational attainment, and is related to lower rates of arrest in emerging adulthood. The findings suggest that adolescent civic engagement is most impactful in affecting civic and educational outcomes in emerging adulthood. The present study contributes to the literature by providing support for the long-term associations between adolescent civic engagement and multiple developmental domains in adulthood among an inner-city minority cohort.

  20. [Survivors of pediatric cancer. Developmental paths and outcomes between trauma and resilience].

    PubMed

    Noeker, M

    2012-04-01

    In Europe and North America, about 80% of all patients with cancer in childhood and adolescence survive their leukemia, lymphomas or tumors. Therefore, neuropsychological impairments, psychopathological comorbidity and health-related quality of life become relevant parameters for treatment evaluation and conceptualization of future therapy protocols. During the last decade, a number of patient registries, multicenter studies and meta-analyses have analyzed the interaction of disease- and treatment-associated risk factors with pre-existing socio-demographic and psychosocial vulnerability factors. Brain tumors and treatment strategies including CNS surgery, cranial radiotherapy and intrathecal chemotherapy carry an increased risk for neurological and neuropsychological long-term outcomes, which in turn also threatens the patients' psychosocial and vocational participation. In the area of psychosocial adaptation, a wide range of developmental paths results, ranging from increased psychological comorbidity, to subclinical impairments in quality of life, to normal courses to resilient outcomes, even with a developmental benefit. A hypothetical model is presented to explain this enormous variance in outcomes. Protective cognitive-emotional schemata already established at the premorbid stage predispose patients to be able to cope successfully with cancer-related challenges and thus further enhance the patients' future adaptability. In contrast, dysfunctional schemata at the premorbid level increase risks of coping failure and thus intensify the long-term risk for psychopathological comorbidity in terms of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorder or depression.

  1. Invited Commentary: Applying Psychodynamic Developmental Assessment to Explore Mental Functioning in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czopp, Shira Tibon

    2012-01-01

    Recent publications in the "Journal of Youth and Adolescence" present a variety of topics exploring adolescents' mental functioning in the twenty first century. Conceptually, many of the articles address the intriguing, though rarely explicit, question of developmental continuities and change from adolescence to adulthood. Such investigations,…

  2. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Co-Occurring Somatic Chronic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior. We obtained data on 1044 ID-adolescents, aged…

  3. Early Childhood Predictors of Mothers' and Fathers' Relationships with Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, D. B.; Hauser-Cram, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The importance of positive parent-adolescent relationships is stressed in research on adolescents, although very little is known about this relationship when a teen has developmental disabilities (DD). We investigated the relationships of adolescents with disabilities with their mothers and their fathers in order to answer a number of…

  4. Unraveling the "new morbidity": adolescent parenting and developmental delays.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, J G; Whitman, T L; Passino, A W; Rellinger, E A; Sommer, K; Keogh, D

    1992-01-01

    Baumeister's concept of the "new morbidity" pertains to the linkages between poverty, adolescent mothers, and a series of developmental delays in their children. Outlined are three possible causes of the mild mental retardation and learning disabilities that are found disproportionately among the offspring of adolescents. First, there may be a direct genetic transmission of mild mental retardation. Second, adolescent mothers are likely to have a lack of support from a social network, be unprepared cognitively and emotionally to assume responsibility for child rearing, and to look to an infant to meet their own needs. Third, the interaction of genetic and environmental deficits leads to a parenting style that deprives the child of stimulation that could potentially overcome these deficits. A secure mother-infant attachment relationship provides the foundation for the development of social, emotional, attentional, and self-regulatory processes. When this attachment relationship is insecure, as a result of the mother's unreadiness to parent, the child cannot proceed to exploration of the environment--a critical component of cognitive development. If the infant has a difficult temperament, the risk of physical and emotional abuse increases, further compromising the child's future development. By 3 years of age, many of these children are showing declines in mental functioning, delays in receptive language skills, and poor motor and social skills. Research is urged to identify events in this chain that can be targeted for early intervention. PMID:12319317

  5. Unraveling the "new morbidity": adolescent parenting and developmental delays.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, J G; Whitman, T L; Passino, A W; Rellinger, E A; Sommer, K; Keogh, D

    1992-01-01

    Baumeister's concept of the "new morbidity" pertains to the linkages between poverty, adolescent mothers, and a series of developmental delays in their children. Outlined are three possible causes of the mild mental retardation and learning disabilities that are found disproportionately among the offspring of adolescents. First, there may be a direct genetic transmission of mild mental retardation. Second, adolescent mothers are likely to have a lack of support from a social network, be unprepared cognitively and emotionally to assume responsibility for child rearing, and to look to an infant to meet their own needs. Third, the interaction of genetic and environmental deficits leads to a parenting style that deprives the child of stimulation that could potentially overcome these deficits. A secure mother-infant attachment relationship provides the foundation for the development of social, emotional, attentional, and self-regulatory processes. When this attachment relationship is insecure, as a result of the mother's unreadiness to parent, the child cannot proceed to exploration of the environment--a critical component of cognitive development. If the infant has a difficult temperament, the risk of physical and emotional abuse increases, further compromising the child's future development. By 3 years of age, many of these children are showing declines in mental functioning, delays in receptive language skills, and poor motor and social skills. Research is urged to identify events in this chain that can be targeted for early intervention.

  6. The Over-Scheduling Hypothesis Revisited: Intensity of Organized Activity Participation during Adolescence and Young Adult Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Joseph L.; Vest, Andrea E.

    2012-01-01

    Concern exists that youth who spend a lot of time participating in organized out-of-school activities (e.g., sports) are at-risk for poor developmental outcomes. This concern--called the over-scheduling hypothesis--has primarily been assessed in terms of adolescent adjustment. This longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of 1,115…

  7. Predictive Models of Cognitive Outcomes of Developmental Insults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Yupo; Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Chowdhury, Parimal; Leszczynska, Danuta; Patterson, Tucker A.; Tarasenko, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Representatives of Arkansas medical, research and educational institutions have gathered over the past four years to discuss the relationship between functional developmental perturbations and their neurological consequences. We wish to track the effect on the nervous system by developmental perturbations over time and across species. Except for perturbations, the sequence of events that occur during neural development was found to be remarkably conserved across mammalian species. The tracking includes consequences on anatomical regions and behavioral changes. The ultimate goal is to develop a predictive model of long-term genotypic and phenotypic outcomes that includes developmental insults. Such a model can subsequently be fostered into an educated intervention for therapeutic purposes. Several datasets were identified to test plausible hypotheses, ranging from evoked potential datasets to sleep-disorder datasets. An initial model may be mathematical and conceptual. However, we expect to see rapid progress as large-scale gene expression studies in the mammalian brain permit genome-wide searches to discover genes that are uniquely expressed in brain circuits and regions. These genes ultimately control behavior. By using a validated model we endeavor to make useful predictions.

  8. Adolescence as a gateway to adult health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence has long been regarded as a transition from childhood to adulthood. More recently it is become a concern of those wishing to avoid adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. Most of this effort has been focused on behavioural risk factors such as tobacco and excessive alcohol use, physical exercise habits, dietary habits, as well as sexual and injury-related behaviours. The concern is that these habits are established during adolescence, continue into adulthood, and come to constitute ongoing risk factors for adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. There is good reason to criticize this approach. These behaviours are themselves shaped by adolescents' living and working conditions and even then constitute a small proportion of the variance predicting adverse health outcomes during adulthood. More complex models of how adolescence serves as a gateway to adult health outcomes are presented. These are the socio-environmental, public policy, and political economy approaches. The argument is made that adolescence is a period during which public policy plays an especially important role in predicting future health outcomes. Yet, these public policies influence health all across the life span with adolescence providing only one of many important periods during which public policy shapes health prospects during middle and later adulthood. Ultimately one should consider a range of approaches ranging from the behavioural to the political to examine how adolescence serves as a gateway towards future adult prospects. An Adolescent Gateway Towards Adult Health Model is provided to assist in this process.

  9. Characteristics, correlates, and outcomes of childhood and adolescent depressive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Uma; Chen, Li-Ann

    2009-01-01

    Depressive illness beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Therefore, understanding the disorder during this developmental stage is critical for determining its etiology and course, as well as for deveiopinq effective intervention straieqies. This paper summarizes current knoviedqe reqardinq the etiology, phenomenoiogy, correlates, natural course, and consequences of unipolar depression in children and adolescents. Using adult depression as a framevork, the unique aspects of childhood and adolescence are considered in order to better understand depression within a developmental context. The data suggest that the clinical presentation, correlates, and natural course of depression are remarkably similar across the lifespan. There are, however, important developmental differences. Specifically, the familial and psychological context in which depression develops in youngsters is associated with variability in the frequency and nature of depressive symptoms and comorbid conditions among children and adolescents. Maturational differences have also been identified in the neurobiological correlates of depression. These developmental differences may be associated with the observed variability in clinical response to treatment and longitudinal course. Characterization of the developmental differences will be helpful in developing more specific and effective interventions for youngsters, thereby allowing them to reach their full potential as adults. PMID:19432387

  10. Socioeconomic status, schooling, and the developmental trajectories of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; Huston, Aletha C

    2007-09-01

    The socioeconomic stratification of American society profoundly influences how the life course unfolds by shaping various developmental pathways as well as the connections among these pathways. Drawing on a nationally representative sample of American adolescents, this study charted trajectories of personal control and parental consultation from middle school to the end of high school and then examined how various combinations of these trajectories were associated with math/science course taking in high school across socioeconomic strata. Results indicated that low and/or decreasing levels of personal control were associated with the accumulation of fewer math/science credits, as were declining levels of parental consultation no matter what the initial level. Mismatches between control and consultation trajectories (e.g., high, stable control with low, stable consultation) were also associated with fewer math/science credits. These patterns tended to be less predictive of math/science credit accumulation at the highest and lowest ends of the socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:17723038

  11. Developmental delays at arrival and postmenarcheal Chinese adolescents' adjustment.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony X; Rice, Jessica L; Mahoney, E Emily

    2015-01-01

    Internationally adopted (IA) children often have delays at adoption and undergo massive catch-up after adoption. Before achieving developmental catch-up, however, delays at adoption present a risk for IA children's adjustment, but it remains unknown whether such delays foreshadow IA children's outcomes after catch-up development has completed or ceased. In the current analysis, we utilized menarche as a practical marker to indicate the cessation of developmental catch-up. We investigated how delays at arrival predicted long-term outcomes in 132 postmenarcheal teens (M = 14.2 years, SD = 1.7) who were adopted from China at 16.6 months (SD = 17.1). In 2005, adoptive parents provided data of medical evaluation results on their children's delay status in gross motor skills, fine motor skills, social development, emotional development, and cognitive development. Six years later in 2011, data on parent-child relationship quality were collected from parents, and data on the adoptees' academic competence and internalizing problems were also collected from both parents and adoptees. We found that gross motor delay at arrival predicted academic performance (parent-report: b = -.34, p < .01) and internalizing problems (self-report: b = .26, p < .05; parent-report: b = .33, p < .01). Other delays were not significant in predicting any of the outcomes. The impact of early nutritional deprivation on gross motor development was discussed.

  12. Detrimental Psychological Outcomes Associated with Early Pubertal Timing in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Mendle, Jane; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Though often discussed as though it were a discrete event, puberty comprises one segment of a larger developmental continuum and is notable for rapid transformation across a multitude of domains. Research suggests that an earlier rate of pubertal maturation in girls correlates with a number of detrimental outcomes compared with on-time or later maturation. The present review synthesizes the research on negative psychological sequelae of early pubertal timing in adolescent girls. Emphasis is on three theoretical perspectives by which precocious development is believed to affect the emergence of adverse outcomes: biological, psychosocial, and selection effects. PMID:20740062

  13. Does Smoking Intervention Influence Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Mark G.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2008-01-01

    Although tobacco use is reported by the majority of substance use disordered (SUD) youth, little work has examined tobacco focused interventions with this population. The present study is an initial investigation of the effect of a tobacco use intervention on adolescent SUD treatment outcomes. Participants were adolescents in SUD treatment taking…

  14. Early Adult Outcomes of Adolescents Who Deliberately Poisoned Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Richard; Pickles, Andrew; Aglan, Azza; Harrington, Val; Burroughs, Heather; Kerfoot, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the early adult psychopathological and social outcomes of adolescents who deliberately poisoned themselves. Method: Prospective cohort study with a 6-year follow-up of 132 of 158 (84%) adolescents who, between ages 11 and 16 years, had taken part in a randomized trial of a brief family intervention after deliberate…

  15. Suicidality and Its Relationship to Treatment Outcome in Depressed Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbe, Remy P.; Bridge, Jeffrey; Birmaher, Boris; Kolko, David; Brent, David A.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of suicidality on treatment outcome in 107 depressed adolescents who participated in a clinical trial, and received either cognitive-behavioral (CBT), systemic-behavioral-family (SBFT), or non-directive-supportive therapy (NST). Suicidal depressed adolescents had a higher dropout rate and were more likely to be…

  16. Differential Outcomes of Adolescents with Chronically Ill and Healthy Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children grow up with a parent who has been diagnosed with a chronic medical condition (CMC) and seem to be at risk for adjustment difficulties. We examined differences in behavioral, psychosocial and academic outcomes between 161 adolescents from 101 families with a chronically ill parent and 112 adolescents from 68 families…

  17. The Doctor-Patient Relationship in the Adolescent Cancer Setting: A Developmentally Focused Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Siembida, Elizabeth J; Bellizzi, Keith M

    2015-09-01

    Several national reports and many individuals in the clinical oncology community have defined the adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer population as individuals diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39. However, neuroscience and developmental research have identified important decision-making skills (e.g., information processing, reasoning, emotion regulation) that are not fully developed during adolescence, making general, AYA-focused doctor-patient interaction guidelines potentially questionable for the adolescent cancer population. Most studies include adolescents in samples of pediatric cancer patients or include adolescents in samples of young adult cancer patients, but studies rarely consider adolescent cancer patients as a distinct, developmentally unique group. A systematic literature review was undertaken in October 2014 to begin to understand what is known about the doctor-patient relationship and communication preferences within adolescent oncology. From the 25 included studies, three important conclusions emerged: (1) discrepancies among adolescent patients, parents, and providers about the desired extent of involvement in treatment-related decisions; (2) patient desire for developmentally and culturally appropriate information provision; and (3) the desire and preference for how information is delivered, with recognition that these preferences may change with age. There was some variation in themes by study design, with studies directly observing medical consultations reporting less adolescent involvement in discussions than studies that surveyed doctors. The results of this review support the need for developmentally focused research and clinical guidelines that emphasize the experience of adolescent cancer patients separate from their older and younger counterparts.

  18. Managing Ulcerative Colitis in the Adolescent: Highlighting the Developmental and Self-management Needs.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Azza H; Sonnenburg, Katie; Foli, Karen J; Walters, Becky

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a lifelong disease that peaks in diagnosis between the ages of 15 to 25 years, making UC a significant chronic disease among adolescents that could affect the adolescents throughout their life. This article provides an overview of the role of nurse practitioners as health care providers in managing adolescent patients with UC with a holistic approach that encompasses the physical aspects of the disease, as well as developmental and psychosocial needs. By describing the influence that developmental stage and psychological stress have on patients with UC, the nurse practitioners can facilitate evidence-based and holistic care for adolescents and promote self-management.

  19. Developmental approach to prevent adolescent suicides: research pathways to effective upstream preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Wyman, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    The 2012 National Strategy for Suicide Prevention expands the current suicide prevention paradigm by including a strategic direction aimed at promoting healthy populations. Childhood and adolescence are key suicide prevention window periods, yet knowledge of suicide prevention pathways through universal interventions is limited (Aspirational Goal 11). Epidemiologic evidence suggests that prevention programs in normative social systems such as schools are needed for broad suicide prevention impact. Prevention trial results show that current universal prevention programs for children and young adolescents are effective in reducing adolescent emotional and behavioral problems that are risk factors for suicidal behavior, and in the case of the Good Behavior Game, suicide attempts. A developmentally sequenced upstream suicide prevention approach is proposed: (1) childhood programs to strengthen a broad set of self-regulation skills through family and school-based programs, followed by (2) adolescent programs that leverage social influences to prevent emerging risk behaviors such as substance abuse and strengthen relationships and skills. Key knowledge breakthroughs needed are evidence linking specific intervention strategies to reduced suicidal behaviors and mortality and their mechanisms of action. Short- and long-term objectives to achieve these breakthroughs include combining evidence from completed prevention trials, increasing motivators for prevention researchers to assess suicide-related outcome, and conducting new trials of upstream interventions in populations using efficient designs acceptable to communities. In conclusion, effective upstream prevention programs have been identified that modify risk and protective factors for adolescent suicide, and key knowledge breakthroughs can jump-start progress in realizing the suicide prevention potential of specific strategies. PMID:25145747

  20. Detrimental Psychological Outcomes Associated with Pubertal Timing in Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendle, Jane; Ferrero, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Though often discussed as a discrete event, puberty comprises one segment of a larger developmental continuum and is notable for rapid transformation across a multitude of domains. While an earlier timing of puberty relative to peers stands as one of the most well-replicated antecedents of adolescent difficulties for girls, findings have been less…

  1. Therapeutic adherence and competence scales for Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy for adolescents with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Gutermann, Jana; Schreiber, Franziska; Matulis, Simone; Stangier, Ulrich; Rosner, Rita; Steil, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Background The assessment of therapeutic adherence and competence is often neglected in psychotherapy research, particularly in children and adolescents; however, both variables are crucial for the interpretation of treatment effects. Objective Our aim was to develop, adapt, and pilot two scales to assess therapeutic adherence and competence in a recent innovative program, Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy (D-CPT), for adolescents suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childhood abuse. Method Two independent raters assessed 30 randomly selected sessions involving 12 D-CPT patients (age 13–20 years, M age=16.75, 91.67% female) treated by 11 therapists within the pilot phase of a multicenter study. Results Three experts confirmed the relevance and appropriateness of each item. All items and total scores for adherence (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]=0.76–1.00) and competence (ICC=0.78–0.98) yielded good to excellent inter-rater reliability. Cronbach's alpha was 0.59 for the adherence scale and 0.96 for the competence scale. Conclusions The scales reliably assess adherence and competence in D-CPT for adolescent PTSD patients. The ratings can be helpful in the interpretation of treatment effects, the assessment of mediator variables, and the identification and training of therapeutic skills that are central to achieving good treatment outcomes. Both adherence and competence will be assessed as possible predictor variables for treatment success in future D-CPT trials. PMID:25791915

  2. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at ages 8–11 in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) were created by combining the highest rating for each item across mother and teacher reports. Longitudinal analyses were conducted using Latent Curve Models of RAgg with PAgg as a time-varying covariate, with all parameters allowed to vary by gender. Boys and girls had different growth parameters of RAgg. Girls’ RAgg intercept was higher and the slope was not different from zero; boys’ RAgg intercept was lower and the slope declined. Mother-child conflict in early childhood predicted RAgg intercept for both boys and girls, but maternal harsh control and sensitivity were also uniquely predictive for girls, whereas center care was uniquely predictive for boys. RAgg intercept predicted adolescent self-reports of depression for girls and delinquency and risk-taking for both boys and girls; the magnitude of the association with risk-taking was significantly greater for boys. PMID:22665946

  3. Perceived Truth and Trust in Television Advertising among Mexican-American Adolescents: Socialization and Developmental Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Timothy P.; Hexamer, Anne

    1981-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered to 214 Mexican American adolescents to determine their attitudes toward television commercial truthfulness and to examine those attitudes in concert with developmental levels of reasoning among high school students. Fifteen references are listed. (FM)

  4. Childhood victimization: relationship to adolescent pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Simon, C; McAnarney, E R

    1994-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a common antecedents of adolescent pregnancy. We studied the pregnancies of 127 poor, black, 12- to 18-year-olds; 42 (33%) of whom reported that they had been physically or sexually abused prior to conception. We hypothesized that during pregnancy: (a) Previously abused adolescents report more stress and depression and less adequate social support than do nonabused adolescents; and (b) Previously abused adolescents obtain less prenatal care, gain less weight, engage in more substance abuse, and give birth to smaller babies than do nonabused adolescents. Consistent with the first study hypothesis, we found that abused adolescents scored significantly higher on stress and depression scales and rated their families as less supportive than did nonabused adolescents. Although there were no group differences in the rate of weight gain or the quantity of prenatal care obtained during pregnancy, abused adolescents were more likely to report substance use during pregnancy and gave birth to significantly smaller, (2,904 +/- 676 vs. 3,198 +/- 443 grams; p = .01), less mature (38.0 +/- 3.4 vs. 39.1 +/- 1.7 weeks; p = .05) infants. Our finding demonstrate the importance of asking pregnant adolescents about abuse. PMID:7922731

  5. Does Developmental Education Improve Labor Market Outcomes? Evidence from Two States. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodara, Michelle; Xu, Di

    2014-01-01

    Nationally, about two thirds of community college students are referred to developmental education. Thus far, research on the effectiveness of developmental education has focused on students' academic outcomes; in this paper, we examine the economic consequences of developmental education for students. Using longitudinal student-unit record data…

  6. Early Parenting Practices and Outcomes for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Amy; Dunham, Mardis

    2011-01-01

    This study compared early parenting practices and adolescent behavior to determine whether parental attachment-promoting behaviors in the first year of life were associated with psychosocial adjustment in teenagers. The mothers of 22 adolescents completed a behavioral assessment of their teenager and an inventory of their recollected parenting…

  7. Moral Identity as Moral Ideal Self: Links to Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Sam A.; Walker, Lawrence J.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Woodbury, Ryan D.; Hickman, Jacob R.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes.…

  8. The effects of positive and negative parenting practices on adolescent mental health outcomes in a multicultural sample of rural youth.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R

    2015-06-01

    The quality of parent-child relationships has a significant impact on adolescent developmental outcomes, especially mental health. Given the lack of research on rural adolescent mental health in general and rural parent-child relationships in particular, the current longitudinal study explores how rural adolescents' (N = 2,617) perceptions of parenting practices effect their mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, aggression, self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction) over a 1 year period. Regression models showed that current parenting practices (i.e., in Year 2) were strongly associated with current adolescent mental health outcomes. Negative current parenting, manifesting in parent-adolescent conflict, was related to higher adolescent anxiety, depression, and aggression and lower self-esteem, and school satisfaction. Past parent-adolescent conflict (i.e., in Year 1) also positively predicted adolescent aggression in the present. Current positive parenting (i.e., parent support, parent-child future orientation, and parent education support) was significantly associated with less depression and higher self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction. Past parent education support was also related to current adolescent future optimism. Implications for practice and limitations were discussed. PMID:24880498

  9. The effects of positive and negative parenting practices on adolescent mental health outcomes in a multicultural sample of rural youth.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R

    2015-06-01

    The quality of parent-child relationships has a significant impact on adolescent developmental outcomes, especially mental health. Given the lack of research on rural adolescent mental health in general and rural parent-child relationships in particular, the current longitudinal study explores how rural adolescents' (N = 2,617) perceptions of parenting practices effect their mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, aggression, self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction) over a 1 year period. Regression models showed that current parenting practices (i.e., in Year 2) were strongly associated with current adolescent mental health outcomes. Negative current parenting, manifesting in parent-adolescent conflict, was related to higher adolescent anxiety, depression, and aggression and lower self-esteem, and school satisfaction. Past parent-adolescent conflict (i.e., in Year 1) also positively predicted adolescent aggression in the present. Current positive parenting (i.e., parent support, parent-child future orientation, and parent education support) was significantly associated with less depression and higher self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction. Past parent education support was also related to current adolescent future optimism. Implications for practice and limitations were discussed.

  10. Developmental Pathways Linking Externalizing Symptoms, Internalizing Symptoms, and Academic Competence to Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Michelle M.; Siebenbruner, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study extends previous research investigating the developmental pathways predicting adolescent alcohol and marijuana use by examining the cascading effects of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and academic competence in the prediction of use and level of use of these substances in adolescence. Participants (N = 191) were drawn from a…

  11. The Developmental Association of Sexual Self-Concept with Sexual Behavior among Adolescent Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Orr, Donald P.

    2011-01-01

    Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development…

  12. Attainment of Developmental Tasks by Adolescents with Hearing Loss Attending Special Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2014-01-01

    The investigators compared the perceived attainment of developmental tasks by 181 German adolescents with hearing loss and 254 peers without hearing loss. The adolescents with hearing loss were attending special schools for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. On average, the two groups perceived similar levels of success across the assessed…

  13. Growing Up Means Moving Away: Developmental Dilemma for the Rural Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Gordon A., Jr.

    Current developmental theory and research are inadequate in explaining the development of rural youth, but a mid-1970s study of adolescents from a small Maine community provided three patterns of growth and suggested four lessons for social service professionals who work with rural adolescents. The study of "Sawyer, Maine" (a pseudonym) attempted…

  14. Obesity and Obesity-Related Secondary Conditions in Adolescents with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, J. H.; Yamaki, K.; Davis Lowry, B. M.; Wang, E.; Vogel, L. C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: To explore the prevalence of obesity and related secondary conditions associated with obesity in adolescents with intellectual/developmental disabilities (IDD). Methods: In total, 461 parents of adolescents with IDD (M = 14.9 year, SD = 1.9) across 49 US states completed a web-based survey containing questions related to their child's…

  15. The Developmental Trajectories of Executive Function of Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Ying; Shuai, Lan; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Qian, Qiu-Jin; Wang, Yufeng

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of executive function (EF) of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Han Chinese. Five hundred and fifteen children and adolescents with ADHD and 249 healthy controls took part in this study. All of them were administered four EF tests capturing…

  16. Psychiatric Diagnoses as Contemporaneous Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: Developmental Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, David B.; Daniel, Stephanie Sergent; Erkanli, Alaattin; Reboussin, Beth A.; Mayfield, Andrew; Frazier, Patricia H.; Treadway, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, naturalistic study was to examine the relationships between suicide attempts and contemporaneous psychiatric disorders, and developmental changes in these relationships from adolescence to young adulthood. The sample consisted of 180 adolescents, 12-19 years of age at hospitalization, repeatedly assessed for up to…

  17. Understanding Developmental Systems in Adolescence: Implications for Methodological Strategies, Data Analytic Approaches, and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; De Stefanis, Imma; Apfel, Alison

    2001-01-01

    Discusses contemporary theories of adolescence, stressing developmental systems models that integrate individual and contextual levels of analysis. Maintains that adolescence should be studied with multivariate-longitudinal designs, change-sensitive measures, and data analytic strategies capitalizing on triangulation across quantitative and…

  18. Female Overweight and Obesity in Adolescence: Developmental Trends and Ethnic Differences in Prevalence, Incidence, and Remission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using…

  19. Let's Talk about Sex: Recommendations for Educating Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minch, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with developmental disabilities are vulnerable to sexual abuse, and are often denied access to sexuality education. Public schools have vague curricula regarding sexuality education for general education students, curricula to which adolescents with developmental disabilities do not have access. The current study sought to determine…

  20. Developmental Changes in Cognitive and Behavioural Functioning of Adolescents with Fragile-X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frolli, A.; Piscopo, S.; Conson, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with fragile-X syndrome exhibit developmental delay, hyperexcitation and social anxiety; they also show lack of attention and hyperactivity. Few studies have investigated whether levels of functioning change with increasing age. Here, we explored developmental changes across adolescence in the cognitive and behavioural…

  1. Identifying Gender-Specific Developmental Trajectories of Nonviolent and Violent Delinquency from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yao; Cleveland, H. Harrington

    2013-01-01

    Most research examining gender differences in developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior does not consider subtypes of antisocial behavior and is difficult to generalize due to small non-representative samples. The current study investigated gender difference in developmental trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood while addressing…

  2. Building Developmental Assets to Empower Adolescent Girls in Rural Bangladesh: Evaluation of Project "Kishoree Kontha"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Peter C.; Benson, Peter L.; Dershem, Larry; Fraher, Kathleen; Makonnen, Raphael; Nazneen, Shahana; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Titus, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    "Kishoree Kontha" ("Adolescent Girls' Voices") was implemented in Bangladeshi villages to build the developmental assets (e.g., support from others, social competencies) of rural girls through peer education in social skills, literacy, and school learning. The Developmental Assets Profile (DAP) measured the project's impact on ecological and…

  3. Trajectories of Family Management Practices and Early Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Stage– environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in family management practices and adolescents’ behavioral outcomes and to detect predictors of interindividual differences in initial status and rate of change. The sample comprised approximately 1,000 adolescents between ages 11 years and 15 years. The results indicated that adolescents’ antisocial behaviors and substance use increased and their positive behavioral engagement decreased over time. As adolescent age increased, parental knowledge of their adolescent’s activities decreased, as did parental rule making and support. The level and rate of change in family management and adolescent behavioral outcomes varied by family structure and by gender. Reciprocal longitudinal associations between parenting practices and adolescent problem behavior were found. Specifically, parenting practices predicted subsequent adolescent behavior, and adolescent behavior predicted subsequent parenting practices. In addition, parental warmth moderated the effects of parental knowledge and rule making on adolescent antisocial behavior and substance use over time. PMID:21688899

  4. Outcomes and intentions in children's, adolescents', and adults' second- and third-party punishment behavior.

    PubMed

    Gummerum, Michaela; Chu, Maria T

    2014-10-01

    Theories of morality maintain that punishment supports the emergence and maintenance of moral behavior. This study investigated developmental differences in the role of outcomes and the violator's intentions in second-party punishment (where punishers are victims of a violation) and third-party punishment (where punishers are unaffected observers of a violation). Four hundred and forty-three adults and 8-, 12-, and 15-year-olds made choices in mini-ultimatum games and newly-developed mini-third-party punishment games, which involved actual incentives rather than hypothetical decisions. Adults integrated outcomes and intentions in their second- and third-party punishment, whereas 8-year-olds consistently based their punishment on the outcome of the violation. Adolescents integrated outcomes and intentions in second- but not third-party punishment.

  5. Outcomes and intentions in children's, adolescents', and adults' second- and third-party punishment behavior.

    PubMed

    Gummerum, Michaela; Chu, Maria T

    2014-10-01

    Theories of morality maintain that punishment supports the emergence and maintenance of moral behavior. This study investigated developmental differences in the role of outcomes and the violator's intentions in second-party punishment (where punishers are victims of a violation) and third-party punishment (where punishers are unaffected observers of a violation). Four hundred and forty-three adults and 8-, 12-, and 15-year-olds made choices in mini-ultimatum games and newly-developed mini-third-party punishment games, which involved actual incentives rather than hypothetical decisions. Adults integrated outcomes and intentions in their second- and third-party punishment, whereas 8-year-olds consistently based their punishment on the outcome of the violation. Adolescents integrated outcomes and intentions in second- but not third-party punishment. PMID:24997554

  6. Evaluation of Developmentally Appropriate Programs for Adolescent Tobacco Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman-Wallace, Debbie; Lee, Jerry W.; Montgomery, Susanne; Blix, Glen; Wang, Dongqing Terry

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated two adolescent tobacco-cessation programs based on stages of change: an educational program for adolescents not yet thinking about quitting and a cessation program for adolescents ready to quit. Participant evaluation indicated that both interventions successfully helped reduce adolescent smoking. The educational program was the most…

  7. Parental Contexts of Adolescent Self-Esteem: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isberg, Roberta S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Relationships between parental behaviors and adolescent self-esteem were analyzed for 40 male and 50 female early adolescents from multiple settings. Increasing individuation in self-esteem regulation occurs during adolescent development; adolescents of higher levels of ego development evaluate themselves more independently of parental feedback…

  8. Adolescent Hope as a Mediator between Parent-Child Connectedness and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Hardy, Sam A.; Christensen, Katherine J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines adolescent hope as a mediator between connectedness to mother and father, and positive and negative child outcomes. Participants included 489 adolescents aged 9 to 14 years (M = 11.29; SD = 1.01) and their parents from the "Flourishing Families Project", and data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results…

  9. Understanding loneliness during adolescence: developmental changes that increase the risk of perceived social isolation.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Brett; Hartl, Amy C

    2013-12-01

    Loneliness is typically defined in terms of feeling states. In this review, we take a somewhat different approach, describing loneliness in terms of perceived social isolation. Vulnerabilities to perceived social isolation differ across the lifespan. Unique properties of adolescence are identified that carry special risk for perceived social isolation. These include (but are not limited to) developmental changes in companions, developmental changes in autonomy and individuation, identity exploration, cognitive maturation, developmental changes in social perspective taking, and physical maturation. Scholars are encouraged to consider loneliness through the lens of perceived social isolation so as to better understand how the experience of physical isolation varies across adolescence.

  10. Moral identity as moral ideal self: links to adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sam A; Walker, Lawrence J; Olsen, Joseph A; Woodbury, Ryan D; Hickman, Jacob R

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes. Data came from a local school sample (Data Set 1: N = 510 adolescents; 10-18 years of age) and a national online sample (Data Set 2: N = 383 adolescents; 15-18 years of age) of adolescents and their parents. All outcome measures were parent-report (Data Set 1: altruism, moral personality, aggression, and cheating; Data Set 2: environmentalism, school engagement, internalizing, and externalizing), whereas other variables were adolescent-report. The 20-item Moral Ideal Self Scale showed good reliability, factor structure, and validity. Structural equation models demonstrated that, even after accounting for moral identity internalization, in Data Set 1 moral ideal self positively predicted altruism and moral personality and negatively predicted aggression, whereas in Data Set 2 moral ideal self positively predicted environmentalism and negatively predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Further, purpose and social responsibility mediated most relations between moral ideal self and the outcomes in Data Set 2. Moral ideal self was unrelated to age but differentially predicted some outcomes across age. Girls had higher levels of moral ideal self than boys, although moral identity did not differentially predict outcomes between genders. Thus, moral ideal self is a salient element of moral identity and may play a role in morally relevant adolescent outcomes. PMID:23895167

  11. Moral identity as moral ideal self: links to adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sam A; Walker, Lawrence J; Olsen, Joseph A; Woodbury, Ryan D; Hickman, Jacob R

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes. Data came from a local school sample (Data Set 1: N = 510 adolescents; 10-18 years of age) and a national online sample (Data Set 2: N = 383 adolescents; 15-18 years of age) of adolescents and their parents. All outcome measures were parent-report (Data Set 1: altruism, moral personality, aggression, and cheating; Data Set 2: environmentalism, school engagement, internalizing, and externalizing), whereas other variables were adolescent-report. The 20-item Moral Ideal Self Scale showed good reliability, factor structure, and validity. Structural equation models demonstrated that, even after accounting for moral identity internalization, in Data Set 1 moral ideal self positively predicted altruism and moral personality and negatively predicted aggression, whereas in Data Set 2 moral ideal self positively predicted environmentalism and negatively predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Further, purpose and social responsibility mediated most relations between moral ideal self and the outcomes in Data Set 2. Moral ideal self was unrelated to age but differentially predicted some outcomes across age. Girls had higher levels of moral ideal self than boys, although moral identity did not differentially predict outcomes between genders. Thus, moral ideal self is a salient element of moral identity and may play a role in morally relevant adolescent outcomes.

  12. Developmental outcome of infants with grade III intraventricular hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Naulty, C M; Gaiter, J L; Chang, C S; Eng, G D; Murray, S L; Reutter, S; Horn, S L

    1983-02-01

    To determine the developmental outcome of premature infants weighing 1,750 gm or less at birth and who had grade III intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), we followed up ten infants with IVH confirmed by computed tomography (CT) and ten CT-negative control infants until they were 12 months corrected age. The infants were evaluated at three-month intervals with neurologic examinations; hearing, speech, and language assessments; Bayley testing; and evoked response studies. Normal criteria were defined in each area. Eight of the ten grade III IVH survivors had identifiable defects, with a predominance of motor deficits, as assessed by two or more parameters. Only three of the ten patients without IVH had two or more suspicious or abnormal assessments. Infants with grade III IVH may have widespread damage. A multidisciplinary approach to evaluating these patients is mandatory to determine the full extent of various deficits. Similar studies of infants with all degrees of IVH may help to define its full impact on their long-term development.

  13. Weighing in on the issue: a longitudinal analysis of the influence of selected individual factors and the sports context on the developmental trajectories of eating pathology among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fay, Kristen; Lerner, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, and related issues (e.g., body dissatisfaction, weight control behaviors), represent pressing and prevalent health problems that affect American adolescents with alarming frequency and potentially chronic consequences. However, more longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the developmental processes that increase or maintain risk for, and that protect against, eating- and weight-related problems among adolescents. Accordingly, the current study used longitudinal data from 1,050 male and female (68.0 %) adolescents (Grades 9-11)-the majority of whom were European Americans (72.2 %)-who participated in the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development to (a) describe trajectories of adolescents' eating pathology and body dissatisfaction, (b) identify individual and contextual correlates of these pathways, (c) examine whether trajectories of eating pathology and body dissatisfaction related to adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (d) elucidate whether sports participation moderated associations between specific trajectories of eating pathology and body dissatisfaction and adolescents' depressive symptoms. Results suggest that the diverse pathways of eating pathology and body dissatisfaction that exist across middle adolescence, in combination with adolescents' sports participation, have important implications for the positive and problematic development of our youth. In addition, the findings underscore the need to evaluate the interindividual differences that exist in regard to how sports participation may relate positively and negatively to developmental outcomes. PMID:23111843

  14. Weighing in on the issue: a longitudinal analysis of the influence of selected individual factors and the sports context on the developmental trajectories of eating pathology among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fay, Kristen; Lerner, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, and related issues (e.g., body dissatisfaction, weight control behaviors), represent pressing and prevalent health problems that affect American adolescents with alarming frequency and potentially chronic consequences. However, more longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the developmental processes that increase or maintain risk for, and that protect against, eating- and weight-related problems among adolescents. Accordingly, the current study used longitudinal data from 1,050 male and female (68.0 %) adolescents (Grades 9-11)-the majority of whom were European Americans (72.2 %)-who participated in the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development to (a) describe trajectories of adolescents' eating pathology and body dissatisfaction, (b) identify individual and contextual correlates of these pathways, (c) examine whether trajectories of eating pathology and body dissatisfaction related to adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (d) elucidate whether sports participation moderated associations between specific trajectories of eating pathology and body dissatisfaction and adolescents' depressive symptoms. Results suggest that the diverse pathways of eating pathology and body dissatisfaction that exist across middle adolescence, in combination with adolescents' sports participation, have important implications for the positive and problematic development of our youth. In addition, the findings underscore the need to evaluate the interindividual differences that exist in regard to how sports participation may relate positively and negatively to developmental outcomes.

  15. Childhood precursors of adolescent outcomes in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cameron, F J; Northam, E A

    2005-03-01

    Contemporary outcome measures of chronic illnesses such as type 1 diabetes mellitus are broader than those clinical outcomes traditionally assessed in therapeutic encounters. A holistic approach emphasises quality of life and emotional well-being as well as the achievement of optimal disease management. This paper reviews current knowledge about growth, metabolic control, diabetes complications, neurocognitive and psychological outcomes as well as health-related quality of life in childhood diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that the antecedents of adverse diabetes and psychological outcomes in adolescence lie in the years prior to adolescence. The model of care in childhood diabetes mellitus must be focussed on earlier screening and intervention if adverse outcomes are to be reduced. PMID:15813600

  16. Developmental associations between adolescent change in depressive symptoms and menstrual-cycle-phase-specific negative affect during early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kiesner, Jeff; Poulin, François

    2012-10-01

    developmental outcomes.

  17. Longitudinal Effects of Parental Bereavement on Adolescent Developmental Competence

    PubMed Central

    Brent, David A.; Melhem, Nadine M; Masten, Ann S; Porta, Giovanna; Payne, Monica Walker

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of sudden parental bereavement on subsequent attainment of developmental competencies. Method This longitudinal study reports on 126 youth bereaved by sudden parental death (suicide, accident, or natural death) and 116 demographically similar non-bereaved controls assessed at 9, 21, 33, and 62 months after parental death, and at comparable times in controls. Half were female and 84.7% Caucasian. Youths and care-giving parents were assessed on psychiatric disorders, psychological characteristics, and contextual variables antecedent and subsequent to bereavement. At month 62, at which time youth on average aged 18.4 years (SD=3.1), participants were assessed on developmental competence using an adaptation of the Status Questionnaire; peer attachment using the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment; and educational aspirations using the Future Expectations Scale. The bereaved and non-bereaved groups were compared using univariate and multivariate statistics, including path analyses. Results On univariate analyses, bereaved youth had more difficulties at work, less well-elaborated plans for career development, lower peer attachment, and diminished educational aspirations. The effects of bereavement were most commonly mediated via its effects on offspring and caregiver functioning and family climate, even after adjusting for the impact of pre-death characteristics. Outcomes were unrelated to age at the time of parental death, gender of the deceased parent, or cause of death. Conclusions Children who lost a parent to sudden death evidenced lower competence in work, peer relations, career planning, and educational aspirations, primarily mediated by the impact of bereavement on child and parental functioning and on family climate. PMID:23009724

  18. Adolescent outcomes and opportunities in a Canadian province: looking at siblings and neighbors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Well-organized administrative data with large numbers of cases (building on linked files from several government departments) and a population registry facilitate new studies of population health and child development. Analyses of family relationships and a number of outcomes--educational achievement, health, teen pregnancy, and receipt of income assistance--are relatively easy to conduct using several birth cohorts. Looking both at means/proportions and at sibling correlations enriches our study of opportunity and well-being in late adolescence. With observational research possibly exaggerating the causal effects of risk factors, sibling comparisons involving individuals sharing both many family characteristics and many genes help deal with such criticisms. Methods This paper uses a rich dataset from one Canadian province (Manitoba) covering a wide range of geographical areas (cities to rural regions). Influences on opportunity and well-being are analyzed looking at both means/proportions and sibling correlations. We measure a variety of outcomes that may reflect different causal influences. A creative application of linear programming advances the use of data on residential location. Results Predicting educational achievement using available variables was much easier than predicting adolescent health status (R-square of .200 versus R-square of .043). Low levels of educational achievement, high levels of teenage pregnancy, and high sibling correlations outside Winnipeg and within Winnipeg’s lower income areas highlight inequalities across socioeconomic and geographic backgrounds. Stratifying our analyses by different variables, such as income quintiles, reveals differences in means and correlations within outcomes and across groups. Particular events--changes in mother’s marital status and in place of residence--were associated with less favorable outcomes in late adolescence. Conclusion Our findings suggest a paradox: Canadian developmental

  19. DEVELOPMENTAL TRAJECTORIES OF CRITERIA OF NICOTINE DEPENDENCE IN ADOLESCENCE*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Mei-Chen; Muthén, Bengt; Shaffran, Christine C.; Griesler, Pamela; Kandel, Denise B.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the nature and predictors of developmental trajectories of symptoms of DSM-IV nicotine dependence in adolescence following smoking initiation. Data are from a longitudinal cohort of 324 new smokers from grades 6 to 10 in the Chicago Public Schools, interviewed 5 times at 6 month intervals. Monthly data on DSM-IV symptoms of nicotine dependence were available for 36 months. Growth mixture modeling was applied to the monthly histories to identify trajectories of DSM-IV criteria of nicotine dependence. A four-class solution best fitted the data: No DSM criterion (47.7%); Early onset/Chronic course (19.8%); Early onset/Remission (17.3%); Late onset (15.2%). Blunt use prior to cigarette use was associated with the three symptomatic trajectories. Conduct disorder and prior heavy smoking were associated with Class 2 (Chronic). Conduct disorder differentiated Class 2 from Class 4 (Late onset), while pleasant initial sensitivity to the first tobacco experience was associated with Classes 2 and 3 (Remit) and differentiated Class 2 from Class 4. Novelty seeking characterized Class 3. Parental dependence differentiated chronicity (Class 2) from remission (Class 3) among those who developed symptoms early. Being Hispanic reduced membership in Classes 3 and 4, and being male for Class 3. The data highlight the importance of parental nicotine dependence as a risk factor for early and sustained nicotine dependence by the offspring, pleasant initial sensitivity and conduct disorder for early onset of dependence, and blunt use prior to smoking for all trajectories. The factors important for onset of dependence are not necessarily the same as those for sustained course. PMID:18602225

  20. A Developmental Perspective on Adolescent Risk Taking in Contemporary America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    1987-01-01

    Adolescent risk-taking behavior needs to be understood in the context of contemporary youth culture and normal development. To facilitate passage through adolescence, parents should sustain a climate of control and commitment balanced by respect for the adolescent's increased capacity for self-regulation. (Author)

  1. Developmental Commentary: Ecological Perspectives on Parental Influences during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nancy E.; Bromell, Lea; Tyson, Diana F.; Flint, Roxanne

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence is marked by change and renegotiation in almost every arena--biological, social, and cognitive development; identity development; changes in peer relations and friendships; a renegotiation of family relationships, especially the parent-adolescent relationship; and school transitions. Further, for African Americans, adolescence is also…

  2. Developmental Changes and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Perceptions of Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This five-wave study aims to investigate the development of adolescents' perceptions of support, negative interaction, and power in best friendships from ages 12 to 20 years. Furthermore, gender differences and linkages between the three dimensions are explored. A total of 593 early adolescents (53.6% boys) and 337 middle adolescents (43.3% boys)…

  3. Fragmentation and high entropy of neonatal experience predict adolescent emotional outcome

    PubMed Central

    Molet, J; Heins, K; Zhuo, X; Mei, Y T; Regev, L; Baram, T Z; Stern, H

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerability to emotional disorders including depression derives from interactions between genes and environment, especially during sensitive developmental periods. Across evolution, maternal care is a key source of environmental sensory signals to the developing brain, and a vast body of work has linked quantitative and qualitative aspects of maternal care to emotional outcome in children and animals. However, the fundamental properties of maternal signals, that promote advantageous vs pathological outcomes in the offspring, are unknown and have been a topic of intense study. We studied emotional outcomes of adolescent rats reared under routine or impoverished environments, and used mathematical approaches to analyze the nurturing behaviors of the dams. Unexpectedly, whereas the quantity and typical qualities of maternal care behaviors were indistinguishable in the two environments, their patterns and rhythms differed drastically and influenced emotional outcomes. Specifically, unpredictable, fragmented maternal care patterns translated into high-entropy rates of sensory signals to the offspring in the impoverished cages. During adolescence, these offspring had significant reductions in sucrose preference and in peer-play, two independent measures of the ability to experience pleasure. This adolescent anhedonia, often a harbinger of later depression, was not accompanied by measures of anxiety or helplessness. Dopaminergic pleasure circuits underlying anhedonia are engaged by predictable sequences of events, and predictable sensory signals during neonatal periods may be critical for their maturation. Conversely, unpredictability maternal-derived signals may disrupt these developmental processes, provoking anhedonia. In sum, high-entropy and fragmented patterns of maternal-derived sensory input to the developing brain predicts, and might promote, the development of anhedonia in rodents, with potential clinical implications. PMID:26731439

  4. Developmentally dynamic genome: Evidence of genetic influences on increases and decreases in conduct problems from early childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Zheng, Yao; Plomin, Robert; Viding, Essi

    2015-01-01

    The development of conduct problems in childhood and adolescence is associated with adverse long-term outcomes, including psychiatric morbidity. Although genes constitute a proven factor of stability in conduct problems, less is known regarding their role in conduct problems' developmental course (i.e. systematic age changes, for instance linear increases or decreases).Mothers rated conduct problems from age 4 to 16 years in 10,038 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study. Individual differences in the baseline level (.78; 95% CI: .68-.88) and the developmental course of conduct problems (.73; 95% CI: .60-.86) were under high and largely independent additive genetic influences. Shared environment made a small contribution to the baseline level but not to the developmental course of conduct problems. These results show that genetic influences not only contribute to behavioural stability but also explain systematic change in conduct problems. Different sets of genes may be associated with the developmental course versus the baseline level of conduct problems. The structure of genetic and environmental influences on the development of conduct problems suggests that repeated preventive interventions at different developmental stages might be necessary to achieve a long-term impact. PMID:25944445

  5. Developmentally dynamic genome: Evidence of genetic influences on increases and decreases in conduct problems from early childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Zheng, Yao; Plomin, Robert; Viding, Essi

    2015-01-01

    The development of conduct problems in childhood and adolescence is associated with adverse long-term outcomes, including psychiatric morbidity. Although genes constitute a proven factor of stability in conduct problems, less is known regarding their role in conduct problems' developmental course (i.e. systematic age changes, for instance linear increases or decreases).Mothers rated conduct problems from age 4 to 16 years in 10,038 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study. Individual differences in the baseline level (.78; 95% CI: .68-.88) and the developmental course of conduct problems (.73; 95% CI: .60-.86) were under high and largely independent additive genetic influences. Shared environment made a small contribution to the baseline level but not to the developmental course of conduct problems. These results show that genetic influences not only contribute to behavioural stability but also explain systematic change in conduct problems. Different sets of genes may be associated with the developmental course versus the baseline level of conduct problems. The structure of genetic and environmental influences on the development of conduct problems suggests that repeated preventive interventions at different developmental stages might be necessary to achieve a long-term impact.

  6. What We Know about Developmental Education Outcomes. Research Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Stacey, Georgia West

    2014-01-01

    Many recent high school graduates who enter community college are required to take remedial or developmental education courses before enrolling in college-level courses. Developmental courses essentially reteach high school- and junior high school-level content in reading, writing, and math. In some cases, students are referred to two or even…

  7. An Entirely-Online Developmental Mathematics Course: Creation and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potocka, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    In this article the author describes her experiences in an effective, and cost-efficient way of teaching developmental mathematics online in a course that runs on its own once it is set up. The online course described here was created and implemented at Ramapo College. The course is an innovative method of teaching developmental mathematics in…

  8. Neurocognitive Outcomes Following Pediatric Brain Injury: A Developmental Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Armande Marcela

    2003-01-01

    This literature review was conducted to evaluate the developmental perspective on neurocognitive recovery/development following a child's traumatic brain injury. Overall, the described findings support a developmental view and suggest that predictions of prognosis should be based on the child's remaining ability to learn. (Contains 50 references.)…

  9. Sleep and Developmental Disabilities: Assessment, Treatment, and Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Scott M.; Harvey, Mark T.; Horner, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    People with developmental disabilities sleep less and experience higher incidence of clinical sleep disorders than the general population. Exploring the neurophysiology linking sleep with daytime performance in patients with developmental disabilities is now possible using minimally sufficient sleep and sleep-sensitive behavioral assays. Although…

  10. Three Accelerated Developmental Education Programs: Features, Student Outcomes, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Hodara, Michelle; Cho, Sung-Woo; Xu, Di

    2015-01-01

    To support the long-term success of underprepared students, many community colleges are experimenting with accelerated developmental education models, which allow students to complete remediation and enroll in college-level math and English within a shorter time frame. This study examines three developmental acceleration programs, including two in…

  11. Constructing, Quantifying, and Validating an Adverse Outcome Pathway for Vascular Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Constructing, Quantifying, and Validating an Adverse Outcome Pathway for Vascular Developmental Toxicity The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for embryonic vascular disruption1 leading to a range of adverse prenatal outcomes was recently entered into the AOP wiki and accepted as par...

  12. A Critical Review of Psychotherapy Outcome Studies with Adolescents: 1978-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Barton J.; Borduin, Charles M.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews methods and findings of adolescent psychotherapy outcome studies published from 1978 to 1988. Concludes that evaluations of individual psychotherapy with adolescents generally reveal positive short-term outcomes, but long-term outcomes are still to be determined; evaluations of systemic therapies with adolescents often reveal positive…

  13. From child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: A developmental cascade model

    PubMed Central

    Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Cicchetti, Dante

    2010-01-01

    A developmental cascade model tested associations among child maltreatment, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, social competence, and cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms in a longitudinal cohort (N = 415). Nested structural equation models evaluated continuity and cross-domain influences among broad multi-informant constructs across four developmental periods: age 7 to 9, 10 to 12, 13 to 15, and 15 to 18. Results indicated significant paths from child maltreatment to early externalizing and internalizing problems and social competence, as well as to cannabis abuse and dependence (CAD) symptoms in adolescence. Youth CAD symptoms were primarily related directly to child maltreatment and externalizing problems. Childhood internalizing symptoms contributed to later childhood decreases in social competence, which predicted increases in late adolescent externalizing problems. Using a developmental psychopathology framework, results are discussed in relation to cascade and transactional effects and the interplay between problem behaviors during childhood and development of CAD symptoms during early and late adolescence. PMID:20883588

  14. How children and adolescents spend time across the world: work, play, and developmental opportunities.

    PubMed

    Larson, R W; Verma, S

    1999-11-01

    The authors review studies on time use of children and adolescents around the world and discuss developmental implications of population differences. Industrialization and schooling are linked to dramatic declines in time spent on household and wage labor. This labor is often unchallenging, sometimes hazardous; developmental benefits often do not increase above a limited number of hours; hence, reduction in these activities opens time for activities that may be more developmentally beneficial. Adolescents in East Asian postindustrial societies spend this freed-up time in schoolwork, a use associated with lower intrinsic motivation but high achievement and economic productivity. Adolescents in North America spend more time in leisure, associated with greater self-direction but of an uncertain relation to development. Age, gender, and socioeconomic differences in activities and with whom time is spent are also considered. PMID:10589300

  15. Adolescents' resilience as a self-regulatory process: promising themes for linking intervention with developmental science.

    PubMed

    Dishion, Thomas J; Connell, Arin

    2006-12-01

    This chapter focuses on the concept of self-regulation as a measure of resilience in children and adolescents. Developmental psychology and neuroscience are converging on the role of attention control as a central ability underlying self-regulation. We collected measures of adolescent attention control from parents and youth, and a measure of self-regulation from teachers. The measures of effortful attention correlated highly with teacher ratings of self-regulation. The composite measure of self-regulation (youth, parent, teacher report) was found to moderate the impact of peer deviance on adolescent antisocial behavior, as well as stress on adolescent depression. These findings suggest that self-regulation is a promising index of adolescent resilience. The construct of self-regulation also provides an excellent target for strategies aimed to improve child and adolescent adjustment in problematic environments and stressful circumstances.

  16. Peer, parent and media influences on adolescent smoking by developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Villanti, Andrea; Boulay, Marc; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of social influences on adolescent smoking have focused on peers and parents, using data collected prior the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement. This study used the 2004 wave of the National Youth Tobacco Survey to examine associations between peer smoking, smoking at home, tobacco-related media exposure, and smoking behavior during early and middle adolescence. Findings indicate that peer smoking and smoking at home remain strongly associated with current smoking among early and middle adolescents, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity and exposure to tobacco industry and anti-tobacco media. The magnitude of the association between peer smoking and current smoking decreases from early adolescence to middle adolescence while the association between smoking at home and current smoking is static across developmental stage. Exposure to tobacco-related media is associated with increased current and former smoking in both early and middle adolescence.

  17. Developmental Changes in Adolescents' Neural Response to Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Strang, Nicole M.; Pruessner, Jens; Pollak, Seth D.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents often fail to adaptively regulate their emotions and behaviors. This is most clearly demonstrated by the marked increase during this period in fatalities that are attributable to preventable causes. Using functional magnetic resonance methodology, this study explored whether adolescents and adults differed in their engagement of prefrontal circuitry in response to a cognitive and emotional challenge. Twenty-four adolescents and twenty-three adults were scanned while they solved difficult math problems with induced failure and negative social evaluation. Data is reported from 23 adolescents and 23 adults. Adult and adolescent participants showed similar increases in heart rate when responding to the experimental challenge. Despite the similarity of the autonomic response, adolescents recruited a more restricted network of prefrontal regions as compared to adults. Both adolescents and adults recruited the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, however adults additionally recruited the anterior insula. Functional connectivity between the anterior insula and other prefrontal regions was stronger in adults as compared to adolescents. Further, for adults, the magnitude of activity in the insula predicted lower autonomic activity in response to the challenge. Differences between adolescents and adults engagement of prefrontal networks may relate to adolescents' poor behavioral and emotional regulation. PMID:21938266

  18. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

  19. Formal operational thinking: the role of cognitive-developmental processes in adolescent decision-making about pregnancy and contraception.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D E

    1990-07-01

    The role of formal operational thinking in adolescent decision-making about pregnancy and contraception is explored through an integration of the cognitive-developmental and pregnancy-contraception literatures. The ways in which cognitive-developmental change mechanisms initiate or hinder formal thinking on pregnancy-contraception are considered, and implications for counseling pregnant adolescents are discussed. PMID:2200271

  20. Microenterprise Options for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: An Outcome Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, James W.; Ferris, Charles S.; Irvine, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for community employment of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities are limited, and have not improved over the past quarter century of interest and effort. This report provides the findings from an outcome study of this issue. Twenty-seven people with intellectual and developmental disability, residents in Kent…

  1. Transitioning Youth with Intellectual and Other Developmental Disabilities: Predicting Community Employment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonsen, Monica L.; Neubert, Debra A.

    2013-01-01

    Community employment outcomes were examined for 338 transitioning youth with intellectual and other developmental disabilities in one state 18 months after exiting public school. All transitioning youth received ongoing Developmental Disability agency funding. The majority of transitioning youth (57.1%) were engaged in sheltered or nonwork…

  2. Life Developmental Tasks and Related Learning Needs and Outcomes. NSIEE Occasional Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupp, Judy-Arin

    Major life developmental tasks are identified, along with the learning outcomes necessary to fulfill those tasks for adults from age 17 to retirement. Attention is directed to the important connection between life cycle change and adult learning as well as seven assumptions underlying life cycle theory. Developmental tasks and learning needs are…

  3. Trajectories of Developmental Functioning Among Children of Adolescent Mothers: Factors Associated With Risk for Delay.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Laudan B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2016-07-01

    Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for developmental delays. Less is known about the heterogeneity in these children's developmental trajectories, and factors associated with different patterns of development. This longitudinal study used latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to identify distinct trajectories in children of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204). Three distinct groups emerged: (a) a Delayed/Decreasing Functioning group, (b) an At-Risk/Recovering Functioning group, and (c) a Normative/Stable Functioning group. Children with Delayed/Decreasing Functioning were more likely than those with Normative/Stable Functioning to have families with lower income, fewer learning materials at home, and adolescent mothers with more depressive symptoms and greater coparental conflict with adolescents' mother figures. The results contribute to knowledge about factors associated with risk of delay. PMID:27351701

  4. Developmental pathways of social avoidance across adolescence: the role of social anxiety and negative cognition.

    PubMed

    Miers, Anne C; Blöte, Anke W; Heyne, David A; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2014-12-01

    It is argued that the adolescent onset of social anxiety disorder (SAD) may be partly attributable to an increase in avoidance of social situations across this period. The current cohort-sequential study investigated developmental pathways of social avoidance in adolescence and examined the explanatory role of social anxiety and negative cognitive processes. A community sample of youth (9-21 years, N=331) participated in a four-wave study. Trajectory analyses revealed two pathways: an increased avoidance pathway and a low avoidance pathway. The pathways were hardly distinguishable at age 9 and they steadily diverged across adolescence. Logistic regression analyses showed that social anxiety and post-event rumination were significantly related to the increased avoidance pathway; anticipatory processing and self-focused attention were not. The findings suggest that adolescence is a key developmental period for the progression of social avoidance among youth who show relatively high levels of social anxiety and post-event rumination.

  5. Trajectories of Developmental Functioning Among Children of Adolescent Mothers: Factors Associated With Risk for Delay.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Laudan B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2016-07-01

    Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for developmental delays. Less is known about the heterogeneity in these children's developmental trajectories, and factors associated with different patterns of development. This longitudinal study used latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to identify distinct trajectories in children of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204). Three distinct groups emerged: (a) a Delayed/Decreasing Functioning group, (b) an At-Risk/Recovering Functioning group, and (c) a Normative/Stable Functioning group. Children with Delayed/Decreasing Functioning were more likely than those with Normative/Stable Functioning to have families with lower income, fewer learning materials at home, and adolescent mothers with more depressive symptoms and greater coparental conflict with adolescents' mother figures. The results contribute to knowledge about factors associated with risk of delay.

  6. Developmental diversity in symptom research involving children and adolescents with cancer.

    PubMed

    Linder, Lauri A

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate developmental diversity in studies describing physical symptoms in children and adolescents receiving cancer treatment. Developmental diversity was conceptualized as individual differences based on normal stages of human development, including cognitive, psychosocial, and physiologic aspects. Searches of Medline and the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature identified 53 articles published between January 1986 and November 2006. Most studies addressed symptoms in school-aged children and adolescents; few compared symptoms across age groups. Additional measures are needed to describe younger children's symptoms. Alternate research methodologies may be appropriate to describe their symptom experiences.

  7. Developmental epidemiology of drug use and abuse in adolescence and young adulthood: Evidence of generalized risk

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, R.H.C.; Young, S.E.; Hopfer, C.J.; Corley, R.P.; Stallings, M.C.; Crowley, T.J.; Hewitt, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Past studies highlight a narrowing gender gap and the existence of a shared etiology across substances of abuse; however, few have tested developmental models using longitudinal data. We present data on developmental trends of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use, abuse and dependence assessed during adolescence and young adulthood in a community-based Colorado twin sample of 1733 respondents through self-report questionnaires and structured psychiatric interviews. Additionally, we report on the rates of multiple substance use and disorders at each developmental stage, and the likelihood of a substance use disorder (SUD; i.e., abuse or dependence) diagnosis in young adulthood based on adolescent drug involvement. Most notably, we evaluate whether the pattern of multiple substance use and disorders and likelihood ratios across substances support a model of generalized risk. Lastly, we evaluate whether the ranked magnitudes of substance-specific risk match the addiction liability ranking. Substance use and SUDs are developmental phenomena, which increase from adolescence to young adulthood with fewand inconsistent gender differences. Adolescents and young adults are not specialized users, but rather tend to use or abuse multiple substances increasingly with age. Risk analyses indicated that progression toward a SUD for any substance was increased with prior involvement with any of the three substances during adolescence. Despite the high prevalence of alcohol use, tobacco posed the greatest substance-specific risk for developing subsequent problems. Our data also confirm either a generalized risk or correlated risk factors for early onset substance use and subsequent development of SUDs. PMID:19250776

  8. A Developmental-Contextual Model of Depressive Symptoms in Mexican-Origin Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gayles, Jochebed G.

    2011-01-01

    The current study tested a developmental-contextual model of depressive symptomatology among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin females and their mothers. The final sample was comprised of 271 dyads. We examined the interrelations among cultural (i.e., acculturation dissonance), developmental (i.e., pubertal development and autonomy expectation discrepancies), and interpersonal (i.e., mother-daughter conflict and maternal supportive parenting) factors in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms. For both early and middle adolescents, maternal support was negatively associated with mother-daughter conflict and depressive symptoms. Importantly, mother-daughter autonomy expectation discrepancies were positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but this association was found only among early adolescents. Further, mother-daughter acculturation dissonance was positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but only among middle adolescents. Findings call for concurrently examining the interface of developmental, relational, and cultural factors in predicting female adolescents’ depressive symptomatology and the potential differences by developmental stage (e.g., early vs. middle adolescence) PMID:21967564

  9. Developmentally informed pharmacotherapy for child and adolescent depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris

    2012-04-01

    This article reviews evidence-based pharmacotherapy for children and adolescents with depression. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) support the use of fluoxetine for the treatment of childhood and adolescent depression as well as escitalopram in the treatment of adolescent depression. To date, one RCT has demonstrated the effectiveness of sertraline or citalopram for the treatment of major depressive disorder in youth. Only a small number of RCTs for depression have included children, and none of these trials were adequately powered to detect differences in the efficacy of medication between children and adolescents. PMID:22537729

  10. Rational Choice and Developmental Influences on Recidivism Among Adolescent Felony Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Jeffrey; Piquero, Alex R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent case law and social science both have claimed that the developmental limitations of adolescents affect their capacity for control and decision making with respect to crime, diminishing their culpability and reducing their exposure to punishment. Social science has focused on two concurrent adolescent developmental influences: the internalization of legal rules and norms that regulate social and antisocial behaviors, and the development of rationality to frame behavioral choices and decisions. The interaction of these two developmental processes, and the identification of one domain of socialization and development as the primary source of motivation or restraint in adolescence, is the focus of this article. Accordingly, we combine rational choice and legal socialization frameworks into an integrated, developmental model of criminality. We test this framework in a large sample of adolescent felony offenders who have been interviewed at six-month intervals for two years. Using hierarchical and growth curve models, we show that both legal socialization and rational choice factors influence patterns of criminal offending over time. When punishment risks and costs are salient, crime rates are lower over time. We show that procedural justice is a significant antecedent of legal socialization, but not of rational choice. We also show that both mental health and developmental maturity moderate the effects of perceived crime risks and costs on criminal offending. PMID:20148123

  11. Peer Influences on Adolescent Alcohol and Other Drug Use Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Rhonda; Hinman, Agatha; Sterling, Stacy; Weisner, Constance; Campbell, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the role of family environment and peer networks in abstinence outcomes for adolescents 1 year after intake to alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment. Design Survey of 419 adolescents 13 to 18 years of age at consecutive intakes to AOD treatment programs at four sites of a large health system, with telephone follow-up survey 1 year after intake. Methods Examined association of 1-year abstinence with baseline characteristics. Using logistic regression, we examined characteristics predicting 1-year abstinence and predicting having fewer than four substance-using friends at 1 year. Results We found that family environment scores related to family conflict, limit setting, and positive family experiences, were not related to abstinence outcomes, but peer networks were related. Adolescents with fewer (less than four) AOD-using friends were more likely to be abstinent than those with four or more AOD-using friends (65% vs. 41%, p = .0002). Having fewer than four AOD-using friends at intake predicted abstinence at 1 year (odds ratio [OR] = 2.904, p = .0002) and also predicted having fewer than four AOD-using friends at 1 year (OR = 2.557, p = 0.0007). Conclusions Although family environment is an important factor in the development of AOD problems in adolescents, it did not play a significant role in treatment success. The quality of adolescent peer networks did independently predict positive outcomes. Clinical Relevance For physicians, advanced practice registered nurses, and other primary and behavioral care providers who screen and care for adolescents with AOD and other behavioral problems, our finding suggest the importance of focusing on improving the quality of their peer networks. PMID:22339982

  12. Developmental outcomes of toddlers of young Latina mothers: Cultural, family, and parenting factors.

    PubMed

    Grau, Josefina M; Duran, Petra A; Castellanos, Patricia; Smith, Erin N; Silberman, Stephanie G; Wood, Lauren E

    2015-11-01

    Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for poor developmental outcomes. This study is among the first to examine how cultural, family, and parenting factors prospectively predict the cognitive and language development of children of young Latina mothers (N=170; Mage=17.9 years). Mothers were interviewed and observed interacting with their children at 18 months (W1). Children were tested at 18 (W1) and 24 (W2) months. Mothers' cultural orientation (W1) was related to aspects of the childrearing environment (W1), which in turn had implications for the children's development (W2). Specifically, a stronger orientation toward American culture was related to higher mother-reported engagement in parenting by their own mothers (grandmothers), which in turn predicted stronger gains in cognitive and expressive language functioning from W1 to W2. A stronger Latino orientation related to the display of more directiveness and greater mother-reported engagement by the children's biological fathers; directiveness, in turn, predicted fewer gains in cognitive functioning only when father engagement was low and did not predict expressive language development. Finally, mothers' display of more positive affect, a stronger American orientation, and higher grandmother engagement uniquely predicted gains in W2 expressive language functioning. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  13. Developmental Outcomes of Toddlers of Young Latina Mothers: Cultural, Family, and Parenting Factors

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia; Smith, Erin N.; Silberman, Stephanie G.; Wood, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for poor developmental outcomes. This study is among the first to examine how cultural, family, and parenting factors prospectively predict the cognitive and language development of children of young Latina mothers (N=170; Mage = 17.9 years). Mothers were interviewed and observed interacting with their children at 18 months (W1). Children were tested at 18 (W1) and 24 (W2) months. Mothers’ cultural orientation (W1) was related to aspects of the childrearing environment (W1), which in turn had implications for the children's development (W2). Specifically, a stronger orientation toward American culture was related to higher mother-reported engagement in parenting by their own mothers (grandmothers), which in turn predicted stronger gains in cognitive and expressive language functioning from W1 to W2. A stronger Latino orientation related to the display of more directiveness and greater mother-reported engagement by the children's biological fathers; directiveness, in turn, predicted fewer gains in cognitive functioning only when father engagement was low and did not predict expressive language development. Finally, mothers’ display of more positive affect, a stronger American orientation, and higher grandmother engagement uniquely predicted gains in W2 expressive language functioning. Implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:26454205

  14. Developmental Assessment and Intervention with Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Ann

    Over the past 25 years, there has been a gradual recognition that counseling children and adolescents is much different than counseling adults. Because of this difference, numerous books, games, and articles have focused on what assessment and intervention strategies work with the child and adolescent population. However, many of these…

  15. Modeling Developmental Complexity in Adolescence: Hormones and Behavior in Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susman, Elizabeth J.

    1997-01-01

    The links between endocrine physiological processes and adolescent psychological processes are the focus of this article. Presents a brief history of biopsychosocial research in adolescent development. Discusses four models for conceptualizing hormone-behavior research as illustrative of biopsychosocial models. Concludes with challenges and…

  16. Saving in Childhood and Adolescence: Insights from Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Annette

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses variables related to child and adolescent saving and explains the development of skills and behaviors that facilitate saving from an economic socialization perspective. References are made to the differences between the economic world of children, adolescents, and adults as well as to existing theories of saving. Children's…

  17. A Longitudinal Study of the Developmental Trajectories of Parental Attachment and Career Maturity of South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sumi; Hutchison, Brian; Lemberger, Matthew E.; Pope, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the developmental trajectories of career maturity (CM) and parental attachment (PA), the longitudinal influence of both, and gender as a moderator. Findings showed developmental progressions in adolescents' PA and CM over 4 years. The change in PA was positively related to the developmental change in CM. For gender, there was a…

  18. Developmental Neurocircuitry of Motivation in Adolescence: A Critical Period of Addiction Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, R. Andrew; Taylor, Jane R.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological studies indicate that experimentation with addictive drugs and onset of addictive disorders is primarily concentrated in adolescence and young adulthood. The authors describe basic and clinical data supporting adolescent neurodevelopment as a biologically critical period of greater vulnerability for experimentation with substances and acquisition of substance use disorders. Method The authors reviewed recent literature regarding neurocircuitry underlying motivation, impulsivity, and addiction, with a focus on studies investigating adolescent neurodevelopment. Results Adolescent neurodevelopment occurs in brain regions associated with motivation, impulsivity, and addiction. Adolescent impulsivity and/or novelty seeking as a transitional trait behavior can be explained in part by maturational changes in frontal cortical and subcortical monoaminergic systems. These developmental processes may advantageously promote learning drives for adaptation to adult roles but may also confer greater vulnerability to the addictive actions of drugs. Conclusions An exploration of developmental changes in neurocircuitry involved in impulse control has significant implications for understanding adolescent behavior, addiction vulnerability, and the prevention of addiction in adolescence and adulthood. PMID:12777258

  19. Adolescent mass shootings: developmental considerations in light of the Sandy Hook shooting.

    PubMed

    Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon

    2015-05-01

    Adolescent mass shootings are a special subset of mass killings, which continue despite significant preventative public health efforts. It is often held that these individuals have few salient warning signs that could have been identified. This piece proposes that mass shootings committed by adolescent and post-adolescent young males must be understood from a developmental perspective. The hypothesis proposed in this paper is that such killings occur as the result of the adolescent's frustrated effort to progress along normative development. The goal of normative separation from maternal figures by the boy is presented as a potential risk factor when this goal is thwarted. Childhood case material from the perpetrator of a recent adolescent mass shooting, the Sandy Hook shooting, is discussed as an illustration of this hypothesis. Implications for public health measures and for individualized treatment are presented and developed.

  20. Adolescent HIV disclosure in Zambia: barriers, facilitators and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mburu, Gitau; Hodgson, Ian; Kalibala, Sam; Haamujompa, Choolwe; Cataldo, Fabian; Lowenthal, Elizabeth D; Ross, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As adolescents living with HIV gain autonomy over their self-care and begin to engage in sexual relationships, their experiences of being informed about their HIV status and of telling others about their HIV status may affect their ability to cope with having the disease. Methods In 2010, we conducted a qualitative study among adolescents aged 10–19 living with HIV in Zambia, and with their parents and health care providers. Through interviews and focus group discussions, we explored the disclosure of HIV status to adolescents living with HIV; adolescents’ disclosure of their status to others; and the impact of both forms of disclosure on adolescents. Results Our study identified three main barriers to disclosure of HIV status: local norms that deter parents from communicating with their children about sexuality; fear of HIV stigma; and an underlying presumption that adolescents would not understand the consequences of a HIV diagnosis on their lives and relationships. With regard to adolescents’ disclosure of their HIV status to their sexual partners, our study identified fear of rejection as a common barrier. In rare cases, open family conversations about HIV helped adolescents come to terms with a HIV diagnosis. Findings indicated that disclosure had various outcomes at the individual and interpersonal levels. At the individual level, some adolescents described being anxious, depressed and blaming themselves after being told they had HIV. At the interpersonal level, disclosure created opportunities for adolescents to access adherence support and other forms of psychosocial support from family members and peers. At the same time, it occasionally strained adolescents’ sexual relationships, although it did not always lead to rejection. Conclusions There is a need for public health interventions that guide adolescents living with HIV, their parents and families through the disclosure process. Such interventions should help parents to assess and

  1. Commentary: Building a developmental-ecological model of criminal culpability during adolescence.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    In this issue of The Journal, Dr. Peter Ash offers the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law some ideas on developmentally informed assessment of criminal culpability during adolescence. After highlighting issues that complicate the definition and assessment of criminal culpability, Ash lists 10 constructs that he believes should be carefully considered by forensic clinicians in developing opinions about legal responsibility for a crime committed by a minor. I applaud Ash for beginning a dialogue on the clinical dimension of this topic, and I appreciate his emphasis on the need for developmentally informed assessment of juvenile defendants. In this commentary, I briefly illustrate how the principles of developmental psychopathology can be used to articulate a developmental-ecological model of criminal culpability for use by forensic clinicians in the assessment of younger defendants, as the courts more broadly accept the concept of mitigation of legal responsibility by reason of developmental immaturity. PMID:22396339

  2. Commentary: Building a developmental-ecological model of criminal culpability during adolescence.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    In this issue of The Journal, Dr. Peter Ash offers the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law some ideas on developmentally informed assessment of criminal culpability during adolescence. After highlighting issues that complicate the definition and assessment of criminal culpability, Ash lists 10 constructs that he believes should be carefully considered by forensic clinicians in developing opinions about legal responsibility for a crime committed by a minor. I applaud Ash for beginning a dialogue on the clinical dimension of this topic, and I appreciate his emphasis on the need for developmentally informed assessment of juvenile defendants. In this commentary, I briefly illustrate how the principles of developmental psychopathology can be used to articulate a developmental-ecological model of criminal culpability for use by forensic clinicians in the assessment of younger defendants, as the courts more broadly accept the concept of mitigation of legal responsibility by reason of developmental immaturity.

  3. Similar Developmental Trajectories in Autism and Asperger Syndrome: From Early Childhood to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Duku, Eric; Vaccarella, Liezanne; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Boyle, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to chart the developmental trajectories of high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from early childhood to adolescence using the presence and absence of structural language impairment (StrLI) as a way of differentiating autism from Asperger syndrome (AS). Method: Sixty-four…

  4. Targeting Social Skills Deficits in an Adolescent with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagopian, Louis P.; Kuhn, David E.; Strother, Geri E.

    2009-01-01

    Social skills deficits are a defining feature of individuals diagnosed with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), which can impair functioning and put the individual at higher risk for developing problem behavior (e.g., self-injury, aggression). In the current study, an adolescent with PDD displayed inappropriate social…

  5. Stories of Family, Stories of Self: Developmental Pathways to Interpretive Thought during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeough, Anne; Malcolm, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that a hallmark of adolescent development is the growing capacity to interpret human intentionality. In this chapter, the authors examine developmental change in this capacity, which they have termed interpretive thought, in two types of stories, family and autobiographical, told by Canadian youth aged ten to seventeen years.…

  6. Adolescent Developmental Experiences and Participation in Extracurricular Activities in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfnifie, Shuaa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined adolescent developmental experiences and participation in extracurricular activities. Providing youth with multiple channels to nurture their development and acknowledge their interests and strengths can play a significant role in their holistic growth. This is a descriptive study of a mixed-methods design (quantitative and…

  7. Longitudinal Assessment of Left Ventricular Structure and Function in Adolescents with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirico, Daniele; O'Leary, Deborah; Cairney, John; Haluka, Karen; Coverdale, Nicole S.; Klentrou, Panagiota; Hay, John; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as obesity and reduced cardio-respiratory fitness. It has also been shown that adolescents with probable DCD (p-DCD) have elevated cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV) compared to typically developing (TD)…

  8. Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Kraijer, Dirk; Minderaa, Ruud

    2005-01-01

    Background: Insight into the prevalence of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) in children and adolescents with mental retardation (MR) is known to be of clinical importance. However, estimating this prevalence is complicated. The literature reports prevalence rates ranging from 3% through 50%. This variation seems to be related to the concepts…

  9. Influence of Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptomatology on Adolescent Substance Use: Developmentally Proximal versus Distal Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of developmentally specific windows at which key predictors of adolescent substance use are most influential is a crucial task for informing the design of appropriately targeted substance use prevention and intervention programs. The current study examined effects of conduct problems and depressive symptomatology on changes in…

  10. Affirming Presence: Spiritual Life and Friendship with Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Benjamin T.

    2010-01-01

    If spirituality is, among other things, a matter of "connectedness", then how do we nurture spirituality in adolescents with developmental disabilities who seem largely disconnected? This article advocates the practice of friendship as one important Christian model of spiritual connectedness that finds its origins in the initiative of God and…

  11. Correcting the Enuresis of a Hearing-Impaired, Developmentally Disabled Adolescent Using an Auditory Enuresis Alarm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ronald H.

    1983-01-01

    The enuresis of a hearing-impaired, developmentally disabled adolescent was corrected through the use of an auditory alarm and specific training procedures. The young man progressed from wetting the bed every night to being consistently dry after five weeks of treatment. He has remaind dry for over two years. (Author/CL)

  12. Developmental Assets and Ethnic Identity as Predictors of Thriving in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Melissa; Ricard, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the confluence of developmental assets, ethnic identity, and acculturative stress in the prediction of thriving among Hispanic adolescents. Thriving is used to encompass youth who are not only doing well now but who are also on the trajectory toward overall success. Study participants included 130 self-reported Hispanic middle…

  13. Information Management Strategies in Early Adolescence: Developmental Change in Use and Transactional Associations with Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.; Melching, Jessica A.; Kuhn, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use various strategies to manage their parents' access to information. This study tested developmental change in strategy use, longitudinal associations between disclosing and concealing strategies, and longitudinal associations linking disclosing and concealing strategies with antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. Self-report…

  14. Homelessness among Families, Children, and Adolescents: An Ecological-Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Mason G.; Toro, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews and evaluates the literatures on children in families that are homeless and on adolescents who are homeless on their own. After presenting several emerging theoretical approaches, we propose a broad ecological-developmental perspective that recognizes that, although persons in these groups often lack resources and experience…

  15. Parental Coping with Developmental Disorders in Adolescents within the Ultraorthodox Jewish Community in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study compares the coping strategies used by 100 ultraorthodox Jewish parents and 100 secular Jewish parents for dealing with adolescent children with developmental disorders. The parents completed two questionnaires on the sense of stress-related personal growth and the sense of coherence. The ultraorthodox parents reported a…

  16. The Developmental Course of Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a large…

  17. Verbal Interaction and Development in Families with Adolescents. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Manfred, Ed.; Youniss, James, Ed.; Noack, Peter, Ed.

    Individuation theory is rooted in the belief that it is a major developmental task for adolescents to establish their identity while simultaneously maintaining a relationship with their parents. Building on the individuation paradigm, the researchers contributing to this edited volume zeroed in on discourse as a critical mechanism through which…

  18. Skill Activities for Independent Living (SAIL). A Curriculum for Developmentally Disabled Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Retardation.

    This curriculum for developmentally disabled adolescents and adults contains assessment conditions and performance criteria for evaluating client acquisition of a total of 646 independent living skills in five areas. While the content of the curriculum is in an area known as independent living, it is also prevocational in as much as it covers a…

  19. Mindfulness and Compassion Training in Adolescence: A Developmental Contemplative Science Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeser, Robert W.; Pinela, Cristi

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period of risk, as well as a window of opportunity for cultivating positive development and thriving. It is characterized by simultaneous changes in the brain, body, mind, and social domains that offer a platform for building new skills and habits. This chapter discusses the role that secular forms of mindfulness and…

  20. The Cultural and Developmental Significance of Parenting Processes in Adolescent Anxiety and Depression Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Belliston, Lara M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the cultural and developmental significance of maternal and paternal parenting processes (closeness, support, monitoring, communication, conflict, and peer approval) for measures of anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescents from Hungary, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States (N = 6,935). Across all cultural…

  1. Developmental Trajectories of Perceived Friendship Intimacy, Constructive Problem Solving, and Depression from Early to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfhout, M. H. W.; Branje, S. J. T.; Meeus, W. H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined friendship types in developmental trajectories of perceived closeness and balanced relatedness. In addition, differences between friendship types in the development of constructive problem solving and depression were examined. Questionnaire data of five annual waves were used from two adolescent cohorts (cohort 1: M = 12.41…

  2. Fourth Grade Outcomes of Children with a Preschool History of Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Christine E. F.

    2009-01-01

    Special education outcomes were evaluated for 3,608 children (2,513 males) with a preschool history of developmental disability. Sixty-six percent of the children had an identified disability in fourth grade. The percentage of children with a disability at outcome varied across preschool disability categories from 54% to 96%. The consistency of…

  3. Qualitative Aspects of Developmental Language Impairment Relate to Language and Literacy Outcome in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Line, E. A.; Watt, Helen J.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Developmental language disorder is a heterogeneous diagnostic category. Little research has compared the long-term outcomes of children with different subtypes of language impairment. Aims: To determine whether the pattern of language impairment in childhood related to language and literacy outcomes in adulthood. Methods & Procedures:…

  4. Delay Discounting Predicts Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Catherine; Ryan, Stacy R.; Fu, Hongyun; Landes, Reid D.; Jones, Bryan A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Budney, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify predictors of delay discounting among adolescents receiving treatment for marijuana abuse or dependence, and to test delay discounting as a predictor of treatment outcome. Participants for this study were 165 adolescents (88% male) between the ages of 12 and 18 (M =15.8; SD = 1.3) who enrolled in a clinical trial comparing three behavioral treatments for adolescent marijuana abuse or dependence. Participants completed a delay discounting task at treatment onset for $100 and $1,000 of hypothetical money and marijuana. Overall, smaller magnitude rewards were discounted more than larger magnitude rewards. Delay discounting rates were concurrently related to demographic variables (SES, race). Delay discounting of $1,000 of money predicted during treatment abstinence outcomes among adolescent marijuana abusers, over and above the effects of type of treatment received. Teens who show higher levels of discounting of the future may be an important subgroup to identify at treatment onset. Youth with a greater tendency to discount the future may require different intervention strategies that address their impulsivity (e.g., targeting executive function or inhibitory control) and/or different schedules of reinforcement to address their degree of preference for immediate rewards. PMID:22182419

  5. Intraventricular hemorrhage and developmental outcomes at 24 months of age in extremely preterm infants.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, T Michael; Allred, Elizabeth N; Kuban, Karl C K; Hirtz, Deborah; Specter, Barbara; Durfee, Sara; Paneth, Nigel; Leviton, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Whether intraventricular hemorrhage increases the risk of adverse developmental outcome among premature infants is controversial. Using brain ultrasound, we identified intraventricular hemorrhage and white matter abnormalities among 1064 infants born before 28 weeks' gestation. We identified adverse developmental outcomes at 24 months of age using a standardized neurologic examination and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Mental and Motor Scales. In logistic regression models that adjusted for gestational age, sex, and public insurance, isolated intraventricular hemorrhage was associated with visual fixation difficulty but no other adverse outcome. Infants who had a white matter lesion unaccompanied by intraventricular hemorrhage were at increased risk of cerebral palsy, low Mental and Motor Scores, and visual and hearing impairments. Except when accompanied or followed by a white matter lesion, intraventricular hemorrhage is associated with no more than a modest increase (and possibly no increase) in the risk of adverse developmental outcome during infancy. PMID:22232137

  6. Child and adolescent psychiatry leadership in public mental health, child welfare, and developmental disabilities agencies.

    PubMed

    Zachik, Albert A; Naylor, Michael W; Klaehn, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatrists are in a unique position to provide administrative and clinical leadership to public agencies. In mental health, services for children and adolescents in early childhood, school, child welfare, and juvenile justice settings, transition-aged youth programs, workforce development, family and youth leadership programs, and use of Medicaid waivers for home- and community-based service system development are described. In child welfare, collaboration between an academic child psychiatry department and a state child welfare department is described. In developmental disabilities, the role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist administrator is described providing administrative leadership, clinical consultation, quality review, and oversight of health and behavioral health plans for persons with developmental disabilities.

  7. Preliminary Findings on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents in an Inpatient Secure Adolescent Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jenny; Wheatley, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    To date there is limited research examining the use of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) with adolescents in secure care. The aim of this article is to examine the inter-rater reliability, concurrent validity and clinical utility of HoNOSCA in an adolescent secure psychiatric unit. Twenty-four…

  8. Changes in Developmental Factors and HIV Risk Behaviors among Early Adolescents in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Santos, Diana M.; Figueroa-Cosme, Wanda I.; María de los, A. Gómez; Maysonet-Cruz, Johanna; Miranda-Díaz, Christine; Sepúlveda-Santiago, Mario; Ríos-Olivares, Eddy; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Teenagers are the fastest growing group of newly HIV-infected persons. Consequently, a support model for HIV risk reduction was designed and implemented for early adolescents in Puerto Rico. Objective The purpose of this article is to assess changes in developmental factors and HIV risk behaviors among early adolescents after three years of follow-up of an intervention and a non-intervention group. Methods This prospective cohort study followed 135 early adolescents who were enrolled in the ASUMA (A Supportive Model for HIV Risk Reduction in Early Adolescents) Project. The study was performed in two public and two private junior schools. Baseline and three follow-up self-administered questionnaires were given. We examined sociodemographic factors, HIV risk behavior and developmental factors. Results 48% were in the intervention group and 51.1% were controls. Most adolescents were aged 12 years; 47.4% were males; 75.6% reported not having risk behaviors and 24.4% reported having risk behaviors at anytime in their lifespan. A significant decrease in the HIV risk behaviors median was observed among the intervention group (P<.05), while a non-significant increase was found among adolescents in the control group. At the end of the implementation phase, positive improvement in the developmental factors were observed in the intervention group (P<.05). Conclusions Our study suggests that the ASUMA project curriculum had a positive effect on developmental factors and HIV risk behaviors, as proposed in our conceptual framework. Also, this study illustrates the importance of the creation of culturally appropriate instruments and interventions to reach the goal of HIV/AIDS reduction. PMID:20521399

  9. Long-term reading and spelling outcome in Italian adolescents with a history of specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Brizzolara, Daniela; Gasperini, Filippo; Pfanner, Lucia; Cristofani, Paola; Casalini, Claudia; Chilosi, Anna M

    2011-09-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) diagnosed in the pre-school years is frequently associated with reading and writing difficulties at school age. The nature of this relationship is unclear, despite the availability of a large number of studies, mostly on English speaking children. Phonological processing deficits have been considered the prominent cause of both difficulties. However recent findings in both children with SLI and in children with reading difficulties are not easily accommodated within a single dimensional model explaining the relationship between oral and written language deficits. Our study focuses on the long-term reading and spelling outcome in relation to preschool oral language skills in a group of Italian adolescents with a documented history of SLI. Sixteen Italian adolescents diagnosed as SLI at our Hospital in the pre-school years and 32 normal controls were submitted to an extensive assessment of oral and written language skills. At a group level SLI adolescents had weak oral and written language skills in almost all tests. Results show that reading difficulties have some features in common with those of Italian developmental dyslexics but also have distinct characteristics, since reading accuracy and written comprehension, usually relatively spared in Italian developmental dyslexics, were impaired in adolescents with SLI. Longitudinal analyses showed that expressive morpho-syntactic and lexical abilities at pre-school age were the oral language skills that best predicted reading and spelling outcomes in adolescents with SLI. However, also children with severe phonological impairment in the absence of other oral language deficits showed later literacy difficulties, although less severe and mainly limited to reading accuracy. Our study supports the notion that there is a complex relationship between oral and written language difficulties which may change at different developmental time points, not captured by a single deficit model, but

  10. Long-term reading and spelling outcome in Italian adolescents with a history of specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Brizzolara, Daniela; Gasperini, Filippo; Pfanner, Lucia; Cristofani, Paola; Casalini, Claudia; Chilosi, Anna M

    2011-09-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) diagnosed in the pre-school years is frequently associated with reading and writing difficulties at school age. The nature of this relationship is unclear, despite the availability of a large number of studies, mostly on English speaking children. Phonological processing deficits have been considered the prominent cause of both difficulties. However recent findings in both children with SLI and in children with reading difficulties are not easily accommodated within a single dimensional model explaining the relationship between oral and written language deficits. Our study focuses on the long-term reading and spelling outcome in relation to preschool oral language skills in a group of Italian adolescents with a documented history of SLI. Sixteen Italian adolescents diagnosed as SLI at our Hospital in the pre-school years and 32 normal controls were submitted to an extensive assessment of oral and written language skills. At a group level SLI adolescents had weak oral and written language skills in almost all tests. Results show that reading difficulties have some features in common with those of Italian developmental dyslexics but also have distinct characteristics, since reading accuracy and written comprehension, usually relatively spared in Italian developmental dyslexics, were impaired in adolescents with SLI. Longitudinal analyses showed that expressive morpho-syntactic and lexical abilities at pre-school age were the oral language skills that best predicted reading and spelling outcomes in adolescents with SLI. However, also children with severe phonological impairment in the absence of other oral language deficits showed later literacy difficulties, although less severe and mainly limited to reading accuracy. Our study supports the notion that there is a complex relationship between oral and written language difficulties which may change at different developmental time points, not captured by a single deficit model, but

  11. Regression models and risk estimation for mixed discrete and continuous outcomes in developmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Regan, M M; Catalano, P J

    2000-06-01

    Multivariate dose-response models have recently been proposed for developmental toxicity data to simultaneously model malformation incidence (a binary outcome), and reductions in fetal weight (a continuous outcome). In this and other applications, the binary outcome often represents a dichotomization of another outcome or a composite of outcomes, which facilitates analysis. For example, in Segment II developmental toxicology studies, multiple malformation types (i.e., external, visceral, skeletal) are evaluated on each fetus; malformation status may also be ordinally measured (e.g., normal, signs of variation, full malformation). A model is proposed is for fetal weight and multiple malformation variables measured on an ordinal scale, where the correlations between the outcomes and between the offspring within a litter are taken into account. Fully specifying the joint distribution of outcomes within a litter is avoided by specifying only the distribution of the multivariate outcome for each fetus and using generalized estimating equation methodology to account for correlations due to litter clustering. The correlations between the outcomes are required to characterize joint risk to the fetus, and are therefore a focus of inference. Dose-response models and their application to quantitative risk assessment are illustrated using data from a recent developmental toxicology experiment of ethylene oxide in mice. PMID:10949415

  12. Clinical Case Report of Expansive Laminoplasty for Cervical Myelopathy Due to Both Disc Herniation and Developmental Cervical Spinal Canal Stenosis in Older Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Fengshan; Dang, Gengting; Liu, Zhongjun

    2016-02-01

    Reports on adolescent patients with cervical myelopathy who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion are scarce. However, to our knowledge, no cases of expansive laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy associated with progressive neurological deficit after a series of conservative treatment, caused by both disc herniation and developmental cervical spinal canal stenosis, have been reported.From January 2006 to July 2012, we retrospectively studied 3 patients in late adolescence presenting with cervical myelopathy who underwent expansive unilateral open-door laminoplasty at our hospital. The outcomes after the surgery were evaluated according to the Japanese Orthopedic Association scores.Symptoms presented by these patients were due to both disc herniation and developmental cervical spinal canal stenosis. No major complications occurred after the surgical procedures. The median follow-up time was 66 months (range 36-112 months). The Japanese Orthopedic Association scores after surgery showed a significant increase. Long-term outcomes after surgery were satisfactory according to the evaluation criteria for the Japanese Orthopedic Association scores. However, the ranges of motion of the cervical spine decreased, especially the ranges of motion on flexion after surgery showed a significant decrease.Expansive laminoplasty is helpful for older adolescent patients with cervical myelopathy due to both disc herniation and developmental cervical spinal canal stenosis, presenting with progressive neurological deficit after long conservative treatment. PMID:26937923

  13. Clinical Case Report of Expansive Laminoplasty for Cervical Myelopathy Due to Both Disc Herniation and Developmental Cervical Spinal Canal Stenosis in Older Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hua; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Fengshan; Dang, Gengting; Liu, Zhongjun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Reports on adolescent patients with cervical myelopathy who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion are scarce. However, to our knowledge, no cases of expansive laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy associated with progressive neurological deficit after a series of conservative treatment, caused by both disc herniation and developmental cervical spinal canal stenosis, have been reported. From January 2006 to July 2012, we retrospectively studied 3 patients in late adolescence presenting with cervical myelopathy who underwent expansive unilateral open-door laminoplasty at our hospital. The outcomes after the surgery were evaluated according to the Japanese Orthopedic Association scores. Symptoms presented by these patients were due to both disc herniation and developmental cervical spinal canal stenosis. No major complications occurred after the surgical procedures. The median follow-up time was 66 months (range 36–112 months). The Japanese Orthopedic Association scores after surgery showed a significant increase. Long-term outcomes after surgery were satisfactory according to the evaluation criteria for the Japanese Orthopedic Association scores. However, the ranges of motion of the cervical spine decreased, especially the ranges of motion on flexion after surgery showed a significant decrease. Expansive laminoplasty is helpful for older adolescent patients with cervical myelopathy due to both disc herniation and developmental cervical spinal canal stenosis, presenting with progressive neurological deficit after long conservative treatment. PMID:26937923

  14. Adolescent PTSD and developmental consequences of crack dealing.

    PubMed

    Weisman, G K

    1993-10-01

    The effect of crack dealing on emotionally disturbed adolescents in two African-American inner-city communities is examined and illustrated by case examples. Crack dealing was most often found to have dynamics and consequences separate from those of crack use. These include post-traumatic stress disorder and other significant emotional disturbances arising from the violence associated with crack dealing, and the shaping of adolescent identity by the associated culture of violence and guns. Implications for school drug abuse education are explored.

  15. Screening, intervention and outcome in autism and other developmental disorders: the role of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Fernell, Elisabeth; Wilson, Philip; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Bourgeron, Thomas; Neville, Brian; Taylor, David; Minnis, Helen; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    We draw attention to a number of important considerations in the arguments about screening and outcome of intervention in children with autism and other developmental disorders. Autism screening in itself never provides a final clinical diagnosis, but may well identify developmental deviations indicative of autism-or of other developmental disorders-that should lead to referral for further clinical assessment. Decisions regarding population or clinic screening cannot be allowed to be based on the fact that prospective longitudinal RCT designs over decades could never be performed in complex developmental disorders. We propose an alternative approach. Early screening for autism and other developmental disorders is likely to be of high societal importance and should be promoted and rigorously evaluated.

  16. Developmental trajectories of African American adolescents' family conflict: differences in mental health problems in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2014-04-01

    Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and psychopathology. As hypothesized, latent class growth analysis approximated 4 developmental trajectories of family conflict during high school for 681 African American adolescents (49% boys). Trajectory classes differed in anxiety, depressive symptoms, and violent behavior at age 20, supporting expectations that adolescents demonstrating elevated levels and atypical trajectories of family conflict in high school would report greater mental health problems as young adults. Family conflict jeopardizes African American adolescents' transition to young adulthood by contributing to mental health problems.

  17. Gender Differences In Social And Developmental Factors Affecting Puerto Rican Adolescents During The Early Stage

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Cosme, Wanda I.; Miranda, Christine; Fernandez, Diana M.; Maysonet, Johanna; Ramon, Raul O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescence is associated with risky behaviors related with social and developmental factors. Objectives were to describe social and developmental factors affecting Puerto Rican early adolescent by gender and type of school at study entry. Methods Cross-sectional study design. The study group was composed by 168 seventh grade adolescents from private and public schools. Descriptive and non-parametric comparisons were performed. Results Significance differences among proportions for gender by type of school were found in the following variables: self-esteem and HIV/AIDS attitudes in public school and peer pressure and sensation seeking in private school Discussion Our study revealed that public school adolescents are characterized by males with higher self-esteem and less attitude for HIV/AIDS, while in private school the males has more peer pressure and seeking sensation than females. Future studies could analyze factors related with changes in developmental factors, this step is important to evaluate the effectiveness of ASUMA interventions. PMID:23875519

  18. Assessing Peer Victimization across Adolescence: Measurement Invariance and Developmental Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Lisa H.; Beron, Kurt J.; Underwood, Marion K.

    2013-01-01

    An upward extension of the Revised Social Experience Questionnaire (Paquette & Underwood, 1999) was tested in a sample of adolescents followed longitudinally from 7th through 10th grade. We hypothesized that a 2-factor model with overt and social victimization factors would fit the data better than would a unidimensional model (a single general…

  19. The Developmental Nature of Parental Awareness in Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flick, Louise H.; McSweeney, Maryellen

    Adolescent mothers display less frequent, accepting, and involved interaction with their children than do older mothers. Yet the role of the young mothers' psychosocial immaturity in these phenomena remains unexplained. This project explores the validity of Newberger's model of Parental Awareness (PA) which outlines hierarchical stages in the…

  20. Developmental Associations between Adolescent Alcohol Use and Dating Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies have established a link between alcohol use and partner violence in adulthood, little research has examined this relation during adolescence. The current study used multivariate growth models to examine relations between alcohol use and dating aggression across Grades 8 through 12, controlling for shared risk factors…

  1. Toward a Developmental Theory of Adolescent Suicide & Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Wendy J.

    A growing body of literature documents the frequency and magnitude of adolescent suicide. Because of the difficulties inherent to the nature of suicide, ascertaining the actual frequency of suicidal completions, attempts, and ideation is extremely difficult. Although there have been many attempts to isolate the correlates and causal factors of…

  2. Developmental Trajectories of Offending for Male Adolescents Leaving Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Hernandez, Pedro M.; Herz, Denise

    2007-01-01

    The difficulties that adolescents encounter as they age out of the foster care system are numerous and fairly well documented. Such difficulties include poor health, lack of affordable housing, low-wage employment, limited educational opportunities, and unreliable or nonexistent familial support. These difficulties often increase the likelihood of…

  3. Heterogeneity of Depressive Symptom Trajectories through Adolescence: Predicting Outcomes in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Chaiton, Michael; Contreras, Gisèle; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M.; O’Loughlin, Erin; Low, Nancy C. P.; Karp, Igor; Barnett, Tracie A.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study describes developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms in adolescents and examines the association between trajectory group and mental health outcomes in young adulthood. Methods: Depressive symptoms were self-reported every three months from grade seven through grade 11 by 1293 adolescents in the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study and followed in young adulthood (average age 20.4, SD=0.7, n=865). Semi-parametric growth modeling was used to identify sex-specific trajectories of depressive symptoms. Results: Three distinct trajectory groups were identified: 50% of boys and 29% of girls exhibited low, decreasing levels of depressive symptoms; 14% of boys and 28% of girls exhibited high and increasing levels; and 36% of boys and 43% of girls exhibited moderate levels with linear increase. Trajectory group was a statistically significant independent predictor of depression, stress, and self-rated mental health in young adulthood in boys and girls. Boys, but not girls, in the high trajectory group had a statistically significant increase in the likelihood of seeking psychiatric care. Conclusions: Substantial heterogeneity in changes in depressive symptoms over time was found. Because early depressive symptoms predict mental health problems in young adulthood, monitoring adolescents for depressive symptoms may help identify those most at risk and in need of intervention. PMID:23667355

  4. Newcomer Immigrant Adolescents: A Mixed-Methods Examination of Family Stressors and School Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sita G.; Clarke, Annette V.; Eltareb, Fazia; Macciomei, Erynn E.; Wickham, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Family stressors predict negative psychological outcomes for immigrant adolescents, yet little is known about how such stressors interact to predict school outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive role of family stressors on school outcomes for newcomer adolescent immigrants. Using a convergent parallel mixed-methods…

  5. Longitudinal Effects of Parental Bereavement on Adolescent Developmental Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, David A.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Masten, Ann S.; Porta, Giovanna; Walker Payne, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact of sudden parental bereavement on subsequent attainment of developmental competencies. This longitudinal study reports on 126 youth bereaved by sudden parental death (suicide, accident, or natural death) and 116 demographically similar nonbereaved controls assessed at 9, 21, 33, and 62 months after…

  6. Dissociation in Children and Adolescents: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Frank W.

    From amnesia to auditory hallucinations, the symptoms of pathological dissociation are among the most devastating effects of childhood maltreatment. Ways in which therapists can provide a comprehensive developmental approach to understanding, diagnosing, and treating this challenging clinical population are presented in this text. After reviewing…

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Maladaptive Perfectionism among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Keith C.; Wang, Kenneth; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of maladaptive perfectionism over a 7-year period among African American youth living in an urban setting (N = 547). In particular, the study attempted to determine whether two maladaptive aspects of perfectionism (socially prescribed and self-critical) changed over time and could be distinguished…

  8. Developmental imaging genetics: linking dopamine function to adolescent behavior.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Luna, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is a period of development characterized by numerous neurobiological changes that significantly influence behavior and brain function. Adolescence is of particular interest due to the alarming statistics indicating that mortality rates increase two to three-fold during this time compared to childhood, due largely to a peak in risk-taking behaviors resulting from increased impulsivity and sensation seeking. Furthermore, there exists large unexplained variability in these behaviors that are in part mediated by biological factors. Recent advances in molecular genetics and functional neuroimaging have provided a unique and exciting opportunity to non-invasively study the influence of genetic factors on brain function in humans. While genes do not code for specific behaviors, they do determine the structure and function of proteins that are essential to the neuronal processes that underlie behavior. Therefore, studying the interaction of genotype with measures of brain function over development could shed light on critical time points when biologically mediated individual differences in complex behaviors emerge. Here we review animal and human literature examining the neurobiological basis of adolescent development related to dopamine neurotransmission. Dopamine is of critical importance because of (1) its role in cognitive and affective behaviors, (2) its role in the pathogenesis of major psychopathology, and (3) the protracted development of dopamine signaling pathways over adolescence. We will then focus on current research examining the role of dopamine-related genes on brain function. We propose the use of imaging genetics to examine the influence of genetically mediated dopamine variability on brain function during adolescence, keeping in mind the limitations of this approach. PMID:24139694

  9. Developmental imaging genetics: linking dopamine function to adolescent behavior

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Luna, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of development characterized by numerous neurobiological changes that significantly influence behavior and brain function. Adolescence is of particular interest due to the alarming statistics indicating that mortality rates increase two to three-fold during this time compared to childhood, due largely to a peak in risk-taking behaviors resulting from increased impulsivity and sensation seeking. Furthermore, there exists large unexplained variability in these behaviors that are in part mediated by biological factors. Recent advances in molecular genetics and functional neuroimaging have provided a unique and exciting opportunity to noninvasively study the influence of genetic factors on brain function in humans. While genes do not code for specific behaviors, they do determine the structure and function of proteins that are essential to the neuronal processes that underlie behavior. Therefore, studying the interaction of genotype with measures of brain function over development could shed light on critical time points when biologically mediated individual differences in complex behaviors emerge. Here we review animal and human literature examining the neurobiological basis of adolescent development related to dopamine neurotransmission. Dopamine is of critical importance because of (1) its role in cognitive and affective behaviors, (2) its role in the pathogenesis of major psychopathology, and (3) the protracted development of dopamine signaling pathways over adolescence. We will then focus on current research examining the role of dopamine-related genes on brain function. We propose the use of imaging genetics to examine the influence of genetically mediated dopamine variability on brain function during adolescence, keeping in mind the limitations of this approach. PMID:24139694

  10. Does adolescent self-esteem predict later life outcomes? A test of the causal role of self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Boden, Joseph M; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between self-esteem in adolescence and later mental health, substance use, and life and relationship outcomes in adulthood. The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of approximately 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Lower levels of self-esteem at age 15 were associated with greater risks of mental health problems, substance dependence, and lower levels of life and relationship satisfaction at ages 18, 21, and 25. Adjustment for potentially confounding factors reduced the strength of these associations to either moderate or statistically nonsignificant levels. It was concluded that the effects of self-esteem during adolescence on later developmental outcomes were weak, and largely explained by the psychosocial context within which self-esteem develops. PMID:18211740

  11. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…

  12. School mobility and developmental outcomes in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Herbers, Janette E; Reynolds, Arthur J; Chen, Chin-Chih

    2013-05-01

    School mobility has been shown to increase the risk of poor achievement, behavior problems, grade retention, and high school dropout. Using data over 25 years from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, we investigated the unique risk of school moves on a variety of young adult outcomes including educational attainment, occupational prestige, depression symptoms, and criminal arrests. We also investigated how the timing of school mobility, whether earlier or later in the academic career, may differentially predict these outcomes over and above associated risks. Results indicate that students who experience more school changes between kindergarten and 12th grade are less likely to complete high school on time, complete fewer years of school, attain lower levels of occupational prestige, experience more symptoms of depression, and are more likely to be arrested as adults. Furthermore, the number of school moves predicted outcomes above and beyond associated risks such as residential mobility and family poverty. When timing of school mobility was examined, results indicated more negative outcomes associated with moves later in the grade school career, particularly between 4th and 8th grades.

  13. Enabling Outcomes for Students with Developmental Disabilities through Collaborative Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villeneuve, Michelle; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative consultation has been widely adopted in school-based occupational therapy practice; however, limited research has examined how collaboration between educators and occupational therapists contributes to students' outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe the nature of collaborative working in two cases of school-based…

  14. Assessing peer victimization across adolescence: measurement invariance and developmental change.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Lisa H; Beron, Kurt J; Underwood, Marion K

    2013-03-01

    An upward extension of the Revised Social Experience Questionnaire (Paquette & Underwood, 1999) was tested in a sample of adolescents followed longitudinally from 7th through 10th grade. We hypothesized that a 2-factor model with overt and social victimization factors would fit the data better than would a unidimensional model (a single general victimization factor) or a 3-factor model (separately examining verbal, physical, and social victimization). The 2-factor model best represented the data, and we found support for longitudinal invariance of this model across 7th through 10th grades for both boys and girls. Such findings of temporal invariance are important for further longitudinal comparisons, and we suggest future directions for using the Revised Adolescent Social Experience Questionnaire to examine stability and change in victimization as well as evaluating the effectiveness of intervention programs.

  15. Developmental Commonalities between Object and Face Recognition in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Jüttner, Martin; Wakui, Elley; Petters, Dean; Davidoff, Jules

    2016-01-01

    In the visual perception literature, the recognition of faces has often been contrasted with that of non-face objects, in terms of differences with regard to the role of parts, part relations and holistic processing. However, recent evidence from developmental studies has begun to blur this sharp distinction. We review evidence for a protracted development of object recognition that is reminiscent of the well-documented slow maturation observed for faces. The prolonged development manifests itself in a retarded processing of metric part relations as opposed to that of individual parts and offers surprising parallels to developmental accounts of face recognition, even though the interpretation of the data is less clear with regard to holistic processing. We conclude that such results might indicate functional commonalities between the mechanisms underlying the recognition of faces and non-face objects, which are modulated by different task requirements in the two stimulus domains. PMID:27014176

  16. Surgical Outcome of Children and Adolescents with Tethered Cord Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hida, Kazutoshi; Yano, Shunsuke; Sasamori, Toru; Hamauch, Shuji; Koyanagi, Izumi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Purpose To compare long-term results of surgery with the outcomes of symptomatic and asymptomatic tethered cord syndrome (TCS) in children and adolescents and to assess the surgery duration for those with TCS. Overview of Literature Pediatric patients with TCS continue to pose significant diagnostic and management challenges. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 31 patients (16 males, 15 females) with TCS, including 21 with lumbosacral lipoma. All were surgically treated between 1989 and 2015. They were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic TCS groups. The results of the treatment were summarized and analyzed using a non-parametric Mann–Whitney U test. Results Nineteen patients had symptomatic TCS and 12 had asymptomatic TCS. Patients had a median age of 34 months (range, 0–201 months). The median follow-up period was 116 months (range, 7–223 months). Of the 19 symptomatic TCS patients, preoperative deficits improved after surgery in two (10.5%) and remained stable in 17 (89.5%) patients. One of the 12 asymptomatic TCS (8.3%) patients showed an exacerbated illness after surgery, and one in 11 patients remained stable (11.7%). There were significant differences in monthly age at surgery, preoperative bowel and bladder dysfunction, neurological function, presence/absence of clean intermittent catheterization introduction, and presence/absence of motor disorder at final follow-up (all p<0.05). In the univariate analysis, the presence/absence of preoperative bowel and bladder dysfunction, and symptoms were strongly associated with the risk of children and adolescents with TCS (p<0.05). Conclusions Early accurate diagnosis and adequate surgical release might lead to successful outcomes in children and adolescents with TCS. Surgical untethering is a safe and effective method for treatment of children with TCS. PMID:27790325

  17. Longitudinal assessment of left ventricular structure and function in adolescents with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Chirico, Daniele; O'Leary, Deborah; Cairney, John; Haluka, Karen; Coverdale, Nicole S; Klentrou, Panagiota; Hay, John; Faught, Brent E

    2012-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as obesity and reduced cardio-respiratory fitness. It has also been shown that adolescents with probable DCD (p-DCD) have elevated cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV) compared to typically developing (TD) controls, which in turn may heighten their risk of developing elevated left ventricle mass (LVM) or left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The purpose of this study was to assess left ventricular structure and function longitudinally in adolescents with and without p-DCD. This three year study included 86 adolescents with significant motor impairment (33) and TD controls (53). Adolescents were 12 years old at the beginning of the study. The Movement ABC test (M-ABC-2) was used to classify children as p-DCD. Cardiac dimensions were measured using ultrasound echocardiography. Body mass, fat mass (FM) and body mass index (BMI) were significantly elevated in the p-DCD group in all three years. Peak aerobic fitness normalized to fat-free mass (peak VO(2FFM)) was significantly elevated in the TD controls in each year. Heart rate was also increased in the p-DCD group in years one and three. A repeated measures ANCOVA with time-varying covariates was performed for CO and LVM on p-DCD while controlling for peak VO(2) and FFM. CO and LVM were significantly elevated in the p-DCD which remained constant over time. FM completely mediated the association between p-DCD and CO in adolescents. For LVM, both FM and CO accounted for elevated LVM in adolescents with p-DCD. In conclusion, elevated FM in adolescents with p-DCD contributes to a higher CO and LVM over time compared to TD controls. If this persists throughout adolescents and into adulthood, these adolescents may be at risk of developing LVH.

  18. A Longitudinal Examination of African American Adolescents' Attributions about Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinton, Akilah D.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi

    2011-01-01

    Developmental, gender, and academic domain differences in causal attributions and the influence of attributions on classroom engagement were explored longitudinally in 115 African American adolescents. In Grades 8 and 11, adolescents reported attributions for success and failure in math, English and writing, and science. In Grade 11, English and…

  19. Intergenerational Transmission of Familial Boundary Dissolution: Observations and Psychosocial Outcomes in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Anne; Egeland, Byron

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the transmission of boundary dissolution (BD) in parent-child relationships from parental behaviors observed in early childhood to adolescent behaviors observed at age 13 and relations to adolescent psychosocial adaptation. The goals of the study are (a) to examine the developmental relation of early childhood BD to several…

  20. Diagnostic assessment in a sample of autistic and developmentally impaired adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fombonne, E

    1992-12-01

    A sample of 43 autistic and developmentally impaired adolescents were assessed with the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI), DSM-III-R criteria, and the clinician's diagnosis. DSM-III-R criteria for autism have low specificity and agree poorly with the other two definitions. Detailed results of the ADI are provided that confirm the usefulness and discriminant validity of this semi-structured diagnostic interview in a sample of very retarded autistic subjects.

  1. Adolescent Adjustment in a Nationally Collected Sample: Identifying Group Differences by Adoption Status, Adoption Subtype, Developmental Stage and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow, Anthony L.; Tubman, Jonathan G.; Finley, Gordon E.

    2004-01-01

    The current study investigated group differences in adolescent adjustment by adoption status and adoption subtype in a national sample, in contrast to group differences based on developmental stage or gender. Secondary analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were performed to describe group differences in a broad range of…

  2. Developmental Communication Impairments in Adults: Outcomes and Life Experiences of Adults and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Judy; Ansorge, Lydia; Stackhouse, Joy; Donlan, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study identifies the outcomes and documents the longitudinal life experiences of adults who attended a specialist residential school for children with pervasive and complex developmental communication impairments. Method: Semistructured interviews were carried out with 26 adult ex-pupils who had attended the school and the parents of…

  3. Trends in Outcomes of the Vocational Rehabilitation Program for Adults with Developmental Disabilities: 1995-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliore, Alberto; Butterworth, John

    2008-01-01

    This article describes national trends in outcomes of the vocational rehabilitation (VR) program, with a focus on adults with developmental disabilities during the period of 1995 to 2005. Findings show that the VR program has made substantial progress in excluding extended employment from the array of possible employment closures. Efforts are…

  4. Biomedical Risk, Psychosocial Influences, and Developmental Outcomes: Lessons from the Pediatric HIV Population in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi; Abubakar, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is home to millions of HIV-affected children. These children are likely to experience multiple developmental delays. In this chapter, I present data highlighting compromised neurobehavioral, mental health, and scholastic outcomes for children affected by HIV. Furthermore, I discuss biomedical factors (e.g., disease severity and…

  5. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer…

  6. Experiences and Outcomes of Preschool Physical Education: An Analysis of Developmental Discourses in Scottish Curricular Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvilly, Nollaig

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of developmental discourses underpinning preschool physical education in Scotland's Curriculum for Excellence. Implementing a post-structural perspective, the article examines the preschool experiences and outcomes related to physical education as presented in the Curriculum for Excellence "health and…

  7. Patterns of time use among low-income urban minority adolescents and associations with academic outcomes and problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Sharon; Aber, J Lawrence; Morris, Pamela A

    2015-06-01

    Time budgets represent key opportunities for developmental support and contribute to an understanding of achievement gaps and adjustment across populations of youth. This study assessed the connection between out-of-school time use patterns and academic performance outcomes, academic motivations and goals, and problem behaviors for 504 low-income urban African American and Latino adolescents (54% female; M = 16.6 years). Time use patterns were measured across eight activity types using cluster analysis. Four groups of adolescents were identified, based on their different profiles of time use: (1) Academic: those with most time in academic activities; (2) Social: those with most time in social activities; (3) Maintenance/work: those with most time in maintenance and work activities; and (4) TV/computer: those with most time in TV or computer activities. Time use patterns were meaningfully associated with variation in outcomes in this population. Adolescents in the Academic cluster had the highest levels of adjustment across all domains; adolescents in the Social cluster had the lowest academic performance and highest problem behaviors; and adolescents in the TV/computer cluster had the lowest levels of intrinsic motivation. Females were more likely to be in the Academic cluster, and less likely to be in the other three clusters compared to males. No differences by race or gender were found in assessing the relationship between time use and outcomes. The study's results indicate that time use patterns are meaningfully associated with within-group variation in adjustment for low-income minority adolescents, and that shared contexts may shape time use more than individual differences in race/ethnicity for this population.

  8. Child and adolescent obesity: epidemiology and developmental perspectives.

    PubMed

    Adair, Linda S

    2008-04-22

    From infancy through adolescence, more and more children are becoming overweight. National prevalence data show that more than 17% of youth have a body mass index (BMI) above the 95th percentile of the US age and sex-specific reference. Particularly alarming are rates in children as young as 2 years of age, and among minority children. Periods of heightened vulnerability to weight gain have been identified, and research supports the notion that obesity has its origins in early life. This paper focuses on susceptibility to increased adiposity during the prenatal period, infancy, mid-childhood and adolescence, and how factors operating in each of these periods influence risk of becoming overweight. Prenatal exposure to over or undernutrition, rapid growth in early infancy, an early adiposity rebound in childhood, and early pubertal development have all been implicated in the development of obesity. The persistence of obesity from young ages emphasizes the importance of understanding growth trajectories, and of developing prevention strategies to overcome strong influences of obesigenic environments at young ages.

  9. Vagal Regulation of Heart Rate in the Prediction of Developmental Outcome for Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doussard-Roosevelt, Jane A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Used heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) assessed at 33 to 35 weeks gestational age to predict developmental outcome at 3 years for very low birth weight infants. Found that RSA measures predicted developmental outcome beyond effects of birth weight, medical risk, and socioeconomic status. For infants < 1,000 grams, RSA maturation…

  10. The prospective contribution of childhood maltreatment to low self-worth, low relationship quality, and symptomatology across adolescence: A developmental-organizational perspective.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Megan; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred

    2014-09-01

    This research investigated the prospective contribution of childhood maltreatment to low self-worth, low relationship quality, and symptoms during adolescence. Further, the stability and cross-lagged effects of these sequelae of maltreatment were examined over time. History of maltreatment during childhood was obtained, and youth (407 maltreated, 228 nonmaltreated; 376 males, 259 females) completed 2 subsequent assessments spaced approximately 2 years apart during early-mid and mid-late adolescence. As anticipated, childhood maltreatment experiences predicted low self-worth, low relationship quality, and both internalizing and externalizing symptoms in early-mid adolescence. Beyond the stability paths of each outcome variable, significant cross-lagged effects were observed among low self-worth, low relationship quality, and internalizing symptoms across adolescence. In contrast, cross-lagged effects were not observed among adolescent externalizing symptoms. These findings support a developmental-organizational model in which childhood maltreatment creates multiple vulnerabilities that evince continuity and generate mutually influencing effects across adolescence. PMID:25046123

  11. The Prospective Contribution of Childhood Maltreatment to Low Self-Worth, Low Relationship Quality, and Symptomatology Across Adolescence: A Developmental-Organizational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Megan; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the prospective contribution of childhood maltreatment to low self-worth, low relationship quality, and symptoms during adolescence. Further, the stability and cross-lagged effects of these sequelae of maltreatment were examined over time. History of maltreatment during childhood was obtained, and youth (407 maltreated, 228 nonmaltreated; 376 males, 259 females) completed two subsequent assessments spaced approximately two years apart during early-mid and mid-late adolescence. As anticipated, childhood maltreatment experiences predicted low self-worth, low relationship quality, and both internalizing and externalizing symptoms in early-mid adolescence. Beyond the stability paths of each outcome variable, significant cross-lagged effects were observed among low self-worth, low relationship quality, and internalizing symptoms across adolescence. In contrast, cross-lagged effects were not observed among adolescent externalizing symptoms. These findings support a developmental-organizational model in which childhood maltreatment creates multiple vulnerabilities that evince continuity and generate mutually influencing effects across adolescence. PMID:25046123

  12. Developmental changes in the structure of the social brain in late childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kathryn L; Lalonde, François; Clasen, Liv S; Giedd, Jay N; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Social cognition provides humans with the necessary skills to understand and interact with one another. One aspect of social cognition, mentalizing, is associated with a network of brain regions often referred to as the 'social brain.' These consist of medial prefrontal cortex [medial Brodmann Area 10 (mBA10)], temporoparietal junction (TPJ), posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and anterior temporal cortex (ATC). How these specific regions develop structurally across late childhood and adolescence is not well established. This study examined the structural developmental trajectories of social brain regions in the longest ongoing longitudinal neuroimaging study of human brain maturation. Structural trajectories of grey matter volume, cortical thickness and surface area were analyzed using surface-based cortical reconstruction software and mixed modeling in a longitudinal sample of 288 participants (ages 7-30 years, 857 total scans). Grey matter volume and cortical thickness in mBA10, TPJ and pSTS decreased from childhood into the early twenties. The ATC increased in grey matter volume until adolescence and in cortical thickness until early adulthood. Surface area for each region followed a cubic trajectory, peaking in early or pre-adolescence before decreasing into the early twenties. These results are discussed in the context of developmental changes in social cognition across adolescence. PMID:23051898

  13. Developmental Differences in Early Adolescent Aggression: A Gene × Environment × Intervention Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, H. Harrington; Vandenbergh, David J.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve

    2015-01-01

    Aggression-related problems such as assault and homicide among adolescents and young adults exact considerable social and economic costs. Although progress has been made, additional research is needed to help combat this persistent problem. Several lines of research indicate that parental hostility is an especially potent predictor of adolescent aggression, although most longitudinal research has focused on clarifying the direction of effects. In this study, we used longitudinal data from the PROSPER project (N = 580; 54.8 % female), a primarily rural Caucasian preventative intervention sample, to examine developmental change in early- to mid-adolescent aggressive behavior problems (age 11–16 years). In addition, we examined maternal hostility as a predictor of developmental change in aggression and the PROSPER preventative intervention, designed to reduce substance use and aggression, as a potential influence on this association. Lastly, several studies indicate that variation in the DRD4 7-repeat gene moderates both parenting and intervention influences on externalizing behavior. Accordingly, we examined the potential moderating role of DRD4. As hypothesized, there was a significant maternal hostility by intervention interaction indicating that the intervention reduced the negative impact of maternal hostility on adolescent change in aggressive behavior problems. DRD4 7-repeat status (7+ vs. 7−) further conditioned this association whereby control group 7+ adolescents with hostile mothers showed increasing aggressive behavior problems. In contrast, aggression decreased for 7+ adolescents with similarly hostile mothers in the intervention. Implications for prevention are discussed as well as current perspectives in candidate gene-by-environment interaction research. PMID:25319639

  14. Social protection: potential for improving HIV outcomes among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cluver, Lucie D; Hodes, Rebecca J; Sherr, Lorraine; Mark Orkin, F; Meinck, Franziska; Lim Ah Ken, Patricia; Winder-Rossi, Natalia E; Wolfe, Jason; Vicari, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Advances in biomedical technologies provide potential for adolescent HIV prevention and HIV-positive survival. The UNAIDS 90–90–90 treatment targets provide a new roadmap for ending the HIV epidemic, principally through antiretroviral treatment, HIV testing and viral suppression among people with HIV. However, while imperative, HIV treatment and testing will not be sufficient to address the epidemic among adolescents in Southern and Eastern Africa. In particular, use of condoms and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remain haphazard, with evidence that social and structural deprivation is negatively impacting adolescents’ capacity to protect themselves and others. This paper examines the evidence for and potential of interventions addressing these structural deprivations. Discussion New evidence is emerging around social protection interventions, including cash transfers, parenting support and educational support (“cash, care and classroom”). These interventions have the potential to reduce the social and economic drivers of HIV risk, improve utilization of prevention technologies and improve adherence to ART for adolescent populations in the hyper-endemic settings of Southern and Eastern Africa. Studies show that the integration of social and economic interventions has high acceptability and reach and that it holds powerful potential for improved HIV, health and development outcomes. Conclusions Social protection is a largely untapped means of reducing HIV-risk behaviours and increasing uptake of and adherence to biomedical prevention and treatment technologies. There is now sufficient evidence to include social protection programming as a key strategy not only to mitigate the negative impacts of the HIV epidemic among families, but also to contribute to HIV prevention among adolescents and potentially to remove social and economic barriers to accessing treatment. We urge a further research and programming agenda: to actively combine

  15. Developmental Associations Between Adolescent Alcohol Use and Dating Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    While numerous studies have established a link between alcohol use and partner violence in adulthood, little research has examined this relation during adolescence. The current study used multivariate growth models to examine relations between alcohol use and dating aggression across grades 8 through 12 controlling for shared risk factors (common causes) that predict both behaviors. Associations between trajectories of alcohol use and dating aggression were reduced substantially when common causes were controlled. Concurrent associations between the two behaviors were significant across nearly all grades but no evidence was found for prospective connections from prior alcohol use to subsequent dating aggression or vice versa. Findings suggest that prevention efforts should target common causes of alcohol use and dating aggression. PMID:23589667

  16. Developmental and contextual considerations for adrenal and gonadal hormone functioning during adolescence: Implications for adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Ruttle, Paula L; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Essex, Marilyn J; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2015-09-01

    Substantial research has implicated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes independently in adolescent mental health problems, though this literature remains largely inconclusive. Given the cross-talk between the HPA and HPG axes and their increased activation in adolescence, a dual-axis approach that examines both axes simultaneously is proposed to predict the emergence and persistence of adolescent mental health problems. After briefly orienting readers to HPA and HPG axis functioning, we review the literature examining associations between hormone levels and changes with behavior during adolescence. Then, we provide a review of the literature supporting examination of both axes simultaneously and present the limited research that has taken a dual-axis approach. We propose future directions including consideration of between-person and within-person approaches to address questions of correlated changes in HPA and HPG hormones. Potential moderators are considered to increase understanding of the nuanced hormone-behavior associations during key developmental transitions.

  17. Developmental and Contextual Considerations for Adrenal and Gonadal Hormone Functioning During Adolescence: Implications for Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Ruttle, Paula L.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Substantial research has implicated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes independently in adolescent mental health problems, though this literature remains largely inconclusive. Given the cross-talk between the HPA and HPG axes and their increased activation in adolescence, a dual-axis approach that examines both axes simultaneously is proposed to predict the emergence and persistence of adolescent mental health problems. After briefly orienting readers to HPA and HPG axis functioning, we review the literature examining associations between hormone levels and changes with behavior during adolescence. Then, we provide a review of the literature supporting examination of both axes simultaneously and present the limited research that has taken a dual-axis approach. We propose future directions including consideration of between-person and within-person approaches to address questions of correlated changes in HPA and HPG hormones. Potential moderators are considered to increase understanding of the nuanced hormone–behavior associations during key developmental transitions. PMID:24729154

  18. Developmental Changes in Adolescents' Olfactory Performance and Significance of Olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Klötze, Paula; Gerber, Friederike; Croy, Ilona; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the current work was to examine developmental changes in adolescents’ olfactory performance and personal significance of olfaction. In the first study olfactory identification abilities of 76 participants (31 males and 45 females aged between 10 and 18 years; M = 13.8, SD = 2.3) was evaluated with the Sniffin Stick identification test, presented in a cued and in an uncued manner. Verbal fluency was additionally examined for control purpose. In the second study 131 participants (46 males and 85 females aged between 10 and 18 years; (M = 14.4, SD = 2.2) filled in the importance of olfaction questionnaire. Odor identification abilities increased significantly with age and were significantly higher in girls as compared to boys. These effects were especially pronounced in the uncued task and partly related to verbal fluency. In line, the personal significance of olfaction increased with age and was generally higher among female compared to male participants. PMID:27332887

  19. Availability of Reproductive Health Care Services at Schools and Subsequent Birth Outcomes among Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madkour, Aubrey S.; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adverse birth outcomes are more common among adolescent versus adult mothers, but little is known about school-based services that may improve birth outcomes in this group. Methods: Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Girls and women who gave birth to singleton live infants…

  20. Who are those "risk-taking adolescents"? Individual differences in developmental neuroimaging research.

    PubMed

    Bjork, James M; Pardini, Dustin A

    2015-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has illuminated the development of human brain function. Some of this work in typically-developing youth has ostensibly captured neural underpinnings of adolescent behavior which is characterized by risk-seeking propensity, according to psychometric questionnaires and a wealth of anecdote. Notably, cross-sectional comparisons have revealed age-dependent differences between adolescents and other age groups in regional brain responsiveness to prospective or experienced rewards (usually greater in adolescents) or penalties (usually diminished in adolescents). These differences have been interpreted as reflecting an imbalance between motivational drive and behavioral control mechanisms, especially in mid-adolescence, thus promoting greater risk-taking. While intriguing, we caution here that researchers should be more circumspect in attributing clinically significant adolescent risky behavior to age-group differences in task-elicited fMRI responses from neurotypical subjects. This is because actual mortality and morbidity from behavioral causes (e.g. substance abuse, violence) by mid-adolescence is heavily concentrated in individuals who are not neurotypical, who rather have shown a lifelong history of behavioral disinhibition that frequently meets criteria for a disruptive behavior disorder, such as conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. These young people are at extreme risk of poor psychosocial outcomes, and should be a focus of future neurodevelopmental research.

  1. Who are those "risk-taking adolescents"? Individual differences in developmental neuroimaging research.

    PubMed

    Bjork, James M; Pardini, Dustin A

    2015-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has illuminated the development of human brain function. Some of this work in typically-developing youth has ostensibly captured neural underpinnings of adolescent behavior which is characterized by risk-seeking propensity, according to psychometric questionnaires and a wealth of anecdote. Notably, cross-sectional comparisons have revealed age-dependent differences between adolescents and other age groups in regional brain responsiveness to prospective or experienced rewards (usually greater in adolescents) or penalties (usually diminished in adolescents). These differences have been interpreted as reflecting an imbalance between motivational drive and behavioral control mechanisms, especially in mid-adolescence, thus promoting greater risk-taking. While intriguing, we caution here that researchers should be more circumspect in attributing clinically significant adolescent risky behavior to age-group differences in task-elicited fMRI responses from neurotypical subjects. This is because actual mortality and morbidity from behavioral causes (e.g. substance abuse, violence) by mid-adolescence is heavily concentrated in individuals who are not neurotypical, who rather have shown a lifelong history of behavioral disinhibition that frequently meets criteria for a disruptive behavior disorder, such as conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. These young people are at extreme risk of poor psychosocial outcomes, and should be a focus of future neurodevelopmental research. PMID:25176616

  2. Sex Differences in Developmental Trends of Suicide Ideation, Plans, and Attempts among European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeninger, Daria K.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Feldman, Betsy J.; Conger, Rand D.

    2010-01-01

    Although suicide ideation, plans, and attempts increase during adolescence, it remains unclear whether boys' and girls' risk for these outcomes peaks at different ages. We used longitudinal categorical data ("never," "once," "2+ times") from the Family Transitions Project (N = 1,248 rural European Americans, ages 11-19) to investigate whether…

  3. Sexual differentiation of the adolescent rodent brain: hormonal influences and developmental mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Juraska, Janice M; Sisk, Cheryl L; DonCarlos, Lydia L

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexual differentiation is the process by which the nervous system becomes structurally and functionally dissimilar in females and males. In mammals, this process has been thought to occur during prenatal and early postnatal development, when a transient increase in testosterone secretion masculinizes and defeminizes the developing male nervous system. Decades of research have led to the views that structural sexual dimorphisms created during perinatal development are passively maintained throughout life, and that ovarian hormones do not play an active role in feminization of the nervous system. Furthermore, perinatal testosterone was thought to determine sex differences in neuron number by regulating cell death and cell survival, and not by regulating cell proliferation. As investigations of neural development during adolescence became more prominent in the late 20th century and revealed the extent of brain remodeling during this time, each of these tenets has been challenged and modified. Here we review evidence from the animal literature that 1) the brain is further sexually differentiated during puberty and adolescence; 2) ovarian hormones play an active role in the feminization of the brain during puberty; and 3) hormonally modulated, sex-specific addition of new neurons and glial cells, as well as loss of neurons, contribute to sexual differentiation of hypothalamic, limbic, and cortical regions during adolescence. This architectural remodeling during the adolescent phase of sexual differentiation of the brain may underlie the known sex differences in vulnerability to addiction and psychiatric disorders that emerge during this developmental period.

  4. Developmental trajectories of prejudice and tolerance toward immigrants from early to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Adolescence is an important period for the development of relationships between immigrants and non-immigrants, yet little is known about how problematic personality traits affect adolescents' relationships with and attitudes toward immigrants. This work identified the roles of intergroup relationships and one dimension of problematic personality traits, namely callous-unemotional traits, in the development of adolescents' tolerance and prejudice. Three annual measurements of a large community sample (N = 1,542) of non-immigrant adolescents (M age = 15.31 at first measurement; 50.2% girls) were used to show that tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants represent two dimensions with distinct developmental trajectories from early to late adolescence. Callous-unemotional traits predicted fewer decreases in prejudice toward immigrants, yet were not directly associated with tolerance. Intergroup friendships predicted stronger increases in tolerance, which, in turn, predicted decreases in prejudice toward immigrants. Thus, tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants seem to be differentially influenced by social experiences and problematic personality traits.

  5. Intergroup Contact and Social Outcomes for Mainstreamed EMR Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stager, Susan Ferencz; Young, Richard David

    1981-01-01

    The prediction of the contact hypothesis, that contact between nonretarded and educable mentally retarded (EMR) adolescents would result in the EMR adolescents being viewed as more competent, likeable, and socially acceptable, was examined with 26 mainstreamed ERM adolescents. (Author)

  6. The Immigrant Paradox in Children and Adolescents: Is Becoming American a Developmental Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Cynthia Garcia, Ed.; Marks, Amy Kerivan, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Many academic and public policies promote rapid immigrant assimilation. Yet, researchers have recently identified an emerging pattern, known as the "immigrant paradox," in which assimilated children of immigrants experience diminishing developmental outcomes and educational achievements. This volume examines these controversial findings by asking…

  7. Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Developmental Outcomes at 24 months of age in Extremely Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    O'Shea, T. Michael; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Kuban, Karl C. K.; Hirtz, Deborah; Specter, Barbara; Durfee, Sara; Paneth, Nigel; Leviton, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Whether intraventricular hemorrhage increases the risk of adverse developmental outcome among premature infants is controversial. Using brain ultrasound, we identified IVH and white matter abnormalities among 1064 infants born before 28 weeks gestation. We identified adverse developmental outcomes at 24 months of age using a standardized neurological examination and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Mental and Motor Scales. In logistic regression models that adjusted for gestational age, sex, and public insurance, isolated intraventricular hemorrhage was associated with visual fixation difficulty (odds ratio: 2.5 (95% confidence limits: 1.2, 5.1)) but no other adverse outcome. Infants who had a white matter lesion unaccompanied by intraventricular hemorrhage were at increased risk of cerebral palsy, low Mental and Motor Scores, and visual and hearing impairments. Except when accompanied or followed by a white matter lesion, intraventricular hemorrhage is associated with no more than a mild increase (and possibly no increase) in the risk of adverse developmental outcome during infancy. PMID:22232137

  8. Antecedents and Outcomes of Joint Trajectories of Mother-Son Conflict and Warmth during Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Criss, Michael M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Lacourse, Eric; Hyde, Luke W.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the development of mother-son relationship quality from ages 5 to 15 in a sample of 265 low-income families. Non-parametric random effects modeling was utilized to uncover distinct and homogeneous developmental trajectories of conflict and warmth; antecedents and outcomes of the trajectory groups also were examined. Four conflict trajectory groups and three warmth trajectory groups were identified. Difficult temperament in early childhood discriminated both conflict and warmth trajectory group membership (TGM), and adult relationship quality in early childhood was related to warmth trajectories. In addition, conflict TGM differentiated youth antisocial behavior during adolescence, and warmth trajectories predicted adolescent peer relationship quality and youth moral disengagement. Implications for socialization processes are discussed. PMID:21883153

  9. Adolescent prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc: Management strategies and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Pragyan; Thirupathi, Rajan Thanga; Srinivas, Dwarakanath; Somanna, Sampath

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (LIVDH) is rare in children and adolescents when compared to adults. In literature, children generally constitute around 0.5–3% of surgically treated LIVDH. Though much rarer, they are less likely to respond to conservative treatment than adults. In this study, we analyze our experience in the management of adolescent LIVDH (ALIVDH) (age group 12–18 years) including the demographic, clinico-radiological features; surgical management strategies and outcome. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis constituted all patients between 12 and 18 years, who underwent surgery for LIVDH at our institute over a period of 15 years from January 1999 to June 2014. The records of these patients were retrieved, and demographic features, clinical picture, radiological features, operative findings, and postoperative events were evaluated. Follow-up data were obtained either through direct clinical evaluation or mailed self-report questionnaire and telephone conversations. The long-term outcome was analyzed by using standardized and condition specific outcome scales in addition to routine clinical follow-up evaluation. The long-term outcome was analyzed by using the short form-36 (SF-36). Results: There were a total of 32 patients (26 males, eight females) with an average age of 15.64 years. Trauma was a significant etiological factor 57.14% (n = 16/28). Vertebral anomalies were present in 35.7% (n = 10/28) cases. Majority had a neurological deficit at presentation (n = 20/28). The most commonly involved level was the L4–L5 level (n = 18/128) in this series. Multiple level disc degeneration was present in eight patients (28.6%). Immediate postoperative relief was achieved in all but one patient. At long-term follow-up twenty patients were pain-free (71.4%). At follow-up, the physical functioning scale of SF-36 was significantly lower in patients with gross motor deficit prior to surgery. Conclusions: Early diagnosis and

  10. Examining the developmental trajectories of adolescent sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Pullman, Lesleigh E; Leroux, Elisabeth J; Motayne, Gregory; Seto, Michael C

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the validity of the sex-plus versus sex-only categorization method for distinguishing between different types of adolescent sex offenders (ASOs; Butler & Seto, 2002). It is hypothesized that this categorization method has utility when attempting to distinguish between generalist and specialist ASOs (Seto & Pullman, 2014). Additionally, further classification of ASOs was attempted using a well known juvenile delinquency classification scheme, early-onset versus late-onset offenders (Moffitt, 1993). The current study was an archival analysis of clinical files from a sample of 158 male ASOs seen for clinical assessment at a Metropolitan Family Court Clinic. Results indicate that sex-plus offenders are more antisocial, exhibit more psychiatric issues, and have greater deficits in general social skills compared to sex-only offenders. Conversely, sex-only offenders were found to have more atypical sexual interests, and were more likely to have greater deficits in romantic relationships compared to sex-plus offenders. Due to a power related limitation, little support was found for the use of the early-onset versus late-onset classification scheme with ASOs. Overall, these results provide further support to the validity of a sex-only versus sex-plus distinction. Given these results mirror those found in the generalist/specialist literature regarding the etiology of ASOs, sex-only and sex-plus offenders may indeed have different etiological pathways: sex-plus offenders are more driven by general antisociality factors, as the generalist perspective suggests, and sex-only offenders are more driven by special factors, as the specialist explanations suggest. PMID:24695320

  11. Developmental Trajectories of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Zalewski, Maureen; Hallquist, Michael N.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.

    2015-01-01

    Major gains toward understanding the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) pathology, which is typically first noted during adolescence, have been made. The present study addresses a gap in our understanding of within-person change in BPD symptoms across adolescence and contributes to the limited literature on outcomes associated with adolescent BPD. Using an at-risk community sample of girls (N=2,450), bivariate latent growth curve models were used to analyze the co-development of BPD symptoms with eight domains of psychosocial functioning (e.g., social skills, sexual behavior) across ages 14–17. Findings revealed moderate to strong effect sizes for the associations between BPD symptoms and every domain of psychosocial functioning, suggesting that the development of BPD was coupled with poorer outcomes across development. These results highlight the increased need for extending advancements in the adult PD literature to research on PDs in adolescence, and for greater recognition of adolescent BPD in clinical settings. PMID:26067158

  12. Male adolescent rites of passage: positive visions of multiple developmental pathways.

    PubMed

    Pollack, William S

    2004-12-01

    Unlike the separation-based, stereotyped views of boys' developmental movement into adulthood, this paper will argue that there are more modern and relational models, as well as multiple pathways, for young males to journey through such rites of passage. Indeed, it will be suggested and supported by both qualitative and quantitative data that the more classic models depend on a "boy code" of traumatic separation from mother and the feminine, a process that is not only negative rather than positive in its developmental trajectory, but also likely to create a premature traumatic separation, leaving boys at risk for emotional maladjustment, everyday sadness, increased incidence of depression and the potential for violence toward the self, suicide, as well as violence toward others. More-positive visions and versions of male rites of passage will be posited and described. The definition of emotional "resilience" during this significant period will be re-addressed as one of "healthy vulnerability," sustained through connection to loving adults, rather than a classic belief in stoicism and release from relational ties. Attachment theory will be brought to bear and the desperate yearnings of adolescent males not only for connection to adult mentors, but also for non-romanticized friendships with adolescent females, will be discussed. Finally, the understanding and substitution of these new, more positive, developmental pathways will be linked to the prevention of violence. PMID:15817735

  13. Bicultural stress, identity formation, and alcohol expectancies and misuse in Hispanic adolescents: a developmental approach.

    PubMed

    Oshri, Assaf; Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B; Kwon, Josephine A; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Soto, Daniel W; Lizzi, Karina M; Villamar, Juan A; Szapocznik, José

    2014-12-01

    Hispanic immigrant youth engage in increased health risk behaviors, such as alcohol misuse, due in part to being confronted with acculturative stress in addition to facing major normative developmental challenges, such as identity consolidation (Berry et al. in Appl Psychol 55:303-332, 2006). Using a developmental psychopathology framework, in the present study we examined the effect of bicultural stress on alcohol misuse among immigrated Hispanic adolescents, indirectly through trajectories of identity formation and alcohol expectancies. Our sample consisted of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents (53 % male; Mage = 14.5 at baseline) who were interviewed every 6 months for 3 years. Bivariate growth curve modeling was used to examine the influence of initial early bicultural stress on later alcohol misuse via change in identity development (i.e., coherence and confusion) and subsequent growth in cognitive alcohol expectancies. Findings revealed that initial levels and growth of identity coherence were not significantly associated with either bicultural stress or tension reduction (TR) alcohol expectancies. Multiple mediation analyses indicated that the effect of bicultural stress at time 1 on the frequency of being drunk at time 6 was mediated via high initial levels of identity confusion, followed by growth in risky TR expectancies (T4-T6). A developmental approach to the genesis of alcohol use problems in immigrant youth is discussed.

  14. Outcome in adolescence of brachial plexus birth palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hulleberg, Gunn; Elvrum, Ann-Kristin G; Brandal, Merethe; Vik, Torstein

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — The frequency and severity of a permanent lesion after brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) and its impact on activities of daily living are not well documented. We therefore investigated the outcome of BPBP in adolescents, regarding arm function and consequences for activity and participation. Participants and methods — Of 30,574 babies born at St. Olavs University Hospital in 1991–2000, 91 had BPBP (prevalence 3 per 1,000), and 69 of these individuals were examined at a median age of 14 (10–20) years. The examination included the modified Mallet classification, range of motion, shoulder rotation and grip strength, Assisting Hand Assessment, and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Of the 22 subjects who were not examined, 3 could not be traced and 19 reported having no problems in the affected arm. Results — At follow-up, 17 adolescents had a permanent lesion (i.e. individual Mallet subscore below 4) with a median Mallet total score of 15 (9–19), while 52 had good or normal shoulder function (median Mallet total score 25 (23–25)). All participants with a permanent lesion had reduced active shoulder rotation (≤ 15°), 16 had elbow extension deficit, and 10 had subnormal grip strength. External rotation was considerably weaker in the affected shoulder. In addition, they had ineffective use of the affected arm in bimanual activities. Even so, all except 1 were independent in activities of daily living, although 15 experienced minor difficulties. Interpretation — Every fourth to fifth child with BPBP had a permanent lesion as an adolescent. External rotation was the most impaired movement. Despite ineffective use of the affected arm in bimanual activities, all of the participants except one were independent in activities of daily living. PMID:25238434

  15. Multidimensional Family Therapy for Young Adolescent Substance Abuse: Twelve-Month Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Howard A.; Rowe, Cynthia L.; Dakof, Gayle A.; Henderson, Craig E.; Greenbaum, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Research has established the dangers of early onset substance use for young adolescents and its links to a host of developmental problems. Because critical developmental detours can begin or be exacerbated during early adolescence, specialized interventions that target known risk and protective factors in this period are needed. This controlled…

  16. Pediatric and adolescent obesity: management, options for surgery, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zitsman, Jeffrey L; Inge, Thomas H; Reichard, Kirk W; Browne, Allen F; Harmon, Carroll M; Michalsky, Marc P

    2014-03-01

    The past four decades have witnessed a marked rise in the number of children and adolescents with obesity. Severe obesity has also become increasingly prevalent. More young patients who have obesity are being referred for weight management and weight loss surgery, thus posing new challenges to both the medical personnel who care for them as well as the institutions in which that care is provided. This manuscript is generated from the material presented at the Education Day symposium entitled "Surgical Care of the Obese Child" held at the 42nd Annual Meeting of the American Pediatric Surgical Association in Palm Desert, CA, on May 22, 2011. Herein the presenters at the symposium update the material addressing evaluation of a young person for weight loss surgery (including the team approach to patient evaluation and institutional infrastructure and responsibilities). The procedures most frequently available to young patients with obesity are identified, and current outcomes, trends, and future direction are also discussed.

  17. Developmental experiences during extracurricular activities and Australian adolescents' self-concept: particularly important for youth from disadvantaged schools.

    PubMed

    Blomfield, Corey J; Barber, Bonnie L

    2011-05-01

    Extracurricular activities provide adolescents with a number of positive personal and interpersonal developmental experiences. This study investigated whether developmental experiences that occurred during extracurricular activities were linked to a more positive self-concept for Australian adolescents, and whether this link was particularly salient for youth from disadvantaged schools. Adolescents (N = 1,504, 56% Female) from 26 diverse high schools across Western Australia were surveyed. The findings revealed that adolescents from low socio-economic status schools who participated in extracurricular activities had a more positive general self-worth and social self-concept than adolescents from similar socio-economic schools who did not participate in any extracurricular activities. Furthermore, the positive developmental experiences that occurred during extracurricular activities predicted a more positive general self-worth and social and academic self-concept, and this link was stronger for youth from low SES schools. These findings suggest that the developmental experiences afforded by extracurricular activities may foster positive adolescent development.

  18. Impact of Mentors During Adolescence on Outcomes Among Gay Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Drevon, Daniel D; Almazan, Elbert P; Jacob, Susan; Rhymer, Katrina N

    2016-06-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study datasets, this study examined whether natural mentoring relationships during adolescence were associated with young adult outcomes among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons. Outcomes in three domains were investigated: education and employment, psychological wellbeing, and substance use and abuse. Results indicated that LGB persons reporting natural mentors during adolescence were about three times as likely to graduate from high school as those without. Discussion surrounds strategies to foster mentoring relationships within the school environment or community. PMID:26566579

  19. Developmental outcomes of late-preterm infants at 2 and 4 years.

    PubMed

    Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Hegyi, Thomas; Ostfeld, Barbara M; Reichman, Nancy E

    2012-11-01

    This study compared healthy late-preterm (34-36 week) and healthy full-term (37-41 week) singleton infants on a range of cognitive, motor, and behavioral outcomes at 2 and 4 years. Eighteen developmental outcomes were analyzed using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative panel study. Ordinary Least Squares and logistic regressions were performed to estimate unadjusted and adjusted differences in developmental outcomes between late-preterm and full-term children. In unadjusted models, late-preterm children scored more poorly than full-term children on most assessments of cognitive ability at 2 and 4 years. After adjusting for demographic, economic, and obstetrical factors, late-preterm children continued to score lower than full-term children on language use at 2 years and on literacy, language, and math at 4 years, but scored at least one standard deviation below the mean on only one of the eighteen outcomes. Late-preterm birth is associated with subtle deficits in cognitive functioning as early as age 2 years. Although the effects may be too small to have clinical relevance, they suggest a trend toward poorer outcomes that have been documented at older ages and suggest that early testing and intervention may enhance the cognitive development of late-preterm children. PMID:21769587

  20. Developmental Patterns in Decision-Making Autonomy across Middle Childhood and Adolescence: European American Parents’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal patterns in parents’ reports of youth decision-making autonomy from ages 9 to 20 were examined in a study of 201 European American families with two offspring. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that decision-making autonomy increased gradually across middle childhood and adolescence before rising sharply in late adolescence. Social domain theory was supported by analyses of eight decision types spanning prudential, conventional, personal, and multifaceted domains. Decision making was higher for girls, youth whom parents perceived as easier to supervise, and youth with better educated parents. Firstborns and secondborns had different age-related trajectories of decision-making autonomy. Findings shed light on the developmental trajectories and family processes associated with adolescents’ fundamental task of gaining autonomy. PMID:20438465

  1. The impact of stress and coping: Developmental changes in the transition to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M A; Levy-Shiff, R; Sohlberg, S C; Zarizki, J

    1992-08-01

    Developmental change in the impact of stressful life events and coping styles were assessed among Israeli preadolescent and adolescent boys. A school sample completed a questionnaire tapping emotionally, cognitively, and practically oriented styles of coping, along with a life event survey. Teachers reported on behavior and adjustment. Analyses revealed that coping among preadolescent males was relatively undifferentiated and of limited efficacy. The transition to adolescence saw an increased qualitative differentiation of emotionally from practically or cognitively oriented coping styles, as well as quantitatively greater use of cognitively oriented coping. Further, cognitively and practically oriented coping served as effective foils to the adverse effects of stress, whereas emotionally oriented coping was counterproductive. Discussion focused on the possible contribution of cognitive growth to coping, as well as the relative utility of adult models for the study of coping in young populations.

  2. Language and internalizing and externalizing behavioral adjustment: developmental pathways from childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T D

    2013-08-01

    Two independent prospective longitudinal studies that cumulatively spanned the age interval from 4 years to 14 years used multiwave designs to investigate developmental associations between language and behavioral adjustment (internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Altogether 224 children, their mothers, and teachers provided data. Series of nested path analysis models were used to determine the most parsimonious and plausible paths among the three constructs over and above stability in each across age and their covariation at each age. In both studies, children with poorer language skills in early childhood had more internalizing behavior problems in later childhood and in early adolescence. These developmental paths between language and behavioral adjustment held after taking into consideration children's nonverbal intellectual functioning, maternal verbal intelligence, education, parenting knowledge, and social desirability bias, as well as family socioeconomic status, and they applied equally to girls and boys. PMID:23880396

  3. Language and Internalizing and Externalizing Behavioral Adjustment: Developmental Pathways from Childhood to Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Two independent prospective longitudinal studies that cumulatively spanned the age interval from 4 years to 14 years used multi-wave designs to investigate developmental associations between language and behavioral adjustment (internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Altogether 224 children, their mothers, and teachers provided data. Series of nested path analysis models were used to determine the most parsimonious and plausible paths among the three constructs over and above stability in each across age and their covariation at each age. In both studies, children with poorer language skills in early childhood had more internalizing behavior problems in later childhood and in early adolescence. These developmental paths between language and behavioral adjustment held after taking into consideration children’s nonverbal intellectual functioning, maternal verbal intelligence, education, parenting knowledge, and social desirability bias, as well as family socioeconomic status, and they applied equally to girls and boys. PMID:23880396

  4. The Adopted Adolescent. Selected Papers Number 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Anne

    This review of studies on clinical and nonclinical populations explores outcomes of adoption and developmental issues for adolescents, and in particular, developmental problems for adopted adolescents. Studies on nonclinical populations demonstrate that adoption is a highly successful form of substitute care. Prospective longitudinal studies show…

  5. The impact of parent involvement in an effective adolescent risk reduction intervention on sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Koci, Veronica; Lunn, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Parent involvement in prevention efforts targeting adolescents increases the impact of such programs. However, the majority of risk-reduction intervention programs that are implemented through schools do not include parents, in part because most existing parental interventions require significant time commitment by parents. We designed a brief parent-adolescent sexual risk communication intervention to be delivered with an effective HIV prevention intervention as part of a randomized, controlled trial among 2564 grade 10 students and their parents in The Bahamas. Mixed effects modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of the brief parent-adolescent communication intervention using four waves of longitudinal data. Results indicate that a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention is effective in improving parent-adolescent communication on sex-related issues and perceived parental monitoring as well as the youth's condom use skills and self-efficacy. There is a marginal effect on consistent condom use. In addition, there is an apparent dose effect of the brief parent intervention on perceived parent-adolescent sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes. These findings suggest that adolescent risk reduction interventions should include a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention which should be reinforced by periodic boosters in order to enhance the impact of adolescent HIV prevention programs. PMID:25490732

  6. The impact of parent involvement in an effective adolescent risk reduction intervention on sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Koci, Veronica; Lunn, Sonja

    2014-12-01

    Parent involvement in prevention efforts targeting adolescents increases the impact of such programs. However, the majority of risk-reduction intervention programs that are implemented through schools do not include parents, in part because most existing parental interventions require significant time commitment by parents. We designed a brief parent-adolescent sexual risk communication intervention to be delivered with an effective HIV prevention intervention as part of a randomized, controlled trial among 2,564 grade 10 students and their parents in the Bahamas. Mixed effects modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of the brief parent-adolescent communication intervention using four waves of longitudinal data. Results indicate that a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention is effective in improving parent-adolescent communication on sex-related issues and perceived parental monitoring as well as the youth's condom use skills and self-efficacy. There is a marginal effect on consistent condom use. In addition, there is an apparent dose effect of the brief parent intervention on perceived parent-adolescent sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes. These findings suggest that adolescent risk reduction interventions should include a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention that should be reinforced by periodic boosters in order to enhance the impact of adolescent HIV prevention programs. PMID:25490732

  7. Developmental process of the arcuate fasciculus from infancy to adolescence: a diffusion tensor imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Tak, Hyeong Jun; Kim, Jin Hyun; Son, Su Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the radiologic developmental process of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) using subcomponent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis in typically developing volunteers. DTI data were acquired from 96 consecutive typically developing children, aged 0–14 years. AF subcomponents, including the posterior, anterior, and direct AF tracts were analyzed. Success rates of analysis (AR) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values of each subcomponent tract were measured and compared. AR of all subcomponent tracts, except the posterior, showed a significant increase with aging (P < 0.05). Subcomponent tracts had a specific developmental sequence: First, the posterior AF tract, second, the anterior AF tract, and last, the direct AF tract in identical hemispheres. FA values of all subcomponent tracts, except right direct AF tract, showed correlation with subject's age (P < 0.05). Increased AR and FA values were observed in female subjects in young age (0–2 years) group compared with males (P < 0.05). The direct AF tract showed leftward hemispheric asymmetry and this tendency showed greater consolidation in older age (3–14 years) groups (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrated the radiologic developmental patterns of the AF from infancy to adolescence using subcomponent DTI analysis. The AF showed a specific developmental sequence, sex difference in younger age, and hemispheric asymmetry in older age. PMID:27482222

  8. Positive aspects of the coping of mothers of adolescent children with developmental disability in the Bedouin community in Israel.

    PubMed

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2014-06-01

    This research examines the positive aspects of coping experienced by 270 mothers of adolescent children with and without a developmental disability in the Bedouin community. The mothers completed the Sociodemographic Data Questionnaire, the Grandparents Functional Support Assessment, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Mothers of adolescent children with developmental disability reported higher levels of social support, gratitude, and personal growth than did mothers of adolescent children without developmental disability. Additionally, mothers demonstrated a higher level of gratitude toward their spouse's parents. Positive correlation was also found between gratitude and personal growth and between gratitude and support from the husband's parents. The findings highlight the important need to develop awareness and culturally appropriate intervention programs based on these positive aspects, to enhance these mothers' coping abilities.

  9. Evaluation of Epidemiology and Animal Data for Risk Assessment: Chlorpyrifos Developmental Neurobehavioral Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Abby A.; Lowe, Kimberly A.; McIntosh, Laura J.; Mink, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    Developmental neurobehavioral outcomes attributed to exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) obtained from epidemiologic and animal studies published before June 2010 were reviewed for risk assessment purposes. For epidemiological studies, this review considered (1) overall strength of study design, (2) specificity of CPF exposure biomarkers, (3) potential for bias, and (4) Hill guidelines for causal inference. In the case of animal studies, this review focused on evaluating the consistency of outcomes for developmental neurobehavioral endpoints from in vivo mammalian studies that exposed dams and/or offspring to CPF prior to weaning. Developmental neuropharmacologic and neuropathologic outcomes were also evaluated. Experimental design and methods were examined as part of the weight of evidence. There was insufficient evidence that human developmental exposures to CPF produce adverse neurobehavioral effects in infants and children across different cohort studies that may be relevant to CPF exposure. In animals, few behavioral parameters were affected following gestational exposures to 1 mg/kg-d but were not consistently reported by different laboratories. For postnatal exposures, behavioral effects found in more than one study at 1 mg/kg-d were decreased errors on a radial arm maze in female rats and increased errors in males dosed subcutaneously from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 4. A similar finding was seen in rats exposed orally from PND 1 to 21 with incremental dose levels of 1, 2, and 4 mg/kg-d, but not in rats dosed with constant dose level of 1 mg/kg-d. Neurodevelopmental behavioral, pharmacological, and morphologic effects occurred at doses that produced significant brain or red blood cell acetylcholinesterase inhibition in dams or offspring. PMID:22401178

  10. Academic performance, educational aspiration and birth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a national longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal educational attainment has been associated with birth outcomes among adult mothers. However, limited research explores whether academic performance and educational aspiration influence birth outcomes among adolescent mothers. Methods Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used. Adolescent girls whose first pregnancy occurred after Wave I, during their adolescence, and ended with a singleton live birth were included. Adolescents’ grade point average (GPA), experience of ever skipping a grade and ever repeating a grade, and their aspiration to attend college were examined as predictors of birth outcomes (birthweight and gestational age; n = 763). Univariate statistics, bivariate analyses and multivariable models were run stratified on race using survey procedures. Results Among Black adolescents, those who ever skipped a grade had higher offspring’s birthweight. Among non-Black adolescents, ever skipping a grade and higher educational aspiration were associated with higher offspring’s birthweight; ever skipping a grade was also associated with higher gestational age. GPA was not statistically significantly associated with either birth outcome. The addition of smoking during pregnancy and prenatal care visit into the multivariable models did not change these associations. Conclusions Some indicators of higher academic performance and aspiration are associated with better birth outcomes among adolescents. Investing in improving educational opportunities may improve birth outcomes among teenage mothers. PMID:24422664

  11. Brief Motivational Interviewing and Normative Feedback for Adolescents: Change Language and Alcohol Use Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jordan P; Houck, Jon M; Rowell, Lauren N; Benson, Jennifer G; Smith, Douglas C

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of adolescent change language on substance use treatment outcomes and even fewer have examined how adolescents respond to normative feedback. The purpose of this study was to understand the influence normative feedback has on adolescent change language and subsequent alcohol and cannabis use 3months later. We examined how percent change talk (PCT) was associated with subsequent alcohol and drug use outcomes. Adolescents (N=48) were randomly assigned to receive brief motivational interviewing (MI) or MI plus normative feedback (NF). Audio recordings were coded with high interrater reliability. Adolescents with high PCT who received MI+NF had significantly fewer days of alcohol and binge drinking at follow up. There were no differences between groups on cannabis use or treatment engagement. Findings indicate that NF may be useful for adolescents with higher amount of change talk during sessions and may be detrimental for individuals with higher sustain talk. PMID:26710670

  12. The Relationship between Parent Expectations and Postschool Outcomes of Adolescents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doren, Bonnie; Gau, Jeff M.; Lindstrom, Lauren E.

    2012-01-01

    A secondary analysis was conducted of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 to examine (a) main effects of parents' school and postschool outcome expectations on the actual outcomes achieved, (b) demographic moderators, and (c) adolescent autonomy as a mediator of parent expectations and outcomes. Parent expectations were found to…

  13. The Timing Effect of Bullying in Childhood and Adolescence on Developmental Trajectories of Externalizing Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoona; Liu, Xiaodong; Watson, Malcolm W

    2016-10-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the timing effect of bullying on developmental trajectories of externalizing behaviors from middle childhood to adolescence. We focused on the relation of (a) only an early experience of bullying (i.e., desisters) to subsequent externalizing behaviors in adolescence and (b) only a late experience of bullying (i.e., late-onsetters) to the concurrent externalizing behaviors in adolescence. Their trajectories of externalizing behaviors were compared with the persisters and to the non-experience group. Individual growth curve modeling was conducted using 440 child-mother dyads from the Springfield Child Development Project, a community-representative, longitudinal study over a 6-year period that included four time interviews. We modeled the changes in child aggression and delinquency from 7 to 19 years of age as a function of bully status group. Results indicated that the levels of aggression and delinquency for the desisters decreased over time (with the cessation of bullying in adolescence) and were significantly lower than those of the persisters and similar to those of the non-involved group at the end of the trajectory (cessation effect). For the late-onsetters, the level of delinquency increased over time (with the onset of bullying behaviors in adolescence) and were significantly higher than those of the non-involved group and similar to those of the persisters at the end of the trajectory (onset effect). The aggression for the late-onsetters, however, did not support the onset effect. This study implies that we need to pay more attention to intervening for late-onset.

  14. The Timing Effect of Bullying in Childhood and Adolescence on Developmental Trajectories of Externalizing Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoona; Liu, Xiaodong; Watson, Malcolm W

    2016-10-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the timing effect of bullying on developmental trajectories of externalizing behaviors from middle childhood to adolescence. We focused on the relation of (a) only an early experience of bullying (i.e., desisters) to subsequent externalizing behaviors in adolescence and (b) only a late experience of bullying (i.e., late-onsetters) to the concurrent externalizing behaviors in adolescence. Their trajectories of externalizing behaviors were compared with the persisters and to the non-experience group. Individual growth curve modeling was conducted using 440 child-mother dyads from the Springfield Child Development Project, a community-representative, longitudinal study over a 6-year period that included four time interviews. We modeled the changes in child aggression and delinquency from 7 to 19 years of age as a function of bully status group. Results indicated that the levels of aggression and delinquency for the desisters decreased over time (with the cessation of bullying in adolescence) and were significantly lower than those of the persisters and similar to those of the non-involved group at the end of the trajectory (cessation effect). For the late-onsetters, the level of delinquency increased over time (with the onset of bullying behaviors in adolescence) and were significantly higher than those of the non-involved group and similar to those of the persisters at the end of the trajectory (onset effect). The aggression for the late-onsetters, however, did not support the onset effect. This study implies that we need to pay more attention to intervening for late-onset. PMID:25900912

  15. Developmental white matter microstructure in autism phenotype and corresponding endophenotype during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lisiecka, D M; Holt, R; Tait, R; Ford, M; Lai, M-C; Chura, L R; Baron-Cohen, S; Spencer, M D; Suckling, J

    2015-01-01

    During adolescence, white matter microstructure undergoes an important stage of development. It is hypothesized that the alterations of brain connectivity that have a key role in autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) may interact with the development of white matter microstructure. This interaction may be present beyond the phenotype of autism in siblings of individuals with ASC, who are 10 to 20 times more likely to develop certain forms of ASC. We use diffusion tensor imaging to examine how white matter microstructure measurements correlate with age in typically developing individuals, and how this correlation differs in n=43 adolescents with ASC and their n=38 siblings. Correlations observed in n=40 typically developing individuals match developmental changes noted in previous longitudinal studies. In comparison, individuals with ASC display weaker negative correlation between age and mean diffusivity in a broad area centred in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. These differences may be caused either by increased heterogeneity in ASC or by temporal alterations in the group's developmental pattern. Siblings of individuals with ASC also show diminished negative correlation between age and one component of mean diffusivity-second diffusion eigenvalue-in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. As the observed differences match for location and correlation directionality in our comparison of typically developing individuals to those with ASC and their siblings, we propose that these alterations constitute a part of the endophenotype of autism.

  16. [Symptoms, self concept and developmental delay in healthy and chronically ill adolescents with type I diabetes].

    PubMed

    Boeger, A; Seiffge-Krenke, I

    1994-03-01

    In a prospective four-year longitudinal study 108 adolescents with diabetes and 107 healthy adolescents are being compared. In this paper data are presented from the initial assessment, in which psychopathology in the two groups was compared. In addition, the effect of diabetes on psychosocial development was examined. Several questionnaires were administered to assess symptomatology, self-concept and progress on certain developmental tasks. Regarding symptomatology, diabetic youths described themselves as more normal, i.e. having fewer clinical symptoms, than did the healthy controls. In addition, they had remarkably high scores on a scale of social desirability. This latter result points to a defence mechanism. Only the group of males with poorly controlled diabetes openly acknowledged that they had problems. All of the diabetics showed clear delays in psychosocial development compared with their healthy agemates. There were significant delays in developmental areas involving achievement of autonomy from parents and orientation towards member of one's own age group (regardless of sex), and the subjects with diabetes put less emphasis than the healthy controls on the importance of being successful in these areas in the future. PMID:7515210

  17. 'Mum's the word': Predictors and outcomes of weight concerns in pre-adolescent and early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ng, Johan Yau Yin; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Vlachopoulos, Symeon; Katartzi, Ermioni S; Nikitaras, Nikitas

    2016-03-01

    Predictors and outcomes of weight concerns in pre-adolescent and adolescent girls are well known, but few models have incorporated concerns reported directly by mothers as a predictor, and both eating and exercise outcomes. Using questionnaires, a comprehensive model of 232 pre-adolescent and early adolescent girls' weight concerns, eating restraint, and exercise behavior was tested. Structural equation modeling showed that daughters' weight concerns were predicted primarily by their perceptions of their mothers' concerns about the daughters' weight, as well as by daughters' BMI, appearance conversations with friends, and perceived media pressure. Mothers' concerns with their daughters' weight were indirectly associated with daughters' own concerns, via the daughters' perceptions of their mothers' concerns. Daughters' concerns with their weight were a strong predictor of eating restraint, but not exercise behavior. PMID:26803392

  18. Adult Arrests Records and Court Outcomes of Adolescents with Serious Emotional Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Maryann; Cooper, Deborah K.

    This study used archival data to examine adult charges and court outcomes for 82 individuals who had been treated in public mental health programs as adolescents. Subjects' clinical records from their adolescent day treatment (18 percent), residential (23 percent) or hospital program (58 percent) were reviewed for sociodemographics, clinical…

  19. The Effect of Early Noncognitive Skills on Social Outcomes in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coneus, Katja; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of early noncognitive skills on social outcomes in adolescence. The child's attention span, approach, prevailing mood and distractibility in early childhood may be crucial predictors for school achievements, health risk behavior, delinquency and autonomy as adolescent. We investigate this issue using a…

  20. Baseline Depressive Symptoms Predict Poor Substance Use Outcome Following Adolescent Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Stitzer, Maxine A.; Clemmey, Philip; Kolodner, Ken; Fishman, Marc J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To characterize baseline depressive symptoms among substance-abusing adolescents and determine their association with post residential treatment substance use outcomes. Method: In total, 153 adolescents (mean age 6.6 years, plus or minus 0.11) entering residential treatment were assessed at intake and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Beck…

  1. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake,…

  2. Paternal Involvement in Multisystemic Therapy: Effects on Adolescent Outcomes and Maternal Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervan, Shannon; Granic, Isabela; Solomon, Tracy; Blokland, Kirsten; Ferguson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The association between paternal involvement in therapy, adolescent outcomes and maternal depression was examined within the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an empirically supported, family- and community-based treatment for antisocial adolescents. Ninety-nine families were recruited from five mental health agencies providing MST. We…

  3. Alliance and Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Kaplinski, Heather Crisp; McMakin, Dana L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Fifty-four adolescents met criteria for a depressive disorder and were treated in school-based clinics. Alliance was measured after the third session from both therapist and…

  4. Functional Outcomes of Child and Adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Young Adult Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…

  5. Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes According to Different Types of Exposure to Ongoing Terror Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verte, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of several types of exposure to terror attacks on adolescents' psychological outcomes in the context of ongoing terror. A total of 913 adolescents (51 girls) aged 12 to 18 years (12-13.6 = 33%; 13.7-15.6 = 38%; 15.7-18 = 28%) took part in the study. Detailed data were collected concerning objective, subjective…

  6. Adolescent and Parent Alliance and Treatment Outcome in Multidimensional Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelef, Karni; Diamond, Gary M.; Diamond, Guy S.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the relation between adolescent and parent therapeutic alliances and treatment outcome among 65 substance-abusing adolescents receiving multidimensional family therapy. Observer ratings of parent alliance predicted premature termination from treatment. Observer ratings, but not self-report, of adolescent…

  7. Interpersonal Theory and Depressed Adolescents: An Overview of Method and Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellin, Elizabeth Anne

    In an attempt of fill the gap in theoretical and empirical information available for treatment of adolescent depression, interpersonal therapy for adolescents (IPT-A) was developed. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a brief, time-limited therapy originally developed for use with adults diagnosed with major depression. Several outcome studies…

  8. Comparison of Long-Term Outcomes in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa Treated with Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, James; Couturier, Jennifer; Agras, W. Stewart

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the relative effectiveness of a short versus long course of family-based therapy (FBT) for adolescent anorexia nervosa at long-term follow-up. Method: This study used clinical and structured interviews to assess psychological and psychosocial outcomes of adolescents (ages 12-18 years at baseline) who were previously treated…

  9. Early augmented language intervention for children with developmental delays: potential secondary motor outcomes.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Ani S; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose A

    2014-09-01

    This exploratory study examined the potential secondary outcome of an early augmented language intervention that incorporates speech-generating devices (SGD) on motor skill use for children with developmental delays. The data presented are from a longitudinal study by Romski and colleagues. Toddlers in the augmented language interventions were either required (Augmented Communication-Output; AC-O) or not required (Augmented Communication-Input; AC-I) to use the SGD to produce an augmented word. Three standardized assessments and five event-based coding schemes measured the participants' language abilities and motor skills. Toddlers in the AC-O intervention used more developmentally appropriate motor movements and became more accurate when using the SGD to communicate than toddlers in the AC-I intervention. AAC strategies, interventionist/parent support, motor learning opportunities, and physical feedback may all contribute to this secondary benefit of AAC interventions that use devices. PMID:25109299

  10. Developmental Toxicology##

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental toxicology encompasses the study of developmental exposures, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms, pathogenesis, and outcomes potentially leading to adverse health effects. Manifestations of developmental toxicity include structural malformations, growth retardation, functi...

  11. Differential genetic and environmental influences on developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yao; Cleveland, H Harrington

    2015-12-01

    Little research has investigated differential genetic and environmental influences on different developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on liabilities of being in life-course-persistent (LCP) and adolescent-limited (AL) type delinquent groups from adolescence to young adulthood while considering nonviolent and violent delinquency subtypes and gender differences. A genetically informative sample (n = 356, 15-16 years) from the first three waves of In-Home Interview of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health was used, with 94 monozygotic and 84 dizygotic pairs of same-sex twins (50% male). Biometric liability threshold models were fit and found that the male-specific LCP type class, chronic, showed more genetic influences, while the AL type classes, decliner and desister, showed more environmental influences. Genetic liability and shared environment both influence the persistence of antisocial behavior. The development of female antisocial behavior appears to be influenced more by shared environment.

  12. Multi-level risk factors and developmental assets associated with aggressive behavior in disadvantaged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R; Rose, Roderick A

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of rural adolescents. Using ecological and social capital theories, we explored the impact of positive and negative proximal processes, social capital, and contextual characteristics (i.e., school and neighborhood) on adolescent aggression. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, which is a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle and high school students from 40 public schools in two rural, low income counties in North Carolina. A three-level HLM model (N = 4,056 at Wave 1, 4,251 at Wave 2, and 4,256 at Wave 3) was estimated to predict factors affecting the change trajectories of aggression. Results indicated that negative proximal processes in the form of parent-adolescent conflict, friend rejection, peer pressure, delinquent friends, and school hassles were significant predictors of aggression. In addition, social capital in the form of ethnic identity, religious orientation, and school satisfaction served as buffers against aggression. Negative proximal processes were more salient predictors than positive proximal processes. School and neighborhood characteristics had a minimal impact on aggression. Overall, rates of aggression did not change significantly over the 3-year study window. Findings highlight the need to intervene in order to decrease negative interactions in the peer and parent domains. PMID:26349636

  13. Translational developmental studies of stress on brain and behavior: implications for adolescent mental health and illness?

    PubMed

    Malter Cohen, M; Tottenham, N; Casey, B J

    2013-09-26

    Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, with onset marked by puberty and the offset by relative independence from parents. Across species, it is a time of incredible change that carries increased risks and rewards. The ability of the individual to respond adequately to the mental, physical and emotional stresses of life during this time is a function of both their early environment and their present state. In this article, we focus on the effects that acute threat and chronic stress have on the brain and behavior in humans and rodents. First, we highlight developmental changes in frontolimbic function as healthy individuals transition into and out of adolescence. Second, we examine genetic factors that may enhance susceptibility to stress in one individual over another using translation from genetic mouse models to human neuroimaging. Third, we examine how the timing and nature of stress varies in its impact on brain and behavior. These findings are discussed in the context of implications for adolescent mental health and illness. PMID:23340244

  14. Translational developmental studies of stress on brain and behavior: implications for adolescent mental health and illness?

    PubMed

    Malter Cohen, M; Tottenham, N; Casey, B J

    2013-09-26

    Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, with onset marked by puberty and the offset by relative independence from parents. Across species, it is a time of incredible change that carries increased risks and rewards. The ability of the individual to respond adequately to the mental, physical and emotional stresses of life during this time is a function of both their early environment and their present state. In this article, we focus on the effects that acute threat and chronic stress have on the brain and behavior in humans and rodents. First, we highlight developmental changes in frontolimbic function as healthy individuals transition into and out of adolescence. Second, we examine genetic factors that may enhance susceptibility to stress in one individual over another using translation from genetic mouse models to human neuroimaging. Third, we examine how the timing and nature of stress varies in its impact on brain and behavior. These findings are discussed in the context of implications for adolescent mental health and illness.

  15. Translational developmental studies of stress on brain and behavior: Implications for adolescent mental health and illness?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Matthew Malter; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, with onset marked by puberty and the offset by relative independence from parents. Across species, it is a time of incredible change that carries increased risks and rewards. The ability of the individual to respond adequately to the mental, physical and emotional stresses of life during this time is a function of both their early environment and their present state. In this article, we focus on the effects that acute threat and chronic stress have on the brain and behavior in humans and rodents. First, we highlight developmental changes in frontolimbic function as healthy individuals transition into and out of adolescence. Second, we examine genetic factors that may enhance susceptibility to stress in one individual over another using translation from genetic mouse models to human neuroimaging. Third, we examine how the timing and nature of stress varies in its impact on brain and behavior. These findings are discussed in the context of implications for adolescent mental health and illness. PMID:23340244

  16. The Developmental Pathway From Pubertal Timing to Delinquency and Sexual Activity From Early to Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Elizabeth, J. Susman; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2013-01-01

    There is strong evidence that early pubertal timing is associated with adolescent problem behaviors. However, there has been limited investigation of the mechanisms or developmental relationships. The present study examined longitudinal models incorporating pubertal timing, delinquency, and sexual activity in a sample of 454 adolescents (9–13 years old at enrollment; 47% females). Participants were seen for three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Characteristics of friendship networks (older friends, male friends, older male friends) were examined as mediators. Structural equation modeling was used to test these associations as well as temporal relationships between sexual activity and delinquency. Results showed that early pubertal timing at Time 1 was related to more sexual activity at Time 2, which was related to higher delinquency at Time 3, a trend mediation effect. None of the friendship variables mediated these associations. Gender or maltreatment status did not moderate the meditational pathways. The results also supported the temporal sequence of sexual activity preceding increases in delinquency. These findings reveal that early maturing adolescents may actively seek out opportunities to engage in sexual activity which appears to be risk for subsequent delinquency. PMID:21191640

  17. The developmental pathway from pubertal timing to delinquency and sexual activity from early to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Negriff, Sonya; Susman, Elizabeth J; Trickett, Penelope K

    2011-10-01

    There is strong evidence that early pubertal timing is associated with adolescent problem behaviors. However, there has been limited investigation of the mechanisms or developmental relationships. The present study examined longitudinal models incorporating pubertal timing, delinquency, and sexual activity in a sample of 454 adolescents (9-13 years old at enrollment; 47% females). Participants were seen for three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Characteristics of friendship networks (older friends, male friends, older male friends) were examined as mediators. Structural equation modeling was used to test these associations as well as temporal relationships between sexual activity and delinquency. Results showed that early pubertal timing at Time 1 was related to more sexual activity at Time 2, which was related to higher delinquency at Time 3, a trend mediation effect. None of the friendship variables mediated these associations. Gender or maltreatment status did not moderate the meditational pathways. The results also supported the temporal sequence of sexual activity preceding increases in delinquency. These findings reveal that early maturing adolescents may actively seek out opportunities to engage in sexual activity which appears to be risk for subsequent delinquency. PMID:21191640

  18. Developmental Trajectories and Predictors of Prosocial Behavior Among Adolescents Exposed to the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yanyun; Zhou, Ya; Fan, Fang; Chen, Shijian; Huang, Rong; Cai, Rouna; Peng, Ting

    2016-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined the developmental trajectories of prosocial behavior and related predictors among adolescents exposed to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. At 6-, 18-, and 30-months postearthquake, we followed a sample of 1,573 adolescents. Self-report measures were used to assess earthquake exposure, postearthquake negative life events, prosocial behavior, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, social support, and coping style. Data were analyzed using growth mixture modeling and multinomial logistic regressions. Four trajectories of postearthquake prosocial behavior were identified in the sample: (a) high/enhancing (35.0%), (b) high/stable (29.4%), (c) low/declining (33.6%), and (d) low/steeply declining (2.0%). Female gender, more social support, and greater positive coping were significant factors related to a higher probability of developing the high/enhancing trajectory. These findings may be helpful for us to identify adolescents with poor prosocial behavior after exposure to earthquakes so as to provide them with appropriate intervention. PMID:26855079

  19. Thicker Temporal Cortex Associates with a Developmental Trajectory for Psychopathic Traits in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaling; Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Narr, Katherine L.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Hafzalla, George; Raine, Adrian; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathy is a clinical condition characterized by a failure in normal social interaction and morality. Recent studies have begun to reveal brain structural abnormalities associated with psychopathic tendencies in children. However, little is known about whether variations in brain morphology are linked to the developmental trajectory of psychopathic traits over time. In this study, structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data from 108 14-year-old adolescents with no history of substance abuse (54 males and 54 females) were examined to detect cortical thickness variations associated with psychopathic traits and individual rates of change in psychopathic traits from ages 9 to 18. We found cortical thickness abnormalities to correlate with psychopathic traits both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Specifically, at age 14, higher psychopathic scores were correlated with thinner cortex in the middle frontal gyrus, particularly in females, and thicker cortex in the superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus, particularly in males. Longitudinally, individual rates of change in psychopathic tendency over time were correlated with thicker cortex in the superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and posterior cingulate gyrus, particularly in males. Findings suggest that abnormal cortical thickness may reflect a delay in brain maturation, resulting in disturbances in frontal and temporal functioning such as impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and emotional dysregulation in adolescents. Thus, findings provide initial evidence supporting that abnormal cortical thickness may serve as a biomarker for the development of psychopathic propensity in adolescents. PMID:26017779

  20. DSM-V diagnostic criteria for bereavement-related disorders in children and adolescents: developmental considerations.

    PubMed

    Kaplow, Julie B; Layne, Christopher M; Pynoos, Robert S; Cohen, Judith A; Lieberman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Two bereavement-related disorders are proposed for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V): Adjustment Disorder Related to Bereavement, to be located in the main body of the text as an official diagnostic entity; and Bereavement-Related Disorder, including a Traumatic Death Specifier, to be located in the Appendix as an invitation for further research. These diagnoses currently do not include developmentally informed criteria, despite the importance of developmental processes in the ways children and adolescents grieve. In this article, we draw upon a selective review of the empirical literature and expert clinical knowledge to recommend developmentally informed modifications and specifiers of the proposed criteria for both bereavement disorders and strategies to improve future research. This article is derived from an invited report submitted to the DSM-V Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Trauma, and Dissociative Disorders Sub-Work Group, and suggested modifications have received preliminary approval to be incorporated into the DSM-V at the time of this writing. Adoption of these proposals will have far-reaching consequences, given that DSM-V criteria will influence both critical treatment choices for bereaved youth and the next generation of research studies.

  1. Identity processes and personality traits and types in adolescence: directionality of effects and developmental trajectories.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Koen; Teppers, Eveline; Klimstra, Theo A; Rassart, Jessica

    2014-08-01

    Personality traits are hypothesized to be among the most important factors contributing to individual differences in identity development. However, longitudinal studies linking Big Five personality traits to contemporary identity models (in which multiple exploration and commitment processes are distinguished) are largely lacking. To gain more insight in the directionality of effect and the developmental interdependence of the Big Five and identity processes as forwarded in multilayered personality models, the present study assessed personality and identity in 1,037 adolescents 4 times over a period of 3 years. First, using cross-lagged path analysis, Big Five traits emerged as consistent predictors of identity exploration processes, whereas only one significant path from identity exploration to the Big Five was found. Second, using latent class growth analysis, 3 Big Five trajectory classes were identified, resembling the distinctions typically made between resilients, overcontrollers, and undercontrollers. These classes were characterized by different initial levels and (to a lesser extent) rates of change in commitment and exploration processes. In sum, important developmental associations linking personality traits to identity processes were uncovered, emphasizing the potential role of personality traits in identity development. Developmental implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  2. Effect of Increased Immunosuppression on Developmental Outcome of Opsoclonus Myoclonus Syndrome (OMS).

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Wendy G; Wooten, Amelia A; O'Neil, Sharon H; Rodriguez, Jenny G; Cruz, Rosa E; Wittern, Rachael

    2015-07-01

    Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS) produces long-term cognitive, behavioral, and motor deficits. Objective was to see if more aggressive treatment improved outcome. Assessment included opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome rating, developmental/cognitive and motor assessment, and adaptive behavior. Fourteen subjects completed testing. Nine had neuroblastoma. Onset was at 10 to 35 months; onset to diagnosis: 2 days to 14 months, and onset to first treatment: 5 days to 15 months. Initial treatment was corticotropin (12), oral steroids (3), plus intravenous immunoglobulin in all. Ten received rituximab, 5 cyclophosphamide. Age at testing ranged from 2.5 to 10.3 years. Adaptive Behavior Score (11 subjects), mean 93.5; estimated Intelligence Quotient/Developmental Quotient mean 93.5; Motor: mean 92.8. Residual opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome symptoms at the time of the evaluation were generally minor; opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome scores ranged from 0 to 6. Comparison to previously reported opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome subjects showed improved outcomes: Adaptive behavior, cognitive and motor scores were significantly higher (P < .001) in new subjects. Outcomes have improved with more aggressive immunosuppression, with most opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome survivors now functioning at or near normal.

  3. Nutritional state, maturational delay on electroencephalogram, and developmental outcome in extremely low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Akihisa; Hayakawa, Masahiro; Oshiro, Makoto; Hayakawa, Fumio; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the relation among developmental outcome, nutritional state during the neonatal period, maturational electroencephalographic changes. Thirteen extremely low birth weight infants who completed 6- or 9-year follow-up were a subject of this study. Undernutrition was defined as enteral feeding below 100mL/kg/day at 3 weeks of age. Dysmature patterns were defined as the persistence of EEG patterns 2 weeks or more immature for post-conceptional age. IQ was examined at 6 and 9 years of age. Body height and weight, and head circumference at 6 years of age were stratified by the percentile grades. Full and verbal IQ was significantly lower in infants with undernutrition than those with normal nutrition. Among infants with undernutrition, those with persistent dysmature patterns tended to have lower full and performance IQ than those without persistent dysmature patterns. Head circumference was 50 percentile or larger in all infants with normal nutrition, whereas it was below 50 percentile in six of eight infants with undernutrition. Extremely low birth weight infants with undernutrition had worse neurodevelopmental outcome at 6 or 9 years of age than those with normal nutrition. Among infants with undernutrition, developmental outcome was relatively worse in those with persistent dysmature patterns than those without.

  4. Parent-Child Relationship Trajectories during Adolescence: Longitudinal Associations with Romantic Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Overbeek, Geertjan; Vermulst, Ad

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of parent-child relationships in adolescence, especially with respect to changes in support levels and negativity, and analyzed if and how these trajectories were associated with the subsequent quality of romantic relationships in young adulthood. A sample of 145 German subjects was followed…

  5. General Growth Mixture Analysis of Adolescents' Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety: The Impact of Untested Invariance Assumptions on Substantive Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Maiano, Christophe; Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W.; Morizot, Julien; Janosz, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Substantively, this study investigates potential heterogeneity in the developmental trajectories of anxiety in adolescence. Methodologically, this study demonstrates the usefulness of general growth mixture analysis (GGMA) in addressing these issues and illustrates the impact of untested invariance assumptions on substantive interpretations. This…

  6. Developmental Model Using Gestalt-Play versus Cognitive-Verbal Group with Chinese Adolescents: Effects on Strengths and Adjustment Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Yih-Jiun

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of short-term developmental group counseling applying Gestalt-play versus cognitive-verbal approaches with Taiwanese adolescents. On a measure of behavioral and emotional strengths, teachers reported significant changes in students' overall behavioral and emotional strengths measured via total scores. Specific…

  7. Multivariate Latent Change Modeling of Developmental Decline in Academic Intrinsic Math Motivation and Achievement: Childhood through Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Marcoulides, George A.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.; Guerin, Diana Wright

    2007-01-01

    Research has established that academic intrinsic motivation, enjoyment of school learning without receipt of external rewards, significantly declines across childhood through adolescence. Math intrinsic motivation evidences the most severe decline compared with other subject areas. This study addresses this developmental decline in math intrinsic…

  8. Developmental Pathways to Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Multi-Wave Prospective Study of Negative Emotionality, Stressors, and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrocas, Andrea L.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined two potential developmental pathways through which the temperament risk factor of negative emotionality (NE) leads to prospective increases in depressive symptoms through the mediating role of stressors and anxious symptoms in a sample of early to middle adolescents (N = 350, 6th-10th graders). The primary hypothesized model…

  9. The Role of Heavy Alcohol Use in the Developmental Process of Desistance in Dating Aggression during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the role of heavy alcohol use in the developmental process of desistance in physical dating aggression during adolescence. Using longitudinal data spanning grades 8 through 12 we tested the hypotheses that (a) higher levels of early heavy alcohol use would be associated with decreased deceleration from dating aggression…

  10. Long-Term Safety and Adverse Events of Risperidone in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellings, Jessica A.; Cardona, Alicia M.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine long-term adverse events of risperidone in 19 children, adolescents, and adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and intellectual disability, continuing risperidone for a mean of 186.5 weeks, following a 46-week risperidone study. Nineteen individuals continued long-term follow-up after our…

  11. Effects of a Developmentally Based Intervention with Teachers on Native American and White Early Adolescents' Schooling Adjustment in Rural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Robertson, Dylan; Dadisman, Kimberly A.; Murray, Allen; Meece, Judith L.; Song, Samuel Y.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the effectiveness of a developmentally based, teacher professional development intervention aimed at improving early adolescent school adjustment. Teachers in rural schools in a Northern Plains state took part in professional development activities across a year. Following a randomized control trial design, Native American and…

  12. Normative Developmental Trajectories of Aggressive Behaviors in African American, American Indian, Asian American, Caucasian, and Hispanic Children and Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Keiley, Margaret K.

    2007-01-01

    The current 5-year accelerated longitudinal investigation modeled the developmental trajectories of aggressive behaviors in 10,107 predominantly minority (greater than 70%; African American, American Indian, Asian American, and Hispanic) children and early adolescents (Kindergarten through 8th grade, 49% female youth) from lower to lower-middle…

  13. Standing between Two Worlds in Harlem: A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective of Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Ezer; Mellins, Claude Ann; Ng, Warren Yiu Kee; Robinson, Lisa-Gaye; Abrams, Elaine J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal HIV infection in the US continues to evolve from a fatal pediatric illness to a chronic medical condition of childhood and adolescence. Although navigating this period is influenced by multi-leveled deprivations commonly experienced by low-income minority families, HIV alters the timing and experience of developmental milestones for many…

  14. Group-Based Preference Assessment for Children and Adolescents in a Residential Setting: Examining Developmental, Clinical, Gender, and Ethnic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volz, Jennifer L. Resetar; Cook, Clayton R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines developmental, clinical, gender, and ethnic group differences in preference in residentially placed children and adolescents. In addition, this study considers whether residentially placed youth prefer stimuli currently being used as rewards as part of a campuswide token economy system and whether youth would identify preferred…

  15. Early Influences and Later Outcomes Associated With Developmental Trajectories of Eriksonian Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Although Eriksonian theory suggests that adolescents’ sense of fidelity is a key component of healthy development, research on this psychosocial construct has been limited. The current study developed an index of youth fidelity, examined the developmental course of this construct, explored the influence of contextual factors on different fidelity trajectories, and tested if trajectories were associated with later indicators of adolescents’ positive development. Participants included 1,941 ethnically diverse youth (61% female) participants in the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development who were recruited from schools and youth development programs across the United States. Results suggested that three types of developmental trajectories existed among youth: high and increasing, moderate and increasing, and low and decreasing. Fidelity group membership varied in relation to social relationships and psychosocial and behavioral characteristics (i.e., contribution, substance use, and delinquency). Girls were more likely than boys to be in the highest fidelity trajectories. Directions for future research and implications for enhancing the thriving of adolescents are discussed. PMID:22545838

  16. Menstrual and reproductive issues in adolescents with physical and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Quint, Elisabeth H

    2014-08-01

    Most obstetrician-gynecologists will encounter adolescents with disabilities in their practice, because developmental and physical disabilities are common in young patients (8.4%). Reproductive health issues such as puberty, sexuality, and menstruation can be more complicated for teenagers with disabilities and their families as a result of concerns surrounding menstrual hygiene, abuse risk, vulnerability, changes in seizure pattern, and altered mood. Teenagers with disabilities have gynecologic health care needs similar to those of their peers as well as unique needs related to their physical and cognitive issues. The gynecologic health visit for a teenager with disabilities should include an evaluation of the teenager's reproductive knowledge as well as an assessment of her abuse and coercion risk and her ability to consent to sexual activity. The menstrual history is focused on the effects of menstrual cycles on her daily life. Diagnostic testing is not different from other adolescents. Hormonal treatment is often requested by the patient and her family to alleviate abnormal bleeding, cyclic mood changes, dysmenorrhea, or a combination of these, to assist with menstrual hygiene, and to provide contraception. Menstrual manipulation can be used to induce complete amenorrhea, regulate cycles, or decrease regular menstrual flow. However, treatment risks and side effects may have a different effect on the lives of these adolescents. The comfort level of health care providers to respond to the special concerns of adolescents with disabilities is low, and several barriers exist. This review addresses the complex issues of puberty, menstruation, sexuality, abuse, and safety highlighting the distinctive needs of this population. The options and decisions around menstrual manipulation are highlighted in detail.

  17. Developmental Stages and Sex Differences of White Matter and Behavioral Development through Adolescence: A Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Study

    PubMed Central

    Simmonds, Daniel; Hallquist, Michael N.; Asato, Miya; Luna, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    White matter (WM) continues to mature through adolescence in parallel with gains in cognitive ability. To date, developmental changes in human WM microstructure have been inferred using analyses of cross-sectional or two time-point follow-up studies, limiting our understanding of individual developmental trajectories. The aims of the present longitudinal study were to characterize the timing of WM growth and investigate how sex and behavior are associated with different developmental trajectories. We utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 128 individuals ages 8-28, who received annual scans for up to 5 years and completed motor and cognitive tasks. Flexible nonlinear growth curves indicated a hierarchical pattern of WM development. By late childhood, posterior cortical-subcortical connections were similar to adults. During adolescence, WM microstructure reached adult levels, including frontocortical, frontosubcortical and cerebellar connections. Later to mature in adulthood were major corticolimbic association tracts and connections at terminal gray matter sites in cortical and basal ganglia regions. These patterns may reflect adolescent maturation of frontal connectivity supporting cognitive abilities, particularly the protracted refinement of corticolimbic connectivity underlying cognition-emotion interactions. Sex and behavior also played a large role. Males showed continuous WM growth from childhood through early adulthood, whereas females mainly showed growth during mid-adolescence. Further, earlier WM growth in adolescence was associated with faster and more efficient responding and better inhibitory control whereas later growth in adulthood was associated with poorer performance, suggesting that the timing of WM growth is important for cognitive development. PMID:24384150

  18. Developmental changes in genetic and shared environmental contributions to smoking initiation and subsequent smoking quantity in adolescence and young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Maes, Hermine H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies examining the genetic architecture of cigarette smoking have focused on adolescents or examined developmental changes in additive genetic, shared environment and unique environmental influences on liability to initiate cigarette smoking and quantity of cigarettes smoked. The aim of this study is to add to the literature on liability to initiate and use cigarettes during adolescence using a nationally representative sample. Method Data for this study came from adolescent and young adult twin pairs (ages 14-33) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We ran a series of developmental causal-contingent-common pathway models to examine whether additive genetic, shared and unique environmental influences on liability to the initiation of cigarette use are shared with those on smoking quantity, and whether their contributions change across development. Results We found evidence for a developmental shift in genetic and shared environmental contributions to cigarette use. Early in adolescence genetic and environmental influences work independently on liability to cigarette smoking initiation and quantity of cigarettes smoked, but liability to these behaviors becomes correlated as individuals age into young adulthood. Conclusions These findings provide insight into the causal processes underlying the liability to smoke cigarettes. With age, there is greater overlap in the genetic and environmental factors that influence the initiation of cigarette smoking and quantity of cigarettes smoked. PMID:26227182

  19. Expressed Emotion, Family Functioning, and Treatment Outcome for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Rienecke, Renee D; Accurso, Erin C; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between parental expressed emotion (EE) and treatment outcome among adolescents participating in a treatment study for adolescent anorexia nervosa, as well as its impact on family functioning. One hundred and twenty-one families were assigned to family-based treatment or adolescent-focused therapy. Paternal criticism predicted lesser improvement in eating disorder psychopathology at end of treatment. There was also a significant interaction between maternal hostility and treatment, indicating that adolescents whose mothers displayed hostility had greater increases in percent of expected body weight in adolescent-focused therapy than family-based treatment. In addition, maternal hostility predicted less improvement in general family functioning and family communication at the end of treatment. Findings suggest that maternal and paternal EE may differentially impact treatment outcome and should be directly attended to in clinical settings. Future research is needed to further explore ways in which parental EE can be effectively modified in treatment.

  20. Expressed Emotion, Family Functioning, and Treatment Outcome for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Rienecke, Renee D.; Accurso, Erin C.; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between parental expressed emotion (EE) and treatment outcome among adolescents participating in a treatment study for adolescent anorexia nervosa, as well as its impact on family functioning. One hundred and twenty-one families were assigned to family-based treatment or adolescent-focused therapy. Paternal criticism predicted lesser improvement in eating disorder psychopathology at end of treatment. There was also a significant interaction between maternal hostility and treatment, indicating that adolescents whose mothers displayed hostility had greater increases in percent of expected body weight in adolescent-focused therapy than family-based treatment. In addition, maternal hostility predicted less improvement in general family functioning and family communication at the end of treatment. Findings suggest that maternal and paternal EE may differentially impact treatment outcome and should be directly attended to in clinical settings. Future research is needed to further explore ways in which parental EE can be effectively modified in treatment. PMID:26201083

  1. Understanding Chinese American Adolescents’ Developmental Outcomes: Insights From the Family Stress Model

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model’s generalizability. Specifically, mothers’ and fathers’ reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial and job instability) were associated with parents’ economic stress. Economic stress and economic status were related to parental depressive symptoms, which, in turn, were associated with more hostile and coercive parenting, less nurturing and involved parenting, and greater interparental hostility. Finally, mothers’ hostile and coercive parenting were directly related to both adolescents’ academic and sociobehavioral outcomes, whereas fathers’ nurturing and involved parenting related to academic but not sociobehavioral outcomes. PMID:20454605

  2. Adolescent Outcomes of Children With Early Speech Sound Disorders With and Without Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Freebairn, Lisa; Tag, Jessica; Ciesla, Allison A.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Stein, Catherine M.; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors determined adolescent speech, language, and literacy outcomes of individuals with histories of early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without comorbid language impairment (LI) and examined factors associated with these outcomes. Method This study used a prospective longitudinal design. Participants with SSD (n = 170), enrolled at early childhood (4–6 years) were followed at adolescence (11–18 years) and were compared to individuals with no histories of speech or language impairment (no SSD; n = 146) on measures of speech, language, and literacy. Comparisons were made between adolescents with early childhood histories of no SSD, SSD only, and SSD plus LI as well as between adolescents with no SSD, resolved SSD, and persistent SSD. Results Individuals with early childhood SSD with comorbid LI had poorer outcomes than those with histories of SSD only or no SSD. Poorer language and literacy outcomes in adolescence were associated with multiple factors, including persistent speech sound problems, lower nonverbal intelligence, and lower socioeconomic status. Adolescents with persistent SSD had higher rates of comorbid LI and reading disability than the no SSD and resolved SSD groups. Conclusion Risk factors for language and literacy problems in adolescence include an early history of LI, persistent SSD, lower nonverbal cognitive ability, and social disadvantage. PMID:25569242

  3. Commentary: Theoretical and Methodological Dimensions of Convergence and Divergence of Adolescent and Parent Reports about Youth Development and Family Structure and Function-A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Richard M; Konowitz, Lily S

    2016-10-01

    Using ideas associated with relational developmental systems metatheory, we discuss the links among the operation triad model of adolescent report-parent report convergence, divergence, or compensation and the research reported in this special issue. These contributions highlight the important implications for adolescent adjustment of youth and parent reports about adolescent development and family structure and function. Relational developmental systems metatheory raises both theoretical and methodological issues for research framed by the operation triad model. These issues emphasize the specificity (non-ergodicity) of mutually influential relationships between a youth and his/her parent, that is, the specificity of the adolescent-parent relationship. Relational developmental systems -based ideas may enable the operation triad model to be a means through which the study of adolescent self-reports and parent reports will have a more central place in the construction of key features of the dynamics of adolescent-parent relationships. PMID:27510621

  4. Developmental differences in early adolescent aggression: a gene × environment × intervention analysis.

    PubMed

    Schlomer, Gabriel L; Cleveland, H Harrington; Vandenbergh, David J; Feinberg, Mark E; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve

    2015-03-01

    Aggression-related problems such as assault and homicide among adolescents and young adults exact considerable social and economic costs. Although progress has been made, additional research is needed to help combat this persistent problem. Several lines of research indicate that parental hostility is an especially potent predictor of adolescent aggression, although most longitudinal research has focused on clarifying the direction of effects. In this study, we used longitudinal data from the PROSPER project (N = 580; 54.8% female), a primarily rural Caucasian preventative intervention sample, to examine developmental change in early- to mid-adolescent aggressive behavior problems (age 11-16 years). In addition, we examined maternal hostility as a predictor of developmental change in aggression and the PROSPER preventative intervention, designed to reduce substance use and aggression, as a potential influence on this association. Lastly, several studies indicate that variation in the DRD4 7-repeat gene moderates both parenting and intervention influences on externalizing behavior. Accordingly, we examined the potential moderating role of DRD4. As hypothesized, there was a significant maternal hostility by intervention interaction indicating that the intervention reduced the negative impact of maternal hostility on adolescent change in aggressive behavior problems. DRD4 7-repeat status (7+ vs. 7-) further conditioned this association whereby control group 7+ adolescents with hostile mothers showed increasing aggressive behavior problems. In contrast, aggression decreased for 7+ adolescents with similarly hostile mothers in the intervention. Implications for prevention are discussed as well as current perspectives in candidate gene-by-environment interaction research.

  5. Birth weight and health and developmental outcomes in US children, 1997-2005.

    PubMed

    Boulet, Sheree L; Schieve, Laura A; Boyle, Coleen A

    2011-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to assess the association between the full birth weight distribution and prevalence of specific developmental disabilities and related measures of health and special education services utilization in US children. Using data from the 1997-2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Sample Child Core, we identified 87,578 children 3-17 years of age with parent-reported information on birth weight. We estimated the prevalences of DDs (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], autism, cerebral palsy, hearing impairment, learning disability without mental retardation, mental retardation, seizures, stuttering/stammering, and other developmental delay) and several indicators of health services utilization within a range of birth weight categories. We calculated odds ratios adjusted for demographic factors (AOR). We observed trends of decreasing disability/indicator prevalence with increasing birth weight up to a plateau. Although associations were strongest for very low birth weight, children with "normal" birth weights of 2,500-2,999 g were more likely than those with birth weights of 3,500-3,999 g to have mental retardation (AOR 1.9 [95% CI: 1.4-2.6]), cerebral palsy (AOR 2.4 [95% CI: 1.5-3.8]), learning disability without mental retardation (AOR 1.2 [95% CI: 1.1-1.4]), ADHD (AOR 1.2 [95% CI: 1.1-1.3]), and other developmental delay (AOR 1.3 [95% CI: 1.1-1.5]) and to receive special education services (AOR 1.3 [95% CI: 1.2-1.5]). While much research has focused on the health and developmental outcomes of low and very low birth weight children, these findings suggest that additional study of a continuous range of birth weights may be warranted.

  6. The Developmental Dynamics of Joining a Gang in Adolescence: Patterns and Predictors of Gang Membership.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Amanda B; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David; Howell, James C; Kosterman, Rick

    2014-06-01

    Researchers have examined the predictors of adolescent gang membership, finding significant factors in the neighborhood, family, school, peers, and individual domains. However, little is known about whether risk and protective factors differ in predictive salience at different developmental periods. The present study examines predictors of joining a gang, tests whether these factors have different effects at different ages, and whether they differ by gender using the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) sample (n=808). By age 19, 173 participants had joined a gang. Using survival analysis, results showed that unique predictors of gang membership onset included living with a gang member, antisocial neighborhood, and antisocial peer influences in the previous year. No time or gender interactions with predictors were statistically significant.

  7. Developmental personality types from childhood to adolescence: associations with parenting and adjustment.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Amaranta D; Deković, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L; Stoltz, Sabine E M J; Prinzie, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether changes in children's self-reported Big Five dimensions are represented by (developmental) personality types, using a cohort-sequential design with three measurement occasions across 5 years (four cohorts, 9-12 years at T1; N = 523). Correlates of, and gender differences in, type membership were examined. Latent class growth modeling yielded three personality types: Resilients (highest initial levels on all Big Five), Overcontrollers (lowest Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Imagination), and Undercontrollers (lowest Benevolence, Conscientiousness). Gender differences in type membership were small. Warm parenting, but not overreactive discipline, in childhood was associated with type membership. The types differed in adjustment problems by the end of middle adolescence. Personality change more likely occurs at the level of dimensions within types than in type membership.

  8. Less guilty by reason of adolescence: developmental immaturity, diminished responsibility, and the juvenile death penalty.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence; Scott, Elizabeth S

    2003-12-01

    The authors use a developmental perspective to examine questions about the criminal culpability of juveniles and the juvenile death penalty. Under principles of criminal law, culpability is mitigated when the actor's decision-making capacity is diminished, when the criminal act was coerced, or when the act was out of character. The authors argue that juveniles should not be held to the same standards of criminal responsibility as adults, because adolescents' decision-making capacity is diminished, they are less able to resist coercive influence, and their character is still undergoing change. The uniqueness of immaturity as a mitigating condition argues for a commitment to a legal environment under which most youths are dealt with in a separate justice system and none are eligible for capital punishment.

  9. Evaluating Programs for At-Risk Adolescents: Toward an Outcome-Based Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloat, Elizabeth A.; Audas, Richard P.; Willms, J. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an outcome-based model for evaluating school and community programs serving at-risk adolescents, and a cost-effective technique for comparing the progress of youth receiving an intervention with youth in a pseudocontrol group. The outcomes considered most important for success were derived from the literature pertaining to…

  10. Do Alcohol Expectancy Outcomes and Valuations Mediate Peer Influences and Lifetime Alcohol Use among Early Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Olthuis, Janine V.

    2009-01-01

    Building on the theory of reasoned action (I. Ajzen & M. Fishbein, 1973, 1980; M. Fishbein & I. Ajzen, 1975) and expectancy theory, the authors examined the mediating role of alcohol expectancies in adolescent drinking behaviors by testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations (the extent to which these outcomes are perceived as good…

  11. A Multilevel Model to Examine Adolescent Outcomes in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare: The Parent Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Katie Massey; Hoag, Matthew J.; Roberts, Sean D.; Javorski, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare (OBH) has arisen to fill a gap in mental health treatment. While research shows large positive changes in adolescent self-reports, little is known about predictors of change, longitudinal outcomes, and parent-reports of change. Objective This study sought to identify treatment outcomes up to 18 months…

  12. Naturally Acquired Mentoring Relationships and Young Adult Outcomes among Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Kym; DuBois, David Lane; Lozano, Paula; Richardson, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated whether having a naturally acquired mentor during adolescence was associated with improved adult outcomes among youth with learning disabilities (YLD). Mentored youth were more likely to have graduated from high school, reported a higher level of self-esteem, and reported a higher overall number of positive outcomes than nonmentored…

  13. The typical developmental trajectory of social and executive functions in late adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sophie Jane; Barker, Lynne Ann; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Executive functions and social cognition develop through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood and are important for adaptive goal-oriented behavior (Apperly, Samson, & Humphreys, 2009; Blakemore & Choudhury, 2006). These functions are attributed to frontal networks known to undergo protracted maturation into early adulthood (Barker, Andrade, Morton, Romanowski, & Bowles, 2010; Lebel, Walker, Leemans, Phillips, & Beaulieu, 2008), although social cognition functions are also associated with widely distributed networks. Previously, nonlinear development has been reported around puberty on an emotion match-to-sample task (McGivern, Andersen, Byrd, Mutter, & Reilly, 2002) and for IQ in midadolescence (Ramsden et al., 2011). However, there are currently little data on the typical development of social and executive functions in late adolescence and early adulthood. In a cross-sectional design, 98 participants completed tests of social cognition and executive function, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond & Snaith, 1983), and measures of pubertal development and demographics at ages 17, 18, and 19. Nonlinear age differences for letter fluency and concept formation executive functions were found, with a trough in functional ability in 18-year-olds compared with other groups. There were no age group differences on social cognition measures. Gender accounted for differences on 1 scale of concept formation, 1 dynamic social interaction scale, and 2 empathy scales. The clinical, developmental, and educational implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22946438

  14. Developmental improvements in dynamic control of fingertip forces last throughout childhood and into adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Hedberg, Åsa; Forssberg, Hans

    2013-01-01

    While it is clear that the development of dexterous manipulation in children exhibits dramatic improvements over an extended period, it is difficult to separate musculoskeletal from neural contributors to these important functional gains. This is in part due to the inability of current methods to disambiguate improvements in hand strength from gains in finger dexterity (i.e., the dynamic control of fingertip force vectors at low magnitudes). We adapted our novel instrumentation to evaluate finger dexterity in 130 typically developing children between the ages of 4 and 16 yr. We find that finger dexterity continues to develop well into late adolescence and musculoskeletal growth and strength are poorly correlated with the improvements in dexterity. Importantly, because these behavioral results seem to mirror the known timelines of neuroanatomical development up to adolescence, we speculate that they reflect the functional benefits of such continual neural maturation. This novel perspective now enables the systematic study of the functional roles of specific neuroanatomical structures and their connectivity, maturity, and plasticity. Moreover, the temporal dynamics of the fingertip force vectors shows improvements in stability that provide a novel way to look at the maturation of finger control. From a clinical perspective, our results provide a practical means to chart functional development of dexterous manipulation in typically developing children and could be adapted for clinical use and for use in children with developmental disorders. PMID:23864371

  15. Applying a developmental approach to quality of life assessment in children and adolescents with psychological disorders: challenges and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Carona, Carlos; Silva, Neuza; Moreira, Helena

    2015-02-01

    Research on the quality of life (QL) of children/adolescents with psychological disorders has flourished over the last few decades. Given the developmental challenges of QL measurements in pediatric populations, the aim of this study was to ascertain the extent to which a developmental approach to QL assessment has been applied to pedopsychiatric QL research. A systematic literature search was conducted in three electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, SocINDEX) from 1994 to May 2014. Quantitative studies were included if they assessed the self- or proxy-reported QL of children/adolescents with a psychological disorder. Data were extracted for study design, participants, QL instruments and informants, and statistical approach to age-related specificities. The systematic review revealed widespread utilization of developmentally appropriate QL instruments but less frequent use of both self and proxy reports and an inconsistent approach to age group specificities. Methodological guidelines are discussed to improve the developmental validity of QL research for children/adolescents with mental disorders.

  16. Age estimation by dental developmental stages in children and adolescents in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Vidisdottir, Sigridur Rosa; Richter, Svend

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown that it is necessary to create a database for dental maturity for every population and compare it to others. The present study is the first one for dental development in the Icelandic population the age range being 4-24 years. It will help in forensic dental age estimation and will also help dentists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists and other professionals who rely on developmental age assessment in children and adolescents. In this present retrospective cross-sectional study, dental maturity was determined in 1100 Icelandic children and adolescents from orthopantomograms (OPGs). The first 100 were used for a pilot study and the remaining 1000 for the main study. A total of 23 subjects were excluded. The sample consisted of 508 girls and 469 boys from the age of 4-24 years and a dental developmental scoring system was used as a standard for determination of dental maturity stages. A total of 200 OPGs were studied both on the left and right side and the remaining on the right side. Dental maturity was established for all teeth and both genders, when the sample permitted, from the beginning of crown formation to the root apex closure. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability test showed high reliability, R=0.982. Girls in Iceland reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 17.81 years of age for the maxillary and at 18.47 years for the mandibular teeth. Boys reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 18.00 years of age in the maxilla and 17.63 in the mandible. There was no significant difference between left and right side (r=0.95-1.00) and there was no gender difference, except in root formation in maxillary and mandibular canines where girls reached root completed earlier than boys. A reliable database has been established in Iceland for tooth development in the age range of 4-24 years, which is compatible with international studies. These results will help forensic odontologists and other professionals to estimate with

  17. Risk Behaviors and Negative Health Outcomes for Adolescents With Late Bedtimes

    PubMed Central

    McGlinchey, Eleanor L.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2014-01-01

    Late bedtimes in adolescence may be a serious risk factor for later poor health and functional outcomes. The current study sought to extend existing cross sectional data by examining whether late bedtimes in adolescence predicts poor outcomes in young adulthood. Data from wave 2 (1996) and wave 3 (2001-2002) of the nationally representative sample of US youth (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) was used to examine the longitudinal relationship between late bedtime, and several risk behaviors and negative health outcomes following 3,843 adolescents into young adulthood. At Wave 2 the mean age was 16 with 52.1% female. At wave 3 the mean age was 21.8. In cross sectional analyses, late bedtime was associated with 1.5 to over 3 times greater odds of involvement in risk behaviors and negative health outcomes, including emotional distress, suicidality, criminal and violent activity, and use of cigarettes, alcohol and illicit drugs. In longitudinal analyses, late bedtime assessed at wave 2 predicted a number of serious health outcomes at wave 3, with late bedtime in adolescence associated with around 1.5 greater odds of involvement in health jeopardizing behaviors such as criminal activity, alcohol abuse, cigarette use, illicit drug use and emotional distress in young adulthood. There was also a dose effect, such that the later the bedtime in adolescence, the greater the risk of involvement in risk behaviors in young adulthood. This research suggests that late bedtime in adolescence predicts multiple serious risk behaviors and health outcomes in young adulthood. PMID:24599733

  18. The Influence of Family Functioning and Parent-Adolescent Acculturation on North American Chinese Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, D. Russell; Ngai, So Wa; Larson, Jeffry H.; Hafen, McArthur, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the associations between family functioning, acculturation between parents and their adolescents, and adolescent adjustment problems. Chinese adolescents and their parents (N=41) living in the United States and Canada participated in this study. Results showed that differences in acculturation between parents and…

  19. Postdivorce Father-Adolescent Closeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mindy E.; Booth, Alan; King, Valarie; Johnson, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that closeness of the father-child bond following parental divorce is associated with better outcomes for children and adolescents. Unlike other investigations, this study takes a long-term developmental approach to understanding stability and change in postdivorce father-adolescent relationship closeness. Drawing on Add Health…

  20. Are There Differences in Neurocognition and Social Cognition Among Adolescents with Schizophrenia, a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, and Both Disorders?

    PubMed

    Waris, Petra; Tani, Pekka; Lindberg, Nina; Lipsanen, Jari; Kettunen, Kirsi; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Saarimaa, Leena-Kaisa; Reinvall, Outi; Voutilainen, Arja; Hokkanen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCH) and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) belong to different diagnostic categories. There is, however, overlap between these 2 diagnostic groups. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate some aspects of neurocognitions and social cognitions in adolescents with SCH (n = 10, 2 boys and 8 girls; age range = 13.3-17.7 years), a PDD (n = 15, 7 boys and 8 girls; age range = 13.3-18.0 years), or both disorders (n = 8, 5 boys and 3 girls; age range = 13.5-18 years). Eight subtests (Information, Similarities, Arithmetic, Comprehension, Picture Completion, Coding B, Block Design, and Object Assembly) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Version and 2 subtests (Theory of Mind [ToM] and Affect Recognition) of the NEPSY-II were administered. Adolescents with both disorders and those with a PDD only performed better on visual processing tasks than did adolescents with SCH only. On the other hand, adolescents with both disorders as well as those with SCH only experienced more problems with processing speed than did adolescents with a PDD only. Adolescents with SCH only performed significantly more poorly with verbal ToM tasks compared with those with a PDD only. Adolescents with both disorders performed as well as those with SCH only. All in all, our preliminary findings support the current idea that SCH and PDDs are separate disorders. PMID:27015370

  1. Are There Differences in Neurocognition and Social Cognition Among Adolescents with Schizophrenia, a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, and Both Disorders?

    PubMed

    Waris, Petra; Tani, Pekka; Lindberg, Nina; Lipsanen, Jari; Kettunen, Kirsi; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Saarimaa, Leena-Kaisa; Reinvall, Outi; Voutilainen, Arja; Hokkanen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCH) and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) belong to different diagnostic categories. There is, however, overlap between these 2 diagnostic groups. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate some aspects of neurocognitions and social cognitions in adolescents with SCH (n = 10, 2 boys and 8 girls; age range = 13.3-17.7 years), a PDD (n = 15, 7 boys and 8 girls; age range = 13.3-18.0 years), or both disorders (n = 8, 5 boys and 3 girls; age range = 13.5-18 years). Eight subtests (Information, Similarities, Arithmetic, Comprehension, Picture Completion, Coding B, Block Design, and Object Assembly) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Version and 2 subtests (Theory of Mind [ToM] and Affect Recognition) of the NEPSY-II were administered. Adolescents with both disorders and those with a PDD only performed better on visual processing tasks than did adolescents with SCH only. On the other hand, adolescents with both disorders as well as those with SCH only experienced more problems with processing speed than did adolescents with a PDD only. Adolescents with SCH only performed significantly more poorly with verbal ToM tasks compared with those with a PDD only. Adolescents with both disorders performed as well as those with SCH only. All in all, our preliminary findings support the current idea that SCH and PDDs are separate disorders.

  2. Event-related synchronization of delta and beta oscillations reflects developmental changes in the processing of affective pictures during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei; Liu, Xia; Fang, Hailin; Li, Hong; Wang, Dahua; Shen, Jiliang

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has determined that affective pictures modulate event-related delta and beta oscillations in adults. However, it is unclear whether these brain oscillations reflect developmental changes in the processing of affective information during adolescence. EEG data were collected from 51 adolescents and 18 undergraduates as they viewed a total of 90 pictures. In the range of fast wave activities, event-related synchronization (ERS) in the beta band varied with emotional valence, indicating that beta ERS is indicative of early bottom-up processing of visual emotional stimuli. Adolescents at the age of 12years exhibited more positive beta ERS amplitudes over posterior brain regions for positive versus neutral pictures compared to adolescents at the ages 14years, 16years and in young adults; however, no age-related differences were found for negative versus neutral pictures. In the range of slow wave activities, delta ERSs and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes exhibited affective modulation and decreased over anterior brain regions from between the age of 12years and early adulthood. These slow wave activities (delta and LPPs) reflected top-down attention to the motivational relevance of the emotional stimuli. Taken together, these observations suggest that adolescents exhibit dissociable ERS patterns in the delta and beta bands during affective processing. Furthermore, adolescents undergo age-dependent changes in oscillatory brain reorganization. Our results should be useful to researchers interested in affective processing during adolescence.

  3. Linking Prenatal Maternal Adversity to Developmental Outcomes in Infants: The Role of Epigenetic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Catherine; Spicer, Julie; Champagne, Frances A.

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal stress, anxiety, and depression can have lasting effects on infant development with consequences for risk of psychopathology. Though the impact of prenatal maternal distress has been well documented, the potential mechanisms through which maternal psychosocial variables shape development have yet to be fully elucidated. Advances in molecular biology have highlighted the role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating gene activity, neurobiology, and behavior and the potential role of environmentally-induced epigenetic variation in linking early life exposures to long-term biobehavioral outcomes. In this review, we discuss evidence illustrating the association between maternal prenatal distress and both fetal and infant developmental trajectories and the potential role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating these effects. Postnatal experiences may have a critical moderating influence on prenatal effects, and here we review findings illustrating prenatal-postnatal interplay and the developmental and epigenetic consequences of postnatal mother-infant interactions. The in utero environment is regulated by placental function and there is emerging evidence that the placenta is highly susceptible to maternal distress and a target of epigenetic dysregulation. Integrating studies of prenatal exposures, placental function, and postnatal maternal care with the exploration of epigenetic mechanisms may provide novel insights into the pathophysiology induced by maternal distress. PMID:23062303

  4. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer interactions and relationships, social problem solving and communication, social-affective and cognitive-executive processes, and their neural substrates. The model is illustrated by research on a specific form of childhood brain disorder, traumatic brain injury. The heuristic model may promote research regarding the neural and cognitive-affective substrates of children’s social development. It also may engender more precise methods of measuring impairments and disabilities in children with brain disorder and suggest ways to promote their social adaptation. PMID:17469991

  5. Brief Intervention for Drug Abusing Adolescents in a School Setting: Outcomes and Mediating Factors

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Botzet, Andria; Lee, Susanne; Lalone, Britani

    2011-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated the use of two brief intervention conditions for adolescents (aged 12–18 years) who have been identified in a school setting as abusing alcohol and other drugs. Adolescents and their parent (N = 315) were randomly assigned to receive either a 2-session adolescent only (BI-A), 2-session adolescent and additional parent session (BI-AP), or assessment only control condition (CON). Interventions were manually guided and delivered in a school setting by trained counselors. Adolescents and parents were assessed at intake and at 6 months following the completion of the intervention. Analyses of relative (change from intake to 6-months) and absolute (status at 6-months) outcome variables indicated that for the most part, adolescents in the BI-A and BI-AP conditions showed significantly more reductions in drug use behaviors compared to the CON group. Also, youth receiving the BI-AP condition showed significantly better outcomes compared to the BI-A group on several variables. Problem-solving skills and utilization of additional counseling services mediated outcome. The value of a school-based brief intervention for students is discussed. PMID:22000326

  6. Low Back Pain in Adolescents: A Comparison of Clinical Outcomes in Sports Participants and Nonparticipants

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Julie M.; Clifford, Shannon N.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Back pain is common in adolescents. Participation in sports has been identified as a risk factor for the development of back pain in adolescents, but the influence of sports participation on treatment outcomes in adolescents has not been adequately examined. Objective: To examine the clinical outcomes of rehabilitation for adolescents with low back pain (LBP) and to evaluate the influence of sports participation on outcomes. Design: Observational study. Setting: Outpatient physical therapy clinics. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-eight adolescents (age  =  15.40 ± 1.44 years; 56.90% female) with LBP referred for treatment. Twenty-three patients (39.66%) had developed back pain from sports participation. Intervention(s): Patients completed the Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire and numeric pain rating before and after treatment. Treatment duration and content were at the clinician's discretion. Adolescents were categorized as sports participants if the onset of back pain was linked to organized sports. Additional data collected included diagnostic imaging before referral, clinical characteristics, and medical diagnosis. Main Outcome Measure(s): Baseline characteristics were compared based on sports participation. The influence of sports participation on outcomes was examined using a repeated-measures analysis of covariance with the Oswestry and pain scores as dependent variables. The number of sessions and duration of care were compared using t tests. Results: Many adolescents with LBP receiving outpatient physical therapy treatment were involved in sports and cited sports participation as a causative factor for their LBP. Some differences in baseline characteristics and clinical treatment outcomes were noted between sports participants and nonparticipants. Sports participants were more likely to undergo magnetic resonance imaging before referral (P  =  .013), attended more sessions (mean difference  =  1.40, 95

  7. One-Year Outcomes and Mediators of a Brief Intervention for Drug Abusing Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C.; Lee, Susanne; Botzet, Andria; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Nicholson, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Two manually-guided brief interventions were evaluated with a randomized controlled trial. Adolescents (aged 13-17 years) suspected of abusing alcohol and other drugs and their parent were randomly assigned to receive either a 2-session adolescent only (BI-A), 2-session adolescent and additional parent session (BI-AP), or assessment only control condition (CON). Adolescents were identified in a school setting and the intervention was delivered by trained counselors. Outcome analyses (N=284; 90% of those enrolled) of relative change (from intake to 12-months) and absolute status (at 12-months) revealed a general pattern of reductions in drug use behaviors, particularly with the cannabis outcome measures, in both active conditions (BI-A and BI-AP). Students in the control condition showed worse outcome compared to the BI-A and BI-AP groups. Among the four mediating variables measured at 6-months, use of additional services, motivation to change and parenting practices had significant influences on 12-month outcome; problem solving skills approached significance as a mediator. The potential value of a brief intervention for drug abusing adolescents is discussed. PMID:24955669

  8. Comparison of Substance Use Typologies as Predictors of Sexual Risk Outcomes in African American Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve S

    2016-01-01

    African American female adolescents have a disproportionate risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other adverse sexual health outcomes. Both alcohol and marijuana use have been shown to predict sexual risk among young African American women. However, no studies have attempted to differentiate alcohol and marijuana typologies use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes exclusively among adolescents who use these substances. This study compared recent alcohol and/or marijuana use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes over 18 months among 182 African American female adolescents. African American females (14-20 years) completed interviews at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-months. At each assessment, pregnancy testing was conducted and self-collected vaginal swab specimens were assayed for Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using DNA amplification. Logistic subject-specific random-intercept models compared sexual risk outcomes during follow-up among adolescents who reported recent use of alcohol only (AO), marijuana only (MO) or both substances (A + M) at the baseline assessment. Relative to baseline AO use, baseline MO use predicted condom non-use at last sex. Relative to AO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy. Relative to MO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy and acquisition of T. vaginalis and any STI. The results suggest that African American female adolescents who use A + M may represent a priority population for STI, HIV, and pregnancy prevention efforts. PMID:25929200

  9. The relationship between child maltreatment and substance abuse treatment outcomes among emerging adults and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Smith, Douglas C; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment.

  10. Comparison of Substance Use Typologies as Predictors of Sexual Risk Outcomes in African American Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve S

    2016-01-01

    African American female adolescents have a disproportionate risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other adverse sexual health outcomes. Both alcohol and marijuana use have been shown to predict sexual risk among young African American women. However, no studies have attempted to differentiate alcohol and marijuana typologies use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes exclusively among adolescents who use these substances. This study compared recent alcohol and/or marijuana use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes over 18 months among 182 African American female adolescents. African American females (14-20 years) completed interviews at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-months. At each assessment, pregnancy testing was conducted and self-collected vaginal swab specimens were assayed for Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using DNA amplification. Logistic subject-specific random-intercept models compared sexual risk outcomes during follow-up among adolescents who reported recent use of alcohol only (AO), marijuana only (MO) or both substances (A + M) at the baseline assessment. Relative to baseline AO use, baseline MO use predicted condom non-use at last sex. Relative to AO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy. Relative to MO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy and acquisition of T. vaginalis and any STI. The results suggest that African American female adolescents who use A + M may represent a priority population for STI, HIV, and pregnancy prevention efforts.

  11. Cognitive outcome varies in adolescents born preterm, depending on gestational age, intrauterine growth and neonatal complications

    PubMed Central

    Lundequist, Aiko; Böhm, Birgitta; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Forssberg, Hans; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate long-term cognitive outcome in a cohort of 18-year-olds born preterm and previously assessed at the age of 5.5. Methods We tested 134 adolescents born preterm with a very low birthweight of <1500 g and 94 term-born controls with a comprehensive cognitive battery at 18 years of age. The cohort was subdivided into 73 extremely preterm, 42 very preterm and 19 moderately preterm infants with gestational ages of 23–27, 28–31 and 32–36 weeks, respectively. The moderately preterm group was dominated by adolescents born small for gestational age. Results Very preterm adolescents performed on a par with term-born controls. In contrast, extremely preterm adolescents displayed inferior results on all cognitive tests, more so if they had suffered neonatal complications. Moderately preterm adolescents scored lower than very preterm and full-term born adolescents, particularly on complex cognitive tasks. Conclusion Adolescents born at 28 weeks of gestation or later, with appropriate birthweight and no perinatal complications, functioned like term-born peers at 18 years of age. Extremely preterm birth per se posed a risk for long-term cognitive deficits, particularly executive deficits. Adolescents born moderately preterm but small for gestational age were at risk of general cognitive deficits. PMID:25394225

  12. Family factors and social support in the developmental outcomes of very low-birth weight children.

    PubMed

    Hogan, D P; Park, J M

    2000-06-01

    This study used data that were representative of the normative population of all infants born in 1988 and were followed during the first 3 years of life. Large developmental delays and limitations in function were common among children weighing less than 1500 g at birth. Among very low-birth weight infants, minority status and living in a household headed by a single mother further worsen the disadvantages associated with a very low birth weight. Nor could the disadvantages associated with very low birth weight be accounted for by controls for other risk factors or buffering statuses and behaviors. Among all children (including those of very low birth weight) poverty, reliance on Medicaid and other government sources for health insurance, a history of risky behaviors, and inadequate prenatal care are the major risk factors for developmental delays, limitations in function, and impairment at birth. State program benefit levels have no obvious effects on child outcomes, taking into account participation in individual programs. An important finding in light of TANF is that maternal work, the use of child care, and the form and cost of child care did not influence developmental delay, limitation in function, or impairment, the outcomes that we were able to measure during the first 3 years of life. TANF eligibility requirements, however, may increase difficulty in obtaining prenatal and other medical services for mothers and children in need--factors shown here to be related strongly to increased risk of low birth weight and developmental delays, limitations, and impairments. Race and ethnicity, poverty status, and family structure are fundamental factors in early child development and function. Minority status, poverty, and single-parent households greatly increase the likelihood that a mother will engage in risky behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, illegal drug use) during pregnancy and receive inadequate prenatal care. Risky behaviors and inadequate prenatal care are

  13. Long-Term Maternal Stress and Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms Related to Developmental Outcome of Extremely Premature Infants.

    PubMed

    Zerach, Gadi; Elsayag, Adi; Shefer, Shahar; Gabis, Lidia

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we examined the relations between the severity of developmental outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) children and their mothers' stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, 4-16 years after birth. Israeli mothers (N = 78) of a cohort of extremely premature infants (24-27 weeks) born 4-16 years earlier were asked to report about the medical and developmental condition of their child and their current perceived stress and PTSD symptoms. Results show that mothers of ELBW children with normal development reported the lowest perceived stress compared with mothers of ELBW children with developmental difficulties. We also found that 25.6% of the mothers had the potential to suffer from PTSD following the birth of an ELBW child. Furthermore, the severity of prematurity developmental outcomes made a significant contribution to mothers' perceived stress. To sum, mothers of ELBW infants' perceived stress is related to their children's severity of prematurity developmental outcomes, 4-16 years after birth. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Developmental Trajectories of Adaptive Behaviors from Early Childhood to Adolescence in a Cohort of 152 Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghdadli, Amaria; Assouline, Brigitte; Sonie, Sandrine; Pernon, Eric; Darrou, Celine; Michelon, Cecile; Picot, Marie-Christine; Aussilloux, Charles; Pry, Rene

    2012-01-01

    This study examines change in 152 children over an almost 10-year period (T1: 4.9 (plus or minus 1.3) years; T2: 8.1 (plus or minus 1.3) years; T3: 15(plus or minus 1.6) years) using a group-based, semi-parametric method in order to identify distinct developmental trajectories. Important deficits remain at adolescence in the adaptive abilities of…

  15. The Smoking Outcome Expectation Scale and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficacy Scale for Early Adolescents: Instrument Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chen-Ju; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Tang, Fu-In; Yu, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Smoking-related outcome expectation and self-efficacy have been found to be associated with adolescent smoking initiation. There is, however, a lack of appropriate instruments to investigate early adolescents' smoking outcome expectations and antismoking self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Smoking Outcome…

  16. Parent-child Relationships, Parental Attitudes towards Sex, and Birth Outcomes among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Study objective To examine how parent-child relationships, parental control, and parental attitudes towards sex were related to pregnancy outcomes among adolescent mothers. Design Prospective cohort study. Parental report of relationship satisfaction, disapproval of adolescent having sex, discussion around sexual health, and sexual communication attitudes, and adolescent report of relationship satisfaction, parental control, and parental disapproval of sex were examined as predictors of self-reported birth outcomes. Weighted multivariable linear regression models were run incorporating interactions by race. Setting United States Participants 632 females who participated in Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally-representative sample of students enrolled in grades 7–12 in 1994–95 and followed up in 2007–2008 Main Outcome Measures birthweight and gestational age Results For Black adolescents, better parent-child relationship was associated with higher birthweight (0.14 kg, p<0.05) and gestational age (0.75 weeks, p<0.01), while higher parental disapproval of having sex (adjusted beta 0.15 kg, p<0.05) were associated with higher birthweight. For non-Black adolescents, a moderate amount of discussion of birth control was associated with higher birthweight (0.19 kg, p<0.01 and lower child-perceived parental disapproval of having sex was associated with higher birthweight (0.08 kg, p<0.05) and gestational age (0.37 weeks, p<0.05). Higher parental control was associated with a reduced likelihood of smoking during pregnancy and a greater likelihood of early prenatal care. Conclusion Parent-child relationships and attitudes about sex affect outcomes of pregnant adolescents. PMID:25023982

  17. Pregnancy and childhood health and developmental outcomes with the use of posthumous human sperm.

    PubMed

    Robson, Stephen J; Campbell, Simone; McDonald, Janelle; Tremellen, Kelton; Carlin, Emily; Maybury, Genevieve

    2015-10-01

    Although there is now considerable experience in obtaining sperm from a cadaver, there is little or no published data regarding pregnancy, birth and long-term childhood health and development outcomes when posthumous sperm is used in in vitro fertilisation (IVF). We report the results from treatment of four women undergoing IVF treatment using posthumously acquired human sperm from their deceased partners. In all cases, testicular tissue was obtained in a mortuary setting, and the duration from death to posthumous sperm retrieval ranged from 12 to 48 h. The age of women treated ranged from 31 to 41 years. Fertilization rates ranged from 40 to 100%. Singleton pregnancies were obtained for each of the four women. One pregnancy was complicated by preterm birth at 31 weeks; the other three delivered at term. One baby was growth restricted but morphologically normal; the other children had term birthweights in the normal range. All four children were have shown normal health and developmental outcomes, with the follow-up ranging from 1 to 7 years.

  18. Pregnancy and childhood health and developmental outcomes with the use of posthumous human sperm.

    PubMed

    Robson, Stephen J; Campbell, Simone; McDonald, Janelle; Tremellen, Kelton; Carlin, Emily; Maybury, Genevieve

    2015-10-01

    Although there is now considerable experience in obtaining sperm from a cadaver, there is little or no published data regarding pregnancy, birth and long-term childhood health and development outcomes when posthumous sperm is used in in vitro fertilisation (IVF). We report the results from treatment of four women undergoing IVF treatment using posthumously acquired human sperm from their deceased partners. In all cases, testicular tissue was obtained in a mortuary setting, and the duration from death to posthumous sperm retrieval ranged from 12 to 48 h. The age of women treated ranged from 31 to 41 years. Fertilization rates ranged from 40 to 100%. Singleton pregnancies were obtained for each of the four women. One pregnancy was complicated by preterm birth at 31 weeks; the other three delivered at term. One baby was growth restricted but morphologically normal; the other children had term birthweights in the normal range. All four children were have shown normal health and developmental outcomes, with the follow-up ranging from 1 to 7 years. PMID:26384405

  19. Manual function outcome measures in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD): Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bieber, Eleonora; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Cioni, Giovanni; Feys, Hilde; Guzzetta, Andrea; Klingels, Katrijn

    2016-08-01

    This study systematically reviewed the clinical and psychometric properties of manual function outcome measures for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) aged 3-18 years. Three electronic databases were searched to identify manual function tools at the ICF-CY body function, activity and participation level used in children with DCD. Study selection and data extraction was conducted by two blind assessors according to the CanChild Outcome Measures Rating Form. Nineteen clinical tests (seven fine hand use tools and 12 handwriting measures), three naturalistic observations and six questionnaires were identified. The fine-motor subdomain of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 and the Functional Strength Measurement, with adequate reliability and validity properties, might be useful for manual function capacity assessment. The Systematic Detection of Writing Problems (SOS) and the Detailed Assessment of Speed of Handwriting (DASH) could be adopted for handwriting assessment, respectively from 6 and 9 years old. Naturalistic observations and questionnaires, whose psychometric properties have been investigated into limited extent, offer an assessment of the daily performances. This review shows that a combination of different tools is needed for a comprehensive assessment of manual function in children with DCD including the three levels of the ICF-CY. Further investigation of psychometric properties of those tools in children with DCD is warranted. Tests validated in other populations should be explored for their applicability for assessing manual function in children with DCD.

  20. Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence: Examining moderation by FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5).

    PubMed

    Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined the prospective association between child maltreatment and the development of substance use disorder in adolescence with the aim of investigating pathways underlying this relation, as well as genetic moderation of these developmental mechanisms. Specifically, we tested whether youth who experienced maltreatment prior to age 8 were at risk for the development of marijuana dependence in adolescence by way of a childhood externalizing pathway and a childhood internalizing pathway. Moreover, we tested whether variation in FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5) CATT haplotype moderated these pathways. The participants were 326 children (n =179 maltreated; n = 147 nonmaltreated) assessed across two waves of data collection (childhood: ages 7-9 and adolescence: ages 15-18). Results indicated that higher levels of child externalizing symptoms significantly mediated the effect of child maltreatment on adolescent marijuana dependence symptoms for individuals with one or two copies of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype only. We did not find support for an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence, nor did we find evidence of moderation of the internalizing pathway by FKBP5 haplotype variation. Findings extend previous research by demonstrating that whether a maltreated child will traverse an externalizing pathway toward substance use disorder in adolescence is dependent on FKBP5 genetic variation. PMID:26535939

  1. A meta-analysis of active video games on health outcomes among children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gao, Z; Chen, S; Pasco, D; Pope, Z

    2015-09-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes current literature concerning the effects of active video games (AVGs) on children/adolescents' health-related outcomes. A total of 512 published studies on AVGs were located, and 35 articles were included based on the following criteria: (i) data-based research articles published in English between 1985 and 2015; (ii) studied some types of AVGs and related outcomes among children/adolescents and (iii) had at least one comparison within each study. Data were extracted to conduct comparisons for outcome measures in three separate categories: AVGs and sedentary behaviours, AVGs and laboratory-based exercise, and AVGs and field-based physical activity. Effect size for each entry was calculated with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software in 2015. Mean effect size (Hedge's g) and standard deviation were calculated for each comparison. Compared with sedentary behaviours, AVGs had a large effect on health outcomes. The effect sizes for physiological outcomes were marginal when comparing AVGs with laboratory-based exercises. The comparison between AVGs and field-based physical activity had null to moderate effect sizes. AVGs could yield equivalent health benefits to children/adolescents as laboratory-based exercise or field-based physical activity. Therefore, AVGs can be a good alternative for sedentary behaviour and addition to traditional physical activity and sports in children/adolescents. PMID:25943852

  2. A meta-analysis of active video games on health outcomes among children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gao, Z; Chen, S; Pasco, D; Pope, Z

    2015-09-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes current literature concerning the effects of active video games (AVGs) on children/adolescents' health-related outcomes. A total of 512 published studies on AVGs were located, and 35 articles were included based on the following criteria: (i) data-based research articles published in English between 1985 and 2015; (ii) studied some types of AVGs and related outcomes among children/adolescents and (iii) had at least one comparison within each study. Data were extracted to conduct comparisons for outcome measures in three separate categories: AVGs and sedentary behaviours, AVGs and laboratory-based exercise, and AVGs and field-based physical activity. Effect size for each entry was calculated with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software in 2015. Mean effect size (Hedge's g) and standard deviation were calculated for each comparison. Compared with sedentary behaviours, AVGs had a large effect on health outcomes. The effect sizes for physiological outcomes were marginal when comparing AVGs with laboratory-based exercises. The comparison between AVGs and field-based physical activity had null to moderate effect sizes. AVGs could yield equivalent health benefits to children/adolescents as laboratory-based exercise or field-based physical activity. Therefore, AVGs can be a good alternative for sedentary behaviour and addition to traditional physical activity and sports in children/adolescents.

  3. Maternal Schooling and Children's Relative Inequalities in Developmental Outcomes: Evidence from the 1947 School Leaving Age Reform in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates, Ricardo; Duckworth, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates whether mothers' participation in post-compulsory education impacts on children's relative inequalities across four developmental outcomes. The empirical analysis uses information from children born in 1958 in Britain. Mothers of the 1958 British cohort were affected by the 1947 school leaving age reform, which increased…

  4. Family Caregivers of Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Outcomes Associated with U.S. Services and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Heather J.; Perkins, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) in the U.S. predominantly live with their family caregivers. As care delivery and support systems vary widely globally, consideration of caregiver outcomes specifically in the U.S. context is needed. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify U.S. family caregiver…

  5. Effects of School Counselor Supervised Peer Tutoring in Inclusive Settings on Meeting IEP Outcomes of Students with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odluyurt, Serhat; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Ersoy, Gulhan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of school counselor supervised peer tutoring intervention on meeting IEP outcomes of six inclusion students with developmental disabilities in a public elementary and secondary school. The effectiveness of this intervention was evaluated by using multiple probe design across students.…

  6. Observed Ecological Assets in Families, Schools, and Neighborhoods: Conceptualization, Measurement, and Relations with Positive and Negative Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theokas, Christina; Lerner, Richard M.

    2006-01-01

    The relations among observed ecological assets in youth's families, schools, and neighborhoods with positive and negative developmental outcomes were assessed with a sample of 646 fifth-grade youth. The majority of participants were Latino (37.5%) or European American (35.5%) and lived in 2-parent families. Ecological asset indicators were…

  7. Developmental Language Disorders--A Follow-Up in Later Adult Life. Cognitive, Language and Psychosocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, J.; Hollis, C.; Mawhood, L.; Rutter, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Little is known on the adult outcome and longitudinal trajectory of childhood developmental language disorders (DLD) and on the prognostic predictors. Method: Seventeen men with a severe receptive DLD in childhood, reassessed in middle childhood and early adult life, were studied again in their mid-thirties with tests of intelligence…

  8. Agentic personality as mediator of social capital on developmental outcomes in the transition to adulthood: Evidence from Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Rui; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 1153 young people in Shanghai, China, this study investigates how agentic personality mediates between social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (family, friendship, association, and linking connection) and developmental outcomes during the transition to adulthood. The results of a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis provide a good fit for the sample as a whole. The overall findings support the hypotheses that a higher level of agentic personality, including resilience, self-efficacy, and self-esteem, is associated with higher levels of developmental outcomes. Agentic personality also mediates the effects of family, friendship, associational, and linking social capital on developmental outcomes. Family social capital is predictive of university students' identity achievement and academic achievement, but not of their mental health. Linking social capital is only predictive of identity achievement. Unexpectedly, friendship social capital and associational social capital are predictive of a lower level of academic achievement and mental health, respectively, despite their positive influences on all three developmental outcomes through their significant effects on agentic personality. The study provides empirical support for the importance of social capital in promoting young people's transition to adulthood. Implications for theory, practice, and policy are also discussed.

  9. Does the Neighborhood Context Alter the Link between Youth's After-School Time Activities and Developmental Outcomes? A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauth, Rebecca C.; Roth, Jodie L.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    This article examines links between different measures of after-school time activity participation (5 specific activities and breadth) on youth's developmental outcomes (anxiety/depression, delinquency, and substance use) over 6 years and whether these links are moderated by neighborhood-level variables. The sample (N = 1,315) of 9- and…

  10. The Role of Intentional Self Regulation, Lower Neighborhood Ecological Assets, and Activity Involvement in Youth Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Jennifer Brown; Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Lerner, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Extracurricular activities provide a key context for youth development, and participation has been linked with positive developmental outcomes. Using data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD), this study explored how the intentional self regulation ability of youth interacted with participation in extracurricular activities to…

  11. Adolescent Academic Outcomes in School Context: Network Effects Reexamined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryabov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the role of racial/ethnic segregation and peer effects in shaping educational achievement and attainment, using multi-level modeling on a nationally representative sample of adolescents. As in many prior studies, school socioeconomic composition was a significant predictor of achievement and attainment for students of all…

  12. Casual Sex in Adolescence: Outcomes and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liace, Lisa K.; Nunez, Jessica B.; Luckner, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    Teenage sexual activity has arguably received more attention in the national media as of late than ever before. One is inundated with information concerning everything from alarming rises in the incidence and prevalence rates of sexually transmitted infections in adolescents and young adults to the latest round of suspensions (or even arrests)…

  13. Trajectories of Family Management Practices and Early Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth…

  14. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Adolescents' Sexual Outcomes: An Experiential Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential approach to teen pregnancy (TP) prevention called "Baby Think It Over," a computerized infant simulator, on adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding teen pregnancy and sexuality. Recently, a more realistic model called "Real Care Baby" was developed. The small amount of research on…

  15. Gender-Specific Outcomes for Sexually Abused Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, and…

  16. The Moral Reasoning of U.S. Evangelical and Mainline Protestant Children, Adolescents, and Adults: A Cultural-Developmental Study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Lene Arnett; McKenzie, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This cultural-developmental interview study examined moral reasoning in relation to religious culture (evangelical, mainline Protestants), age (children, adolescents, adults), and moral issue (public, private; N = 120). Compared to adolescents and adults, children used more Ethic of Autonomy and less Ethic of Community reasoning. With age, differences between religious cultures became pronounced. Mainline adults invoked an Ethic of Divinity for private issues. Evangelical adolescents and adults used this ethic frequently, but more for public than private issues. These and other findings indicate that evangelical and mainline Protestants diverge on what should be society's moral lingua franca, and cast new and nuanced light on America's "culture wars." Results furthermore highlight comodulation of development and culture that requires life course research on moral reasoning.

  17. A friend request from dear old dad: associations between parent-child social networking and adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Day, Randal D; Harper, James; Stockdale, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parent-child social networking, connection, and outcomes for adolescents. Participants (491 adolescents and their parents) completed a number of questionnaires on social networking use, feelings of connection, and behavioral outcomes. Social networking with parents was associated with increased connection between parents and adolescents. Feelings of connection then mediated the relationship between social networking with parents and behavioral outcomes, including higher prosocial behavior and lower relational aggression and internalizing behavior. Conversely, adolescent social networking use without parents was associated with negative outcomes, such as increased relational aggression, internalizing behaviors, delinquency, and decreased feelings of connection. These results indicate that although high levels of social networking use may be problematic for some individuals, social networking with parents may potentially strengthen parent-child relationships and then lead to positive outcomes for adolescents.

  18. Complications and outcomes of repeat cesarean section in adolescent women

    PubMed Central

    Kaplanoglu, Mustafa; Karateke, Atilla; Un, Burak; Akgor, Utku; Baloğlu, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The evaluation of the effect of repeat cesarean sections in adolescent pregnancies on the morbidity, obstetric and perinatal results. Materials and methods: We reviewed the patient file and hospital records of patients who underwent at least one cesarean section among adolescent age group pregnant women who gave birth at our clinic between January 2010 and May 2013. The patients were divided into two groups as the patients who underwent the second cesarean section (116 patients) and those who underwent the third cesarean section (36 patients). The demographic data, maternal data and obstetric and perinatal results of the patients were evaluated. Results: A significant difference was present between the patients in the evaluation of the total number of examinations during pregnancy (P = 0.001), total maternal weight gain during pregnancy (P = 0.006), and the first examination gestational age (P = 0.006) and all values were less favorable in the third cesarean group. The gestational week at birth (P < 0.001), birth weight (P < 0.001), and APGAR score (P < 0.001) in the group with the third cesarean section were statistically significantly lower than the second cesarean section. The third cesarean cesarean was found to cause a significant risk increase for placenta accreta risk in adolescent pregnancies (P = 0.042). Conclusion: The increasing number of cesarean sections in the adolescent group is seen to be a significant risk factor for low gestational week of birth, low birth weight and related morbidities. The most important reason for the increased morbidity with increasing cesarean sections in the adolescent age has been defined as placenta accreta. PMID:25664081

  19. Contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behavior and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shneyderman, Yuliya; Schwartz, Seth J

    2013-08-01

    The present study was designed to test a model of contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behaviors and of sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. Using Waves I and II from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimated a structural model in which intrapersonal factors such as adolescents' attitudes about sex, perceived parental norms, knowledge about sexual health, and birth-control self-efficacy partially mediated the effects of contextual factors such as parent-adolescent relationship quality, school connectedness, and exposure to AIDS and pregnancy education on a number of risky sexual behaviors and outcomes: early sex initiation, sex under the influence of substances, condom use at last intercourse, and having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection. Different patterns of direct and mediated effects emerged for each sexual outcome. Results are discussed in terms of the complex interplay between environment and individual and in terms of how, when, and with whom to intervene in order to improve adolescent sexual health outcomes.

  20. Developmental Links of Adolescent Disclosure, Parental Solicitation, and Control with Delinquency: Moderation by Parental Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Frijns, Tom; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    This 4-wave study among 309 Dutch adolescents and their parents examined changes in adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control and their links with the development of delinquent activities. Annually, adolescents and both parents reported on adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control, and adolescents…

  1. Predictors of severity and outcome of global developmental delay without definitive etiologic yield: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although several determinants of global developmental delay (GDD) have been recognized, a significant number of children remain without definitive etiologic diagnosis. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of various prenatal and perinatal factors on the severity and outcome of developmental delay without definitive etiologic yield. Methods From March 2008 to February 2010, 142 children with developmental quotient (DQ) <70 and without definitive etiologic diagnosis, were included. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors known to be associated with disordered neonatal brain function were identified. Participants underwent a thorough investigation, an individualized habilitation plan was recommended, and the children were followed-up regularly for a period of 2 < years. The effect of prenatal and perinatal risk factors on the severity and outcome of GDD was assessed by regression analysis. Results The mean age at enrolment was 31 ± 12 < months, and the mean DQ 52.2 ± 11.4. Prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were found to be independently associated with lower DQ values. The mean DQ after the 2-year follow-up was 62.5 ± 12.7, and the DQ difference from the enrollment 10.4 ± 8.9 (median 10; range-10 to 42). DQ improvement (defined as a DQ difference?≥?median) was noted in 52.8% of the children. IUGR, low socio-economic status, and poor compliance to habilitation plan were found to be independently associated with poorer developmental outcomes. Conclusions Prematurity and IUGR were found to be significantly and independently related to the severity of GDD in cases without definitive etiologic yield. Poorer 2-year developmental outcome was associated with IUGR, low socioeconomic status and non compliance to habilitation plan. Prematurity was a significant determinant of the outcome only in association with the above mentioned factors. PMID:24521451

  2. Moral Disengagement, Anticipated Social Outcomes and Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Parallel Latent Growth Curve Analyses.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Catherine A; Bussey, Kay

    2015-10-01

    Moral disengagement is a social cognitive process that has been extensively applied to transgressive behaviors, including delinquency, aggression and illicit substance use. However, there has been limited research on moral disengagement as it relates to underage drinking. The current study aimed to examine moral disengagement contextualized to underage drinking and its longitudinal relationship to alcohol use. Moreover, the social context in which adolescent alcohol use typically occurs was also considered, with a specific emphasis on the social sanctions, or social outcomes, that adolescents anticipate receiving from friends for their alcohol use. Adolescents were assessed across three time-points, 8 months apart. The longitudinal sample consisted of 382 (46% female) underage drinkers (12-16 years at T1). Parallel latent growth curve analysis was used to examine the bi-directional influence of initial moral disengagement, anticipated social outcomes, and alcohol use on subsequent growth in moral disengagement, anticipated social outcomes and alcohol use. The interrelation of initial scores and growth curves was also assessed. The findings revealed that, in the binary parallel analyses, initial moral disengagement and anticipated social outcomes both significantly predicted changes in alcohol use across time. Moreover, initial anticipated social outcomes predicted changes in moral disengagement. These findings were not consistently found when all three process analyses were included in a single model. The results emphasize the impact of social context on moral disengagement and suggest that by targeting adolescents' propensity to justify or excuse their drinking, as well as the social outcomes adolescents anticipate for being drunk, it may be possible to reduce their underage drinking. PMID:26318080

  3. Moral Disengagement, Anticipated Social Outcomes and Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Parallel Latent Growth Curve Analyses.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Catherine A; Bussey, Kay

    2015-10-01

    Moral disengagement is a social cognitive process that has been extensively applied to transgressive behaviors, including delinquency, aggression and illicit substance use. However, there has been limited research on moral disengagement as it relates to underage drinking. The current study aimed to examine moral disengagement contextualized to underage drinking and its longitudinal relationship to alcohol use. Moreover, the social context in which adolescent alcohol use typically occurs was also considered, with a specific emphasis on the social sanctions, or social outcomes, that adolescents anticipate receiving from friends for their alcohol use. Adolescents were assessed across three time-points, 8 months apart. The longitudinal sample consisted of 382 (46% female) underage drinkers (12-16 years at T1). Parallel latent growth curve analysis was used to examine the bi-directional influence of initial moral disengagement, anticipated social outcomes, and alcohol use on subsequent growth in moral disengagement, anticipated social outcomes and alcohol use. The interrelation of initial scores and growth curves was also assessed. The findings revealed that, in the binary parallel analyses, initial moral disengagement and anticipated social outcomes both significantly predicted changes in alcohol use across time. Moreover, initial anticipated social outcomes predicted changes in moral disengagement. These findings were not consistently found when all three process analyses were included in a single model. The results emphasize the impact of social context on moral disengagement and suggest that by targeting adolescents' propensity to justify or excuse their drinking, as well as the social outcomes adolescents anticipate for being drunk, it may be possible to reduce their underage drinking.

  4. The Impact of a Family-Centered Intervention on the Ecology of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: Modeling Developmental Sequelae and Trajectories During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    VAN RYZIN, MARK J.; DISHION, THOMAS J.

    2012-01-01

    This study used an experimental, longitudinal field trial involving random assignment to the Family Check-Up (FCU) to explore the social ecology of adolescent antisocial behavior. A sample of 998 youth and their families was followed from early to late adolescence (age 12 to 18–19). In the intervention condition, 115 families (23%) elected to receive the FCU. In general, random assignment to the FCU in middle school was associated with reductions in late adolescence antisocial behavior (age 18–19). Variable-centered analyses revealed that effects were mediated by reductions in family conflict from early to middle adolescence (age 12–15). The link between family conflict and antisocial behavior, in turn, was mediated by association with deviant peers at age 17; parental monitoring at age 17 was also influential but did not attain the status of a mediator. Person-oriented analyses suggested that the FCU was associated with declining trajectories of family conflict and rising trajectories of parental monitoring but was not associated with trajectories of deviant peer association. Dual-trajectory analysis indicated that the pathways to adolescent antisocial behavior were many and varied, suggesting new directions for developmental and intervention research. PMID:22781876

  5. The impact of a family-centered intervention on the ecology of adolescent antisocial behavior: modeling developmental sequelae and trajectories during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Dishion, Thomas J

    2012-08-01

    This study used an experimental, longitudinal field trial involving random assignment to the Family Check-Up (FCU) to explore the social ecology of adolescent antisocial behavior. A sample of 998 youths and their families was followed from early to late adolescence (age 12 to 18-19). In the intervention condition, 115 families (23%) elected to receive the FCU. In general, random assignment to the FCU in middle school was associated with reductions in late adolescence antisocial behavior (age 18-19). Variable-centered analyses revealed that the effects were mediated by reductions in family conflict from early to middle adolescence (age 12-15). The link between family conflict and antisocial behavior in turn was mediated by association with deviant peers at age 17; parental monitoring at age 17 was also influential but did not attain the status of a mediator. Person-oriented analyses suggested that the FCU was associated with declining trajectories of family conflict and rising trajectories of parental monitoring but was not associated with trajectories of deviant peer association. A dual-trajectory analysis indicated that the pathways to adolescent antisocial behavior were myriad and varied, suggesting new directions for developmental and intervention research.

  6. Adolescents' Educational Outcomes: Racial and Ethnic Variations in Peer Network Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goza, Franklin; Ryabov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the role of peer social capital in the school context, especially as a predictor of adolescents' academic outcomes. This study uses a nationally representative (N = 13,738, female = 51%), longitudinal sample and multilevel models to examine how peer networks impact educational achievement and attainment. Results…

  7. Associations between Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Sources of Information about Sex and Sexual Risk Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Skay, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe prevalent informal sources of information about sex and examine associations between informal sources of information about sex and sexual risk outcomes among sexually experienced adolescents. Work involved the secondary analysis of data from the Minnesota Student Survey, a statewide survey to monitor…

  8. Adolescents' Cognitive "Habitus", Learning Environments, Affective Outcomes of Schooling, and Young Adults' Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    A moderation-mediation model was constructed to examine relationships among adolescents' cognitive "habitus" (their cognitive dispositions), learning environments, affective outcomes of schooling, and young adults' educational attainment. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal survey of Australian youth (4,171 females, 3,718 males). The…

  9. Parent Involvement and Academic Outcomes among Urban Adolescents: Examining the Role of School Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; Wehrspann, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which parent involvement in education was directly and indirectly (via school engagement) related to academic outcomes in an effort to more fully understand the school experiences of urban adolescents. Participants (80% racial/ethnic minority; n = 108) were in grades 6, 7 or 8. In the Fall and subsequent…

  10. Health, Functioning, and Participation of Adolescents and Adults with Cerebral Palsy: A Review of Outcomes Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Dana; Msall, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    With medical advances, more individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) syndromes who reside in developed countries are surviving to adolescence and adulthood. However, there continues to be a paucity of research examining long-term health, functional activities, and participatory outcomes over their life-course. This article reviews the current…

  11. Minimal Brain Dysfunction in Childhood: 1. Outcome in Late Adolescence and Early Adult Years. Final Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Doris H.

    Seventy-three patients, diagnosed in childhood as having either maturational lag or organic brain syndrome, were followed for an average of 12 years into late adolescence and early adult life for the purpose of discovering the outcome with respect to ultimate psychiatric status, educational attainment, social adjustment, and global adjustment. At…

  12. Late Adolescent and Young Adult Outcomes of Girls Diagnosed with ADHD in Childhood: An Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method: The study included 58 women from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. A total of 34 (M = 19.97 years old) met "DSM" criteria for ADHD in childhood, whereas the remaining 24 (M = 19.83 years old) did not. Self- and…

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents: Academic and Intellectual Outcomes Following Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyos-Jurado, Elsa; Paulsen, Jane S.; Ehly, Stewart; Max, Jeffrey E.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the impact of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) on intellectual and academic outcomes postinjury. A comprehensive assessment of cognition, achievement, learning, and memory was administered to 27 children and adolescents 6 to 8 years post-TBI. Findings revealed that parent ratings of premorbid achievement…

  14. Predictors of Substance Use and Family Therapy Outcome among Physically and Sexually Abused Runaway Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Gangamma, Rashmi

    2006-01-01

    There is a dearth of research that examines the impact of family systems therapy on problems among sexually and/or physically abused youth. Given this void, differential outcome and predictors of substance use change were evaluated for abused, as compared with nonabused, runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment…

  15. Determinants of Adult Functional Outcome in Adolescents Receiving Special Educational Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, H. R.; Johnstone, E. C.; McKirdy, J.; Owens, D. C.; Stanfield, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the role of IQ, autistic traits and challenging behaviours in affecting adult outcomes among adolescents who receive special educational assistance. Methods: A total of 58 participants were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study. All received assessments of IQ, behavioural patterns (using the Childhood…

  16. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  17. Outcomes for Children and Adolescents after Residential Treatment: A Review of Research from 1993 to 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hair, Heather J.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this research review is to determine what factors increase the likelihood that positive individual and systemic changes occur for children and adolescents following discharge from residential treatment. Residential treatment outcome studies from 1993 to 2003 that fulfilled predetermined criteria were located through 4 on-line…

  18. Running Away from Home: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Risk Factors and Young Adult Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the adolescent risk factors and young adult health-related outcomes associated with running away from home. We examined these correlates of running away using longitudinal data from 4,329 youth (48% female, 85% white) who were followed from Grade 9 to age 21. Nearly 14% of the sample reported running away in the past year at…

  19. Predictors and Moderators of Outcome in Family-Based Treatment for Adolescent Bulimia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, Daniel; Crosby, Ross D.; Lock, James

    2008-01-01

    The predictors and moderators of treatment outcome for adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN) are explored among those who participated in family based treatment or individual supportive psychotherapy. It is concluded that family-based treatment of BN may be most effective in those cases with low levels of eating disorder psychopathology.

  20. Contextual and Personal Predictors of Adaptive Outcomes under Terror Attack: The Case of Israeli Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidner, Moshe

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores individual differences in perceptions of political violence, strategies for coping with violence, and adaptive outcomes. Data on political violence stress, personal variables, coping strategies, and stress reactions were gathered on a sample of 227 Israeli adolescents in Haifa and Northern Israel confronted with a prolonged…

  1. A Qualitative Exploration of the STEM Career-Related Outcome Expectations of Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoffner, Marie F.; Newsome, Debbie; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Wachter Morris, Carrie A.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions developed and choices made during the preadolescent and early adolescent years may restrict or enrich youth's future career aspirations. These years are critical for acquiring and exploring academic and career-related interests. In addition, outcome expectations -- what youth believe will happen if they pursue certain interests, tasks,…

  2. The Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury during Adolescence on Career Plans and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balaban, Tammy; Hyde, Nellemarie; Colantonio, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often occurs during the years when individuals are aiming for vocational goals and acquiring skills needed to achieve vocational success. This exploratory study aimed to describe the perceived long-term impact on career outcomes for individuals who were hospitalized with a TBI during adolescence. This study used a…

  3. Can Assessment Reactivity Predict Treatment Outcome among Adolescents with Alcohol and Other Substance Use Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminer, Yifrah; Burleson, Joseph A.; Burke, Rebecca H.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are two-fold: to examine first, if the change from positive to negative alcohol and any other substance use status from baseline assessment to the onset of the first session (i.e., pre-treatment phase) occurs in adolescents, that is, Assessment Reactivity (AR); second, whether AR predicts treatment outcome.…

  4. Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training: Anxiety Outcomes and Impact of Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Makover, Heather B.; Cohen, Joseph R.; Mufson, Laura; Gallop, Robert J.; Benas, Jessica S.

    2012-01-01

    Given the frequent comorbidity of anxiety and depression, it is important to study the effects of depression interventions on anxiety and the impact of comorbid anxiety on depression outcomes. This article reports on pooled anxiety and depression data from two randomized trials of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a…

  5. Adolescent Outcomes of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Diverse Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Regina; Mason, Dana M.; Bell, Lindsay; Porter, Phillip; Garvan, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe adolescent outcomes of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a diverse community sample. Method: ADHD screening of a school district sample of 1,615 students aged 5 to 11 years was followed by a case-control study 8 years later. High-risk youths meeting full (n = 94) and subthreshold (n = 75) DSM-IV…

  6. Desired Outcomes for Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beresford, Bryony; Tozer, Rosemary; Rabiee, Parvaneh; Sloper, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Within children's services, frameworks for assessing outcomes have been developed in the absence of consultation with children with autistic spectrum disorders and their parents. The research reported here worked with parents, other key adults and children with autistic spectrum disorders to identify desired outcomes. It found similarities with…

  7. Detrimental Psychological Outcomes Associated with Early Pubertal Timing in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendle, Jane; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Though often discussed as a discrete event, puberty comprises one segment of a larger developmental continuum and is notable for rapid transformation across a multitude of domains. Research suggests that an earlier rate of pubertal maturation in girls correlates with a number of detrimental outcomes compared with on-time or later maturation. The…

  8. Assessment of Global Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Utility of the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan W.; Smith, Laura A.; Schry, Amie R.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment…

  9. Developmental programming: deficits in reproductive hormone dynamics and ovulatory outcomes in prenatal, testosterone-treated sheep.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Ye, W; Phillips, D J; Herkimer, C; Knight, P G; Padmanabhan, V

    2008-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess leads to neuroendocrine, ovarian, and metabolic disruptions, culminating in reproductive phenotypes mimicking that of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective of this study was to determine the consequences of prenatal testosterone treatment on periovulatory hormonal dynamics and ovulatory outcomes. To generate prenatal testosterone-treated females, pregnant sheep were injected intramuscularly (days 30-90 of gestation, term=147 days) with 100 mg of testosterone-propionate in cottonseed oil semi-weekly. Female offspring born to untreated control females and prenatal testosterone-treated females were then studied during their first two breeding seasons. Sheep were given two injections of prostaglandin F2alpha 11 days apart, and blood samples were collected at 2-h intervals for 120 h, 10-min intervals for 8 h during the luteal phase (first breeding season only), and daily for an additional 15 days to characterize changes in reproductive hormonal dynamics. During the first breeding season, prenatal testosterone-treated females manifested disruptions in the timing and magnitude of primary gonadotropin surges, luteal defects, and reduced responsiveness to progesterone negative feedback. Disruptions in the periovulatory sequence of events during the second breeding season included: 1) delayed but increased preovulatory estradiol rise, 2) delayed and severely reduced primary gonadotropin surge in prenatal testosterone-treated females having an LH surge, 3) tendency for an amplified secondary FSH surge and a shift in the relative balance of FSH regulatory proteins, and 4) luteal responses that ranged from normal to anovulatory. These outcomes are likely to be of relevance to developmental origin of infertility disorders and suggest that differences in fetal exposure or fetal susceptibility to testosterone may account for the variability in reproductive phenotypes.

  10. The influence of heart developmental anatomy on cardiotoxicity-based adverse outcome pathways in fish.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2016-08-01

    The developing fish heart is vulnerable to a diverse array of toxic chemical contaminants in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. Globally occurring examples of cardiotoxic agents include dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The disruption of cardiac function during the process of heart morphogenesis can lead to adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) that can negatively affect fish survival at hatching as well as later life stages. Proximal impacts include cardiogenic fluid accumulation (edema) and defects of the body axis and jaw that preclude larval feeding. More subtle changes in heart development can produce permanent structural defects in the heart that reduce cardiac output and swimming performance in older fish. In recent decades, the presence of edema in fish embryos and larvae has been a very common bioindicator of cardiotoxicity. However, the different ways that edema forms in fish from different habitats (i.e., freshwater vs. marine, pelagic vs. demersal) has not been rigorously examined. Oil spills are an important source of PAHs in fish spawning areas worldwide, and research is revealing how patterns of cardiogenic edema are shaped by species-specific differences in developmental anatomy and ionoregulatory physiology. Here we review the visible evidence for circulatory disruption across nine freshwater and marine fish species, exposed to crude oils from different parts of the world. We focus on the close interconnectedness of the cardiovascular and osmoregulatory systems during early development, and corresponding implications for fish in hyperosmotic and hyposmotic habitats. Finally, we suggest there may be poorly understood adverse outcomes pathways related to osmotic gradients and water movement within embryos, the latter causing extreme shifts in tissue osmolality. PMID:27447099

  11. A Review of Nitrates in Drinking Water: Maternal Exposure and Adverse Reproductive and Developmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Manassaram, Deana M.; Backer, Lorraine C.; Moll, Deborah M.

    2006-01-01

    In this review we present an update on maternal exposure to nitrates in drinking water in relation to possible adverse reproductive and developmental effects, and also discuss nitrates in drinking water in the United States. The current standard for nitrates in drinking water is based on retrospective studies and approximates a level that protects infants from methemoglobinemia, but no safety factor is built into the standard. The current standard applies only to public water systems. Drinking water source was related to nitrate exposure (i.e., private systems water was more likely than community system water to have nitrate levels above the maximum contaminant limit). Animal studies have found adverse reproductive effects resulting from higher doses of nitrate or nitrite. The epidemiologic evidence of a direct exposure–response relationship between drinking water nitrate level and adverse reproductive effect is still not clear. However, some reports have suggested an association between exposure to nitrates in drinking water and spontaneous abortions, intrauterine growth restriction, and various birth defects. Uncertainties in epidemiologic studies include the lack of individual exposure assessment that would rule out confounding of the exposure with some other cause. Nitrates may be just one of the contaminants in drinking water contributing to adverse outcomes. We conclude that the current literature does not provide sufficient evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to nitrates in drinking water and adverse reproductive effects. Future studies incorporating individual exposure assessment about users of private wells—the population most at risk—should be considered. PMID:16507452

  12. To tweet, or not to tweet: gender differences and potential positive and negative health outcomes of adolescents' social internet use.

    PubMed

    Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa; Park, M Jane

    2010-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults are avid Internet users. Online social media, such as social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), blogs, status updating sites (e.g., Twitter) and chat rooms, have become integral parts of adolescents' and young adults' lives. Adolescents are even beginning to enter the world of online dating with several websites dedicated to "teenage online dating." This paper reviews recent peer-reviewed literature and national data on 1) adolescents use of online social media, 2) gender differences in online social media and 3) potential positive and negative health outcomes from adolescents' online social media use. We also examine parental monitoring of adolescents' online activities. Given that parental supervision is a key protective factor against adolescent risk-taking behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that unmonitored Internet use may place adolescents' at significant risk, such as cyberbullying, unwanted exposure to pornography, and potentially revealing personal information to sexual predators.

  13. To tweet, or not to tweet: gender differences and potential positive and negative health outcomes of adolescents' social internet use.

    PubMed

    Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa; Park, M Jane

    2010-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults are avid Internet users. Online social media, such as social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), blogs, status updating sites (e.g., Twitter) and chat rooms, have become integral parts of adolescents' and young adults' lives. Adolescents are even beginning to enter the world of online dating with several websites dedicated to "teenage online dating." This paper reviews recent peer-reviewed literature and national data on 1) adolescents use of online social media, 2) gender differences in online social media and 3) potential positive and negative health outcomes from adolescents' online social media use. We also examine parental monitoring of adolescents' online activities. Given that parental supervision is a key protective factor against adolescent risk-taking behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that unmonitored Internet use may place adolescents' at significant risk, such as cyberbullying, unwanted exposure to pornography, and potentially revealing personal information to sexual predators. PMID:20164062

  14. Province-Level Income Inequality and Health Outcomes in Canadian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of provincial income inequality (disparity between rich and poor), independent of provincial income and family socioeconomic status, on multiple adolescent health outcomes. Methods Participants (aged 12–17 years; N = 11,899) were from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Parental education, household income, province income inequality, and province mean income were measured. Health outcomes were measured across a number of domains, including self-rated health, mental health, health behaviors, substance use behaviors, and physical health. Results Income inequality was associated with injuries, general physical symptoms, and limiting conditions, but not associated with most adolescent health outcomes and behaviors. Income inequality had a moderating effect on family socioeconomic status for limiting conditions, hyperactivity/inattention, and conduct problems, but not for other outcomes. Conclusions Province-level income inequality was associated with some physical and mental health outcomes in adolescents, which has research and policy implications for this age-group. PMID:25324533

  15. Rural Adolescent Health: The Importance of Prevention Services in the Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Alexa C.; Waters, Catherine M.; Brindis, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Context: Adolescence is a pivotal developmental period for the establishment of positive health and health practices. However, developmentally propelled risk behaviors coinciding with barriers to health services may increase the propensity for untoward health outcomes in adolescence. In addition, the sociocultural context of the rural environment…

  16. Early Adolescent Relationship Predictors of Emerging Adult Outcomes: Youth with and without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Vicki S.; Palladino, Dianne K.; Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging adulthood is a high-risk period for mental health problems and risk behaviors for youth generally and for physical health problems among those with type 1 diabetes. Purpose To examine whether adolescents’ relationships with parents and friends predict health and risk behaviors during emerging adulthood. Method Youth with and without diabetes were enrolled at average age 12 and followed for 7 years. Parent and friend relationship variables, measured during adolescence, were used to predict emerging adulthood outcomes: depression, risk behavior, and, for those with diabetes, diabetes outcomes. Results Parent relationship quality predicted decreased depressive symptoms and, for those with diabetes, decreased alcohol use. Parent control predicted increased smoking, reduced college attendance, and, for control participants, increased depressive symptoms. For those with diabetes, parent control predicted decreased depressive symptoms and better self-care. Friend relationship variables predicted few outcomes. Conclusions Adolescent parent relationships remain an important influence on emerging adults’ lives. PMID:24178509

  17. Adolescents' mental health outcomes according to different types of exposure to ongoing terror attacks.

    PubMed

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verté, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid

    2009-07-01

    This study investigates the impact of several types of exposure to terror attacks on adolescents' psychological outcomes in the context of ongoing terror. A total of 913 adolescents (51% girls) aged 12 to 18 years (12-13.6 = 33%; 13.7-15.6 = 38%; 15.7-18 = 28%) took part in the study. Detailed data were collected concerning objective, subjective and "mixed" types of exposure to terror, as well as demographics, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), emotional and behavioral problems and overall psychological and psychiatric difficulties. Subjective exposure was found to be the most important contributor to adolescents' post-traumatic stress and other mental health problems in this context. Gender also had important effects. The effects of objective and mixed types of exposure, as well as age, were less prominent. We did find, however, that the more adolescents consulted media, the less they experienced behavioral and emotional problems. Given that subjective experiences appear to be the best factor in explaining mental health outcomes when adolescents are confronted with persistent terror, the cognitive and emotional dynamics along with the coping behavior linked to such experiences merit further investigation.

  18. No difference in outcome between children and adolescents transplanted for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in second remission.

    PubMed

    Dini, Giorgio; Zecca, Marco; Balduzzi, Adriana; Messina, Chiara; Masetti, Riccardo; Fagioli, Franca; Favre, Claudio; Rabusin, Marco; Porta, Fulvio; Biral, Erika; Ripaldi, Mimmo; Iori, Anna Paola; Rognoni, Carla; Prete, Arcangelo; Locatelli, Franco

    2011-12-15

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in second complete remission is one of the most common indications for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in pediatric patients. We compared the outcome after HCST of adolescents, aged 14 to 18 years, with that of children (ie, patients < 14 years of age). Enrolled in the study were 395 patients given the allograft between January 1990 and December 2007; both children (334) and adolescents (61) were transplanted in the same pediatric institutions. All patients received a myeloablative regimen that included total body irradiation in the majority of them. The donor was an HLA-identical sibling for 199 patients and an unrelated volunteer in the remaining 196 patients. Children and adolescents had a comparable cumulative incidence of transplantation-related mortality, disease recurrence, and of both acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. The 10-year probability of overall survival and event-free survival for the whole cohort of patients were 57% (95% confidence interval, 52%-62%) and 54% (95% confidence interval, 49%-59%), respectively, with no difference between children and adolescents. This study documents that adolescents with ALL in second complete remission given HSCT in pediatric centers have an outcome that does not differ from that of patients younger than 14 years of age.

  19. Parent-adolescent collaboration: an interpersonal model for understanding optimal interactions.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Ryan M; Berg, Cynthia A

    2007-03-01

    Current parent-adolescent behavioral interaction research highlights the importance of three elements of behavior in defining adaptive interactions: autonomy, control, and warmth vs. hostility. However, this research has largely addressed the developmental needs and psychosocial outcomes of adolescents, as opposed to parents, with a focus on how parent and adolescent behaviors influence adolescent adaptation. This paper utilizes both adolescent and mid-life developmental research, as well as parent-adolescent interaction research, to introduce a model for conceptualizing parent-adolescent interactions as a transactional process in which both parental and adolescent development are considered. Further, ideas are presented describing how adaptive parent-adolescent interactions may change across adolescence. The concept of collaboration is proposed as a conceptual tool for assessing one form of adaptive parent-adolescent interactions. The structural analysis of social behavior (SASB) is presented as a model for studying the complex reciprocal processes that occur in parent-adolescent interpersonal processes. PMID:17351747

  20. Motivation and substance use outcomes among adolescents in a school-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Kelly; Shipley, Leandra; Stewart, David G

    2016-02-01

    The stages of change (Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, and Maintenance) have been well studied in adult populations. However, fewer studies have examined how the stages of change are related to adolescent substance use. Furthermore, there have been no studies that have examined how the stages of change relate to outcomes in a school-based intervention. To better capture adolescent motivation, we added an additional group to the Transtheoretical Model of Change, which we titled Coerced Action, to represent adolescents that made changes to their substance use despite low problem recognition (representing the internal motivation of Precontemplation and the change behaviors of the Action group). We then examined how the stages of change were related to a thorough assessment of substance use at baseline and corresponding treatment outcomes. Our sample consisted of 264 adolescents (mean age: 16.1, 44.5% Caucasian, 37.5% female) who participated in an 8-week, school-based Motivational Enhancement intervention. Results indicated significant group differences across the stages of change in substance use patterns (alcohol use, negative consequences, affective dysregulation), as well as treatment outcomes (alcohol use and negative consequences). For instance, adolescents in the Action group demonstrated more negative consequences at 16weeks follow-up than those in Precontemplation and Coerced Action, F(1, 3)=8.23, p<.001. The Coerced Action group reported the most alcohol use at 16weeks follow-up, although the finding was not significant when post-hoc tests were conducted. This study provides meaningful support for the assessment of motivation among adolescent substance users within school-based settings.

  1. Cultural Mistrust, Academic Outcome Expectations, and Outcome Values among African American Adolescent Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Miles Anthony; Hudley, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    This study measured the relationship between outcome expectations, outcome value, and cultural mistrust among African American male high school students (N = 75) attending an urban, Southern California school. We hypothesized that a negative perception of the dominant culture would negatively affect academic outcome expectations and academic…

  2. Psychosocial outcomes and interventions among cancer survivors diagnosed during adolescence and young adulthood (AYA): a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Marie; McDonnell, Glynnis; DeRosa, Antonio; Schuler, Tammy; Philip, Errol; Peterson, Lisa; Touza, Kaitlin; Jhanwar, Sabrina; Atkinson, Thomas M.; Ford, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A cancer diagnosis during adolescence or young adulthood (AYA; defined as ages 15–39) generates unique medical and psychosocial needs as developmental milestones are simultaneously impacted. Past research highlights that AYAs’ experiences and psychosocial outcomes are different, and more research and attention is needed. We aimed to identify and synthesize literature regarding psychosocial outcomes, unique needs, and existing psychosocial interventions pertaining to individuals diagnosed with cancer exclusively during AYA, and to highlight areas for future research. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, and PsycINFO (via OVID). Grey literature was searched using key term variations and combinations. Overall, 15,301 records were assessed by two independent reviewers, with 38 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Results Data synthesis of the 38 articles was organized by four main themes based on quality of life and survivorship: physical well-being (7 studies), psychological well-being (8 studies), social well-being (9 studies), and survivorship care (14 studies). The paucity of studies for such broad inclusion criteria highlights that this population is often combined or subsumed under other age groups, missing needs unique to these AYAs. Conclusions AYA cancer survivors’ experiences are nuanced, with interacting variables contributing to post-treatment outcomes. AYAs require age-appropriate and flexible care, informational needs and treatment-related education that foster autonomy for long-term survivorship, as well as improved follow-up care and psychological outcomes. Implications for Cancer Survivors By incorporating these findings into practice, the informational and unmet needs of AYAs can be addressed effectively. Education and programming is lacking specific and general subject matter specific to AYAs, incorporating ranging needs at different treatment stages. PMID

  3. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Anxious Adolescents: Developmental Influences on Treatment Design and Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauter, Floor M.; Heyne, David; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety disorders in adolescence are common and disruptive, pointing to a need for effective treatments for this age group. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is one of the most popular interventions for adolescent anxiety, and there is empirical support for its application. However, a significant proportion of adolescent clients continue to report…

  4. Empirically Derived Subtypes of Lifetime Anxiety Disorders: Developmental and Clinical Correlates in U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Marcy; Georgiades, Katholiki; Lamers, Femke; Swanson, Sonja A.; Cui, Lihong; He, Jian-Ping; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the sex- and age-specific structure and comorbidity of lifetime anxiety disorders among U.S. adolescents. Method: The sample consisted of 2,539 adolescents (1,505 females and 1,034 males) from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement who met criteria for "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  5. A Developmental Study of Social Self-Conceptions in Adolescence: Impressions and Misimpressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberger, Sharon, D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigates adolescents' perceptions of impressions held about them by important others, focusing on cross-sectional differences from early to late adolescence in the structure of social self-conceptions, on differences between parental and peer social self-conceptions and between individual and social self-conceptions, and on adolescents'…

  6. Can Developmental Changes in Inhibition and Peer Relationships Explain Why Depressive Symptoms Increase in Early Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Katharine Ann; Dix, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Why do depressive symptoms increase during adolescence? Because inhibition and poor peer relationships predict adolescents' depressive symptoms concurrently, we hypothesized that adolescents who cope with the stresses of this period by becoming increasingly inhibited may experience increasing depressive symptoms both directly and due to increased…

  7. From Parent-Child Mutuality to Security to Socialization Outcomes: Developmental Cascade toward Positive Adaptation in Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    A developmental cascade from positive early parent-child relationship to child security with the parent to adaptive socialization outcomes, proposed in attachment theory and often implicitly accepted but rarely formally tested, was examined in 100 mothers, fathers, and children followed from toddler age to preadolescence. Parent-child Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) was observed in lengthy interactions at 38, 52, 67, and 80 months; children reported their security with parents at age 8. Socialization outcomes (parent- and child-reported cooperation with parental monitoring and teacher-reported school competence) were assessed at age 10. Mediation was tested with PROCESS (Hayes, 2013). The parent-child history of MRO significantly predicted both mother-child and father-child security. For mother-child dyads, security mediated links between history of MRO and cooperation with maternal monitoring and school competence, controlling for developmental continuity of the studied constructs. For father-child dyads, the mediation effect was not evident. PMID:26258443

  8. From parent-child mutuality to security to socialization outcomes: developmental cascade toward positive adaptation in preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    A developmental cascade from positive early parent-child relationship to child security with the parent to adaptive socialization outcomes, proposed in attachment theory and often implicitly accepted but rarely formally tested, was examined in 100 mothers, fathers, and children followed from toddler age to preadolescence. Parent-child Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) was observed in lengthy interactions at 38, 52, 67, and 80 months; children reported their security with parents at age eight. Socialization outcomes (parent- and child-reported cooperation with parental monitoring and teacher-reported school competence) were assessed at age 10. Mediation was tested with PROCESS. The parent-child history of MRO significantly predicted both mother-child and father-child security. For mother-child dyads, security mediated links between history of MRO and cooperation with maternal monitoring and school competence, controlling for developmental continuity of the studied constructs. For father-child dyads, the mediation effect was not evident.

  9. Adolescents in Wartime U.S. Military Families: A Developmental Perspective on Challenges and Resources

    PubMed Central

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents in wartime U.S. military families are a unique group of young people who are experiencing the usual milestones of adolescent development, including establishing their identities and becoming autonomous, while they face the challenges of military life such as multiple frequent moves, relocation and parent deployment to combat settings. This paper reviews research on adolescents in wartime U.S. military families, within the context of adolescent development, to identify their behavioral, emotional and academic risk status, and challenges and resources. Recommendations for future research and interventions to foster the healthy development of these adolescents are also provided. PMID:23780722

  10. Psychosocial predictors and outcomes of loneliness trajectories from childhood to early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schinka, Katherine C; van Dulmen, Manfred H M; Mata, Andrea D; Bossarte, Robert; Swahn, Monica

    2013-12-01

    Using latent class growth analysis, we were interested in investigating how experiences of loneliness emerge in distinct developmental patterns over the course of middle childhood and adolescence (NICHD Study of Early Child Care, N = 832). Second, we examined the role of demographic, mental health, and behavioral variables in association with these discrete patterns of loneliness. Loneliness was measured at 3 time points: age 9, age 11, and age 15. Results indicated five discrete trajectories of loneliness from middle childhood to adolescence. Most children exhibited a stable and low level of loneliness over time. The remaining children were split among moderate increasing, high increasing, decreasing, and chronic loneliness groups. Ethnicity, income, age 7 social skills, age 7 depression, and age 7 aggression were associated with trajectory membership. In addition, the loneliness trajectories predicted self-reports of social skills deficits, depression, aggression, and suicidal ideation at age 15.

  11. Goal Internalization and Outcome Expectancy in Adolescent Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Joanne M.; Moberly, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety has been conceptualized in terms of increased avoidance motivation and higher expectancies of undesirable outcomes. However, anxiety research has hitherto not examined an important qualitative aspect of motivation: the degree to which reasons for goal pursuit are experienced as controlling and originating outside the core self. We asked 70…

  12. Intermediate Work Outcomes for Adolescents with High-Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Gregg, Noel

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal sample from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 was used to determine differences in work outcomes between (a) individuals with learning disabilities or emotional-behavior disorders and (b) individuals with or without disabilities. Twelve factors were arranged into individual, family, school-peer, and community categories.…

  13. Writing Abilities Longitudinally Predict Academic Outcomes of Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molitor, Stephen J.; Langberg, Joshua M.; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D.; Dvorsky, Melissa R.; Evans, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience a host of negative academic outcomes, and deficits in reading and mathematics abilities contribute to these academic impairments. Students with ADHD may also have difficulties with written expression, but there has been minimal research in this area and it is not clear…

  14. Psychological outcomes and health beliefs in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer and controls.

    PubMed

    Kazak, Anne E; Derosa, Branlyn Werba; Schwartz, Lisa A; Hobbie, Wendy; Carlson, Claire; Ittenbach, Richard F; Mao, Jun J; Ginsberg, Jill P

    2010-04-20

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare adolescent and young adult (AYA) pediatric cancer survivors and peers without a history of serious illness on psychological distress, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), health beliefs; examine age at diagnosis and cancer treatment intensity on these outcomes; and examine relationships between number of health problems and the outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS AYA cancer survivors (n = 167) and controls (n = 170), recruited during visits to a cancer survivorship clinic and primary care, completed self-report questionnaires of distress, health problems, and health beliefs. For survivors, providers rated treatment intensity and health problems. Results There were no statistically significant differences between survivors and controls in psychological distress or HRQOL. Cancer survivors had less positive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed as adolescents had significantly greater psychological distress and fewer positive health beliefs than those diagnosed earlier. Survivors with the highest level of treatment intensity had greater anxiety and fewer positive health beliefs than those with less intense treatments. Provider report of current health problems related to survivors' beliefs and mental HRQOL only, whereas patient report of health problems correlated significantly with most psychosocial outcomes and beliefs. CONCLUSION AYA cancer survivors did not differ from peers in psychological adjustment but did endorse less adaptive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed during adolescence and who had more intensive cancer treatments evidenced poorer psychosocial outcomes. Beliefs about health may be identified and targeted for intervention to improve quality of life, particularly when patient perceptions of current health problems are considered.

  15. Political attitudes in adolescence and emerging adulthood: Developmental changes in mean level, polarization, rank-order stability, and correlates.

    PubMed

    Rekker, Roderik; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2015-06-01

    This three-wave cohort-sequential longitudinal study (N = 1302) examined the development of two core political attitudes, economic egalitarianism and ethnocentrism, among Dutch youths between age 12 and 31. Longitudinal regression analyses revealed a curvilinear mean level development for both attitudes, reflecting an increased disagreement with economic redistribution and multiculturalism around late adolescence. Furthermore, attitudes became decreasingly polarized (i.e., less extreme) and increasingly stable with age. Finally, several effects of attitudes' correlates gradually changed: The effect of educational level on ethnocentrism increased with age, whereas the effect of gender diminished. Regional effects on ethnocentrism developed as youths resided in a new area. No age-related change was found in the effect of parental SES. Overall, these findings support the idea that attitudes mature during the formative phase of adolescence and that this process slows down during emerging adulthood. Furthermore, these results support developmental explanations for the association between attitudes and their correlates. PMID:25880889

  16. Political attitudes in adolescence and emerging adulthood: Developmental changes in mean level, polarization, rank-order stability, and correlates.

    PubMed

    Rekker, Roderik; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2015-06-01

    This three-wave cohort-sequential longitudinal study (N = 1302) examined the development of two core political attitudes, economic egalitarianism and ethnocentrism, among Dutch youths between age 12 and 31. Longitudinal regression analyses revealed a curvilinear mean level development for both attitudes, reflecting an increased disagreement with economic redistribution and multiculturalism around late adolescence. Furthermore, attitudes became decreasingly polarized (i.e., less extreme) and increasingly stable with age. Finally, several effects of attitudes' correlates gradually changed: The effect of educational level on ethnocentrism increased with age, whereas the effect of gender diminished. Regional effects on ethnocentrism developed as youths resided in a new area. No age-related change was found in the effect of parental SES. Overall, these findings support the idea that attitudes mature during the formative phase of adolescence and that this process slows down during emerging adulthood. Furthermore, these results support developmental explanations for the association between attitudes and their correlates.

  17. School-level variation in health outcomes in adolescence: analysis of three longitudinal studies in England.

    PubMed

    Hale, Daniel R; Patalay, Praveetha; Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Hargreaves, Dougal S; Bond, Lyndal; Görzig, Anke; Wolpert, Miranda; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Viner, Russell M

    2014-08-01

    School factors are associated with many health outcomes in adolescence. However, previous studies report inconsistent findings regarding the degree of school-level variation for health outcomes, particularly for risk behaviours. This study uses data from three large longitudinal studies in England to investigate school-level variation in a range of health indicators. Participants were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England, the Me and My School Study and the Research with East London Adolescent Community Health Survey. Outcome variables included risk behaviours (smoking, alcohol/cannabis use, sexual behaviour), behavioural difficulties and victimisation, obesity and physical activity, mental and emotional health, and educational attainment. Multi-level models were used to calculate the proportion of variance in outcomes explained at school level, expressed as intraclass correlations (ICCs) adjusted for gender, ethnicity and socio-economic status of the participants. ICCs for health outcomes ranged from nearly nil to .28 and were almost uniformly lower than for attainment (.17-.23). Most adjusted ICCs were smaller than unadjusted values, suggesting that school-level variation partly reflects differences in pupil demographics. School-level variation was highest for risk behaviours. ICCs were largely comparable across datasets, as well as across years within datasets, suggesting that school-level variation in health remains fairly constant across adolescence. School-level variation in health outcomes remains significant after adjustment for individual demographic differences between schools, confirming likely effects for school environment. Variance is highest for risk behaviours, supporting the utility of school environment interventions for these outcomes. PMID:23793374

  18. Developmental Dynamics of Intergroup Contact and Intergroup Attitudes: Long-Term Effects in Adolescence and Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wölfer, Ralf; Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; van Zalk, Maarten

    2016-09-01

    Intergroup contact represents a powerful way to improve intergroup attitudes and to overcome prejudice and discrimination. However, long-term effects of intergroup contact that consider social network dynamics have rarely been studied at a young age. Study 1 validated an optimized social network approach to investigate intergroup contact (N = 6,457; Mage  = 14.91 years). Study 2 explored the developmental trajectories of intergroup contact by applying this validated network approach in a cross-sequential design (four-cohort-four-wave; N = 3,815; 13-26 years). Accelerated growth curve models showed that contact predicts the development of attitudes in adolescence, whereas acquired attitudes buffer against decreasing contact in adulthood. Findings highlight the potential of social network analysis and the developmental importance of early intergroup contact experiences. PMID:27684399

  19. Comparison of family therapy outcome with alcohol-abusing, runaway adolescents.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Prestopnik, Jillian L

    2009-07-01

    Treatment evaluation for alcohol problem, runaway adolescents and their families is rare. This study recruited primary alcohol problem adolescents (N = 119) and their primary caretakers from two runaway shelters and assigned them to (a) home-based ecologically based family therapy (EBFT), (b) office-based functional family therapy (FFT), or (c) service as usual (SAU) through the shelter. Findings showed that both home-based EBFT and office-based FFT significantly reduced alcohol and drug use compared with SAU at 15-month postbaseline. Measures of family and adolescent functioning improved over time in all groups. However, significant differences among the home- and office-based interventions were found for treatment engagement and moderators of outcome.

  20. Urban adolescent mothers exposed to community, family, and partner violence: prevalence, outcomes, and welfare policy implications.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Angie C

    2006-01-01

    The federal welfare reforms of 1996 mandated that all minor adolescent mothers receiving cash assistance must attend school and live at home to receive their cash grant. Though this law has been in place for over 8 years, little research has been done that explores the barriers facing adolescent mothers who try to attend school and live at home. Anecdotal and qualitative evidence from welfare reform evaluation studies suggests that violence may be just such a barrier. This article reviews the recent empirical literature on urban adolescent mothers' exposure to multiple forms of violence. The author delineates and critiques the existing research on the prevalence of and outcomes linked with exposure to community violence, witnessed parental violence, physical abuse within the family, and partner violence among this population. The article concludes with recommendations for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in light of the reviewed findings.