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Sample records for adolescent disruptive behavior

  1. Empathy dysfunction in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders.

    PubMed

    de Wied, Minet; Gispen-de Wied, Christine; van Boxtel, Anton

    2010-01-10

    In this essay, we focus on empathy in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), based on the assumption that lack of empathy is a risk factor for the development of DBD. We reflect on the heterogeneity of DBD, the complex nature of the empathy construct, discuss empathy's role in aggression, and review recent findings from studies on empathic skills in children and adolescents with DBD. Research suggests that the mechanisms underlying empathy problems may be different for DBD subtypes. Individuals with psychopathic tendencies may show a selective impairment in empathy with sadness and fear due to abnormalities in neural circuits connected with the amygdala. Individuals without these tendencies may show little empathy for a variety of reasons, such as hostile attributions, anxiety and/or poor regulatory skills. Understanding more about the nature and causes of empathy dysfunction in DBD could aid in identifying subtypes and help to improve prevention and intervention programs. Suggestions for future research are made.

  2. Longitudinal prediction of disruptive behavior disorders in adolescent males from multiple risk domains.

    PubMed

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; Hyde, Luke W; Goodlett, Benjamin D; Shaw, Daniel S

    2013-08-01

    The disruptive behavior disorders are among the most prevalent youth psychiatric disorders, and they predict numerous problematic outcomes in adulthood. This study examined multiple domains of risk during early childhood and early adolescence as longitudinal predictors of disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses among adolescent males. Early adolescent risks in the domains of sociodemographic factors, the caregiving context, and youth attributes were examined as mediators of associations between early childhood risks and disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses. Participants were 309 males from a longitudinal study of low-income mothers and their sons. Caregiving and youth risk during early adolescence each predicted the likelihood of receiving a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. Furthermore, sociodemographic and caregiving risk during early childhood were indirectly associated with disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses via their association with early adolescent risk. The findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting risk across domains may reduce the prevalence of disruptive behavior disorders.

  3. Evidence-based interventions for adolescents with disruptive behaviors in school-based settings.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Tarah M; Ebert, Jon S; Gracey, Kathy A; Chapman, Gabrielle L; Epstein, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    Disruptive behaviors in the school setting can threaten the maintenance of optimal learning environments in schools. Challenging behaviors, such as defiance, hostility, and aggression, often define disruptive classroom behaviors. This article presents a clinical review of existing literature on interventions for adolescent disruptive behavior problems in school-based settings and in outpatient mental health settings and makes recommendations around working with adolescents with disruptive behaviors in school-based settings. Many types of interventions are effective; effective implementation is key to good results.

  4. Randomized Trial of Anger Control Training for Adolescents with Tourette's Syndrome and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukhdolsky, Denis G.; Vitulano, Lawrence A.; Carroll, Deirdre H.; McGuire, Joseph; Leckman, James F.; Scahill, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    A randomized trial to examine the efficacy of anger control training for treating adolescents with Tourette's syndrome and disruptive behavior reveals that those administered with the anger control training showed a decrease in their Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale score by 52 percent as compared with a decrease of 11 percent in the treatment as…

  5. Temperament Pathways to Childhood Disruptive Behavior and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Testing a Cascade Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…

  6. Adolescents with Childhood ADHD and Comorbid Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Aggression, Anger, and Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harty, Seth C.; Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported expression of overt aggressive behaviors and covert emotional and cognitive processes in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) during childhood. Methods: Participants were a clinically referred sample of 85 individuals diagnosed with ADHD, initially recruited in the…

  7. Callous unemotional traits in children with disruptive behavior disorder: Predictors of developmental trajectories and adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Pietro; Lochman, John E; Manfredi, Azzurra; Milone, Annarita; Nocentini, Annalaura; Pisano, Simone; Masi, Gabriele

    2016-02-28

    The present study investigated trajectories of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnosis followed-up from childhood to adolescence, to explore possible predictors of these trajectories, and to individuate adolescent clinical outcomes. A sample of 59 Italian referred children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder (53 boys and 6 girls, 21 with Conduct Disorder) was followed up from childhood to adolescence. CU traits were assessed with CU-scale of the Antisocial Process Screening Device-parent report. Latent growth curve models showed that CU traits are likely to decrease linearly from 9 to 15 years old, with a deceleration in adolescence (from 12 to 15). There was substantial individual variability in the rate of change of CU traits over time: patients with a minor decrease of CU symptoms during childhood were at increased risk for severe behavioral problems and substance use into adolescence. Although lower level of socio-economic status and lower level of parenting involvement were associated to elevated levels of CU traits at baseline evaluation, none of the considered clinical and environmental factors predicted the levels of CU traits. The current longitudinal research suggests that adolescent outcomes of Disruptive Behavior Disorder be influenced by CU traits trajectories during childhood.

  8. Open-Label, Prospective Trial of Olanzapine in Adolescents with Subaverage Intelligence and Disruptive Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has been shown to be efficacious for treatment of psychotic and mood disorders in adults. This prospective, open-label study was conducted to examine the safety and usefulness of olanzapine in treating disruptive behavior disorders in adolescents with subaverage intelligence. Method: Sixteen…

  9. Risky Decision Making in Substance Dependent Adolescents with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutter, Dennis J. L. G.; van Bokhoven, Irene; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Lochman, John E.; Matthys, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Of all psychiatric disorders, the disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are the most likely to predispose to substance dependence (SD). One possible underlying mechanism for this increased vulnerability is risky decision making. The aim of this study was to examine decision making in DBD adolescents with and without SD. Twenty-five DBD adolescents…

  10. Executive Functioning Characteristics Associated with ADHD Comorbidity in Adolescents with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Tom A.; Kronenberger, William G.; Wang, Yang; Dunn, David W.; Mosier, Kristine M.; Kalnin, Andrew J.; Mathews, Vincent P.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of executive dysfunction in youth with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) remains unclear, despite extensive research in samples of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To determine the relationship between DBD, ADHD, and executive function deficits in aggressive teens, adolescents with DBD and comorbid ADHD…

  11. Affective network and default mode network in depressive adolescents with disruptive behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Mi; Park, Sung Yong; Kim, Young In; Son, Young Don; Chung, Un-Sun; Min, Kyung Joon; Han, Doug Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Aim Disruptive behaviors are thought to affect the progress of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents. In resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) studies of MDD, the affective network (limbic network) and the default mode network (DMN) have garnered a great deal of interest. We aimed to investigate RSFC in a sample of treatment-naïve adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors. Methods Twenty-two adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors (disrup-MDD) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used a seed-based correlation approach concerning two brain circuits including the affective network and the DMN, with two seed regions including the bilateral amygdala for the limbic network and the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) for the DMN. We also observed a correlation between RSFC and severity of depressive symptoms and disruptive behaviors. Results The disrup-MDD participants showed lower RSFC from the amygdala to the orbitofrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus compared to HC participants. Depression scores in disrup-MDD participants were negatively correlated with RSFC from the amygdala to the right orbitofrontal cortex. The disrup-MDD participants had higher PCC RSFC compared to HC participants in a cluster that included the left precentral gyrus, left insula, and left parietal lobe. Disruptive behavior scores in disrup-MDD patients were positively correlated with RSFC from the PCC to the left insular cortex. Conclusion Depressive mood might be correlated with the affective network, and disruptive behavior might be correlated with the DMN in adolescent depression. PMID:26770059

  12. Maternal Mind-Mindedness Provides a Buffer for Pre-Adolescents at Risk for Disruptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Claire; Aldercotte, Amanda; Foley, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    Maternal mind-mindedness, defined as the propensity to view one's child as an agent with independent thoughts and feelings, mitigates the impact of low maternal education on conduct problems in young children (Meins et al. 2013), but has been little studied beyond the preschool years. Addressing this gap, we applied a multi-measure and multi-informant approach to assess family adversity and disruptive behavior at age 12 for a socially diverse sample of 116 children for whom ratings of disruptive behavior at age 6 were available. Each mother was asked to describe her child and transcripts of these five-minute speech samples were coded for (i) mind-mindedness (defined by the proportion of child attributes that were mental rather than physical or behavioral) and (ii) positivity (defined by the proportion of child attributes that were positive rather than neutral or negative). Our regression results showed that, independent of associations with prior adjustment, family adversity, child gender and low maternal monitoring, mothers' mind-mindedness (but not positivity) predicted unique variance in disruptive behavior at age 12. In addition, a trend interaction term provided partial support for the hypothesis that pre-adolescents exposed to family adversity may benefit in particular from maternal mind-mindedness. We discuss the possible mechanisms underpinning these findings and their implications for clinical interventions to reduce disruptive behavior in adolescence.

  13. The Challenges for Primary Caregivers of Adolescents With Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Oruche, Ukamaka M.; Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Cravens, Hillary A.; Lowry, Brittany; Lindsey, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), including oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, present unique challenges for their families. Although, most empirically supported treatments for DBD are family-based, the emphasis is typically on the behavior of the child rather than on the life challenges and resultant distress experienced by the family members. Fifteen families of adolescents with DBD were recruited from a large publicly funded Community Mental Health Center. For this report, data from in-depth interviews with the adolescents’ primary caregivers were analyzed by standard content analytic procedures to describe the challenges they experienced living with and caring for the adolescents. The primary caregivers reported that the challenges were overwhelming, demanding, and unrelenting. The two most salient challenges were (a) managing the adolescents’ aggressive, defiant, and deceitful behaviors, and (b) interacting frequently with a number of child-serving agencies. A number of clinical implications are drawn from these findings. PMID:25504213

  14. The impact of disruptive behavior disorder on substance use treatment outcome in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Stacy R; Stanger, Catherine; Thostenson, Jeff; Whitmore, Jennifer J; Budney, Alan J

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) on substance use outcomes in an adolescent sample. Sixty-eight adolescents and their caregivers were randomized to one of two fourteen-week, outpatient treatments: Motivational Enhancement Therapy/Cognitive Behavior Therapy (MET/CBT)+Parent Management Training+Contingency Management (CM; experimental) and MET/CBT+Parent Drug Education (attention control). This study assessed abstinence, substance use, externalizing behavior, and parenting outcomes over five assessment periods for youth with DBD (DBD(+)) and without DBD (DBD(-)). Results showed DBD(+)/experimental adolescents reported fewer days of marijuana use than DBD(+)/control adolescents. Results also showed that parents of DBD(-) adolescents in the experimental condition reported significantly better parenting outcomes compared to DBD(-)/control. Substance abuse treatment for adolescents with DBD which includes a component such as contingency management and parent training has the potential to contribute to substance use outcomes. Such treatment strategies, however, should include additional support for parents.

  15. Identifying comorbid depression and disruptive behavior disorders: Comparison of two approaches used in adolescent studies

    PubMed Central

    Stoep, Ann Vander; Adrian, Molly C.; Rhew, Isaac C.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Herting, Jerald R.; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in commonly co-occurring depression and disruptive behavior disorders in children has yielded a small body of research that estimates the prevalence of this comorbid condition and compares children with the comorbid condition and children with depression or disruptive behavior disorders alone with respect to antecedents and outcomes. Prior studies have used one of two different approaches to measure comorbid disorders: 1) meeting criteria for two DSM or ICD diagnoses or 2) scoring .5 SD above the mean or higher on two dimensional scales. This study compares two snapshots of comorbidity taken simultaneously in the same sample with each of the measurement approaches. The Developmental Pathways Project administered structured diagnostic interviews as well as dimensional scales to a community-based sample of 521 11-12 year olds to assess depression and disruptive behavior disorders. Clinical caseness indicators of children identified as “comorbid” by each method were examined concurrently and 3-years later. Cross-classification of adolescents via the two approaches revealed low agreement. When other indicators of caseness, including functional impairment, need for services, and clinical elevations on other symptom scales were examined, adolescents identified as comorbid via dimensional scales only were similar to those who were identified as comorbid via DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Findings suggest that when relying solely on DSM diagnostic criteria for comorbid depression and disruptive behavior disorders, many adolescents with significant impairment will be overlooked. Findings also suggest that lower dimensional scale thresholds can be set when comorbid conditions, rather than single forms of psychopathology, are being identified. PMID:22575333

  16. Identifying comorbid depression and disruptive behavior disorders: comparison of two approaches used in adolescent studies.

    PubMed

    Vander Stoep, Ann; Adrian, Molly C; Rhew, Isaac C; McCauley, Elizabeth; Herting, Jerald R; Kraemer, Helena C

    2012-07-01

    Interest in commonly co-occurring depression and disruptive behavior disorders in children has yielded a small body of research that estimates the prevalence of this comorbid condition and compares children with the comorbid condition and children with depression or disruptive behavior disorders alone with respect to antecedents and outcomes. Prior studies have used one of two different approaches to measure comorbid disorders: (1) meeting criteria for two DSM or ICD diagnoses or (2) scoring .5 SD above the mean or higher on two dimensional scales. This study compares two snapshots of comorbidity taken simultaneously in the same sample with each of the measurement approaches. The Developmental Pathways Project administered structured diagnostic interviews as well as dimensional scales to a community-based sample of 521 11-12 year olds to assess depression and disruptive behavior disorders. Clinical caseness indicators of children identified as "comorbid" by each method were examined concurrently and 3-years later. Cross-classification of adolescents via the two approaches revealed low agreement. When other indicators of caseness, including functional impairment, need for services, and clinical elevations on other symptom scales were examined, adolescents identified as comorbid via dimensional scales only were similar to those who were identified as comorbid via DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Findings suggest that when relying solely on DSM diagnostic criteria for comorbid depression and disruptive behavior disorders, many adolescents with significant impairment will be overlooked. Findings also suggest that lower dimensional scale thresholds can be set when comorbid conditions, rather than single forms of psychopathology, are being identified.

  17. Concurrent attenuated reactivity of alpha-amylase and cortisol is related to disruptive behavior in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    de Vries-Bouw, Marjan; Jansen, Lucres; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo; van de Ven, Peter; Popma, Arne

    2012-06-01

    Attenuated reactivity of salivary alpha-amylase has been proposed as a specific sympathetic marker of disruptive behavior in juveniles and may have additional value to studying other autonomic parameters and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Investigating the interrelationships between neurobiological parameters in relation to juvenile disruptive behavior may enhance insight into the complex mechanisms at play. We investigated salivary alpha-amylase, cortisol, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) in response to a standardized public speaking task, and examined interactions between these parameters in relation to disruptive behavior. Participants were 48 delinquent male adolescents (mean age 18.4 years, SD 0.9), with and without a disruptive behavior disorder (resp. DP+, DP-) and 16 matched normal controls (NC). A structured psychiatric interview as well as the Youth Self Report and Child Behavior Checklist were administered to assess disruptive behavior. Alpha-amylase and cortisol reactivity, but not HR or HRV, showed significant inverse associations with dimensional measures of disruptive behavior. Moreover, both cortisol and alpha-amylase reactivity were significantly lower in the DP+ group as compared to the NC group. The mentioned relationships remained present when nicotine use was entered as a covariate. Combining alpha-amylase and cortisol in one model explained a larger part of the variance of disruptive behavior than either single parameter. There were no interactions between alpha-amylase and cortisol or HRV in relation to disruptive behavior. Attenuated alpha-amylase responsivity to stress is a correlate of disruptive behavior in late-adolescent males. Although nicotine use explains a considerable part of the variance of disruptive behavior, both alpha-amylase and cortisol are related to disruptive behavior, over and above the effect of nicotine use. Combining alpha-amylase and cortisol improved insight into neurobiological

  18. Preschool Behavioral and Social-Cognitive Problems as Predictors of (Pre)Adolescent Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age 10-12 and at age 13-15. ODD and ACD were assessed by…

  19. The relationship of brain structure to age and executive functioning in adolescent disruptive behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Tom A; Wang, Yang; Kronenberger, William G; Dunn, David W; Mathews, Vincent P

    2015-03-30

    Characterizing brain maturation in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) may provide insight into the progression of their behavioral deficits. Therefore, this study examined how age and executive functioning were related to structural neural characteristics in DBD. Thirty-three individuals (aged 13-17) with a DBD, along with a matched control sample, completed neuropsychological testing and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gray matter volume and microstructural white matter properties. Voxel-based morphometry quantified gray matter volume, and diffusion tensor imaging measured fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter tracts. In the anterior cingulate, gray matter volume decreased with age in healthy controls but showed no such change in the DBD sample. In the corpus callosum and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), FA increased with age in the control sample significantly more than in the DBD sample. Executive functioning, particularly working memory, was associated with SLF FA bilaterally. However, the relationship of SLF FA to working memory performance was weaker in the DBD sample. These data suggest that youth with DBD have altered brain development compared with typically developing youth. The abnormal maturation of the anterior cingulate and frontoparietal tracts during adolescence may contribute to the persistence of behavioral deficits in teens with a DBD.

  20. Relationship between Symptoms of Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Unsafe Internet Usage in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    VURAL, Pınar; UNCU, Yeşim; KILIÇ, Emine Zinnur

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Children and adolescents are at the highest risk for negative effects of internet usage. Risk taking and erroneous decision making have been described as major behavioral characteristics of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD and its association particularly with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder are correlated with risk-taking behaviors. This study was conducted to evaluate how disruptive behavior disorder symptoms are associated with internet usage, particularly unsafe internet usage, in early adolescents. Methods A sample of 1389 secondary school students was invited to the survey. All children were given an invitation letter and Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) forms were sent to their parents. The accepted participants filled in questionnaire forms, which consisted of questions interrogating demographic information and internet usage habits. Results Responses indicated that 27.4% (n=249) of the participants encountered unwanted content unintentionally and nearly one-third (n=280, 30.4%) had chatted online with people they did not know. Additionally, respondents who had more severe ADHD symptoms were more likely to report surfing online mainly for the purpose of chatting than respondents with milder ADHD symptoms. Students with comparatively higher attention deficit scores were also significantly more likely to report meeting in person with strangers they knew only from internet chatting. Analyses have demonstrated the presence of a significant difference between study participants with and without conduct disorder as for internet overusage or meeting with their internet acquaintances. Conclusion This study suggests that there may be a significant relation between ADHD symptoms, conduct disorder and pathological and unsafe internet usage. Evaluating adolescents with ADHD and conduct disorder with this risk in mind is important in the development of both preventive and interventional strategies.

  1. Joint Trajectories of Symptoms of Disruptive Behavior Problems and Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence and Adjustment Problems during Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Eddy, J. Mark; Dishion, Thomas J.; Reid, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The joint, longitudinal trajectories of symptoms of disruptive behavior problems and of depression were examined in a community sample drawn from neighborhoods with elevated rates of delinquency. Growth mixture modeling was applied to a 6 year transition period from childhood to adolescence, age 10 to 16 years, to identify latent classes of…

  2. Friend influence on early adolescent disruptive behavior in the classroom: Teacher emotional support matters.

    PubMed

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated how the level of disruptive behavior and friend influence on disruptive behavior varies across classrooms in relation to teacher emotional support. Data were collected from 48 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms (N = 879 students) and included classroom observations at Wave 1 and student reports of their disruptive behavior and peer nominations of their friends at Waves 1 and 2 (fall and spring of the school year, about 6 months apart). In the fall, there were no differences in the level of disruptive behavior between classes that were low versus high in teacher emotional support. However, by spring, disruptive behavior was higher in classes with low teacher emotional support compared to classes high in teacher emotional support. Social network analyses, conducted with stochastic actor-based models, indicated that students were more likely to become similar to their friends in regards to disruptive behavior in classes low in teacher emotional support compared to classes high in teacher emotional support. Thus, the level of disruptive behavior and students' susceptibility to friend influence on disruptive behavior depend on the nature of the classroom context. This study contributes to a growing body of research showing that teachers play an important role in shaping the nature of peer relationships in the classroom. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Friend Influence on Early Adolescent Disruptive Behavior in the Classroom: Teacher Emotional Support Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated how the level of disruptive behavior and friend influence on disruptive behavior varies across classrooms in relation to teacher emotional support. Data were collected from 48 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms (N = 879 students) and included classroom observations at Wave 1 and student reports of their disruptive…

  4. Transactional processes in child disruptive behavior and maternal depression: a longitudinal study from early childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gross, Heather E; Shaw, Daniel S; Burwell, Rebecca A; Nagin, Daniel S

    2009-01-01

    Although much has been written about the utility of applying Sameroff and Chandler's transactional perspective to the study of child psychopathology, relatively few researchers have used such an approach to trace the emergence of child problem behavior from infancy to adolescence. Using a sample of 289 male toddlers from predominantly low-income families, the current study examined associations between various forms of early child disruptive behavior, subsequent trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms over the course of 8 years, and adolescent problem behavior. Results indicated that early child noncompliance was the most robust predictor of more chronic and elevated trajectories of maternal depression, which in turn discriminated teacher and youth reports of adolescent antisocial behavior but not internalizing symptoms. The findings were consistent with transactional perspectives of developmental psychopathology that have emphasized the dynamic interplay between child and parent characteristics.

  5. Joint trajectories of symptoms of disruptive behavior problems and depressive symptoms during early adolescence and adjustment problems during emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Reinke, Wendy M; Eddy, J Mark; Dishion, Thomas J; Reid, John B

    2012-10-01

    The joint, longitudinal trajectories of symptoms of disruptive behavior problems and of depression were examined in a community sample drawn from neighborhoods with elevated rates of delinquency. Growth mixture modeling was applied to a 6 year transition period from childhood to adolescence, age 10 to 16 years, to identify latent classes of trajectories for each symptom type. Several classes emerged for the two types of symptoms, namely a group of youth with high levels of disruptive behavior, a group with increasing levels, and a group with low levels, as well as a group with increasing levels of depression, a group with high levels, a group with decreasing levels, and a group with low levels. Within each symptom type, membership in either the high or in the increasing classes was related to a variety of problematic outcomes during emerging adulthood. The co-occurrence of the disruptive behavior and depression classes was then evaluated using parallel process analysis. Youth exhibiting high depressive symptoms were at increased risk for disruptive behavior problems, and youth with increasing disruptive behavior problems were at risk for depressive symptoms. However, only a very small number of youth had both a high depression trajectory and a high disruptive behavior trajectory. Implications of the findings for the design of prevention and treatment programs are discussed.

  6. Association Between Childhood Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Constantin, Evelyn; Low, Nancy C P; Dugas, Erika; Karp, Igor; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and disruptive behavior disorders in 605 children participating in a population-based cohort study. Nineteen percent of children snored (sometimes or often) and 10% had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) symptoms. Thirteen percent had an ADHD diagnosis or symptoms and 5-9% had behavioral problems or a conduct disorder. Snoring or OSA symptoms were associated with a twofold difference in the odds of ADHD diagnosis or symptoms. OSA symptoms were associated with a threefold to fourfold difference in the odds of behavioral problems or conduct disorder. Clinicians should consider inquiring about SDB in children with disruptive behavior disorders and should also consider disruptive behavior disorders as potential sequelae of SDB.

  7. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure and Whisker Clipping Disrupt Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Play Behavior in Adolescent Rats

    PubMed Central

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Yang, Tianqi; Ho, Eric; Wellmann, Kristen A.; Mooney, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure can result in social deficits in humans and animals, including altered social interaction and poor communication. Rats exposed to ethanol prenatally show reduced play fighting, and a combination of prenatal ethanol exposure and neonatal whisker clipping further reduces play fighting compared with ethanol exposure alone. In this study, we explored whether expression of hedonic ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) correlated with the number of playful attacks by ethanol-exposed rats, rats subjected to postnatal sensory deprivation by whisker clipping or both compared to control animals. In normally developing rats, hedonic USVs precede such interactions and correlate with the number of play interactions exhibited in dyads. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet or a control diet. After birth, male and female pups from each litter were randomly assigned to the whisker-clipped or non-whisker-clipped condition. Animals underwent a social interaction test with a normally developing play partner during early or late-adolescence. USVs were recorded during play. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduced both play and hedonic USVs in early adolescence compared to control rats and persistently reduced social play. Interestingly, ethanol exposure, whisker clipping and the combination abolished the significant correlation between hedonic USVs and social play detected in control rats in early adolescence. This relationship remained disrupted in late adolescence only in rats subjected to both prenatal ethanol and whisker clipping. Thus, both insults more persistently disrupted the relationship between social communication and social play. PMID:27690116

  8. School-based interventions for disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Lee, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Youth disruptive behavior is a concern for youth, school personnel,families, and society. Early childhood disruptive behaviors negatively impact the classroom, and are associated with negative academic, social, behavioral, emotional, substance use, health, and justice system outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. Effective, comprehensive, multicomponent interventions targeting risk/protective factors and pathways associated with antisocial behavior reduce and/or mitigate these negative outcomes. Positive effects have been demonstrated for universal and indicated programs for participating youth and families in early childhood, and for high-risk youth in adolescence and young adulthood. These empirically supported programs inform the treatment of complex and difficult-to-treat disruptive behavior.

  9. Adolescents' Demonstrative Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfilova, Gulfiya G.; Karimova, Lilia Sh.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of demonstrative behavior is very topical among teenagers and this issue has become the subject of systematic scientific research. Demonstrative manifestations in adolescents disrupt the favorable socialization; therefore, understanding, prevention and correction of demonstrative behavior at this age is relevant and requires special…

  10. The Role of Co-Occurring Disruptive Behavior in the Clinical Presentation of Children and Adolescents with Anxiety in the Context of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Jones, Anna M.; Ale, Chelsea M.; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the impact of disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) comorbidity on theoretically relevant correlates among 87 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and clinically significant anxiety. Relative to youth with ASD and anxiety alone, participants with ASD, anxiety, and DBD: (a) presented with significantly more…

  11. Reciprocal Relationships between Parenting Behavior and Disruptive Psychopathology from Childhood through Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Pardini, Dustin A.; Loeber, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that child behaviors influence parenting behaviors, and specifically that unpleasant child behaviors coerce parents to discontinue engaging in appropriate discipline. This study examined reciprocal relationships between parenting behaviors (supervision, communication, involvement, timid discipline and harsh punishment)…

  12. Adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol intake and impairs fear extinction in adulthood: Possible role of disrupted noradrenergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Skelly, M J; Chappell, A E; Carter, E; Weiner, J L

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid, and exposure to chronic stress during adolescence may increase the incidence of these conditions in adulthood. Efforts to identify the common stress-related mechanisms driving these disorders have been hampered, in part, by a lack of reliable preclinical models that replicate their comorbid symptomatology. Prior work by us, and others, has shown that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behaviors and voluntary ethanol consumption in adult male Long-Evans rats. Here we examined whether social isolation also produces deficiencies in extinction of conditioned fear, a hallmark symptom of PTSD. Additionally, as disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to alcoholism, we examined the effect of anxiolytic medications that target noradrenergic signaling on ethanol intake following adolescent social isolation. Our results confirm and extend previous findings that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and enhances ethanol intake and preference in adulthood. Additionally, social isolation is associated with a significant deficit in the extinction of conditioned fear and a marked increase in the ability of noradrenergic therapeutics to decrease ethanol intake. These results suggest that adolescent social isolation not only leads to persistent increases in anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol consumption, but also disrupts fear extinction, and as such may be a useful preclinical model of stress-related psychopathology. Our data also suggest that disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to escalated ethanol drinking following social isolation, thus further highlighting the potential utility of noradrenergic therapeutics in treating the deleterious behavioral sequelae associated with early life stress.

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Disruptive Behaviors and Adolescent Delinquency: A Six-Site, Cross-National Study

    PubMed Central

    Broidy, Lisa M.; Tremblay, Richard E.; Brame, Bobby; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John L.; Laird, Robert; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Loeber, Rolf; Lynam, Donald R.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Vitaro, Frank

    2009-01-01

    This study used data from 6 sites and 3 countries to examine the developmental course of physical aggression in childhood and to analyze its linkage to violent and nonviolent offending outcomes in adolescence. The results indicate that among boys there is continuity in problem behavior from childhood to adolescence and that such continuity is especially acute when early problem behavior takes the form of physical aggression. Chronic physical aggression during the elementary school years specifically increases the risk for continued physical violence as well as other nonviolent forms of delinquency during adolescence. However, this conclusion is reserved primarily for boys, because the results indicate no clear linkage between childhood physical aggression and adolescent offending among female samples despite notable similarities across male and female samples in the developmental course of physical aggression in childhood. PMID:12661883

  14. Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Adolescents with ASD: Comparisons to Youth with Intellectual Disability or Typical Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Dual diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and behavior problems and/or mental disorders has become increasingly recognized and studied. Reported rates in samples of mixed-age youth with ASD are often above 70%, making this comorbidity more the rule than the exception. The present study compared rates of disruptive behavior disorder…

  15. The interacting role of media violence exposure and aggressive-disruptive behavior in adolescent brain activation during an emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Kalnin, Andrew J; Edwards, Chad R; Wang, Yang; Kronenberger, William G; Hummer, Tom A; Mosier, Kristine M; Dunn, David W; Mathews, Vincent P

    2011-04-30

    Only recently have investigations of the relationship between media violence exposure (MVE) and aggressive behavior focused on brain functioning. In this study, we examined the relationship between brain activation and history of media violence exposure in adolescents, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Samples of adolescents with no psychiatric diagnosis or with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) with aggression were compared to investigate whether the association of MVE history and brain activation is moderated by aggressive behavior/personality. Twenty-two adolescents with a history of aggressive behavior and diagnosis of either conduct disorder or oppositional-defiant disorder (DBD sample) and 22 controls completed an emotional Stroop task during fMRI. Primary imaging results indicated that controls with a history of low MVE demonstrated greater activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and rostral anterior cingulate during the violent word condition. In contrast, in adolescents with DBD, those with high MVE exhibited decreased activation in the right amygdala, compared with those with low MVE. These findings are consistent with research demonstrating the importance of fronto-limbic structures for processing emotional stimuli, and with research suggesting that media violence may affect individuals in different ways depending on the presence of aggressive traits.

  16. Parent Report of ADHD Symptoms of Early Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Finney, Sara J.; Evans, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    The Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) scale includes the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. This study examined only the ADHD items of the DBD scale. This scale is frequently used for assessing parent-…

  17. Disruptive behavior disorders and indicators of disinhibition in adolescents: The BRIEF-SR, anti-saccade task, and D-KEFS color-word interference test.

    PubMed

    Long, E C; Hill, J; Luna, B; Verhulst, B; Clark, D B

    2015-10-01

    Disinhibition contributes to the development of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in adolescents. Self-reports and behavioral tasks are commonly used to assess disinhibition, each with their unique strengths and limitations. Accordingly, it is important to identify which measure, or combination thereof, is the most effective in predicting DBD symptoms. This study assessed the relationship between DBD (symptoms of ADHD/ODD/CD) and two behavioral disinhibition tasks: the anti-saccade task and the D-KEFS color-word interference test, as well as a self-report measure (the BRIEF-SR). The results indicated that the BRIEF-Inhibit scale accounted for the majority of the variance in the DBD sum score. The anti-saccade task and color-word interference test were also significantly associated with an increase in the number of DBD symptoms endorsed. These behavioral tasks accounted for 9% additional variance than the self-report alone. Therefore, combining self-report measures with behavioral disinhibition tasks may provide the most thorough assessment of adolescent DBD.

  18. Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... ODD or CD, and well-planned classroom behavioral techniques in his mainstream classroom have been ineffective, this may lead to a decision to place him in a special classroom at school that is set up for more intensive behavior management. However, schools are mandated to educate your child ...

  19. Efficacy of a multimodal treatment for disruptive behavior disorders in children and adolescents: focus on internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Masi, Gabriele; Milone, Annarita; Paciello, Marinella; Lenzi, Francesca; Muratori, Pietro; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Lochman, John E; Muratori, Filippo

    2014-11-30

    Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are among the most common reasons for youth referrals to mental health clinics. Aim of this study is to compare short and medium term efficacy of a multimodal treatment program (MTP), compared to community care (treatment-as-usual, TAU). The sample included 135 youths with DBDs (113 males, age range 9-15 years, mean age 12±2.5 years) were assigned either to a MTP (n=64), or addressed to community care for a TAU (n=71). Outcome measures were the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). All subjects were assessed at the baseline (T0), after 1-year treatment (T1) and after a 2-year follow-up (T2). Compared with patients receiving TAU, youths in the MTP showed, both at T1 and T2, significantly lower scores on CBCL Externalizing Scale, Internalizing Scale, Anxious/Depressed, Social Problems, and Aggressive Behavior, and higher scores at the C-GAS. Improvement in Internalizing Scales was particularly evident, with a shift from the clinical to the non-clinical range. Rate of use of mental health services and scholastic failure were reduced in the MTP. It is suggested that the improvement of the Internalizing symptoms is a crucial component of the therapeutic process in this MTP.

  20. Dealing with Disruptive Behavior of Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobmeier, Robert; Moran, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The adult education literature on disruptive behavior of adult learners was reviewed and a survey on disruptive behavior of adult learners was conducted with adult educators. The findings are synthesized in a conceptual framework for understanding the types and causes of disruptive behavior, which fall into the categories of inattention,…

  1. The application of Herrnstein's law of effect to disruptive and on-task behavior of a retarded adolescent girl.

    PubMed Central

    Martens, B K; Houk, J L

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate Herrnstein's law of effect as a description of socially significant behavior in an applied setting. The subject was an 18-year-old retarded girl with a history of autistic-like and aggressive behavior. Using a baseline design for two response classes and stimulus conditions, eight categories of subject and staff behavior were monitored over a 3-week period. A computerized observation system, developed for use in the present investigation, was used to obtain real-time durations of the behavior categories alone and in combination. Overlapping durations of teacher and subject behavior were then correlated to yield approximations to a functional definition of reinforcement. Plots of behavior by contingent reinforcement revealed a hyperbolic relationship for each response class, the shape of which varied as a function of extraneous reinforcement r0. In addition, estimated parameters in Herrnstein's equation did not differ significantly from those obtained through independent observation. Finally, Herrnstein's equation accounted for an average 63% of variance in response allocation. Results are discussed in terms of the relevance of matching-law theory to behavior in applied settings. PMID:2921585

  2. Examining the Impact of a Positive Behavior Support Program and Direct Instruction of Social and Emotional Learning Skills on the Externalizing Behaviors of Disruptive Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Darla Renee

    2014-01-01

    Many adolescent disruptive youth in Pennsylvania are removed from traditional school settings for externalizing behaviors including aggression, defying authority, poor relationships with peers and adults, disruptive behaviors, and bullying. Post-school outcomes of adolescent disruptive youth remain dismal, and these students are the most…

  3. Using self-monitoring with an adolescent with disruptive classroom behavior: preliminary analysis of the role of adult feedback.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Kurt A; Dexter-Mazza, Elizabeth T

    2004-05-01

    Current research supports the effectiveness of self-monitoring strategies for addressing academic and behavioral challenges within educational settings. Although variations in procedures exist, frequently implementation of self-monitoring involves some form of adult feedback as a method of establishing accurate self-monitoring. To date, however, researchers have not systematically evaluated whether adult feedback is a necessary component for self-monitoring to be effective. In the current investigation, the influence of adult feedback on the effectiveness of self-monitoring was analyzed. The participant was a 13-year-old student receiving educational services in a special education school at a residential facility for youth with conduct problems. The effectiveness of self-monitoring with and without adult feedback was compared. Results suggest that adult feedback may be an important component for establishing self-monitoring as an effective intervention for behavior problems exhibited in academic settings.

  4. Addressing the phenomenon of disruptive physician behavior.

    PubMed

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2003-01-01

    This timely article provides current information on an age-old issue of disruptive physician behavior within the hospital setting. Documented in medical literature over 100 years ago, disruptive physician behavior has been an ongoing challenge to the hospital staff and the quality of patient care in the hospital. Covered in this article are the negative consequences of disruptive physician behavior and the call to respond. If allowed to go unchecked, a physician exhibiting disruptive behavior may threaten a hospital's image, staff morale, finance, and quality of care. Failure to respond undermines the leadership of the hospital and the trust of the community in the hospital's mission. Included in this article are suggestions obtained from the literature and from the author's experience in responding to disruptive physician behavior. Of emphasis is a methodology that includes supporting bylaws and policies to manage disruptive physician behavior.

  5. A proactive classroom management model to enhance self-efficacy levels in teachers of adolescents who display disruptive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pace, Rolanda T; Boykins, Anita D; Davis, Sheila P

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this project were to determine teachers' self-efficacy levels at baseline and after participating in a proactive classroom management model intervention. Teachers (N = 26) were recruited from a rural middle school in a south central state. Data required for analysis were drawn from the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (long form). A statistically significant difference (t[25] = 7.68, p < 0.001) was noted in teachers' self-efficacy levels from pre- to post-intervention. Findings support the need for proactive classroom management training for teachers as well as the need for psychiatric and mental health nurse consultants within the school system. Teacher classroom management strategies should also include appropriate response to individual student's needs, effective communication, and insight regarding the behaviors of students from diverse backgrounds.

  6. The Implementation of a Video-Enhanced Aikido-Based School Violence Prevention Training Program To Reduce Disruptive and Assaultive Behaviors among Severely Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelman, Andrew J.

    The martial art of Aikido was used as an intervention with 15 middle and high school students with severe emotional disturbances in an alternative educational setting. Students with an extensive history of violently disruptive and assaultive behaviors were trained for 12 weeks in this nonviolent Japanese martial art in order to achieve the…

  7. Behavioral Parent Training as a Treatment for Externalizing Behaviors and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, Denita R.; Christiansen, Elizabeth; Jenson, William R.; Olympia, Daniel; Clark, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    A meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of Behavioral Parent Training for children and adolescents with externalizing behaviors and disruptive behavior disorders was conducted with 79 outcome studies conducted between 1966 and 2001. Separate analyses were conducted for studies employing between-subjects, within-subjects, and single-subject…

  8. Sexual Behavior of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Hilmar

    1978-01-01

    Confined to discussion of heterosexual activities, this article examines adolescent sexual behavior in terms of promiscuity; the search for a sexual behavior code; the impact of the media; and the influence of peer groups, religious identification, and the adult double standard. (JC)

  9. Preventive Effects of Treatment of Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Middle Childhood on Substance Use and Delinquent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zonnevylle-Bender, Marjo J. S.; Matthys, Walter; van de Wiel, Nicolle M. H.; Lochman, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) is a well-known risk factor for substance abuse and delinquent behavior in adolescence. Therefore, the long-term preventive effects of treatment of DBD in middle childhood on beginning substance use and delinquency in early adolescence were investigated. Method: Children with DBD (8-13 years old) had…

  10. A Comparative Study of Group Contingencies and Randomized Reinforcers to Reduce Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodore, Lea A.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation employed an alternating treatments design to (1) examine the efficacy of group contingencies in the reduction of disruptive behavior, and (2) compare the effects of independent, interdependent, and dependent group contingencies in the reduction of disruptive behavior in adolescent males identified with serious emotional…

  11. Social ties and adolescent sleep disruption.

    PubMed

    Maume, David J

    2013-01-01

    Teens tend go to bed later, get less sleep, and report more daytime sleepiness. Medical research emphasizes biological determinants of teens' disrupted sleep (i.e., the timing of puberty and resultant drops in melatonin), rarely or inadequately considering youths' social ties as a determinant of sleep behaviors. Sociologists recognize how social ties affect health behaviors but have generally neglected sleep, especially among teens. Drawing on a sample of 974 teens from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, this study controls for developmental and social relational factors to predict changes in youths' sleep patterns between 12 and 15 years of age. In general, social relational factors outperform developmental factors in determining youths' sleep patterns, particularly pointing to the importance of parental, peer, and school ties in promoting healthy sleep behaviors. The implications of these findings for further research are briefly discussed.

  12. Structuring the Classroom to Prevent Disruptive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainback, William; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Specific suggestions to help teachers structure the classroom to prevent disruptive behaviors are offered in the areas of physical arrangement and "traffic rules" time management, assignments, grouping practices, classroom atmosphere, and professional demeanor. (DB)

  13. Tracking Effects of Problematic Social Networking on Adolescent Psychopathology: The Mediating Role of Sleep Disruptions.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Lynette; Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L

    2017-01-01

    Concerns are growing about adolescents' problematic social networking and possible links to depressed mood and externalizing behavior. Yet there remains little understanding of underlying processes that may account for these associations, including the mediating role of sleep disruption. This study tests this putative mediating process and examines change in problematic social networking investment and disrupted sleep, in relation to change in depressed mood and externalizing behavior. A sample of 874 students (41% male; 57.2% Caucasian; baseline M age = 14.4 years) from 27 high schools were surveyed. Participants' problematic social networking, sleep disruption, and psychopathology (depressed mood, externalizing behaviors) were measured annually over 3 years. Longitudinal mediation was tested using latent trajectories of problematic social networking use, sleep disruption, and psychopathology. Both problematic social networking and sleep disruption underwent positive linear growth over time. Adolescents who increasingly invested in social networking reported increased depressed mood, with around 53% of this association explained by the indirect effect of increased sleep disruptions. Further, adolescents who increasingly invested in social networking also reported increased externalizing behavior; some of this relation was explained (13%) via increased sleep disruptions. However an alternative model in which increased externalizing was associated with increased social networking, mediated by sleep disruptions, indicated a reciprocal relation of similar magnitude. It is important for parents, teachers, and psychologists to minimize the negative effects of social networking on adolescents' psychopathology. Interventions should potentially target promoting healthy sleep habits through reductions in social networking investment and rescheduling usage away from bedtime.

  14. The developmental impact of two first grade preventive interventions on aggressive/disruptive behavior in childhood and adolescence: an application of latent transition growth mixture modeling.

    PubMed

    Petras, Hanno; Masyn, Katherine; Ialongo, Nick

    2011-09-01

    We examine the impact of two universal preventive interventions in first grade on the growth of aggressive/disruptive behavior in grades 1-3 and 6-12 through the application of a latent transition growth mixture model (LT-GMM). Both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions were designed to reduce the risk for later conduct problems by enhancing the child behavior management practices of teachers and parents, respectively. We first modeled growth trajectories in each of the two time periods with separate GMMs. We then associated latent trajectory classes of aggressive/disruptive behavior across the two time periods using a transition model for the corresponding latent class variables. Subsequently, we tested whether the interventions had direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 1-3 and 6-12. For males, both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions had significant direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 6-12, whereas only the classroom-centered intervention had a significant effect on class membership in grades 1-3. Significant direct effects for females were confined to grades 1-3 for the classroom-centered intervention. Further analyses revealed that both the classroom-centered and family-centered intervention males were significantly more likely than control males to transition from the high trajectory class in grades 1-3 to a low class in grades 6-12. Effects for females in classroom-centered interventions went in the hypothesized direction but did not reach significance.

  15. Elevated Childhood Serotonergic Function Protects against Adolescent Aggression in Disruptive Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Schulz, Kurt P.; Marks, David J.; Sharma, Vanshdeep; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This longitudinal study examined whether responsiveness of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in childhood predicts adolescent aggression. Method: Boys (N = 33) with disruptive behavior disorders who received assessments of central 5-HT function via the prolactin response to fenfluramine between 1990 and 1994 when they were 7 to 11…

  16. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls’ Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

  17. Preschool children's observed disruptive behavior: variations across sex, interactional context, and disruptive psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah A O; Carter, Alice S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in disruptive behavior and sensitivity to social context are documented, but the intersection between them is rarely examined empirically. This report focuses on sex differences in observed disruptive behavior across interactional contexts and diagnostic status. Preschoolers (n = 327) were classified as nondisruptive (51%), clinically at risk (26%), and disruptive (23%) using parent and teacher reports on developmentally validated measures of disruptive behavior and impairment. Observed disruptive behavior was measured with the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule, a developmentally sensitive observational paradigm characterizing variation in preschoolers' disruptive behavior across two interactional contexts (parent and examiner). Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed a three-way interaction of child sex by diagnostic status by interactional context (F = 9.81, p < .001). Disruptive boys were the only subgroup whose behavior was not sensitive to interactional context: They displayed comparable levels of disruptive behavior with parents and examiners. In contrast, disruptive girls demonstrated the strongest context effect of any group. Specifically, with the examiner, disruptive girls' behavior was comparable to nondisruptive boys (though still more elevated than nondisruptive girls). However, in interactions with their mothers, disruptive girls displayed the highest rates of disruptive behavior of any subgroup in any context, although the difference between disruptive boys and disruptive girls in this context was not statistically significant. Findings suggest the importance of sex-specific conceptualizations of disruptive behavior in young children that take patterns across social contexts into account.

  18. The influence of risperidone on attentional functions in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and co-morbid disruptive behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Günther, Thomas; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Jolles, Jellemer; Konrad, Kerstin

    2006-12-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of risperidone on various attentional functions, including intensity and selectivity aspects of attention plus inhibitory control in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with co-morbid Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) and normal IQ. Children with ADHD and DBD, aged 8-15 years, were treated with risperidone (mean daily dose: 1.5 mg; n = 23) and examined with three attentional paradigms before and after a 4-week treatment period. Age- and IQ-matched normal controls (n = 23) were also tested without medication on the same two occasions. No influence of the medication could be detected for any neuropsychological variable, neither as a positive enhancement nor as adverse side effects. However, clinical symptoms of ADHD and DBD assessed on the IOWA Conners Scale significantly improved after the 4-week treatment period. Divergent behavioral and cognitive effects of risperidone on ADHD symptoms were observed, with a significant reduction in behavioral symptoms, whereas no positive treatment effects were found on laboratory tasks of impulsivity. Thus, the cognitive effects of risperidone seem to differ from the cognitive effects of stimulant treatments in children with ADHD + DBD. However, no negative impact of risperidone was observed on attentional functions either, i.e., there was no slowing of cognitive speed.

  19. Relationship between impulsiveness and deviant behavior among adolescents in the classroom: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Angeles; Tabernero, Carmen

    2011-12-01

    To assess the relationship between impulsiveness and deviant behavior among 103 adolescents, taking into account their sociodemographic characteristics, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and a self-assessment measure with regard to disruptive and deviant behaviors which had occurred in the last 90 days were used. The results show that impulsiveness and disruptive behavior in the classroom were related to deviant behavior outside of the classroom. Therefore, age and sex explained the relationship between impulsiveness and behavior. The older adolescents and the girls showed less disruptive behaviors than the younger participants and the boys; both variables showed an interactive effect on disruptive behavior. The age at which sexual activity commenced and the number of sexual partners were also significantly related to impulsiveness and disruptive and deviant behavior. Similarly, impulsiveness was shown to have a significant relationship with disruptive and deviant behavior, and disruptive behavior was shown to have a significant relationship with deviant behavior.

  20. Empathy in Boys with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wied, Minet; Goudena, Paul P.; Matthys, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Background: The present study examined empathy in 8- to 12-year-old clinically referred boys with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) (n = 25) and age-matched normal controls (n = 24). Method: Situational empathy was assessed by children's emotional and cognitive responses to six empathy-inducing vignettes (displaying sadness, anger or happiness).…

  1. The Structure of Childhood Disruptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.; Gremillion, Monica; Roberts, Bethan; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) frequently co-occur. Comorbidity of these 2 childhood disruptive behavior domains has not been satisfactorily explained at either a structural or etiological level. The current study evaluated a bifactor model, which allows for a "g" factor in addition to…

  2. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  3. Physician disruptive behaviors: Five year progress report

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, Alan H

    2015-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors in health care can have a significant adverse effect on staff interactions that can negatively impact staff satisfaction, staff performance, and patient outcomes of care. As referenced in a previously published article, the Obstetrics and Gynecology specialty is one of the service areas where these behaviors occur more frequently. Despite growing evidence of the ill effects of these types of behaviors many organizations are still having a difficult time in addressing these issues in an effective manner. Gaining a better understanding of the nature, causes, and impact of these behaviors is crucial to finding the right remedies for solution. Nobody intentionally starts the day planning to be disruptive, it’s just that things get in the way. A combination of deep seated factors related to age and gender preferences, culture and ethnicity, life experiences, and other events that help shape values, attitudes and personalities, and more external factors related to training, environmental pressures, stress and burnout, and other personal issues all contribute to the mix. Given the complexities of today’s health care environment, each person needs to recognize the importance of being held accountable for appropriate actions and behaviors that affect work relationships and care coordination that impact patient care. Early recognition, early intervention, and taking a pro-active supportive approach to improve individual behaviors will result in better relationships, less disruption, more satisfaction, and better outcomes of care. PMID:26601095

  4. Physician disruptive behaviors: Five year progress report.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Alan H

    2015-11-16

    Disruptive behaviors in health care can have a significant adverse effect on staff interactions that can negatively impact staff satisfaction, staff performance, and patient outcomes of care. As referenced in a previously published article, the Obstetrics and Gynecology specialty is one of the service areas where these behaviors occur more frequently. Despite growing evidence of the ill effects of these types of behaviors many organizations are still having a difficult time in addressing these issues in an effective manner. Gaining a better understanding of the nature, causes, and impact of these behaviors is crucial to finding the right remedies for solution. Nobody intentionally starts the day planning to be disruptive, it's just that things get in the way. A combination of deep seated factors related to age and gender preferences, culture and ethnicity, life experiences, and other events that help shape values, attitudes and personalities, and more external factors related to training, environmental pressures, stress and burnout, and other personal issues all contribute to the mix. Given the complexities of today's health care environment, each person needs to recognize the importance of being held accountable for appropriate actions and behaviors that affect work relationships and care coordination that impact patient care. Early recognition, early intervention, and taking a pro-active supportive approach to improve individual behaviors will result in better relationships, less disruption, more satisfaction, and better outcomes of care.

  5. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males;72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity, in preschool girls.

  6. The Effects of Family Disruption on Adolescent Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Elisa J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of separation and divorce on adolescents' (N=217) self-image, anxiety, locus of control, and perception of their family. Results indicated males from disrupted homes had better self-concepts and better perceptions of their family environment than those from intact homes. The opposite results were found among females. (JAC)

  7. An Adoption Study of Parental Depression as an Environmental Liability for Adolescent Depression and Childhood Disruptive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Erin C.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Objective The authors used an adoption study design to investigate environmental influences on risk for psychopathology in adolescents with depressed parents. Method Participants were 568 adopted adolescents ascertained through large adoption agencies, 416 nonadopted adolescents ascertained through birth records, and their parents. Clinical interviews with parents and adolescents were used to determine lifetime DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of major depressive disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and substance use disorders in adolescents and major depression in mothers and fathers. Effects of parental depression (either parent with major depression, maternal major depression, and paternal major depression) on adolescent psychopathology were tested in nonadopted and adopted adolescents separately, and interactive effects of parental depression and adoption status were tested. Results Either parent having major depression and a mother having major depression were associated with a significantly greater risk for major depression and disruptive behavior disorders in both nonadopted and adopted adolescents. Paternal depression did not have a main effect on any psychiatric disorder in adolescents and, with one exception (ADHD in adopted adolescents), did not predict significantly greater likelihoods of disorders in either nonadopted or adopted adolescents. Conclusions Maternal depression was an environmental liability for lifetime diagnoses of major depression and disruptive disorders in adolescents. Paternal depression was not associated with an increased risk for psychopathology in adolescents. PMID:18558644

  8. Policy development for disruptive student behaviors.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cynthia M; Farnsworth, Judy; Springer, Pamela J

    2008-01-01

    Nursing students who demonstrate disruptive and at-risk behaviors in the classroom and clinical arena compromise the learning environment and are unable to provide safe, quality client care. They require early and swift identification, consultation, sanctions, or possible referral into treatment to protect themselves and public safety. The authors describe the evolution of a comprehensive policy for faculty intervention with at-risk students and provide an exemplar of a situation illustrating the use of the policy.

  9. Adolescent Behavior Change: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Educational Programs and Studies Information Service.

    This focus paper contains reprints of 11 articles intended to provide an overview of the key issues in the area of adolescent behavior change as it relates to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) education. Included are: (1) "Preventing HIV Infection and AIDS in Children and Adolescents" (J.…

  10. A CIT Investigation of Disruptive Faculty Behaviors: The Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, K. Douglas; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent focus on disruptive student behaviors in the classroom, little attention has been given to disruptive faculty behaviors. Utilizing theoretical concepts developed in the services-marketing literature, this study empirically explores student perceptions of disruptive faculty behaviors in the classroom. More specifically, this…

  11. Do Clinician Disruptive Behaviors Make an Unsafe Environment for Patients?

    PubMed

    Dang, Deborah; Bae, Sung-Heui; Karlowicz, Karen A; Kim, Miyong T

    2016-01-01

    The magnitude of negative consequences of clinician disruptive behaviors on patients and clinicians was examined using data collected from 1559 clinicians working at an urban academic medical center in the United States. For the impact of disruptive behavior on patient safety, psychological aggression as caused by disruptive behavior or incivility increased the likelihood of patient harm as well as job dissatisfaction and physical symptoms.

  12. Genetic influences on adolescent behavior.

    PubMed

    Dick, Danielle M; Adkins, Amy E; Kuo, Sally I-Chun

    2016-11-01

    Adolescence is a transitional, developmental phase with marked shifts in behavior, particularly as related to risk-taking and experimentation. Genetic influences on adolescent behavior also show marked changes across this developmental period; in fact, adolescence showcases the dynamic nature of genetic influences on human behavior. Using the twin studies literature on alcohol use and misuse, we highlight several principles of genetic influence on adolescent behavior. We illustrate how genetic influences change (increase) across adolescence, as individuals have more freedom to express their predispositions and to shape their social worlds. We show how there are multiple genetic pathways to risk, and how the environment can moderate the importance of genetic predispositions. Finally, we review the literature aimed at identifying specific genes involved in adolescent behavior and understanding how identified genes impact adolescent outcomes. Ultimately, understanding how genetic predispositions combine with environmental influences to impact pathways of risk and resilience should be translated into improved prevention and intervention efforts; this remains a rich area for future research.

  13. An organizational assessment of disruptive clinician behavior: findings and implications.

    PubMed

    Walrath, Jo M; Dang, Deborah; Nyberg, Dorothy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated registered nurses' (RNs) and physicians' (MD) experiences with disruptive behavior, triggers, responses, and impacts on clinicians, patients, and the organization. Using the Disruptive Clinician Behavior Survey for Hospital Settings, it was found that RNs experienced a significantly higher frequency of disruptive behaviors and triggers than MDs; MDs (45% of 295) and RNs (37% of 689) reported that their peer's disruptive behavior affected them most negatively. The most frequently occurring trigger was pressure from high census, volume, and patient flow; 189 incidences of harm to patients as a result of disruptive behavior were reported. Findings provide organizational leaders with evidence to customize interventions to strengthen the culture of safety.

  14. Estrogens Can Disrupt Amphibian Mating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Frauke; Kloas, Werner

    2012-01-01

    The main component of classical contraceptives, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), has high estrogenic activity even at environmentally relevant concentrations. Although estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds are assumed to contribute to the worldwide decline of amphibian populations by adverse effects on sexual differentiation, evidence for EE2 affecting amphibian mating behaviour is lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that EE2 exposure at five different concentrations (0.296 ng/L, 2.96 ng/L, 29.64 ng/L, 2.96 µg/L and 296.4 µg/L) can disrupt the mating behavior of adult male Xenopus laevis. EE2 exposure at all concentrations lowered male sexual arousal, indicated by decreased proportions of advertisement calls and increased proportions of the call type rasping, which characterizes a sexually unaroused state of a male. Additionally, EE2 at all tested concentrations affected temporal and spectral parameters of the advertisement calls, respectively. The classical and highly sensitive biomarker vitellogenin, on the other hand, was only induced at concentrations equal or higher than 2.96 µg/L. If kept under control conditions after a 96 h EE2 exposure (2.96 µg/L), alterations of male advertisement calls vanish gradually within 6 weeks and result in a lower sexual attractiveness of EE2 exposed males toward females as demonstrated by female choice experiments. These findings indicate that exposure to environmentally relevant EE2 concentrations can directly disrupt male mate calling behavior of X. laevis and can indirectly affect the mating behavior of females. The results suggest the possibility that EE2 exposure could reduce the reproductive success of EE2 exposed animals and these effects might contribute to the global problem of amphibian decline. PMID:22355410

  15. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Experiencing Parents' Marital Disruption during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2007-01-01

    Using panel data from 9,252 adolescents in the National Education Longitudinal Study, this study finds that among children who experience parents' marital disruption during late adolescence, European, Asian, and African American adolescents exhibit wider and greater maladjustment both before and after the disruption than their Hispanic American…

  16. Suicidal Behavior among Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, F. Jill

    There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…

  17. Neuroimaging findings in disruptive behavior disorders.

    PubMed

    Baker, Rosalind H; Clanton, Roberta L; Rogers, Jack C; De Brito, Stéphane A

    2015-08-01

    Decades of research have shown that youths with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are a heterogeneous population. Over the past 20 years, researchers have distinguished youths with DBD as those displaying high (DBD/HCU) versus low (DBD/LCU) callous-unemotional (CU) traits. These traits include flat affect and reduced empathy and remorse, and are associated with more severe, varied, and persistent patterns of antisocial behavior and aggression. Conduct problems in youths with HCU and LCU are thought to reflect distinct causal vulnerabilities, with antisocial behavior in youths with DBD/HCU reflecting a predominantly genetic etiology, while antisocial behavior in youths with DBD/LCU is associated primarily with environmental influences. Here we selectively review recent functional (fMRI) and structural (sMRI) magnetic resonance imaging research on DBD, focusing particularly on the role of CU traits. First, fMRI studies examining the neural correlates of affective stimuli, emotional face processing, empathy, theory of mind, morality, and decision-making in DBD are discussed. This is followed by a review of the studies investigating brain structure and structural connectivity in DBD. Next, we highlight the need to further investigate females and the role of sex differences in this population. We conclude the review by identifying potential clinical implications of this research.

  18. Conditioned place preference induced by social play behavior: parametrics, extinction, reinstatement and disruption by methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Trezza, Viviana; Damsteegt, Ruth; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we investigated behavioral factors underlying conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by social interaction in adolescent rats. We found that the magnitude of socially-induced CPP depended on the social motivation of the animals and on the amount of training. After extinction, socially-induced CPP could be reinstated by a single reconditioning session. Treatment with methylphenidate, which disrupts social play behavior in adolescent rats, but not social exploratory behavior, prevented the development of socially-induced CPP. Interestingly, methylphenidate by itself induced CPP. These data demonstrate that: 1. social interaction is rewarding in adolescent rats; 2. appetitive and mnemonic factors influence the development of socially-induced CPP; 3. comparable to drug-induced CPP, socially-induced CPP can be extinguished and reinstated; 4. social play is likely to be the most rewarding aspect of social interaction in adolescent rats; 5. social context influences the subjective effects of methylphenidate.

  19. Understanding Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families Guide - Search Spanish Facts for Families Guide Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents No. 55; December ... is a great concern about the incidence of violent behavior among children and adolescents. This complex and ...

  20. Noncontingent peer attention as treatment for disruptive classroom behavior.

    PubMed

    Jones, K M; Drew, H A; Weber, N L

    2000-01-01

    A functional analysis isolated peer attention as the primary maintaining variable for disruptive behavior displayed by a student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Using a brief reversal design, noncontingent reinforcement was then shown to reduce disruptive behavior relative to the peer attention condition. Implications for assessing behavior disorders in mainstream school settings are discussed.

  1. Is your hospital safe? Disruptive behavior and workplace bullying.

    PubMed

    Martin, William F

    2008-01-01

    The author defines disruptive behavior; distinguishes among disruptive, impaired, and incompetent behavior; describes the prevalence of disruptive behavior; and identifies some recommendations to prevent and resolve disruptive behavior in hospitals. The proactive prevention and management of workplace bullying have implications on managing costs, quality, and satisfaction in hospitals among patients, families, staff, and physicians. The author describes an evidence-based framework and recommends that hospital administrators use it to design an organizational approach to promoting a work environment that is psychologically and physiologically safe and that enables staff to focus on delivering high-quality, cost-effective, and satisfying care.

  2. Preschool Children's Observed Disruptive Behavior: Variations across Sex, Interactional Context, and Disruptive Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Sarah A. O.; Carter, Alice S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in disruptive behavior and sensitivity to social context are documented, but the intersection between them is rarely examined empirically. This report focuses on sex differences in observed disruptive behavior across interactional contexts and diagnostic status. Preschoolers (n = 327) were classified as nondisruptive (51%),…

  3. Developmental trajectories of disruptive behavior problems among sons of alcoholics: effects of parent psychopathology, family conflict, and child undercontrol.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Alexandra; Zucker, Robert A; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Krull, Jennifer L

    2003-02-01

    This study examined trajectories of disruptive behavior problems from preschool to early adolescence in 302 boys from a community-recruited sample of high-risk families. Growth modeling showed that paternal alcoholism was associated with elevated levels of sons' disruptive behavior problems. Family conflict predicted more disruptive behaviors at school entry and a slower rate of decline in such problems. Parent antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) exacerbated the effects of high preschool levels of sons' undercontrol on level of disruptive behaviors at school entry; this effect became progressively stronger across time. Low levels of undercontrol protected sons of ASPD parents from experiencing heightened levels of disruptive behaviors both at school entry and increasingly as sons grew older. Implications for subsequent maladjustment are discussed.

  4. Disrupting Reconsolidation: Pharmacological and Behavioral Manipulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited modifications. At the same time, the fear-erasing effects…

  5. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part II: Validity of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…

  6. Predicting the Problem Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaman, Neslihan G.

    2013-01-01

    Problem statement: Problem behavior theory describes both protective factors and risk factors to explain adolescent problem behaviors, such as delinquency, alcohol use, and reckless driving. The theory holds that problem behaviors involving risky behavior are used by adolescents as a means to gain peer acceptance and respect. Problem behaviors…

  7. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  8. Contributions of Parent-Adolescent Negative Emotionality, Adolescent Conflict, and Adoption Status to Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Bibiana D.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Although most adopted children are well adjusted, research has consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. The present investigation tested a model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors.…

  9. Noncontingent reinforcement of disruptive behaviors in personal care home settings.

    PubMed

    Yury, Craig A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine the potential of using noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) to reduce the frequency of disruptive behaviors of three elderly persons in personal care home (PCH) settings. Assessment indicated that participants were engaging in the disruptive behaviors to obtain social attention from PCH staff. Social attention, up to 1 min of staff making eye contact with the participant and directing positive verbal statements toward the participant, was given on a fixed time interval (from morning through early evening) beginning every 20 min and fading to every 30 min. Results indicate that NCR reduced the frequency of the disruptive behaviors.

  10. Communication skills training to address disruptive physician behavior.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Disruptive behavior among health care providers has been linked to negative patient outcomes. High-stress areas, including the perioperative setting, are especially prone to this behavior. The purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate an educational communication skills intervention aimed at increasing the perceived self-efficacy of perioperative nurses to address disruptive physician behavior. Seventeen perioperative nurses participated in a two-day communication skills program presented by a certified Crucial Conversations trainer. By using paired t test analysis, I found that there was a statistically significant increase in total mean self-efficacy scores immediately after the intervention and four weeks after the intervention. In addition, four weeks after the intervention, participants reported the ability to address disruptive physician behavior 71% of the time. The results of this study suggest that one intervention strategy to address the serious threat of disruptive physician behavior to patient safety is to educate nurses in communication skills.

  11. Prenatal Smoking Exposure, Low Birth Weight, and Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Breslau, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Prenatal problems are among theorized etiologies for child disruptive behavior problems. A key question concerns whether etiological contributors are shared across the broad range of disruptive psychopathology or are partially or largely distinct. Method: We examined prenatal smoking exposure and low birth weight as risk factors for…

  12. Behavioral Risk Factors for AIDS among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstein, Susan G.

    This document examines the incidence of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among adolescents in the United States and identifies several risk factors for AIDS among this population. It classifies adolescents' risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by the degree to which adolescents engage in behaviors that are…

  13. Classwide Intervention to Manage Disruptive Behavior in the Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGoey, Kara E.; Schneider, Dana L.; Rezzetano, Kristin M.; Prodan, Tana; Tankersley, Melody

    2010-01-01

    The authors present an investigation of a classwide intervention to reduce disruptive behavior in a kindergarten classroom. Participants included children in 3 kindergarten classrooms and their teachers in an at-risk school district in Northeast Ohio. On the basis of student behaviors and teacher goals, the authors chose the Good Behavior Game…

  14. Amphetamine in adolescence disrupts the development of medial prefrontal cortex dopamine connectivity in a DCC-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lauren M; Makowski, Carolina S; Yogendran, Sandra V; Kiessling, Silke; Cermakian, Nicolas; Flores, Cecilia

    2015-03-13

    Initiation of drug use during adolescence is a strong predictor of both the incidence and severity of addiction throughout the lifetime. Intriguingly, adolescence is a period of dynamic refinement in the organization of neuronal connectivity, in particular medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dopamine circuitry. The guidance cue receptor, DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer), is highly expressed by dopamine neurons and orchestrates their innervation to the mPFC during adolescence. Furthermore, we have shown that amphetamine in adolescence regulates DCC expression in dopamine neurons. Drugs in adolescence may therefore induce their enduring behavioral effects via DCC-mediated disruption in mPFC dopamine development. In this study, we investigated the impact of repeated exposure to amphetamine during adolescence on both the development of mPFC dopamine connectivity and on salience attribution to drug context in adulthood. We compare these effects to those induced by adult exposure to an identical amphetamine regimen. Finally, we determine whether DCC signaling within dopamine neurons is necessary for these events. Exposure to amphetamine in adolescence, but not in adulthood, leads to an increase in the span of dopamine innervation to the mPFC, but a reduction of presynaptic sites present on these axons. Amphetamine treatment in adolescence, but not in adulthood, also produces an increase in salience attribution to a previously drug-paired context in adulthood. Remarkably, DCC signaling within dopamine neurons is required for both of these effects. Drugs of abuse in adolescence may therefore induce their detrimental behavioral consequences by disrupting mesocortical dopamine development through alterations in the DCC signaling cascade.

  15. Developmental pathways from childhood aggression-disruptiveness, chronic peer rejection, and deviant friendships to early-adolescent rule breaking.

    PubMed

    Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    Childhood aggression-disruptiveness (AD), chronic peer rejection, and deviant friendships were examined as predictors of early-adolescent rule-breaking behaviors. Using a sample of 383 children (193 girls and 190 boys) who were followed from ages 6 to 14, peer rejection trajectories were identified and incorporated into a series of alternative models to assess how chronic peer rejection and deviant friendships mediate the association between stable childhood AD and early-adolescent rule breaking. There were multiple mediated pathways to rule breaking that included both behavioral and relational risk factors, and findings were consistent for boys and girls. Results have implications for better understanding the influence of multiple social processes in the continuity of antisocial behaviors from middle childhood to early adolescence.

  16. Language intervention and disruptive behavior in preschool children with autism.

    PubMed

    Koegel, R L; Koegel, L K; Surratt, A

    1992-06-01

    Disruptive behaviors are often exhibited by children with severe disabilities during difficult teaching tasks. Because learning verbal communication can be a difficult task for nonverbal children with autism, disruptive behaviors are common during such interventions. The purpose of this experiment was to assess whether the incorporation of parameters of natural language interactions and motivational techniques might reduce disruptive behavior during language teaching tasks. Within a repeated reversals design with order of conditions and number of sessions varied within and across children, treatment was conducted for two language teaching conditions. During one condition trials were presented serially in a traditional analog clinical format where the therapist presented instructions, prompts, and reinforcers for correct responses. The other condition incorporated parameters of natural language interactions and motivational techniques, such that stimulus items were functional and varied; natural reinforcers were employed; communicative attempts were reinforced; and trials were conducted within a natural interchange. Results showed that greater improvements in responding and considerably less (often negligible) disruptive behavior occurred during the natural language teaching conditions. Results are discussed with respect to their implications for improving language interventions, and with respect to reducing disruptive behavior without the need for specialized or severe interventions focused specifically on the disruptive behavior.

  17. Barriers that influence eating behaviors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Sandra; Horner, Sharon D

    2005-08-01

    Adolescence is a time of rapid growth and development with biologic, psychological, and emotional changes occurring simultaneously. We conducted a critical review of the literature to analyze key topics in the study of adolescents' eating behaviors and to identify barriers to healthy eating experienced by adolescents. The literature documents that nutritional deficits and poor eating established during adolescence have long-term health, growth, and developmental consequences. Gaps in the literature are identified and recommendations for future studies are proposed.

  18. White matter disruptions in adolescents exposed to childhood maltreatment and vulnerability to psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Gundapuneedi, Tejasvi; Rao, Uma

    2012-11-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been known to produce long-lasting impairments in behavioral, cognitive and social functioning, but their underlying mechanisms are not well-understood. A better understanding of their underlying mechanisms will aid in developing effective preventive interventions. Nineteen adolescent volunteers with no personal history of a psychiatric illness, but who were exposed to maltreatment during childhood, and 13 adolescent volunteers with no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder (controls) underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies. The participants were then followed longitudinally at 6-month intervals for up to 5 years to determine the onset of mood and substance use disorders. The associations among fractional anisotropy (FA) values obtained from the DTI scans at baseline and psychopathology at follow-up were examined. At baseline, adolescents exposed to childhood maltreatment had significantly lower FA values in the left and right superior longitudinal fasciculi, right cingulum bundle projecting to the hippocampus, left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and splenium of the corpus callosum compared with controls. Adolescents who developed major depressive disorder at follow-up had significantly lower FA values in the superior longitudinal fasciculi and the right cingulum-hippocampal projection compared with their counterparts who did not develop the illness. Adolescents who developed substance use disorder during follow-up had significantly lower FA values in the right cingulum-hippocampal projection than their counterparts without the disorder. These preliminary results suggest that white matter disruptions observed in adolescents exposed to childhood maltreatment may be associated with increased vulnerability to psychopathology, specifically depressive and substance use disorders.

  19. Rock Music and Korean Adolescent's Antisocial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Inkyung; Kwak, Keumjoo; Chang, Geunyoung; Yang, Jinyoung

    The relationship between rock music preference and antisocial behavior among Korean adolescents was examined. The Korean versions of the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Antisocial Behavior Checklist were used to measure sensation seeking motivation and delinquency. Adolescents (N=1,079) were categorized as "rock/metal,""dance,"…

  20. Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Dept. of Social and Health Services, Olympia.

    The 1992 Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors (WSSAHB) was created to collect information regarding a variety of adolescent health behaviors among students in the state of Washington. It expands on two previous administrations of a student tobacco, alcohol, and other drug survey and includes questions about medical care, safety,…

  1. Disruptive behavior among elementary students in physical education.

    PubMed

    López Jiménez, José; Valero-Valenzuela, Alfonso; Anguera, M Teresa; Díaz Suárez, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which disruptive behaviors occur most often in physical education (PE) classes, and to identify the existence of a pattern of behavior that leads to this disruptive behavior. With this in mind, we analyzed five PE sessions taken by pupils at different elementary school in the region of Murcia. The total sample size was 96 students aged between 10 and 13. Data was recorded using an observation instrument (a combination of a field format and a categorical system) and was then analyzed using the "HOISAN" software tool, with a sequential analysis and polar coordinates being conducted. The results of the study revealed that disruptive behaviors (52 %) occur more frequently than non-relevant behaviors (48 %), the most common of them being disinterested behavior (29 %), followed by indiscipline (15 %), with no statistically significant differences being detected in violent behavior. As regards patterns of behavior, disinterested behavior is stimulated by "no eye contact", "middle distance", "inside the task", "no use of material", "giving orders" and "registering of activities", while indiscipline is stimulated by "no eye contact", "far distance", "outside the task", "use of material", "grouping in pairs" and "preparation of material". In conclusion, it can be stated that disruptiveness is far more common in physical education sessions, affects the development of sessions and has a negative impact on student learning. A solution to this problem should therefore be sought immediately in order to ensure quality education.

  2. Webinar Presentation: Metals, Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Adolescence

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Metals, Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Adolescence, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series held on Feb. 11, 2015.

  3. Development and etiology of disruptive and delinquent behavior.

    PubMed

    Loeber, Rolf; Burke, Jeffrey D; Pardini, Dustin A

    2009-01-01

    This review examines the development and etiology of disruptive behavior [symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and psychopathic features] and delinquency (particularly violence). We address selected key developmental issues, including (a) to what extent negative emotional ODD symptoms are associated with later internalizing disorders, (b) whether psychopathic features provide added predictive utility beyond traditional disruptive behaviors, and (c) the role of oppositional behavior and conduct problems in the development of violence. This review also focuses on the causes of ODD, CD, psychopathic features, and delinquency and explores the extent to which the causes of disruptive and delinquent behavior are the same. We examine the degree to which risk and promotive factors change with age and whether promotive factors buffer the impact of risk factors. Finally, we explore the question of whether there are developmental shifts in children's exposure to risk and promotive factors.

  4. Disc Golf Play: Using Recreation to Improve Disruptive Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Michael Lee; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the use of disc golf as a creative, recreational play intervention for improving classroom behaviors in disruptive children. Twenty-two elementary students were randomly selected for either a treatment or control group and rated at pre- and post- by their teachers on the use of nine positive classroom behaviors (e.g., sharing,…

  5. Risk Factors of Acute Behavioral Regression in Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Périsse, Didier; Amiet, Claire; Consoli, Angèle; Thorel, Marie-Vincente; Gourfinkel-An, Isabelle; Bodeau, Nicolas; Guinchat, Vincent; Barthélémy, Catherine; Cohen, David

    2010-01-01

    Aim: During adolescence, some individuals with autism engage in severe disruptive behaviors, such as violence, agitation, tantrums, or self-injurious behaviors. We aimed to assess risk factors associated with very acute states and regression in adolescents with autism in an inpatient population. Method: Between 2001 and 2005, we reviewed the charts of all adolescents with autism (N=29, mean age=14.8 years, 79% male) hospitalized for severe disruptive behaviors in a psychiatric intensive care unit. We systematically collected data describing socio-demographic characteristics, clinical variables (severity, presence of language, cognitive level), associated organic conditions, etiologic diagnosis of the episode, and treatments. Results: All patients exhibited severe autistic symptoms and intellectual disability, and two-thirds had no functional verbal language. Fifteen subjects exhibited epilepsy, including three cases in which epilepsy was unknown before the acute episode. For six (21%) of the subjects, uncontrolled seizures were considered the main cause of the disruptive behaviors. Other suspected risk factors associated with disruptive behavior disorders included adjustment disorder (N=7), lack of adequate therapeutic or educational management (N=6), depression (N=2), catatonia (N=2), and painful comorbid organic conditions (N=3). Conclusion: Disruptive behaviors among adolescents with autism may stem from diverse risk factors, including environmental problems, comorbid acute psychiatric conditions, or somatic diseases such as epilepsy. The management of these behavioral changes requires a multidisciplinary functional approach. PMID:20467546

  6. Disruptive behavior and clinical outcomes: perceptions of nurses and physicians.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Alan H; O'Daniel, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Providing safe, error-free care is the number-one priority of all health care professionals. Excellent outcomes have been associated with procedural efficiency, the implementation of evidence-based standards, and the use of tools designed to reduce the likelihood of medical error (such as computerized medication orders and bar-coded patient identification). But the impact of work relationships on clinical outcomes isn't as well documented. The current survey was designed as a follow-up to a previous VHA West Coast survey that examined the prevalence and impact of physicians' disruptive behavior on the job satisfaction and retention of nurses (see "Nurse-Physician Relationships: Impact on Nurse Satisfaction and Retention," June 2002). Based on the findings of that survey and subsequent comments on it, the follow-up survey examined the disruptive behavior of both physicians and nurses, as well as both groups' and administrators' perceptions of its effects on providers and its impact on clinical outcomes. Surveys were distributed to 50 VHA hospitals across the country, and results from more than 1,500 survey participants were evaluated. Nurses were reported to have behaved disruptively almost as frequently as physicians. Most respondents perceived disruptive behavior as having negative or worsening effects, in both nurses and physicians, on stress, frustration, concentration, communication, collaboration, information transfer, and workplace relationships. Even more disturbing was the respondents' perceptions of negative or worsening effects of disruptive behavior on adverse events, medical errors, patient safety, patient mortality, the quality of care, and patient satisfaction. These findings suggest that the consequences of disruptive behavior go far beyond nurses' job satisfaction and morale, affecting communication and collaboration among clinicians, which may well, in turn, have a negative impact on clinical outcomes. Strategies aimed at reducing the incidence and

  7. A comparison of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior to reduce disruptive behavior in a preschool classroom.

    PubMed

    Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond; Maki, Amber; Barenz, Rebecca; Jurgens, Mandy; Sailer, Angela; Haugen, Meredith; Kopp, Brandon

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) in reducing the disruptive behaviors of 25 children in a preschool classroom. Using an alternating treatments design, disruptive behavior was reduced when the participants earned tokens for the absence of disruptive behavior (DRO) or lost tokens for the occurrence of disruptive behavior (response cost). Initially, DRO was more successful in reducing the number of disruptive behaviors; however, over time, response cost proved to be more effective.

  8. The neighborhood effects of disrupted family processes on adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Sigfusdottir, Inga D

    2009-07-01

    In the current paper, we argue that the neighborhood-level of disrupted family processes (weak social ties to parents and coercive family interaction) should have a contextual effect on adolescent substance use (cigarette smoking, heavy drinking, and lifetime cannabis use), because adolescents living in neighborhoods in which disrupted family processes are prevalent should be more likely to associate with deviant (substance using) peers. We use nested data on 5491 Icelandic adolescents aged 15 and 16 years in 83 neighborhoods to examine the neighborhood-contextual effects of disrupted family processes on adolescent substance use (cigarette smoking, heavy drinking, and lifetime cannabis use), that is, whether neighborhoods in which disrupted family processes are common have more adolescent substance use, even after partialling out the individual-level effects of disrupted family processes on substance use. As predicted, we find that the neighborhood-levels of disrupted family processes have significant, contextual effects on all the indicators of substance use, and that association with substance using peers mediates a part of these contextual effects. The findings illustrate the limitation of an individual-level approach to adolescent substance use.

  9. Assessing the Relationships among Delinquent Male Students' Disruptive and Violent Behavior and Staff's Proactive and Reactive Behavior in a Secure Residential Treatment Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozalski, Michael; Drasgow, Erik; Drasgow, Fritz; Yell, Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among students' disruptive and violent behavior and staff's use of proactive and reactive strategies in a secure residential treatment center serving delinquent adolescent males. One hundred hours of observational data were collected, and linear regression models were used to explore the…

  10. Sentinel events, disruptive behavior, and medical staff codes of conduct.

    PubMed

    Leiker, Michelle

    2009-09-01

    Regardless of physician concerns, hospitals and other organizations accredited by the Joint Commission are required to comply with the new leadership standard and define acceptable, disruptive, and inappropriate behaviors in a code of conduct. The new standard also requires them to implement a process for managing disruptive and inappropriate behaviors. Rules and standards can be very effective ways to promote safety and quality, but at the same time may be subject to abuse if not properly monitored. As a result, physicians should continue to monitor how hospitals have implemented the new leadership standard and raise concerns about any vague definitions, encroachment on physician rights, and misuse of the code of conduct.

  11. Children's Attachment Representations: Longitudinal Relations to School Behavior and Academic Competence in Middle Childhood and Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Teresa; Hofmann, Volker

    1997-01-01

    Examined relation of 7-year olds' attachment representations to later behavior and academic competency during middle childhood and adolescence. Controlled for social class, gender, IQ, perspective-taking ability, and prior competency. Found that attachment representations did not predict disruptive behavior or extroversion, but secure…

  12. Adolescent Work Experiences and Family Formation Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staff, Jeremy; VanEseltine, Matthew; Woolnough, April; Silver, Eric; Burrington, Lori

    2012-01-01

    A long-standing critique of adolescent employment is that it engenders a precocious maturity of more adult-like roles and behaviors, including school disengagement, substance use, sexual activity, inadequate sleep and exercise, and work-related stress. Though negative effects of high-intensity work on adolescent adjustment have been found, little…

  13. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  14. Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenink, Don

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents' delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13-18 (48.7% females). The analyses show that rural adolescents are only…

  15. Mass Media Influence on Adolescent Consumer Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; And Others

    Questionnaires completed by 607 middle school and high school students provided data about the learning of selected advertising-related cognitions among adolescents and on the short-term effect of these cognitions and other communication variables on adolescent consumption behavior. Among the findings were the following: susceptibility to…

  16. Differences in adolescent dietary behaviors by SES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about how socioeconomic status (SES) affects dietary intake among adolescents. This study assessed whether dietary behaviors of 12- to 17-year-old adolescents differed by SES, using eligibility for free or reduced price (FRP) school meals as a measure of SES. After parental consent w...

  17. Profiles of Disruptive Behavior across Early Childhood: Contributions of Frustration Reactivity, Physiological Regulation, and Maternal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degnan, Kathryn A.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; Hill-Soderlund, Ashley L.

    2008-01-01

    Disruptive behavior, including aggression, defiance, and temper tantrums, typically peaks in early toddlerhood and decreases by school entry; however, some children do not show this normative decline. The current study examined disruptive behavior in 318 boys and girls at 2, 4, and 5 years of age and frustration reactivity, physiological…

  18. Adolescent exposure to THC in female rats disrupts developmental changes in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Tiziana; Prini, Pamela; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Zamberletti, Erica; Trusel, Massimo; Melis, Miriam; Sagheddu, Claudia; Ligresti, Alessia; Tonini, Raffaella; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Parolaro, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Current concepts suggest that exposure to THC during adolescence may act as a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. However, the molecular underpinnings of this vulnerability are still poorly understood. To analyze this, we investigated whether and how THC exposure in female rats interferes with different maturational events occurring in the prefrontal cortex during adolescence through biochemical, pharmacological and electrophysiological means. We found that the endocannabinoid system undergoes maturational processes during adolescence and that THC exposure disrupts them, leading to impairment of both endocannabinoid signaling and endocannabinoid-mediated LTD in the adult prefrontal cortex. THC also altered the maturational fluctuations of NMDA subunits, leading to larger amounts of gluN2B at adulthood. Adult animals exposed to THC during adolescence also showed increased AMPA gluA1 with no changes in gluA2 subunits. Finally, adolescent THC exposure altered cognition at adulthood. All these effects seem to be triggered by the disruption of the physiological role played by the endocannabinoid system during adolescence. Indeed, blockade of CB1 receptors from early to late adolescence seems to prevent the occurrence of pruning at glutamatergic synapses. These results suggest that vulnerability of adolescent female rats to long-lasting THC adverse effects might partly reside in disruption of the pivotal role played by the endocannabinoid system in the prefrontal cortex maturation.

  19. Identifying Unbiased Items for Screening Preschoolers for Disruptive Behavior Problems.

    PubMed

    Studts, Christina R; Polaha, Jodi; van Zyl, Michiel A

    2016-10-25

    OBJECTIVE : Efficient identification and referral to behavioral services are crucial in addressing early-onset disruptive behavior problems. Existing screening instruments for preschoolers are not ideal for pediatric primary care settings serving diverse populations. Eighteen candidate items for a new brief screening instrument were examined to identify those exhibiting measurement bias (i.e., differential item functioning, DIF) by child characteristics. METHOD : Parents/guardians of preschool-aged children (N = 900) from four primary care settings completed two full-length behavioral rating scales. Items measuring disruptive behavior problems were tested for DIF by child race, sex, and socioeconomic status using two approaches: item response theory-based likelihood ratio tests and ordinal logistic regression. RESULTS : Of 18 items, eight were identified with statistically significant DIF by at least one method. CONCLUSIONS : The bias observed in 8 of 18 items made them undesirable for screening diverse populations of children. These items were excluded from the new brief screening tool.

  20. School Counselors Serving Students with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothaus, Tim

    2013-01-01

    School counselors are in a prime position to collaborate with school and community stakeholders to both prevent and respond to the challenges experienced and exhibited by students with one or more disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). In this article, the DBDs discussed include conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, intermittent explosive…

  1. Disruptive behaviors and early sexual intercourse: The GAZEL Youth Study.

    PubMed

    Galéra, Cédric; Messiah, Antoine; Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Encrenaz, Gaelle; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Michel, Gregory; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Fombonne, Eric

    2010-05-30

    Sexual health-risk behaviors in disruptive children are poorly understood. In a longitudinal population-based sample, event-time analyses showed that subjects with high levels of conduct disorder symptoms, particularly in combination with simultaneously high levels of hyperactivity-inattention symptoms, exhibited the highest risk for earlier sexual activity compared to controls, suggesting the need for prevention.

  2. Disruptive Student Behavior, Perceived Self-Efficacy, and Teacher Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwers, Andre; Tomic, Welko

    This study tested a model in which perceived self-efficacy in classroom management explained the influence of student disruptive behavior on teacher burnout. Dutch secondary teachers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Self-Efficacy Scale for Classroom Management and Discipline, and Order and Organization subscale of the Classroom Environment…

  3. Reducing Disruptive Behaviors in Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Erinn H.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Jenson, William R.

    2001-01-01

    A multicomponent intervention that included a precision request program, mystery motivators, token economy with response cost, and antecedent strategies was employed to reduce disruptive classroom behavior in 3 school-aged students with social and emotional disorders. The results suggested that the intervention was successful in reducing levels of…

  4. The Learning Killer: Disruptive Student Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Alan

    2005-01-01

    A recent survey examining student learning in the college classroom found disruptive student behavior to be a major learning inhibitor. Compounding this is the realization that most college faculty are ill prepared to handle this problem. This article discusses the results of the survey as well as identifies the various types of disruptive…

  5. Sleep in children with disruptive behavioral disorders.

    PubMed

    Aronen, Eeva T; Lampenius, Tuulikki; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri

    2014-09-03

    This study compared sleep in patients with Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder (CD/ODD) and normative children and evaluated the associations between sleep and behavioral symptoms in patients. Participants were 30 patients, aged 7 to 12 years, with diagnoses of CD/ODD and their age and gender matched controls. Patients with CD/ODD and their parents reported significantly more sleep problems than did the control children and their parents (p values < 0.01). By actigraphy, CD/ODD children with comorbid ADHD slept significantly less than did the patients with CD/ODD alone and the controls. In patients, low sleep amount and efficiency associated with increased amount of parent-reported externalizing symptoms (r = -0.72, 0.66, p values < 0.001). Results highlight the need of evaluating sleep in children with CD/ODD. Improving their sleep may ease their symptoms.

  6. Verbal, Facial and Autonomic Responses to Empathy-Eliciting Film Clips by Disruptive Male Adolescents with High versus Low Callous-Unemotional Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; Matthys, Walter; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This study examined empathy-related responding in male adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), high or low on callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Facial electromyographic (EMG) and heart rate (HR) responses were monitored during exposure to empathy-inducing film clips portraying sadness, anger or happiness. Self-reports were assessed…

  7. Adolescent Drug Use and Other Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundleby, John D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Two-hundred-thirty-one adolescents completed questionnaires concerning their use of drugs (alcohol, tobacco, pain-killers, and marijuana). Factor analysis of endorsements of a broad range of behavior, followed by regression analysis, indicated that sexual behavior, general delinquency, school achievement, and social behavior were all related to…

  8. NMDA receptor antagonism disrupts the acquisition and retention of the Context Preexposure Facilitation Effect in adolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    Heroux, Nicholas A.; Robinson-Drummer, Patrese A.; Rosen, Jeffrey B.; Stanton, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    The context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) is a contextual fear conditioning paradigm in which learning about the context, acquiring the context-shock association, and retrieving/expressing contextual fear are temporally dissociated. The current study investigated the involvement of NMDA receptors in contextual fear acquisition, retention, and expression across all phases of the CPFE in adolescent rats. In Experiment 1 systemic injections of 0.1 mg/kg MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, given before multiple context preexposure disrupted the acquisition of a context representation. In Experiment 2, pre-training MK-801 disrupted both immediate acquisition of contextual fear measured by postshock freezing, as well as retention test freezing 24 hours later. Experiment 3 showed that expression of contextual fear via a 24hr retention freezing test does not depend on NMDA receptors, indicating that MK-801 disrupts learning rather than performance of freezing behavior. In Experiment 4, consolidation of contextual information was partially disrupted by post-preexposure MK-801 whereas consolidation of contextual fear was not disrupted by post-training MK-801. Finally, Experiment 5 employed a dose-response design and found that a pre-training dose of 0.1 mg/kg MK-801 disrupted both postshock and retention test freezing while lower pre-training doses of MK-801 (0.025 or 0.05 mg/kg) only disrupted retention freezing. This is the first study to distinguish the role of NMDA receptors in acquisition (post-shock freezing), retention, expression, and consolidation of context vs. context-shock learning using the CPFE paradigm in adolescent rats. The findings provide a foundation for similar developmental studies examining these effects from early ontogeny through adulthood. PMID:26711910

  9. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    normal intelligence adolescents with behavioral disorders. Risk factors that increase the chances of developing either simple or more complicated types of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation have been found to be based on individual, family and social levels. On the other hand, the individual characteristics of adolescents (intellectual level, attention capacity, understandable linguistic expression, overall progress until adolescence), the existence of a supportive family environment and the presence of social support and awareness through the creation of special counseling, education and medical services, are the most important protective factors which contribute to the prevention of several forms of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation. For the writing of the literature review, the following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The key words used were: Intellectual Disability, Behavioral disorders, Adolescents, Mental Retardation, Learning disabilities, Developmental Disabilities, Disruptive behaviour disorders, Conduct disorder, Substance Abuse, Substance Misuse, Oppositional defiant disorder, Alcohol and illicit drug use, Smoking Use, Young people, Teenagers, Youths.

  10. The MAPI as a Treatment Outcome Measure for Adolescent Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piersma, Harry L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Administered Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory at admission and discharge to 215 hospitalized adolescent psychiatric patients. Found significant mean score differences for both internalizing (affective disorder) and externalizing (disruptive behavior disorder) adolescents. Internalizing adolescents reported significantly greater distress at…

  11. Behavioral Genetic Analyses of Prosocial Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Alice M.; Light-Hausermann, Jade H.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.

    2009-01-01

    Prosocial behavior is an important aspect of normal social and psychological development. Adult and child twin studies typically estimate the heritability of prosocial behavior to be between 30 and 50%, although relatively little is known about genetic and environmental influences upon prosocial behavior in adolescence. We therefore examined…

  12. A Comparison of Response Cost and Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior to Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a Preschool Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond; Maki, Amber; Barenz, Rebecca; Jurgens, Mandy; Sailer, Angela; Haugen, Meredith; Kopp, Brandon

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) in reducing the disruptive behaviors of 25 children in a preschool classroom. Using an alternating treatments design, disruptive behavior was reduced when the participants earned tokens for the absence of disruptive behavior (DRO) or…

  13. Dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescents: laboratory behavioral assessments.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Brady; Penfold, Robert B; Patak, Michele

    2008-04-01

    Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that defines a range of maladaptive behavioral styles. The present research aimed to identify different dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescents from a battery of laboratory behavioral assessments. In one analysis, correlations were examined between two self report and seven laboratory behavioral measures of impulsivity. The correlation between the two self report measures was high compared to correlations between the self report and laboratory behavioral measures. In a second analysis, a principal components analysis was performed with just the laboratory behavioral measures. Three behavioral dimensions were identified -- "impulsive decision-making", "impulsive inattention", and "impulsive disinhibition". These dimensions were further evaluated using the same sample with a confirmatory factor analysis, which did support the hypothesis that these are significant and independent dimensions of impulsivity. This research indicates there are at least three separate subtypes of impulsive behavior when using laboratory behavioral assessments with adolescent participants.

  14. Programming for Adolescents with Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaten, Sheldon, Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 17 papers from a 1982 national multidisciplinary conference on services for behaviorally disordered adolescents. The following papers are included: "Programming for Youth in Secondary Schools and the Community," (W. Van Til); "Who's Crazy? II" (C. Michael Nelson); "Correlates of Successful Adaptive Behavior: Comparative Studies…

  15. Peer Deviance, Parenting and Disruptive Behavior among Young Girls

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Shari; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between peer deviance, parenting practices, and conduct and oppositional problems among young girls ages 7 and 8. Participants were 588 African American and European American girls who were part of a population-based study of the development of conduct problems and delinquency among girls. Affiliations with problem-prone peers were apparent among a sizeable minority of the girls, and these associations included both males and females. Although peer delinquency concurrently predicted disruptive behaviors, the gender of these peers did not contribute to girls’ behavior problems. Harsh parenting and low parental warmth showed both concurrent and prospective associations with girls’ disruptive behaviors. Similar patterns of association were seen for African American and European American girls. The findings show that peer and parent risk processes are important contributors to the early development of young girls’ conduct and oppositional behaviors. These data contribute to our understanding of girls’ aggression and antisocial behaviors and further inform our understanding of risk processes for these behaviors among young girls in particular. PMID:18777132

  16. Crucial conversations: the most potent force for eliminating disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Grenny, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Commission announced this year that rude language and hostile behavior pose serious threats to patient safety and quality of care. The Silence Kills study, conducted by VitalSmarts and the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, reveals that more than three-fourths of caregivers regularly work with doctors or nurses who are condescending, insulting, or rude. Although such disruptive and disrespectful behavior can be hurtful, what prompted the Joint Commission to address them as a condition of accreditation is the mounting evidence that such behavior is also harmful. The study found that more than 20% of health professionals have seen actual harm come to patients as a result of such behavior. The most powerful force governing human behavior is social influence. People will do most anything to gain acceptance or avoid rejection. If health care leaders want to not only secure the well-being of patients but also increase employee retention and engagement, the most immediate and effective step they can take is change this culture of silence. Health care leaders who want to engage social influence to eliminate disruptive behavior must break the code of silence in 4 critical conversational areas.

  17. Crucial conversations: the most potent force for eliminating disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Grenny, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Commission announced this year that rude language and hostile behavior pose serious threats to patient safety and quality of care. And, for good reason. The Silence Kills study, conducted by VitalSmarts and the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, reveals that more than three fourths of caregivers regularly work with doctors or nurses who are condescending, insulting, or rude.But while these disruptive and disrespectful behaviors can be hurtful, what prompted The Joint Commission to address them as a condition of accreditation is the mounting evidence that these behaviors are also harmful. The Silence Kills study found that more than 20% of healthcare professionals have seen actual harm come to patients as a result of such behavior.The most powerful force over human behavior is social influence. People will do almost anything to gain acceptance or avoid rejection. If healthcare leaders want to not only secure the well-being of patients but also increase employee retention and engagement, the most immediate and effective thing they can do is to change this culture of silence.Healthcare leaders who want to engage social influence to eliminate disruptive behavior will have to break the code of silence in 4 crucial conversations.

  18. Predicting Adolescent Deviant Behaviors through Data Mining Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yu-Chin; Hsu, Yung-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is the time during which people develop and form their crucial values, personality traits, and beliefs. Hence, as deviant behaviors occur during adolescence, it is important to guide adolescents away from such behaviors and back to normal behaviors. Moreover, although there are various kinds of deviant behavior, most of them would…

  19. The Dynamic Interplay among Maternal Empathy, Quality of Mother-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors: New Insights from a Six-Wave Longitudinal Multi-Informant Study

    PubMed Central

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Moscatelli, Silvia; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Keijsers, Loes; van Lier, Pol; Koot, Hans M.; Rubini, Monica; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents’ behavior is often a matter of concern, given their increased likelihood of enacting antisocial behaviors, which cause disruptions in the social order and are potentially harmful for the adolescents themselves and for the people around them. In this six-wave longitudinal study we sought to examine the interplay among maternal empathy, multiple indicators of mother-adolescent relationship quality (i.e., balanced relatedness, conflict, and support), and adolescent antisocial behaviors rated both by adolescents and their mothers. Participants for the current study were 497 Dutch adolescents (56.9% males) followed from age 13 to 18, and their mothers. A series of cross-lagged panel models revealed reciprocal associations between maternal empathy and mother-adolescent relationship quality and between mother-adolescent relationship quality and adolescent antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, we also found some indirect effects of adolescent antisocial behaviors on maternal empathy mediated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. Overall, this study further highlights a process of reciprocal influences within mother-adolescent dyads. PMID:26990191

  20. Use of a Behavioral Graphic Organizer to Reduce Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Flower, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Students with challenging behavior spend substantial amounts of time away from instruction due to behavioral problems. Time away from instruction reduces their opportunities for learning, which are critical as these students typically demonstrate academic performance below their same-age peers. After removal from instruction due to behavioral…

  1. An analysis and reduction of disruptive behavior on school buses.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, B F; Bailey, J S; Barber, F

    1981-01-01

    Thousands of children are injured or killed each year in school bus accidents. A significant number of these tragic incidents is precipitated by disruptive child behavior that distracts the drivers from their difficult task. Two experiments were conducted which addressed this problem. For both experiments an automated sound recording device (referred to as a Noise Guard) selectively responsive to frequencies above 500 Hz (i.e., unresponsive to bus drone) recorded both the duration and frequency of noise outbursts above a tolerable threshold. Additionally, an observer made in situ measurements of other disruptions including roughhousing and getting-out-of-seat. In the first experiment, following baseline measurements of these behaviors, middle-school students received feedback for noise outbursts. That is, when "Noise Guard" was activated, it in turn operated one of several lights on a panel visible to all passengers. Each day students were allowed to listen to high-appeal taped music while riding the bus and to participate in a raffle for prizes, provided the number of outbursts on the preceding day remained below a specified criterion indicated on the light panel. This intervention resulted in drastic reductions of noise outbursts with a concomitant reduction in other disruptive behaviors. Comparable results were obtained in the second experiment which eliminated the raffle from the intervention. PMID:7287600

  2. Systematic Function-Based Intervention for Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in an Alternative Setting: Broadening the Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turton, Amina M.; Umbreit, John; Mathur, Sarup R.

    2011-01-01

    Three adolescents (ages 14-17) with emotional and behavioral disorders displayed chronic disruptive behavior in their self-contained classrooms at a self-contained alternative school. A descriptive functional behavioral assessment was conducted for each student. Data from file review, structured interviews, and direct observations were used to…

  3. Emotion Dysregulation as a Mechanism Linking Stress Exposure to Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herts, Kate L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to…

  4. Successful management of disruptive behavior: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Lux, Kathleen M; Hutcheson, Jane B; Peden, Ann R

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe techniques nurses use to successfully manage disruptive behavior (DB) of colleagues. DB is any inappropriate behavior, confrontation, or conflict, ranging from verbal abuse to physical and sexual harassment. Nine RNs who had successfully managed DB in a nurse colleague participated in individual interviews. All participants felt it was important to confront in private unless patient safety was at risk. Participants' described a deliberate approach that included delaying confrontation, approaching the colleague calmly, and acknowledging the colleague's point of view. Responses to the confrontation were positive. Participants also reported that the ability to confront DB improved their practice.

  5. Maternal and Adolescent Temperament as Predictors of Maternal Affective Behavior during Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…

  6. Childhood Maltreatment Exposure and Disruptions in Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Pathway to Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Heleniak, Charlotte; Jenness, Jessica L; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-06-01

    Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology.

  7. Childhood Maltreatment Exposure and Disruptions in Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Pathway to Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Jenness, Jessica L.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology. PMID:27695145

  8. Longitudinal relations between adolescent and parental behaviors, parental knowledge, and internalizing behaviors among urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garthe, Rachel C; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    High prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among adolescents underscore the importance of identifying parental and adolescent behaviors that may lessen the risk for these outcomes. Previous research has shown that parental acceptance, parental knowledge, and child disclosure are negatively associated with internalizing behaviors. It is also important to explore the impact of internalizing behaviors on these parental and child constructs. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between parental acceptance, parental knowledge, child disclosure, and internalizing symptoms across a one-year time period. Participants were 358 adolescents (54 % female) and their primary caregivers, who were primarily African American (92 %). Parents and adolescents provided data through face-to-face interviews. Results showed that parental knowledge and parental acceptance predicted child disclosure, and child disclosure predicted parental knowledge one year later. Higher levels of parental acceptance predicted lower levels of adolescent-reported depressive symptoms, while higher levels of parental report of adolescents' internalizing symptoms predicted lower levels of parental knowledge. No differences in the strength of these relationships were found across grade or gender. These findings highlight the role of the adolescent's perceived acceptance by parents in promoting children's disclosure, and the benefits of parental acceptance in decreasing depressive symptoms over time. Overall, these results show the impact that both adolescent and parental behaviors and internalizing behaviors have on each other across time.

  9. Health-risk behaviors in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama

    2011-01-01

    The major morbidities and mortalities of adolescents are related to preventable risky behaviors, but how, when, and in whom these behaviors develop in early adolescence is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which set of risk factors and protective resources of school-age children were best predictors of health-risk behaviors in early adolescence. A longitudinal, cohort sequential design was used with a diverse sample of 1,934 children in grades 4 through 8. Parents provided demographic and neighborhood data for children through a mailed survey. Children completed valid scales annually at schools, using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) technology. Significant gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in carrying a weapon and using alcohol. Higher perceived levels of stress increased the risk for alcohol use as did riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. Health behaviors exhibited while in 4th through 6th grades protected early adolescents from alcohol use and riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. A parent's education and perceived safety in neighborhood protected against carrying a weapon and smoking. Many findings are similar to those of national samples, but others show positive differences in this localized sample, over 50% of whom were Latino. Protective resources suggest numerous nursing interventions to promote healthy adolescent development.

  10. Dating violence and suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Kristin; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the possible consequences of adolescent physical, emotional and sexual dating violence through a review of the literature on the topic. An electronic search of major biomedical bibliographic databases (Pubmed, ISI, PsycINFO) was used to retrieve articles providing information on the prevalence rates, risk factors, associated consequences and possible preventive measures for adolescent dating violence across different populations. Currently, there have been few longitudinal studies conducted to identify potential risk factors for entering a violent dating relationship in adolescence. Risky behaviors such as early sexual intercourse may predispose someone for victimization. Dating violence itself is also a predictor of future dating violence. Adolescent dating violence was associated with an increase in other violence-related behaviors, substance use, depression, poorer educational outcomes, posttraumatic stress, unhealthy weight control and risky sexual behavior. The association between adolescent dating violence and an increase in suicidal behavior is a major public health concern. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies so that a causal relationship between dating violence and suicidality may be better understood.

  11. Disrupted Glutamatergic Transmission in Prefrontal Cortex Contributes to Behavioral Abnormality in an Animal Model of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jia; Liu, Aiyi; Shi, Michael Y; Yan, Zhen

    2017-02-08

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are the most widely used animal model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we sought to reveal the neuronal circuits and molecular basis of ADHD and its potential treatment using SHR. Combined electrophysiological, biochemical, pharmacological, chemicogenetic and behavioral approaches were utilized. We found that AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex (PFC) was diminished in SHR, which was correlated with the decreased surface expression of AMPAR subunits. Administration of methylphenidate (a psychostimulant drug used to treat ADHD), which blocks dopamine transporters and norepinephrine transporters, ameliorated the behavioral deficits of adolescent SHR and restored AMPAR-mediated synaptic function. Activation of PFC pyramidal neurons with a CaMKII-driven Gq-coupled DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) also led to the elevation of AMPAR function and the normalization of ADHD-like behaviors in SHR. These results suggest that the disrupted function of AMPARs in PFC may underlie the behavioral deficits in adolescent SHR and enhancing PFC activity could be a treatment strategy for ADHD.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 08 February 2017. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.30.

  12. Family structure, family disruption, and profiles of adolescent religiosity.

    PubMed

    Denton, Melinda Lundquist

    2012-01-01

    Youth in the United States are experiencing increasing numbers of family transitions as parents move in and out of marriages and cohabiting relationships. Using three waves of survey data from the National Study of Youth and Religion, I examine the relationship between family structure, parental breakup, and adolescent religiosity. A person-centered measure of the religiosity of adolescents is used to identify youth as Abiders, Adapters, Assenters, Avoiders, or Atheists and to assess movement of youth between the religious profiles between 2003 and 2008. Wave 1 family structure is not significantly related to religious change among adolescents at Wave 3. In contrast, the experience of a parental breakup is related to a change in religious profiles over time. Parental breakup is associated with religious decline among Abiders and Adapters, youth characterized by high levels of religious salience. However, among Assenters who are marginally tied to religion, a parental breakup or divorce is associated with increased religious engagement.

  13. A Cognitive Behavioural Group Approach for Adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruttledge, Richard A.; Petrides, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural approaches emphasize the links between thoughts, feelings and behaviour (Greig, 2007). Previous research has indicated that these approaches are efficacious in reducing disruptive behaviour in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to provide further evaluation of cognitive behavioural group work to reduce disruptive…

  14. Pubertal Development Predicts Eating Behaviors in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jessica H.; Thornton, Laura M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Early maturing girls are at increased risk for disordered eating. However, it is unclear if the association between puberty and disordered eating continues throughout pubertal development and if a similar association is exhibited in boys. Method Participants included 1340 same- and 624 opposite-sex twins from the Swedish Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development. Pubertal development was assessed at age 13–14 with the Pubertal Development Scale. General disordered eating, measured with the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI) was assessed at age 16–17, and dieting and purging behaviors were assessed at both ages 16–17 and 19–20. We applied analysis of variance and logistic regression analyses to determine whether pubertal development in early-to-mid adolescence predicted eating disorder-related behaviors in late adolescence and young adulthood Results Pubertal development in early-to-mid adolescence was significantly associated with EDI scores and dieting in late adolescence. No significant association was observed between pubertal development and dieting and purging in young adulthood. Discussion Complex combinations of cultural and biological influences likely converge during pubertal development increasing vulnerability to disordered eating. The impact of pubertal development on disordered eating appears to be limited to the adolescent period. PMID:22522282

  15. Treatment effectiveness of a brief behavioral intervention for preschool disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Marni E; Butler, Ashley M; Dempsey, Jack; Chapman, Stephanie G

    2013-09-01

    Parent management training is an evidence-based treatment for disruptive behavior. However, the number of treatment sessions can be high, contributing to high attrition rates. The purpose of this study was to examine post-treatment, 6-month, and 1-year treatment outcomes of the Brief Behavioral Intervention. One hundred twenty children aged 2-6.5 years demonstrating clinically significant disruptive behavior were referred to an outpatient clinic for treatment and participated in the study. Attrition was below reported rates in the literature. Significant decreases in child disruptive behavior and parent stress were found from pre-to-post intervention, and improvements were maintained at follow-ups. Significant pre-to-post intervention teacher reported decreases in behavior were reported.

  16. Adolescents Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior: Sexual Activity and Associated Behavioral Risk Factors in Bolivian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…

  17. Differential Effectiveness of Interdependent and Dependent Group Contingencies in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…

  18. Disrupting Traditions: Swimming against the Current of Adolescent Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasnabis, Debi; Upton, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Advances in technology have aggravated the generations-old problem of bullying in schools. In this article, the authors attend to the impact of social media on bullying and advocate an approach to teaching anti-bullying that incorporates a project-based learning approach for young adolescents. Process drama as a model of learning and the use of…

  19. Impact of Treatments for Depression on Comorbid Anxiety, Attentional, and Behavioral Symptoms in Adolescents with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Resistant Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Robert C.; Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon; He, Jiayan; Mayes, Taryn; Emslie, Graham J.; Porta, Giovanna; Clarke, Greg N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relative efficacy of antidepressant medication, alone and in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), on comorbid symptoms of anxiety, attention, and disruptive behavior disorders in participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial. Method: Adolescents with selective serotonin…

  20. The Role of Teacher Behavior Management in the Development of Disruptive Behaviors: An Intervention Study with the Good Behavior Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2010-01-01

    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and…

  1. Temperament and Common Disruptive Behavior Problems in Preschool.

    PubMed

    Martel, Michelle M; Gremillion, Monica L; Roberts, Bethan

    2012-11-01

    The study evaluated trait associations with common Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), during an understudied developmental period: Preschool. Participants were 109 children ages 3 to 6 and their families. DBD symptoms were available via parent and teacher/caregiver report on the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale. Traits were measured using observational coding paradigms, and parent and examiner report on the Child Behavior Questionnaire and the California Q-Sort. The DBD groups exhibited significantly higher negative affect, higher surgency, and lower effortful control. Negative affect was associated with most DBD symptom domains; surgency and reactive control were associated with hyperactivity-impulsivity; and effortful control was associated with ADHD and inattention. Interactive effects between effortful control and negative affect and curvilinear associations of reactive control with DBD symptoms were evident. Temperament trait associations with DBD during preschool are similar to those seen during middle childhood. Extreme levels of temperament traits are associated with DBD as early as preschool.

  2. A rating scale for disruptive behavior disorders, based on the DSM-IV item pool.

    PubMed

    Silva, Raul R; Alpert, Murray; Pouget, Enrique; Silva, Victoria; Trosper, Sarah; Reyes, Kimberly; Dummit, Steven

    2005-01-01

    DSM IV includes three clusters of items that are used to establish diagnoses for the Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Attention Deficit, Conduct, and Oppositional Defiant. In this report, we examine the feasibility of using the items in each cluster to form a rating scale. We studied eighty-four consecutive school-aged referrals to an inner-city child and adolescent Psychiatry clinic. Case diagnosis was established with a clinician's KID-SCID assessment. Parents and teachers rated the 41 DSM items on four-point scales, and completed the Conners' Rating Scales, in English or Spanish. In this paper we report psychometrics of the new scale, the Rating Scale for Disruptive Behavior Disorders (RS-DBD), along with the agreement among parents and teachers, and concurrence between the new scales and the relevant Conners' scales. While, the parent and teacher ratings may provide a useful index for severity of behavioral disturbance in the home and school environments, it will not establish a diagnosis. There was a great deal of comorbidity among diagnostic groups.

  3. Adolescents' Sedentary Behaviors in Two European Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aibar Solana, Alberto; Bois, Julien E.; Zaragoza, Javier; Bru, Noëlle; Paillard, Thierry; Generelo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the correlates of objective sedentary behavior (SB) and nonschool self-reported SB in adolescents from 2 midsized cities, 1 in France (Tarbes) and 1 in Spain (Huesca). Stability of objective SB and nonschool self-reported SB were also assessed at different time points during 1 academic…

  4. Adolescents' Behavior and Attitudes toward AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Saeed; And Others

    The need for effective programs to delay sexual activity and to educate adolescents regarding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has never been greater. Statistics point out that a significant number of teenagers throughout the United States engage in behavior that increases their risks of becoming infected with HIV. This study examined…

  5. Female Adolescent Friendship and Delinquent Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleydon, Anne P.; Schner, Joseph G.

    2001-01-01

    Young female offenders (n=29) and female high school students (n=47) were compared in terms of delinquent behavior and relationships with their best female friend and peer group. Results indicated friendships of delinquent and nondelinquent female adolescents are essentially similar despite higher levels of peer pressure among delinquents. (BF)

  6. Neonatal Behavior of Infants of Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The infants of the adolescent mothers were found to be significantly less capable of responding to social stimuli, to be less alert, and to be less able to control motor behavior and to perform integrated motor activities than were the infants of older mothers. Journal availability: J. B. Lippincott Co., E. Washington Sq., Philadelphia, PA 19105.…

  7. Treating Depression and Oppositional Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Jordan, Neil; Silva, Susan G.; Rohde, Paul; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents with depression and high levels of oppositionality often are particularly difficult to treat. Few studies, however, have examined treatment outcomes among youth with both externalizing and internalizing problems. This study examines the effect of fluoxetine, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), the combination of fluoxetine and CBT, and…

  8. Parental Recall of Pre-School Behavior Related to ADHD and Disruptive Behavior Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Eyup Sabri; Somer, Oya; Amado, Sonia; Thompson, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of Age of Onset Criterion (AOC) to the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorder. For this purpose, a 10-item Likert-type Parent Assessment of Pre-school Behavior Scale (PARPS), developed by the experimenters, was used to examine the presence…

  9. The role of teacher behavior management in the development of disruptive behaviors: an intervention study with the good behavior game.

    PubMed

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A C; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2010-08-01

    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and children's on-task and off-task classroom behavior and peer reports of hyperactive and oppositional behavior were available. Results showed that the reduced use of negative remarks of intervention teachers predicted children's increase in on-task behavior and decrease in talking-out behavior. These improved children's classroom behaviors in turn mediated the impact of the intervention on the development of hyperactive and oppositional behavior over the studied period. These results were similar for girls and boys. The results underscore the role of teachers' classroom management strategies in improving children's classroom behavior, which, in turn is an important component in the reduction of disruptive behavior development.

  10. Contraceptive Behavior and Adolescent Lifestyles: A Structural Modeling Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortenberry, J. Dennis; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Relations of contraceptive behavior, problem behaviors, and health-protective behaviors were examined in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of sexually active adolescents. Findings demonstrate substantial organization among adolescent health and problem behaviors and suggest that contraceptive behavior should be conceptualized…

  11. Interdependent Group Contingency and Mystery Motivators to Reduce Preschool Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kelly A.; Theodore, Lea A.; Aloiso, Danielle; Alric-Edwards, Jolie M.; Hughes, Tammy L.

    2007-01-01

    Children exhibiting challenging and disruptive behaviors can require teachers to spend a substantial amount of time on classroom management. Disruptive behaviors in the classroom impact the learning process by taking time away from academic instruction. Further, preschoolers who are disruptive are more likely to continue displaying problematic…

  12. The Role of Family, Religiosity, and Behavior in Adolescent Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, David M.; Williams, Robert J.; Mossiere, Annik M.; Schopflocher, Donald P.; el-Guebaly, Nady; Hodgins, David C.; Smith, Garry J.; Wood, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of adolescent gambling behavior were examined in a sample of 436 males and females (ages 13-16). A biopsychosocial model was used to identify key variables that differentiate between non-gambling and gambling adolescents. Logistic regression found that, as compared to adolescent male non-gamblers, adolescent male gamblers were older,…

  13. Acute behavioral interventions and outpatient treatment strategies with suicidal adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kimberly H. McManama; Singer, Jonathan B.; LeCloux, Mary; Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents, there is limited knowledge of effective interventions to use with this population. This paper reviews the findings of studies on behavioral interventions for adolescents who are at acute suicide risk, as well as outpatient treatment and risk management strategies with suicidal adolescents. The importance of addressing comorbid behaviors and enhancing protective factors are discussed. Cultural considerations in working with suicidal adolescents and strategies for conducting culturally competent treatment are explored. PMID:26279646

  14. Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    This review examines the descriptive epidemiology, and risk and protective factors for youth suicide and suicidal behavior. A model of youth suicidal behavior is articulated, whereby suicidal behavior ensues as a result of an interaction of socio-cultural, developmental, psychiatric, psychological, and family-environmental factors. On the basis of…

  15. Contributions of parent-adolescent negative emotionality, adolescent conflict, and adoption status to adolescent externalizing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Koh, Bibiana D; Rueter, Martha A

    2011-01-01

    Although most adopted children are well adjusted, research has consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. The present investigation tested a model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors. The study included 616 families with at least one parent and two adolescent siblings with a maximum 5-year age difference. The analyses used data from the mothers (M age = 45.56, SD = 4.23), fathers (M age = 48.23, SD = 4.42), and the elder sibling (M age = 16.14, SD = 1.5). Findings support two conflict-mediated family processes that contributed to externalizing behaviors: one initiated by parent-adolescent traits and one by adoption status. Findings also underscore the salience of conflict in families and the significance of aggressive traits and negative emotionality. Contrary to previous research, we found that adoption status did not directly add to our explanation of adolescent externalizing behaviors beyond our proposed process. Instead, adoption status was indirectly associated with externalizing problems through a conflict-mediated relationship.

  16. Elucidating Early Mechanisms of Developmental Psychopathology: The Case of Prenatal Smoking and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Pine, Daniel S.; Pickett, Kate E.; Carter, Alice S.

    2006-01-01

    There is a robust association between prenatal smoking and disruptive behavior disorders, but little is known about the emergence of such behaviors in early development. The association of prenatal smoking and hypothesized behavioral precursors to disruptive behavior in toddlers (N=93) was tested. Exposed toddlers demonstrated atypical behavioral…

  17. Ending disruptive behavior: staff nurse recommendations to nurse educators.

    PubMed

    Lux, Kathleen M; Hutcheson, Jane B; Peden, Ann R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to identify educational strategies that can prepare new graduates to manage disruptive behavior (DB) in the workplace. DB is any inappropriate behavior, confrontation, or conflict - ranging from verbal abuse to sexual harassment - that harms or intimidates others to the extent that quality of care or patient safety could be compromised. Individual interviews were conducted with nine staff nurses currently in practice in acute care settings in the United States. Staff nurses recommended educational strategies that focused on communication skills for professional practice. These included learning how to communicate with hostile individuals, and giving and receiving constructive criticism. Descriptions that participants provided about their work culture were an unexpected finding that has relevance for nurse educators as they prepare students for transition to practice Nurses described lack of management support and intervention for DB situations, personality clashes with coworkers, and devaluation of nursing work as affecting professional practice.

  18. Prosocial Involvement and Antisocial Peer Affiliations as Predictors of Behavior Problems in Urban Adolescents: Main Effects and Moderating Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Dagmar R.; Wyman, Peter A.; Forbes-Jones, Emma L.; Barry, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between prosocial involvement (PI), antisocial peer affiliations (APA), and the degree of their overlapping or independent prediction of behavior problems in urban adolescents. Two dimensions of behavior were assessed at ages 9-11 and at ages 13-15: disruptive, aggressive conduct and number of delinquent…

  19. Female adolescent friendship and delinquent behavior.

    PubMed

    Pleydon, A P; Schner, J G

    2001-01-01

    Young female offenders (n = 29) and female high school students (n = 47) were compared in terms of delinquent behavior and relationships with their best female friend and peer group. Young offenders exhibited significantly more delinquent behavior than did high school students in the past year. Delinquents and nondelinquents did not significantly differ in amount of companionship, conflict, help, security, and closeness with their best female friend, and amount of trust, alienation, and perceived intimacy in their peer group. Less communication and more perceived peer pressure in the peer group distinguished delinquent females from nondelinquent females. Perceived peer pressure significantly predicted delinquent behavior in female adolescents. In short, friendships of delinquent and nondelinquent female adolescents are essentially similar despite higher levels of peer pressure among delinquents.

  20. Contributions of Parent-Adolescent Negative Emotionality, Adolescent Conflict, and Adoption Status to Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Bibiana D.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2012-01-01

    Although most adopted children are well adjusted, decades of descriptive research have consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. Yet we have little understanding of the specific contributing factors that help explain this increased risk. Therefore, the present investigation tested a process model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors. The study included 616 families from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS; McGue et al., 2007). The proposed model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Findings support two conflict-mediated family processes that contributed to externalizing behaviors: one initiated by parent-adolescent traits, and one by adoption status. Findings also underscore the salience of conflict in families and the significance of aggressive traits over the other lower order traits (alienation, stress reactivity) and higher order negative emotionality in our proposed process. Contrary to previous research, we found that adoption status did not directly add to our explanation of adolescent externalizing behaviors beyond our proposed process. Instead, adoption status was indirectly associated with externalizing problems through a conflict-mediated relationship. PMID:22023274

  1. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations With Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Rosiers, Sabrina Des; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (mean age 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning. PMID:23848416

  2. Developmental trajectories of acculturation in Hispanic adolescents: associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Unger, Jennifer B; Knight, George P; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (Mage  = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning.

  3. Health Promotion and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…

  4. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Melanie C.; Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]), depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. METHOD A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, Mage = 20) from a large public university completed an online survey. RESULTS Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. CONCLUSION Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use. PMID:27594786

  5. Reader's theater: a teaching strategy to help students respond to disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Hutcheson, Jane; Lux, Kathleen

    2011-05-01

    The seriousness of disruptive behavior among nurses has been documented by professional nursing organizations, nurse researchers, hospital administrators, and the Joint Commission. Disruptive behavior is any inappropriate behavior, confrontation, or conflict ranging from verbal abuse to physical and sexual harassment. Although the profession recommends development of nursing curricula to address disruptive behavior, the literature on this topic is scarce. Using reader's theater, an innovative teaching strategy, the 10 most common forms of disruptive behavior were introduced. The scripts were used in a senior-level baccalaureate nursing transition course to increase students' awareness of and ability to handle disruptive behaviors. Reader's theater is a scripted, formalized storytelling experience that provides an opportunity for self-reflection and group discussions. After the reader's theater learning activity, students reported an increased ability to recognize and handle disruptive behavior in the workplace.

  6. Early family regularity protects against later disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Tiemeier, Henning; Ringoot, Ank P; Ivanova, Masha Y; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Roza, Sabine J

    2016-07-01

    Infants' temperamental anger or frustration reactions are highly stable, but are also influenced by maturation and experience. It is yet unclear why some infants high in anger or frustration reactions develop disruptive behavior problems whereas others do not. We examined family regularity, conceptualized as the consistency of mealtime and bedtime routines, as a protective factor against the development of oppositional and aggressive behavior. This study used prospectively collected data from 3136 families participating in the Generation R Study. Infant anger or frustration reactions and family regularity were reported by mothers when children were ages 6 months and 2-4 years, respectively. Multiple informants (parents, teachers, and children) and methods (questionnaire and interview) were used in the assessment of children's oppositional and aggressive behavior at age 6. Higher levels of family regularity were associated with lower levels of child aggression independent of temperamental anger or frustration reactions (β = -0.05, p = 0.003). The association between child oppositional behavior and temperamental anger or frustration reactions was moderated by family regularity and child gender (β = 0.11, p = 0.046): family regularity reduced the risk for oppositional behavior among those boys who showed anger or frustration reactions in infancy. In conclusion, family regularity reduced the risk for child aggression and showed a gender-specific protective effect against child oppositional behavior associated with anger or frustration reactions. Families that ensured regularity of mealtime and bedtime routines buffered their infant sons high in anger or frustration reactions from developing oppositional behavior.

  7. Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…

  8. Left Ventricular Assist Devices: The Adolescence of a Disruptive Technology.

    PubMed

    Pinney, Sean P

    2015-10-01

    Clinical outcomes for patients with advanced heart failure receiving left ventricular assist devices are driven by appropriate patient selection, refined surgical technique, and coordinated medical care. Perhaps even more important is innovative pump design. The introduction and widespread adoption of continuous-flow ventricular assist devices has led to a paradigm shift within the field of mechanical circulatory support, making the promise of lifetime device therapy closer to reality. The disruption caused by this new technology, on the one hand, produced meaningful improvements in patient survival and quality of life, but also introduced new clinical challenges, such as bleeding, pump thrombosis, and acquired valvular heart disease. Further evolution within this field will require financial investment to sustain innovation leading to a fully implantable, durable, and cost-effective pump for a larger segment of patients with advanced heart failure.

  9. Adolescent Problematic Social Networking and School Experiences: The Mediating Effects of Sleep Disruptions and Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Lynette; Barber, Bonnie L; Modecki, Kathryn L

    2015-07-01

    An important developmental task for adolescents is to become increasingly responsible for their own health behaviors. Establishing healthy sleep routines and controlling media use before bedtime are important for adequate, quality sleep so adolescents are alert during the day and perform well at school. Despite the prevalence of adolescent social media use and the large percentage of computers and cell phones in adolescents' bedrooms, no studies to date have investigated the link between problematic adolescent investment in social networking, their sleep practices, and associated experiences at school. A sample of 1,886 students in Australia aged between 12 and 18 years of age completed self-report data on problematic social networking use, sleep disturbances, sleep quality, and school satisfaction. Structural equation modeling (SEM) substantiated the serial mediation hypothesis: for adolescents, problematic social networking use significantly increased sleep disturbances, which adversely affected perceptions of sleep quality that, in turn, lowered adolescents' appraisals of their school satisfaction. This significant pattern was largely driven by the indirect effect of sleep disturbances. These findings suggest that adolescents are vulnerable to negative consequences from social networking use. Specifically, problematic social networking is associated with poor school experiences, which result from poor sleep habits. Promoting better sleep routines by minimizing sleep disturbances from social media use could improve school experiences for adolescents with enhanced emotional engagement and improved subjective well-being.

  10. Behavior of Selected Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Sewage Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinze; Lu, Jiaming; Ollivier, Natacha; Saturnino, Anais; Gomez, Elena; Casellas, Claude; Picot, Bernadette

    2010-11-01

    The behavior of endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage treatment plant affects their final fate in water environment. We selected six endocrine disrupting chemicals: 4 alkylphenols (4-tert-octylphenol, octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A) and 2 steroids (17α-ethinylestradiol and estriol) as targets, their removal and transformation in wastewater treatment plant were studied. Five mixed liquors were sampled respectively from different stages of Minhang wastewater treatment plant in Shanghai. EDCs concentration were analyzed with GC-MS. The main removal pathways of EDCs include initial adsorption by suspended solids and following biodegradation in biological sludge. The removal efficiency of six targets was more than 86%. The concentration of OP and 4-n-NP in water significantly increased in anoxic stage, the reason may be the releases of EDCs from sludge to water on the condition of low DO. And it was also found that the EDCs could be released to water phase in the secondary clarifier, which may cause potential risk of EDCs entering the environment with discharge.

  11. Self-injurious behavior in Portuguese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Gonçalves, Sónia; Martins, Carla; Rosendo, Ana P; Machado, Bárbara C; Silva, Eliana

    2012-11-01

    In order to assess the frequency and correlates of self-injurious behavior (SIB), 569 Portuguese adolescents aged 12 to 20 years completed questionnaires assessing SIB and psychopathological symptoms. Almost 28% (n = 158) reported a lifetime history of SIB and nearly 10% had performed it in the previous month. The most frequently injured body parts were arms, hands and nails. Most of the self-injurers admit that "now and then" they feel some "mild" to "moderate" pain during SIB. Most of them admitted using these behaviors to avoid/suppress negative feelings, painful images or memories, to punish themselves and to avoid doing something bad. Positive emotions increased significantly after SIB. The self-injurer group reported more psychopathological symptoms. SIB appears to be a common phenomenon with specific functions in adolescence and this must be addressed by clinicians and educational professionals.

  12. Evaluation of DRO Schedules To Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a Preschool Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond; Romaniuk, Cathryn; Kopp, Brandon; Himle, Michael

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of momentary Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors DRO (mDRO) and whole interval DRO (wDRO) schedules on high rates of disruptive behavior in children. In both procedures, children earned tokens for the absence of disruptive behavior and exchanged tokens for tangible or edible reinforcers. mDRO and…

  13. Family Involvement for Children with Disruptive Behaviors: The Role of Parenting Stress and Motivational Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semke, Carrie A.; Garbacz, S. Andrew; Kwon, Kyongboon; Sheridan, Susan M.; Woods, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Children with disruptive behaviors are at risk for adverse outcomes. Family involvement is a significant predictor of positive child behavior outcomes; however, little research has investigated parent psychological variables that influence family involvement for children with disruptive behaviors. This study investigated the role of parental…

  14. Improving Classroom Engagement among High School Students with Disruptive Behavior: Evaluation of the Class Pass Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Tai A.; Cook, Clayton R.; Dart, Evan H.; Socie, Diana G.; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Long, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Off-task and disruptive classroom behaviors have a negative impact on the learning environment and present a unique challenge for teachers to address. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Class Pass Intervention (CPI) as a behavior management strategy for secondary students with disruptive classroom behavior. The CPI consists of providing…

  15. Influence of Risk Factors for Child Disruptive Behavior on Parent Attendance at a Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sarah M.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Although preventive interventions that include both parent and child components produce stronger effects on disruptive behavior than child-only interventions, engaging parents in behavioral parent training is a significant challenge. This study examined the effects of specific risk factors for child disruptive behavior on parent attendance in…

  16. The effect of academic self-concept on ADHD and antisocial behaviors in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pisecco, S; Wristers, K; Swank, P; Silva, P A; Baker, D B

    2001-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling techniques, we evaluated the effect of academic self-concept (ASC) on the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and antisocial behaviors in early adolescence. Participants (n = 445) were recruited from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research study. Eligibility was determined by the presence of complete data for the following variables at the specified time periods: reading at age 7, teacher reports of ADHD and antisocial behaviors at age 7, self-ratings of ASC at ages 9 and 11, and teacher reports of ADHD and antisocial behaviors at age 13. The results indicated that ASC is an important construct that directly contributes to the development of antisocial behaviors rather than to symptoms of ADHD. The results also indicated that children's early history of behavioral problems and academic performance contribute to the development of a more robust understanding of the impact of ASC on the development of disruptive behaviors in early adolescence.

  17. Parental Work Schedules and Adolescent Risky Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wen-Jui; Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Using a large contemporary data set, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY-CS), this paper examines the effects of parental work schedules on adolescent risky behaviors at age 13 or 14 and the mechanisms that might explain them. Structural equation modeling suggests mothers who worked more often at night spent significantly less time with children and had lower quality home environments, and these mediators were significantly linked to adolescent risky behaviors. Similar effects were not found for evening work schedules, while other types of maternal and paternal nonstandard work schedules were linked to higher parental knowledge of children’s whereabouts, which led to lower levels of adolescent risky behaviors. Subgroup analyses revealed that males, those in families with low incomes, and those whose mothers never worked at professional jobs may particularly be affected by mothers working at nights, due to spending less time together, having a lower degree of maternal closeness, and experiencing lower quality home environments. In addition, the effects of maternal night shifts were particularly pronounced if children were in the preschool or middle-childhood years when their mothers worked those schedules. Implications and avenues for future research are discussed. PMID:20822236

  18. Reducing Disruptive Behavior in an Urban School Cafeteria: An Extension of the Good Behavior Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurdy, Barry L.; Lannie, Amanda L.; Barnabas, Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    Non-classroom settings are often the most violence-prone areas within a school. This study investigated the impact of an interdependent group contingency on the disruptive behaviors of students in grades K-6 in an urban school cafeteria. Nine female noontime aides and National School and Community Corps staff members implemented the Lunchroom…

  19. Foster Placement Disruptions Associated with Problem Behavior: Mitigating a Threshold Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Philip A.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Mannering, Anne M.; Takahashi, Aiko; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Placement disruptions have adverse effects on foster children. Identifying reliable predictors of placement disruptions might assist in the allocation of services to prevent disruptions. There were two objectives in this study: (a) to replicate a prior finding that the number of daily child problem behaviors at entry into a new foster…

  20. An Examination of the Sibling Training Hypothesis for Disruptive Behavior in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Ella; Plamondon, André; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2017-02-13

    Sibling training for disruptive behavior (one sibling teaching another disruptive behavior) is examined during early childhood. We used a conservative, recently developed, statistical model to identify sibling training. Sibling training was operationalized as the cross-lagged association between earlier child behavior and later sibling behavior, and differentiated from other reasons that contribute to sibling similarity. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked 916 children (Mage  = 3.46, SD = 2.23) in 397 families using multi-informant data. Evidence for sibling training was found. Earlier younger siblings' disruptive behavior predicted later lower levels of older siblings' disruptive behavior. Thus, the sibling training found in early childhood was producing greater dissimilarity, rather than similarity, on disruptive behavior.

  1. Disrupted Expected Value Signaling in Youth With Disruptive Behavior Disorders to Environmental Reinforcers

    PubMed Central

    White, Stuart F.; Fowler, Katherine A.; Sinclair, Stephen; Schechter, Julia C.; Majestic, Catherine M.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, R. James

    2014-01-01

    Objective Youth with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), including conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), have difficulties in reinforcement-based decision making, the neural basis of which is poorly understood. Studies examining decision making in youth with DBD have revealed reduced reward responses within the ventrome-dial prefrontal cortex/orbitofrontal cortex (vmPFC/OFC), increased responses to unexpected punishment within the vmPFC and striatum, and reduced use of expected value information in the anterior insula cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex during the avoidance of suboptimal choices. Previous work has used only monetary reinforcement. The current study examined whether dysfunction in youth with DBD during decision making extended to environmental reinforcers. Method A total of 30 youth (15 healthy youth and 15 youth with DBD) completed a novel reinforcement-learning paradigm using environmental reinforcers (physical threat images, e.g., striking snake image; contamination threat images, e.g., rotting food; appetitive images, e.g., puppies) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results Behaviorally, healthy youth were significantly more likely to avoid physical threat, but not contamination threat, stimuli than youth with DBD. Imaging results revealed that youth with DBD showed significantly reduced use of expected value information in the bilateral caudate, thalamus, and posterior cingulate cortex during the avoidance of suboptimal responses. Conclusions The current data suggest that youth with DBD show deficits to environmental reinforcers similar to the deficits seen to monetary reinforcers. Importantly, this deficit was unrelated to callous-unemotional (CU) traits, suggesting that caudate impairment may be a common deficit across youth with DBD. PMID:24745957

  2. The multifaceted impact of peer relations on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Powers, Christopher J; Bierman, Karen L

    2013-06-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4,096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of 3 aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school: peer dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Teachers rated child aggressive-disruptive behavior in 1st and 3rd grades, and peer relations were assessed during 2nd grade. Results indicated that heightened classroom aggressive-disruptive behavior levels were related to proximal peer relations, including an increased likelihood of having aggressive friends and lower levels of peer dislike of aggressive-disruptive children. Controlling for 1st grade aggressive-disruptive behavior, the three 2nd grade peer experiences each made unique contributions to 3rd grade child aggressive-disruptive behavior. These findings replicate and extend a growing body of research documenting the multifaceted nature of peer influence on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school. They highlight the importance of the classroom ecology and proximal peer relations in the socialization of aggressive-disruptive behavior.

  3. Effect of Slow Wave Sleep Disruption on Metabolic Parameters in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Natalie D.; McHill, Andrew W.; Schiavon, Michele; Kangarloo, Tairmae; Mankowski, Piotr W.; Cobelli, Claudio; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Hall, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Cross-sectional studies report a correlation between slow wave sleep (SWS) duration and insulin sensitivity (SI) in children and adults. Suppression of SWS causes insulin resistance in adults but effects in children are unknown. This study was designed to determine the effect of SWS fragmentation on SI in children. Methods: Fourteen pubertal children (11.3–14.1 y, body mass index 29th to 97th percentile) were randomized to sleep studies and mixed meal (MM) tolerance tests with and without SWS disruption. Beta-cell responsiveness (Φ) and SI were determined using oral minimal modeling. Results: During the disruption night, auditory stimuli (68.1 ± 10.7/night; mean ± standard error) decreased SWS by 40.0 ± 8.0%. SWS fragmentation did not affect fasting glucose (non-disrupted 76.9 ± 2.3 versus disrupted 80.6 ± 2.1 mg/dL), insulin (9.2 ± 1.6 versus 10.4 ± 2.0 μIU/mL), or C-peptide (1.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.9 ± 0.1 ng/mL) levels and did not impair SI (12.9 ± 2.3 versus 10.1 ± 1.6 10−4 dL/kg/min per μIU/mL) or Φ (73.4 ± 7.8 versus 74.4 ± 8.4 10−9 min−1) to a MM challenge. Only the subjects in the most insulin-sensitive tertile demonstrated a consistent decrease in SI after SWS disruption. Conclusion: Pubertal children across a range of body mass indices may be resistant to the adverse metabolic effects of acute SWS disruption. Only those subjects with high SI (i.e., having the greatest “metabolic reserve”) demonstrated a consistent decrease in SI. These results suggest that adolescents may have a unique ability to adapt to metabolic stressors, such as acute SWS disruption, to maintain euglycemia. Additional studies are necessary to confirm that this resiliency is maintained in settings of chronic SWS disruption. Citation: Shaw ND, McHill AW, Schiavon M, Kangarloo T, Mankowski PW, Cobelli C, Klerman EB, Hall JE. Effect of slow wave sleep disruption on metabolic parameters in adolescents. SLEEP 2016;39(8):1591–1599. PMID:27166229

  4. Factors Associated with Physician Discussion of Health Behaviors with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2006-01-01

    Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues…

  5. Environmental Correlates of Gambling Behavior in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickwire, Emerson M.; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew W.; Murray, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study considered the relation between adolescent gambling behavior and the perceived environment, the component of Jessor and Jessor's (1977) Problem Behavior Theory that assesses the ways that adolescents perceive the attitudes and behaviors of parents and peers. The predominantly African-American sample included 188 sophomores from…

  6. Diet-Induced Obesity and Circadian Disruption of Feeding Behavior.

    PubMed

    Blancas-Velazquez, Aurea; Mendoza, Jorge; Garcia, Alexandra N; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2017-01-01

    Feeding behavior shows a rhythmic daily pattern, which in nocturnal rodents is observed mainly during the dark period. This rhythmicity is under the influence of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the main biological clock. Nevertheless, various studies have shown that in rodent models of obesity, using high-energy diets, the general locomotor activity and feeding rhythms can be disrupted. Here, we review the data on the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on locomotor activity and feeding patterns, as well as the effect on the brain sites within the neural circuitry involved in metabolic and rewarding feeding behavior. In general, DIO may alter locomotor activity by decreasing total activity. On the other hand, DIO largely alters eating patterns, producing increased overall ingestion and number of eating bouts that can extend to the resting period. Furthermore, within the hypothalamic areas, little effect has been reported on the molecular circadian mechanism in DIO animals with ad libitum hypercaloric diets and little or no data exist so far on its effects on the reward system areas. We further discuss the possibility of an uncoupling of metabolic and reward systems in DIO and highlight a gap of circadian and metabolic research that may help to better understand the implications of obesity.

  7. Diet-Induced Obesity and Circadian Disruption of Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Blancas-Velazquez, Aurea; Mendoza, Jorge; Garcia, Alexandra N.; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2017-01-01

    Feeding behavior shows a rhythmic daily pattern, which in nocturnal rodents is observed mainly during the dark period. This rhythmicity is under the influence of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the main biological clock. Nevertheless, various studies have shown that in rodent models of obesity, using high-energy diets, the general locomotor activity and feeding rhythms can be disrupted. Here, we review the data on the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on locomotor activity and feeding patterns, as well as the effect on the brain sites within the neural circuitry involved in metabolic and rewarding feeding behavior. In general, DIO may alter locomotor activity by decreasing total activity. On the other hand, DIO largely alters eating patterns, producing increased overall ingestion and number of eating bouts that can extend to the resting period. Furthermore, within the hypothalamic areas, little effect has been reported on the molecular circadian mechanism in DIO animals with ad libitum hypercaloric diets and little or no data exist so far on its effects on the reward system areas. We further discuss the possibility of an uncoupling of metabolic and reward systems in DIO and highlight a gap of circadian and metabolic research that may help to better understand the implications of obesity. PMID:28223912

  8. Environmental Health Factors and Sexually Dimorphic Differences in Behavioral Disruptions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.; Trainor, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors—in particular, those that we are exposed to during perinatal life—can dramatically shape the organism’s risk for later diseases, including neurobehavioral disorders. However, depending on the environmental insult, one sex may demonstrate greater vulnerability than the other sex. Herein, we focus on two well-defined extrinsic environmental factors that lead to sexually dimorphic behavioral differences in animal models and linkage in human epidemiological studies. These include maternal or psychosocial stress (such as social stress) and exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds (such as one of the most prevalent, bisphenol A [BPA]). In general, the evidence suggests that early environmental exposures, such as BPA and stress, lead to more pronounced behavioral deficits in males than in females, whereas female neurobehavioral patterns are more vulnerable to later in life stress. These findings highlight the importance of considering sex differences and developmental timing when examining the effects of environmental factors on later neurobehavioral outcomes. PMID:25705580

  9. Analysis of sexual behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, M Paz; Ramiro, Maria T; Ramiro-Sanchez, Tamara

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe some characteristics of vaginal, anal and oral sexual behavior in Spanish adolescents. It was a cross-sectional descriptive population study conducted using a probabilistic sample survey. The sample was composed of 4,612 male and female adolescents, of whom 1,686 reported having penetrative sexual experience. Sample size was established with a 97% confidence level and a 3% estimation error. Data collection took place in secondary education schools. Mean age of vaginal sex initiation was 15 years. Compared to females, males reported an earlier age of anal and oral sex initiation and a larger number of vaginal and anal sexual partners. Males also reported a higher frequency of penetrative sexual relations under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. A higher percentage of females than males reported not using a condom in their first anal sexual experience. This study provides a current overview of the sexual behavior of adolescents that can be useful for the design of future programs aimed at preventing HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

  10. Characteristics of sexual behavior in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Teva, Inmaculada; Paz Bermúdez, Ma; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe some characteristics of the sexual behavior of adolescents in Spain and to compare these characteristics according to gender, using a cross-sectional survey. Participants were 1.279 male and female adolescents who reported having had sexual intercourse. A questionnaire about sexual behavior was applied at their high schools and during school hours. Data were collected between 2006 and 2007. Mean age at the onset of sexual intercourse was 14.8 years in males and 15.0 years in females. Males and females were different according to the type of partner at the last sexual intercourse: 63.0% of males had a steady partner compared to 90.5% of females (p < 0.01). The mean number of sexual partners during the last 12 months was higher in males than in females (M = 2.1 and M = 1.5 partners, for males and females, respectively, p < 0.01). 50.0% of males had sexual intercourse under the effects of drugs versus 39.3% of females (p < 0.01). STD and HIV prevention programs should be designed considering the differences according to adolescents' sex.

  11. Adolescent Gambling: A Narrative Review of Behavior and Its Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on adolescent gambling for the period 1990-2010, assesses adolescent gambling behavior and person and environment predictors, and suggests directions for future research. The review includes 99 studies that identified their subjects as adolescents, children, youth, and students, and discusses…

  12. Adolescents in Crisis: Children's Perception of Parental Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nihira, Kazuo; And Others

    Parents' behavior as perceived by an adolescent population admitted to the adolescent crisis Ward at USC Medical Center is analyzed. The sample consisted of 86 patients who were admitted to the adolescent crisis ward during 1969 and 1970. The population could be divided according to four distinct crisis groups: (1) the suicidal group; (2) the…

  13. Girls’ Disruptive Behavior and its Relationship to Family Functioning: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kroneman, Leoniek M.; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison E.; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of reviews of gender differences in disruptive behavior and parental socialization exist, we extend this literature by addressing the question of differential development among girls and by placing both disruptive behavior and parenting behavior in a developmental framework. Clarifying the heterogeneity of development in girls is important for developing and optimizing gender-specific prevention and treatment programs. In the current review, we describe the unique aspects of the development of disruptive behavior in girls and explore how the gender-specific development of disruptive behavior can be explained by family linked risk and protective processes. Based on this review, we formulate a gender-specific reciprocal model of the influence of social factors on the development of disruptive behavior in girls in order to steer further research and better inform prevention and treatment programs. PMID:20161077

  14. Perspective: delivering effective and engaging continuing medical education on physicians' disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Kimberly; Lord, Julie; Murray, Suzanne

    2011-05-01

    Education about physicians' disruptive behavior is relevant for practicing physicians, who must demonstrate competence in professionalism for maintenance of certification. In addition, physicians need to know about newer regulatory standards that define disruptive behavior and mandated processes for dealing with such behavior, as health care organizations are now charged with having formal policies addressing this issue. There is a growing literature about dealing with disruptive behavior, but it has not addressed education, including continuing medical education (CME), aimed at reducing or preventing disruptive behavior. The authors suggest specific strategies for such CME educational programs, including knowing the audience before the presentation, avoiding potential pitfalls, defusing defensiveness, and increasing audience "buy-in." They present two viewpoints from which to approach the topic of disruptive behavior, depending on the audience: "rekindling of values" and "risk reduction." The authors also recommend interactive teaching methods designed to maximize audience participation and foster self-awareness and reflection.

  15. Adolescent binge ethanol treatment alters adult brain regional volumes, cortical extracellular matrix protein and behavioral flexibility.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Leon Garland; Liu, Wen; Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin; Crews, Fulton T

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents binge drink more than any other age group, increasing risk of disrupting the development of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that adolescent binge drinking would lead to persistent alterations in adulthood. In this study, we modeled adolescent weekend underage binge-drinking, using adolescent mice (post-natal days [P] 28-37). The adolescent intermittent binge ethanol (AIE) treatment includes 6 binge intragastric doses of ethanol in an intermittent pattern across adolescence. Assessments were conducted in adulthood following extended abstinence to determine if there were persistent changes in adults. Reversal learning, open field and other behavioral assessments as well as brain structure using magnetic imaging and immunohistochemistry were determined. We found that AIE did not impact adult Barnes Maze learning. However, AIE did cause reversal learning deficits in adults. AIE also caused structural changes in the adult brain. AIE was associated with adulthood volume enlargements in specific brain regions without changes in total brain volume. Enlarged regions included the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, 4%), cerebellum (4.5%), thalamus (2%), internal capsule (10%) and genu of the corpus callosum (7%). The enlarged OFC volume in adults after AIE is consistent with previous imaging studies in human adolescents. AIE treatment was associated with significant increases in the expression of several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the adult OFC including WFA (55%), Brevican (32%), Neurocan (105%), Tenacin-C (25%), and HABP (5%). These findings are consistent with AIE causing persistent changes in brain structure that could contribute to a lack of behavioral flexibility.

  16. Adolescent binge ethanol treatment alters adult brain regional volumes, cortical extracellular matrix protein and behavioral flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Leon Garland; Liu, Wen; Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin; Crews, Fulton T.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents binge drink more than any other age group, increasing risk of disrupting the development of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that adolescent binge drinking would lead to persistent alterations in adulthood. In this study, we modeled adolescent weekend underage binge-drinking, using adolescent mice (post-natal days [P] 28–37). The adolescent intermittent binge ethanol (AIE) treatment includes 6 binge intragastric doses of ethanol in an intermittent pattern across adolescence. Assessments were conducted in adulthood following extended abstinence to determine if there were persistent changes in adults. Reversal learning, open field and other behavioral assessments as well as brain structure using magnetic imaging and immunohistochemistry were determined. We found AIE did not impact adult Barnes Maze learning. However, AIE did cause reversal learning deficits in adults. AIE also caused structural changes in the adult brain. AIE was associated with adulthood volume enlargements in specific brain regions without changes in total brain volume. Enlarged regions included the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, 4%), cerebellum (4.5%), thalamus (2%), internal capsule (10%) and genu of the corpus callosum (7%). The enlarged OFC volume in adults after AIE is consistent with previous imaging studies in human adolescents. AIE treatment was associated with significant increases in the expression of several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the adult OFC including WFA (55%), Brevican (32%), Neurocan (105%), Tenacin-C (25%), and HABP (5%). These findings are consistent with AIE causing persistent changes in brain structure that could contribute to a lack of behavioral flexibility. PMID:24275185

  17. Behavioral Disorder amongst Adolescents Attending Secondary School in Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chinawa, J. M.; Manyike, P. C.; Obu, H. A.; Odetunde, O. I.; Aniwada, E. C.; Ndu, I. K.; Chinawa, A. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Adolescents are prone to various forms of behavioral problems. These behavioral issues in adolescents can have serious consequences for the adolescents. Objectives. The objectives of the study are to determine the causative factors of adolescent problems and specific manifestations. Methods. Behavioral problems were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools in southeast Nigeria from February to April, 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was developed from Health Kids Colorado Questionnaire. Results. A total of 763 subjects completed the questionnaire. Adolescents who reported to have used tobacco 3 to 5 and 6 to 9 times during the last 30 days are just 3.14% and 3.4%, respectively. Nineteen (2.49%) adolescents claimed that they have had sex before but not in the last 3 months. Adolescents who attempted suicide are from 15 years and peaked at 18. Eighty-three (11%) adolescents who are 15 years old attempted suicide in a year; this peaks at 17 years where 235 (30.8%) committed suicide. Majority of adolescents with behavioral disorder are from the upper class family. Conclusion. This study revealed that adolescents exhibit several forms of behavioral problems. PMID:25276048

  18. Functional characteristics of disruptive behavior in developmentally disabled children with and without autism.

    PubMed

    Reese, R Matthew; Richman, David M; Belmont, John M; Morse, Paige

    2005-08-01

    Expanding on Reese et al. [2003], functional behavioral assessment interviews [O'Neill et al., 1997] concerning disruptive behavior were conducted with parents of 23 children with autism (6 females, 17 males, chronological ages [CA] 24-60 months) and 23 controls without autism pair-matched for CA, developmental age and sex. All children exhibited frequent disruptive behavior. The interviews suggested that matched control children's disruptive behavior typically functioned to gain attention or items, or to escape demands in general. This was also true for girls with autism. For boys with autism, disruptive behavior more often functioned to (a) escape demands that interfere with repetitive behavior, (b) retain access to an item used in repetitive routines, or (c) avoid idiosyncratically aversive sensory stimuli (e.g., ordinary household noises). These results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral characteristics that are associated with sex and specific disorders or syndromes when conducting functional behavioral assessments.

  19. Parent Behavior and Adolescents' Self-System Processes: Predictors of Behavior to Siblings and Friends Problem Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repinski, Daniel J.; Shonk, Susan M.

    This study examined the degree to which adolescent self-system processes (self-efficacy, emotional reactivity) and reports of mothers' and fathers' behavior (warmth/support, hostility) predict adolescents' behavior toward siblings and their friends' problem behavior. Subjects were 76 seventh-grade adolescents who provided self-reports of parent…

  20. Child Disruptive Behavior and Parenting Efficacy: A Comparison of the Effects of Two Models of Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Erin; Rodriguez, Eileen; Cappella, Elise; Morris, Jordan; McClowry, Sandee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament (INSIGHTS), a temperament-based preventive intervention, in reducing the disruptive behavior problems of young children from low-income, urban families. Results indicate that children enrolled in INSIGHTS evidenced a decrease in disruptive behavior problems…

  1. Utilization of Superheroes Social Skills to Reduce Disruptive and Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Handley, Roderick D.; Radley, Keith C.; Cavell, Hannah J.

    2016-01-01

    The current pilot study investigated the effectiveness of the Superheroes Social Skills program in decreasing disruptive and aggressive behavior of elementary-age students with high-incidence disabilities. Six students in a self-contained classroom, identified as displaying high rates of disruptive and aggressive behavior toward peers, were…

  2. The Multifaceted Impact of Peer Relations on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in Early Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4,096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of 3 aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school: peer dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior.…

  3. The Influence of Maternal Stress and Distress on Disruptive Behavior Problems in Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Tammy D.; Dunlap, Sarah T.; Cotten, Sarah J.; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined how self-reported maternal stress and distress are associated with child disruptive behaviors. Method: Mother and teacher ratings of child disruptive behavior problems (attention problems, aggression, and delinquency) were collected for 215 male participants, ranging in age from 9 to 12 years. Participating…

  4. The Effectiveness of Social Stories on Decreasing Disruptive Behaviors of Children with Autism: Three Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Selda

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of social stories on decreasing the disruptive behaviors of children with autism. Social stories were created for three participants, ages 7 and 9, to decrease three target disruptive behaviors, using a loud voice in class, chair tipping, and cutting in lunch line. Using a…

  5. A Pilot Study of Parent Training in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearss, Karen; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Smith, Tristram; Scahill, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Guidance on effective interventions for disruptive behavior in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is limited. We present feasibility and initial efficacy data on a structured parent training program for 16 children (ages 3-6) with ASD and disruptive behavior. The 6-month intervention included 11 Core and up to 2 Optional…

  6. Differential Effects of Seating Arrangements on Disruptive Behavior of Fifth Grade Students during Independent Seatwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicard, David F.; Ervin, Angela; Bicard, Sara C.; Baylot-Casey, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We investigated teacher versus student seat selection in the context of group and individual seating arrangements. Disruptive behavior during group seating occurred at twice the rate when students chose their seats than when the teacher chose. During individual seating, disruptive behavior occurred more than three times as often when the students…

  7. Cumulative Effects of Mothers' Risk and Promotive Factors on Daughters' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls' disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls' disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls' ages 7-12 in an urban community sample (N = 2043).…

  8. Social Goals in Urban Physical Education: Relationships with Effort and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Alex; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among four distinct types of social goals, effort, and disruptive behavior in urban physical education. Social responsibility, affiliation, recognition, status goals, along with effort and disruptive behavior in physical education were reported by high school physical education students (N = 314) from…

  9. "Ain't Misbehavin": Towards a Developmentally-Specified Nosology for Preschool Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Leventhal, Bennett L.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing consensus that disruptive behavior disorders and syndromes (DBDs) are identifiable in preschool children. There is also concomitant recognition of the limitations of the current DBD nosology for distinguishing disruptive behavior symptoms from the normative misbehavior of early childhood. In particular, there appears to be…

  10. The Use of Noncontingent Escape To Reduce Disruptive Behaviors in Children with Speech Delays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Carrie L.; Holmes, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    Noncontingent escape (NCE) was used to reduce disruptive behavior in three children (age 4) with autism during regularly scheduled speech therapy sessions. Results showed rapid decreases in disruptive behavior and accompanying increases in compliance across children. Findings suggest that speech therapists can effectively implement NCE. (Author/CR)

  11. Self-Perceived Social Acceptance and Peer Social Standing in Children with Aggressive-Disruptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Barry, Tammy D.; Barth, Joan M.; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen C.

    2006-01-01

    Examining children's perceptions of their social acceptance in conjunction with others' ratings of their peer social standing can enhance our understanding of the heterogeneity in children exhibiting disruptive behavior problems. Using a sample of 213 youth rated in the top 31 percent of their class on aggressive-disruptive behaviors, the current…

  12. Individualizing Functional Assessments for Children with Autism: The Contribution of Perseverative Behavior and Sensory Disturbances to Disruptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, R. Matthew; Richman, David M.; Zarcone, Jennifer; Zarcone, Troy

    2003-01-01

    A functional assessment interview was conducted with care providers of 100 children (ages 2-5) with autism regarding reinforcement contingencies contributing to maintenance of disruptive behavior. Gaining access to perseverative activities and escaping demands while engaged in these activities frequently contributed to disruptive behavior in the…

  13. Sedation and disruption of maternal motivation underlie the disruptive effects of antipsychotic treatment on rat maternal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changjiu; Li, Ming

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral mechanisms underlying antipsychotic-induced maternal behavior deficits were examined in the present study. Different groups of postpartum rats were treated with haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), clozapine (10.0 mg/kg), chlordiazepoxide (5.0 mg/kg, an anxiolytic) or vehicle (0.9% saline) on Days 4 and 6 postpartum and their maternal behaviors were tested under either pup-separation (e.g. pups were removed from their mothers for 4 h before testing) or no-pup-separation condition. Maternal behavior and drug-induced sedation were further tested for 3 days from Day 8 to 12 postpartum. Results show that pup-separation, which putatively increases maternal motivation, did significantly shorten clozapine-elongated pup approach latency, increase pup licking and nursing but fail to reverse the deficits in pup retrieval and nest building in the lactating rats treated with haloperidol and clozapine. Repeated haloperidol treatment produced a progressively enhanced disruption on pup retrieval and nest building and an attenuated sedation. In contrast, clozapine showed a progressively diminished disruption on pup retrieval and a concomitantly diminished sedative effect. Based on these findings, we suggest that antipsychotic drugs disrupt active maternal responses at least in part by suppressing maternal motivation, and drug-induced sedation also contributes to this disruptive effect, especially with clozapine. PMID:19041338

  14. Disrupted Expected Value and Prediction Error Signaling in Youths With Disruptive Behavior Disorders During a Passive Avoidance Task

    PubMed Central

    White, Stuart F.; Pope, Kayla; Sinclair, Stephen; Fowler, Katherine A.; Brislin, Sarah J.; Williams, W. Craig; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, R. James R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Youths with disruptive behavior disorders, including conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, show major impairments in reinforcement-based decision making. However, the neural basis of these difficulties remains poorly understood. This partly reflects previous failures to differentiate responses during decision making and feedback processing and to take advantage of computational model-based functional MRI (fMRI). Method Participants were 38 community youths ages 10–18 (20 had disruptive behavior disorders, and 18 were healthy comparison youths). Model-based fMRI was used to assess the computational processes involved in decision making and feedback processing in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, insula, and caudate. Results Youths with disruptive behavior disorders showed reduced use of expected value information within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex when choosing to respond and within the anterior insula when choosing not to respond. In addition, they showed reduced responsiveness to positive prediction errors and increased responsiveness to negative prediction errors within the caudate during feedback. Conclusions This study is the first to determine impairments in the use of expected value within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and insula during choice and in prediction error-signaling within the caudate during feedback in youths with disruptive behavior disorders. PMID:23450288

  15. Predicting Early Sexual Activity with Behavior Problems Exhibited at School Entry and in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Hannah-Lise T.; Heinrichs, Brenda; Nix, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Youth who initiate sexual intercourse in early adolescence (age 11–14) experience multiple risks, including concurrent adjustment problems and unsafe sexual practices, The current study tested two models describing the links between childhood precursors, early adolescent risk factors, and adolescent sexual activity: a cumulative model and a meditational model, A longitudinal sample of 694 boys and girls from four geographical locations was utilized, with data collected from kindergarten through high school. Structural equation models revealed that, irrespective of gender or race, high rates of aggressive disruptive behaviors and attention problems at school entry increased risk for a constellation of problem behaviors in middle school (school maladjustment, antisocial activity, and substance use) which, in turn, promoted the early initiation of sexual activity. Implications are discussed for developmental models of early sexual activity and for prevention programming. PMID:18607716

  16. Verbal deficits and disruptive behavior disorders among children of opiate-dependent parents.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jeffrey J; Nuñes, Edward V; Greenwald, Steven; Weissman, Myrna

    2004-01-01

    In order to explore the association between verbal deficits and disruptive behavior disorders among children of addicted parents, 283 6-17-year-old children and their opiate-dependent parents completed diagnostic interviews and standardized measures of vocabulary. Unexpectedly, racial differences in the scores confounded the exploration of the relationship between cognitive scores and disruptive behavior disorders. An interaction between disruptive behavior disorder and race is explored; among Caucasian youths, low verbal scores are associated with disruptive behavior disorders, but this association was not found among African- and Hispanic-American youths. Further analysis and research are needed to understand the clinical significance of relationships between verbal deficits and disruptive behavior disorders within racially diverse groups.

  17. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…

  18. Non-Fatal Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jena, S.; Sidhartha, T.

    2004-01-01

    In the USA, suicide ranked as the third leading cause of death for adolescents in 1999. Non-fatal suicidal behaviours are suicidal thought, specific suicidal plan and suicide attempt. Prospective studies have emphasized the high subsequent suicide rates in clinically presenting suicide attempters. This study was planned to critically review the existing international literature on this area, and compare, if possible, with the Indian data. Both electronic and manual search for published and unpublished works was done for the review of this area. Both international and Indian studies on prevalence, risk factors, management, and prevention of non-fatal suicidal behaviours in adolescents were collected, analysed and reviewed. The study concludes that professionals, like general practitioners, paediatricians, school teachers, school counselors, need to be trained in identifying non-fatal suicidal behaviours in adolescents, and know when to refer them to a mental health professional or mental health service for thorough assessment and effective management. Timely and efficient management of non-fatal suicidal behaviors can prevent future suicidal attempts and completed suicide in most of this highly vulnerable population. Indian studies are very few and without robust study design. Systematic studies in India on this important topic are required. PMID:21206789

  19. The Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program: Adapting Behavioral Activation as a Treatment for Depression in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Elizabeth; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Schloredt, Kelly; Martell, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac; Hubley, Samuel; Dimidjian, Sona

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine implementation feasibility and initial treatment outcomes of a behavioral activation (BA) based treatment for adolescent depression, the Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program (A-BAP). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 60 clinically referred adolescents with a depressive disorder who were randomized to receive either 14 sessions of A-BAP or uncontrolled evidenced-based practice for depression. The urban sample was 64% female, predominantly Non-Hispanic White (67%), and had an average age of 14.9 years. Measures of depression, global functioning, activation, and avoidance were obtained through clinical interviews and/or through parent and adolescent self-report at preintervention and end of intervention. Intent-to-treat linear mixed effects modeling and logistic regression analysis revealed that both conditions produced statistically significant improvement from pretreatment to end of treatment in depression, global functioning, and activation and avoidance. There were no significant differences across treatment conditions. These findings provide the first step in establishing the efficacy of BA as a treatment for adolescent depression and support the need for ongoing research on BA as a way to enhance the strategies available for treatment of depression in this population.

  20. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression and suicidality

    PubMed Central

    Spirito, Anthony; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Wolff, Jennifer; Uhl, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis CBT has emerged as a well-established treatment for depression in children and adolescents but treatment trials for adolescents with suicidality are few in number, and their efficacy to date is rather limited. Although a definitive treatment for adolescent suicide attempters has yet to be established, the limited literature suggests that suicidal thoughts and behavior should be directly addressed for optimal treatment outcome. This chapter reviews the rationale underlying the use of CBT for the treatment of depression and suicidality in adolescents, the literature supporting the efficacy of CBT for depressed adolescents, and whether CBT for depression reduces suicidal thoughts and behavior. A description of some of the core cognitive, affective, and behavioral techniques used in CBT treatments of suicidal ideation and behavior in depressed adolescents is included. PMID:21440850

  1. Understanding Adolescent Sexual Behavior in a Changing Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    1972-01-01

    The author suggests dealing with the problem of adolescent sexual behavior through accurate information and wide knowledge of all aspects of human sexual behavior and skill in problem solving. (Author/BY)

  2. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  3. Development of a Measure of Behavioral Coping Skills for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Mary A.; And Others

    Development and initial validation are described for an instrument to assess the behavioral coping skills of adolescents. The Assessment of Behavioral Coping Skills (ABCS) was designed for use in the South Carolina Coping Skills Project, a school-based coping skills prevention program for adolescents at high risk for substance abuse. The ABCS…

  4. Adolescent Health Problems: Behavioral Perspectives. Advances in Pediatric Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…

  5. Emotional and Behavioral Effects of Romantic Relationships in Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhiyan; Guo, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Li, Xinying; Duan, Qing; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' romantic relationships have been associated with higher levels of depression, although their links with externalizing behavioral problems remain unclear. The present study examined the impact of adolescent romantic relationships on depression and externalizing behaviors in a large sample of 10,509 Chinese secondary school students…

  6. The Timing of School Transitions and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found…

  7. Adolescent Maltreatment and Its Impact on Young Adult Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.; Thornberry, Thornberry P.

    2005-01-01

    Statement of problem: "Childhood" maltreatment is known to be a risk factor for a range of later problems, but much less is known about "adolescent" maltreatment. The present study aims to investigate the impact of adolescent maltreatment on antisocial behavior, while controlling for prior levels of problem behavior as well as sociodemographic…

  8. Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

    A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

  9. Longitudinal Bidirectional Relations between Adolescents' Sympathy and Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Nielson, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of understanding sympathy and prosocial behaviors, research on the development of these tendencies in adolescence remains relatively sparse. In the present study, we examined age trends and bidirectional longitudinal relations in sympathy and prosocial behaviors across early to middle adolescents. Participants were 500…

  10. Neuroendocrine and behavioral implications of endocrine disrupting chemicals in quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Henry, P.; McGary, S.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies in our laboratory have focused on endocrine, neuroendocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction in the Japanese quail. These studies considered various stages in the life cycle, including embryonic development, sexual maturation, adult reproductive function, and aging. A major focus of our research has been the role of neuroendocrine systems that appear to synchronize both endocrine and behavioral responses. These studies provide the basis for our more recent research on the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on reproductive function in the Japanese quail. These endocrine active chemicals include pesticides, herbicides, industrial products, and plant phytoestrogens. Many of these chemicals appear to mimic vertebrate steroids, often by interacting with steroid receptors. However, most EDCs have relatively weak biological activity compared to native steroid hormones. Therefore, it becomes important to understand the mode and mechanism of action of classes of these chemicals and sensitive stages in the life history of various species. Precocial birds, such as the Japanese quail, are likely to be sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, because sexual differentiation occurs during this period. Accordingly, adult quail may be less impacted by EDC exposure. Because there are a great many data available on normal development and reproductive function in this species, the Japanese quail provides an excellent model for examining the effects of EDCs. Thus, we have begun studies using a Japanese quail model system to study the effects of EDCs on reproductive endocrine and behavioral responses. In this review, we have two goals: first, to provide a summary of reproductive development and sexual differentiation in intact Japanese quail embryos, including ontogenetic patterns in steroid hormones in the embryonic and maturing quail. Second, we discuss some recent data from experiments in our laboratory in which EDCs have been tested in

  11. Chaotic homes and children's disruptive behavior: a longitudinal cross-lagged twin study.

    PubMed

    Jaffee, Sara R; Hanscombe, Ken B; Haworth, Claire M A; Davis, Oliver S P; Plomin, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Chaotic home lives are correlated with behavior problems in children. In the study reported here, we tested whether there was a cross-lagged relation between children's experience of chaos and their disruptive behaviors (conduct problems and hyperactivity-inattention). Using genetically informative models, we then tested for the first time whether the influence of household chaos on disruptive behavior was environmentally mediated and whether genetic influences on children's disruptive behaviors accounted for the heritability of household chaos. We measured children's perceptions of household chaos and parents' ratings of children's disruptive behavior at ages 9 and 12 in a sample of 6,286 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). There was a phenotypic cross-lagged relation between children's experiences of household chaos and their disruptive behavior. In genetically informative models, we found that the effect of household chaos on subsequent disruptive behavior was environmentally mediated. However, genetic influences on disruptive behavior did not explain why household chaos was heritable.

  12. Goals during adolescence and their relationship with antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    López-Romero, Laura; Romero, Estrella

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, psychological research has emphasized the role of goals in adolescent development and, particularly, in the development of socially adapted lifestyles. Along those lines, the present study, analyzing data collected from a sample of 488 participants, explores: a) The structure of adolescent goals and their importance for young people, b) The relationship between adolescent goals and antisocial behavior and c) The role of gender in this relationship. The results show that adolescent goals are structured according to 6 factors: Social Recognition, Emancipation, Education, Physical-Athletic, Antisocial and Interpersonal-Familial. Educational and emancipative goals appear to be most important for young people. In addition, it has been found that there are significant correlations between certain types of goals and adolescent antisocial behavior, as well as significant gender differences. The data reflect the need to incorporate motivational dimensions into explanatory models of adolescent behavioral problems.

  13. Children with Behavioral, Non-Behavioral, and Multiple Disabilities, and the Risk of Out-of-Home Placement Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helton, Jesse J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relative risk of placement disruption for 3-10 year-old children placed in out-of-home care based on the biological relatedness of the placement caregiver and child disability status: no disability, a non-behavioral disability only, a behavioral disability only, or both a non-behavioral and behavioral disability.…

  14. Indirect Effects of Functional Communication Training on Non-Targeted Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K.; Lee, John F.; Dalmau, Yaniz C. Padilla; Mews, Jayme; Ibrahimović, Muška

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of functional communication training (FCT) on the occurrence of non-targeted disruptive behavior. The 10 participants were preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities who engaged in both destructive (property destruction, aggression, self-injury) and disruptive (hand flapping, spinning in circles, shrill laughter, screaming, crying) behaviors. Only destructive behavior was targeted for the functional analyses and FCT, but data were also collected on disruptive behaviors. All procedures were conducted in the participants’ homes by their mothers with investigator coaching. Phase 1 consisted of conducting a functional analysis within a multielement design. Phase 2 consisted of conducting FCT with demand fading and repeated extinction baselines within a reversal design. Single-case data are provided for 3 participants, and summary data are provided for all 10 participants. Results of phase 1 showed that all participants’ destructive and disruptive behavior was maintained, at least in part, by negative reinforcement. Results of phase 2 showed that both destructive behavior and non-targeted disruptive behavior occurred at lower levels during FCT when compared to the functional analysis demand condition and baseline conditions, suggesting that FCT was effective in decreasing both target destructive behavior and non-targeted disruptive behaviors. PMID:23487563

  15. Increased sensitivity to alcohol induced changes in ERK Map kinase phosphorylation and memory disruption in adolescent as compared to adult C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Spanos, Marina; Besheer, Joyce; Hodge, Clyde W

    2012-04-21

    Adolescence is a critical period of brain development that is accompanied by increased probability of risky behavior, such as alcohol use. Emerging research indicates that adolescents are differentially sensitive to the behavioral effects of acute ethanol as compared to adults but the neurobiological mechanisms of this effect remain to be fully elucidated. This study was designed to evaluate effects of acute ethanol on extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation (p-ERK1/2) in mesocorticolimbic brain regions. We also sought to determine if age-specific effects of ethanol on p-ERK1/2 are associated with ethanol-induced behavioral deficits on acquisition of the hippocampal-dependent novel object recognition (NOR) test. Adolescent and adult C57BL/6J mice were administered acute ethanol (0 0.5, 1, or 3g/kg, i.p.). Brains were removed 30-min post injection and processed for analysis of p-ERK1/2 immunoreactivity (IR). Additional groups of mice were administered ethanol (0 or 1g/kg) prior to the NOR test. Analysis of p-ERK1/2 IR showed that untreated adolescent mice had significantly higher levels of p-ERK1/2 IR in the nucleus accumbens shell, basolateral amygdala (BLA), central amygdala (CeA), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as compared to adults. Ethanol (1g/kg) selectively reduced p-ERK1/2 IR in the dentate gyrus and increased p-ERK1/2 IR in the BLA only in adolescent mice. Ethanol (3g/kg) produced the same effects on p-ERK1/2 IR in both age groups with increases in CeA and mPFC, but a decrease in the dentate gyrus, as compared to age-matched saline controls. Pretreatment with ethanol (1g/kg) disrupted performance on the NOR test specifically in adolescents, which corresponds with the ethanol-induced inhibition of p-ERK1/2 IR in the hippocampus. These data show that adolescent mice have differential expression of basal p-ERK1/2 IR in mesocorticolimbic brain regions. Acute ethanol produces a unique set of changes in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the adolescent

  16. Addiction and "Generation Me:" Narcissistic and Prosocial Behaviors of Adolescents with Substance Dependency Disorder in Comparison to Normative Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Rebecca R.; Johnson, Shannon M.; Exline, Julie J.; Post, Stephen G.; Pagano, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore narcissistic and prosocial behaviors as reported by adolescents with and without substance dependency disorder (SDD). This study employs a quasi-experimental design using SDD adolescents compared with two normative samples of adolescents. In comparison to normative adolescents, adolescents with SDD were…

  17. Behavioral and psychosocial factors associated with insomnia in adolescents with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Tonya M; Wilson, Anna C; Lewandowski, Amy S; Toliver-Sokol, Marisol; Murray, Caitlin B

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to (1) identify differences in sleep behaviors, sleep quality, pre-sleep arousal and prevalence of insomnia symptoms in adolescents with chronic pain compared to a healthy age and sex-matched cohort and (2) examine pain intensity, pubertal development, depression, and pre-sleep arousal as risk factors for insomnia symptoms. Participants included 115 adolescents, 12-18 years of age (73.0% female), 59 youth with chronic pain and 56 healthy youth. During a home-based assessment, adolescents completed validated measures of pain, sleep quality, sleep hygiene, pre-sleep arousal, depressive symptoms, and pubertal development. Findings revealed a significantly higher percentage of adolescents with chronic pain reporting symptoms of insomnia (54.2%) compared to healthy adolescents (19.6%), p<.001. Youth with chronic pain also reported higher cognitive and somatic arousal at bedtime, and lower sleep quality compared to the healthy cohort. In a logistic regression, two factors emerged as significant predictors of insomnia, having chronic pain (OR=6.09) and higher levels of cognitive pre-sleep arousal (OR=1.24). Level of pain intensity did not predict insomnia. While sleep disruption may initially relate to pain, these symptoms may persist into a separate primary sleep disorder over time due to other behavioral and psychosocial factors. Assessment of insomnia may be important for identifying behavioral targets for the delivery of sleep-specific interventions to youth with chronic pain.

  18. Reputation management of adolescents in relation to antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    López-Romero, Laura; Romero, Estrella

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have emphasized the need to consider psychosocial and motivational variables in the study of antisocial behavior in adolescents. Thus, several studies have highlighted the importance of reputation management as a possible explanatory factor. This process of reputation management enables young people to form an image of themselves that they may use in their social interactions. In this study the authors carried out an investigation with data from a sample of 493 adolescents and analyzed (a) the relationships between adolescent reputation management and antisocial behavior and (b) the role of gender in this relationship. The results revealed that a perceived social identity as nonconforming was the best predictor of adolescent antisocial behavior, especially for girls, The data support previous findings on the importance of considering the establishment and management of reputation in the analysis of adolescent antisocial behavior.

  19. Individual and environmental influences on adolescent eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone

    2002-03-01

    Food choices of adolescents are not consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Food intakes tend to be low in fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods and high in fat. Skipping meals is also a concern among adolescents, especially girls. Factors influencing eating behaviors of adolescents need to be better understood to develop effective nutrition interventions to change eating behaviors. This article presents a conceptual model based on social cognitive theory and an ecological perspective for understanding factors that influence adolescent eating behaviors and food choices. In this model, adolescent eating behavior is conceptualized as a function of individual and environmental influences. Four levels of influence are described: individual or intrapersonal influences (eg, psychosocial, biological); social environmental or interpersonal (eg, family and peers); physical environmental or community settings (eg, schools, fast food outlets, convenience stores); and macrosystem or societal (eg, mass media, marketing and advertising, social and cultural norms).

  20. Self-regulation in the modification of disruptive classroom behavior1

    PubMed Central

    Bolstad, Orin D.; Johnson, Stephen M.

    1972-01-01

    This study compared self-regulation and external regulation procedures in the treatment of children's disruptive classroom behavior. After baseline data were collected, three of the four most disruptive children in each of 10 first- and second-grade classrooms received reinforcement for achieving low rates of disruptive behavior. The fourth child served as a control subject throughout the experiment. Two of the three experimental subjects were then taught to self-observe their own disruptive behavior. In the final reinforcement period, these subjects were given control over dispensing reinforcers to themselves, based on their self-collected behavioral data while subjects in the other experimental group continued with the externally managed reinforcement. In extinction, reinforcement was discontinued for all subjects, but one of the self-regulation subjects in each classroom continued overtly to self-observe. Results indicated that both reinforcement programs reduced disruptive behavior. The self-regulation procedures were slightly more effective in reducing disruptiveness than was the external regulation procedure, and this advantage persisted into extinction. These results suggest that self-regulation procedures provide a practical, inexpensive, and powerful alternative in dealing with disruptive behavior in children. PMID:16795368

  1. Risky Business: Risk Behaviors in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Yates, Heather; Dumser, Susan; Whittemore, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to review risk behaviors and their health consequences in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The existing literature on common risk behaviors in adolescents is examined, with a focus on illicit drug use, alcohol use, smoking, unprotected sexual activity, and disordered eating behaviors. Conclusions A review of the literature highlights the lack of studies of risk behaviors in this population. Much of what is known comes from studies with adolescents in the general population or from studies of adults with type 1 diabetes. Known risk and protective factors for risk behaviors and health outcomes are noted. Based on these findings, suggestions are provided for diabetes educators and health care providers to assess for and prevent risk behaviors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Directions for future research in this population are indicated, including the need to develop and test standardized prevention programs. PMID:22002971

  2. Double Jeopardy: Child and School Characteristics That Predict Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in First Grade.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L; Thompson, Celine; Powers, C J

    2008-01-01

    High rates of aggressive-disruptive behavior exhibited by children during their initial years of elementary school increase their risk for significant behavioral adjustment problems with teachers and peers. The purpose of the present study was to examine the unique and combined contributions of child vulnerabilities and school context to the development of aggressive-disruptive student behavior during first grade. Parent ratings and child interviews assessed three child characteristics associated with risk for the development of aggressive behavior problems in elementary school (aggressive-disruptive behaviors at home, attention problems, and social cognitions) in a sample of 755 first-grade children in four demographically diverse American communities. Two school characteristics associated with student aggressive-disruptive behavior problems (low-quality classroom context, school poverty levels) were also assessed. Linear and multilevel analyses showed that both child and school characteristics made independent and cumulative contributions to the development of student aggressive-disruptive behavior at school. Although rates of student aggressive-disruptive behavior varied by gender and race, the predictive model generalized across all groups of children in the study.

  3. Disrupted inter-hemispheric functional and structural coupling in Internet addiction adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yanzhi; Yuan, Kai; Feng, Dan; Xing, Lihong; Li, Yangding; Wang, Hongmei; Yu, Dahua; Xue, Ting; Jin, Chenwang; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2015-11-30

    Rapid progress had been made towards the effect of Internet addiction (IA) on the adolescents brain, relatively little is known about the alterations in inter-hemispheric resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) changes. In the current study, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) was used to examine inter-hemispheric RSFC in IA adolescents (n=21) and controls (n=21). The integrity of the fibers connecting the regions, which showed aberrant inter-hemispheric functional connectivity, was assessed by fiber tractography analysis. In addition, the coupling of inter-hemispheric functional and structural connectivity was investigated. Relative to controls, IA adolescents showed decreased VMHC of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the genu of corpus callosum (CC). The decreased VMHC of DLPFC was significantly negative correlated with the duration of IA. Moreover, the VMHC of DLPFC showed significant correlations with the FA of CC in healthy controls, which was disrupted in IA. Our findings provided more scientific evidence for the involvement of DLPFC in IA. It is hoped that multimodal imaging methods can provide deeper insights into the IA effects on the brain.

  4. A CIT Investigation of Disruptive Student Behaviors: The Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, K. Douglas; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on gaining a better understanding of how students negatively impact other students' classroom experience. More specifically, this research develops a typology of disruptive student behavior, including frequency of occurrence and the perceived magnitude of the disruption from a student perspective. Students also provide…

  5. Indirect Effects of Functional Communication Training on Non-Targeted Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K.; Lee, John F.; Padilla Dalmau, Yaniz C.; Mews, Jayme; Ibrahimovic, Muska

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of functional communication training (FCT) on the occurrence of non-targeted disruptive behavior. The 10 participants were preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities who engaged in both destructive (property destruction, aggression, self-injury) and disruptive (hand flapping,…

  6. Risky Business: Exploring Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan; Peterson, Fred L.

    2005-01-01

    Ongoing behavioral research has documented the growing prevalence of adolescent health risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, sexual activity, alcohol and other substance use, nutritional behavior, physical inactivity, and intentional injury. Newer youth risk behaviors, such as pathological gambling, are emerging as threats to public health. Risk,…

  7. Foster Placement Disruptions Associated With Problem Behavior: Mitigating a Threshold Effect

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Philip A.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Mannering, Anne M.; Takahashi, Aiko; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objective Placement disruptions have adverse effects on foster children. Identifying reliable predictors of placement disruptions might assist in the allocation of services to prevent disruptions. There were two objectives in this study: (a) to replicate a prior finding that the number of daily child problem behaviors at entry into a new foster home predicts subsequent placement disruptions in foster preschoolers and (b) to determine whether a this association is mitigated by a treatment foster care intervention. Method Problem behavior and placement disruptions were examined in 60 children in regular foster care (age range = 3.10–5.91 years [M = 4.34, SD = 0.83], 58.3% male, 93.4% Caucasian) and 57 children in a treatment foster care program (age range = 3.01–6.78 years [M = 4.54, SD = 0.86], 49.1% male, 82.5% Caucasian). Using the Parent Daily Report Checklist, a brief telephone interview, foster caregivers reported problem behavior six times over 3 months. Placement disruptions were tracked over 12 months. Results The regular foster care children with 5 or fewer problem behaviors were at low risk for disruption, but their risk increased 10% for each additional behavior (p = .013). The intervention appeared to mitigate this “threshold effect”; number of problem behaviors did not predict risk of placement disruption in the treatment foster care group (p = .63). Conclusions These findings replicate previous evidence linking child problem behavior to placement disruptions and further highlight the need for early preventative interventions. PMID:21787051

  8. Invited article: Managing disruptive physician behavior: impact on staff relationships and patient care.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Alan H; O'Daniel, Michelle

    2008-04-22

    Disruptive behavior can have a significant impact on care delivery, which can adversely affect patient safety and quality outcomes of care. Disruptive behavior occurs across all disciplines but is of particular concern when it involves physicians and nurses who have primary responsibility for patient care. There is a higher frequency of disruptive behavior in neurologists compared to most other nonsurgical specialties. Disruptive behavior causes stress, anxiety, frustration, and anger, which can impede communication and collaboration, which can result in avoidable medical errors, adverse events, and other compromises in quality care. Health care organizations need to be aware of the significance of disruptive behaviors and develop appropriate policies, standards, and procedures to effectively deal with this serious issue and reinforce appropriate standards of behavior. Having a better understanding of what contributes to, incites, or provokes disruptive behaviors will help organizations provide appropriate educational and training programs that can lessen the likelihood of occurrence and improve the overall effectiveness of communication among the health care team.

  9. Preventing disruptive behavior in elementary schoolchildren: impact of a universal classroom-based intervention.

    PubMed

    van Lier, Pol A C; Muthén, Bengt O; van der Sar, Ria M; Crijnen, Alfons A M

    2004-06-01

    A population-based, randomized universal classroom intervention trial for the prevention of disruptive behavior (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems, oppositional defiant problems, and conduct problems) is described. Impact on developmental trajectories in young elementary schoolchildren was studied. Three trajectories were identified in children with high, intermediate, or low levels of problems on all 3 disruptive behaviors at baseline. The intervention had a positive impact on the development of all disruptive behavior problems in children with intermediate levels of these problems at baseline. Effect sizes of mean difference at outcome were medium or small. In children with the highest levels of disruptive behavior at baseline, a positive impact of the intervention was found for conduct problems.

  10. Growth and change in attention problems, disruptive behavior, and achievement from kindergarten to fifth grade.

    PubMed

    Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread interest in children's adjustment problems, existing research does not provide conclusive evidence regarding the direction of the associations of achievement with classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior over the course of elementary school. Using a nationally representative sample of 16,260 kindergarteners, this study examined the temporal sequence of achievement, classroom attention problems, and disruptive behavior, focusing on how changes in skills and problems unfold across key periods between kindergarten and fifth grade. Results indicate that improvements in attention during the earliest years of schooling predict achievement gains through third grade. However, changes in disruptive behavior do not predict subsequent changes in achievement. Evidence linking changes in achievement to changes in classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior was less consistent. These findings point to the need to develop and examine early interventions that can improve attention skills as a mechanism for improving children's academic trajectories in elementary school.

  11. Development and validation of the Johns Hopkins Disruptive Clinician Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Dang, Deborah; Nyberg, Dorothy; Walrath, Jo M; Kim, Miyong T

    2015-01-01

    Although the negative impact of disruptive clinician behavior on quality health care delivery has gained attention recently, little systematic effort to address this issue has been reported. To facilitate empirical research to reduce disruptive clinician behaviors, an assessment tool (Johns Hopkins Disruptive Clinician Behavior Survey [JH-DCBS]) with 5 discrete subscales was developed using a 2-step design. First a pool of items was generated from focus group studies and the literature, and then a psychometric evaluation of the survey was conducted with a sample of clinicians (N = 1198) practicing in a large urban academic medical center. The results indicated that the tool was reliable (Cronbach α = .79-.91), showed high content validity (Content Validity Index = .97), and had significantly high correlations with theoretically selected variables. The study team concluded that the JH-DCBS provides a valid empirical assessment of disruptive behavior. Assessment results may be used to design strategies to improve the health and safety of practice environments.

  12. Adolescents' Smoking Behavior and Attitudes: The Influence of Mothers' Smoking Communication, Behavior and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Diane F.; Schiaffino, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents' and parents' perceptions regarding smoking behavior, attitudes toward smoking, and smoking communication. Instruments were developed to measure multidimensional smoking communication messages and smoking attitudes in 140 mother-adolescent dyads. The prediction of relevant adolescent smoking variables is…

  13. The role of friends' disruptive behavior in the development of children's tobacco experimentation: results from a preventive intervention study.

    PubMed

    van Lier, Pol A C; Huizink, Anja; Vuijk, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Having friends who engage in disruptive behavior in childhood may be a risk factor for childhood tobacco experimentation. This study tested the role of friends' disruptive behavior as a mediator of the effects of a classroom based intervention on children's tobacco experimentation. 433 Children (52% males) were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG) intervention, a universal preventive intervention targeting disruptive behavior, and facilitating positive prosocial peer interactions. Friends' disruptive behavior was assessed from age 7-10 years. Participants' experimentation with tobacco was assessed annually from age 10-13. Reduced rates in tobacco experimentation and friends' disruptive behavior were found among GBG children, as compared to controls. Support for friends' disruptive behavior as a mediator in the link between intervention status and tobacco experimentation was found. These results remained after controlling for friends' and parental smoking status, and child ADHD symptoms. The results support the role of friends' disruptive behavior in preadolescents' tobacco experimentation.

  14. Western High-Fat Diet Consumption during Adolescence Increases Susceptibility to Traumatic Stress while Selectively Disrupting Hippocampal and Ventricular Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Kalyan-Masih, Priya; Vega-Torres, Julio David; Haddad, Elizabeth; Rainsbury, Sabrina; Baghchechi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Psychological trauma and obesity co-occur frequently and have been identified as major risk factors for psychiatric disorders. Surprisingly, preclinical studies examining how obesity disrupts the ability of the brain to cope with psychological trauma are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine whether an obesogenic Western-like high-fat diet (WD) predisposes rats to post-traumatic stress responsivity. Adolescent Lewis rats (postnatal day 28) were fed ad libitum for 8 weeks with either the experimental WD diet (41.4% kcal from fat) or the control diet (16.5% kcal from fat). We modeled psychological trauma by exposing young adult rats to a cat odor threat. The elevated plus maze and the open field test revealed increased psychological trauma-induced anxiety-like behaviors in the rats that consumed the WD when compared with control animals 1 week after undergoing traumatic stress (p < 0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging showed significant hippocampal atrophy (20% reduction) and lateral ventricular enlargement (50% increase) in the animals fed the WD when compared with controls. These volumetric abnormalities were associated with behavioral indices of anxiety, increased leptin and FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) levels, and reduced hippocampal blood vessel density. We found asymmetric structural vulnerabilities to the WD, particularly the ventral and left hippocampus and lateral ventricle. This study highlights how WD consumption during adolescence impacts key substrates implicated in post-traumatic stress disorder. Understanding how consumption of a WD affects the developmental trajectories of the stress neurocircuitry is critical, as stress susceptibility imposes a marked vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27844058

  15. Parenting practices and adolescent sexual behavior: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N=887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic regressions indicated that adolescents reporting greater parental disapproval and limits on viewing at Wave 1 were less likely to initiate oral sex between Waves 1 and 2. Adolescents who reported more sexual communication with parents were more likely to initiate oral sex. Results for vaginal intercourse were similar to those for oral sex. Co-viewing was a significant negative predictor of initiation of sexual behavior. Parental attitudes and television mediation can delay potentially risky adolescent sexual behaviors. PMID:19750131

  16. Exploring the Utility of Self-Modeling in Decreasing Disruptive Behavior in Students with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilias-Lolis, Evelyn; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Students with intellectual disabilities can exhibit a wide array of challenging behaviors in the classroom that pose disruptions to the learning milieu and management problems for those involved in their education. Self-modeling, a behavioral intervention that involves viewing edited videotapes of oneself depicting exemplary behavior, has had…

  17. A Comparison of Function-Based Differential Reinforcement Interventions for Children Engaging in Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeGray, Matthew W.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Sterling-Turner, Heather; Olmi, D. Joe; Bellone, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a direct comparison of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA). Participants included three children in center-based classrooms referred for functional assessments due to disruptive classroom behavior. Functional assessments included interviews and brief…

  18. Linking Informant Discrepancies to Observed Variations in Young Children's Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work has not tested the basic theoretical notion that informant discrepancies in reports of children's behavior exist, in part, because different informants observe children's behavior in different settings. We examined patterns of observed preschool disruptive behavior across varying social contexts in the laboratory and whether they…

  19. The Use of Group Contingencies for Preventing and Managing Disruptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulac, David M.; Benson, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors requiring intervention occur across multiple school systems, including individual students and classrooms. Such behaviors, including talking aloud in class, getting out of one's seat, or more serious behaviors, can be frustrating for other students as well as teachers, who are trying to help students meet ever-increasing…

  20. Medications used in the treatment of disruptive behavior in children with FASD--a guide.

    PubMed

    Ozsarfati, Jak; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    The majority of children with FASD suffer from disruptive behaviors and most of them need medications to modify these behaviors. The objective of this review is to familiarize professionals caring for children with FASD with stimulants and other drugs for ADHD, and the second generation antipsychotic risperidone - for aggressive and defiant behaviors.

  1. Heart Rate and Treatment Effect in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Christina; Grasmann, Dorte; Fegert, Jorg M.; Holtmann, Martin; Poustka, Fritz; Schmeck, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; hyperkinetic conduct disorder, conduct disorder, hyperkinetic disorder) characterized by low heart rate profit less from an intensive cognitive behavioral intervention aimed at reducing impulsive, oppositional and aggressive behavior problems. Method: Basal heart rate…

  2. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-03-08

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents.

  3. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A.; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W.; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A.; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents. PMID:27005644

  4. Differential effects of seating arrangements on disruptive behavior of fifth grade students during independent seatwork.

    PubMed

    Bicard, David F; Ervin, Angela; Bicard, Sara C; Baylot-Casey, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We investigated teacher versus student seat selection in the context of group and individual seating arrangements. Disruptive behavior during group seating occurred at twice the rate when students chose their seats than when the teacher chose. During individual seating, disruptive behavior occurred more than three times as often when the students chose their seats. The results are discussed in relation to choice and the matching law.

  5. Which Forms of Child/Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors Account for Late Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior and Substance Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmermans, Maartje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Health risk behaviors like substance use (alcohol, tobacco, soft/hard drugs) and risky sexual behavior become more prevalent in adolescence. Children with behavior problems are thought to be prone to engage in health risk behaviors later in life. It is, however, unclear which problems within the externalizing spectrum account for these…

  6. Addiction and "Generation Me:" Narcissistic and Prosocial Behaviors of Adolescents with Substance Dependency Disorder in Comparison to Normative Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rebecca R; Johnson, Shannon M; Exline, Julie J; Post, Stephen G; Pagano, Maria E

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore narcissistic and prosocial behaviors as reported by adolescents with and without substance dependency disorder (SDD). This study employs a quasi-experimental design using SDD adolescents compared with two normative samples of adolescents. In comparison to normative adolescents, adolescents with SDD were strongly distinguished by overt narcissistic behaviors and less monetary giving. Levels of narcissistic and prosocial behaviors among adolescents with SDD suggest a connection between self-centeredness and addiction. Results also suggest volunteerism as a potential option to counter narcissism in substance dependent adolescents.

  7. Identification of developmentally appropriate screening items for disruptive behavior problems in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Studts, Christina R; van Zyl, Michiel A

    2013-08-01

    Screening preschool-aged children for disruptive behavior disorders is a key step in early intervention. The study goal was to identify screening items with excellent measurement properties at sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems within the developmental context of preschool-aged children. Parents/caregivers of preschool-aged children (N = 900) were recruited from four pediatric primary care settings. Participants (mean age = 31, SD = 8) were predominantly female (87 %), either white (55 %) or African-American (42 %), and biological parents (88 %) of the target children. In this cross-sectional survey, participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and two parent-report behavioral rating scales: the PSC-17 and the BPI. Item response theory analyses provided item parameter estimates and information functions for 18 externalizing subscale items, revealing their quality of measurement along the continuum of disruptive behaviors in preschool-aged children. Of 18 investigated items, 5 items measured only low levels of disruptive behaviors among preschool-aged children. The remaining 13 items measured sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems (i.e., >1.5 SD); however, 5 of these items offered less information, suggesting unreliable measurement. The remaining 8 items had high discrimination and difficulty parameters, offering considerable measurement information at sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems. Behaviors measured by the 8 selected parent-report items were consistent with those identified in recent efforts to distinguish developmentally typical misbehaviors from clinically concerning behaviors among preschool-aged children. These items may have clinical utility in screening young children for disruptive behavior disorders.

  8. Disruptive Effects of Contingent Food on High-Probability Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Borrero, John C.; Nguyen, Linda; Leon-Enriquez, Yanerys; Carreau-Webster, Abbey B.; DeLeon, Iser G.

    2012-01-01

    The delivery of food contingent on 10 s of consecutive toy engagement resulted in a decrease in engagement and a corresponding increase in other responses that had been previously reinforced with food. Similar effects were not observed when tokens exchangeable for the same food were delivered, suggesting that engagement was disrupted by the…

  9. Temporal effects of antecedent exercise on students' disruptive behaviors: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Folino, Anthony; Ducharme, Joseph M; Greenwald, Naomi

    2014-10-01

    Although a growing body of literature indicates that antecedent exercise is effective at reducing disruptive behaviors, there is a paucity of research examining the temporal effects of antecedent exercise. The present investigation involved 4 students (age range 11 to 14years) enrolled in a self-contained special education behavior classroom due to severe aggressive, disruptive, and oppositional behaviors. In an alternating treatment design with baseline, students were first exposed to baseline conditions and then to 2 experimental conditions (i.e., an antecedent exercise condition and a control condition) in a randomized fashion. Results indicated that 30min of moderate to intense aerobic exercise resulted in approximately 90min of behavioral improvements. In addition, there appeared to be an inverse relation between arousal levels and behavioral difficulties. The potential utility of antecedent exercise as a treatment alternative in schools for students with severe disruptive behavior is discussed.

  10. Parenting practices and child disruptive behavior problems in early elementary school. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    PubMed

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L; McMahon, R J; Lengua, L J

    2000-03-01

    Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child's disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex.

  11. Directions of Effects between Adolescent Psychopathic Traits and Parental Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salihovic, Selma; Kerr, Margaret; Ozdemir, Metin; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the directions of effects between adolescent psychopathic traits and parental behaviors. The data are from a community-based cohort-sequential study. Data were collected annually over 4 years. Participants were 875 adolescents, aged 13-15 at Time 1, and we analyzed their reports of negative and positive parental…

  12. Lying Behavior, Family Functioning and Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Finkenauer, Catrin; van Kooten, Dyana C.

    2006-01-01

    Communication between children and parents has been the subject of several studies, examining the effects of, for example, disclosure and secrecy on adolescents' social relationships and adjustment. Less attention has paid to adolescent deception. We developed and tested a new instrument on lying behavior in a sample of 671 parent-adolescent…

  13. Feasibility of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Adolescent Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Laurence Y.; Cox, Brian J.; Gunasekara, Shiny; Miller, Alec L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) implementation in a general child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit and to provide preliminary effectiveness data on DBT versus treatment as usual (TAU). Method: Sixty-two adolescents with suicide attempts or suicidal ideation were admitted to one of two…

  14. Acceptance-Enhanced Behavior Therapy for Trichotillomania in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Kathi M.; Walther, Michael R.; Joseph, Jessica M.; Robinson, Jordan; Ricketts, Emily J.; Bowe, William E.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the efficacy of Acceptance Enhanced Behavior Therapy (AEBT) for the treatment of trichotillomania (TTM) in adults, data are limited with respect to the treatment of adolescents. Our case series illustrates the use of AEBT for TTM in the treatment of two adolescents. The AEBT protocol (Woods & Twohig, 2008) is…

  15. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  16. Bidirectional Relations between Authoritative Parenting and Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Carlo, Gustavo; Christensen, Katherine J.; Yorgason, Jeremy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relations between authoritative parenting and adolescents' prosocial behavior over a 1-year time period. Data were taken from Time 2 and 3 of the Flourishing Families Project, and included reports from 319 two-parent families with an adolescent child (M age of child at Time 2 = 12.34, SD = 1.06, 52% girls).…

  17. Deviant Friends and Early Adolescents' Emotional and Behavioral Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated whether friendships with deviant peers would be related negatively to the emotional and behavioral adjustment of 305 adolescents, 13 years of age. Found that adolescents with deviant friends were more delinquent than those with no mutual friends or nondeviant friends, and showed similarly problematic depression levels as friendless…

  18. Estimating Peer Effects in Sexual Behavior among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Mir M.; Dwyer, Debra S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we seek to empirically quantify the role of peer social networks in influencing sexual behavior among adolescents. Using data of a nationally representative sample of adolescents we utilize a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects and peer…

  19. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…

  20. Perceived Teacher's Behaviors and Dimensions of Adolescent Self-Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mboya, Mzobanzi M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that a significant positive relationship exists between perceived teacher support, interest, and encouragement and adolescents' self-concept in Africa. Utilized the Self-Description Inventory (SDI) to reveal that specific dimensions of adolescents' self-concepts were positively affected by specific teacher behaviors. (MJP)

  1. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  2. Managing Disruptive Behavior by Patients and Physicians: A Responsibility of the Dialysis Facility Medical Director.

    PubMed

    Jones, Edward R; Goldman, Richard S

    2015-08-07

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Conditions for Coverage make the medical director of an ESRD facility responsible for all aspects of care, including high-quality health care delivery (e.g., safe, effective, timely, efficient, and patient centered). Because of the high-pressure environment of the dialysis facility, conflicts are common. Conflict frequently occurs when aberrant behaviors disrupt the dialysis facility. Patients, family members, friends, and, less commonly appreciated, nephrology clinicians (i.e., nephrologists and advanced care practitioners) may manifest disruptive behavior. Disruptive behavior in the dialysis facility impairs the ability to deliver high-quality care. Furthermore, disruptive behavior is the leading cause for involuntary discharge (IVD) or involuntary transfer (IVT) of a patient from a facility. IVD usually results in loss of continuity of care, increased emergency department visits, and increased unscheduled, acute dialysis treatments. A sufficient number of IVDs and IVTs also trigger an extensive review of the facility by the regional ESRD Networks, exposing the facility to possible Medicare-imposed sanctions. Medical directors must be equipped to recognize and correct disruptive behavior. Nephrology-based literature and tools exist to help dialysis facility medical directors successfully address and resolve disruptive behavior before medical directors must involuntarily discharge a patient or terminate an attending clinician.

  3. Taking a toy gun to school: a consideration of the determinants of adolescent forensic behavior in the aftermath of the Sandy Hook shooting.

    PubMed

    Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon

    2015-05-01

    Adolescent forensic behavior can have a variety of meanings. A consideration of the range of meanings can inform the practice of the psychiatric forensic evaluation. This case report describes the history of an adolescent in individual treatment for disruptive and self-defeating behaviors who brought a concealed toy gun into his high school in the aftermath of the Sandy Hook shooting. The overdetermined nature of this act, as well as a consideration of its multiple meanings in the context of the young man's psychology, his educational and family systems, and his relationship with his treatment provider, will be described and developed. The discussion will broaden to consider the parameters of indicated therapeutic programs to address this subset of adolescent forensic behaviors. The role of deficient implicit emotion regulation capacities in adolescents and the corrective measures to target these neurobehavioral deficits will be described. The report concludes with implications for primary prevention of future adolescent forensic behaviors.

  4. A Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Parental Monitoring on Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors: The Moderating Role of Adolescent Empathy.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Moscatelli, Silvia; Keijsers, Loes; Koot, Hans M; Rubini, Monica; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In adolescence, youth antisocial behaviors reach a peak. Parents can use different strategies, such as parental solicitation and control, to monitor their children's activities and try to prevent or reduce their antisocial behaviors. However, it is still unclear if, and for which adolescents, these parental monitoring behaviors are effective. The aim of this study was to examine if the impact of parental solicitation and control on adolescent antisocial behaviors depends on adolescent empathy. In order to comprehensively address this aim, we tested the moderating effects of multiple dimensions (affective and cognitive) of both trait and state empathy. Participants were 379 Dutch adolescents (55.9% males) involved in a longitudinal study with their fathers and mothers. At T1 (conducted when adolescents were 17-year-old) adolescents filled self-report measures of antisocial behaviors and trait empathy during one home visit, while their state empathy was rated during a laboratory session. Furthermore, parents reported their own monitoring behaviors. At T2 (conducted 1 year later, when adolescents were 18-year-old), adolescents reported again on their antisocial behaviors. Moderation analyses indicated that both affective and cognitive state empathy moderated the effects of parental solicitation on adolescent antisocial behaviors. Results highlighted that solicitation had unfavorable effects on antisocial behaviors in adolescents with high empathy whereas the opposite effect was found for adolescents with low empathy. In contrast, neither state nor trait empathy moderated the effects of control on adolescent antisocial behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. A Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Parental Monitoring on Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors: The Moderating Role of Adolescent Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Moscatelli, Silvia; Keijsers, Loes; Koot, Hans M.; Rubini, Monica; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In adolescence, youth antisocial behaviors reach a peak. Parents can use different strategies, such as parental solicitation and control, to monitor their children’s activities and try to prevent or reduce their antisocial behaviors. However, it is still unclear if, and for which adolescents, these parental monitoring behaviors are effective. The aim of this study was to examine if the impact of parental solicitation and control on adolescent antisocial behaviors depends on adolescent empathy. In order to comprehensively address this aim, we tested the moderating effects of multiple dimensions (affective and cognitive) of both trait and state empathy. Participants were 379 Dutch adolescents (55.9% males) involved in a longitudinal study with their fathers and mothers. At T1 (conducted when adolescents were 17-year-old) adolescents filled self-report measures of antisocial behaviors and trait empathy during one home visit, while their state empathy was rated during a laboratory session. Furthermore, parents reported their own monitoring behaviors. At T2 (conducted 1 year later, when adolescents were 18-year-old), adolescents reported again on their antisocial behaviors. Moderation analyses indicated that both affective and cognitive state empathy moderated the effects of parental solicitation on adolescent antisocial behaviors. Results highlighted that solicitation had unfavorable effects on antisocial behaviors in adolescents with high empathy whereas the opposite effect was found for adolescents with low empathy. In contrast, neither state nor trait empathy moderated the effects of control on adolescent antisocial behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27857703

  6. Community structural instability, anomie, imitation and adolescent suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jón Gunnar

    2009-04-01

    The current study examines the contextual effects of community structural characteristics, as well as the mediating role of key social mechanisms, on youth suicidal behavior in Iceland. We argue that the contextual influence of community structural instability on youth suicidal behavior should be mediated by weak attachment to social norms and values (anomie), and contact with suicidal others (suggestion-imitation). The data comes from a national survey of 14-16 years old adolescents. Valid questionnaires were obtained from 7018 students (response rate about 87%). The findings show that the community level of residential mobility has a positive, contextual effect on adolescent suicidal behavior. The findings also indicate that the contextual effect of residential mobility is mediated by both anomie and suggestion-imitation. The findings offer the possibility to identify communities that carry a substantial risk for adolescent suicide as well as the mechanisms that mediate the influence of community structural characteristics on adolescent risk behavior.

  7. Sexual behavior in Spanish adolescents of divorced parents.

    PubMed

    Orgilés, Mireia; Espada, José P; Johnson, Blair T; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Carratalá, Elena

    2012-05-01

    Marital breakup has been associated with numerous behavioral problems in children, such as sexual risk behaviors. This research is the first to examine sexual behaviors of Spanish adolescents related to whether their parents were married or divorced. Participants were 342 boys and girls aged between 14 and 18 years. The sample provided confidential information about their sexual behavior and birth control methods. Significant differences were only found in percentages of adolescents who had engaged in mutual masturbation, intercourse, or oral sex, and who had practiced these sexual relations in the last six months, in both cases, they were higher when the parents had broken their marital relationship. Regarding adolescents of divorced parents, engaging in intercourse is more likely in older teenagers who live with a stepparent. Moreover, older adolescents who were younger when parents divorced and who live in a reconstituted family, have more sexual partners. These and other findings are discussed.

  8. Disruptive effects of contingent food on high-probability behavior.

    PubMed

    Frank-Crawford, Michelle A; Borrero, John C; Nguyen, Linda; Leon-Enriquez, Yanerys; Carreau-Webster, Abbey B; DeLeon, Iser G

    2012-01-01

    The delivery of food contingent on 10 s of consecutive toy engagement resulted in a decrease in engagement and a corresponding increase in other responses that had been previously reinforced with food. Similar effects were not observed when tokens exchangeable for the same food were delivered, suggesting that engagement was disrupted by the contingent provision of the food, which may have functioned as a discriminative stimulus that occasioned competing responses.

  9. Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk

  10. Adaptive Behavior of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the total adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptive behavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptive behavior were investigated. Instrumentation…

  11. Clustering of Adolescent Dating Violence, Peer Violence, and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossarte, Robert M.; Simon, Thomas R.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2008-01-01

    To understand the co-occurrence of multiple types of violence, the authors developed a behavioral typology based on self-reports of suicidal behaviors, physical violence, and psychological abuse. Using a sample of dating adolescents from a high-risk school district, they identified five clusters of behaviors among the 1,653 students who reported…

  12. Mapping the Academic Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study possessed two aims: (1) to develop and validate aclinician -friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with ADHD and (2) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Method Within a sample of 324 adolescents with DSM-IV-TR diagnosed ADHD (age M=13.07, SD=1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, inter-rater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Results Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Conclusions Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215

  13. Mapping the academic problem behaviors of adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Altszuler, Amy R; Morrow, Anne S; Merrill, Brittany M

    2014-12-01

    This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a sample of 324 adolescents with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision diagnosed ADHD (age M = 13.07, SD = 1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, interrater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth.

  14. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  15. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity

  16. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Crews, Fulton T; Vetreno, Ryan P; Broadwater, Margaret A; Robinson, Donita L

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative-motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity to

  17. Systematic Review of Social Network Analysis in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…

  18. Disclosure and Monitoring as Predictors of Mother-Adolescent Agreement in Reports of Early Adolescent Rule-Breaking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Laird, Robert D; LaFleur, Laura K

    2016-01-01

    The current study tested whether greater monitoring by mothers and greater disclosure by early adolescents was linked to greater agreement in mothers' and adolescents' reports of rule-breaking behavior. In doing so, the article demonstrated how polynomial regression analyses can be used to test hypotheses in which informant discrepancies serve as the dependent variable. Data were obtained from 218 mother-adolescent dyads (M adolescent age = 11.5 years, 51% female, 49% European American, 47% African American). Mothers and early adolescents provided reports of their perceptions of maternal monitoring (i.e., solicitation and control through rules), adolescent disclosure, and adolescent rule-breaking behavior. Polynomial regression models tested monitoring and disclosure as moderators of the association between mothers' and adolescents' reports of the adolescents' rule-breaking behavior. Mothers' reports of rule-breaking behavior were more strongly associated with adolescents' reports of their own rule-breaking behavior when mothers reported engaging in more solicitation or control through rules. There was less agreement in mothers' and adolescents' reports of rule breaking when adolescents reported that their mothers engaged in more solicitation. Adolescent disclosure did not moderate agreement in reported rule-breaking behavior. Greater monitoring by mothers may reduce the discrepancy in mother-adolescent reports of rule-breaking behavior. Findings also demonstrate the greater validity of polynomial regression approaches over difference scores when testing hypotheses with informant agreement as the outcome.

  19. Sleep and risk-taking behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Erin M; Mindell, Jodi A

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adolescents' sleep-wake patterns and risk-taking behavior. A second goal was to replicate the results obtained by Wolfson and Carskadon (1998) regarding adolescents' sleep habits. Three hundred eighty-eight adolescents (217 males, 171 females) completed the Sleep Habits Survey and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The results indicated that adolescents who reported longer weekend delay and higher levels of sleep problems also reported significantly higher levels of risk-taking behaviors, and students' weekend delay was also related to their academic performance in this sample. As in the sample studied by Wolfson and Carskadon (1998), the adolescents in this study exhibited changes in both weekday and weekend sleep habits across grade/age. However in the present study, only school-night total sleep time and weekend delay were related to adolescents' daytime functioning, with no significant relationships being found between weekend oversleep and daytime functioning. This provides partial support for the findings of Wolfson and Carskadon (1998). Overall, sleep-wake patterns were found to relate to risk-taking behavior during adolescence in this study.

  20. Randomized trial of parent management training in children with tic disorders and disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Scahill, Lawrence; Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Bearss, Karen; Findley, Diane; Hamrin, Vanya; Carroll, Deirdre H; Rains, Adrienne L

    2006-08-01

    Oppositional, defiant, and disruptive behaviors are common in clinical samples of children with tic disorders. In this study, we sought to evaluate the short-term efficacy of a structured parent training program in children with tic disorders accompanied by disruptive behavior. Children with tic disorders and at least a moderate level of disruptive behavior were randomly assigned to a 10-session structured parent management training program or to continue treatment as usual. Twenty-four children (18 boys and 6 girls) between the ages of 6 and 12 years (mean 8.9 +/- 2.0 years) were enrolled; 23 subjects completed the study. At baseline, subjects showed moderate to severe levels of oppositional and defiant behavior. Twenty subjects (83%) were on stable medication. The parent-rated Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale score decreased by 51% in the parent management training group compared with a decrease of 19% in the treatment as usual group (P < .05). On the Improvement scale of the Clinical Global Impression, a rater masked to treatment assignment classified 7 of 11 subjects who completed parent management training as much improved or very much improved compared with 2 of 12 subjects in the treatment as usual group (Fisher exact test, P < .05). These results suggest that parent management training is helpful for short-term improvement in disruptive behavior problems in children with tic disorders. Larger randomized clinical trials are needed.

  1. Suicidal behaviors in children and adolescents with psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Norkett, Emily; Graber, Kelsey; Tembulkar, Sahil; Morelli, Nicholas; Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph; D'Angelo, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of premature death in individuals with psychotic disorders. Risk for onset of suicidal behaviors tends to begin in adolescence, remaining high into young adulthood. The present study aims to evaluate the interplay of early onset psychosis and suicide risk by examining suicidal behaviors (ideation, planning, and attempts) in children and adolescents with psychotic disorders (PD) compared to typically developing peers (TD). Twenty five youths were recruited and were diagnostically evaluated for psychosis. We found that the PD children exhibited significantly higher levels of suicidal behaviors than TD children, even when parsed into individual at-risk behaviors.

  2. Development of the Systems Thinking Scale for Adolescent Behavior Change.

    PubMed

    Moore, Shirley M; Komton, Vilailert; Adegbite-Adeniyi, Clara; Dolansky, Mary A; Hardin, Heather K; Borawski, Elaine A

    2017-03-01

    This report describes the development and psychometric testing of the Systems Thinking Scale for Adolescent Behavior Change (STS-AB). Following item development, initial assessments of understandability and stability of the STS-AB were conducted in a sample of nine adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Exploratory factor analysis of the 16-item STS-AB and internal consistency assessments were then done with 359 adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Test-retest reliability of the STS-AB was .71, p = .03; internal consistency reliability was .87. Factor analysis of the 16-item STS-AB indicated a one-factor solution with good factor loadings, ranging from .40 to .67. Evidence of construct validity was supported by significant correlations with established measures of variables associated with health behavior change. We provide beginning evidence of the reliability and validity of the STS-AB to measure systems thinking for health behavior change in young adolescents.

  3. Beyond substance abuse: stress, burnout, and depression as causes of physician impairment and disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen D; Goske, Marilyn J; Johnson, Craig M

    2009-07-01

    Disruptive physician behavior may diminish productivity, lead to medical errors, and compromise patient safety. The purpose of this paper is to review how common psychological conditions such as depression, stress, and burnout may drive disruptive behavior in the workplace and result in impaired patterns of professional conduct similar to what is seen with substance abuse. Problems related to these psychological morbidities may be more effectively managed with improved understanding of the conditions and behaviors, their associated risk factors, and the barriers that exist to reporting them. Further research and educational programs are warranted to address how these conditions might affect radiology.

  4. Parenting Behavior, Quality of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Functioning in Four Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    The cross-ethnic similarity in the pattern of associations among parenting behavior (support and authoritative and restrictive control), the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship (disclosure and positive and negative quality), and several developmental outcomes (aggressive behavior, delinquent behavior, and global self-esteem) was tested.…

  5. Disruptive Behavior and School Grades: Genetic and Environmental Relations in 11-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Disruptive behavior may be associated with poor academic achievement due to covariance with attention problems and low IQ. Evidence is based on clinical samples and on associations between problem behaviors in young children and later achievement difficulties. The contemporaneous relations and their genetic and environmental influences have not…

  6. Is My Teaching Disturbing You? Strategies for Addressing Disruptive Behaviors in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kelle

    2010-01-01

    Faculty in higher education are experiencing a new generation of college students referred to as Generation X (Gen-Xers) and Millennials. The characteristics and behaviors of Gen-Xers and Millennials have created a more challenging classroom learning environment. Some educators may choose to ignore disruptive behaviors or may simply not know which…

  7. Reliability and Validity of a Measure of Preschool Teachers' Attributions for Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lauren M.; Williford, Amanda P.; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the quality of teacher attributions for child disruptive behavior using a new measure, the Preschool Teaching Attributions measure. A sample of 153 early childhood teachers and 432 children participated. All teachers completed the behavior attributions measure, as well as measures regarding demographics,…

  8. School Counselors Connecting the Dots between Disruptive Classroom Behavior and Youth Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidell, Markus P.; Deacon, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Students exhibiting emotional and behavioral problems in the classroom can significantly impact the learning environment and often are referred to school counselors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between high school students' self-concept and disruptive classroom behaviors (DCB). High school students (N = 92)…

  9. Parent Use of DRI on High Rate Disruptive Behavior: Direct and Collateral Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Altman, Karl

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluates parental use of differential reinforcement of other and/or incompatible behavior to treat high-rate disruptive behavior in a severely retarded four-year-old boy. A withdrawal experimental design was used. Intervention effectively reduced instances of toy chewing and throwing, while appropriate toy play and ability to remain…

  10. Changes in Adult Behavior to Decrease Disruption from Students in Nonclassroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohanon, Hank

    2015-01-01

    Decreasing classroom disruptions that result from hallway-related behavior in high school settings can be very challenging for high school staff. This article presents a case example of preventing problem behavior related to hallway settings in a high school with over 1,200 students. The interventions are described, and the results of the plan are…

  11. Maternal ADHD: Parent-Child Interactions and Relations with Child Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisser, Alison R.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how ADHD symptoms in mothers of children with ADHD relate to their behavior during parent-child interactions and to their children's disruptive behavior. Findings indicated that mothers' retrospective self-ratings of ADHD symptoms were related to their present negativity during parent-led play. Mothers' self-ratings of current…

  12. The Appalachian Perspective: An Adaptation to a Parent Training Program for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Jessica Marie

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders in children are distressing to others due to the abnormal nature of the child's behavior (Christophersen & Mortweet, 2003). These disorders include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Prevalent rates for these disorders range from 2% to…

  13. Technical Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale--Second Edition--Teacher Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Clark, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and validity of scores on the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-second edition-teacher version (DBRS-II-T) was analyzed. The DBRS-II-T was designed to assess teacher observations of students referred for behavioral difficulties. The five-factor model fit the data poorly, but convergent and diagnostic validities were excellent.…

  14. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  15. Associations between Peer Nominations, Teacher Ratings, Self-Reports, and Observations of Malicious and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David B.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the validity of two aggression scales for predicting observations of malicious or disruptive behavior at school. Subgroups of a sample of 1,560 children (age 8.6 plus or minus 1.5 years) were assessed using (a) peer nominations of aggression, (b) teacher reports on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) of the Child Behavior Checklist…

  16. Double Jeopardy: Child and School Characteristics that Predict Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Thompson, Celine; Powers, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    High rates of aggressive-disruptive behavior exhibited by children during their initial years of elementary school increase their risk for significant behavioral adjustment problems with teachers and peers. The purpose of the present study was to examine the unique and combined contributions of child vulnerabilities and school context to the…

  17. A Developmental Framework for Distinguishing Disruptive Behavior from Normative Misbehavior in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Keenan, Kate; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Leventhal, Bennett L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Attaining a developmentally sensitive nosology for preschool disruptive behavior requires characterization of the features that distinguish it from the normative misbehavior of this developmental period. We hypothesize that "quality of behavior and its pervasiveness across contexts" are critical dimensions for clinical discrimination…

  18. Effectiveness of Noncontingent Attention to Decrease Attention-Maintained Disruptive Behaviors in the General Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Devender R.; Sokolosky, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of noncontingent attention (NCA) on disruptive talking-out behavior in a student diagnosed with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in the general education classroom. Functional analysis indicated that the talking-out behavior was maintained by teacher attention. We used an ABAB…

  19. Heavy Metal in Children's Tooth Enamel: Related to Autism and Disruptive Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Maryam M.; Ly, Agnes R.; Goldberg, Wendy A.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; Dudgeon, John V.; Mull, Christopher G.; Chan, Tony J.; Kent, Erin E.; Mason, Andrew Z.; Ericson, Jonathon E.

    2012-01-01

    To examine possible links between neurotoxicant exposure and neuropsychological disorders and child behavior, relative concentrations of lead, mercury, and manganese were examined in prenatal and postnatal enamel regions of deciduous teeth from children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), high levels of disruptive behavior (HDB), and typically…

  20. Functional Characteristics of Disruptive Behavior in Developmentally Disabled Children with and without Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, R. Matthew; Richman, David M.; Belmont, John M.; Morse, Paige

    2005-01-01

    Expanding on Reese "et al." [2003], functional behavioral assessment interviews [O'Neill "et al.", 1997] concerning disruptive behavior were conducted with parents of 23 children with autism (6 females, 17 males, chronological ages [CA] 24-60 months) and 23 controls without autism pair-matched for CA, developmental age and sex. All children…

  1. The effects of a good behavior game on the disruptive behavior of Sundanese elementary school students.

    PubMed Central

    Saigh, P A; Umar, A M

    1983-01-01

    An endemic version of the Good Behavior Game was applied in a rural Sudanese second-grade classroom. Official letters of commendation, extra time for recess, victory tags, and a winner's chart were used as backup reinforcers. The class was divided into two teams, and the teacher indicated she would place a check on the board after every rule violation. The students were also told that the team with the fewest marks would win the game and receive the aforementioned prizes. After an initial adaptation period, the rate of disruption was charted across four treatment phases: viz., baseline I, introduction of the game, baseline II, and reintroduction of the game. It was observed that the game phases were associated with marked decreases in the rate of seat leaving, talking without permission, and aggression. The teacher, principal, parents, and students were consequently individually interviewed, and their comments spoke strongly for the social validity of the game. PMID:6643325

  2. The effects of a good behavior game on the disruptive behavior of Sundanese elementary school students.

    PubMed

    Saigh, P A; Umar, A M

    1983-01-01

    An endemic version of the Good Behavior Game was applied in a rural Sudanese second-grade classroom. Official letters of commendation, extra time for recess, victory tags, and a winner's chart were used as backup reinforcers. The class was divided into two teams, and the teacher indicated she would place a check on the board after every rule violation. The students were also told that the team with the fewest marks would win the game and receive the aforementioned prizes. After an initial adaptation period, the rate of disruption was charted across four treatment phases: viz., baseline I, introduction of the game, baseline II, and reintroduction of the game. It was observed that the game phases were associated with marked decreases in the rate of seat leaving, talking without permission, and aggression. The teacher, principal, parents, and students were consequently individually interviewed, and their comments spoke strongly for the social validity of the game.

  3. Reduction of Disruptive Behaviors Using an Intervention Based on the Good Behavior Game and the Say-Do-Report Correspondence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Olivares, Rosario; Pino, M. Jose; Herruzo, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behavior can waste a great deal of teaching time in the classroom, leading to feelings of frustration in teachers and an increase in academic failure among pupils. Prior research indicates that intervening in these kinds of behaviors improves the classroom atmosphere and facilitates the learning process. With this in mind, the aims of…

  4. Addressing Disruptive Behaviors in an after School Program Classroom: The Effects of the Daily Behavior Report Card

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorvey, Zamecia J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to address behavior discipline problems in special and general education setting classrooms. Disruptive behaviors are a major concern as they create excessive stress and demands for classroom teachers and school administrators to address them. Effective interventions are needed to properly address them. Moreover, classroom…

  5. Multiple maltreatment experiences and adolescent behavior problems: adolescents' perspectives.

    PubMed

    McGee, R A; Wolfe, D A; Wilson, S K

    1997-01-01

    By adolescence, appraisal of one's past life experience becomes critical to the stage-salient issue of identity formation. This study examined adolescents' perceptions of their maltreatment experiences. It scrutinized the combined and unique contribution of five maltreatment types (i.e., physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, neglect, and exposure to family violence) to variance in adolescent adjustment. It was predicted that these maltreatment types would account for significant variance in adjustment when controlling for the context variables of age, sex, socioeconomic status, IQ, and stressful life events. Adolescents (N = 160, aged 11-17) were randomly selected from the open caseload of a child protection agency. Participants completed global severity ratings regarding their experiences of the five types of maltreatment, as well as a battery of measures assessing self- and caretaker-reported externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. The youths' maltreatment ratings significantly predicted self-reported adjustment, even when controlling for all context variables. Psychological maltreatment was the most predictively potent maltreatment type, and enhanced the predictive utility of other maltreatment types. Significant sex differences in the sequelae of perceived maltreatment were evident. Also, interactions between youths' ratings and those obtained from CPS files were detected. The findings were consistent with recent research in child maltreatment, and contribute to our understanding of developmental psychopathology among adolescents.

  6. Longitudinal bidirectional relations between adolescents' sympathy and prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Carlo, Gustavo; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Nielson, Matthew G

    2015-12-01

    Despite the importance of understanding sympathy and prosocial behaviors, research on the development of these tendencies in adolescence remains relatively sparse. In the present study, we examined age trends and bidirectional longitudinal relations in sympathy and prosocial behaviors across early to middle adolescents. Participants were 500 12-year-olds at Time 1 (52% girls, 70% European American) who completed measures of sympathy and prosocial behaviors at 5 different time points, each approximately 1 year apart. Results showed significant bidirectional relations between sympathy and prosocial behaviors across all time points, and an initial decrease of prosocial behaviors followed by an increase into middle adolescence. The implications for prosocial developmental theories and research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Nicotine dependence and problem behaviors among urban South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, David W; Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S

    2010-04-01

    Tobacco use and its concomitant, nicotine dependence, are increasing in African countries and other parts of the developing world. However, little research has assessed nicotine dependence in South Africa or other parts of the African continent. Previous research has found that adolescent problem behaviors, including tobacco use, tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between nicotine dependence and adolescent problem behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of urban South African adolescents. A community sample (N = 731) consisting of "Black," "White," "Coloured," and "Indian" youths aged 12-17 years was drawn from the Johannesburg metropolitan area. Structured interviews were administered by trained interviewers. Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence. Logistic regression analyses showed that higher levels of nicotine dependence significantly predicted elevated levels of violent behavior, deviant behavior, marijuana and other illegal drug use, binge drinking, early sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use, despite control on the adolescents' demographic characteristics, peer smoking, conflict with parents, peer deviance, and the availability of legal and illegal substances. These relationships were robust across ethnicity and gender. The findings indicate the need for policy makers and prevention and intervention programs in South Africa to consider adolescent nicotine dependence in conjunction with comorbid problem behaviors, including other substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and deviant behaviors.

  8. Safe enough to sleep: sleep disruptions associated with trauma, posttraumatic stress, and anxiety in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Charuvastra, Anthony; Cloitre, Marylene

    2009-10-01

    Sleep disturbance is an essential symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder, and recent evidence suggests that disrupted sleep may play an important role in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder following traumatic stress. The authors review several aspects of sleep as it relates to posttraumatic stress disorder. First, there is an association between traumatic stress and different components of disrupted sleep in children and adolescents. Second, sleep disruption appears to be a core feature of other pediatric anxiety disorders, and the authors consider if this preexisting sleep vulnerability may explain in part why preexisting anxiety disorders are a risk factor for developing posttraumatic stress disorder following a traumatic event. Third, the authors consider attachment theory and the social context of trauma and sleep disruption. This article concludes with a consideration of the therapeutic implications of these findings.

  9. Behavioral Control and Reward Sensitivity in Adolescents' Risk Taking Behavior: A Longitudinal TRAILS Study.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this study we tested whether the imbalance between behavioral control and reward sensitivity underlies risk taking behavior in adolescence, using a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 715 adolescents, of which 66% revealed an increased risk for mental health problems. To assess behavioral control at age 11 we used both self-report (effortful control) as well as behavioral measures of cognitive control (i.e., working memory and response inhibition). Reward sensitivity was assessed with the Bangor Gambling Task. The main finding of this study was that effortful control at age 11 was the best predictor of risk taking behavior (alcohol and cannabis use) at age 16, particularly among adolescents who were more reward sensitive. Risk taking behavior in adolescents might be explained by relatively weak behavioral control functioning combined with high sensitivity for reward.

  10. Cumulative effects of mothers' risk and promotive factors on daughters' disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-07-01

    Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls' disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls' disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls' ages 7-12 in an urban community sample (N = 2043). Maternal risk and promotive factors were operative at different time points in girls' development. Maternal warmth explained variance in girls' disruptive behavior, even after controlling for maternal risk factors and relevant child and neighborhood factors. In addition, findings supported the cumulative hypothesis that the number of risk factors increased the chance on girls' disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), while the number of promotive factors decreased this probability. Daughters of mothers with a history of Conduct Disorder (CD) were exposed to more risk factors and fewer promotive factors compared to daughters of mothers without prior CD. The identification of malleable maternal factors that can serve as targets for intervention has important implications for intergenerational intervention. Cumulative effects show that the focus of prevention efforts should not be on single factors, but on multiple factors associated with girls' disruptive behavior.

  11. Emotional flooding and hostile discipline in the families of toddlers with disruptive behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Mence, Melanie; Hawes, David J; Wedgwood, Lucinda; Morgan, Susan; Barnett, Bryanne; Kohlhoff, Jane; Hunt, Caroline

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between negative parenting practices and dysfunction in parents' cognitive processing of child affect cues in families of toddlers with disruptive behavior problems. This dysfunction comprised a bias toward the misclassification of child affect as anger (affect appraisal bias) and parents' proneness to emotional flooding (Gottman, 1991, 1993). Participants were families of toddlers (n = 82; 53% male; aged 18-48 months) referred to a tertiary-level health service for the treatment of disruptive behavior problems. Affect appraisal bias was indexed in terms of the discrepancy between rates of child anger coded from video recordings of parent-child interactions and rates of child anger estimated by parents immediately after these interactions. Parenting practices and emotional flooding were assessed using the Parenting Scale and the Parental Flooding Scale. Both hostile and overreactive discipline were positively associated with severity of disruptive behavior problems, however only hostile discipline was associated with the biased appraisal of child affect and emotional flooding. Emotional flooding was found to be a unique predictor of hostile discipline, independent of covariates including the severity of disruptive behavior problems. Variance in hostile discipline was further explained by the interaction between emotional flooding and affect appraisal bias. Emotional flooding appears to be particularly proximal to hostile discipline in the families of toddlers with disruptive behavior problems, consistent with evidence previously reported for nonclinical families.

  12. Cumulative Effects of Mothers’ Risk and Promotive Factors on Daughters’ Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls’ disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls’ disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls’ ages 7–12 in an urban community sample (N=2043). Maternal risk and promotive factors were operative at different time points in girls’ development. Maternal warmth explained variance in girls’ disruptive behavior, even after controlling for maternal risk factors and relevant child and neighborhood factors. In addition, findings supported the cumulative hypothesis that the number of risk factors increased the chance on girls’ disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), while the number of promotive factors decreased this probability. Daughters of mothers with a history of Conduct Disorder (CD) were exposed to more risk factors and fewer promotive factors compared to daughters of mothers without prior CD. The identification of malleable maternal factors that can serve as targets for intervention has important implications for intergenerational intervention. Cumulative effects show that the focus of prevention efforts should not be on single factors, but on multiple factors associated with girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:22127641

  13. Triadic model of the neurobiology of motivated behavior in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    ERNST, MONIQUE; PINE, DANIEL S.; HARDIN, MICHAEL

    2009-01-01

    Background Risk-taking behavior is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in adolescence. In the context of decision theory and motivated (goal-directed) behavior, risk-taking reflects a pattern of decision-making that favors the selection of courses of action with uncertain and possibly harmful consequences. We present a triadic, neuroscience systems-based model of adolescent decision-making. Method We review the functional role and neurodevelopmental findings of three key structures in the control of motivated behavior, i.e. amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and medial/ventral prefrontal cortex. We adopt a cognitive neuroscience approach to motivated behavior that uses a temporal fragmentation of a generic motivated action. Predictions about the relative contributions of the triadic nodes to the three stages of a motivated action during adolescence are proposed. Results The propensity during adolescence for reward/novelty seeking in the face of uncertainty or potential harm might be explained by a strong reward system (nucleus accumbens), a weak harm-avoidant system (amygdala), and/or an inefficient supervisory system (medial/ventral prefrontal cortex). Perturbations in these systems may contribute to the expression of psychopathology, illustrated here with depression and anxiety. Conclusions A triadic model, integrated in a temporally organized map of motivated behavior, can provide a helpful framework that suggests specific hypotheses of neural bases of typical and atypical adolescent behavior. PMID:16472412

  14. The Efficacy of Noncontingent Escape for Decreasing Children's Disruptive Behavior During Restorative Dental Treatment

    PubMed Central

    O'Callaghan, Patrick M; Allen, Keith D; Powell, Shawn; Salama, Fouad

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a dentist-implemented behavioral intervention in which brief escape from dental treatment was provided on a regular basis, independent of the child's behavior. Within a multiple baseline design across subjects, 5 children, ages 4 to 7 years, were provided with temporary escape from dental treatment on a fixed-time schedule. The intervals were signaled by an electronic timer worn by the dentist. Clinically significant reductions were observed in physically disruptive behavior across all 5 children with the introduction of noncontingent escape, and verbally disruptive behavior was markedly reduced in 4 of the 5 children. In addition, the dental staff's use of physical restraint was reduced to near zero across all 5 children. The research extends the literature in both clinical dentistry and in applied behavior analysis by demonstrating that a dentist can easily and effectively implement noncontingent reinforcement to produce clinically significant and socially important changes in children's health behavior. PMID:16813038

  15. Separate and combined effects of methylphenidate and a behavioral intervention on disruptive behavior in children with mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Blum, N J; Mauk, J E; McComas, J J; Mace, F C

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the separate and combined effects of a behavioral intervention and methylphenidate (Ritalin) on disruptive behavior and task engagement in 3 children with severe to profound mental retardation. The behavioral intervention involved differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior and guided compliance. All 3 children demonstrated decreased disruptive behavior and improved task engagement in response to the response to the behavioral intervention. Two of the 3 children demonstrated similar improvement in response to methylphenidate. Although both interventions were highly effective for these 2 participants, the relative efficacy of the interventions varied between the 2 children. There was no evidence of an additive or synergistic effect of the two interventions, but the high efficacy of each intervention alone limited our ability to detect such effects. PMID:8926223

  16. The quality and economic impact of disruptive behaviors on clinical outcomes of patient care.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Alan H

    2011-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors have been shown to have a negative impact on work relationships, team collaboration, communication efficiency, and process flow, all of which can adversely affect patient safety and quality of care. Despite the growing recognition of the damage that can be done, there are still pockets of resistance to taking action to address the issue head-on. Given the new call to action from the Joint Commission accreditation standard and the growing public accountability for patient safety, organizations need to recognize the full impact of disruptive behaviors and implement appropriate policies, procedures, and educational programs to raise levels of awareness regarding the seriousness of the issue, hold individuals accountable for their behavior, and provide training and support not only to reduce the incidence and consequences of disruptive events but also to improve efficiency of communication and team collaboration in an effort to improve outcomes of care.

  17. Measuring and managing the economic impact of disruptive behaviors in the hospital.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Alan H

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors have been shown to have a significant negative impact on staff relationships, team collaboration, communication flow, and patient outcomes of care. They can be a major factor in contributing to the occurrence of adverse events that compromise quality care and patient safety and can put the patient and organization at increased risk. Whereas organizations generally are not reticent to make system enhancements designed to improve patient safety, they are more reluctant to address human factor issues such as disruptive behaviors for a variety of reasons. This article presents a 10-step process for addressing both the economic and quality impact of disruptive behaviors in an attempt to stimulate a call to action.

  18. Social isolation in adolescence alters behaviors in the forced swim and sucrose preference tests in female but not in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Suzie; Flashner, Bess; Chiu, Melissa; Hoeve, Elizabeth ver; Luz, Sandra; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Social interactions in rodents are rewarding and motivating and social isolation is aversive. Accumulating evidence suggests that disruption of the social environment in adolescence has long-term effects on social interactions, on anxiety-like behavior and on stress reactivity. In previous work we showed that adolescent isolation produced increased reactivity to acute and to repeated stress in female rats, whereas lower corticosterone responses to acute stress and decreased anxiety-related behavior were noted in isolated males. These results indicate a sex specific impact on the effects of social stress in adolescence. However, little is known about whether social isolation impacts behaviors related to affect and whether it does so differently in male and female rats. The present study investigated the impact of adolescent social isolation from day 30-50 of age in male and female Sprague Dawley rats on behavior in the forced swim test at the end of adolescence and in adulthood and on behavior in the sucrose preference test in adulthood. Adult female rats that were isolated in adolescence exhibited increased climbing on the first and second day of the forced swim test and showed an increased preference for sucrose compared to adult females that were group-housed in adolescence. There were no effects in male rats. The results indicate that social isolation in adolescence produces a stable and active behavioral phenotype in adult female rats. PMID:21907226

  19. Self-reported alcohol use and sexual behaviors of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Michael S; Bartee, R Todd; Perko, Michael A

    2003-02-01

    Research has demonstrated a relation between alcohol use and engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Alcohol use, especially binge drinking, has been linked to a host of problems including high-risk sexual behavior, date rape, and academic problems. As such, the purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of alcohol consumption among adolescents and to examine the relations of alcohol use (lifetime, current, binge) with sexual activity variables (sexual initiation, multiple sex partners, condom use, and pregnancy) among adolescents completing the 1993-1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Analysis showed alcohol use was associated with high-risk sexual activity. Binge drinking had stronger relations with sexual activity variables than lifetime use and current use of alcohol. This result is of particular concern, in that binge drinking has been implicated in many problem behaviors. As such, it is of great importance to intervene in the high-risk practices of adolescents before problems occur.

  20. Normative Behavior of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artemyeva, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents, organizing their behavior in the space of school should take into account the system of rules existing in the institution. The development of normative behavior allows the teenager to understand their inner world and people around them. Failure to understand the regulatory requirements reduces the possibilities of social adaptation of…

  1. Risk Behaviors Associated with Cigarette Use among Asian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Harry T.; Wang, Min Qi; Valmidiano, Lillian L.

    2005-01-01

    Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. This study examined the association between several common youth risk behaviors, including cigarette use among Asian American adolescents, using data (N=408) from the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). The weighted univariate and multivariate logistic…

  2. Family Functioning and Adolescent Help-Seeking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Barry J.; Bowles, Terry V. P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationship between help seeking behavior and family functioning. Adolescents who sought help clustered into two groups of families - one high in conflict and low in democratic parenting style, and one low in conflict and high in democratic parenting style. Complex relationships between help seeking behavior, type of family, and type of…

  3. Exposure to Terrorism and Violent Behavior among Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even-Chen, Merav Solomon; Itzhaky, Haya

    2007-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that exposure to terrorism may lead to violent behavior, but there is little empirical research on the relationship between these two variables. In the present paper, we examined the extent to which exposure to terrorism contributes to violent behavior among adolescents. In addition, we considered the role of environmental…

  4. Adolescents' Transitions to Behavioral Autonomy after German Unification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Reitzle, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the timing of behavioral autonomy transitions in two same-aged cohorts of East German adolescents assessed in 1991 and 1996. An earlier timing of autonomy privileges was associated with higher deviant behavior. A later timing of autonomy privileges and responsibilities was linked to structural constraints, specifically,…

  5. Programming for Adolescents with Behavioral Disorders, Vol. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaten, Sheldon L., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 10 author-contributed papers addresses various aspects of programming for students with behavioral disorders. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Teacher Ratings of School Survival Skills and Setting Demands" (Bill Bursuck et al.); (2) "Toward Least Restrictive Curriculum for Behaviorally Disordered Adolescents"…

  6. Friends: The Role of Peer Influence across Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…

  7. Programming for Adolescents with Behavioral Disorders, Vol. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaten, Sheldon L., Ed.; Wild, Estelle, Ed.

    This collection of 13 author-contributed papers addresses various aspects of programming for students with behavioral disorders. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "System Support and Transition to Adulthood for Adolescents with Seriously Disordered Behaviors: Orchestrating Successful Transitions" (Eugene Edgar); (2) "Targets for…

  8. Mapping the Academic Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.

    2014-01-01

    This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a…

  9. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy, Child Behavior Problems, and Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Used longitudinal sample of 187 mother-child dyads to examine the role of child behavior problems in explaining the effect of maternal prenatal smoking on adolescent daughters' smoking. Found that maternal prenatal smoking retained a unique effect on girls' current smoking with controls for current maternal smoking, child behavior problems, and…

  10. Empathy and Drug Use Behaviors among African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…

  11. Profile of Behaviorally Resilient Adolescents: Confirmation and Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Kimberly A.; And Others

    This study compared resilient adolescents to their non-resilient peers to assess the students' relative risk for engaging in behavioral, affective, somatic/health, and nutritional risks. Data was collected in the form of a self-administered Health Behaviors questionnaire from junior high school students (n=1,394) in grades 7-9, in two different…

  12. An Adolescent Age Group Approach to Examining Youth Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…

  13. Disruptive Behaviors in an Emergency Department: the Perspective of Physicians and Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Maddineshat, Maryam; Rosenstein, Alan H; Akaberi, Arash; Tabatabaeichehr, Mahbubeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Disruptive behaviors cause many problems in the workplace, especially in the emergency department (ED).This study was conducted to assess the physician’s and nurse’s perspective toward disruptive behaviors in the emergency department. Methods: In this cross-sectional study a total of 45 physicians and 110 nurses working in the emergency department of five general hospitals in Bojnurd participated. Data were collected using a translated, changed, and validated questionnaire (25 item). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS ver.13 software. Results: Findings showed that physicians gave more importance to nurse-physician relationships in the ED when compared to nurses’ perspective (90% vs. 70%). In this study, 81% of physicians and 52% of nurses exhibited disruptive behaviors. According to the participants these behaviors could result in adverse outcomes, such as stress (97%), job dissatisfaction and can compromise patient safety (53%), quality of care (72%), and errors (70%). Conclusion: Disruptive behaviors could have a negative effects on relationships and collaboration among medical staffs, and on patients’ quality of care as well. It is essential to provide some practical strategies for prevention of these behaviors. PMID:27752490

  14. Research Review: 'Ain't misbehavin': Towards a developmentally-specified nosology for preschool disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Wakschlag, Lauren S; Tolan, Patrick H; Leventhal, Bennett L

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing consensus that disruptive behavior disorders and syndromes (DBDs) are identifiable in preschool children. There is also concomitant recognition of the limitations of the current DBD nosology for distinguishing disruptive behavior symptoms from the normative misbehavior of early childhood. In particular, there appears to be substantial insensitivity to heterotypic manifestations of this developmental period and problems in identifying meaningful heterogeneity. As a result, the developmental basis for much of the current nosology may be called into question. To address these and other critical issues, this paper reviews the foundational elements of clinical and developmental science pertinent to developmental differentiation of disruptive behavior in the preschool period as paradigmatic for developmental specification across the lifespan and generates an agenda for future research. We begin by reviewing evidence of the validity of DBDs in preschool children. This is followed by an outline of key developmental concepts and a review of the corollary evidence from developmental science. These provide a basis for conceptualizing disruptive behavior in reference to developmental deviation in four core dimensions hypothesized to mark the core features of disruptive behavior syndromes. Finally, we propose a program of research to establish an empirical basis for determining the incremental utility of a developmentally specified nosology. Central to this approach is a contention that the benefits of developmental specification are extensive and outweigh any disadvantages. This is because a developmentally specified approach holds substantial promise for increasing sensitivity and specificity for differentiating disruptive behavior from normative misbehavior and from other related syndromes as well as for improving prediction. Further, more precisely defined, developmentally based phenotypes are likely to elucidate distinct mechanisms within translational

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with sedentary behavior in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Paula Jaudy Pedroso; Domingos, Isabela Prado; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Muraro, Ana Paula; Sichieri, Rosely; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of sedentary behavior and associated factors in adolescents. METHODS A cross-sectional study with adolescents aged 10 to 17 years, of both sexes, belonging to a 1994-1999 birth cohort in the city of Cuiabá, MT, Central Western Brazil. Data were collected using a questionnaire containing sociodemographic, economic, lifestyle and anthropometric variables. Sedentary behavior was determined as using television and/or computer/video games for a time greater than or equal to 4 hours/day. Associations with sedentary behavior were evaluated using body mass index in childhood and adolescence and sociodemographic and behavioral variables using hierarchical logistic regression. RESULTS The overall prevalence of sedentary behavior was 58.1%. Of the 1,716 adolescents evaluated, 50.7% (n = 870) were male. In multivariate analysis, after adjustment for confounding factors, the variables that remained associated with sedentary behavior were: age (14 and over) (OR = 3.51, 95%CI 2.19;5.60); higher socioeconomic class (OR = 3.83, 95%CI 2.10;7.01), higher level of maternal education (OR = 1.81, 95%CI 1.09;3.01); living in the country (OR = 0.49, 95%CI 0.30;0.81); insufficient physical activity (OR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.02;1.53); experimentation with alcoholic beverages (OR = 1.34, 95%CI 1.08;1.66) and being overweight in adolescence (OR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.06;1.68). CONCLUSIONS The high proportion of adolescents in sedentary activities and the lack of association with being overweight in childhood, indicates the need for educational initiatives to reduce multiple risk behaviors. Encouraging physical activity in young people as a way of reducing sedentary behavior and, consequently, being overweight is fundamental. PMID:24897048

  16. Adolescence as a vulnerable period to alter rodent behavior.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Miriam

    2013-10-01

    Adolescence and puberty are highly important periods for postnatal brain maturation. During adolescence, drastic changes of neuronal architecture and function occur that concomitantly lead to distinct behavioral alterations. Unsurprisingly in view of the multitude of ongoing neurodevelopmental processes in the adolescent brain, most adult neuropsychiatric disorders have their roots exactly during this time span. Adolescence and puberty are therefore crucial developmental periods in terms of understanding the causes and mechanisms of adult mental illness. Valid animal models for adolescent behavior and neurodevelopment might offer better insights into the underlying mechanisms and help to identify specific time windows with heightened susceptibility during development. In order to increase the translational value of such models, we urgently need to define the detailed timing of adolescence and puberty in laboratory rodents. The aim of the present review is to provide a more precise delineation of the time course of these developmental periods during postnatal life in rats and mice and to discuss the impact of adolescence and related neurodevelopmental processes on the heightened susceptibility for mental disorders.

  17. Visualization and minimization of disruptive bubble behavior in ultrasonic field.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonjung; Park, Keunhwan; Oh, Jongkeun; Choi, Jaehyuck; Kim, Ho-Young

    2010-08-01

    Although ultrasonic technology has been successfully adopted for semiconductor cleaning, a recent trend of extreme miniaturization of patterns calls for a novel process that can remove contaminant particles without damaging nanoscale patterns. Unstable bubble oscillations have been hypothesized to cause such surface damages, and here we show direct visualization results that a high acoustic pressure induces bubble instability leading to pattern damages. As a remedy for the conventional ultrasonic cleaning scheme, we introduce a novel cleaning system using dual transducers, in which one transducer generates bubbles with a high acoustic pressure in an acoustically isolated sub-chamber and the other drives the oscillation of bubbles around the cleaning area at a low acoustic pressure. The system is shown to achieve a high cleaning efficiency for submicron-sized particles while significantly suppressing the disruptive bubble instability thereby reducing the detachment of firmly attached nanoparticles. Comparison of the adhesion force of the firmly attached nanoparticles and the yield strength of nanopatterns allows us to anticipate that this scheme is capable of reducing damages of nanopatterns on semiconductor wafers and photomasks.

  18. Assertive Discipline and Its Impact on Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, Tasha R.

    2010-01-01

    Past research studies suggested that many students could benefit from well-structured classroom management strategies to help in the reduction of discipline problems that some may have. The research, however, was inconclusive as to which classroom management strategies are the most effective in managing behaviors within the classroom setting. The…

  19. Classwide Functional Analysis and Treatment of Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Veena Y.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Sterling, Heather E.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Hardy, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively few functional assessment and intervention studies have been conducted in preschool classrooms with children of typical development who engage in high incidence problem behaviors. Moreover, limited studies have used functional assessment procedures with the class as the unit of analysis. This study included functional analyses and a…

  20. Using Positive Discipline To Reduce Disruptive Classroom Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Renee; Dworak, Jeff; Reinhart, Scott

    This report describes a project for improving classroom behavior through positive discipline. The action research will take place from September 2001 to December 2001. The targeted 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students live in the suburbs and are composed of low income, middle class, and high income communities. The problem was noted by researchers who…

  1. Development process of an assessment tool for disruptive behavior problems in cross-cultural settings: the Disruptive Behavior International Scale - Nepal version (DBIS-N).

    PubMed

    Burkey, Matthew D; Ghimire, Lajina; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Haroz, Emily; Wissow, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Systematic processes are needed to develop valid measurement instruments for disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) in cross-cultural settings. We employed a four-step process in Nepal to identify and select items for a culturally valid assessment instrument: 1) We extracted items from validated scales and local free-list interviews. 2) Parents, teachers, and peers (n=30) rated the perceived relevance and importance of behavior problems. 3) Highly rated items were piloted with children (n=60) in Nepal. 4) We evaluated internal consistency of the final scale. We identified 49 symptoms from 11 scales, and 39 behavior problems from free-list interviews (n=72). After dropping items for low ratings of relevance and severity and for poor item-test correlation, low frequency, and/or poor acceptability in pilot testing, 16 items remained for the Disruptive Behavior International Scale-Nepali version (DBIS-N). The final scale had good internal consistency (α=0.86). A 4-step systematic approach to scale development including local participation yielded an internally consistent scale that included culturally relevant behavior problems.

  2. Dimensions of Peer Influences and Their Relationship to Adolescents' Aggression, Other Problem Behaviors and Prosocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Albert D; Thompson, Erin L; Mehari, Krista R

    2016-11-03

    Although peers are a major influence during adolescence, the relative importance of specific mechanisms of peer influence on the development of problem behavior is not well understood. This study investigated five domains of peer influence and their relationships to adolescents' problem and prosocial behaviors. Self-report and teacher ratings were obtained for 1787 (53 % female) urban middle school students. Peer pressure for fighting and friends' delinquent behavior were uniquely associated with aggression, drug use and delinquent behavior. Friends' prosocial behavior was uniquely associated with prosocial behavior. Friends' support for fighting and friends' support for nonviolence were not as clearly related to behavior. Findings were generally consistent across gender. This study highlights the importance of studying multiple aspects of peer influences on adolescents' behavior.

  3. Readiness to change smoking behavior in adolescents with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Apodaca, Timothy R; Abrantes, Ana M; Strong, David R; Ramsey, Susan E; Brown, Richard A

    2007-06-01

    There has been recent increased interest in utilizing motivational interviewing (MI) to increase adolescent readiness to quit smoking, but attempts to impact quit rates have thus far been discouraging. A better understanding of factors associated with adolescent readiness to quit smoking prior to receiving any intervention may provide guidance when tailoring future MI interventions in order to increase their effectiveness with this population. Adolescent smokers (N=191) who had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital and enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating MI completed questionnaires that assessed smoking behavior and variables thought to be related to smoking. Confidence to quit smoking and negative beliefs about smoking were significant predictors of adolescents' baseline readiness to quit smoking. The failure to demonstrate relationships between health consequences and readiness suggest that caution may be warranted in the use of feedback, a common component of MI-based interventions. Such feedback tends to focus on health consequences, which was unrelated to adolescent baseline readiness to change smoking behavior in the current study. Parallels between current results and the Theory of Planned Behavior are discussed in consideration of developing more effective MI-based interventions for adolescent smokers.

  4. Comparing Self-Regulation-Associated Event Related Potentials in Preschool Children with and without High Levels of Disruptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Grabell, Adam S; Olson, Sheryl L; Tardif, Twila; Thompson, Meaghan C; Gehring, William J

    2016-11-28

    Deficient self-regulation plays a key role in the etiology of early onset disruptive behavior disorders and signals risk for chronic psychopathology. However, to date, there has been no research comparing preschool children with and without high levels of disruptive behavior using Event Related Potentials (ERPs) associated with specific self-regulation sub-processes. We examined 15 preschool children with high levels of disruptive behavior (35 % female) and 20 peers with low disruptive behavior (50 % female) who completed a Go/No-go task that provided emotionally valenced feedback. We tested whether 4 ERP components: the Error Related Negativity, the Error Positivity, the Feedback Related Negativity, and the No-go N2, differed in preschool children with and without high levels of disruptive behavior. Preschoolers with high levels of disruptive behavior showed less differentiation between the Error Positivity and corresponding waveforms following correct responses at posterior sites. Preschoolers with high and low disruptive behavior also showed differences in Go/No-go N2 waveform amplitudes across electrodes. These findings suggest that preschool children with high levels of disruptive behavior may show abnormal brain activity during certain self-regulation sub-processes, informing potential advances in conceptualizing and treating early disruptive behavior.

  5. The Dual Role of Media Internalization in Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Ann; Beyens, Ine; Eggermont, Steven; Vandenbosch, Laura

    2016-12-16

    Sexualizing media content is prevalent in various media types. Sexualizing media messages and portrayals emphasize unattainable body and appearance ideals as the primary components of sexual desirability. The internalization of these ideals is positively related to self-objectification and sexual body consciousness. In turn, self-objectification and sexual body consciousness affect adolescents' sexual behavior, albeit in opposing directions. While objectifying self-perceptions are linked to higher levels of sexual behavior, body consciousness during physical intimacy is linked to lower levels of sexual behavior. Based on this knowledge, the present three-wave panel study of 824 Belgian, predominant heterosexual adolescents (M age = 15.33; SD = 1.45) proposes a dual-pathway model that investigates two different pathways through which the internalization of media ideals may impact adolescents' sexual behavior. An inhibitory pathway links media internalization to lower levels of sexual behavior through sexual body consciousness, and a supportive pathway links media internalization to higher levels of sexual behavior through self-objectification. Structural equation analyses supported the proposed dual-pathway, showing that the impact of media internalization on adolescents' sexual behavior proceeds through an inhibitory pathway and a supportive pathway. Regarding the supportive pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted sexual behavior (W3), through valuing appearance over competence (W2). Regarding the inhibitory pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted body surveillance, which, in turn, positively predicted sexual body consciousness (all W2). Sexual body consciousness (W2) is negatively related to sexual behavior (W3). From a sexual developmental perspective, these findings emphasize the importance of guiding adolescents in interpreting and processing sexualizing media messages.

  6. Multi-system influences on adolescent risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Thompson, Elaine Adams; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2010-12-01

    We examined multi-system influences on risky sexual behavior measured by cumulative sexual risk index and number of nonromantic sexual partners among 4,465 single, sexually experienced adolescents. Hierarchical Poisson regression analyses were conducted with Wave I-II data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Individual and family factors predicted both outcome measures. Neighborhood set predicted cumulative sexual risk index only, and peer factors predicted the number of nonromantic sexual partners only. School set did not predict either outcome. There were significant associations among risky sexual behavior, drug use, and delinquent behaviors. The results highlight the need for multifaceted prevention programs that address relevant factors related to family, peer and neighborhood influence as well as individual factors among sexually active adolescents.

  7. Lasting Adaptations in Social Behavior Produced by Social Disruption and Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Opendak, Maya; Offit, Lily; Monari, Patrick; Schoenfeld, Timothy J.; Sonti, Anup N.; Cameron, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Research on social instability has focused on its detrimental consequences, but most people are resilient and respond by invoking various coping strategies. To investigate cellular processes underlying such strategies, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Social disruption produced a preference for familiar over novel conspecifics, a change that did not involve global memory impairments or increased anxiety. Using the neuropeptide oxytocin as a tool to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of disrupted rats restored preference for novel conspecifics to predisruption levels. Conversely, reducing the number of new neurons by limited inhibition of adult neurogenesis in naive transgenic GFAP–thymidine kinase rats resulted in social behavior similar to disrupted rats. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic evidence that social disruption shapes behavior in a potentially adaptive way, possibly by reducing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate cellular processes underlying adaptation to social instability, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Unexpectedly, these changes were accompanied by changes in social strategies without evidence of impairments in cognition or anxiety regulation. Restoring adult neurogenesis in disrupted rats using oxytocin and conditionally suppressing the production of new neurons in socially naive GFAP–thymidine kinase rats showed that loss of 6-week-old neurons may be responsible for adaptive changes in social behavior. PMID:27358459

  8. Disruption of circadian clocks has ramifications for metabolism, brain, and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Karatsoreos, Ilia N.; Bhagat, Sarah; Bloss, Erik B.; Morrison, John H.; McEwen, Bruce S.

    2011-01-01

    Circadian (daily) rhythms are present in almost all plants and animals. In mammals, a brain clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus maintains synchrony between environmental light/dark cycles and physiology and behavior. Over the past 100 y, especially with the advent of electric lighting, modern society has resulted in a round-the-clock lifestyle, in which natural connections between rest/activity cycles and environmental light/dark cycles have been degraded or even broken. Instances in which rapid changes to sleep patterns are necessary, such as transmeridian air travel, demonstrate negative effects of acute circadian disruption on physiology and behavior. However, the ramifications of chronic disruption of the circadian clock for mental and physical health are not yet fully understood. By housing mice in 20-h light/dark cycles, incongruous with their endogenous ∼24-h circadian period, we were able to model the effects of chronic circadian disruption noninvasively. Housing in these conditions results in accelerated weight gain and obesity, as well as changes in metabolic hormones. In the brain, circadian-disrupted mice exhibit a loss of dendritic length and decreased complexity of neurons in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex, a brain region important in executive function and emotional control. Disrupted animals show decreases in cognitive flexibility and changes in emotionality consistent with the changes seen in neural architecture. How our findings translate to humans living and working in chronic circadian disruption is unknown, but we believe that this model can provide a foundation to understand how environmental disruption of circadian rhythms impacts the brain, behavior, and physiology. PMID:21220317

  9. Disruptiveness, Friends' Characteristics, and Delinquency in Early Adolescence: A Test of Two Competing Models of Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.; Kerr, Margaret; Pagani, Linda; Bukowski, William M.

    1997-01-01

    Tested the individual characteristics and deviant peer association theoretical models of friends' influence on the development of delinquency in disruptive boys. Found that moderately disruptive boys with aggressive-disturbing friends were more delinquent at age 13 than other subgroups of moderately disruptive boys. Highly disruptive and…

  10. Dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescent smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Fields, Sherecce; Collins, Christine; Leraas, Kristen; Reynolds, Brady

    2009-10-01

    Robust associations have been identified between impulsive personality characteristics and cigarette smoking during adolescents, indicating that impulsive behavior may play an important role in the initiation of cigarette smoking. The present study extended this research by using laboratory behavioral assessments to explore relationships between three specific dimensions of impulsive behavior (impulsive decision-making, inattention, and disinhibition) and adolescent cigarette smoking. Participants were male and female adolescent smokers (n = 50) and nonsmokers (n = 50). Adolescent smokers were more impulsive on a measure of decision-making; however, there were significant smoking status by gender interaction effects for impulsive inattention and disinhibition. Male smokers were most impulsive on the measure of inattention, but male smokers were least impulsive on the measure of disinhibition. Correlations between biomarkers of smoking and impulsive inattention and disinhibition were found for females but not males. The current findings, coupled with previous findings (Reynolds et al., 2007), indicate there may be robust gender difference in associations between certain types of impulsive behavior and cigarette smoking during adolescence.

  11. Dimensions of impulsive behavior and treatment outcomes for adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Harris, Millie; Penfold, Robert B; Hawkins, Ariane; Maccombs, Jared; Wallace, Bryan; Reynolds, Brady

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent cigarette smoking rates remain a significant public health concern, and as a result there is a continued need to understand factors that contribute to an adolescent's ability to reduce or quit smoking. Previous research suggests that impulsive behavior may be associated with treatment outcomes for smoking. The current research (N = 81) explored 3 dimensions of impulsive behavior as predictors of treatment response from a social-cognitive type program for adolescent smokers (i.e., Not On Tobacco; N-O-T). Measures included laboratory assessments of delay discounting, sustained attention, and behavioral disinhibition. A self-report measure of impulsivity was also included. Adolescent smokers who had better sustained attention were more likely to reduce or quit smoking by the end of treatment. No other measures of impulsivity were significantly associated with treatment response. From these findings, an adolescent smoker's ability to sustain attention appears to be an important behavioral attribute to consider when implementing smoking cessation programs such as N-O-T.

  12. Psychological characteristics of self-harming behavior in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Kyeong

    2016-10-01

    Recently, self-injury is drawing the attention of researchers and clinicians. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and psychological characteristics of adolescents who engage in self-harm and to examine the risk factors for engaging in this harmful behavior among Korean mid-adolescents. Participants were 784 adolescents aged 13-15 years. They completed self-report questionnaires that assessed (1) Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: the Self-Harm Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale; (2) depression: Children's Depression Inventory; (3) adolescent-parent relationship: Parental Bonding Instrument; (4) peer attachment: Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment; and (5) academic stress. Overall, 12.4% (n=97) of participants reported engaging in self-destructive behavior at least once in their lives. The primary reason for engaging in self-harm was to regulate negative emotions such as anger and sadness. As expected, the self-harm group showed statistically significant higher levels of academic stress, alexithymia, depression, and poor relationships with their parents and peers. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that alexithymia, depression, and peer relations were significant predictors of self-harming behavior. Given that the primary reason for engaging in self-harm is to cope with negative emotions, mental health professionals in school settings should regularly evaluate self-injurious behavior and provide prevention programs for adolescents at risk.

  13. Contextual influence of Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Neilands, Torsten B; Chan, Shu-Min; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2016-09-01

    This study examined parental, peer, and media influences on Taiwanese adolescents' attitudes toward premarital sex and intent to engage in sexual behavior. Participants included a convenience sample of 186 adolescents aged 13-15 recruited from two middle schools in Taiwan. Parental influence was indicated by perceived parental disapproval toward premarital sex and perceived peer sexual behavior was used to measure peer influence. Media influence was measured by the adolescents' perception of whether the media promotes premarital sex. We conducted structural equation modeling to test a hypothesized model. The findings suggested that the perceived sexual behavior of peers had the strongest effect on Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent, while parental disapproval and media influence also significantly contributed to adolescents' sexual attitudes and intent to engage in sex. School nurses are in an ideal position to coordinate essential resources and implement evidence-based sexually transmitted infection and HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address issues associated with the influence of parents, peers, and media.

  14. New perspectives on adolescent motivated behavior: attention and conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Monique; Daniele, Teresa; Frantz, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical transition period, during which fundamental changes prepare the adolescent for becoming an adult. Heuristic models of the neurobiology of adolescent behavior have emerged, promoting the central role of reward and motivation, coupled with cognitive immaturities. Here, we bring focus to two basic sets of processes, attention and conditioning, which are essential for adaptive behavior. Using the dual-attention model developed by Corbetta and Shulman (2002), which identifies a stimulus-driven and a goal-driven attention network, we propose a balance that favors stimulus-driven attention over goal-driven attention in youth. Regarding conditioning, we hypothesize that stronger associations tend to be made between environmental cues and appetitive stimuli, and weaker associations with aversive stimuli, in youth relative to adults. An attention system geared to prioritize stimulus-driven attention, together with more powerful associative learning with appetitive incentives, contribute to shape patterns of adolescent motivated behavior. This proposed bias in attention and conditioning function could facilitate the impulsive, novelty-seeking and risk-taking behavior that is typical of many adolescents. PMID:21977221

  15. Bisphenol A and phthalate endocrine disruption of parental and social behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can induce promiscuous neurobehavioral disturbances. Bisphenol A and phthalates are two widely prevalent and persistent EDCs reported to lead to such effects. Parental and social behaviors are especially vulnerable to endocrine disruption, as these traits are programmed by the organizational-activational effects of testosterone and estrogen. Exposure to BPA and other EDCs disrupts normal maternal care provided by rodents and non-human primates, such as nursing, time she spends hunched over and in the nest, and grooming her pups. Paternal care may also be affected by BPA. No long-term study has linked perinatal exposure to BPA or other EDC and later parental behavioral deficits in humans. The fact that the same brain regions and neural hormone substrates govern parental behaviors in animal models and humans suggests that this suite of behaviors may also be vulnerable in the latter. Social behaviors, such as communication, mate choice, pair bonding, social inquisitiveness and recognition, play behavior, social grooming, copulation, and aggression, are compromised in animal models exposed to BPA, phthalates, and other EDCs. Early contact to these chemicals is also correlated with maladaptive social behaviors in children. These behavioral disturbances may originate by altering the fetal or adult gonadal production of testosterone or estrogen, expression of ESR1, ESR2, and AR in the brain regions governing these behaviors, neuropeptide/protein hormone (oxytocin, vasopressin, and prolactin) and their cognate neural receptors, and/or through epimutations. Robust evidence exists for all of these EDC-induced changes. Concern also exists for transgenerational persistence of such neurobehavioral disruptions. In sum, evidence for social and parental deficits induced by BPA, phthalates, and related chemicals is strongly mounting, and such effects may ultimately compromise the overall social fitness of populations to

  16. Personal values as a mediator between parent and peer expectations and adolescent behaviors.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Carlo, Gustavo

    2007-09-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of adolescents' personal values on the relation between maternal and peer expectations for prosocial behaviors and adolescents' self-reported prosocial and antisocial behaviors. One hundred thirty-four adolescents (mean age = 16.22 years, 54% girls) completed measures of their own values and behaviors, as well as their perceptions of the positive expectations that their mother and their best friend(s) had for their (the adolescents') prosocial behaviors. Stepwise regression analyses suggested that adolescents' personal prosocial values mediated the relation between adolescents' perceptions of both maternal and peer expectations and adolescents' prosocial behaviors. In addition, for boys, perceptions of positive peer expectations were directly and negatively related to antisocial behaviors. The current study has important implications for parents, educators, and practitioners who are concerned about promoting adolescents' positive behaviors and discouraging negative behaviors.

  17. School discipline and disruptive classroom behavior: the moderating effects of student perceptions.

    PubMed

    Way, Sandra M

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between school discipline and student classroom behavior. A traditional deterrence framework predicts that more severe discipline will reduce misbehavior. In contrast, normative perspectives suggest that compliance depends upon commitment to rules and authority, including perceptions of fairness and legitimacy. Using school and individual-level data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and multilevel regression modeling, the author finds support for the normative perspective. Students who perceive school authority as legitimate and teacher–student relations as positive are rated as less disruptive. While perceptions of fairness also predict lower disruptions, the effects are mediated by positive teacher–student relations. Contrary to the deterrence framework, more school rules and higher perceived strictness predicts more, not less, disruptive behavior. In addition, a significant interaction effect suggests that attending schools with more severe punishments may have the unintended consequence of generating defiance among certain youth.

  18. Mutations in Human Accelerated Regions Disrupt Cognition and Social Behavior.

    PubMed

    Doan, Ryan N; Bae, Byoung-Il; Cubelos, Beatriz; Chang, Cindy; Hossain, Amer A; Al-Saad, Samira; Mukaddes, Nahit M; Oner, Ozgur; Al-Saffar, Muna; Balkhy, Soher; Gascon, Generoso G; Nieto, Marta; Walsh, Christopher A

    2016-10-06

    Comparative analyses have identified genomic regions potentially involved in human evolution but do not directly assess function. Human accelerated regions (HARs) represent conserved genomic loci with elevated divergence in humans. If some HARs regulate human-specific social and behavioral traits, then mutations would likely impact cognitive and social disorders. Strikingly, rare biallelic point mutations-identified by whole-genome and targeted "HAR-ome" sequencing-showed a significant excess in individuals with ASD whose parents share common ancestry compared to familial controls, suggesting a contribution in 5% of consanguineous ASD cases. Using chromatin interaction sequencing, massively parallel reporter assays (MPRA), and transgenic mice, we identified disease-linked, biallelic HAR mutations in active enhancers for CUX1, PTBP2, GPC4, CDKL5, and other genes implicated in neural function, ASD, or both. Our data provide genetic evidence that specific HARs are essential for normal development, consistent with suggestions that their evolutionary changes may have altered social and/or cognitive behavior. PAPERCLIP.

  19. Neural correlates of the propensity for retaliatory behavior in youth with disruptive behavior disorders

    PubMed Central

    White, Stuart F.; VanTieghem, Michelle; Brislin, Sarah J.; Sypher, Isaiah; Sinclair, Stephen; Pine, Daniel S.; Hwang, Soonjo; Blair, R. James R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD: Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder) are at increased risk for maladaptive reactive aggression. Theory suggests this is due to increased sensitivity of basic threat circuitry implicated in retaliation (amygdala/periaqueductal gray) in youth with DBD and low levels of Callous-Unemotional Traits and dysfunctional regulatory activity within ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in youth with DBD irrespective of callous-unemotional traits. Methods Fifty-six youths participated (23 female) aged 10–18 (26 healthy and 30 with DBD [15 with high and 15 with low callous-unemotional traits]) who completed an Ultimatum Game during functional MRI. Results Youth with DBD and low callous-unemotional traits showed greater increases in activation of basic threat circuitry when punishing others relative to comparison groups and dysfunctional down regulation of vmPFC during retaliation. All youth with DBD showed reduced amygdala-vmPFC connectivity during high provocation relative to healthy youth. VmPFC responsiveness and vmPFC-amygdala connectivity were related to patients’ retaliatory propensity (behavioral responses during task) and parent reported reactive aggression. Conclusions These data suggest differences in the underlying neurobiology of maladaptive reactive aggression in youth with DBD and low relative to high levels of callous-unemotional traits. Youth with DBD and low callous-unemotional traits alone show significantly greater threat responses during retaliation relative to comparison individuals. Moreover, these data suggest that vmPFC-amygdala connectivity is critical for regulating retaliation/reactive aggression and when dysfunctional, contributes to reactive aggression, independent of level of callous-unemotional traits. PMID:26441155

  20. A plan for identification, treatment, and remediation of disruptive behaviors in physicians.

    PubMed

    Swiggart, William H; Dewey, Charlene M; Hickson, Gerald B; Finlayson, A J Reid; Spickard, William A

    2009-01-01

    Physicians exhibiting a pattern of disruptive conduct represent a small portion of all healthcare professionals. Available evidence demonstrates, however, that their behaviors can result in increased workplace stress; contribute to poor workplace environments; contribute to dysfunctional teams; reduce quality of care for patients and families; and increase risk of litigation for hospitals and institutions. Our experience at Vanderbilt reveals that both internal and external factors play a role in a physician's behavior and ability to cope with workplace stresses. We have gained valuable insight into various means of indentifying, assessing, treating, and remediating physicians exhibiting unprofessional behavior. The vast majority of healthcare team members conduct themselves professionally and without complaint. This paper will demonstrate how to address those rare individuals who exhibit disruptive and/or unprofessional behavior.

  1. Identifying Common Elements of Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Children's Disruptive Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Ann F.; Hawley, Kristin M.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Hurlburt, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews a new method to identify common core elements of evidence-based practice (EBP) for children with disruptive behavior problems and their parents. This will not only help in characterizing practice, but also will enhance the skills and attitudes of therapists and be useful in implementing EBP in community-based service settings.

  2. Case Management as a Significant Component of Usual Care Psychotherapy for Youth with Disruptive Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoffness, Rachel; Garland, Ann; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Roesch, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Youth with disruptive behavior problems (DBPs) represent the majority of youth served in usual care (UC) psychotherapy, and are at high risk for maladaptive outcomes. Little is known about UC psychotherapeutic strategies utilized with this population. Researchers and clinicians suggest that case management (CM) is a major activity occurring in…

  3. Pharmacotherapy of Disruptive Behavior in Mentally Retarded Subjects: A Review of the Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassler, Frank; Reis, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    The review presented here describes the state of the art of pharmacological treatment of aggression in subjects with mental retardation (MR) summing up results for both, children and adults. In general, psychopharmacological treatment of disruptive behavior in individuals with MR is similar to the treatment in subjects without MR. Compared to…

  4. A Function-Based Intervention to Decrease Disruptive Behavior and Increase Academic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Smither, Rachel; Huseman, Rachel; Guffey, Jennifer; Fox, James

    2007-01-01

    A range of interventions exist to prevent and respond to disruptive classroom behavior. This study documents the efficacy of a function-based intervention conducted using a multiple baseline across settings design. Despite moderately variable levels of treatment fidelity, results suggest a functional relation between the introduction of a package…

  5. Using Mental Health Consultation to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors in Preschoolers: Adapting an Empirically-Supported Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Amanda P.; Shelton, Terri L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effectiveness of an adaptation of an empirically-supported intervention delivered using mental health consultation to preschoolers who displayed elevated disruptive behaviors. Method: Ninety-six preschoolers, their teachers, and their primary caregivers participated. Children in the intervention group received…

  6. The Effects of Methylphenidate on a Functional Analysis of Disruptive Behavior: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicesare, Anthony; McAdam, David B.; Toner, Amy; Varrell, James

    2005-01-01

    In the present investigation, a functional analysis of the disruptive behavior of a 18-year-old man who had been diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and moderate mental retardation was conducted, both when he was taking methylphenidate and when he was not taking the medication. The results of this functional analysis…

  7. Psychosocial Treatment Efficacy for Disruptive Behavior Problems in Very Young Children: A Meta-Analytic Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Chow, Candice; Chan, Priscilla T.; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Wilson, Lianna A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Service use trends showing increased off-label prescribing in very young children and reduced psychotherapy use raise concerns about quality of care for early disruptive behavior problems. Meta-analysis can empirically clarify best practices and guide clinical decision making by providing a quantitative synthesis of a body of…

  8. 38 CFR 17.107 - VA response to disruptive behavior of patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false VA response to disruptive behavior of patients. 17.107 Section 17.107 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Disciplinary Control of Beneficiaries Receiving Hospital, Domiciliary Or Nursing Home...

  9. 38 CFR 17.107 - VA response to disruptive behavior of patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false VA response to disruptive behavior of patients. 17.107 Section 17.107 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Disciplinary Control of Beneficiaries Receiving Hospital, Domiciliary Or Nursing Home...

  10. 38 CFR 17.107 - VA response to disruptive behavior of patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false VA response to disruptive behavior of patients. 17.107 Section 17.107 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Disciplinary Control of Beneficiaries Receiving Hospital, Domiciliary Or Nursing Home...

  11. ADHD with Comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder: Discrete or Nondistinct Disruptive Behavior Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Daniel F.; Doerfler, Leonard A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In children with ADHD who have comorbid disruptive behavior diagnoses distinctions between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) remain unclear. The authors investigate differences between ODD and CD in a large clinical sample of children with ADHD. Method: Consecutively referred and systematically assessed male…

  12. Systematic Review of Engagement in Culturally Adapted Parent Training for Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Ashley M.; Titus, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature reporting engagement (enrollment, attendance, and attrition) in culturally adapted parent training for disruptive behavior among racial/ethnic minority parents of children ages 2 to 7 years. The review describes the reported rates of engagement in adapted interventions and how engagement is analyzed in studies,…

  13. Parenting Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Opportunities for Cross-Fertilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Stahmer, Aubyn; Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Tsai, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Empirical support exists for parent training/education (PT/PE) interventions for children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). While the models share common roots, current approaches have largely developed independently and the research findings have been disseminated in two different literature traditions:…

  14. The Disproportionality Dilemma: Patterns of Teacher Referrals to School Counselors for Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Julia; Day-Vines, Norma L.; Griffin, Dana; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Disproportionality plagues schools nationwide in special education placement, dropout, discipline referral, suspension, and expulsion rates. This study examined predictors of teacher referrals to school counselors for disruptive behavior in a sample of students selected from the Educational Longitudinal Study 2002 (National Center for Education…

  15. Onset and Progression of Disruptive Behavior Problems among Community Boys and Girls: A Prospective Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Jaelyn R.; Nicholson, Jody S.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder are the most common forms of psychopathology seen among community youth. This study investigated prospective symptomatology of these disruptive behavior disorders from ages 5 though 14 in an at-risk community-based sample of 170 boys and girls born to…

  16. Antecedent Classroom Factors and Disruptive Behaviors of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Asmus, Jennifer M.; Boyd, Brian A.; Ladwig, Crystal N.; Sellers, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships between antecedent classroom factors and the disruptive behaviors of five elementary-aged students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the influence of four types of molar antecedent classroom factors (i.e., instructional setting, instructional activity,…

  17. Maternal Age at Childbirth and Offspring Disruptive Behaviors: Testing the Causal Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that the association between maternal age at childbearing (MAC) and children's disruptive behaviors is the result of family factors that are confounded with both variables, rather than a casual effect of environmental factors specifically related to MAC. These studies, however, relied on restricted samples and…

  18. A Systematic Approach for Responsibly and Effectively Managing the Disruptive Behavior of "At-Risk" Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Vern; Dunn, Cory

    This paper analyzes a systems approach for dealing with the disruptive behavior of at-risk students based on the principle that there is a shared responsibility among all school staff and that the methods employed should respond to the emotional and skill needs of the students. The approach has the following key components: (1) support by school…

  19. Reducing Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior in Public with a Brief Parent Discussion Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joachim, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R.; Turner, Karen M. T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief 2-h discussion group for parents of preschool children that show disruptive behavior on shopping trips. Forty-six parents with children aged 2-6 years were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition or a waitlist control group. Significant intervention effects were found for measures of…

  20. Classroom-Based Functional Analysis and Intervention for Disruptive and Off-Task Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumate, Emily D.; Wills, Howard P.

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of literature on the use of functional analysis in schools, there is a need for more demonstrations of this technology being used during the course of typical instruction. In this study, we conducted functional analyses of disruptive and off-task behavior in a reading classroom setting for 3 participants of typical…

  1. A Comparative Study of the Seriousness Attributed to Disruptive Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotzens, Concepcion; Badia, Mar; Genovard, Candido; Dezcallar, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we present a comparative analysis of three samples of teachers from Coimbra, Barcelona and Murcia that provides insight into the importance teachers attach to disruptive behavior and how different perspectives and values affect their daily work. Method: This research is framed within a quantitative empirical-analytic…

  2. PCL-R Psychopathy Predicts Disruptive Behavior Among Male Offenders in a Dutch Forensic Psychiatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Martin; De Ruiter, Corine; Nijman, Henk

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between psychopathy, according to the Dutch language version of Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and various types of disruptive behavior during inpatient forensic psychiatric treatment is investigated. Ninety-two male participants were administered the PCL-R following admission to an inpatient forensic…

  3. A Study of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Puerto Rican Youth: I. Background, Design, and Survey Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Hector R.; Canino, Glorisa J.; Davies, Mark; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Febo, Vivian; Ramirez, Rafael; Hoven, Christina; Wicks, Judith; Musa, George; Loeber, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This is the first of two related articles on a study carried out between 2000 and 2003 designed to assess the prevalence, associated comorbidities, and correlates of disruptive behavior disorders in two populations of Puerto Rican children: one in the Standard Metropolitan Areas of San Juan and Caguas in Puerto Rico, and the other in…

  4. A theoretical model to address organizational human conflict and disruptive behavior in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a theoretical model for leaders to use to address organizational human conflict and disruptive behavior in health care organizations. Leadership is needed to improve interpersonal relationships within the workforce. A workforce with a culture of internal conflict will be unable to achieve its full potential to delivery quality patient care.

  5. Divalproex Sodium -ER in Outpatients with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A Three Month Open Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxena, Kirti; Mora, Linda; Torres, Erika; Hall, Rebecca; Delizonna, Laura; Torres, Alex; Steiner, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This aim of this clinical trial was to study the effects of divalproex sodium (DVPX) in reducing Reactive/Affective/ Defensive/ Impulsive Aggression (RADI) in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) in an outpatient clinic over a period of 3 months. We recruited forty participants with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder.…

  6. Cortisol and Treatment Effect in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Wiel, Nicolle M.H.; van Goozen, Stephanie H.M.; Matthys, Walter; Snoek, Heddeke; van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Basal cortisol and cortisol stress responsivity are valuable biological characteristics of children with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). In this study, the predictive value of cortisol to outcome of intervention was investigated. Method: Basal cortisol levels and cortisol levels under stress were studied in 22 children with DBD…

  7. Influence of Treatment for Disruptive Behavior Disorders on Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Kolko, David J.; Shenk, Chad E.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Bukstein, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    The study examined whether psychosocial intervention for children diagnosed with a disruptive behavior disorder (DBD; n = 84) changed concentrations of cortisol and testosterone across a 3-year follow-up when compared to a matched, nonclinical, healthy comparison (HC; n = 69) group. Boys and girls (6-11 years) with a DBD were randomly assigned to…

  8. The Token Economy: Reducing the Disruptive and Off-Task Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Nicole Taylor

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a token economy as an intervention to reduce disruptive and off-task behavior of third grade students in an open concept setting. The intervention combines the use of a token reinforcement with a raffle style drawing. The students receive tokens on an intermittent reinforcement schedule for being on-task,…

  9. A Multi-Component Intervention Designed To Reduce Disruptive Classroom Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Theodore, Lea A.; Jenson, William R.; Clark, Elaine

    2000-01-01

    Describes research that focused on the design of an effective, economical, and easily implemented treatment for disruptive classroom behavior in both general and special education students. Multi-component treatment options included mystery motivators, token economy with response cost, and antecedent strategies delivered within a group contingency…

  10. Kindergarten Disruptive Behaviors, Protective Factors, and Educational Achievement by Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Larose, Simon; Trembaly, Richard E.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether 2 aspects of disruptive behaviors (i.e., hyperactivity-inattention and aggressiveness-opposition) observed in kindergarten predict noncompletion of high school by early adulthood. Also investigated was whether other personal characteristics such as anxiety or prosociality as well as parent child-rearing attitudes and…

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Interventions To Decrease Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Public Education Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stage, Scott A.; Quiroz, David R.

    1997-01-01

    Describes meta-analysis of 99 studies that used interventions to decrease disruptive classroom behavior in public education settings. Overall, results indicate interventions yield comparable results to other studies investigating effectiveness of psychotherapy. Findings show that efficacious treatments used in public school settings decrease…

  12. Treatment Acceptability of Behavioral Interventions for Children: An Assessment by Mothers of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Melanie L.; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Adams, Christina D.; Boggs, Stephen R.

    1998-01-01

    Study assesses the acceptability of six child-management interventions as rated by mothers (N=20) of children referred for treatment for a disruptive-behavior disorder. Positive reinforcement was rated as a more acceptable treatment than response time, time-out, differential attention, overcorrection, and spanking. Results validate findings of…

  13. Assessment of problem behavior evoked by disruption of ritualistic toy arrangements in a child with autism.

    PubMed

    Leon, Yanerys; Lazarchick, William N; Rooker, Griffin W; DeLeon, Iser G

    2013-01-01

    A functional analysis suggested that the problem behavior of a 9-year-old girl with autism was maintained by gaining the opportunity to restore ritualistic toy arrangements that had been disrupted. Functional communication training and extinction produced clear decreases in problem behavior in 2 contexts: 1 in which we removed a play item, and 1 in which we merely relocated the item and blocked its rearrangement.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR EVOKED BY DISRUPTION OF RITUALISTIC TOY ARRANGEMENTS IN A CHILD WITH AUTISM

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Yanerys; Lazarchick, William N.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Deleon, Iser G.

    2015-01-01

    A functional analysis suggested that the problem behavior of a 9-year-old girl with autism was maintained by gaining the opportunity to restore ritualistic toy arrangements that had been disrupted. Functional communication training and extinction produced clear decreases in problem behavior in 2 contexts: 1 in which we removed a play item, and 1 in which we merely relocated the item and blocked its rearrangement. PMID:24114164

  15. Emotional and behavioral problems among adolescent smokers and their help-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Muthupalaniappen, Leelavathi; Omar, Juslina; Omar, Khairani; Iryani, Tuti; Hamid, Siti Norain

    2012-09-01

    We carried out a cross sectional study to detect emotional and behavioral problems among adolescents who smoke and their help-seeking behavior. This study was conducted in Sarawak, East Malaysia, between July and September 2006. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured using the Youth Self-Report (YSR/11-18) questionnaire; help seeking behavior was assessed using a help-seeking questionnaire. Three hundred ninety-nine students participated in the study; the smoking prevalence was 32.8%. The mean scores for emotional and behavioral problems were higher among smokers than non-smokers in all domains (internalizing, p = 0.028; externalizing, p = 0.001; other behavior, p = 0.001). The majority of students who smoked (94.7%) did not seek help from a primary health care provider for their emotional or behavioral problems. Common barriers to help-seeking were: the perception their problems were trivial (60.3%) and the preference to solve problems on their own (45.8%). Our findings suggest adolescent smokers in Sarawak, East Malaysia were more likely to break rules, exhibit aggressive behavior and have somatic complaints than non-smoking adolescents. Adolescent smokers preferred to seek help for their problems from informal sources. Physicians treating adolescents should inquire about smoking habits, emotional and behavioral problems and offer counseling if required.

  16. Preventing Adolescent Risk Behavior in the Rural Context: An Integrative Analysis of Adolescent, Parent, and Provider Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…

  17. Doing Good Deeds: An Examination of Adolescent Prosocial Behavior in the Context of Parent-Adolescent Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberly, Mary B.; Montemayor, Raymond

    1998-01-01

    Used the Adolescent Prosocial Behavior Inventory to explore sixth, eighth, and tenth graders' prosocial behavior toward parents as an embedded aspect of parent/adolescent relationships. Found that mothers received more prosocial behavior than did fathers. Daughters acted more prosocially than sons. Attachment had a direct and an indirect effect…

  18. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Co-Occurring Somatic Chronic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior. We obtained data on 1044 ID-adolescents, aged…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, John K.; Willoughby, Teena

    2010-01-01

    Risk taking may be regarded as a normative behavior in adolescence. Risk-taking behaviors may include alcohol, smoking, drug use, delinquency, and acts of aggression. Many studies have explored the relationship between adolescents and risk-taking behavior; however, only a few studies have examined this link in adolescents with learning…

  20. Prenatal Substance Exposure: What Predicts Behavioral Resilience by Early Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Liebschutz, Jane; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Heymann, Orlaith D.; Lange, Allison V.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure (IUSE) in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (age 12.4–15.9) at-risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. IUSEs included in this analysis were cocaine (IUCE), tobacco (IUTE), alcohol (IUAE), and marijuana (IUME). We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African-American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower IUCE level predicted resilience compared to higher IUCE, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.90–19.00, p=0.002), lower violence exposure (AOR=4.07, 95% CI=1.77–9.38, p<0.001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR=3.71, 95% CI= 1.28–10.74, p=0.02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predict behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. PMID:26076097

  1. Prenatal substance exposure: What predicts behavioral resilience by early adolescence?

    PubMed

    Liebschutz, Jane M; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P; Heymann, Orlaith D; Lange, Allison V; Frank, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (ages 12.4-15.9 years) at risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. Intrauterine substance exposures included in this analysis were cocaine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower intrauterine cocaine exposure level predicted resilience compared with higher cocaine exposure, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.90, 19.00], p = .002), lower violence exposure (AOR = 4.07, 95% CI [1.77, 9.38], p < .001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR = 3.71, 95% CI [1.28, 10.74], p = .02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predicted behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Emotional Desensitization to Violence Contributes to Adolescents' Violent Behavior.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Many adolescents are exposed to violence in their schools, communities and homes. Exposure to violence at high levels or across multiple contexts has been linked with emotional desensitization, indicated by low levels of internalizing symptoms. However, the long-term consequences of such desensitization are unknown. This study examined emotional desensitization to violence, together with externalizing problems, as mediators of the relationship between exposure to violence in pre-adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence. A community sample of youth (N = 704; 48% female; 76% African American, 22% Caucasian) reported on their exposure to violence in multiple settings at ages 11, 13 and 18. Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 11 and 13; violent behavior was measured at age 18. Structural Equation Modeling showed that exposure to high levels of violence at age 11 was associated with lower levels of internalizing problems (quadratic effect) at age 13, as was exposure to violence across multiple contexts (linear effect). In turn, fewer internalizing problems and more externalizing problems at age 13 predicted more violent behavior at age 18. The results suggest that emotional desensitization to violence in early adolescence contributes to serious violence in late adolescence.

  3. Stress and Multiple Substance Use Behaviors Among Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Cervantes, Richard C.; Swank, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic adolescents reported a higher annual prevalence of use of nearly all major drugs compared to non-Hispanic White and African American adolescents. Cultural or minority stressors, such as those related to the acculturation process, discrimination, immigration, poverty, and community violence, have been implicated in these outcomes. Unfortunately, few studies have examined how these stressors may have a differential or additive effect when considered simultaneously. The current study examined the relation between stress and multiple substance use behaviors in a sample of Hispanic adolescents (n=1036), age 11–19 years old. Latent class analysis identified subgroups of Hispanic adolescents based on combinations of substance use behaviors. General linear models were used to examine mean differences by class among the eight domains of stress. Fit statistics revealed a six-class structure: no substance use risk, predominately alcohol use, low polysubstance use, high polysubstance use, illicit drug use, and predominately marijuana use. Differences in stress across the six classes were identified for four of the eight domains: family economic, acculturation gap, community and gang, and family and drug stress. The effect sizes revealed the largest mean differences in stress between the no substance use group and the two polysubstance use groups and between the no risk group and alcohol use group. The findings from this study support the use of interventions that target stress to affect multiple substance use behaviors in Hispanic adolescents. PMID:26319617

  4. Adolescents' health behaviors and obesity: Does race affect this epidemic?

    PubMed Central

    Shelley, Mack C.; Hausafus, Cheryl O.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the influence of health behaviors and individual attributes on adolescent overweight and obesity using data from Wave II (Add Health). Structural equation model/path analysis using maximum likelihood estimation was utilized to analyze the relationships of health behaviors and attributes with obesity. Results of the model reveal that the causal paths (adolescents' attributes and health behaviors) for overweight and obesity were different for African American and Caucasian adolescents. Generally, African Americans were more susceptible to overweight and obesity than Caucasians. Although increasing levels of vigorous physical activities lowers the risk for obesity among African American and Caucasian adolescents alike, low family SES and being sedentary were associated with overweight and obesity among Caucasians. No significant associations were found among African Americans. Increased hours of sleep at night relate positively with obesity among African Americans. These findings suggest important elements in the consideration of race in developing effective intervention and prevention approaches for curbing the obesity epidemic among U.S. adolescents. PMID:21286412

  5. Suicidal behavior of adolescent girls: profile and meaning.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Hanna Bar; Reznik, Ilya; Mester, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    In the last two decades the incidence of adolescent suicides has been very high (though it has been on the decrease in the U.S.A. over the last four years), giving rise to a multitude of empirical and theoretical studies. The extensive knowledge that has accumulated regarding adolescent suicidal behavior has led to a more differentiated attitude. Many studies try to clarify specific needs, motivations and the conceptualization of death and suicide in various adolescent subgroups (minorities, females, homosexuals), thereby enabling more specific and exact methods of evaluation, prevention and intervention. Adolescent girls' suicidal behavior is different in many aspects from boys' suicidal behavior: Girls mortality rate from suicide is a 3-5 times lower rate than boys, but their attempted suicide rate is four to hundreds time higher. Girls suicide mainly by drugs and their suicide is mainly in reaction to interpersonal difficulties. Their motivation is often a cry for help. The comorbidity of suicide and depression is much higher for adolescent girls than boys. These differences generate a different understanding and separate treatment strategies. Two theoretical approaches that may explain the profile which characterizes suicidal girls will be presented. One has a psychological developmental context, and the other a social cultural context. Implications for specific prevention measures include legal action on pack sizes of analgesics, compulsory registration of attempted suicide and more gender specific treatment and prevention programs.

  6. Pharmacological treatment of disruptive behavior in Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laje, Gonzalo; Bernert, Rebecca; Morse, Rebecca; Pao, Maryland; Smith, Ann C M

    2010-11-15

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex genetic syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. Children and adults with SMS appear to have unique neurobehavioral problems that include: sleep disturbance, self-injurious and maladaptive behaviors, stereotypies, and sensory integration disorders. We gathered retrospective psychotropic use information from parents or other caregivers of 62 individuals with SMS who were asked about use of psychotropic medication from a list of commonly used psychiatric medications. For those drugs identified, respondents were asked to rate the experience with the particular medication using a likert-type scale. Drugs were grouped into seven main categories: (1) stimulants; (2) antidepressants; (3) antipsychotics; (4) sleep aides; (5) mood stabilizers; (6) alpha 2 agonists; and (7) benzodiazepines. Relative frequencies, means and standard deviations pertaining to age and medication effect were derived for each medication category. Six of the seven medication categories examined showed no meaningful deviations from the "no change" score. The benzodiazepine group showed a mild detrimental effect. There were no gender differences in efficacy. Use of psychotropic medication started early in life (mean age 5 years), particularly with sleep aides. Although no medication category was identified as efficacious in SMS, all the categories reported herein may be considered as an option for brief symptomatic relief.

  7. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III

    2007-01-01

    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  8. Suicidal Behavior in Chemically Dependent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaiola, Alan A.; Lavender, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Study explores distinctions between chemically dependent suicide attempters, chemically dependent nonsuicidal adolescents, and high school students with no history of chemical dependency (N=250). Results reveal that there were significant differences between the chemically dependent groups. It was also found that the majority of suicidal gestures…

  9. Training Aggressive Adolescents in Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Structured Learning Therapy (SLT) teaches aggressive adolescents prosocial skills (negotiation, self-relaxation, and anger control) by modeling, role playing, social reinforcement, and transfer of training. This article summarizes initial application of SLT with psychiatric clients, includes guidelines for improving trainee-trainer-treatment…

  10. Sssshhh. We're Taking Notes Here. Colleges Look for New Ways To Discourage Disruptive Behavior in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes some of the efforts colleges are taking to discourage disruptive behavior by students in the classroom. Many of these initiatives have been requested by students themselves. Most depend on setting clear expectations for student behavior. (SLD)

  11. The Impact of School Connectedness on Violent Behavior, Transport Risk-Taking Behavior, and Associated Injuries in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Rebekah L.; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary C.; Shochet, Ian M.; Romaniuk, Madeline

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents engage in many risk-taking behaviors that have the potential to lead to injury. The school environment has a significant role in shaping adolescent behavior, and this study aimed to provide additional information about the benefits associated with connectedness to school. Early adolescents aged 13 to 15 years (N=509, 49% boys) were…

  12. Risperidone in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Subaverage Intelligence: A 1-Year, Open-Label Study of 504 Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croonenberghs, Jan; Fegert, Joerg M.; Findling, Robert L.; de Smedt, Goedele; van Dongen, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the long-term safety and effectiveness of risperidone for severe disruptive behaviors in children. Method: A multisite, 1-year, open-label study of patients aged 5 to 14 years with disruptive behaviors and subaverage intelligence was conducted. Results: Seventy-three percent of the 504 patients enrolled completed the study.…

  13. Interactions between Maternal Parenting and Children's Early Disruptive Behavior: Bidirectional Associations across the Transition from Preschool to School Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs-Ronto, Lindsey A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2009-01-01

    This study was a prospective 2-year longitudinal investigation of associations between negative maternal parenting and disruptive child behavior across the preschool to school transition. Our main goals were to 1) determine the direction of association between early maternal negativity and child disruptive behaviors across this important…

  14. Randomizing Multiple Contingency Components to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors and Increase Student Engagement in an Urban Second-Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKissick, Chele; Hawkins, Renee O.; Lentz, Francis E.; Hailley, Jennifer; McGuire, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors displayed in the classroom interfere with learning by taking time away from academic instruction. This study investigated the effects of randomizing components within an interdependent group contingency for group disruptive behavior and engagement levels of 26 students in a second-grade classroom in an urban Midwestern school.…

  15. The Role of Friends' Disruptive Behavior in the Development of Children's Tobacco Experimentation: Results from a Preventive Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol A. C.; Huizink, Anja; Vuijk, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Having friends who engage in disruptive behavior in childhood may be a risk factor for childhood tobacco experimentation. This study tested the role of friends' disruptive behavior as a mediator of the effects of a classroom based intervention on children's tobacco experimentation. 433 Children (52% males) were randomly assigned to the Good…

  16. Parental Socialization and Adolescents' Alcohol Use Behaviors: Predictive Disparities in Parents' versus Adolescents' Perceptions of the Parenting Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latendresse, Shawn J.; Rose, Richard J.; Viken, Richard J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M.

    2009-01-01

    Among adolescents, many parenting practices have been associated with the initiation and development of drinking behaviors. However, recent studies suggest discrepancies in parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting and their links with adolescent use. In this study, we derive two independent sets of underlying parenting profiles (based on…

  17. Maternal Positive and Negative Interaction Behaviors and Early Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Adolescent Emotion Regulation as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Marie B. H.; Schwartz, Orli S.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relation between mothers' positive and negative interaction behaviors during mother-child interactions and the emotion regulation (ER) and depressive symptoms of their adolescent offspring. Event-planning (EPI) and problem-solving interactions (PSI) were observed in 163 mother-adolescent dyads, and adolescents also provided…

  18. Parental rules, parent and peer attachment, and adolescent drinking behaviors.

    PubMed

    McKay, Michael Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Family factors have been widely implicated in the development of adolescent drinking behaviors. These include parental attachment and parental rules concerning drinking behaviors. Moreover, throughout adolescence attachment to parents gives way to attachment to peers, and parental rules about alcohol use become less strict. The present study examined the relationship between parental and peer attachment, parental rules on drinking and alcohol use in a large sample (n = 1,724) of adolescents in the United Kingdom. Controlling for school grade (proxy for age), sex and the non-independence of respondents (clustering at school level) results showed that scores on a parental rules on drinking questionnaire were a significant statistical predictor when comparing moderate drinkers and abstainers, as well as moderate drinkers and problematic drinkers. Scores on both attachment scales were also significant, but only in the comparison between moderate and problematic drinkers, with lower attachment to parents and higher attachment to peers associated with problematic drinking.

  19. Sexting and Sexual Behavior in At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. METHODS: Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (χ2[2] = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (χ2[2] = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P < .01) to vaginal sex (OR = 2.23, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents. PMID:24394678

  20. Trajectories of Problem Behavior among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2014-01-01

    Engagement in problem behaviors during adolescence has important implications for academic achievement and psychosocial well-being. The current study examined engagement in problem behavior across the transition from pregnancy to parenthood among a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (ages 15-18 years; Mage = 16.8 at Time 1) to better understand the behaviors in which this sample engaged and how engagement changed over this period of transition. Descriptively, this sample engaged in relatively low levels of problem behaviors. Frequently endorsed problem behaviors included missing school or work without an excuse, lying or disobeying parents, and engagement in dangerous behaviors for a thrill; notably, substance use was not a frequently endorsed behavior until the final waves of the study, when most of the mothers were of legal age for these behaviors. Further, latent growth curve modeling revealed a non-linear pattern of change in problem behaviors, such that engagement decreased substantially from the third trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum, but then leveled off between 36 and 48 months postpartum. Findings suggest a need for future research to better understand how engagement in problem behaviors changes pre- to post-pregnancy, and how to best support the decrease in problem behaviors once a pregnancy has been detected. PMID:25893152

  1. Effects of antecedent variables on disruptive behavior and accurate responding in young children in outpatient settings.

    PubMed

    Boelter, Eric W; Wacker, David P; Call, Nathan A; Ringdahl, Joel E; Kopelman, Todd; Gardner, Andrew W

    2007-01-01

    The effects of manipulations of task variables on inaccurate responding and disruption were investigated with 3 children who engaged in noncompliance. With 2 children in an outpatient clinic, task directives were first manipulated to identify directives that guided accurate responding; then, additional dimensions of the task were manipulated to evaluate their influence on disruptive behavior. With a 3rd child, similar procedures were employed at school. Results showed one-step directives set the occasion for accurate responding and that other dimensions of the task (e.g., preference) functioned as motivating operations for negative reinforcement.

  2. Perceived parent-adolescent relationship, perceived parental online behaviors and pathological internet use among adolescents: gender-specific differences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescents' perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People's Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents' age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention.

  3. A pilot study of parent training in young children with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Bearss, Karen; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Smith, Tristram; Scahill, Lawrence

    2013-04-01

    Guidance on effective interventions for disruptive behavior in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is limited. We present feasibility and initial efficacy data on a structured parent training program for 16 children (ages 3-6) with ASD and disruptive behavior. The 6-month intervention included 11 Core and up to 2 Optional sessions. The program was acceptable to parents as evidenced by an attendance rate of 84 % for Core sessions. Fourteen of 16 families completed the treatment. An independent clinician rated 14 of 16 subjects as much improved or very much improved at Week 24. Using last observation carried forward, the parent-rated Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability subscale decreased 54 % from 16.00 (SD = 9.21) to 7.38 (SD = 6.15).

  4. Taking a new approach to reduce the incidence of physician disruptive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Alan H

    2015-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors continue to play a disturbing role in today's healthcare environment, negatively affecting care relationships that can adversely impact outcomes of patient care. Many organizations have implemented a number of different strategies in an effort to address this important issue with varying degrees of success. New complexities and changing roles, responsibilities and accountabilities for the delivery of appropriate, high-value, high-quality, safe, satisfying care have added increasing pressures on healthcare organizations to better integrate and coordinate healthcare delivery across the entire spectrum of care. Physicians play a crucial role in this process. When disruptive behaviors occur, rather than taking the traditional more remedial punitive approach to behavioral management, organizations would do better to try to focus on strategies that address physician and staff needs and provide appropriate supportive services to help them better adjust to stress and pressures of today's healthcare environment. Increasing levels of stress and burnout are taking their toll on physician attitudes and behaviors resulting in increasing levels of disillusionment, dissatisfaction and frustration affecting physician well-being and performance. Physicians often won't act on their own and we need to look to the organizations they are affiliated with to take the initiative by providing appropriate administrative, clinical and emotional support services before the occurrence of an unwanted event. Allowing physicians' input, listening to their concerns and providing needed support will enhance physician satisfaction, engagement, compliant attitudes and behaviors that lead to less disruption and better patient care.

  5. A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of Risk and Problem Behaviors: The Case of Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos; Vincent; Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Bouris, Alida

    2008-01-01

    A framework for the analysis of adolescent problem behaviors was explicated that draws on five major theories of human behavior. The framework emphasizes intentions to perform behaviors and factors that influence intentions as well as moderate the impact of intentions on behavior. The framework was applied to the analysis of adolescent sexual risk…

  6. Emotional autonomy and problem behavior among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2003-12-01

    The author examined the association between emotional autonomy and problem behavior among Chinese adolescents living in Hong Kong. The respondents were 512 adolescents, 16 to 18 years of age, who were interviewed for a cross-sectional study. Three dimensions of emotional autonomy including individuation, nondependency on parents, and de-idealization of parents were significantly and positively correlated with the amount of problem behavior the participants engaged in during the past 6 months. Using a simple linear multiple regression model, the author found that problem behavior was associated with only one aspect of emotional autonomy-individuation. Results indicated that the relationship between problem behavior and three aspects of emotional autonomy was similar in both individualistic and collectivistic societies.

  7. Mothers' Economic Hardship and Behavior Problems in Their Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Ginger Lockhart; Roosa, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about the heightened prevalence of behavior problems among adolescents from low-income families have prompted researchers to understand processes through which economic variables influence functioning within multiple domains. Guided by a stress process framework and social contextual theory, this study examines processes linking perceived…

  8. Weight Perception and Dieting Behavior among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gyuyoung; Ha, Yeongmi; Vann, Julie Jacobson; Choi, Eunsook

    2009-01-01

    This study examines relationships among weight status, weight perceptions, and dieting behaviors in South Korean adolescents. As perceptions of an ideal body for teens in Korea have changed over time, it is important for school nurses to understand these relationships to help students achieve health. A cross-sectional survey of 3,191 8th and 2,252…

  9. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  10. Behavioral management of headache in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Faedda, Noemi; Cerutti, Rita; Verdecchia, Paola; Migliorini, Daniele; Arruda, Marco; Guidetti, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    Headache is the most frequent neurological symptom and the most prevalent pain in children and adolescents, and constitutes a serious health problem that may lead to impairment in several areas. Psychosocial factors, social environment, life events, school and family stressors are all closely related to headaches. A multidisciplinary strategy is fundamental in addressing headache in children and adolescents. Applying such a strategy can lead to reductions in frequency and severity of the pain, improving significantly the quality of life of these children.It has been demonstrated that behavioral intervention is highly effective, especially in the treatment of paediatric headache, and can enhance or replace pharmacotherapy, with the advantage of eliminating dangerous side effects and or reducing costs. Behavioral interventions appear to maximize long-term therapeutic benefits and improve compliance with pharmacological treatment, which has proven a significant problem with child and adolescent with headache.The goal of this review is to examine the existing literature on behavioral therapies used to treat headache in children and adolescents, and so provide an up-to-date picture of what behavioral therapy is and what its effectiveness is.

  11. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  12. Father's and Mother's Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2011-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…

  13. Adolescent Health Behavior, Contentment in School, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.; Helgason, Asgeir R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the association between health behavior indicators, school contentment, and academic achievement. Methods: Structural equation modeling with 5810 adolescents. Results: Our model explained 36% of the variance in academic achievement and 24% in school contentment. BMI and sedentary lifestyle were negatively related to school…

  14. Advances in Preventing Childhood and Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of prevention have led to a deeper understanding of the causes of adolescent problem behavior and to the identification of efficacious strategies to prevent delinquency, drug use, and other antisocial conduct. This 2009 Aaron Rosen lecture to members of the "Society for Social Work and Research" traces the evolution of…

  15. The Professional Self-Determination of Adolescents with Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondrat, E. N.

    2005-01-01

    The training of young people for professional self-determination has always been an urgent social and pedagogical problem, the solution to which determines the quality of the work of future specialists. It acquires special urgency in the context of preparing adolescents with deviant behavior for their self-determination in life and profession; in…

  16. Brief Report: Associations between Emotional Competence and Adolescent Risky Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, Danielle M.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines associations between emotional competence (i.e., awareness, regulation, comfort with expression) and adolescent risky behavior. Children from a longitudinal study participated at age 9 and 16 (N = 88). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with children about their emotional experiences and coded for areas of…

  17. Heavy Metal Music and Reckless Behavior among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-four male and 30 female adolescents who like heavy metal music were compared on various outcome variables to 56 male and 105 female peers who do not like it. Those who like heavy metal report a wider range of reckless behavior than those who do not like it. (SLD)

  18. Family Structure, Community Context, and Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, John P.

    2006-01-01

    A number of models have been proposed to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescent problem behaviors, including several that consider parent-child relations, family income, stress, and residential mobility. However, studies have not explored whether the different types of communities within which families reside affect the…

  19. Early Adolescent Romantic Partner Status, Peer Standing, and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S.; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a…

  20. Behavioral Phenotype of Fragile X Syndrome in Adolescence and Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leann E.; Barker, Erin T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Abbeduto, Leonard; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the behavioral profile of individuals with fragile X syndrome during adolescence and adulthood. Individuals with both fragile X syndrome and autism (n = 30) were compared with (a) individuals diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (but not autism; n = 106) and (b) individuals diagnosed with autism (but not fragile X syndrome;…

  1. Adolescent Behavior and Health in Cross-Cultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Specific behavioral problems appear during early adolescence, and they become more pronounced. Although these problems are universal in many aspects, cultural differences are also conspicuous. The author, in addition to analyzing the five studies in the Special Issue, addresses questions concerning the cross-cultural context. The analysis reveals…

  2. Social Capital, Safety Concerns, Parenting, and Early Adolescents' Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Perkins, Douglas D.; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relations between neighborhood social capital (neighbor support and social climate), safety concerns (fear of crime and concern for one's child), parenting (solicitation and support), and adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 952 parents (742 mothers) and 588 boys and 559 girls from five middle schools (sixth…

  3. Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Binge Eating in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; DeBar, Lynn L.; Firemark, Alison; Leung, Sue; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2013-01-01

    Whereas effective treatments exist for adults with recurrent binge eating, developmental factors specific to adolescents point to the need for a modified treatment approach for youth. We adapted an existing cognitive behavioral therapy treatment manual for adults with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (Fairburn, 2008) for use with…

  4. Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy.…

  5. Pain-Based Behavior with Children and Adolescents in Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglin, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Many actions of troubled children and adolescents can disguise and conceal their ever-present and deep-seated psycho-emotional pain. Adults living and working with these youth may overlook this pain in a strategy of avoidance. Labelling troubling behavior as "outbursts," "explosions," or "acting out," ignores the…

  6. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  7. Trajectories of Family Management Practices and Early Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth…

  8. Executive Functions in Adolescence: Inferences from Brain and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crone, Eveline A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the advances in understanding cognitive improvements in executive function in adolescence, much less is known about the influence of affective and social modulators on executive function and the biological underpinnings of these functions and sensitivities. Here, recent behavioral and neuroscientific studies are summarized that have used…

  9. Moral Cognitive Processes Explaining Antisocial Behavior in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Velden, Floor; Brugman, Daniel; Boom, Jan; Koops, Willem

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the longitudinal relationships between three kinds of moral cognitions--self-serving cognitive distortions, moral judgment, perception of community--and antisocial behavior in young adolescents. Aims were to gain insight in direct and indirect relationships, stability, and causality. The sample included 724 students (M age =…

  10. Assessing the Eating Behaviors of Low-Income, Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a need for instruments that can accurately determine the effectiveness of nutrition interventions targeting low-income, inner-city adolescents. Purpose: To examine the development of a valid and reliable eating behavior scale (EBS) for use in school-based nutrition interventions in urban, inner-city communities dominated by…

  11. The breakdown of meaning and adolescent problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Hazani, Moshe

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to account for the upsurge of adolescents' problem behavior in high-income countries in terms of Lifton's paradigm of symbolic immortality. Whilst most of the works dealing with this subject focus on the level of the individual adolescent and his or her surrounding, Lifton shows that societal processes can affect the individual. Drawing upon his approach, it was argued that desymbolization,--the collapse of society's symbols system--produces "divided selves," individuals who harbor an 'aggressor-victim double' in their psyche, wherein an internal conflict between the aggressor and the victim engenders self-destructive impulses. In this study it is hypothesized that problem behaviors are external manifestations of underlying self-destructiveness. Thirty-four Jewish-Israeli adolescents involved in sexual promiscuity, drug abuse, anorexia nervosa, and violence were interviewed. It was found that despite individual and social dissimilarities, and the different problem behaviors, the participants were marked by inner-directed destructiveness as well as a sense of meaninglessness of life and lack of symbolic relationship to what transcends their here-and-now selves. Significantly, violent adolescents whose aggression is other-directed were found to be marked by underlying self-directed aggression as well. If the findings of this study are representative of Israeli society at large or of other affluent societies, then the epidemic proportions of youth problem behavior may indicate that these societies are undergoing desymbolization, a psychocultural breakdown.

  12. Race Differences in Strains Associated with Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Toni Terling; Sharp, Susan F.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated suicidal strains contributing to suicidal behaviors among adolescents by race. Data from the Add Health Project support the presence of process differences by race and delineate the specific nature of these differences. For example, Blacks experience more status strains, but they are more religious than Whites (which serves to…

  13. The Role of Teacher Behavior in Adolescents' Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Naeghel, Jessie; Valcke, Martin; De Meyer, Inge; Warlop, Nele; van Braak, Johan; Van Keer, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    Given the weak intrinsic reading motivation of many adolescents on the one hand and the importance of this type of motivation for reading competence on the other hand, the aim of the present study is to identify the related role of teacher behavior. To pursue this aim, a secondary analysis was carried out on PISA 2009 data. More particularly, data…

  14. Attachment Organization and History of Suicidal Behavior in Clinical Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Kenneth S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Adolescents in psychiatric treatment (N=133) participated in a case-comparison study investigating the association of attachment patterns with a history of suicidal behaviors. Attachment patterns were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview. In accordance with definitions provided in the scoring system, 86% of case and 78% of comparison…

  15. 14 and Younger: The Sexual Behavior of Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Bill, Ed.; Brown, Sarah, Ed.; Flanigan, Christine M., Ed.

    This collection of papers on early adolescent sexual behavior includes seven papers in two parts. Part 1, "Papers from Nationally Representative Data Sets," includes (1) "Dating and Sexual Experiences among Middle School Youth: Analyses of the NLSY97" (Elizabeth Terry-Humen and Jennifer Manlove); "(2) "Dating Behavior…

  16. Mental, Emotional and Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents. Factsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.

    This factsheet describes the different mental, emotional, and behavior problems that can occur during childhood and adolescence. The incidence and symptoms of the following disorders are discussed: (1) anxiety disorders (including phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder);…

  17. Child and Adolescent Therapy: Cognitive-Behavioral Procedures. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Widely regarded as the definitive clinical reference and text in the field, this authoritative volume presents effective cognitive-behavioral approaches for treating frequently encountered child and adolescent disorders. The editor and contributors are leading experts who provide hands-on, how-to-do-it descriptions illustrated with clinical…

  18. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Momino, Wakana; Félix, Têmis Maria; Abeche, Alberto Mantovani; Zandoná, Denise Isabel; Scheibler, Gabriela Gayer; Chambers, Christina; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Flores, Renato Zamora; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia

    2012-12-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure.

  19. Early life stress disrupts social behavior and prefrontal cortex parvalbumin interneurons at an earlier time-point in females than in males.

    PubMed

    Holland, Freedom H; Ganguly, Prabarna; Potter, David N; Chartoff, Elena H; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2014-04-30

    Early life stress exposure (ELS) yields risk for psychiatric disorders that might occur though a population-specific mechanism that impacts prefrontal cortical development. Sex differences in ELS effects are largely unknown and are also essential to understand social and cognitive development. ELS can cause dysfunction within parvalbumin (PVB)-containing inhibitory interneurons in the prefrontal cortex and in several prefrontal cortex-mediated behaviors including social interaction. Social behavior deficits are often the earliest observed changes in psychiatric disorders, therefore the time-course and causation of social interaction deficits after ELS are important to determine. PVB interneuron dysfunction can disrupt social behavior, and has been correlated in males with elevated markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, such as cyclooxygenase-2 after ELS. Here, we measured the effects of maternal separation ELS on social interaction behaviors in males and females. Prefrontal cortex PVB and cyclooxygenase-2 were also measured in juveniles and adolescents using Western blots. ELS led to social interaction alterations earlier in females than males. Sexually dimorphic behavioral changes were consistent with prefrontal cortex PVB loss after ELS. PVB levels were decreased in ELS-exposed juvenile females, while males exposed to ELS do not display parvalbumin decreases until adolescence. Early behavioral and PVB changes in females did not appear to be mediated through cyclooxygenase-2, since levels were not affected in ELS females. Therefore, these data suggest that ELS affects males and females differently and with distinct developmental profiles.

  20. Delay Discounting Mediates Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Risky Sexual Behavior for Low Self-Control Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Holmes, Christopher; Farley, Julee P.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2015-01-01

    Parent-adolescent relationship quality and delay discounting may play important roles in adolescents’ sexual decision making processes, and levels of self-control during adolescence could act as a buffer within these factors. This longitudinal study included 219 adolescent (55% male; mean age = 12.66 years at Wave 1; mean age = 15.10 years at Wave 2) and primary caregiver dyads. Structural equation modeling was utilized to determine whether delay discounting mediated the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents’ risky sexual behavior and how this mediated association may differ between those with high versus low self-control. The results revealed parent-adolescent relationship quality plays a role in the development of risky sexual behavior indirectly through levels of delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low self-control. These findings could inform sex education policies and health prevention programs that address adolescent risky sexual behavior. PMID:26202153