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Sample records for adolescent elite athletes

  1. Adolescent elite athletes' cigarette smoking, use of snus, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P < 0.001). Only, 1.2% athletes and 2.8% controls reported use of performance-enhancing illicit drugs. In conclusion, use of legal drugs is less common among athletes, but this relationship depends on type of sport and competition level. The association between team sports and use of snus suggests that sport subcultures play a role.

  2. Multiple factors explain injury risk in adolescent elite athletes: applying a biopsychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    von Rosen, Philip; Frohm, Anna; Kottorp, Anders; Fridén, Cecilia; Heijne, Annette

    2017-02-16

    Many risk factors for injury are presented in the literature, few of those are however consistent and the majority is associated with adult and not adolescent elite athletes. The aim was to identify risk factors for injury in adolescent elite athletes, by applying a biopsychosocial approach. A total of 496 adolescent elite athletes (age range 15-19), participating in 16 different sports, were monitored repeatedly over 52 weeks using a validated questionnaire about injuries, training exposure, sleep, stress, nutrition and competence-based self-esteem. Univariate and multiple cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for risk factors for first reported injury. The main finding was that an increase in training volume, training intensity and at the same time decreasing the sleep volume resulted in a higher risk for injury compared to no change in these variables (HR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.46-3.45, p<0.01), which was the strongest risk factor identified. In addition, an increase by one score of competence-based self-esteem increased the hazard for injury with 1.02 (HR 95% CI, 1.00-1.04, p=0.01). Based on the multiple cox regression analysis, an athlete having the identified risk factors (Risk Index, competence-based self-esteem), with an average competence-based self-esteem score, had more than a threefold increased risk for injury (HR 3.35), compared to an athlete with a low competence-based self-esteem and no change in sleep or training volume.. Our findings confirm injury occurrence as a result of multiple risk factors interacting in complex ways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Too little sleep and an unhealthy diet could increase the risk of sustaining a new injury in adolescent elite athletes.

    PubMed

    von Rosen, P; Frohm, A; Kottorp, A; Fridén, C; Heijne, A

    2016-08-19

    Little is known about health variables and if these variables could increase the risk of injuries among adolescent elite athletes. The primary aim was to present overall data on self-perceived stress, nutrition intake, self-esteem, and sleep, as well as gender and age differences, on two occasions among adolescent elite athletes. A secondary aim was to study these health variables as potential risk factors on injury incidence. A questionnaire was e-mailed to 340 adolescent elite athletes on two occasions during a single school year: autumn semester and spring semester. The results show that during autumn semester, the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, and fish was not met for 20%, 39%, and 43% of the adolescent elite athletes, respectively. The recommended amount of sleep during weekdays was not obtained by 19%. Multiple logistic regression showed that athletes sleeping more than 8 h of sleep during weekdays reduced the odds of injury with 61% (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16-0.99) and athletes reaching the recommended nutrition intake reduced the odds with 64% (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.91). Our findings suggest that nutrition intake and sleep volume are of importance in understanding injury incidence.

  4. Vaccination in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Barbara C; Meyer, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Public health vaccination guidelines cannot be easily transferred to elite athletes. An enhanced benefit from preventing even mild diseases is obvious but stronger interference from otherwise minor side effects has to be considered as well. Thus, special vaccination guidelines for adult elite athletes are required. In most of them, protection should be strived for against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and varicella. When living or traveling to endemic areas, the athletes should be immune against tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, poliomyelitis, typhoid fever, and meningococcal disease. Vaccination against pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae type b is only relevant in athletes with certain underlying disorders. Rubella and papillomavirus vaccination might be considered after an individual risk-benefit analysis. Other vaccinations such as cholera, rabies, herpes zoster, and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) cannot be universally recommended for athletes at present. Only for a very few diseases, a determination of antibody titers is reasonable to avoid unnecessary vaccinations or to control efficacy of an individual's vaccination (especially for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B and, partly, hepatitis A). Vaccinations should be scheduled in a way that possible side effects are least likely to occur in periods of competition. Typically, vaccinations are well tolerated by elite athletes, and resulting antibody titers are not different from the general population. Side effects might be reduced by an optimal selection of vaccines and an appropriate technique of administration. Very few discipline-specific considerations apply to an athlete's vaccination schedule mainly from the competition and training pattern as well as from the typical geographical distribution of competitive sites.

  5. Self Hypnosis for Elite Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Colin P.

    A summary of the use of hypnosis in sport (Morgan 1980) has suggested that the evidence in this area is equivocal, particularly in strength, endurance, and psychomotor tasks. However, some experiments have demonstrated the potential use of hypnosis. This paper presents examples of two elite Australian athletes who achieve success using hypnosis or…

  6. Overtraining and elite young athletes.

    PubMed

    Winsley, Richard; Matos, Nuno

    2011-01-01

    In comparison to adults, our knowledge of the overtraining syndrome in elite young athletes is lacking. The evidence indicates an incidence rate of ∼20-30%, with a relatively higher occurrence seen in individual sport athletes, females and those competing at the highest representative levels. The most commonly reported symptoms are similar to those observed in over trained adult athletes: increased perception of effort during exercise, frequent upper respiratory tract infections, muscle soreness, sleep disturbances, loss of appetite, mood disturbances, shortness of temper, decreased interest in training and competition, decreased self-confidence, inability to concentrate. The association between training load and overtraining is unclear, and underlines the importance of taking a holistic approach when trying to treat or prevent overtraining in the young athlete so that both training and non-training stressors are considered. Of particular relevance to the issue of overtraining in the elite young athlete are the development of a unidimensional identity, the lack of autonomy, disempowerment, perfectionist traits, conditional love, and unrealistic expectations. Overtraining syndrome is a complex phenomenon with unique and multiple antecedents for each individual; therefore, an open-minded and comprehensive perspective is needed to successfully treat/prevent this in the young athlete.

  7. Time of Day – Effects on Motor Coordination and Reactive Strength in Elite Athletes and Untrained Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Battaglia, Claudia; Giombini, Arrigo; Piazza, Marina; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Pigozzi, Fabio; Borrione, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: the issue of time-of-day effects on performance is crucial when considering the goal of reaching peak results in sport disciplines. The present study was designed to examine time-of-day effects in adolescents on motor coordination, assessed with Hirtz’s battery and neuromuscular components of strength, evaluated with reactive strength tests. Methods: forty-two elite female gymnasts, aged 13.3 ± 0.5 years (Mean ± SD), were recruited for the study. Fifty healthy female students (aged 12.8 ± 1.7 years) served as the control group. All participants underwent the testing sessions over two days at two different times of day in a randomized order. Results: Oral temperature was measured at the two times of the day and a significant diurnal variation (p < 0.01) in both groups was found. MANOVA revealed significant group differences in the overall tests (p < 0.01). The gymnast group showed no significant differences in the coordination tests with respect to the time of day, but significant differences were observed for reactive strength as assessed with the vertical jump tests (p < 0.01). Gyamnasts attained better results in the evening in the reactive strength tests [flight time (F1.90 = 17.322 p < 0.01) and ground contact time (F1.90 = 8.372; p < 0.01) of the hopping test]. Conclusion: the temperature effect was more evident in the reactive strength tests and orientation test, especially in the gymnast group in which this effect added to their usual training time effect. The time-since-awakening influenced coordination performances in complex tasks more than reaction strength tests in simple tasks. The main outcome of the study was that we did not observe time-of-day effects on coordination skills in elite gymnasts and in untrained adolescents. The time of day in which athletes usually trained these skills could influence these results. Key points The results obtained in this study suggested that the best time to perform a particular task depends

  8. The Chronotype of Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Gregory D.; Halson, Shona L.; Sargent, Charli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were (i) to compare the chronotype distribution of elite athletes to a young adult population and (ii) to determine if there was a tendency for athletes to select and/or participate in sports which suited their chronotype. A total of 114 elite athletes from five sports (cricket, cycling, hockey, soccer and triathlon) participated in this study. The participants’ chronotype, sleepiness, sleep satisfaction and sleep quality were determined using the Horne and Östberg Morningness and Eveningness questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and questions concerning their sleep satisfaction and quality. All questionnaires were administered during a typical training phase that was not in the lead up to competition and/or post competition. No differences between chronotype group for sleepiness, sleep satisfaction or sleep quality were found. There was a significantly higher proportion of triathletes that were morning and intermediate types compared to the control group χ2 (2) = 7.5, p = 0.02. A significant relationship between sport and chronotype group (χ2(4)=15.9, p = 0.04) was observed, with a higher frequency of morning types involved in sports that required morning training. There was a clear indication that athletes tended to select and pursue sports that suited their chronotype. This was evident by the amount of morning types involved in morning sports. Given that athletes are more likely to pursue and excel in sports which suit their chronotype, it is recommended that coaches consider the athlete’s chronotype during selection processes or if possible design and implement changes to training schedules to either suit the athletes’ chronotype or the timing of an upcoming competition. PMID:28031772

  9. Physiological profiles of elite judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Emerson; Del Vecchio, Fabrício B; Matsushigue, Karin A; Artioli, Guilherme G

    2011-02-01

    To be successful in international competitions, judo athletes must achieve an excellent level of physical fitness and physical condition during training. This article reviews the physiological profiles of elite judo athletes from different sex, age and weight categories. Body fat is generally low for these athletes, except for the heavyweight competitors. In general, elite judo athletes presented higher upper body anaerobic power and capacity than non-elite athletes. Lower body dynamic strength seems to provide a distinction between elite and recreational judo players, but not high-level judo players competing for a spot on national teams. Even maximal isometric strength is not a discriminant variable among judo players. However, more studies focusing on isometric strength endurance are warranted. Although aerobic power and capacity are considered relevant to judo performance, the available data do not present differences among judo athletes from different competitive levels. Typical maximal oxygen uptake values are around 50-55 mL/kg/min for male and 40-45 mL/kg/min for female judo athletes. As for other variables, heavyweight competitors presented lower aerobic power values. The typical differences commonly observed between males and females in the general population are also seen in judo athletes when analysing anaerobic power and capacity, aerobic power, and maximal strength and power. However, further research is needed concerning the differences among the seven weight categories in which judo athletes compete.

  10. Scaphoid fracture in the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Mark R; Leibman, Matthew I; Ruchelsman, David E

    2012-08-01

    Scaphoid fracture remains a common, potentially devastating, injury that can impair upper extremity function. Early recognition with proper imaging and treatment provides the best opportunity to heal and return to a normal activity level. Surgical treatment offers the patient a quicker return to the rehabilitation of the extremity and therefore an earlier return to elite play. There is evidence that healing occurs faster if the fractured scaphoid is fixed with internal fixation. Absolute compliance by the athlete and the training program that surrounds the athlete is critical to protect the wrist while maintaining the necessary conditioning of an elite athlete.

  11. Sprinters in the Course of a Marathon: Withdrawal from Elite Competitive Sport in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudrak, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain, using a multi-case study approach, why some young elite athletes, who have shown extraordinary talent in childhood, leave competitive sport in adolescence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five young elite athletes who decided to withdraw from elite sport. Interview data were analyzed using the…

  12. Jumping Together: Apprenticeship Learning among Elite Trampoline Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Ole; Ravn, Susanne; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Elite athletes often take part in group trainings and use teammates as learning resources. Despite this, research on the training and learning of elite athletes tends to characterise this training and learning as primarily individual. Purpose: This study, explores interrelated learning processes among elite athletes by exploring the…

  13. A Career Assistance Program for Elite Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petitpas, Al; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a career assistance program to assist elite athletes (n=142) in coping with the transition out of active sport competition. Uses a lifespan development framework to describe formulation of the program. Presents outline of program and discusses implications for counseling. Notes feedback from participants has been positive and the…

  14. [Iron and performance in elite athletes].

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Elisa; Cristani, Alessandro

    2006-09-01

    The negative relationship between performance and iron deficiency anemia is well known. There is still debate in the literature on the exercise-induced iron loss and if low iron store, even in the absence of frank anemia, can adversely affected performance of elite athletes. We analyse the physiologic changes induced by strong exercise, the diagnostic problems and therapeutic supplementation.

  15. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence. Although, these athletes apparently undergo sufficient physical activity to develop healthy bones, it is possible that other...

  16. Factors that Influence Career Decision-Making among Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Gerard J.; McGregor-Bayne, Heather

    2008-01-01

    A common belief about elite athletes is that they invest so much effort into the pursuit of their athletic careers that they fail to develop good career decision-making skills. Recent findings challenge that belief. The present study investigated career decision-making difficulties among 117 elite Australian athletes. Participants completed…

  17. ADHD and Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Ahsan; Mansour, Miriam; Gross, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the child and adolescent population. It is characterized by impairment in attention/concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, all of which can impact performance of athletes. ADHD treatment within the athletic population is a unique challenge. The research in this field has been relatively limited. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and International Olympic Committee both regulate the use of psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD due to their performance-enhancing effects. In this article, authors have discussed the screening methods, pharmacological treatment, side effects, and behavioral approaches for the treatment of ADHD in adolescent athletes. PMID:24987666

  18. International travel and the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Pipe, Andrew L

    2011-01-01

    International travel is a frequent occurrence in the life of the elite athlete; such travel can pose challenges to the sport medicine practitioner. Travel is also the reality of many recreational level or sub-elite athletes as opportunities for international competition and training proliferate. An appreciation of the range of responsibilities associated with the preparation for and the strategies to facilitate such travel is essential for any physician charged with the care of athletes and teams. An appreciation of (1) the medical and public health challenges associated with competition in a particular setting; (2) the requirements for vaccination and immunization; (3) the strategies for the management of jet lag and climatic or environmental extremes; (4) the range of supplies and equipment necessary for travel to certain locales; (5) the need to ensure the availability of ample familiar and nutritious foods; (6) the potential need for specialty care in strange settings; (7) the management of common travel-associated illness; and (8) the challenges associated with the evacuation of an injured athlete are fundamental to the successful management of international travel involving athletes and teams. The adoption of a methodical approach to pre-trip planning can ensure an enhanced travel experience, illness-free training and competition, and facilitate optimal performance.

  19. Injuries in elite Taekwondo Poomsae athletes.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Ingar, Anas; Jaffery, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Poomsae is the only non-contact and no opponent form of Taekwondo. The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the type and rate of injuries in elite Canadian Poomsae athletes. Strain and joint dysfunction were the most common types of injuries in Poomsae. Lower limb and back were the most common area of injury in females and males respectively. Females with a lower rank in experience level (DAN≤ 3) were more likely to suffer from chronic overuse injuries compared to their male counterparts, who reported more acute injuries. Athletes ≤40 years of age were more prone to acute injuries compared to athletes over 40. As result of reflection on this study a Poomsae Injury Report Form was developed.

  20. Injuries in elite Taekwondo Poomsae athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Ingar, Anas; Jaffery, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Poomsae is the only non-contact and no opponent form of Taekwondo. The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the type and rate of injuries in elite Canadian Poomsae athletes. Strain and joint dysfunction were the most common types of injuries in Poomsae. Lower limb and back were the most common area of injury in females and males respectively. Females with a lower rank in experience level (DAN≤ 3) were more likely to suffer from chronic overuse injuries compared to their male counterparts, who reported more acute injuries. Athletes ≤40 years of age were more prone to acute injuries compared to athletes over 40. As result of reflection on this study a Poomsae Injury Report Form was developed. PMID:28065994

  1. Why young elite athletes fear failure: consequences of failure.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Sam S; Lavallee, David; Spray, Christopher M

    2007-09-01

    Fear of failure can have negative effects on children in achievement settings, affecting many aspects of their lives. Perceiving the consequences of failure to be aversive provides the basis for fear of failure, and the anticipation of a threatening outcome elicits fear. Problems attributed to fear of failure in achievement settings are prevalent. Sport is a popular and significant achievement domain for children and adolescents and there is a lack of research on fear of failure in sport among this age group. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate fear of failure in the sport domain among young elite athletes, and to explore their perceptions of the consequences of failure. Interviews were conducted individually with nine athletes aged 14 - 17 years (5 males, 4 females). Analysis identified and organized perceived consequences of failure into themes and categories. Results revealed that the most commonly perceived aversive consequences of failure were diminished perception of self, no sense of achievement, and the emotional cost of failure. These findings are consistent with those reported in adult population, suggesting the potential for generalizing existing results to young elite athletes.

  2. Moving Elite Athletes Forward: Examining the Status of Secondary School Elite Athlete Programmes and Available Post-School Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study focused specifically on examining the status of and the promotion of two elite athlete programmes (EAPs), the students/elite athlete selection process and available post-school options. The research was guided by Michel Foucault's work in understanding the relationship between power and knowledge. Participants,…

  3. Imaging of muscle injury in the elite athlete

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J C; Mitchell, A W M; Healy, J C

    2012-01-01

    Injuries to muscle in the elite athlete are common and may be responsible for prolonged periods of loss of competitive activity. The implications for the athlete and his/her coach and team may be catastrophic if the injury occurs at a critical time in the athlete's diary. Imaging now plays a crucial role in diagnosis, prognostication and management of athletes with muscle injuries. This article discusses the methods available to clinicians and radiologists that are used to assess skeletal muscle injury. The spectrum of muscle injuries sustained in the elite athlete population is both discussed and illustrated. PMID:22496067

  4. Imaging of muscle injury in the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Lee, J C; Mitchell, A W M; Healy, J C

    2012-08-01

    Injuries to muscle in the elite athlete are common and may be responsible for prolonged periods of loss of competitive activity. The implications for the athlete and his/her coach and team may be catastrophic if the injury occurs at a critical time in the athlete's diary. Imaging now plays a crucial role in diagnosis, prognostication and management of athletes with muscle injuries. This article discusses the methods available to clinicians and radiologists that are used to assess skeletal muscle injury. The spectrum of muscle injuries sustained in the elite athlete population is both discussed and illustrated.

  5. The Academic Achievement of Elite Athletes at Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgakis, Steve; Evans, John Robert; Warwick, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    While sport and student-athletes have featured in the Australian education system since compulsory schooling, there has been no analysis to date of the link between academic achievement and elite student-athletes. However, this is in stark contrast to the United States of America (US), where student-athletes have been the subject of sustained…

  6. Hodgkin's Lymphoma in an elite endurance athlete.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Muser, Klaus; Hirschberger, Barbara; Roecker, Kai; Dickhuth, Hans Herrmann; Pottgiesser, Torben

    2008-03-01

    Cancer is a life-threatening condition. We describe the case of a 22-yr-old world-class endurance athlete who presented with mild local lymphadenopathy but without any systemic complaints or impaired performance. He was subsequently diagnosed with stage III A (S) Hodgkin's lymphoma. A complete physiological workup before the diagnosis revealed high aerobic capacity. Immediately after six courses of escalated BEACOPP chemotherapy in an identical test setting, aerobic capacity was markedly reduced (-42%), mainly because of a decrease in total hemoglobin mass (-37%), despite maintaining a certain amount of endurance training. Other potentially performance-limiting systems such as heart, lung, or aerobic metabolism did not show any signs of impairment. Two months after chemotherapy, the athlete had recovered his hemoglobin mass, and his aerobic performance was almost back to pretherapy levels. This case illustrates that advanced malignancies can be present in elite athletes without affecting performance, and that aerobic capacity can be regained within a short time after systemic chemotherapy.

  7. Physiological left ventricular hypertrophy or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in an elite adolescent athlete: role of detraining in resolving the clinical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Basavarajaiah, S; Wilson, M; Junagde, S; Jackson, G; Whyte, G; Sharma, S

    2006-01-01

    The differentiation of physiological left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) can prove challenging for even the most experienced cardiologists. The case is presented of a 17 year old elite swimmer who had electrocardiographic and echocardiographic features that were highly suggestive of HCM. However, indices of diastolic function were normal and cardiopulmonary exercise testing revealed high peak oxygen consumption in keeping with physiological LVH. To resolve the diagnostic dilemma, the patient underwent detraining for eight weeks, after which, there was complete resolution of the changes seen on electrocardiogram and echocardiogram, indicating physiological LVH rather than HCM. PMID:16864569

  8. Weight-control behaviour and weight-concerns in young elite athletes – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Weight-control behaviour is commonly observed in a wide range of elite sports, especially leanness sports, where control over body weight is crucial for high peak performance. Nonetheless, there is only a fine line between purely functional behaviour and clinically relevant eating disorders. Especially the rapid form of weight manipulation seems to foster later eating disorders. So far, most studies have focussed on adult athletes and concentrated on manifest eating disorders. In contrast, our review concentrates on young athletes and weight-control behaviour as a risk factor for eating disorders. An electronic search according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) Statement was performed using Pubmed, PsychInfo and Spolit. The following search terms were used: weight-control, weight-control behaviour, weight gain, weight loss, pathogenic weight-control behaviour and weight-concerns, each of them combined with elite athlete, young elite athlete, adolescent elite athlete and elite sports. Overall, data are inconsistent. In general, athletes do not seem to be at a higher risk for pathogenic weight concerns and weight-control behaviour. It does seem to be more prevalent in leanness sports, though. There is evidence for pathogenic weight-control behaviour in both genders; male athletes mostly trying to gain weight whereas females emphasise weight reduction. There is not enough data to make predictions about connections with age of onset. Young elite athletes do show weight-control behaviour with varying degrees of frequency and severity. In particular, leanness sports seem to be a risk factor for weight manipulation. Further research is needed for more details and possible connections. PMID:24999399

  9. Weight-control behaviour and weight-concerns in young elite athletes - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Werner, Anne; Thiel, Ansgar; Schneider, Sven; Mayer, Jochen; Giel, Katrin E; Zipfel, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Weight-control behaviour is commonly observed in a wide range of elite sports, especially leanness sports, where control over body weight is crucial for high peak performance. Nonetheless, there is only a fine line between purely functional behaviour and clinically relevant eating disorders. Especially the rapid form of weight manipulation seems to foster later eating disorders. So far, most studies have focussed on adult athletes and concentrated on manifest eating disorders. In contrast, our review concentrates on young athletes and weight-control behaviour as a risk factor for eating disorders. An electronic search according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) Statement was performed using Pubmed, PsychInfo and Spolit. The following search terms were used: weight-control, weight-control behaviour, weight gain, weight loss, pathogenic weight-control behaviour and weight-concerns, each of them combined with elite athlete, young elite athlete, adolescent elite athlete and elite sports. Overall, data are inconsistent. In general, athletes do not seem to be at a higher risk for pathogenic weight concerns and weight-control behaviour. It does seem to be more prevalent in leanness sports, though. There is evidence for pathogenic weight-control behaviour in both genders; male athletes mostly trying to gain weight whereas females emphasise weight reduction. There is not enough data to make predictions about connections with age of onset. Young elite athletes do show weight-control behaviour with varying degrees of frequency and severity. In particular, leanness sports seem to be a risk factor for weight manipulation. Further research is needed for more details and possible connections.

  10. Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure in Japanese elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Chino, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2017-04-01

    Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) is a common measurement of inspiratory muscle strength, which is often used in a variety of exercises to evaluate the effects of inspiratory muscle training. The characteristics of MIP in elite female athletes remain unclear. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of MIP at rest in a variety of sport-specific elite female athletes. We also aimed to clarify if there is a sex difference of MIP in elite athletes. We studied 169 Japanese elite female athletes and 301 Japanese elite male athletes. MIP was assessed using a portable autospirometer with a handheld mouth pressure meter. Female athletes who regularly experienced exercise-induced inspiratory muscle fatigue tended to have higher MIP values. The mean absolute MIP value in females was significantly lower than that in males. However, when this value was expressed relative to body mass, this difference disappeared. Our findings provide essential information for prescribed, sport-specific, inspiratory muscle training in elite female athletes.

  11. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)

  12. Examining elite Parasport athletes with sport involvement and sports equipment.

    PubMed

    Hambrick, Marion E; Hums, Mary A; Bower, Glenna G; Wolff, Eli A

    2015-01-01

    Elite athletes require the most advanced sports equipment to maintain their competitive edge, but manufacturers cannot always satisfy these athletes' specific equipment needs. Sport involvement can influence sports-equipment selections and is described as the process by which individuals rely on attitudes and belief systems to make sports-related consumption decisions. This study involved semistructured interviews with 5 elite Parasport athletes to identify and analyze the role of sport involvement in their selection of sports equipment. The results revealed that the athletes identified product limitations, created a collaborative environment, and promoted a culture of innovation to develop new sports products and address existing limitations. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  13. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes.

    PubMed

    Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries.

  14. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries. PMID:26258134

  15. The coaching preferences of elite athletes competing at Universiade '83.

    PubMed

    Terry, P C

    1984-12-01

    The study investigated the coaching preferences of 95 male and 65 female elite athletes competing at Universiade '83 (Edmonton, Canada). Preferred coaching behaviour (PCB) was measured using a version of the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). Preference scores were analyzed on the basis of sex, age, nationality, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that males prefer significantly more Autocratic behaviour than females (p = .039). Also, athletes in team sports prefer significantly more Training behaviour (p = .001), Autocratic behaviour (p less than .001), and Rewarding behaviour (p = .017), and significantly less Democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and Social Support behaviour (p = .002) than athletes in individual sports. No significant differences in PCB attributable to the age or nationally of the athlete were found. In addition, data collected in a previous study (Terry and Howe, 1984), which examined the PCB of 'club' athletes, was included to facilitate a comparison of club v elite athletes. A MANOVA showed that elite athletes prefer significantly more Democratic behaviour (p = .01) and Social Support behaviour (p = .001), and significantly less Rewarding behaviour (p = .01) than athletes at a 'club' level. Although differences between subject groups were found, it can be concluded that athletes generally tend to favour coaches who "often" display Training behaviour and Rewarding behaviour, "occasionally" display Democratic behaviour and Social Support behaviour, and "seldom" display Autocratic behaviour.

  16. Factors impacting participation of European elite deaf athletes in sport.

    PubMed

    Kurková, Petra; Válková, Hana; Scheetz, Nanci

    2011-03-01

    This study examine 53 European elite deaf athletes for their family's hearing status, use of hearing aids, communication preference, education in integrated or segregated settings, family members' encouragement for participation in sports, coach preference (hearing or deaf), and conditions for competitive events with deaf or hearing athletes. These data were gathered through semi-structured interviews administered in the athlete's native language. Deaf athletes reported that when given the opportunity to compete with hearing athletes, it enhanced their opportunity for competition. Participating in sports with hearing athletes played an important role in the integration of deaf athletes into mainstream society. If adaptations to communication can be made in these integrated settings, the ability of deaf athletes to participate in such settings will increase.

  17. Bone Mineral Density in Elite DanceSport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kruusamäe, Helena; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    This study compared bone mineral density (BMD) variables of female and male elite dancesport athletes with untrained control subjects of the same gender. Sixty-six elite dancesport athletes (M 33, F 33) and 64 untrained controls (M 34, F 31) participated in this study. Elite dancesport athletes were dancing couples competing at the international level. Whole-body bone mineral content and whole-body, forearm, lumbar-spine, and femoral-neck BMD, as well as whole-body fat mass and fat free mass, were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no differences (p>0.05) in height and body mass between dancers and controls of the same gender, but percent body fat was lower (p<0.05) in dancers of both genders than in untrained controls. Elite dancesport athletes had significantly higher femoral-neck BMD, and male dancers also higher whole-body BMD values when compared with controls of the same gender. All other measured bone mineral values did not differ between the groups of the same gender. In addition, training experience was positively correlated with whole-body BMD (r=0.27; p<0.05) in dancesport athletes. Based on this study, it can be concluded that elite dancesport athletes have higher BMD values at the weight-bearing site (femoral-neck BMD), while other measured areas and whole-body bone mineral values do not differ from the corresponding values of healthy sedentary controls of the same gender. According to our results, low BMD is not an issue for elite female dancesport athletes, despite their lower percent body fat values.

  18. Mechanical loading with or without weight-bearing activity: influence on bone strength index in elite female adolescent athletes engaged in water polo, gymnastics, and track-and-field.

    PubMed

    Greene, David A; Naughton, Geraldine A; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Moresi, Mark; Ducher, Gaele

    2012-09-01

    Bone health is considered not to benefit from water-based sports because of their weight-supported nature, but available evidence primarily relies on DXA technology. Our purpose was to investigate musculoskeletal health in the upper and lower body in well-trained adolescent female athletes using pQCT and compare these athletes with less-active, age- and sex-matched peers. Bone mineral content, volumetric cortical and trabecular BMD, total and cortical area, and bone strength index were assessed at the distal and proximal tibia and radius in four groups of adolescent females (mean age, 14.9 years) including water polo players (n = 30), gymnasts (n = 25), track-and-field athletes (n = 34), and nonactive controls (n = 28). Water polo players did not show any benefit in bone strength index or muscle size in the lower leg when compared with controls. In contrast, gymnasts showed 60.1 % and 53.4 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, than nonactive females (p < 0.05). Similarly, track-and-field athletes displayed 33.9 % and 14.7 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, compared with controls (p < 0.05). In the upper body, water polo players had 31.9 % greater bone strength index at the distal radius, but not the radial shaft, and 15.2 % larger forearm muscle cross-sectional area than controls (p < 0.05). The greatest musculoskeletal benefits in the upper body were found in gymnasts. In conclusion, despite training at an elite level, female water polo players did not show any benefits in musculoskeletal health in the lower leg and only limited benefits in the upper body when compared with nonactive girls.

  19. Management of syndesmosis injuries in the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Mak, May Fong; Gartner, Louise; Pearce, Christopher J

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the basics and evidence base thus far on syndesmosis injuries, focusing on its management in the elite sporting population. A syndesmosis injury or "high ankle sprain" is a significant injury, especially in the elite athlete. Among all ankle sprains, the syndesmotic injury is most predictive of persistent symptoms in the athletic population. Late diagnosis of unstable syndesmosis injuries leads to a poor outcome and delayed return to sports. A high index of suspicion and an understanding of the mechanism of injury is required to ensure an early diagnosis. Incomplete/inaccurate reduction leads to a poor outcome.

  20. Sudden cardiac death in the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Del Rio-santiago, Valentín; Santiago Trinidad, Ricardo; Vicenty Rivera, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a long -recognized disease that occurs rarely in trained athletes. Most affected athletes have no symptoms before death. Many attempts have been made to detect those at risk for SCD before athletic participation. However, its overall clinical advantages remain questionable in medical literature. This article will review cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic causes of SCD as well as discuss how this entity affects those athletes older than 35 years.

  1. MtDNA haplogroups and elite Korean athlete status.

    PubMed

    Kim, K C; Cho, H I; Kim, W

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation has recently been suggested to have an association with athletic performance or physical endurance. Since mtDNA is haploid and lacks recombination, specific mutations in the mtDNA genome associated with human exercise tolerance or intolerance arise and remain in particular genetic backgrounds referred to as haplogroups. To assess the possible contribution of mtDNA haplogroup-specific variants to differences in elite athletic performance, we performed a population-based study of 152 Korean elite athletes [77 sprint/power athletes (SPA) and 75 endurance/middle-power athletes (EMA)] and 265 non-athletic controls (CON). The overall haplogroup distribution of EMA differed significantly from CON (p<0.01), but that of SPA did not. The EMA have an excess of haplogroups M* (OR 4.38, 95% CI 1.63-11.79, p=0.003) and N9 (OR 2.32, 95% CI 0.92-5.81, p=0.042), but a dearth of haplogroup B (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.09-0.75, p=0.003) compared with the CON. Thus, our data imply that specific mtDNA lineages may provide a significant effect on elite Korean endurance status, although functional studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to further substantiate these findings.

  2. Young elite athletes and social support: coping with competitive and organizational stress in "Olympic" competition.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, E; Roberts, G C

    2010-08-01

    Elite adolescent sport is a relatively unexplored research field. The purpose of this investigation was to examine how the Norwegian Olympic Youth Team (N=29) experienced competitive and organizational stress during the European Youth Olympic Festival in July 2007 and how they coped with the stressors. Participants were aged 14-17 and competed in handball, track and field, swimming, and judo. We used a qualitative methodology with interviews and open-ended questionnaires. Qualitative content analyses revealed that the athletes experienced competitive stressors because of the size and importance of the competition, and organizational stressors (e.g., housing, lining up for food, and transportation) exacerbated by the extreme heat during the Festival. The elite competitive experience was novel to all and overwhelming for some of the more "inexperienced" athletes. The athletes used cognitive coping strategies to some extent in addition to relying on different types of social support. The findings revealed the need for social support for adolescent athletes, and underlined the importance of a good coach-athlete relationship in order to perform well and enjoy the competitive experience.

  3. What Performance Characteristics Determine Elite Versus Nonelite Athletes in the Same Sport?

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Lehecka, B.J.; Naylor, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Context: There are significant data comparing elite and nonelite athletes in anaerobic field and court sports as well as endurance sports. This review delineates specific performance characteristics in the elite athlete and may help guide rehabilitation. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from April 1982 to April 2012 was undertaken for articles written in English. Additional references were accrued from reference lists of research articles. Results: In the anaerobic athlete, maximal power production was consistently correlated to elite performance. Elite performance in the endurance athlete is more ambiguous, however, and appears to be related to the dependent variable investigated in each individual study. Conclusion: In anaerobic field and court sport athletes, maximal power output is most predictive of elite performance. In the endurance athlete, however, it is not as clear. Elite endurance athletes consistently test higher than nonelite athletes in running economy, anaerobic threshold, and VO2max. PMID:24427430

  4. Heart rate recovery in elite athletes: the impact of age and exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Suzic Lazic, Jelena; Dekleva, Milica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Leischik, Roman; Suzic, Slavica; Radovanovic, Dragan; Djuric, Biljana; Nesic, Dejan; Lazic, Milivoje; Mazic, Sanja

    2017-03-01

    There is compelling evidence that postexercise heart rate recovery (HRR) is a valid indicator of sympaticovagal balance. It is also used in prescription and monitoring of athletic training. The purpose of our study was to determine HRR after maximal exercise among elite athletes with respect to age. A total of 274 elite male Caucasian athletes were randomly selected from the larger sample and divided into two groups: adolescent (group Y) and adult athletes (≥18 years; group A). They performed maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a treadmill. Heart rate recovery was calculated as the rate of decline of HR from peak exercise to rates 1, 2 and 3 min after cessation of exercise (HRR1, HRR2 and HRR3). A significantly higher HRR1 was found in group A (29·5 ± 15·6 versus 22·4 ± 10·8, P<0·001), but HRR3 was higher in group Y (82·7 ± 10·2 versus 79·9 ± 12·25; P = 0·04). Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis showed that, among all subjects, the HRR1 alone was independently associated with age (P<0·001). The maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) was in a negative relationship with HRR1 and in a positive one with HRR3 (P<0·05) with respect to all athletes. The HRR during 3 min postexercise should be reported for the purpose of better assessing functional adaptation to exercise among elite athletes as well as the age-associated differences in recovery. Higher values of HRR1 should be expected in older athletes, and HRR3 could be used as an index of aerobic capacity, irrespective of age.

  5. Psychological effects of chronic injury in elite athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Shuer, M L; Dietrich, M S

    1997-01-01

    Many athletes train in a constant state of pain or injury while meeting the demands of an elite level program. It is hypothesized that the emotional distress experienced by athletes with chronic injuries is not inconsequential. A self-report battery, the Impact of Event Scale, was administered to 280 inter-collegiate athletes at a division I institution in an attempt to examine their response to chronic injury. Of the 280, 134 (48%) had been injured by study definition, with 117 (42%) meeting the criteria for chronic injury. Athletes with chronic injury scored on the Intrusion subscale of the Impact of Event Scale in the range of those who had experienced natural disasters, but scored higher (P < .05) on the Avoidance/Denial subscale. Their Avoidance subscale scores were similar to those of a group of orthopedic patients who required hospital admission with surgical fixation. Female athletes' Avoidance scores were significantly higher than those of their male peers (P < .05), but no gender differences were seen in intrusive thoughts. Subsets of athletes defined by the duration of injury showed no significant differences on subscale scores. It appears extraordinary that athletes should score in the realm of groups traumatized by natural disasters in intrusive thought and higher in avoidance thought when referring to their chronic injury. Although some attention has been focused on psychiatric intervention for acutely injured athletes or those who have undergone surgical treatment, the psychological needs of athletes struggling with chronic "minor" injuries also appear to merit consideration. Images Figure 1. PMID:9109326

  6. Managing pressure: patterns of appraisals and coping strategies of non-elite and elite athletes during competition.

    PubMed

    Calmeiro, Luis; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Eccles, David William

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare moment-to-moment appraisals and coping strategies of 4 non-elite and 2 elite male trap shooters during competitions and in particular during periods of competition perceived as critical to performance. Appraisals and coping patterns of trap shooters were captured via verbal reports of thinking provided between sets of shots during major competitions. Verbal reports were coded according to an appraisal and coping typology. Coded data as well as shooting performance data were subjected to a sequential analysis of probabilities of pairs of events. Fewer reports of negative appraisals (NEGAs) and more frequent reports of problem-focused coping (PFC) were observed among both elite athletes compared to non-elite athletes. After making a NEGA, non-elite shooters often progressed to the next target without attempting to cope, whereas elite shooters used both PFC and emotion-focused coping (EFC) before proceeding to the next target. After missing a target, the non-elite athletes used more EFC than expected. These results indicate that elite athletes are more likely to cope with NEGAs than non-elite athletes using a wider variety of coping strategies. Athletes might benefit from increased awareness of the potentially detrimental impact of NEGAs on performance and by integrating coping strategies within preparatory routines.

  7. Video Q&A: State-of-the-art therapy for the elite and non-elite athlete: an interview with Mike Carmont

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this video Q&A, Mr Mike Carmont answers questions about state-of-the-art treatments for elite athletes, and the progress and challenges behind translating these into successful therapies for the non-elite athlete. PMID:24438069

  8. Video Q&A: state-of-the-art therapy for the elite and non-elite athlete: an interview with Mike Carmont.

    PubMed

    Carmont, Michael R

    2014-01-17

    In this video Q&A, Mr Mike Carmont answers questions about state-of-the-art treatments for elite athletes, and the progress and challenges behind translating these into successful therapies for the non-elite athlete.

  9. Athletic Involvement and Adolescent Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Merrill J.; Barnes, Grace M.; Sabo, Don; Farrell, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Athough conventional wisdom suggests that organized sport deters delinquency by building character, structuring adolescents’ time, and providing incentives for socially approved behavior, the empirical evidence to date has been mixed. Based on a sample of approximately 600 Western New York adolescents, the present study examined how self-reported jock identity, school athlete status, and frequency of athletic activity differentially influenced a range of delinquent behaviors. Neither athlete status nor frequency of athletic activity predicted these behaviors; however, jock identity was associated with significantly more incidents of delinquency. This finding was robust across both gender and race. Follow-up analyses indicated that jock identity facilitated both minor and major delinquency, with major delinquency effects for white but not black adolescents. PMID:18079971

  10. Asymmetry of Muscle Strength in Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drid, Patrik; Drapsin, Miodrag; Trivic, Tatjana; Lukac, Damir; Obadov, Slavko; Milosevic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    "Study aim": To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. "Material and methods": Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength…

  11. The elite athlete - assessing body shape, size, proportion and composition.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D A; Ackland, T R; Schreiner, A B

    1995-03-01

    In the quest to optimize performance of the elite athlete the sport scientist has sought to determine the ideal physique for a given sport or event. For some sports, specific structural characteristics offer definite performance advantages; for example in rowing, in addition to height, a large arm span has been identified as important. In other sports. such as long distance running, low levels of adiposity or 'fatness' appear to be linked with faster running times. There are four areas where appraisal of the athlete's physique can provide useful information: (1) identification of talented athletes; (2) to assess and monitor the growing athlete; (3) to monitor training and performance; and (4) to determine 'race weight' in weight-category sports. As a research tool a particular method must be reliable and valid. Other considerations include how expensive the method is, if it is suitable for a field situation and if large amounts of data on a number of subjects can be collected quickly. The method should be safe for both the athlete and the tester and provide useful feedback for the athlete or coach. Anthropometry, with training is able to fulfil most of these criteria and is the most widely used method of physique assessment in sports science. Large anthropometric data bases have been collected on elite athletes at Olympic games and world championships according to a standard protocol. Kinanthropometry, which has developed from anthropometry, is concerned with measurement and evaluation of different aspects of human movement and individual variation in body shape, size, proportion and composition. For the assessment of adiposity a sum of skinfolds, usually over six sites, is most commonly used rather than percentage body fat formulae. Muscle mass can be assessed indirectly through girth and corrected girth measurements. Limb lengths and breadths are used to assess skeletal structure and proportional differences in limb size. The anthropometric methods most commonly

  12. Relationships between injury and success in elite Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate and type of injury in elite Canadian Taekwondo athletes, before and during competition and to investigate the relationship between past injuries, injuries during competition and success. This retrospective case-series study incorporated Taekwondo injuries sustained by 75 male and female elite Canadian Taekwondo athletes over 10 years and its relationship to athletes' success by means of gaining medals during competition. A logistic regression model (using the Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) method) was used to investigate the relationship between injuries and success. Injury rate was associated with performance after holding variables constant (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.124, P = 0.039). Moreover, with each additional injury per match, competitors were 88% (1-0.124) less likely to win a medal. Although not statistically significant, additional injuries prior to competition were associated with a 30% increase in medal prevalence (OR = 1.299, P = 0.203). When comparing athletes (gender, tournament difficulty, injury variables), a competitor who is one year older is 10% less likely to medal (OR = 0.897, P = 0.068). When an additional injury occurred during competition, the athlete was 88% less likely to win a medal. Prevention, correct diagnosis, and immediate therapeutic intervention by qualified health care providers are important.

  13. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders among Male Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    PUSTIVŠEK, Suzana; HADŽIĆ, Vedran; DERVIŠEVIĆ, Edvin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eating disorders (ED) are an important and increasing problem in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the risk factors and the prevalence of risk for ED among male adolescent elite athletes and nonathletic controls. Differences between male athletes competing in aerobic, anaerobic and aerobic-anaerobic sports were examined as well. Methods This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted on 351 adolescents (athletes n = 228; controls n = 123). All participants were aged 15–17 at the time of measuring. Risk for ED was determined using a SCOFF questionnaire. Results The overall prevalence of the risk for ED in male adolescents was 24.8%, with no significant differences among athletes and controls or different subgroups of athletes (p>0.05), although the highest prevalence (37.2%) was registered in aerobic subgroup of athletes. Higher number of attempts to lose weight was associated with increased risk of ED in each group (athletes and controls). Other predictors referred to lack of breakfast and body composition in aerobic subgroup of athletes and number of meals and training frequency in anaerobic subgroup. The most common reasons for dieting were improvement of sport results (19.6–44.2%) and better self-esteem (41.5%) in athletes and controls respectively. Conclusions Participation in the competitive sport itself is not associated with the increased risk for ED. It seems that risk factors for ED for adolescent athletes competing in aerobic and anaerobic sports represent a subject that deserves consideration and further investigation in the future. PMID:27646623

  14. Air quality and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth W; Sue-Chu, Malcolm

    2013-08-01

    A higher prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway remodeling, and asthma has been identified among athletes who compete and train in environmental conditions of cold dry air and/or high air pollution. Repeated long-duration exposure to cold/dry air at high minute ventilation rates can cause airway damage. Competition or training at venues close to busy roadways, or in indoor ice arenas or chlorinated swimming pools, harbors a risk for acute and chronic airway disorders from high pollutant exposure. This article discusses the effects of these harsh environments on the airways, and summarizes potential mechanisms and prevalence of airway disorders in elite athletes.

  15. Osteoporotic fracture in an elite male Kenyan athlete.

    PubMed

    Pollock, N; Hamilton, B

    2008-12-01

    An elite Kenyan runner presented with a tibial fracture sustained during an international cross-country race. There was no clear history of symptoms suggestive of preceding overload and no radiological features of stress fracture. He was found to have sustained an osteoporotic, insufficiency fracture. There are no previous case reports of an osteoporotic fracture in a male athlete. Possible aetiologies and directions for future investigation are presented.

  16. A case study of virilizing adrenal tumor in an adolescent female elite tennis player--insight into the use of anabolic steroids in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Eliakim, Alon; Cale-Benzoor, Mia; Klinger-Cantor, Beatrice; Freud, Enrique; Nemet, Dan; Feigin, Elad; Weintrob, Neomi

    2011-01-01

    A 14-year-old Caucasian girl was referred to the endocrine clinic for evaluation of voice deepening, facial hirsutism, and acne starting 2 years previously. She had been a competitive tennis player since age 7 years, practicing for 4-6 hours daily. On physical examination she was noticed to have a masculine appearance with mild facial acne and moderate hirsutism. Tanner stage was 1 for breast tissue and 5 for pubic hair. Her androgen levels (testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) were extremely elevated. Adrenal ultrasonography revealed a round left 4.6 × 5.3-cm adrenal mass. Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed. The histologic findings were compatible with a benign adrenocortical tumor. Postoperatively, androgen levels dropped to within the normal range. Breast development proceeded normally, menarche occurred 2 months after tumor resection, and menses has been regular since then. Muscle strength of the dominant and nondominant upper and lower extremities was measured 1 month before surgery and 1 year later, using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex Systems II, Biodex, Shirley, NY, USA). There was no significant decrease in overall muscle strength after removal of the virilizing tumor and the marked drop in circulating androgens. In addition, the patient maintained her age category, number 1, national tennis ranking. The results suggest that even extremely high levels of tumor-related circulating androgens had no evident effect on muscle strength and competitive performance in a female adolescent tennis player. The lack of beneficial effect on performance in adolescents, combined with the potentially hazardous side effects of anabolic steroids, suggests that teenage athletes should avoid their use.

  17. Neural processes distinguishing elite from expert and novice athletes.

    PubMed

    Callan, Daniel E; Naito, Eiichi

    2014-12-01

    This commentary builds on a companion article in which Kim et al compare brain activation in elite, expert, and novice archers during a simulated target aiming task (Kim et al. 2014. Cogn Behav Neurol. 27:173-182). With the archery study as our starting point, we address 4 neural processes that may be responsible in general for elite athletes' superior performance over experts and novices: neural efficiency, cortical expansion, specialized processes, and internal models. In Kim et al's study, the elite archers' brains showed more activity in the supplementary motor area and the cerebellum than those of the novices and experts, and showed minimal widespread activity, especially in frontal areas involved with executive control. Kim et al's results are consistent with the idea of specialized neural processes that help coordinate motor planning and control. As athletes become more skilled, these processes may mediate the reduction in widespread activity in regions mapping executive control, and may produce a shift toward more automated processing. Kim et al's finding that activity in the cerebellum rose with increasing skill is consistent both with expansion of the finger representational area in the cerebellum and with internal models that simulate how archers manipulate the bow and arrow when aiming. Kim et al prepare the way for testing of neuromodulation techniques to improve athletic performance, refine highly technical job skills, and rehabilitate patients.

  18. White matter plasticity in the cerebellum of elite basketball athletes

    PubMed Central

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Ye Na; Kwon, Soonwook; Lee, Nam Joon

    2015-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies indicate that learning a novel motor skill induces plastic changes in the brain structures of both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) that are associated with a specific practice. We previously reported an increased volume of vermian lobules VI-VII (declive, folium, and tuber) in elite basketball athletes who require coordination for dribbling and shooting a ball, which awakened the central role of the cerebellum in motor coordination. However, the precise factor contributing to the increased volume was not determined. In the present study, we compared the volumes of the GM and WM in the sub-regions of the cerebellar vermis based on manual voxel analysis with the ImageJ program. We found significantly larger WM volumes of vermian lobules VI-VII (declive, folium, and tuber) in elite basketball athletes in response to long-term intensive motor learning. We suggest that the larger WM volumes of this region in elite basketball athletes represent a motor learning-induced plastic change, and that the WM of this region likely plays a critical role in coordination. This finding will contribute to gaining a deeper understanding of motor learning-evoked WM plasticity. PMID:26770877

  19. Ultrasound characteristics of the patellar and quadriceps tendons among young elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Visnes, H; Tegnander, A; Bahr, R

    2015-04-01

    Tendons adapt in response to sports-specific loading, but sometimes develop tendinopathy. If the presence of ultrasound changes like hypoechoic areas and neovascularization in asymptomatic tendons precede (and predict) future tendon problems is unknown. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the relationship between the development of ultrasound changes in the patellar and quadriceps tendons and symptoms of jumper's knee, as well to examine the medium-term effects of intensive training on tendon thickness among adolescent athletes. Elite junior volleyball athletes were followed with semi-annual ultrasound and clinical examinations (average follow-up: 1.7 years). Of the 141 asymptomatic athletes included, 22 athletes (35 patellar tendons) developed jumper's knee. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, a baseline finding of a hypoechoic tendon area (odds ratio 3.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 9.2) increased the risk of developing symptoms of jumper's knee. Patellar tendon thickness among healthy athletes did not change (Wilk's lambda, P = 0.07) while quadriceps tendon thickness increased (P = 0.001). In conclusion, ultrasound changes at baseline were risk factors for developing symptoms of jumper's knee. Also, among healthy athletes, we observed a 7-11% increase in quadriceps tendon thickness, while there was no increase in patellar tendon thickness.

  20. Athlete burnout in elite sport: a self-determination perspective.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, Chris; Hodge, Ken; Rose, Elaine

    2009-06-01

    Using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) as the theoretical framework, we examined potential antecedents of athlete burnout in 201 elite Canadian athletes (121 females, 80 males; mean age 22.9 years). Employing a cross-sectional design, our primary aims were to investigate the relationships between behavioural regulations and athlete burnout and to examine whether self-determined motivation mediated relationships between basic needs satisfaction and athlete burnout. Our self-determination theory-derived hypotheses were largely supported. Relationships among athlete burnout and behavioural regulations mostly varied according to their rank on the self-determination continuum, with less self-determined motives showing positive associations and more self-determined motives showing negative correlations with burnout. The basic needs of competence and autonomy, plus self-determined motivation, accounted for significant amounts of variance in athlete burnout symptoms (exhaustion, R(2) = 0.31; devaluation, R(2) = 0.49; reduced accomplishment, R(2) = 0.61; global burnout, R(2) = 0.74). Self-determined motivation fully mediated the relationships that competence and autonomy had with exhaustion. Analyses showed indirect relationships between these two needs and devaluation, through their associations with self-determined motivation. Motivation partially mediated the needs-reduced sense of accomplishment relationships, but the direct effects were more prominent than the indirect effects.

  1. Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep.

    PubMed

    Halson, Shona L

    2014-05-01

    Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, changes in glucose metabolism and neuroendocrine function as a result of chronic, partial sleep deprivation may result in alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, appetite, food intake and protein synthesis. These factors can ultimately have a negative influence on an athlete's nutritional, metabolic and endocrine status and hence potentially reduce athletic performance. Research has identified a number of neurotransmitters associated with the sleep-wake cycle. These include serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, cholinergic, galanin, noradrenaline, and histamine. Therefore, nutritional interventions that may act on these neurotransmitters in the brain may also influence sleep. Carbohydrate, tryptophan, valerian, melatonin and other nutritional interventions have been investigated as possible sleep inducers and represent promising potential interventions. In this review, the factors influencing sleep quality and quantity in athletic populations are examined and the potential impact of nutritional interventions is considered. While there is some research investigating the effects of nutritional interventions on sleep, future research may highlight the importance of nutritional and dietary interventions to enhance sleep.

  2. Elite athletes: is survival shortened in boxers?

    PubMed

    Bianco, M; Fabbricatore, C; Sanna, N; Fabiano, C; Palmieri, V; Zeppilli, P

    2007-08-01

    Moderate exercise and intense physical training are associated with increased life expectancy (LE). Boxing is characterized by intentional and repetitive head blows, sometimes causing brain injury, possibly reducing LE. We examined a sample of male athletes born between 1860 and 1930 selected from the international "hall of fame" inductees in baseball (n = 154), ice hockey (n = 130), tennis (n = 83), football (n = 81), boxing (n = 81), track and field (n = 59), basketball (n = 58), swimming (n = 37) and wrestling (n = 32). In boxing, we analyzed the number of disputed bouts/rounds and career records. Sports were also analyzed according to physiological demand and occurrence and kind of contact (intentional, unintentional). The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to compare survival curves (significance: p athletes is unaffected by the type of discipline, and not related to physiological demand and intentional contact.

  3. Perfectionism and athlete burnout in junior elite athletes: the mediating role of coping tendencies.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew P; Hall, Howard K; Appleton, Paul R

    2010-07-01

    Recent research indicates that some dimensions of perfectionism are positively related to athlete burnout, whereas others are negatively related to athlete burnout. The divergent relationship between these dimensions of perfectionism and athlete burnout may be explained by different coping tendencies. The present investigation examined whether different coping tendencies mediate the relationship between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout. Two-hundred and six junior elite athletes (M age=15.15 years, SD=1.88 years, range=11-22 years) completed measures of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism, coping tendencies, and athlete burnout. Structural equation modeling indicated that the relationship between dimensions of perfectionism and athlete burnout was mediated by different coping tendencies. Higher levels of socially prescribed perfectionism was related to higher levels of avoidant coping which, in turn, was related to higher levels of athlete burnout. In contrast, higher levels of self-oriented perfectionism was related to higher levels of problem-focused coping and lower levels of avoidant coping which, in turn, was related to lower levels of athlete burnout. The findings suggest that different coping tendencies may underpin the divergent relationship between self-oriented and socially prescribed dimensions of perfectionism and athlete burnout.

  4. Sport-specific influences on respiratory patterns in elite athletes

    PubMed Central

    Durmic, Tijana; Lazovic, Biljana; Djelic, Marina; Lazic, Jelena Suzic; Zikic, Dejan; Zugic, Vladimir; Dekleva, Milica; Mazic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in lung function among sports that are of a similar nature and to determine which anthropometric/demographic characteristics correlate with lung volumes and flows. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving elite male athletes (N = 150; mean age, 21 ± 4 years) engaging in one of four different sports, classified according to the type and intensity of exercise involved. All athletes underwent full anthropometric assessment and pulmonary function testing (spirometry). RESULTS: Across all age groups and sport types, the elite athletes showed spirometric values that were significantly higher than the reference values. We found that the values for FVC, FEV1, vital capacity, and maximal voluntary ventilation were higher in water polo players than in players of the other sports evaluated (p < 0.001). In addition, PEF was significantly higher in basketball players than in handball players (p < 0.001). Most anthropometric/demographic parameters correlated significantly with the spirometric parameters evaluated. We found that BMI correlated positively with all of the spirometric parameters evaluated (p < 0.001), the strongest of those correlations being between BMI and maximal voluntary ventilation (r = 0.46; p < 0.001). Conversely, the percentage of body fat correlated negatively with all of the spirometric parameters evaluated, correlating most significantly with FEV1 (r = −0.386; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the type of sport played has a significant impact on the physiological adaptation of the respiratory system. That knowledge is particularly important when athletes present with respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea, cough, and wheezing. Because sports medicine physicians use predicted (reference) values for spirometric parameters, the risk that the severity of restrictive disease or airway obstruction will be underestimated might be greater for athletes. PMID:26785960

  5. High-intensity and resistance training and elite young athletes.

    PubMed

    Ratel, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Although in the past resistance and high-intensity exercise training among young children was the subject of numerous controversies, it is now well-documented that this training mode is a safe and effective means of developing maximal strength, maximal power output and athletic performance in youth, provided that exercises are performed with appropriate supervision and precautions. Muscular strength and power output values measured from vertical jump and Wingate anaerobic tests are higher in elite than in non-elite young athletes and normal children, and the specific training effects on maximal power output normalised for body size are clearly more distinct before puberty. At present, there is no scientific evidence to support the view that high-intensity and/or resistance training might hinder growth and maturation in young children. Pre-pubertal growth is not adversely affected by sport at a competitive level and anthropometric factors are of importance for choice of sport in children. However, coaches, teachers and parents should be aware that unsupervised high-intensity and resistance training programmes involving maximal loads or too frequently repeated resistance exercises increase the risk of injury. Resistance training alone is an effective additional means of developing athletic performance throughout planned youth sports training programmes. Strategies for enhancing the effectiveness and safety of youth resistance and high-intensity exercise training are discussed in this chapter.

  6. The Academic Achievement of Elite Athletes at an Australian University: Debunking the Dumb Jock Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgakis, Steve; Wilson, Rachel; Ferguson, Jamaya

    2014-01-01

    Elite athletes and their academic achievement in higher education have long been subject to considerable debate within North American scholarship. This interest proliferated especially after the release of the Knight Report (2001), which, amongst other findings, revealed a clear negative link between elite athletes and their academic achievement.…

  7. Structure of Physical Self-Concept: Elite Athletes and Physical Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) was administered to 1,514 elite athletes and nonelite high school students. Physical self-concept was higher for the elite athletes, but gender differences were smaller in this group. Results support the usefulness of the PSDQ and extend understanding of self-concept in school settings. (SLD)

  8. Coaches' Coaching Competence in Relation to Athletes' Perceived Progress in Elite Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, Frode; Federici, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at whether higher levels of perceived coaching competencies focusing on relational issues, were associated with higher satisfaction among elite athletes with their progress in sport. In order to explore this, we investigated elite athletes' perceptions of their coaches' coaching competence (CCS) and how these perceptions related…

  9. Autonomic nervous system activities during motor imagery in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Kazuo; Maeshima, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI), a mental simulation of voluntary motor actions, has been used as a training method for athletes for many years. It is possible that MI techniques might similarly be useful as part of rehabilitative strategies to help people regain skills lost as a consequence of diseases or stroke. Mental activity and stress induce several different autonomic responses as part of the behavioral response to movement (e.g., motor anticipation) and as part of the central planning and preprogramming of movement. However, the interrelationships between MI, the autonomic responses, and the motor system have not yet been worked out. The authors compare a number of autonomic responses (respiration, heart rate, electro skin resistance) and motoneuron excitability (soleus H-reflex) in elite and nonelite speed skaters during MI. In contrast to the nonelite athletes, MI of elite speed skaters is characterized by larger changes in heart rate and respiration, a greater reliance on an internal perspective for MI, a more vivid MI, a more accurate correspondence between the MI and actual race times, and decreased motoneuron excitability. Two observations suggest that the changes in the autonomic responses and motoneuron excitability for the elite speed skaters are related to the effects of central motor programming: (1) there was no correlation between the autonomic responses for MI and those recorded during mental arithmetic; and (2) mental arithmetic did not significantly alter motoneuron activity. It is suggested that in elite speed skaters, the descending neural mechanisms that reduce motoneuron excitability are activated even when full, vivid MI is performed internally. These inhibitory responses of the motor system may enhance actual motor performance under conditions of remarkably high mental stress, such as that which occurs in the Olympic games.

  10. The Elite Athlete and Strenuous Exercise in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pivarnik, James M; Szymanski, Linda M; Conway, Michelle R

    2016-09-01

    Highly trained women continue to exercise during pregnancy, but there is little information available to guide them, and their health care providers, in how to maximize performance without jeopardizing the maternal-fetal unit. Available evidence focusing on average women who perform regular vigorous exercise suggests that this activity is helpful in preventing several maladies of pregnancy, with little to no evidence of harm. However, some studies have shown that there may be a limit to how intense an elite performer should exercise during pregnancy. Health care providers should monitor these women athletes carefully, to build trust and understanding.

  11. Osteitis pubis in elite athletes: Diagnostic and therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    Angoules, Antonios G

    2015-01-01

    Osteitis pubis (OP) is a debilitating overuse syndrome characterizing by pelvic pain and local tenderness over the pubic symphysis commonly encountered in athletes often involved in kicking, twisting and cutting activities in sports such as soccer and rugby and to a lesser degree distance running. It is a common source of groin pain in elite athletes attributable to pubis sympysis instability as the result of microtrauma caused by repetitive muscle strains on pubic bones. Diagnosis is based mainly on detailed sports history and a meticulous clinical examination, although occasionally is difficult to distinguish this nosological entity from other pathologies affecting the involved area which may occur concomitantly in the same patient. Radiologic examinations such as plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging and 3 phase bone isotope scanning may be helpful to differentiate from other clinical entities with similar clinical presentation. Most cases respond well to conservative treatment which includes several physical modalities and especially a progressive rehabilitation programmed individualized to each one of patients diagnosed with OP. Local injection therapies have been also been proposed as a non-operative therapeutic option for the efficient management of these patients. In refractory cases, surgical therapeutic strategies are warranted. These include several open or minimally invasive surgical interventions such as arthroscopic or open symphysis curettage, wedge or total resection of pubic sympysis, polypropylene mesh placement and pubic fusion. In this review a critical analysis of OP in elite athletes is performed with special focus on current concepts of diagnosis and management of this source of athletic groin pain. PMID:26495244

  12. Fitness profile of elite Croatian female taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Marković, Goran; Misigoj-Duraković, Marjeta; Trninić, Slavko

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess fitness profile of elite Croatian female taekwondo athletes and to determine which physical, physiological and motor characteristics differentiate mostly the successful from the less successful fighters. Thirteen national taekwondo champions were divided into two groups according to their senior international competitive achievements. Physiological characteristics, including maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), were assessed during a continuous progressive treadmill test. The measured motor abilities included explosive and elastic leg strength, maximal strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic alactic power, agility and flexibility. Differences between the successful and less successful athletes were determined using independent t-test. Even though the differences were not statistically significant, the successful athletes had somewhat less fat (2.3%) and were taller by 5.8 cm. The successful athletes achieved significantly higher maximum running speed (15.8 +/- 0.5 versus 14.9 +/- 0. 7 km h(-1); p < 0.05), their ventilatory anaerobic threshold was significantly higher (41.4 +/- 4.1 versus 37.6 +/- 2.0 ml kg(-1) min(-1); p < 0.05) at a significantly lower heart rate (166.8 +/- 6.8 versus 171.0 +/- 8.2 beats min(-1); p < 0.05) than in the less successful athletes. Significant differences were also found in three tests of explosive power (p < 0.05), anaerobic alactic power (p < 0.01), and lateral agility (p < 0.05). The performance of taekwondo female athletes primarily depends on the anaerobic alactic power, explosive power expressed in the stretch-shortening cycle movements, agility and aerobic power.

  13. Relation between training-induced left ventricular hypertrophy and risk for ventricular tachyarrhythmias in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Biffi, Alessandro; Maron, Barry J; Di Giacinto, Barbara; Porcacchia, Paolo; Verdile, Luisa; Fernando, Fredrick; Spataro, Antonio; Culasso, Francesco; Casasco, Maurizio; Pelliccia, Antonio

    2008-06-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between the magnitude of training-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and the frequency and complexity of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in a large population of elite athletes without cardiovascular abnormalities. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias are a common finding in athletes, but it is unresolved as to whether the presence or magnitude of LV hypertrophy is a determinant of these arrhythmias in athletes without cardiovascular abnormalities. From 738 athletes examined at a national center for the evaluation of elite Italian athletes, 175 consecutive elite athletes with 24-hour ambulatory (Holter) electrocardiographic recordings (but without cardiovascular abnormalities and symptoms) were selected for the study group. Echocardiographic studies were performed during periods of peak training. Athletes were arbitrarily divided into 4 groups according to the frequency and complexity of ventricular arrhythmias during Holter electrocardiographic monitoring. No statistically significant relation was evident between LV mass (or mass index) and the grade or frequency of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. In addition, a trend was noted in those athletes with the most frequent and complex ventricular ectopy toward lower calculated LV mass. In conclusion, ventricular ectopy in elite athletes is not directly related to the magnitude of physiologic LV hypertrophy. These data offer a measure of clinical reassurance regarding the benign nature of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in elite athletes and the expression of athlete's heart.

  14. COMPETITIVE ATHLETIC PARTICIPATION, THIGH MUSCLE STRENGTH, AND BONE DENSITY IN ELITE SENIOR ATHLETES AND CONTROLS

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, Jean L.; Salacinski, Amanda J.; Hunt Sellhorst, Sarah E.; Greenspan, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between participation in highly competitive exercise, thigh muscle strength, and regional and total body bone mineral density (BMD) in elite senior athletes and healthy elderly controls was investigated. One hundred and four elite senior athletes (72.6±6.4yrs, 168.7±8.6cm, 72.6±13.5kg, 57M:47F) and 79 healthy controls (75.4±5.6yrs, 170.8±25.5cm, 79.5± 11.7kg, 46M:33F) participated in this cross-sectional study. Vitamin D and calcium intake were assessed via a recall survey. Isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque was measured via a custom strength measurement device. Total body and regional BMD of the hip, radius, and spine were assessed with DXA. For each BMD site assessed, multivariate linear regression analysis was performed in four steps (α=0.10) to examine the contribution of (1) age, sex, bodyweight, and calcium and vitamin D intake (2) group (elite senior athlete, control), (3) knee extension peak torque and (4) knee flexion peak torque on BMD. Sex, age, bodyweight, and calcium and vitamin D intake explained a significant amount of variance in BMD in each site. Group was not significant. Knee extension peak torque explained an additional 3.8% of the variance in hip BMD (p=0.06). Knee flexion peak torque was not correlated to BMD at any of the sites assessed. In conclusion, participation in highly competitive athletics was not related to total body or regional BMD. Age, sex, bodyweight, and vitamin D and calcium intake were significantly related to BMD at all of the sites assessed. Quadriceps strength contributed slightly to hip BMD. Our results imply that participation in highly competitive senior athletics does not have a protective effect on BMD, perhaps because of a lower bodyweight or other confounding factors. PMID:23442279

  15. Bone health and the female athlete triad in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Kathryn E; Misra, Madhusmita

    2011-02-01

    Peak bone mass (PBM) is a negative predictor of osteoporosis and lifelong fracture risk. Because osteoporosis is such a prevalent disease with life-threatening consequences, it is important to try to maximize PBM. Adolescence is a critical period for bone acquisition. This article discusses some of the differences in male and female skeletal development and modifiable factors that enhance bone accrual in this age group, particularly in athletes. Hormonal influences, effects of physical activity, and nutritional contributions are included, with a focus on the adolescent athlete. Emphasis is placed on the importance of appropriate energy availability in this age group. We also review prevention and treatment strategies for the female athlete triad (ie, the inter-relationship of decreased energy availability, menstrual irregularity, and low bone density) in adolescents and athletic women. Recommendations for maximizing bone density in both male and female adolescents are discussed.

  16. Career Decision Making for Young Elite Athletes: Are We Ahead on Points?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albion, Majella J.; Fogarty, Gerard J.

    2005-01-01

    A comparison is made between the career decision making of secondary school students who are also elite athletes and a sample of non-athlete students. The 226 athletes (111 females, 115 males) in the study were on sporting scholarships with the Australian Institute of Sport or state/territory institutions. Measures used included the "Career…

  17. Application of altitude/hypoxic training by elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Wilber, Randall L

    2007-09-01

    At the Olympic level, differences in performance are typically less than 0.5%. This helps explain why many contemporary elite endurance athletes in summer and winter sport incorporate some form of altitude/hypoxic training within their year-round training plan, believing that it will provide the "competitive edge" to succeed at the Olympic level. The purpose of this paper is to describe the practical application of altitude/hypoxic training as used by elite athletes. Within the general framework of the paper, both anecdotal and scientific evidence will be presented relative to the efficacy of several contemporary altitude/hypoxic training models and devices currently used by Olympic-level athletes for the purpose of legally enhancing performance. These include the three primary altitude/hypoxic training models: 1) live high+train high (LH+TH), 2) live high+train low (LH+TL), and 3) live low+train high (LL+TH). The LH+TL model will be examined in detail and will include its various modifications: natural/terrestrial altitude, simulated altitude via nitrogen dilution or oxygen filtration, and hypobaric normoxia via supplemental oxygen. A somewhat opposite approach to LH+TL is the altitude/hypoxic training strategy of LL+TH, and data regarding its efficacy will be presented. Recently, several of these altitude/hypoxic training strategies and devices underwent critical review by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for the purpose of potentially banning them as illegal performance-enhancing substances/methods. This paper will conclude with an update on the most recent statement from WADA regarding the use of simulated altitude devices.

  18. Exercise-induced bronchospasm in the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth W; Jenkinson, David M

    2002-01-01

    The term exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) describes the acute transient airway narrowing that occurs during and most often after exercise in 10 to 50% of elite athletes, depending upon the sport examined. Although multiple factors are unquestionably involved in the EIB response, airway drying caused by a high exercise-ventilation rate is primary in most cases. The severity of this reaction reflects the allergic predisposition of the athlete, the water content of the inspired air, the type and concentration of air pollutants inspired, and the intensity (or ventilation rate) of the exercise. The highest prevalence of EIB is seen in winter-sport populations, where athletes are chronically exposed to cold dry air and/or environmental pollutants found in indoor ice arenas. When airway surface liquid lost during the natural warming and humidification process of respiration is not replenished at a rate equal to the loss, the ensuing osmolarity change stimulates the release of inflammatory mediators and results in bronchospasm; this cascade of events is exacerbated by airway inflammation and airway remodelling. The acute EIB response is characterised by airway smooth muscle contraction, membrane swelling, and/or mucus plug formation. Evidence suggests that histamine, leukotrienes and prostanoids are likely mediators for this response. Although the presence of symptoms and a basic physical examination are marginally effective, objective measures of lung function should be used for accurate and reliable diagnosis of EIB. Diagnosis should include baseline spirometry, followed by an appropriate bronchial provocation test. To date, the best test to confirm EIB may simply be standard pulmonary function testing before and after high-intensity dry air exercise. A 10% post-challenge fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second is used as diagnostic criteria. The goal of medical intervention is to limit EIB exacerbation and allow the athlete to train and compete symptom free

  19. The female athlete triad among elite Malaysian athletes: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Quah, Ye Vian; Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Lai Oon; Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Women participating in a wide range of competitive sports are at higher risk of developing eating disorders, menstrual irregularities and osteoporosis, which are generally referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of female athlete triad and factors associated with this condition among athletes participating in different sports. A total of 67 elite female athletes aged between 13-30 years participated in the study and were subdivided into the 'leanness' and 'non-leanness' groups. Eating disorders were assessed using a body image figure rating and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) with body dissatisfaction (BD), drive for thinness (DT), bulimia (B) and perfectionism (P) subscales. Menstrual irregularity was assessed with a self-reported menstrual history questionnaire. Bone quality was measured using a quantitative ultrasound device at one-third distal radius. Prevalence of the female athlete triad was low (1.9%), but the prevalence for individual triad component was high, especially in the leanness group. The prevalence of subjects who were at risk of menstrual irregularity, poor bone quality and eating disorders were 47.6%, 13.3% and 89.2%, respectively, in the leanness group; and 14.3%, 8.3% and 89.2%, respectively, in the non-leanness group. Since the components of the triad are interrelated, identification of athletes at risk of having any one component of the triad, especially those participating in sports that emphasise a lean physique, is an important aid for further diagnosis.

  20. Exploring attitudes toward eating disorders among elite athlete support personnel.

    PubMed

    McArdle, S; Meade, M M; Moore, P

    2016-09-01

    To date, little is known about the beliefs, attitudes, and experiences of athlete support personnel (ASP) working in elite sport toward disordered eating (DE) and eating disorders (EDs). This study seeks to explore this area of mental health, employing an attribution model of stigma as a conceptual lens. Interviews were undertaken with 14 service providers (seven males and seven females) working in high-performance sport in Ireland. In contrast to previous research in the general population, findings revealed that sport-based personnel, in the main, did not hold the individual responsible for the development of their eating disorder. The predominant emotional response of those who had worked with an athlete with a known or suspected eating disorder was anxiety and worry. In line with the findings of previous studies with other health professionals, negative views on the prognosis of those with EDs were expressed by the ASP. Furthermore, confidentiality was found to be a significant barrier to bringing athletes' disclosure of problematic eating or exercise behavior to the fore. The findings of this study add to the limited research exploring attitudes toward EDs in sport and highlights the importance of greater education and openness toward this particular mental health problem.

  1. Review of Sports Performance Research with Youth, Collegiate, and Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Woods, Kathryn E.; Reed, Derek D.

    2011-01-01

    This brief review summarizes translational and intervention research in the area of sports performance. We describe studies with youth, collegiate, and elite athletes; identify recent trends; and propose recommendations for future research.

  2. Using recovery modalities between training sessions in elite athletes: does it help?

    PubMed

    Barnett, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Achieving an appropriate balance between training and competition stresses and recovery is important in maximising the performance of athletes. A wide range of recovery modalities are now used as integral parts of the training programmes of elite athletes to help attain this balance. This review examined the evidence available as to the efficacy of these recovery modalities in enhancing between-training session recovery in elite athletes. Recovery modalities have largely been investigated with regard to their ability to enhance the rate of blood lactate removal following high-intensity exercise or to reduce the severity and duration of exercise-induced muscle injury and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Neither of these reflects the circumstances of between-training session recovery in elite athletes. After high-intensity exercise, rest alone will return blood lactate to baseline levels well within the normal time period between the training sessions of athletes. The majority of studies examining exercise-induced muscle injury and DOMS have used untrained subjects undertaking large amounts of unfamiliar eccentric exercise. This model is unlikely to closely reflect the circumstances of elite athletes. Even without considering the above limitations, there is no substantial scientific evidence to support the use of the recovery modalities reviewed to enhance the between-training session recovery of elite athletes. Modalities reviewed were massage, active recovery, cryotherapy, contrast temperature water immersion therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, compression garments, stretching, electromyostimulation and combination modalities. Experimental models designed to reflect the circumstances of elite athletes are needed to further investigate the efficacy of various recovery modalities for elite athletes. Other potentially important factors associated with recovery, such as the rate of post-exercise glycogen synthesis and the role

  3. Sleep/wake behaviours of elite athletes from individual and team sports.

    PubMed

    Lastella, Michele; Roach, Gregory D; Halson, Shona L; Sargent, Charli

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an essential component for athlete recovery due to its physiological and psychological restorative effects, yet few studies have explored the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes. The aims of the present study were to investigate the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes, and to compare the differences in sleep between athletes from individual and team sports. A total of 124 (104 male, 20 female) elite athletes (mean ± s: age 22.2 ± 3.0 years) from five individual sports and four team sports participated in this study. Participants' sleep/wake behaviour was assessed using self-report sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors for a minimum of seven nights (range 7-28 nights) during a typical training phase. Mixed-effects analyses of variances were conducted to compare the differences in the sleep/wake behaviour of athletes from two sport types (i.e. individual and team). Overall, this sample of athletes went to bed at 22:59 ± 1.3, woke up at 07:15 ± 1.2 and obtained 6.8 ± 1.1 h of sleep per night. Athletes from individual sports went to bed earlier, woke up earlier and obtained less sleep (individual vs team; 6.5 vs 7.0 h) than athletes from team sports. These data indicate that athletes obtain well below the recommended 8 h of sleep per night, with shorter sleep durations existing among athletes from individual sports.

  4. Comparison of Brachial Artery Vasoreactivity in Elite Power Athletes and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Michael A.; Blalock, Paul; Credeur, Daniel P.; Parish, Tracie R.

    2013-01-01

    Elite endurance athletes typically have larger arteries contributing to greater skeletal muscle blood flow, oxygen and nutrient delivery and improved physical performance. Few studies have examined structural and functional properties of arteries in power athletes. Purpose To compare the size and vasoreactivity of the brachial artery of elite power athletes to age-matched controls. It was hypothesized brachial artery diameters of athletes would be larger, have less vasodilation in response to cuff occlusion, but more constriction after a cold pressor test than age-matched controls. Methods Eight elite power athletes (age = 23±2 years) and ten controls (age = 22±1 yrs) were studied. High-resolution ultrasonography was used to assess brachial artery diameters at rest and following 5 minutes of forearm occlusion (Brachial Artery Flow Mediated Dilation = BAFMD) and a cold pressor test (CPT). Basic fitness measures included a handgrip test and 3-minute step test. Results Brachial arteries of athletes were larger (Athletes 5.39±1.51 vs. Controls: 3.73±0.71 mm, p<0.05), had greater vasodilatory (BAFMD%: Athletes: 8.21±1.78 vs. Controls: 5.69±1.56%) and constrictor (CPT %: Athletes: -2.95±1.07 vs. Controls: −1.20±0.48%) responses, compared to controls. Vascular operating range (VOR = Peak dilation+Peak Constriction) was also greater in athletes (VOR: Athletes: 0.55±0.15 vs. Controls: 0.25±0.18 mm, p<0.05). Athletes had superior handgrip strength (Athletes: 55.92±17.06 vs. Controls: 36.77±17.06 kg, p<0.05) but similar heart rate responses at peak (Athletes: 123±16 vs. Controls: 130±25 bpm, p>0.05) and 1 minute recovery (Athletes: 88±21 vs. Controls: 98±26 bpm, p>0.05) following the step test. Conclusion Elite power athletes have larger brachial arteries, and greater vasoreactivity (greater vasodilatory and constrictor responses) than age-matched controls, contributing to a significantly greater VOR. These data extend the existence of an

  5. Competitive athletic participation, thigh muscle strength, and bone density in elite senior athletes and controls.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Jean L; Salacinski, Amanda J; Hunt Sellhorst, Sarah E; Greenspan, Susan L

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between participation in highly competitive exercise, thigh muscle strength, and regional and total body bone mineral density (BMD) in elite senior athletes and healthy elderly controls was investigated. One hundred and four elite senior athletes (age: 72.6 ± 6.4 years, height: 168.7 ± 8.6 cm, mass: 72.6 ± 13.5 kg, 57 male:47 female) and 79 healthy controls (age: 75.4 ± 5.6 years, height: 170.8 ± 25.5 cm, mass: 79.5 ± 11.7 kg, 46 male:33 female) participated in this cross-sectional study. Vitamin D and calcium intake were assessed via a recall survey. Isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque were measured via a custom strength measurement device. Total body and regional BMD of the hip, radius, and spine were assessed with a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometer. For each BMD site assessed, multivariate linear regression analysis was performed in 4 steps (α = 0.10) to examine the contribution of (a) age, sex, bodyweight, and calcium and vitamin D intake; (b) group (elite senior athlete, control); (c) knee extension peak torque; and (d) knee flexion peak torque on BMD. Sex, age, bodyweight, and calcium and vitamin D intake explained a significant amount of variance in BMD in each site. Group was not significant. Knee extension peak torque explained an additional 3.8% of the variance in hip BMD (p = 0.06). Knee flexion peak torque was not correlated to BMD at any of the sites assessed. In conclusion, participation in highly competitive athletics was not related to total body or regional BMD. Age, sex, bodyweight, and vitamin D and calcium intake were significantly related to BMD at all the sites assessed. Quadriceps strength contributed slightly to hip BMD. Our results imply that participation in highly competitive senior athletics does not have a protective effect on BMD, perhaps because of a lower bodyweight or other confounding factors.

  6. Managing the Training Load in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Murray, Andrew

    2017-01-04

    While historically adolescents were removed from their parents to prepare to become warriors, this process repeats itself in modern times but with the outcome being athletic performance. This review considers the process of developing athletes and managing load against the backdrop of differing approaches of conserving and maximizing the talent available. It acknowledges the typical training 'dose' that adolescent athletes receive across a number of sports and the typical 'response' when it is excessive or not managed appropriately. It also examines the best approaches to quantifying load and injury risk acknowledging the relative strengths and weaknesses of subjective and objective approaches. Making evidence based decisions is emphasized, while choosing the appropriate monitoring techniques is determined by both the sporting context and individual situation. Ultimately a systematic approach to training load monitoring is recommended for adolescent athletes to both maximize their athletic development and to allow an opportunity for learning, reflection and the enhancement of performance knowledge of coaches and practitioners.

  7. Sleep Quality, Mood and Performance: A Study of Elite Brazilian Volleyball Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Alexandro; Bevilacqua, Guilherme G.; Coimbra, Danilo R.; Pereira, Fabiano S.; Brandt, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    This investigation analyzed the relationships between sleep quality, mood, and game results in the elite athletes participating in Brazilian volleyball competitions. Participants (n = 277 elite Brazilian volleyball athletes, 214 (77.3%) men and 63 (22.7%) women) completed the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) and reported their subjective sleep perception. Athletes with poor sleep quality reported higher scores for confusion compared to athletes with good sleep quality (p < 0.01, d = 0.43). In addition, athletes who lost their game at the time of evaluation showed higher tension (p < 0.01, d = 0.49) and confusion (p < 0.01, d = 0.32) levels compared to athletes who won their game. A regression analysis demonstrated that for each point increase in the confusion level, there was a 19.7% reduction in sleep quality. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that athletes who slept well, and won their games, had lower tension levels. Further, our results indicated that the athletes’ mood associated with their success in the competitions. Therefore, in a competition, it is important that the athletes show good sleep quality, and use techniques and strategies to ease their mood variations. Key points Study evaluated Self-Rated sleep quality, mood and performance of 277 elite Brazilian volleyball athletes. Our results indicated that for every pointwise increase in the level of confusion, there was an associated 19.7% reduction in sleep quality Athletes who slept well, and won their games, had lower tension levels. PMID:27928205

  8. Cardiovascular screening and the elite athlete: advances, concepts, controversies, and a view of the future.

    PubMed

    Battle, Robert W; Mistry, Dilaawar J; Malhotra, Rohit; Macknight, John M; Saliba, Ethan N; Mahapatra, Srijoy

    2011-07-01

    This article addresses programmatic cardiovascular screening and evaluation of the elite athlete at the intercollegiate, national team, professional, and Olympic levels. Although much of this content may apply to high-school and recreational sports at large, it is not specifically designed to address athletes participating in all sports activities.

  9. Achilles tendon rupture in an elite athlete following multiple injection therapies.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Bruce; Remedios, Denis; Loosemore, Mike; Maffulli, Nicola

    2008-11-01

    Achilles tendinopathy is common, and its management continues to be challenging, especially in elite athletes. Despite a wide range of novel management options, none guarantees a rapid return to high level sporting activity. Eccentric exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms and normalise imaging abnormalities, but time constraints on professional athletes often make this an unrewarding isolated management strategy. Eccentric exercises concurrent with ongoing training may not be as successful as eccentric training alone, reducing one's confidence in this modality for the "in-season" tendinopathy in the elite athlete. When a professional athlete is faced with a tendinopathy recalcitrant to eccentric exercise, manual therapy and orthotics, a more invasive approach is often attempted to expedite a return to unencumbered training. Numerous injection therapies are described, ranging from homeopathic products to glucocorticosteroids. The robustness of the literature surrounding these techniques is variable, but when an athlete is desperate to return to full training, clinicians working with elite athletes are often tempted to utilise more empirical management options. We present a patient who illustrates the potential dangers of injection therapy in the elite athlete, in particular sequential injection therapy involving vascular sclerosants, which to our knowledge has not previously been described. Written consent for the presentation of this case was obtained from the athlete concerned.

  10. Negotiation and Capital: Athletes' Use of Power in an Elite Men's Rowing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Laura; Jones, Robyn; Cassidy, Tania

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine how power is given, acquired and used by athletes in the elite sporting context. It focuses on a top-level athlete's reactions to the behaviors of his coaches and how such actions contribute to the creation of a coaching climate, which both influences and "houses" coaching. The paper centers on Sean (a…

  11. The Experience of Depression during the Careers of Elite Male Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Steve; Hannigan, Barbara; Campbell, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The topic of depression during the career of elite male athletes has been the subject of much public interest and attention in recent years. Despite numerous debates and personal disclosures within the media, there is a dearth of published research directly exploring the phenomenon. This study sought to explore how elite male athletes experience depression during their sporting careers. Eight former/current elite male athletes who had previously publically self-identified as having experienced depression while participating in sport were recruited for this study. A qualitative methodology was employed and each participant was interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Data analysis which was conducted using descriptive and interpretive thematic analysis uncovered three domains: (1) The emergence of depression, (2) The manifestation of symptoms of depression, and (3) Adaptive and Maladaptive proceesses of recovery. Findings from the current study reveal the nature of how male athletes experience, express, and respond to depression during their careers. Additionally, this is influenced by a myriad of factors embedded in the masculine elite sport environment. Implications are discussed particularly in relation to atypical expressions of depression not necessarily reflected on or in standard diagnostic criteria. Future research is encouraged to examine in depth moderating factors (e.g., athletic sense of identity and masculine elite sport environments) for the relationship between depression and participation in elite sport. PMID:27486418

  12. The Experience of Depression during the Careers of Elite Male Athletes.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Steve; Hannigan, Barbara; Campbell, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    The topic of depression during the career of elite male athletes has been the subject of much public interest and attention in recent years. Despite numerous debates and personal disclosures within the media, there is a dearth of published research directly exploring the phenomenon. This study sought to explore how elite male athletes experience depression during their sporting careers. Eight former/current elite male athletes who had previously publically self-identified as having experienced depression while participating in sport were recruited for this study. A qualitative methodology was employed and each participant was interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Data analysis which was conducted using descriptive and interpretive thematic analysis uncovered three domains: (1) The emergence of depression, (2) The manifestation of symptoms of depression, and (3) Adaptive and Maladaptive proceesses of recovery. Findings from the current study reveal the nature of how male athletes experience, express, and respond to depression during their careers. Additionally, this is influenced by a myriad of factors embedded in the masculine elite sport environment. Implications are discussed particularly in relation to atypical expressions of depression not necessarily reflected on or in standard diagnostic criteria. Future research is encouraged to examine in depth moderating factors (e.g., athletic sense of identity and masculine elite sport environments) for the relationship between depression and participation in elite sport.

  13. ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with sprinting in elite Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Mikami, E; Fuku, N; Murakami, H; Tsuchie, H; Takahashi, H; Ohiwa, N; Tanaka, H; Pitsiladis, Y P; Higuchi, M; Miyachi, M; Kawahara, T; Tanaka, M

    2014-02-01

    The ACTN3 R577X genotype has been found to associate with sprint/power phenotypes in all elite athlete cohorts investigated. This association has not been extensively studied in elite Asian athletes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the association between the ACTN3 R577X genotype and elite Japanese track and field athlete status. 299 elite Japanese track and field athletes (134 sprint/power athletes; 165 endurance/middle-power athletes) and 649 Japanese controls were genotyped for the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism. All athletes were of national or international level. Sprint/power athletes showed a higher frequency of RR + RX genotype than controls (111/134 [82.8%] vs. 478/649 [73.7%], P = 0.025 under the R-dominant model), while there was no significant difference between endurance/middle-power athletes and controls (126/165 [76.4%] vs. 478/649 [73.7%], P = 0.48 under the R-dominant model). Sprinters with the RR + RX genotype had significantly faster personal best times for the 100 m than those with XX genotype (10.42 ± 0.05 s vs. 10.64 ± 0.09 s, P = 0.042); no such association was found in the 400 m sprinters (47.02 ± 0.36 s vs. 47.56 ± 0.99 s, P = 0.62). ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with sprint/power performance in elite Japanese track and field athletes, especially short sprint performance.

  14. Physiological and performance responses to overtraining in elite judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Callister, R; Callister, R J; Fleck, S J; Dudley, G A

    1990-12-01

    To determine the effect of large and sudden increases in training volume on performance characteristics and the feasibility of using overtraining syndrome symptoms to monitor performance changes, 15 elite judo athletes were examined through 10 wk of training. Athletes performed their regular regimens of resistance (3 d.wk-1), interval (2 d.wk-1), and judo (5 d.wk-1) training in weeks 1-4. Interval and resistance training volumes increased by 50% in weeks 4-8 and returned to baseline in weeks 9-10. Judo training volume was unchanged in weeks 1-8 but increased by 100% in weeks 9-10. Assessments were made in weeks 2, 4, 8, and 10. Isokinetic strength of elbow and knee extensors and flexors increased significantly from weeks 2 to 4 (3-13%), was unchanged from weeks 4 to 8, and decreased significantly (6-12%) from weeks 4 to 10. Total time for 3 x 300 m intervals increased (P less than 0.05) between weeks 2 and 4 and between weeks 4 and 8, while total time for 5 x 50 m sprints decreased (P less than 0.05) from weeks 8 to 10 (less than 2%). Body fat percentage decreased (P less than 0.05) from weeks 2 to 10. Body weight, submaximal and maximal aerobic power, resting (sleeping) systolic and diastolic pressures, resting (sleeping) submaximal and maximal heart rates, exercising blood lactate levels, and vertical jump performance did not change significantly with increases in training volume. These results suggest that 6 wk of overtraining may affect some but not all aspects of performance and that performance may be affected before symptoms of the overtraining syndrome appear.

  15. The World Anti-Doping Code: can you have asthma and still be an elite athlete?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Key points The World Anti-Doping Code (the Code) does place some restrictions on prescribing inhaled β2-agonists, but these can be overcome without jeopardising the treatment of elite athletes with asthma. While the Code permits the use of inhaled glucocorticoids without restriction, oral and intravenous glucocorticoids are prohibited, although a mechanism exists that allows them to be administered for acute severe asthma. Although asthmatic athletes achieved outstanding sporting success during the 1950s and 1960s before any anti-doping rules existed, since introduction of the Code’s policies on some drugs to manage asthma results at the Olympic Games have revealed that athletes with confirmed asthma/airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) have outperformed their non-asthmatic rivals. It appears that years of intensive endurance training can provoke airway injury, AHR and asthma in athletes without any past history of asthma. Although further research is needed, it appears that these consequences of airway injury may abate in some athletes after they have ceased intensive training. The World Anti-Doping Code (the Code) has not prevented asthmatic individuals from becoming elite athletes. This review examines those sections of the Code that are relevant to respiratory physicians who manage elite and sub-elite athletes with asthma. The restrictions that the Code places or may place on the prescription of drugs to prevent and treat asthma in athletes are discussed. In addition, the means by which respiratory physicians are able to treat their elite asthmatic athlete patients with drugs that are prohibited in sport are outlined, along with some of the pitfalls in such management and how best to prevent or minimise them. PMID:27408633

  16. Are the prevalence and treatment of asthma similar in elite athletes and the aged-matched non-athlete population?

    PubMed

    Locke, S; Marks, G

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma and use of asthma medications in elite athletes compared with an age-matched non-athlete population. Data were collected from the respiratory component of annual medical screening of 424 elite athletes from the Queensland Academy of Sport. Measures included the prevalence of current asthma and ever doctor-diagnosed asthma, and the prevalence of use of treatment for asthma including beta-agonists and inhaled corticosteroid medication. The prevalence of current asthma in athletes aged 18-29 years was 14% (95% CI, 9-19%), which did not differ significantly from the prevalence in the non-athlete control population (11%; 95% CI, 9-12%, P=0.3). Of athletes with current asthma, 27% were not taking any medications for asthma, and 25% were treated with short-acting beta-agonist medications alone and were not taking inhaled corticosteroids. These data indicate that the overall cumulative and period prevalence of asthma in Queensland athletes is similar to that in the general age-matched population. Athletes use beta-agonists with a frequency similar to the general population.

  17. Somatotype Analysis of Elite Boxing Athletes Compared with Nonathletes for Sports Physiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the nonathletes. However, the mesomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were higher than those of the nonathletes. There was no significant difference in the ectomorphic component between the two groups. The higher weight divisions tended to have higher values of height, weight, and BMI than the lower weight divisions. The higher weight divisions also tended to have higher values for the endomorphic and mesomorphic components and a lower value for the ectomorphic component than the lower weight divisions. The group of nonathletes consisted of eight endomorphs, four mesomorphs, six ectomorphs, and five central types. Among the boxing athletes, there were 16 mesomorphic, four ectomorphic, and two central types and one endomorphic type. Subdividing the athletes into 13 somatotypes resulted in five balanced mesomorphs, five endomorphic mesomorphs, five mesomorph-ectomorphs, three mesomorph-endomorphs, two mesomorphic ectomorphs, two central types, and one ectomorphic mesomorph type. [Conclusion] The data from this study provides in part physical characteristics of elite boxing athletes that can be used to establish a reference for systemic study of sports physiotherapy. PMID:25202187

  18. Somatotype analysis of elite boxing athletes compared with nonathletes for sports physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the nonathletes. However, the mesomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were higher than those of the nonathletes. There was no significant difference in the ectomorphic component between the two groups. The higher weight divisions tended to have higher values of height, weight, and BMI than the lower weight divisions. The higher weight divisions also tended to have higher values for the endomorphic and mesomorphic components and a lower value for the ectomorphic component than the lower weight divisions. The group of nonathletes consisted of eight endomorphs, four mesomorphs, six ectomorphs, and five central types. Among the boxing athletes, there were 16 mesomorphic, four ectomorphic, and two central types and one endomorphic type. Subdividing the athletes into 13 somatotypes resulted in five balanced mesomorphs, five endomorphic mesomorphs, five mesomorph-ectomorphs, three mesomorph-endomorphs, two mesomorphic ectomorphs, two central types, and one ectomorphic mesomorph type. [Conclusion] The data from this study provides in part physical characteristics of elite boxing athletes that can be used to establish a reference for systemic study of sports physiotherapy.

  19. The ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism across Three Groups of Elite Male European Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Femia, Pedro; Pushkarev, Vladimir P.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Dyatlov, Dmitry A.; Lekontsev, Evgeny V.; Kulikov, Leonid M.; Birk, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism (rs1815739) is a strong candidate to influence elite athletic performance. Yet, controversy exists in the literature owing to between-studies differences in the ethnic background and sample size of the cohorts, the latter being usually low, which makes comparisons difficult. In this case:control genetic study we determined the association between elite athletic status and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism within three cohorts of European Caucasian men, i.e. Spanish, Polish and Russian [633 cases (278 elite endurance and 355 power athletes), and 808 non-athletic controls]. The odds ratio (OR) of a power athlete harbouring the XX versus the RR genotype compared with sedentary controls was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34–0.48; P = 0.006]. We also observed that the OR of an endurance athlete having the XX versus the RR genotype compared with power athletes was 1.88 (95%CI: 1.07–3.31; P = 0.028). In endurance athletes, the OR of a “world-class” competitor having the XX genotype versus the RR+RX genotype was 3.74 (95%CI: 1.08–12.94; P = 0.038) compared with those of a lower (“national”) competition level. No association (P>0.1) was noted between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and competition level (world-class versus national-level) in power athletes. Our data provide comprehensive support for the influence of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism on elite athletic performance. PMID:22916217

  20. Many non-elite multisport endurance athletes do not meet sports nutrition recommendations for carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Masson, Geneviève; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-07-01

    Little is known regarding the dietary intake of non-elite athletes involved in multisport endurance events. The primary objective of this observational study was to characterize the dietary intake of non-elite athletes participating in winter triathlon (snowshoeing, skating, and cross-country skiing), winter pentathlon (winter triathlon sports + cycling and running), Ironman (IM: swimming, cycling, running), and half-distance Ironman (IM 70.3) in relation with current sports nutrition recommendations. A total of 116 non-elite athletes (32 women and 84 men) who had participated in one of those events in 2014 were included in the analyses. Usual dietary intake was assessed using a validated online food frequency questionnaire. Participants (22-66 years old) trained 14.8 ± 5.3 h/week, on average (±SD). Only 45.7% [95% confidence interval, 36.4%-55.2%] of all athletes reported consuming the recommended intake for carbohydrates, with the highest proportion (66.7%) seen in IM athletes. On the other hand, 87.1% [79.6%-92.6%] of all athletes reported consuming at least 1.2 g protein·kg(-1)·day(-1), while 66.4% [57.0%-74.9%] reported consuming more than 1.6 g protein·kg(-1)·day(-1). The proportion of athletes consuming the recommended amount of protein was highest (84.6%) among IM athletes. There was no difference in the proportion of athletes achieving the recommended carbohydrate and protein intakes between men and women. These findings suggest that many non-elite multisport endurance athletes do not meet the current recommendations for carbohydrates, emphasizing the need for targeted nutritional education. Further research is needed to examine how underreporting of food intake may have affected these estimates.

  1. Sexual harassment and eating disorders in female elite athletes - a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, J; Fasting, K; Brackenridge, C; Torstveit, M K; Berglund, B

    2003-10-01

    The aims were to examine the percentage of female elite athletes and controls reporting sexual harassment and abuse (SHAB), and whether a higher percentage of female athletes with eating disorders (ED) had experienced SHAB. A questionnaire was administered to the total population of female elite athletes (n = 660) and controls (n = 780) aged 15-39 years. Sexual harassment and abuse were measured through 11 questions, ranging from light to severe SHAB. In addition, questions about dietary-, menstrual- and training-history and the Eating Disorder Inventory were included. The response rate was 88% for athletes and 71% for controls. Athletes (n = 121) and controls (n = 81) classified as "at risk" for ED and non-ED controls participated in a clinical interview. A higher percentage of controls compared with athletes reported experiences of SHAB in general (59% vs. 51%, P < 0.001). A lower percentage of athletes had experienced SHAB inside sports than outside sport (28% vs. 39%, P < 0.001). A higher percentage of ED athletes than non-ED athletes had experienced SHAB (66% vs. 48%, P < 0.01), both inside sport and outside sport. In spite of the fact that a higher percentage of controls compared with athletes had experienced SHAB, it is necessary to formulate clear guidelines, set up educational workshops and implement intervention programs for both ED and SHAB in sport.

  2. The New Policy on Hyperandrogenism in Elite Female Athletes is not about “Sex Testing”

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Francisco J.; Martínez-Patiño, María José; Vilain, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In April 2011, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the International Association of Athletic Federations (IAAF) updated their regulations regarding female elite athletes with hyperandrogenism: Females whose testosterone levels crossed into the male range could not compete with other females unless it is shown that they are resistant to the effects of testosterone. Although the new rule is a marked improvement over past attempts to ensure that males were not trying to compete as women in elite competition, there have been several criticisms leveled against the new regulations. Here we offer our reactions to claims that the new regulation promotes a sex-verification test, claims that intersex athletes will automatically be disqualified from competition, and proposals to either divide athletes based on variables beyond sex or completely eliminate sex groupings. Although elite sports can never achieve a perfect, level playing-field, there should be parameters within which athletes must adhere for a given sport. Yet, elite athletes themselves should play a decisive role in what is best for their sport. PMID:23320653

  3. Postural control and low back pain in elite athletes comparison of static balance in elite athletes with and without low back pain.

    PubMed

    Oyarzo, Claudio A; Villagrán, Claudio R; Silvestre, Rony E; Carpintero, Pedro; Berral, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    Although current research findings suggest that postural control or static balance is impaired in subjects with low back pain, few studies have specifically addressed the effect of low back pain on static balance in elite athletes. Forty-four athletes belonging to Chilean national teams took part in this study; 20 had low back pain and the remaining 24 were healthy controls. Displacement of the centre of pressure was analyzed by computerized platform posturography, using a standardized protocol; subjects were required to stand upright on both feet, with eyes first open then closed. The results showed that, athletes with low back pain used significantly more energy (p< 0.0182) and had a greater displacement of the centre of pressure (p< 0.005) with open eyes to control posture than healthy athletes. It may be concluded that static balance is impaired in elite athletes with low back pain and that analysis of two-footed stance provides a sensitive assessment of static balance in athletes.

  4. The Prevalence and Impact of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Menorrhagia) in Elite and Non-Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bruinvels, Georgie; Burden, Richard; Brown, Nicola; Richards, Toby; Pedlar, Charles

    2016-01-01

    To identify the prevalence and impact of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in exercising females where anemia may have a significant effect on training and performance a ‘Female Health Questionnaire’ was designed incorporating a validated diagnostic HMB series, demographics, exercise ability data, training status, anemia, iron supplementation and whether the menstrual cycle had affected training and performance. The survey was conducted in two stages; initially online, advertised via social media, and then repeated via face-to-face interviews with runners registered for the 2015 London Marathon. 789 participants responded to the online survey, and 1073 completed the survey at the marathon. HMB was reported by half of those online (54%), and by more than a third of the marathon runners (36%). Surprisingly, HMB was also prevalent amongst elite athletes (37%). Overall, 32% of exercising females reported a history of anemia, and 50% had previously supplemented with iron. Only a minority (22%) had sought medical advice. HMB is highly prevalent in exercising females, associated with self-reported anemia, increased use of iron supplementation and a perceived negative impact on performance. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of HMB, iron deficiency and anemia in exercising females. PMID:26901873

  5. The Prevalence and Impact of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Menorrhagia) in Elite and Non-Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Bruinvels, Georgie; Burden, Richard; Brown, Nicola; Richards, Toby; Pedlar, Charles

    2016-01-01

    To identify the prevalence and impact of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in exercising females where anemia may have a significant effect on training and performance a 'Female Health Questionnaire' was designed incorporating a validated diagnostic HMB series, demographics, exercise ability data, training status, anemia, iron supplementation and whether the menstrual cycle had affected training and performance. The survey was conducted in two stages; initially online, advertised via social media, and then repeated via face-to-face interviews with runners registered for the 2015 London Marathon. 789 participants responded to the online survey, and 1073 completed the survey at the marathon. HMB was reported by half of those online (54%), and by more than a third of the marathon runners (36%). Surprisingly, HMB was also prevalent amongst elite athletes (37%). Overall, 32% of exercising females reported a history of anemia, and 50% had previously supplemented with iron. Only a minority (22%) had sought medical advice. HMB is highly prevalent in exercising females, associated with self-reported anemia, increased use of iron supplementation and a perceived negative impact on performance. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of HMB, iron deficiency and anemia in exercising females.

  6. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J Robert

    2014-09-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key pointsConsultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services.Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values.Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach.Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year.

  7. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key points Consultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services. Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values. Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach. Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year. PMID:25177193

  8. Training adaptation and heart rate variability in elite endurance athletes: opening the door to effective monitoring.

    PubMed

    Plews, Daniel J; Laursen, Paul B; Stanley, Jamie; Kilding, Andrew E; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) is often considered a convenient non-invasive assessment tool for monitoring individual adaptation to training. Decreases and increases in vagal-derived indices of HRV have been suggested to indicate negative and positive adaptations, respectively, to endurance training regimens. However, much of the research in this area has involved recreational and well-trained athletes, with the small number of studies conducted in elite athletes revealing equivocal outcomes. For example, in elite athletes, studies have revealed both increases and decreases in HRV to be associated with negative adaptation. Additionally, signs of positive adaptation, such as increases in cardiorespiratory fitness, have been observed with atypical concomitant decreases in HRV. As such, practical ways by which HRV can be used to monitor training status in elites are yet to be established. This article addresses the current literature that has assessed changes in HRV in response to training loads and the likely positive and negative adaptations shown. We reveal limitations with respect to how the measurement of HRV has been interpreted to assess positive and negative adaptation to endurance training regimens and subsequent physical performance. We offer solutions to some of the methodological issues associated with using HRV as a day-to-day monitoring tool. These include the use of appropriate averaging techniques, and the use of specific HRV indices to overcome the issue of HRV saturation in elite athletes (i.e., reductions in HRV despite decreases in resting heart rate). Finally, we provide examples in Olympic and World Champion athletes showing how these indices can be practically applied to assess training status and readiness to perform in the period leading up to a pinnacle event. The paper reveals how longitudinal HRV monitoring in elites is required to understand their unique individual HRV fingerprint. For the first time, we demonstrate how

  9. Comparison of Athletes' Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes' depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (M age = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p < 0.05; d = 0.30]. Furthermore, negative attribution after failure was associated with individual sports (β = 0.27; p < 0.001), as well as with the dependent variable depression (β = 0.26; p < 0.01). Mediation hypothesis was supported by a significant indirect effect (β = 0.07; p < 0.05). Negative attribution after failure mediated the relationship between individual sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to

  10. Low Omega-3 Index in 106 German elite winter endurance athletes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    von Schacky, Clemens; Kemper, Maximilian; Haslbauer, Robert; Halle, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The Omega-3 Index is defined as erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and represents an individual's status in these two marine omega-3 fatty acids. A target range of 8 to 11% has been suggested, because values below predispose to cardiovascular events, especially sudden cardiac death, as well as to suboptimal brain function, like prolonged reaction times or even depression. Compared with the general population, elite athletes have an increased incidence of sudden death. The Omega-3 Index has not yet been investigated in elite athletes. In an exploratory approach, we determined the Omega-3 Index in 106 consecutive German national elite winter endurance athletes presenting for preparticipation screening, using a well-established analytical procedure (HS-Omega-3 Index). Surprisingly, only one athlete had a value within the target range, but all others had values <8%. We conclude that we have identified a deficiency of EPA and DHA in these elite athletes. This deficiency presents a potential option for prevention of cardiovascular events such as sudden cardiac death, and improving aspects of brain function. It will be important to scrutinize our finding by more thorough epidemiologic studies and appropriate intervention trials.

  11. Neglected lesser tuberosity avulsion in an adolescent elite gymnast.

    PubMed

    Paxinos, Odysseas; Karavasili, Alexandra; Manolarakis, Manolis; Paxinos, Thrasivoulos; Papavasiliou, Athanasios

    2014-07-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old elite gymnast who presented with recurring pain in the left shoulder after training. The athlete recalled an injury to the shoulder 2 years ago. Clinically a localized tenderness to the anterior shoulder and loss of strength and range of motion was noted. Imaging investigation suggested a neglected lesser tuberosity avulsion. The athlete was treated with open excision of the deformed tuberosity and direct repair of the subscapularis to the humeral head. Following a careful postoperative rehabilitation protocol the athlete was able to return to unrestricted gymnastics after 6 months. After surgery the athlete followed a intense rehabilitation program that allowed him to return to sports at 6 months. At 5-years follow-up, the athlete was asymptomatic and competing at an international level. Avulsion fractures of the lesser tuberosity are extremely rare injuries with significant shoulder disability if left untreated. Anatomic repair can yield excellent results, even in neglected cases.

  12. Seasonal Vitamin D Status in Polish Elite Athletes in Relation to Sun Exposure and Oral Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Krysztofiak, Hubert; Mlynczak, Marcel; Gaczynska, Ewa; Ziemba, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D does not only influence the musculoskeletal health and mineral homeostasis but it also affects cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, immune and mental functions, thus it is of considerable importance for both physically active people and elite athletes. However, vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide and results from inadequate endogenous skin synthesis (insufficient ultraviolet B exposure) and diet. To improve the vitamin D status elite athletes often travel to lower latitude during winter. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal vitamin D status in Polish elite athletes according to the sun exposure and oral supplementation. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured in the years 2010–2014 in 409 elite athletes, who were divided into the following groups: OUTD—outdoor sports, represented by track and field athletes, who trained in Poland; IND—weightlifters, handball and volleyball players who trained indoors in Poland; SUN—track and field athletes who trained during Polish winter in lower latitude with high sunshine exposure; SUPL—track and field athletes who trained in Poland, had an inadequate vitamin D status (25(OH)D < 30 ng/ml) and were supplemented orally. Inadequate Vitamin D status was observed in 80% of OUTD and 84% of IND athletes in winter, whereas in summer the values amounted to 42% and 83%, respectively. The athletes exposed to sun in winter had significantly higher vitamin D concentration than OUTD group. Oral supplementation improved vitamin D concentration by 45%, whereas winter sun exposure caused its increase by 85%. Except for a few summer months an inadequate status of vitamin D was found in the majority of Polish elite athletes, with the deficiency level being similar to the one observed in non-athletic population. The most serious deficiency was observed in indoor disciplines. Adequate vitamin D status can be achieved by both increased sun exposure, especially in winter, and oral

  13. Seasonal Vitamin D Status in Polish Elite Athletes in Relation to Sun Exposure and Oral Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Krzywanski, Jaroslaw; Mikulski, Tomasz; Krysztofiak, Hubert; Mlynczak, Marcel; Gaczynska, Ewa; Ziemba, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D does not only influence the musculoskeletal health and mineral homeostasis but it also affects cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, immune and mental functions, thus it is of considerable importance for both physically active people and elite athletes. However, vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide and results from inadequate endogenous skin synthesis (insufficient ultraviolet B exposure) and diet. To improve the vitamin D status elite athletes often travel to lower latitude during winter. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal vitamin D status in Polish elite athletes according to the sun exposure and oral supplementation. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured in the years 2010-2014 in 409 elite athletes, who were divided into the following groups: OUTD-outdoor sports, represented by track and field athletes, who trained in Poland; IND-weightlifters, handball and volleyball players who trained indoors in Poland; SUN-track and field athletes who trained during Polish winter in lower latitude with high sunshine exposure; SUPL-track and field athletes who trained in Poland, had an inadequate vitamin D status (25(OH)D < 30 ng/ml) and were supplemented orally. Inadequate Vitamin D status was observed in 80% of OUTD and 84% of IND athletes in winter, whereas in summer the values amounted to 42% and 83%, respectively. The athletes exposed to sun in winter had significantly higher vitamin D concentration than OUTD group. Oral supplementation improved vitamin D concentration by 45%, whereas winter sun exposure caused its increase by 85%. Except for a few summer months an inadequate status of vitamin D was found in the majority of Polish elite athletes, with the deficiency level being similar to the one observed in non-athletic population. The most serious deficiency was observed in indoor disciplines. Adequate vitamin D status can be achieved by both increased sun exposure, especially in winter, and oral supplementation

  14. Olympism as Education: Analysing the Learning Experiences of Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, D.; Barker-Ruchti, N.; Rynne, S. B.; Lee, J.

    2012-01-01

    Olympic athletes are potentially the most visible exponents of Olympic values. How athletes learn values, however, has not captured the attention of those responsible for Olympic documentation or pedagogues. This paper examines how aspects of Olympism became relevant for three former Olympians during their athletic careers. Interview material…

  15. Self-reported attitudes of elite athletes towards doping: differences between type of sport.

    PubMed

    Alaranta, A; Alaranta, H; Holmila, J; Palmu, P; Pietilä, K; Helenius, I

    2006-10-01

    Although athletes' beliefs and values are known to influence whether or not an athlete will use banned drugs, little is known about the athletes' beliefs and attitudes in different sports. The aim of this study was to clarify the beliefs and attitudes of elite athletes towards banned substances and methods in sports. A total of 446 athletes (response rate 90.3 %; 446/494) financially supported by the National Finnish Olympic Committee completed a structured questionnaire during their national team camps in 2002. More than 90 % of the athletes reported to believe that banned substances and methods have performance enhancing effects, and 30 % reported that they personally know an athlete who uses banned substances. Of the male athletes 35 %, and 23 % of females reported they personally know an athlete using banned substances. A total of 15 % of the athletes reported that they had been offered banned substances: 21 % of the speed and power athletes, 14 % of the team sport athletes and of the athletes in motor skills demanding events, and 10 % of the endurance athletes. Stimulants were the most often offered substance group (to 7 % of all the athletes) followed by anabolic steroids (4 %). Subjects who regarded doping as a minor health risk seemed to be more often associated with doping users than those regarding doping as a significant health risk. Athletes in different sports have a different approach to doping. Risk of doping appears to be highest in speed and power sports and lowest in motor skills demanding sports. Males are at higher risk than females. Controlling doping only by tests is not sufficient. A profound change in the attitudes is needed, which should be monitored repeatedly.

  16. The prevalence and risk indicators of symptoms of common mental disorders among current and former Dutch elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Jonkers, Ruud; Moen, Maarten; Verhagen, Evert; Wylleman, Paul; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2016-11-29

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and comorbidity of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, eating disorders, adverse alcohol use) among current and former Dutch elite athletes, and to explore the inference between potential risk indicators (severe injury, surgery, life events, sport career dissatisfaction, social support) and the outcomes measures under investigation. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among 203 current and 282 former elite Dutch athletes (response rate: 28% among current athletes and 95% among former athletes). Based on validated scales, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed. Prevalence (4-week) ranged from 6% for adverse alcohol use to 45% for anxiety/depression among current elite athletes, and from 18% for distress to 29% for anxiety/depression among former elite athletes. A higher number of past severe injuries, higher number of past surgeries, higher number of recent life events, higher level of career dissatisfaction and lower level of social support were related to the occurrence of symptoms of common mental disorders among both current and former elite athletes. On average, the 4-week prevalence of common mental disorders as shown in our study among current and former Dutch elite athletes were similar to the ones found among athletes from other sports disciplines and does compare with the lifetime prevalence estimates in the general population of the Netherlands.

  17. The estimation of mineral contents in oriental supplements consumed by elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hansang; Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: to examine macro (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) and trace mineral (iron) concentration in oriental supplements (OS), and to define OS prevalence in elite athletes. Participants of this study were 928 varsity athletes (male: 680, female: 248) with 23 sports types. Recent 3-month dietary supplements (DS) and OS practice was surveyed during training period, and mineral concentration in 72 randomly collected OS samples were analyzed. DS use was 41% and OS use was 20% in university elite athletes. Most common OS use informants were parents (74%). OS intake reason was for health maintenance (37%), energy supplement (25%), and recovery improvement (15%). Moreover, health maintenance was higher in females (47%) than males (32%) while energy supplement was higher in males (28%) than females (18%) (χ(2)(8) = 17.676, p = 0.024). Beliefs in OS efficacy and importance were significantly higher in female athletes compared to male athletes (p < 0.05). Macro mineral concentration in OS was calcium (7.54 ppm), magnesium (4.63 ppm), and phosphorus (205.34 ppb) and trace mineral concentration in OS was iron (8.10 ppb), which was a small amount. An association between OS intake reason and mineral concentration in calcium, phosphorus, and iron was found, but no association between OS intake and magnesium. In conclusion, an association between OS intake reason and mineral concentration differed by the ingredients. Minerals in OS were very small amount, which would be improved for mineral balance in elite athletes.

  18. Muscle and tendon adaptation in adolescent athletes: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Mersmann, F; Bohm, S; Schroll, A; Boeth, H; Duda, G N; Arampatzis, A

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that a non-uniform adaptation of muscle and tendon in young athletes results in increased tendon stress during mid-adolescence. The present longitudinal study investigated the development of the morphological and mechanical properties of muscle and tendon of volleyball athletes in a time period of 2 years from mid-adolescence to late adolescence. Eighteen elite volleyball athletes participated in magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound-dynamometry sessions to determine quadriceps femoris muscle strength, vastus lateralis, medialis and intermedius morphology, and patellar tendon mechanical and morphological properties in mid-adolescence (16 ± 1 years) and late adolescence (18 ± 1 years). Muscle strength, anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA), and volume showed significant (P < 0.05) but moderate increases of 13%, 6%, and 6%, respectively. The increase of patellar tendon CSA (P < 0.05) was substantially greater (27%) and went in line with increased stiffness (P < 0.05; 25%) and reduced stress (P < 0.05; 9%). During late adolescence, a pronounced hypertrophy of the patellar tendon led to a mechanical strengthening of the tendon in relation to the functional and morphological development of the muscle. These adaptive processes may compensate the unfavorable relation of muscle strength and tendon loading capacity in mid-adolescence and might have implications on athletic performance and tendon injury risk.

  19. Fluid Balance During Training in Elite Young Athletes of Different Sports.

    PubMed

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-12-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes who start exercise in suboptimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exist. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite male athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, and canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2 ± 1.3 years; years of training: 7.7 ± 2.0). Hydration status was assessed in the morning, before and immediately after practice. Data collection took place at the same time of the day, with mean environmental temperature and humidity at the time of the measurements at 27.6 ± 0.9° C and 58 ± 8%, respectively. All athletes trained for approximately 90 minutes, and they were consuming fluids ad libitum throughout their practice. Over 89% of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine specific gravity [USG] ≥1.020 mg·dl) based on their first morning urine sample. Pretraining urine samples revealed that 76.3% of the athletes were hypohydrated, whereas a significant high percent remained hypohydrated even after training according to USG values ≥1.020 mg·dl (74.5%) and urine color scale: 5-6 (76.3%). Mean body weight loss during training was -1.1 ± 0.07%. We concluded that the prevalence of hypohydration among elite young athletes is very high, as indicated by the USG and urine color values. The majority of the athletes was hypohydrated throughout the day and dehydrated even more during practice despite fluid availability.

  20. A risk profile of elite Australian athletes who use illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Matthew; Thomas, Johanna O

    2012-01-01

    Much of the literature investigating the relationship between sports participation and substance use has focused upon student populations, with little focus being given to athletes who participate at elite levels. Identifying why some athletes may be at a greater risk for substance use can help in the design and implementation of prevention initiatives. Data for the current study was from 1684 self-complete surveys with elite Australian athletes. Eight percent (n=134) of the sample reported the use of at least one of the six illicit drugs under investigation (ecstasy, cannabis, cocaine, meth/amphetamine, ketamine and GHB) in the past year. Having been offered or having had the opportunity to use illicit drugs in the past year, knowing other athletes who use drugs and identifying as a 'full-time athlete' were significant predictors of past-year illicit drug use, while having completed secondary education or a post-school qualification was associated with a lower likelihood of past-year illicit drug use. Athletes are part of a sportsnet that includes family, coaches, support staff and other athletes, and these relationships may encourage the use, supply and demand for drugs. The current findings suggest that relationships with some of those in the sportsnet may play an important role when understanding illicit drug use among elite athletes. As education appears to be associated with a lower likelihood of illicit drug use among this group, initiatives should encourage athletes to engage in off-field pursuits which may also help prepare them for life after sport.

  1. FLUID BALANCE DURING TRAINING IN ELITE YOUNG ATHLETES OF DIFFERENT SPORTS

    PubMed Central

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes which start exercise in sub-optimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exists. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite men athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2±1.3 y, years of training: 7.7±2.0). Hydration status was assessed in the morning, before and immediately after practice. Data collection took place at the same time of the day, with mean environmental temperature and humidity at the time of the measurements at 27.6±0.9 °C and 58±8%, respectively. All athletes trained for approximately 90 min and they were consuming fluids ad libitum throughout their practice. Over 89% of the athletes were hypohydrated (USG≥1.020 mg/dl) based on their first morning urine sample. Pre-training urine samples revealed that 76.3% of the athletes were hypohydrated, while a significant high percent remained hypohydrated even after training according to USG values ≥ 1.020 mg/dl (74.5%) and urine color scale: 5-6 (76.3%). Mean body weight loss during training was −1.1±0.07%. We concluded that the prevalence of hypohydration among elite young athletes is very high, as indicated by the USG and urine color values. The majority of the athletes was hypohydrated throughout the day and dehydrated even more during practice despite fluid availability. PMID:24513625

  2. Exploring General and Sports Nutrition and Food Knowledge in Elite Male Australian Athletes.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Brooke L; Belski, Regina

    2015-06-01

    Nutrition knowledge is believed to influence nutritional intake, which in turn influences performance in elite athletes. There is currently no published data on the nutrition knowledge of elite Australian Football (AF) players. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current level of general and sports nutrition knowledge in elite male AF athletes. Forty six elite male AF players (23.5 ± 2.8 years) answered 123 questions relating to five areas of nutrition knowledge: dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, choosing everyday foods, alcohol and sports nutrition. Demographic details and perceptions of nutrition knowledge were collected for all participants. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 74.4 ± 10.9 (60.5%). The highest score was obtained in sports nutrition section (17.9 ± 3.0, 61.7%). The dietitian was selected as the first source of information by 98% of athletes, with club trainer and teammates as second choice for 45.7% and 23.9% of athletes, respectively. The majority of athletes correctly answered questions regarding recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake and decrease fat intake (95.6%, 91.1% and 93.3% correct respectively). While 80% of the athletes were aware fat intake should predominately be made up of unsaturated fat, they were less able to identify food sources of unsaturated fats (35.6% and 24.4% correct for statements regarding monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, respectively). Broad nutrition messages and recommendations appear to be well understood; however, gaps in nutrition knowledge are evident. A better understanding of nutrition knowledge in athletes will allow nutrition education interventions to target areas in need of improvement.

  3. An Action Research Approach to Supporting Elite Student-Athletes in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Jim; Dunstan-Lewis, Nicky

    2004-01-01

    Support for elite student-athletes was explored within a single English university using Stringer's (1996) Look, Think, Act model of action research. Entry to the ongoing support programme is competitive and participation is voluntary, with sessions delivered every second week after lectures. Based on supporting documentation, interviews, focus…

  4. Reconceptualising Elite Athlete Programmes: "Undoing" the Politics of Labelling in Health and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Seth

    2015-01-01

    High-performance sport is a big business, with nations such as Australia and New Zealand dedicating hundreds of millions of dollars in the development of facilities and in creating sporting centres of excellence. Historically, high-performance sport and elite athlete programmes (EAPs) were regulated to an extra-curricular space in schools or local…

  5. Psychological Separation, Self-Control, and Weight Preoccupation among Elite Women Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Friedlander, Myrna L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined weight preoccupation among 55 elite women swimmers from 5 universities. Results showed that 10.9% of respondents could be characterized as "weight preoccupied," a percentage comparable to general population of college women. Athletes reported using significantly more benign than punitive self-control strategies, suggesting for them,…

  6. Neuromuscular response differences to power vs strength back squat exercise in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Brandon, R; Howatson, G; Strachan, F; Hunter, A M

    2015-10-01

    The study's aim was to establish the neuromuscular responses in elite athletes during and following maximal 'explosive' regular back squat exercise at heavy, moderate, and light loads. Ten elite track and field athletes completed 10 sets of five maximal squat repetitions on three separate days. Knee extension maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC), rate of force development (RFD) and evoked peak twitch force (Pt) assessments were made pre- and post-session. Surface electromyography [root mean square (RMS)] and mechanical measurements were recorded during repetitions. The heavy session resulted in the greatest repetition impulse in comparison to moderate and light sessions (P < 0.001), while the latter showed highest repetition power (P < 0.001). MIVC, RFD, and Pt were significantly reduced post-session (P < 0.01), with greatest reduction observed after the heavy, followed by the moderate and light sessions accordingly. Power significantly reduced during the heavy session only (P < 0.001), and greater increases in RMS occurred during heavy session (P < 0.001), followed by moderate, with no change during light session. In conclusion, this study has shown in elite athletes that the moderate load is optimal for providing a neuromuscular stimulus but with limited fatigue. This type of intervention could be potentially used in the development of both strength and power in elite athletic populations.

  7. Fish oil supplementation reduces severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, Timothy D; Murray, Rachael L; Ionescu, Alina A; Lindley, Martin R

    2003-11-15

    In elite athletes, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) may respond to dietary modification, thereby reducing the need for pharmacologic treatment. Ten elite athletes with EIB and 10 elite athletes without EIB (control subjects) participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover study. Subjects entered the study on their normal diet, and then received either fish oil capsules containing 3.2 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.2 g docohexaenoic acid (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid [PUFA] diet; n = 5) or placebo capsules containing olive oil (placebo diet; n = 5) taken daily for 3 weeks. Diet had no effect on preexercise pulmonary function in either group or on postexercise pulmonary function in control subjects. However, in subjects with EIB, the n-3 PUFA diet improved postexercise pulmonary function compared with the normal and placebo diets. FEV1 decreased by 3 +/- 2% on n-3 PUFA diet, 14.5 +/- 5% on placebo diet, and 17.3 +/- 6% on normal diet at 15 minutes postexercise. Leukotriene (LT)E4, 9alpha, 11beta-prostaglandin F2, LTB4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1beta, all significantly decreased on the n-3 PUFA diet compared with normal and placebo diets and after the exercise challenge. These data suggest that dietary fish oil supplementation has a markedly protective effect in suppressing EIB in elite athletes, and this may be attributed to their antiinflammatory properties.

  8. Use of nutritional supplements by Danish elite athletes and fitness customers.

    PubMed

    Solheim, S A; Nordsborg, N B; Ritz, C; Berget, J; Kristensen, A H; Mørkeberg, J

    2016-06-05

    The nutritional supplement (NS) industry is one of the fastest growing in the world, and NS use in Denmark is among the highest in Europe. However, the exact use in elite athletes and fitness customers targeted for doping control is unknown. Information from 634 doping control forms obtained in 2014 was evaluated (elite athletes: n = 361; fitness customers: n = 273). The majority of female (92.6%) and male (85.0%) elite athletes and female (100.0%) and male (94.0%) fitness customers declared using one or more NS. The use of non-ergogenic NS was more prevalent in women than in men and in younger (15-34 years) compared with older (35-49 years) subjects, but it was less prevalent in intermittent compared with endurance and power/strength sports. Additionally, fitness customers who tested positive for doping also reported using more NS than subjects testing negative, indicating an association between NS and doping abuse. The present results demonstrate a very high prevalence of NS usage in both elite athletes and fitness customers. This highlights the importance of a strong national regulation of NS to avoid contamination of NS with doping substances.

  9. The aging of elite male athletes: age-related changes in performance and skeletal muscle structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, John A.; Davis, Carol S.; Mendias, Christopher L.; Brooks, Susan V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The paper addresses the degree to which the attainment of the status as an elite athlete in different sports ameliorates the known age-related losses in skeletal muscle structure and function. Design The retrospective design, based on comparisons of published data on former elite and masters athletes and data on control subjects, assessed the degree to which the attainment of ‘elite and masters athlete status’ ameliorated the known age-related changes in skeletal muscle structure and function. Setting Institutional. Participants Elite male athletes. Interventions Participation in selected individual and team sports. Main Outcome Measurements Strength, power, VO2 max and performance. Results For elite athletes in all sports, as for the general population, age-related muscle atrophy begins at about 50 years of age. Despite the loss of muscle mass, elite athletes who maintain an active life style age gracefully with few health problems. Conversely, those who lapse into inactivity regress toward general population norms for fitness, weight control, and health problems. Elite athletes in the dual and team sports have careers that rarely extend into the thirties. Conclusions Life long physical activity does not appear to have any impact on the loss in fiber number. The loss of fibers can be buffered to some degree by hypertrophy of fibers that remain. Surprisingly, the performance of elite athletes in all sports appears to be impaired before the onset of the fiber loss. Even with major losses in physical capacity and muscle mass, the performance of elite and masters athletes is remarkable. PMID:19001883

  10. Development management model of elite athletes in team sports games.

    PubMed

    Trninić, Marko; Trninić, Slavko; Papić, Vladan

    2009-06-01

    The scientific and expert approach to defining a model of managing the development of top-level athletes in team sports games is oriented toward the challenging values that mark a certain position and role in a team sports game. A hypothetical dynamic model of development management of top-level athletes in team sports games, which explicitly shows the order of procedures in the process of multidimensional development of athletes using the concepts of the dynamic systems theory has been suggested. The hypothetical model of management shows that the athlete's development is primarily under the influence of genetic potential, sports preparation process and the competition format, as well as the management of their lifestyle. In the process, the athlete's development is seen as a dynamic and plastic process under the influence of selective procedures and training programs that enable a continuous change in the level of the athlete's performance and sports preparation process.

  11. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does Receiving Dietary Counselling Make a Difference?

    PubMed

    Wardenaar, Floris C; Ceelen, Ingrid Jm; Van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Hangelbroek, Roland Wj; Van Roy, Lore; Van der Pouw, Britte; De Vries, Jeanne Hm; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger F

    2016-09-06

    The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counselling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females) completed a web-based questionnaire about the use of nutritional supplements. Log-binomial regression models were applied to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for the use of individual nutritional supplements in athletes receiving dietary counselling as compared to athletes not receiving dietary counselling. Of the athletes 97.2% had used nutritional supplements at some time during their sports career, whereas 84.7% indicated having used supplements during the last 4 weeks. The top ranked supplements used over the last 4 weeks from dietary supplements, sport nutrition products and ergogenic supplements were multivitamin and mineral preparations (42.9%), isotonic sports drinks (44.1%) and caffeine (13.0%). After adjustment for elite status, age, and weekly exercise duration, dietary counselling was associated with a higher prevalence of the use of vitamin D, recovery drinks, energy bars, isotonic drinks with protein, dextrose, beta-alanine, and sodium bicarbonate. In contrast, dietary counselling was inversely associated with the use of combivitamins, calcium, vitamin E, vitamin B2, retinol, energy drinks and BCAA and other amino acids. In conclusion, almost all athletes had used nutritional supplements at some time during their athletic career. Receiving dietary counselling seemed to result in better informed choices with respect to the use of nutritional supplements related to performance, recovery, and health.

  12. Predicting elite Scottish athletes' attitudes towards doping: examining the contribution of achievement goals and motivational climate.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine; Taylor, John; Dimeo, Paul; Dixon, Sarah; Robinson, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding athletes' attitudes to doping continues to be of interest for its potential to contribute to an international anti-doping system. However, little is known about the relationship between elite athletes' attitudes to drug use and potential explanatory factors, including achievement goals and the motivational climate. In addition, despite specific World Anti-Doping Agency Code relating to team sport athletes, little is known about whether sport type (team or individual) is a risk or protective factor in relation to doping. Elite athletes from Scotland (N = 177) completed a survey examining attitudes to performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, achievement goal orientations and perceived motivational climate. Athletes were generally against doping for performance enhancement. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that task and ego goals and mastery motivational climate were predictors of attitudes to PED use (F (4, 171) = 15.81, P < .01). Compared with individual athletes, team athletes were significantly lower in attitude to PED use and ego orientation scores and significantly higher in perceptions of a mastery motivational climate (Wilks' lambda = .76, F = 10.89 (5, 170), P < .01). The study provides insight into how individual and situational factors may act as protective and risk factors in doping in sport.

  13. Rhabdomyolysis After Out-of-Water Exercise in an Elite Adolescent Water Polo Player Carrying the IL-6 174C Allele Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Eliakim, Alon; Ben Zaken, Sigal; Meckel, Yoav; Yamin, Chen; Dror, Nitzan; Nemet, Dan

    2015-12-01

    We present an adolescent elite water polo player who despite a genetic predisposition to develop exercise-induced severe muscle damage due to carrying the IL-6 174C allele single-nucleotide polymorphism, developed acute rhabdomyolysis only after a vigorous out-of-water training, suggesting that water polo training may be more suitable for genetically predisposed athletes.

  14. Cardiovascular adaptation and cardiac disease in the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Del Río-santiago, Valentín; Santiago Trinidad, Ricardo; Vicenty Rivera, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are uncommon among trained athletes. Their occurrences mostly depend on the individual's age and fitness levels. Adequate understanding of the cardiovascular adaptations undergone by the competitive athletes' heart is of paramount importance in order to differentiate them from serious cardiovascular conditions. Diagnosing these abnormalities early may prevent rare but devastating potential complications associated with athletic activities and defines appropriate activity restrictions to minimize the risk of sudden cardiac death. This article will review concerns related to competitive athlete's cardiovascular adaptations and diseases, in light of specific recommendations presented in the 36th Bethesda Conference guidelines.

  15. Triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries in the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jason H; Wiedrich, Thomas A

    2012-08-01

    Injuries to the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) in athletes can be caused by acute trauma, chronic repetitive loading, or a combination of both. Regardless of cause, the management of TFCC injuries in the high-performance athlete is often different from the basic tenets applied to the general population. The diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation regimen should be individualized and sport-specific in athletes, taking into consideration the priorities and needs of the athlete while striking a balance between healing, return to play, and long-term well-being.

  16. Polymorphisms in the control region of mitochondrial DNA associated with elite Japanese athlete status.

    PubMed

    Mikami, E; Fuku, N; Takahashi, H; Ohiwa, N; Pitsiladis, Y P; Higuchi, M; Kawahara, T; Tanaka, M

    2013-10-01

    The control region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contains the main regulatory elements for mtDNA replication and transcription. Certain polymorphisms in this region would, therefore, contribute to elite athletic performance, because mitochondrial function is one of determinants of physical performance. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of polymorphisms in this region on elite athlete status by sequencing the mtDNA control region. Subjects comprised 185 elite Japanese athletes who had represented Japan at international competitions (i.e., 100 endurance/middle-power athletes: EMA; 85 sprint/power athletes: SPA), and 672 Japanese controls (CON). The mtDNA control region was analyzed by direct sequencing. Frequency differences of polymorphisms (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.05) in the mtDNA control region between EMA, SPA, and CON were examined. EMA displayed excess of three polymorphisms [m.152T>C, m.514(CA)n repeat (n ≥ 5), and poly-C stretch at m.568-573 (C ≥ 7)] compared with CON. On the other hand, SPA showed greater frequency of the m.204T>C polymorphism compared with CON. In addition, none of the SPA had m.16278C>T polymorphism, whereas the frequencies of this polymorphism in CON and EMA were 8.3% and 10.0%, respectively. These findings imply that several polymorphisms detected in the control region of mtDNA may influence physical performance probably in a functional manner.

  17. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  18. Dietary intake and nutritional practices of elite Greek aquatic athletes.

    PubMed

    Farajian, P; Kavouras, S A; Yannakoulia, M; Sidossis, L S

    2004-10-01

    To investigate whether aquatic athletes follow optimal dietary intake, 58 athletes, all members of the Greek national swimming and water polo teams, were tested. Dietary intake was assessed at the nutrient, food, and food group level using the 24-h recall method and a food frequency questionnaire. Mean energy intake for males and females was 14.3 and 8.5 MJ, respectively. Mean carbohydrate consumption for male and female athletes was 4.5 g/kg and 3.8 g/kg of body weight, respectively. Fat intake was 153 g for males and 79 g for females. A significant number of the athletes (71% of the males, 93% of the females) did not meet the Dietary Reference Intakes for at least one of the antioxidant vitamins. The data suggest that athletes of both genders consumed too much fat and too little carbohydrate. Insufficient fruit and vegetable intake was related to low intake of antioxidants.

  19. Elite athletes' attitudes towards the use of placebo-induced performance enhancement in sports.

    PubMed

    Bérdi, Márk; Köteles, Ferenc; Hevesi, Krisztina; Bárdos, György; Szabo, Attila

    2015-01-01

    While an increasing number of research is devoted to the understanding of placebo effects in sports, athletes' experiences with and attitudes towards the use of placebo for performance enhancement remain poorly understood. In this study, 79 elite athletes from different sports were surveyed on five issues related to placebo use in sports. Results showed that 47% of the athletes have experienced placebo effects in the past. A majority of the athletes (82%) thought that placebos could affect their sports performances. A wider use of placebos in sport settings was endorsed more by those who have experienced placebo effects in the past than those who did not (P = .005). Regardless of past experience with placebo, more than half of the athletes (53%) would accept an unknown but legitimate substance from the coach, and 67% of them would not mind a placebo-linked deception if that was effective. These findings confirm that most elite athletes believe in the power of placebos in enhancing sports performance, and those having a positive past experience exhibit slightly more favourable attitudes in contrast to those without such experiences.

  20. The influence of surface on the running velocities of elite and amateur orienteer athletes.

    PubMed

    Hébert-Losier, K; Jensen, K; Mourot, L; Holmberg, H-C

    2014-12-01

    We compared the reduction in running velocities from road to off-road terrain in eight elite and eight amateur male orienteer athletes to investigate whether this factor differentiates elite from amateur athletes. On two separate days, each subject ran three 2-km time trials and three 20-m sprints "all-out" on a road, on a path, and in a forest. On a third day, the running economy and maximal aerobic power of individuals were assessed on a treadmill. The elite orienteer ran faster than the amateur on all three surfaces and at both distances, in line with their better running economy and aerobic power. In the forest, the elites ran at a slightly higher percentage of their 2-km (∼3%) and 20-m (∼4%) road velocities. Although these differences did not exhibit traditional statistical significance, magnitude-based inferences suggested likely meaningful differences, particularly during 20-m sprinting. Of course, cognitive, mental, and physical attributes other than the ability to run on different surfaces are required for excellence in orienteering (e.g., a high aerobic power). However, we suggest that athlete-specific assessment of running performance on various surfaces and distances might assist in tailoring training and identifying individual strengths and/or weaknesses in an orienteer.

  1. Vitamin D Status and Supplementation Practices in Elite Irish Athletes: An Update from 2010/2011.

    PubMed

    Todd, Joshua; Madigan, Sharon; Pourshahidi, Kirsty; McSorley, Emeir; Laird, Eamon; Healy, Martin; Magee, Pamela

    2016-08-09

    Vitamin D deficiency is a global health concern that is prevalent in Ireland. The vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes following implementation of a revised supplementation policy in 2010/2011 has not been explored to date. This study aimed to assess the vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes participating in high-profile sports and establish if equatorial travel, supplementation and/or sunbed use predict vitamin D status. Across Ireland, blood samples (n = 92) were obtained from cricketers (n = 28), boxers (n = 21) and women's rugby sevens players (n = 43) between November 2013 and April 2015. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were quantified using LC-MS/MS. Parathyroid hormone and adjusted calcium concentrations were measured by clinical biochemistry. Athletes completed a questionnaire that queried equatorial travel, supplementation and sunbed use. Vitamin D sufficiency (25(OH)D >50 nmol/L) was evident in 86% of athletes. Insufficiency (31-49 nmol/L) and deficiency (<30 nmol/L) was present in only 12% and 2% of athletes respectively. On average, athletes from all sport disciplines were vitamin D sufficient and 25% reported vitamin D supplementation which was a significant positive predictor of vitamin D status, (OR 4.31; 95% CI 1.18-15.75; p = 0.027). Equatorial travel and sun bed use were reported in 47% and 16% of athletes respectively however these factors did not predict vitamin D status (both p > 0.05). Although different cohorts were assessed, the overall prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was 55% in 2010/2011 compared with only 14% in 2013/2015. Targeted supplementation is highly effective in optimising vitamin D status, negating the need for blanket-supplementation in elite cohorts.

  2. Vitamin D Status and Supplementation Practices in Elite Irish Athletes: An Update from 2010/2011

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Joshua; Madigan, Sharon; Pourshahidi, Kirsty; McSorley, Emeir; Laird, Eamon; Healy, Martin; Magee, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a global health concern that is prevalent in Ireland. The vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes following implementation of a revised supplementation policy in 2010/2011 has not been explored to date. This study aimed to assess the vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes participating in high-profile sports and establish if equatorial travel, supplementation and/or sunbed use predict vitamin D status. Across Ireland, blood samples (n = 92) were obtained from cricketers (n = 28), boxers (n = 21) and women’s rugby sevens players (n = 43) between November 2013 and April 2015. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were quantified using LC-MS/MS. Parathyroid hormone and adjusted calcium concentrations were measured by clinical biochemistry. Athletes completed a questionnaire that queried equatorial travel, supplementation and sunbed use. Vitamin D sufficiency (25(OH)D >50 nmol/L) was evident in 86% of athletes. Insufficiency (31–49 nmol/L) and deficiency (<30 nmol/L) was present in only 12% and 2% of athletes respectively. On average, athletes from all sport disciplines were vitamin D sufficient and 25% reported vitamin D supplementation which was a significant positive predictor of vitamin D status, (OR 4.31; 95% CI 1.18–15.75; p = 0.027). Equatorial travel and sun bed use were reported in 47% and 16% of athletes respectively however these factors did not predict vitamin D status (both p > 0.05). Although different cohorts were assessed, the overall prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was 55% in 2010/2011 compared with only 14% in 2013/2015. Targeted supplementation is highly effective in optimising vitamin D status, negating the need for blanket-supplementation in elite cohorts. PMID:27517954

  3. Managing the health of the elite athlete: a new integrated performance health management and coaching model

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, H Paul; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Alonso, J M

    2014-01-01

    Elite athletes endeavour to train and compete even when ill or injured. Their motivation may be intrinsic or due to coach and team pressures. The sports medicine physician plays an important role to risk-manage the health of the competing athlete in partnership with the coach and other members of the support team. The sports medicine physician needs to strike the right ethical and operational balance between health management and optimising performance. It is necessary to revisit the popular delivery model of sports medicine and science services to elite athletes based on the current reductionist multispecialist system lacking in practice an integrated approach and effective communication. Athlete and coach in isolation or with a member of the multidisciplinary support team, often not qualified or experienced to do so, decide on the utilisation of services and how to apply the recommendations. We propose a new Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model based on the UK Athletics experience in preparation for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Medical and Coaching Teams are managed by qualified and experienced individuals operating in synergy towards a common performance goal, accountable to a Performance Director and ultimately to the Board of Directors. We describe the systems, processes and implementation strategies to assist the athlete, coach and support teams to continuously monitor and manage athlete health and performance. These systems facilitate a balanced approach to training and competing decisions, especially while the athlete is ill or injured. They take into account the best medical advice and athlete preference. This Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model underpinned the Track and Field Gold Medal performances at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:24620040

  4. Managing the health of the elite athlete: a new integrated performance health management and coaching model.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, H Paul; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Alonso, J M

    2014-04-01

    Elite athletes endeavour to train and compete even when ill or injured. Their motivation may be intrinsic or due to coach and team pressures. The sports medicine physician plays an important role to risk-manage the health of the competing athlete in partnership with the coach and other members of the support team. The sports medicine physician needs to strike the right ethical and operational balance between health management and optimising performance. It is necessary to revisit the popular delivery model of sports medicine and science services to elite athletes based on the current reductionist multispecialist system lacking in practice an integrated approach and effective communication. Athlete and coach in isolation or with a member of the multidisciplinary support team, often not qualified or experienced to do so, decide on the utilisation of services and how to apply the recommendations. We propose a new Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model based on the UK Athletics experience in preparation for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Medical and Coaching Teams are managed by qualified and experienced individuals operating in synergy towards a common performance goal, accountable to a Performance Director and ultimately to the Board of Directors. We describe the systems, processes and implementation strategies to assist the athlete, coach and support teams to continuously monitor and manage athlete health and performance. These systems facilitate a balanced approach to training and competing decisions, especially while the athlete is ill or injured. They take into account the best medical advice and athlete preference. This Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model underpinned the Track and Field Gold Medal performances at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  5. Judgment of actions in experts: a high-resolution EEG study in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Del Percio, Claudio; Rossini, Paolo M; Marzano, Nicola; Iacoboni, Marco; Infarinato, Francesco; Lizio, Roberta; Piazza, Marina; Pirritano, Mirella; Berlutti, Giovanna; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2009-04-01

    The present study tested the two following hypotheses: (i) compared to non-athletes, elite athletes are characterized by a reduced cortical activation during the judgment of sporting observed actions; (ii) in elite athletes, a good judgment of observed sporting actions is related to a low cortical activation. To address these issues, electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded in 15 elite rhythmic gymnasts and 13 non-gymnasts. They observed a series of 120 rhythmic gymnastic videos. At the end of each video, the subjects had to judge the artistic/athletic level of the exercise by a scale from 0 to 10. The mismatch between their judgment and that of the coach indexed the degree of action judgment. The EEG cortical sources were estimated by sLORETA. With reference to a pre-stimulus period, the power decrease of alpha (8-12 Hz) rhythms during the videos indexed the cortical activation (event related desynchronization, ERD). Regarding the hypothesis (i), low- and high-frequency alpha ERD was lower in amplitude in the elite rhythmic gymnasts compared to the non-gymnasts in occipital and temporal areas (ventral pathway) and in dorsal pathway. Regarding the hypothesis (ii), in the elite rhythmic gymnasts high-frequency alpha ERD was higher in amplitude with the videos characterized by a high judgment error than those characterized by a low judgment error; this was true in inferior posterior parietal and ventral premotor areas ("mirror" pathway). These results globally suggest that the judgment of observed sporting actions is related to low amplitude of alpha ERD, as a possible index of spatially selective cortical activation ("neural efficiency").

  6. Lower body symmetry and running performance in elite Jamaican track and field athletes.

    PubMed

    Trivers, Robert; Fink, Bernhard; Russell, Mark; McCarty, Kristofor; James, Bruce; Palestis, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    In a study of degree of lower body symmetry in 73 elite Jamaican track and field athletes we show that both their knees and ankles (but not their feet) are-on average-significantly more symmetrical than those of 116 similarly aged controls from the rural Jamaican countryside. Within the elite athletes, events ranged from the 100 to the 800 m, and knee and ankle asymmetry was lower for those running the 100 m dashes than those running the longer events with turns. Nevertheless, across all events those with more symmetrical knees and ankles (but not feet) had better results compared to international standards. Regression models considering lower body symmetry combined with gender, age and weight explain 27 to 28% of the variation in performance among athletes, with symmetry related to about 5% of this variation. Within 100 m sprinters, the results suggest that those with more symmetrical knees and ankles ran faster. Altogether, our work confirms earlier findings that knee and probably ankle symmetry are positively associated with sprinting performance, while extending these findings to elite athletes.

  7. Lower Body Symmetry and Running Performance in Elite Jamaican Track and Field Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Trivers, Robert; Fink, Bernhard; Russell, Mark; McCarty, Kristofor; James, Bruce; Palestis, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    In a study of degree of lower body symmetry in 73 elite Jamaican track and field athletes we show that both their knees and ankles (but not their feet) are–on average–significantly more symmetrical than those of 116 similarly aged controls from the rural Jamaican countryside. Within the elite athletes, events ranged from the 100 to the 800 m, and knee and ankle asymmetry was lower for those running the 100 m dashes than those running the longer events with turns. Nevertheless, across all events those with more symmetrical knees and ankles (but not feet) had better results compared to international standards. Regression models considering lower body symmetry combined with gender, age and weight explain 27 to 28% of the variation in performance among athletes, with symmetry related to about 5% of this variation. Within 100 m sprinters, the results suggest that those with more symmetrical knees and ankles ran faster. Altogether, our work confirms earlier findings that knee and probably ankle symmetry are positively associated with sprinting performance, while extending these findings to elite athletes. PMID:25401732

  8. Oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis markers in elite female water polo athletes throughout a season.

    PubMed

    Varamenti, Evdokia I; Kyparos, Antonios; Veskoukis, Aristeidis S; Bakou, Maria; Kalaboka, Stavroula; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2013-11-01

    Elite athletes undergo heavy training programs throughout the year. The aim of the present study was to evaluate blood biomarkers of redox status, oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis over the course of a competitive season in elite female water polo players. The biomarkers were evaluated in four distinct phases of an athletic season. It was found that the reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration was significantly increased, whereas catalase activity was decreased in erythrocytes in phases 3 and 4 compared to phase 2. Plasma concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was increased in phases 3 and 4 compared to phases 1 and 2, the concentration of protein carbonyls was increased in phase 4, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was decreased in phases 2 and 3. Plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was decreased in phases 3 and 4; interleukin-10 (IL-10) was increased in phase 4, whereas no change was observed for adiponectin and endoglin. The findings of this study indicate that oxidative stress and inflammation varies over the season in elite female water polo athletes and this information might be used to apply remedies for optimizing athletic performance and accelerating training recovery.

  9. Eating behaviors, nutritional status, and menstrual function in elite female adolescent volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Beals, Katherine A

    2002-09-01

    Nutritional status, eating behaviors and menstrual function was examined in 23 nationally ranked female adolescent volleyball players using a health/weight/ dieting/menstrual history questionnaire, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Nutrient and energy intakes (El) and energy expenditure (EE) were determined by 3-d weighed food records and activity logs. Iron (Fe), vitamins C, B12, and Folate status were assessed using serum and whole blood. Mean El (2248 +/- 414 kcal/d) was less than EE (2815 +/- 306 kcal/d). Mean carbohydrate (5.4 +/-1.0g/kg/d) and protein (1.1+/-0.3g/kg/d) intakes were below recommended levels for highly active women. Mean intakes for folate, Fe, Ca, Mg, and Zn were less than the respective RDAs/DRIs and almost 50% of the athletes were consuming less than the RDAs/DRIs for the B-complex vitamins and vitamin C. Three athletes presented with Fe deficiency anemia (Hb <12 mg/dL), while marginal vitamin B12 status (<200 pg/ml) and vitamin C status (<28 mmol/L) were found in 1 and 4 athletes, respectively. Approximately 1/2 of the athletes reported actively "dieting". Mean BSQ and EDI subscales scores were within the normal ranges; yet, elevated scores on these scales were reported by 26% and 35% of athletes, respectively. Past or present amenorrhea was reported by 17% of the athletes and 13% and 48%, reported past or present oligomenorrhea and "irregular" menstrual cycles, respectively. These results indicate that elite adolescent volleyball players are at risk for menstrual dysfunction and have energy and nutrient intakes that place them at risk for nutritional deficiencies and compromised performance.

  10. Episodes of injuries and frequent usage of traditional Chinese medicine for Taiwanese elite wrestling athletes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zen-Pin; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chia, Fan; Wu, Huey-June; Lan, Lawrence W; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2011-01-01

    Wrestling normally places extreme demands on the body and thus may cause various kinds of injuries. An in-depth understanding of the episodes of injured sites, types, timings, and treatment modalities would help participants be aware of wrestling-related injury occurrences so as to develop effective preventive measures. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the gender-specific injuries among elite wrestling athletes. Subjects were selected from the 2009 Taiwanese National Wrestling Sport Championship. Participants were adolescent wrestling athletes, ages 16-18, who must have received at least one bronze medal at national level tournaments in 2008. A total of 118 respondents, 96 males and 22 females, completed and returned the questionnaire in which demographic data and information about the types, sites, and timings of injuries suffered and treatment modalities adopted were elicited. The data were analyzed with independent t-tests. The questionnaire results revealed a significantly higher injury rate for males than for females. The top three injured sites for males were waist (11.1%), ankle joint (10.1%) and finger (9.6%); while for females were ankle joint (13.6%), knee (12.5%) and waist (11.3%). Contusions were the most frequent type of injury: for males (73.5%) and for females (70.6%); followed by tendon inflammation for males (10.7%) and accumulated injuries for females (15.2%). During training and matching periods, the frequency of injuries for males (69.0%) is lower than that for females (81.8%). Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with acupuncture and moxibustion was the most common treatment modalities used for males (51.8%) and for females (68.0%); followed by orthopedics: for males (29.5%) and for females (18.0%). The present study contributed as the first effort to reveal the potency of using TCM with acupuncture and moxibustion in wrestling competitions. To prevent possible brain and body injuries in wrestling, safety education, skills and rules, and

  11. Anti-doping education and dietary supplementation practice in Korean elite university athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongkyu; Kim, Eung-Joon; Ki, Sun-kyung; Yoon, Jaeryang; Lee, Mi-sook

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate relationships and gender differences in dietary supplement (DS) and oriental supplement (OS) prevalence as well as anti-doping awareness during training and the game period. Korea National Sport University athletes (343 male and 136 female) participated in this study and completed DS and OS practice and anti-doping awareness questionnaires. Forty-six percent of athletes used DS during the training period, and there was significantly higher DS use in females (53%) compared to males (43%) (P < 0.05). Twenty-eight percent of athletes used OS, and there was significantly higher OS use in females (35%) than males (26%) (P < 0.05) during the training period. The primary reason of DS use was to supply energy both in males (36%) and females (28%). The main reason for male athletes' OS use was to supply energy (41%). Meanwhile, the reasons for female athletes' OS use were to supply energy (23%), to maintain health (19%), and to improve recovery ability (20%), which showed a significant gender difference (P < 0.05). Athletes rated their perceived degree of satisfaction, perceived importance, and beliefs in efficacy of DS and OS use all over 50% during the training period, and no gender differences were detected. In a comparison between athletes educated about anti-doping (at least more than one time) and non-received athletes, DS and OS use during the training period was 2.30 (1.47-3.60) and 1.71 (1.03-2.82), respectively. DS and OS use immediately before the game period was 2.38 (1.50-3.80) and 3.99 (1.20-13.28), respectively. Elite athletes' anti-doping education was highly related to increased DS use during the training period and immediately before the game. Although elite athletes use various DS and OS during the training period and before the game period, doping education for elite athletes is related with DS and OS use during the training period and before the game. PMID:21994530

  12. Altitude training for elite endurance athletes: A review for the travel medicine practitioner.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Gerard; O'Connor, Rory; Johnston, Niall

    2016-01-01

    High altitude training is regarded as an integral component of modern athletic preparation, especially for endurance sports such as middle and long distance running. It has rapidly achieved popularity among elite endurance athletes and their coaches. Increased hypoxic stress at altitude facilitates key physiological adaptations within the athlete, which in turn may lead to improvements in sea-level athletic performance. Despite much research in this area to date, the exact mechanisms which underlie such improvements remain to be fully elucidated. This review describes the current understanding of physiological adaptation to high altitude training and its implications for athletic performance. It also discusses the rationale and main effects of different training models currently employed to maximise performance. Athletes who travel to altitude for training purposes are at risk of suffering the detrimental effects of altitude. Altitude illness, weight loss, immune suppression and sleep disturbance may serve to limit athletic performance. This review provides an overview of potential problems which an athlete may experience at altitude, and offers specific training recommendations so that these detrimental effects are minimised.

  13. The effects of training on performance and performance-related states in individual elite athletes: a dynamic approach.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Anthony; Cerin, Ester; Reaburn, Peter; Hooper, Sue

    2010-08-01

    There are difficulties undertaking controlled training studies with elite athletes. Thus, data from non-elite performers are often presented in scientific journals and subsequently used to guide general training principles. This information may not be transferable or specific enough to inform training practices in an individual elite athlete. However, the nature of athletic participation at elite levels provides the opportunity to collect training data, performance-related variables, and performance data of elite athletes over long periods. In this paper, we describe how dynamic linear models provide an opportunity to use these data to inform training. Data from an elite female triathlete collected over a 111-day training period were used to model the relationship between training and self-reported fatigue. The dynamic linear model analysis showed the independent effects of the three modes of triathlon training on fatigue, how these can change across time, and the possible influence of other unmeasured variables. This paper shows the potential for the use of dynamic linear models as an aid to planning training in elite athletes.

  14. The Awareness and Educational Status on Oral Health of Elite Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study with Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgur, Bahar Odabas

    2016-01-01

    In this cross-sectional survey, this study aimed to determine the factors associated with oral health of elite athletes and to determine the clustering tendency of the variables by dendrogram, and to determine the relationship between predefined clusters and see how these clusters can converge. A total of 97 elite (that is, top-level performing)…

  15. Low bone mineral density is two to three times more prevalent in non-athletic premenopausal women than in elite athletes: a comprehensive controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Torstveit, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Wark, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare bone mineral density (BMD), investigate factors associated with BMD, and examine the prevalence of low BMD in athletes and non-athletic controls. Methods: The study included a questionnaire (part I), measurement of BMD (part II), and a clinical interview (part III). All Norwegian female athletes on national teams (n = 938) and an aged matched random sample of non-athletic controls (n = 900) were invited to participate. The questionnaire was completed by 88% of athletes and 70% of controls. A random sample of these athletes (n = 300) and controls (n = 300) was invited to participate in parts II and III. All parts were completed by 186 athletes (62%) and 145 controls (48%). Results: Mean (standard deviation) total body (TB) BMD was higher (p<0.001) in athletes (1.21 (0.09) g/cm2) than in controls (1.18 (0.08) g/cm2), and higher (p<0.001) in high impact (HI) sports athletes than in medium impact (MI) and low impact (LI) sports athletes. In athletes, body weight and impact loading sports were positively associated, and percent body fat and eating disorders were negatively associated with TB BMD. Body weight and weight bearing activities were positively associated and menstrual dysfunction was negatively associated with TB BMD in controls. A higher percentage of controls (28.3%) than athletes (10.7%) had low BMD (p<0.001). Conclusion: Female elite athletes have 3–20% higher BMD than non-athletic controls and HI sports athletes have 3–22% higher BMD compared with MI and LI sports athletes. Low BMD is two to three times more common in non-athletic premenopausal women than in elite athletes. PMID:15849292

  16. The estimation of mineral contents in oriental supplements consumed by elite athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hansang; Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: to examine macro (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) and trace mineral (iron) concentration in oriental supplements (OS), and to define OS prevalence in elite athletes. Participants of this study were 928 varsity athletes (male: 680, female: 248) with 23 sports types. Recent 3-month dietary supplements (DS) and OS practice was surveyed during training period, and mineral concentration in 72 randomly collected OS samples were analyzed. DS use was 41% and OS use was 20% in university elite athletes. Most common OS use informants were parents (74%). OS intake reason was for health maintenance (37%), energy supplement (25%), and recovery improvement (15%). Moreover, health maintenance was higher in females (47%) than males (32%) while energy supplement was higher in males (28%) than females (18%) (χ2(8) = 17.676, p = 0.024). Beliefs in OS efficacy and importance were significantly higher in female athletes compared to male athletes (p < 0.05). Macro mineral concentration in OS was calcium (7.54 ppm), magnesium (4.63 ppm), and phosphorus (205.34 ppb) and trace mineral concentration in OS was iron (8.10 ppb), which was a small amount. An association between OS intake reason and mineral concentration in calcium, phosphorus, and iron was found, but no association between OS intake and magnesium. In conclusion, an association between OS intake reason and mineral concentration differed by the ingredients. Minerals in OS were very small amount, which would be improved for mineral balance in elite athletes. PMID:25566427

  17. Celiac Disease in an Elite Female Collegiate Volleyball Athlete: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Eberman, Lindsey E; Cleary, Michelle A

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To present the case of an elite female volleyball player who complained of diarrhea and fatigue after preseason training. Background: The athlete lost 8.1 kg during the first 20 days of training, and we initially suspected an eating disorder. The sports medicine team interviewed the athlete and found she did not have psychological symptoms indicative of an eating disorder. The results of routine blood tests revealed critically high platelet counts; in conjunction with the physical findings, the athlete was referred to a gastroenterologist. Differential Diagnosis: Our initial suggestion was an eating disorder. Therefore, the differential diagnosis included anorexia athletica, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa. On referral, the differential diagnosis was anemia, gastrointestinal dysfunction, lymphoma, or bowel adenocarcinoma. Diarrhea, weight loss, and blood test results were suggestive of active celiac disease, and a duodenal biopsy specimen confirmed this diagnosis. Treatment: The athlete was treated with a gluten-free diet, which excludes wheat, barley, and rye. Dietary substitutions were incorporated to maintain adequate caloric intake. Uniqueness: The presence of active celiac disease may not be uncommon. However, elite athletes who face celiac disease present a new challenge for the athletic trainer. The athletic trainer can help guide the athlete in coping with the lifestyle changes associated with a gluten-free diet. Conclusions: One in every 200 to 400 individuals has celiac disease; many of these individuals are asymptomatic and, therefore, their conditions are undiagnosed. Undiagnosed, untreated celiac disease and patients who fail to follow the gluten-free diet increase the risk of further problems. PMID:16404459

  18. Monitoring Fatigue Status in Elite Team Sport Athletes: Implications for Practice.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Robin T; Atkinson, Greg; Drust, Barry; Gregson, Warren

    2017-01-17

    The increase in competition demands in elite team sports over recent years has prompted much attention from researchers and practitioners into the monitoring of adaptation and fatigue in athletes. Monitoring of fatigue and gaining an understanding of athlete status may also provide insights and beneficial information pertaining to player availability, injury and illness risk. Traditional methods used to quantify recovery and fatigue in team sports such as maximal physical performance assessments may not be feasible in order to detect variations in fatigue status throughout competitive periods. The implementation of more quick, simple and non-exhaustive tests such as athlete self-report measures (ASRM), autonomic nervous system (ANS) response via heart rate derived indices and to a lesser extent jump protocols may serve as promising tools to quantify and establish fatigue status in elite team sport athletes. The robust rationalization and precise detection of a meaningful fluctuation in these measures are of paramount importance for practitioners working alongside athletes and coaches on a daily basis. There are various methods for arriving at a minimal clinically important difference (MCID), but these have been rarely adopted by sports scientists and practitioners. The implementation of appropriate, reliable and sensitive measures of fatigue can provide important information to key stakeholders within team sport environments. Future research is required to investigate the sensitivity of these tools to fundamental indicators such as performance, injury and illness.

  19. Acculturation in elite sport: a thematic analysis of immigrant athletes and coaches.

    PubMed

    Schinke, Robert Joel; McGannon, Kerry R; Battochio, Randy Cesar; Wells, Greg D

    2013-01-01

    To identify key issues concerning the acculturation of immigrant athletes in sport psychology, a thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) was conducted on focus group interview data from immigrant elite athletes relocated to Canada (n = 13) and coaches working with such athletes (n = 10). Two central themes were identified: (a) navigating two world views which referred to acculturation as a fluid process where athletes navigated between cultural norms of the home community and the host community, and (b) acculturation loads, which referred to whether immigrants and those in the host country shared acculturation (i.e., acculturation as a two-way process) or managed the load with or without support from others (i.e., acculturation as one-directional). Each of these central themes comprised sub-themes, which provided further insight into the experiences of acculturation for immigrant elite athletes. From the project, the authors recommend further research utilising case studies to provide a holistic description of the acculturation process from the vantage of various people within the sport context.

  20. Tibialis posterior tendon and deltoid and spring ligament injuries in the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Ribbans, William John; Garde, Ajit

    2013-06-01

    The tibialis posterior tendon and the spring and deltoid ligament complexes combine to provide dynamic and passive stabilization on the medial side of the ankle and hindfoot. Some of the injuries will involve acute injury to previous healthy structures, but many will develop insidiously. The clinician must be aware of new treatment strategies and the level of accompanying scientific evidence regarding injuries sustained by athletes in these areas, while acknowledging that more traditional management applied to nonathletic patients is still likely to be appropriate in the setting of treatment for elite athletes.

  1. Spontaneous Septic Arthritis of Pubic Symphysis in an Elite Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffeler, Christoph; Sommer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis is a potentially severe disease. Athletes are at risk of this form of spontaneous arthritis, as inflammation of the pubic bone due to muscular stress is relatively common. Oedema due to inflammation might predispose to infection through bacteraemia or local bacterial translocation. Suspicion should be raised when an athlete complains of groin pain and has signs of infection (i.e., fever, elevated white blood cell count, and elevated C-reactive protein). Diagnosis is made by imaging showing signs of inflammation combined with positive (blood) cultures. Broad spectrum antibiotics should be started upon suspicion and adjusted according to cultures. An abscess causing clinical deterioration under antibiotic treatment is an indication for invasive intervention (i.e., surgical or image-guided drainage). This is the first case of spontaneous septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis in an athlete requiring surgical and additional image-guided drainage. PMID:27703831

  2. Spontaneous Septic Arthritis of Pubic Symphysis in an Elite Athlete.

    PubMed

    Smits, F Jasmijn; Frima, Herman; Schaeffeler, Christoph; Sommer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis is a potentially severe disease. Athletes are at risk of this form of spontaneous arthritis, as inflammation of the pubic bone due to muscular stress is relatively common. Oedema due to inflammation might predispose to infection through bacteraemia or local bacterial translocation. Suspicion should be raised when an athlete complains of groin pain and has signs of infection (i.e., fever, elevated white blood cell count, and elevated C-reactive protein). Diagnosis is made by imaging showing signs of inflammation combined with positive (blood) cultures. Broad spectrum antibiotics should be started upon suspicion and adjusted according to cultures. An abscess causing clinical deterioration under antibiotic treatment is an indication for invasive intervention (i.e., surgical or image-guided drainage). This is the first case of spontaneous septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis in an athlete requiring surgical and additional image-guided drainage.

  3. Unusual Presentation of Anterior Knee Pain in Elite Female Athletes: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinning; Williams, Phillip; Curry, Emily J.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2016-01-01

    Two elite female athletes presented with anterior knee pain with range of motion and reproducible tenderness to palpation. Diagnostic arthroscopy was performed in both cases resulting in excision of a nodular pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) in the first patient and scar tissue in the second patient. Correct diagnosis of anterior knee pain in the elite female athlete can present a challenge to clinicians. Although patellofe-moral pain is the most common diagnosis, other uncommon causes include PVNS and residual scar formation in patients with a history of surgery or trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images are helpful in confirming the diagnosis, however, in a subset of patients, the physician must rely on clinical suspicion and physical exam to make the proper diagnosis. Given the possibility of a false negative MRI images, patients with persistent anterior knee pain with a history of knee surgeries and focal tenderness reproducible on physical exam may benefit from a diagnostic arthroscopy. PMID:27114812

  4. Elite Female Athletes' Ventilatory Compensation to Decreased Inspired O[subscript 2] during the Wingate Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Sarah; Belcoe, Ana; Shawcross, Callan; May, Alyssa; Monteverde, Cristina; McCann, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if anaerobic performance as measured by the Wingate is decremented in elite female athletes when fraction of inspired oxygen is decreased from 20.9% to 10%. Method: Nine collegiate female soccer players (M[subscript weight] = 63.2 ± 10 kg, M[subscript height] = 164 ± 4.7 cm, M[subscript age] =…

  5. Effectiveness of roundhouse kick in elite Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Thibordee, Sutima; Prasartwuth, Orawan

    2014-06-01

    The roundhouse kick is a powerful attack in Taekwondo. Most athletes intently perform this kick for scoring in competition. Therefore, kinematic and kinetic analyzes of this kick were the topics of interest; however, they were separately investigated and rarely recorded for impact force. Our objectives were to investigate knee and ankle joint kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity of leg muscle and compare them between high-impact (HI) and low-impact (LO) kicks. Sixteen male black-belt Taekwondo athletes performed five roundhouse kicks at their maximal effort. Electrogoniometer sensors measured angular motions of ankle and knee joints. Surface EMG activities were recorded for tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius medialis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris muscles. Based on maximal impact forces, the athletes were classified into HI and LO groups. All athletes in both groups showed greater activation of rectus femoris than other muscles. The HI group only showed significantly less plantarflexion angles than the LO group during preimpact and impact phases (P<0.05). During the impact phase, the HI group demonstrated significantly greater biceps femoris activation than the LO group (P<0.05). In conclusion, rectus femoris activation could predominantly contribute to the powerful roundhouse kicks. Moreover, high biceps femoris co-activation and optimal angle of ankle plantarflexion of about 35° could help achieve the high impact force.

  6. Comparison of athletic movement between elite junior and senior Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Woods, Carl T; McKeown, Ian; Haff, Gregory G; Robertson, Sam

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the athletic movement skill between elite Under-18 (U18) Australian football (AF) and senior Australian Football League (AFL) players. The U18 sample (n = 13; 17.7 ± 0.6 years) were representatives of an elite talent development programme. The AFL players were classified accordingly; Group 1 (1-4 AFL seasons; n = 20; 21.2 ± 1.9 years) and Group 2 (>5 AFL seasons; n = 14; 26.3 ± 2.6 years). Participants performed an athletic movement skill assessment, inclusive of five foundational movements. Each movement was scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale. Total score for each movement (maximum of nine) and overall score (maximum of 63) were used as criteria. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test the effect of developmental group (three levels) on the criteria. Receiver operating curves were built to examine the discriminant capability of the overall score. A significant effect of developmental group was noted, with the U18 sample having a lower mean total score for four of the five movements. Overall scores of 49/63 and 50/63 discriminated the elite U18 sample from Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. U18 players may have less developed athletic movement skills when compared to their senior AFL counterparts.

  7. Neuromuscular performance of Bandal Chagui: Comparison of subelite and elite taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Pedro Vieira Sarmet; Goethel, Márcio Fagundes; Gonçalves, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    With the aim of comparing kinematic and neuromuscular parameters of Bandal Chagui kicks between 7 elite and 7 subelite taekwondo athletes, nine Bandal Chaguis were performed at maximal effort in a selective reaction time design, simulating the frequency of kicks observed in taekwondo competitions. Linear and angular leg velocities were recorded through 3D motion capture system. Ground reaction forces (GRF) were evaluated by a force platform, and surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were evaluated in the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, tensor fasciae lata, adductor magnus, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles of the kicking leg. sEMG data were processed to obtain the cocontraction indices (CI) of antagonist vs. overall (agonist and antagonist) muscle activity. CI was measured for the hip and knee, in flexion and extension, and for hip abduction. Premotor, reaction (kinetic and kinematic), and kicking times were evaluated. Timing parameters, except kinetic reaction time, were faster in elite athletes. Furthermore, CI and angular velocity during knee extension, foot and knee linear velocity, and horizontal GRF were significantly higher in elite than in subelite athletes. In conclusion, selected biomechanical parameters of Bandal Chagui appear to be useful in controlling the training status of the kick and in orienting the training goal of black belt competitors.

  8. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disorders Among Iranian Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Shahin; Moradi Shahpar, Farhad; Norouzi, Gholamreza; Ghazalian, Farshad; Poursaid Esfehani, Mehrshad; Abedi Yekta, Amir Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Background Athletes’ health is an important issue and for promoting it, pre-participation examination (PPE) is widely performed by responsible bodies around the world. Objectives This study was to determine prevalence of cardiovascular disorders among athletes participating in the Asian games and answering the question whether the electrocardiogram (ECG) is a necessary part of pre-participation examination (PPE) for prevention of sudden cardiac death. Materials and Methods All athletes participated at Asian games came to sports medicine federation for a PPE including a comprehensive questionnaire, physical examination and ECG. In this retrospective study all profiles of 338 athletes have been studied as well as their electrocardiograms. Multiple logistic regressions as well as Firth’s bias reduction were used with R statistical software and SPSS. For predicting the changes in ECG, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve has done. Results Among 388 athletes, 80 (20.6%) were female and 308 (79.4%) male with mean age of 23.2 + 8 years. Nine athletes (2.3%) were smokers, 28 of them (7.2%) experienced chest pain and discomfort, 45 of them (13.3%) had palpitations and 28 (7.2%) had history of anemia. Study of their electrocardiograms showed that long Q-T interval was not seen for anyone, but evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy was seen in 12 (3.1%), inverted T wave in 6 (1.5%), and right bundle branch block in 45 (13.3%). Conclusions PPE provides very important information of athletes’ health. This study has shown that there was not any significant relation between current examination and electrocardiogram changes but regarding the ECG changes we recommend it as a routine part of PPE. PMID:27625762

  9. Respiratory health of elite athletes - preventing airway injury: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Kippelen, Pascale; Fitch, Kenneth D; Anderson, Sandra Doreen; Bougault, Valerie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Rundell, Kenneth William; Sue-Chu, Malcolm; McKenzie, Donald C

    2012-06-01

    Elite athletes, particularly those engaged in endurance sports and those exposed chronically to airborne pollutants/irritants or allergens, are at increased risk for upper and lower airway dysfunction. Airway epithelial injury may be caused by dehydration and physical stress applied to the airways during severe exercise hyperpnoea and/or by inhalation of noxious agents. This is thought to initiate an inflammatory cascade/repair process that, ultimately, could lead to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and asthma in susceptible athletes. The authors review the evidence relating to prevention or reduction of the risk of AHR/asthma development. Appropriate measures should be implemented when athletes exercise strenuously in an attempt to attenuate the dehydration stress and reduce the exposure to noxious airborne agents. Environmental interventions are the most important. Non-pharmacological strategies can assist, but currently, pharmacological measures have not been demonstrated to be effective. Whether early prevention of airway injury in elite athletes can prevent or reduce progression to AHR/asthma remains to be established.

  10. Respiratory health of elite athletes – preventing airway injury: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Kippelen, Pascale; Fitch, Kenneth D; Anderson, Sandra Doreen; Bougault, Valerie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Rundell, Kenneth William; Sue-Chu, Malcolm; McKenzie, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    Elite athletes, particularly those engaged in endurance sports and those exposed chronically to airborne pollutants/irritants or allergens, are at increased risk for upper and lower airway dysfunction. Airway epithelial injury may be caused by dehydration and physical stress applied to the airways during severe exercise hyperpnoea and/or by inhalation of noxious agents. This is thought to initiate an inflammatory cascade/repair process that, ultimately, could lead to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and asthma in susceptible athletes. The authors review the evidence relating to prevention or reduction of the risk of AHR/asthma development. Appropriate measures should be implemented when athletes exercise strenuously in an attempt to attenuate the dehydration stress and reduce the exposure to noxious airborne agents. Environmental interventions are the most important. Non-pharmacological strategies can assist, but currently, pharmacological measures have not been demonstrated to be effective. Whether early prevention of airway injury in elite athletes can prevent or reduce progression to AHR/asthma remains to be established. PMID:22522585

  11. Elements in sera of elite taekwondo athletes: effects of vitamin E supplementation.

    PubMed

    Patlar, Suleyman; Boyali, Ekrem; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Gunay, Mehmet

    2011-02-01

    Many researchers have emphasized the relation between nutrition and development and sustaining performance. Two methods are commonly employed to identify the interaction between physical activity and nutrition. The first consists of administering food with a variety of contents to people engaged in physical activity and observing their performance responses, and the other is concerned with determining the effects of physical activity on nutrition. Therefore, it can be said that there has been a growing interest in the explorations into the relation between exercise and vitamins, minerals, and elements. The present study reports the effects of 6 weeks administration of 300 mg/day vitamin E on the distribution of serum elements in elite taekwondo athletes. Seven male athletes, mean ages 22.1 ± 0.5 years weighing on average 66.4 ± 2.4 kg were included in the study. The athletes had been practicing taekwondo for 10-12 years. Resting blood samples were collected in duplicate before and after supplementation for determination of serum levels of cobalt, boron, cadmium, chromium, nickel, manganese, sulfur, copper, iron, zinc, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and calcium. Supplementation resulted in significant increases of all elements relative to values before supplementation (p < 0.001), with the exception of boron and sulfur, which remained without change. The results of the present study demonstrate that vitamin E supplementation crucially influences the element and mineral metabolism in elite athletes.

  12. Practices of Weight Regulation Among Elite Athletes in Combat Sports: A Matter of Mental Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    Context The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. Objective To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Design Qualitative study. Setting With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Patients or Other Participants Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Data Collection and Analysis Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Results Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being “a real athlete.” Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Conclusions Weight regulation has mentally important functions

  13. Experiences of sexual harassment and abuse among Norwegian elite female athletes and nonathletes.

    PubMed

    Fasting, Kari; Brackenridge, Celia; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2003-03-01

    This paper compares the prevalence of sexual harassment and abuse among 660 Norwegian elite female athletes and an age-matched control sample of nonathletes. It also explores differences in the prevalence of harassment and abuse in sport and work or school settings and compares harassment and abuse perpetrated by male authority figures and peers in these different contexts. No differences were found between the athletes and controls in overall prevalence of sexual harassment or abuse. However, the athletes experienced significantly more harassment from male authority figures than did the controls. Based on these results, the article considers whether or not sport offers women any particular immunity from sexual harassment and abuse. The implications of the findings for structural and cultural change in sport are discussed.

  14. Dental trauma incidence and mouthguard use in elite athletes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Keçeci, Ayşe Diljin; Eroglu, Erdal; Baydar, Metin Lütfi

    2005-04-01

    Contact sports may lead to dental trauma, which often can be reduced with appropriate preventive measures. While numerous studies exist on this topic for several countries throughout the world, there is a lack of comprehensive descriptive studies in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and type of dental injuries associated with three different sports among Turkish elite athletes, who do not contact (volleyball), contact directly (taekwondo) or indirectly (handball) with competition rivals. Additionally, awareness and use of mouthguards were also compared. Thus, during the 2003 and 2004 Turkish National Championships in three sports, 50 taekwondo, 62 handball and 50 volleyball male athletes were interviewed by questionnaire. Results showed that taekwondo and handball athletes experienced significantly more dental trauma than volleyball athletes (P < 0.05). Twelve of the taekwondo (24%), 16 of the handball (26%) and four of the volleyball athletes (8%) experienced at least one type of dental injury. Awareness of mouthguards as a preventive measure against dental trauma was significantly higher among taekwondo and handball athletes (P < 0.05), although a very small percentage in either of these sports actually wore a mouthguard (10 and 0%, respectively). Trauma incidence between direct contact with rival competitors and indirect contact with rival competitors was not significantly different. The incidence of dental trauma in contact sports shows that the awareness and use of mouthguards must be intensified. Mouthguard use should be made compulsory, especially in those sports with high risk for dental trauma.

  15. Orthopedic Practice Patterns Relating to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Harris, Joshua D; Fillingham, Yale A; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Bush-Joseph, Charles; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R; Verma, Nikhil N

    2015-12-01

    We conducted an online survey of National Hockey League (NHL), Major League Soccer (MLS), and US Olympic/World Cup Ski/Snowboard (Olympic) team orthopedic surgeons to determine practice patterns relating to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in elite athletes. Of the 94 team orthopedic surgeons surveyed, 47 (50%) responded. Mean (SD) experience as a team physician was 7.73 (5.33) years for NHL, 6.77 (6.64) years for MLS, and 1.14 (0.36) years for Olympic. Mean (SD) number of ACL reconstructions performed in 2012 was 101 (51) for NHL, 78 (38) for MLS, and 110 (105) for Olympic. Overall, 33 surgeons (70.2%) indicated they would use bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft to treat their starting athletes. Twenty-one (44.7%) drilled the femoral tunnel through a transtibial portal, 36.2% through an anteromedial portal, and 12.8% by a 2-incision technique. All the surgeons used a single-bundle technique. Thirty-three (70.2%) did not recommend a brace for their elite athletes during play on return to sport (RTS). Twenty-seven NHL and MLS surgeons (81.8%) recommended RTS only after an athlete has passed a series of RTS tests (eg, Vail, single-leg hop). Most of the NHL, MLS, and Olympic team orthopedic surgeons who were surveyed perform their ACL reconstructions using BPTB autograft, using a single-bundle technique, and through a transtibial portal, and do not require bracing for their athletes returning to sport. Most required their athletes to complete a series of RTS tests before resuming competitive play.

  16. Clinical significance of J-wave in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Pelliccia, Antonio; Quattrini, Filippo M

    2015-01-01

    The J-wave pattern on 12-lead ECG is traditionally defined as a positive deflection at junction between the end of the QRS and the beginning of the ST-segment. This pattern has recently been associated with increased risk for idiopathic ventricular fibrillation in the absence of cardiovascular disease. The interest for the clinical significance of J-wave pattern as a potential ECG hallmark of high risk for cardiac arrest has recently been reinforced by the growing practice of ECG screening, such as occurs in large population of young competitive athletes. The available scientific evidence shows that the J-wave pattern is relatively common in trained athletes (ranging from 14% to 44%) and, differently from subjects who suffered from ventricular fibrillation, commonly localized in lateral leads while it is relatively rare to be found in inferior leads. Furthermore the J-wave pattern has been demonstrated to be a dynamic phenomenon related to the training status, with the larger prominence at the peak of training and with an inverse relation between magnitude of J-wave and heart rate. In addition the J-wave pattern is usually associated with other ECG changes, such as increased QRS voltages and ST-segment elevation, as well as LV remodeling, suggesting that it likely represents another expression of the physiologic athlete's heart. Finally the scientific data available demonstrated that during a medium follow-up period the J-wave pattern does not convey risk for adverse cardiac events, including sudden death or ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

  17. Effect of long haul travel on maximal sprint performance and diurnal variations in elite skeleton athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Nicola; Martin, David T; Ross, Angus; Rosemond, Doug; Marino, Frank E

    2007-01-01

    Objective To quantify the impact of eastward long haul travel on diurnal variations in cortisol, psychological sensations and daily measurements of physical performance. Methods Five elite Australian skeleton athletes undertook a long haul eastward flight from Australia to Canada (LHtravel), while seven elite Canadian skeleton athletes did not travel (NOtravel). Salivary cortisol was measured on awakening, 60 min and 120 min after awakening. Psychological sensations were measured with a questionnaire, and maximal 30 m sprints were performed once a day between 09:30 and 11:00 h local time. Results Compared with baseline, average (SD) resting salivary cortisol decreased by 67% immediately after long haul travel (23.43 (5.71) nMol/l) (mean±90% confidence interval) in the LHtravel group (p = 0.03), while no changes were found in the NOtravel group (p = 0.74). There were no significant differences in 30 m sprint time between baseline and post‐flight tests in the LHtravel group (p>0.05). The LHtravel group perceived themselves as “jet lagged” for up to 2 days after the flight (p = 0.01 for both midday lunch and evening dinner). Conclusions Despite a distinct phase change in salivary cortisol rhythmicity and the athletes perceiving themselves as “jet lagged”, minimal disturbances in “one‐off” maximal sprinting ability between 09:30 and 11:00 h local time were seen in a group of elite skeleton athletes after long haul eastward travel from Australia to Canada. PMID:17473002

  18. Effect of acute fatigue and training adaptation on countermovement jump performance in elite snowboard cross athletes.

    PubMed

    Gathercole, Rob J; Stellingwerff, Trent; Sporer, Ben C

    2015-01-01

    Countermovement jump performance was examined in response to acute neuromuscular (NM) fatigue (study I) and chronic training (study II) in elite snowboard cross (SBX) athletes, through both typical (countermovement jump [CMJ]-TYP) and alternative (CMJ-ALT) CMJ variables. Seven (4 men and 3 women) elite (Olympic-level) SBX athletes participated in study I, and 5 of the same athletes (2 men and 3 women) participated in study II. Countermovement jump variables relating to force, velocity, power, and time were measured during both eccentric and concentric jump phases, with CMJ-TYP variables reflecting CMJ output and CMJ-ALT variables reflecting CMJ mechanics. In study I, CMJ performance was assessed before and after a fatiguing lower-body exercise protocol, and in study II, CMJ performance was examined before and after a 19-week structured training block. Meaningful differences in CMJ performance were examined using the magnitude of change (effect sizes [ES]) for group and individual changes. Acute fatigue decreased peak force and eccentric function, while the duration of the jump increased. The structured training block increased peak force and eccentric function, while jump duration markedly decreased. In both study I and study II, the largest ES were associated with CMJ-ALT variables. The CMJ test seems a suitable monitoring tool in elite SBX athletes for the detection of both acute fatigue and training-adaptation. Compared with CMJ output, CMJ mechanics exhibits more marked and divergent changes after both acute NM fatigue and a structured training block. CMJ-ALT variables should therefore be incorporated into CMJ analysis.

  19. The combined impact of metabolic gene polymorphisms on elite endurance athlete status and related phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Ahmetov, Ildus I; Williams, Alun G; Popov, Daniil V; Lyubaeva, Ekaterina V; Hakimullina, Albina M; Fedotovskaya, Olga N; Mozhayskaya, Irina A; Vinogradova, Olga L; Astratenkova, Irina V; Montgomery, Hugh E; Rogozkin, Viktor A

    2009-12-01

    Endurance performance is a complex phenotype subject to the influence of both environmental and genetic factors. Although the last decade has seen a variety of specific genetic factors proposed, many in metabolic pathways, each is likely to make a limited contribution to an 'elite' phenotype: it seems more likely that such status depends on the simultaneous presence of multiple such variants. The aim of the study was to investigate individually and in combination the association of common metabolic gene polymorphisms with endurance athlete status, the proportion of slow-twitch muscle fibers and maximal oxygen consumption. A total of 1,423 Russian athletes and 1,132 controls were genotyped for 15 gene polymorphisms, of which most were previously reported to be associated with athlete status or related intermediate phenotypes. Muscle fiber composition of m. vastus lateralis in 45 healthy men was determined by immunohistochemistry. Maximal oxygen consumption of 50 male rowers of national competitive standard was determined during an incremental test to exhaustion on a rowing ergometer. Ten 'endurance alleles' (NFATC4 Gly160, PPARA rs4253778 G, PPARD rs2016520 C, PPARGC1A Gly482, PPARGC1B 203Pro, PPP3R1 promoter 5I, TFAM 12Thr, UCP2 55Val, UCP3 rs1800849 T and VEGFA rs2010963 C) were first identified showing discrete associations with elite endurance athlete status. Next, to assess the combined impact of all 10 gene polymorphisms, all athletes were classified according to the number of 'endurance' alleles they possessed. The proportion of subjects with a high (≥9) number of 'endurance' alleles was greater in the best endurance athletes compared with controls (85.7 vs. 37.8%, P = 7.6 × 10(-6)). The number of 'endurance' alleles was shown to be positively correlated (r = 0.50; P = 4.0 × 10(-4)) with the proportion of fatigue-resistant slow-twitch fibers, and with maximal oxygen consumption (r = 0.46; P = 7.0 × 10(-4)). These data suggest that the likelihood of

  20. Sickle cell trait in French West Indian elite sprint athletes.

    PubMed

    Marlin, L; Etienne-Julan, M; Le Gallais, D; Hue, O

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the percentage of sickle cell trait (SCT) carriers among French West Indian sprinters selected for the French National Team in 2000. The investigation determined the number of SCT carriers and the number of national records they had established. Sixteen athletes were indexed (6 males and 10 females). The athletes were within the ranges of 20-33 years, 161-186 cm and 60-80 kg. The results showed the presence of SCT carriers in this population among whom three were SCT carriers (2 males and 1 female) (18.75%). Moreover, there is a significantly higher percentage of titles and records held by the SCT carriers (38.6% and 50%, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that sickle cell trait carriers are able to perform sprint exercises at the highest levels, and it further indicates that brief and explosive exercise involving mainly the alactic anaerobic metabolism may be enhanced by HbS.

  1. Heart rate variability in elite American track-and-field athletes.

    PubMed

    Berkoff, David J; Cairns, Charles B; Sanchez, Leon D; Moorman, Claude T

    2007-02-01

    Prolonged training leads to changes in autonomic cardiac balance. This sympathetic and parasympathetic balance can now be studied using heart rate variability (HRV). Studies have shown that endurance athletes have an elevated level of parasympathetic tone in comparison to sedentary people. The effect of resistance training on autonomic tone is less clear. We hypothesized a significant difference in HRV indices in endurance-trained vs. power-trained track-and-field athletes. One hundred forty-five athletes (58 women) were tested prior to the 2004 U.S.A. Olympic Trials. Heart rate variability data were collected using the Omegawave Sport Technology System. Subjects were grouped according to training emphasis and gender. The mean age of the athletes was 24.8 years in each group. There were significant (p < 0.01) differences by sex in selected frequency domain variables (HFnu, LFnu, LH, LHnu) and for PNN50 (p < 0.04) for the time domain variables. Two-factor analyses of variance showed differences for only the main effect of sex and not for any other grouping method or interaction. Elite athletes have been shown to have higher parasympathetic tone than recreational athletes and nonathletes. Our data show differences by sex, but not between aerobically and power-based athletes. Whether this is due to an aerobic component of resistance training, an overall prolonged training effect, or some genetic difference remains unclear. Further study is needed to assess the impact of resistance training programs on autonomic tone and cardiovascular fitness. This information will be valuable for the practitioner to use in assessing an athlete's response to a prescribed training regimen.

  2. Low-back pain in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Kujala, U M; Taimela, S; Erkintalo, M; Salminen, J J; Kaprio, J

    1996-02-01

    In this 3-yr longitudinal study we investigated the occurrence of low-back pain and anatomic changes in the low back in relation to loading and injuries among 98 adolescents: 33 nonathletes (16 boys, 17 girls), 34 boy athletes (17 ice hockey, 17 soccer players), and 31 girl athletes (17 figure skaters, 14 gymnasts). During the 3-yr follow-up, low-back pain lasting longer than 1 wk was reported by 29 (45%; 95% CI, 32%-57%) athletes and by 6 (18%; 95% CI, 7%-35%) nonathletes (P = 0.0099). Acute back injury was reported by 17 of 19 subjects who also reported low-back pain (89%; 95% CI, 67%-99%) and by 2 of 63 of those without prolonged low-back pain (3%; 95% CI, 0%-11%) (P < 0.0001). Among 43 girls participating in baseline and follow-up MRI examinations of the lumbar spine, new MRI abnormalities were found in 6 of 8 reporting acute back injury (75%; 95% CI, 35%-97%) and in 8 of the remaining 35 girls (23%; 95% CI 10% to 40%) (P = 0.018). In conclusion, excessive loading that involves a risk for acute low-back injuries during the growth spurt is harmful to the lower back.

  3. The development and application of an injury prediction model for noncontact, soft-tissue injuries in elite collision sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2010-10-01

    Limited information exists on the training dose-response relationship in elite collision sport athletes. In addition, no study has developed an injury prediction model for collision sport athletes. The purpose of this study was to develop an injury prediction model for noncontact, soft-tissue injuries in elite collision sport athletes. Ninety-one professional rugby league players participated in this 4-year prospective study. This study was conducted in 2 phases. Firstly, training load and injury data were prospectively recorded over 2 competitive seasons in elite collision sport athletes. Training load and injury data were modeled using a logistic regression model with a binomial distribution (injury vs. no injury) and logit link function. Secondly, training load and injury data were prospectively recorded over a further 2 competitive seasons in the same cohort of elite collision sport athletes. An injury prediction model based on planned and actual training loads was developed and implemented to determine if noncontact, soft-tissue injuries could be predicted and therefore prevented in elite collision sport athletes. Players were 50-80% likely to sustain a preseason injury within the training load range of 3,000-5,000 units. These training load 'thresholds' were considerably reduced (1,700-3,000 units) in the late-competition phase of the season. A total of 159 noncontact, soft-tissue injuries were sustained over the latter 2 seasons. The percentage of true positive predictions was 62.3% (n = 121), whereas the total number of false positive and false negative predictions was 20 and 18, respectively. Players that exceeded the training load threshold were 70 times more likely to test positive for noncontact, soft-tissue injury, whereas players that did not exceed the training load threshold were injured 1/10 as often. These findings provide information on the training dose-response relationship and a scientific method of monitoring and regulating training load in

  4. High Training Volumes are Associated with a Low Number of Self-Reported Sick Days in Elite Endurance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, Sandra; Nordebo, Kristina; Malm, Christer

    2014-12-01

    It has been proposed that high exercise loads increase the risk of infection, most frequently reported as upper respiratory tract infections, by suppressing the immune system. Most athletes will not train when experiencing sickness due to the fear of health complications. However, high training volumes are incompatible with high rates of non-training days, regardless of the cause. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the relationship between self-reported, exercise-constraining days of sickness (days when the athlete decided not to train due to symptoms of disease, either self-reported or by a physician) and the volumes of exercise training in elite endurance athletes by analyzing data from training logs kept for several years. The subjects included 11 elite endurance athletes (8 male, 3 female) competing at national and international levels in cross-country skiing, biathlon and long-distance running. Training logs available from these 11 subjects added to a total of 61 training years. The number of training hours per year (462, 79-856; median, range) was significantly and negatively correlated to the reported number of days not training due to sickness (15, 0-164) by a 3(rd) degree polynomial regression (R(2) = 0.48, F ratio = 18, p < 0.0001). We conclude that elite endurance athletes can achieve high training volumes only if they also experience few sick-days. Key pointsTop level performance demands high training volumes and intensities, which may compromise immune function.Elite athletes must have an immune system capable of intact function also when under sever physiological and psychological stress.Elite performance, especially in endurance sports, is therefore incompatible with a high rate of infections.A negative correlation between infections and exercise training load among elite athletes is consequently observed - the less sick you are the more you can train.

  5. Assessment and treatment of hip pain in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Brian D

    2014-12-01

    Hip pain in the adolescent athlete is a common source of functional impairment and can limit athletic performance. In the past, many intra- and extra-articular hip abnormalities went unrecognized and were left untreated because of insufficient diagnostic imaging and limited surgical options. However, over the past 20 years, there has been a tremendous expansion research, and the understanding of the etiology of hip pain among such athletes has grown. Improvements in imaging modalities and technical innovations have led to greater diagnostic insights and creative new treatment strategies. This article explores the etiology and treatment of hip pain in the adolescent athlete.

  6. Reliability and validity of a dual-task test for skill proficiency in roundhouse kicks in elite taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Dai, Jing; Chen, I-Fan; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Chang, Chen-Kang

    2015-01-01

    The dual-task methodology, conducting two tasks simultaneously, may provide better validity than the traditional single-task tests in the environment that is closely related to real sport competitions. The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability and validity of a dual-task test that aims to measure the reaction time and skill proficiency in roundhouse kicks in elite and sub-elite taekwondo athletes. The dual-task results were compared to those in the single-task movements with various levels of complexity. The single-task movements A, B, and C were composed of one, three, and five roundhouse kicks, respectively. The dual-task movement D was composed of movement C and a push of a button in response to a light stimulus as the secondary task. The subjects were 12 elite and 12 sub-elite male taekwondo athletes. The test included four movements with five repeats of each movement in a randomized order. Each subject conducted the same test on two consecutive days. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed moderate-to-high correlation in the premotor time (ICC =0.439-0.634 in elite and ICC =0.681-0.824 in sub-elite), motor time (ICC =0.861-0.956 in elite and ICC =0.721-0.931 in sub-elite), and reaction time (ICC =0.692 in elite and ICC =0.676 in sub-elite) in the secondary task in both groups. The elite athletes had significantly faster premotor time than their sub-elite counterparts in all the four movements (all P<0.05). The largest difference lies in the reaction time in the secondary task, in which the elite group (0.248±0.026 seconds) was 33.0% faster than the sub-elite group (0.370±0.081 seconds) (P<0.001). This study shows that the test developed in this study has reasonable reliability and validity in both single- and dual-task methods. In addition, the dual-task method may be a more appropriate way to assess the reaction time and skill proficiency in taekwondo athletes.

  7. Haematological, inflammatory, and immunological responses in elite judo athletes maintaining high training loads during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Anis; Coutts, Aaron J; Wong, Del P; Roky, Rachida; Mbazaa, Abderraouf; Amri, Mohamed; Chamari, Karim

    2009-10-01

    During Ramadan, Muslims abstain from food and fluid intake from dawn to sunset for 1 month. These behavioural changes that accompany Ramadan may impact upon Muslim athletes who continue to train intensely. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on the haematological, inflammatory, and immunological measures in elite judo athletes maintaining their usual high training loads. Haematological markers of inflammation, hormones, and immune status were studied in 15 elite male judo athletes before, during, and after Ramadan. The RIF produced small but significant changes in inflammatory, hormonal, and immunological profiles in judo athletes. Serum C-reactive protein increased from 2.93 +/- 0.26 mg.L-1 pre-Ramadan to 4.60 +/- 0.51 mg.L-1 at the end of Ramadan. Haptoglobin and antitrypsin also significantly increased at different phases during Ramadan, whereas homocysteine and prealbumin remained relatively unchanged. Albumin decreased slightly by mid-Ramadan, then recovered. Immunoglobulin Aincreased from 1.87 +/- 0.56 g.L-1 before Ramadan to 2.49 +/- 0.75 g.L-1 at the end, and remained high 3 weeks after. There were no changes in the leucocyte cell counts throughout the study. The mean blood level of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine increased significantly during RIF. Most of these changes were within the normal ranges. These results suggest that athletes who continue to train intensely during Ramadan are liable to experience a myriad of small fluctuations in hormones, immunoglobulins, antioxidants, and inflammatory responses.

  8. Iron status in elite young athletes: gender-dependent influences of diet and exercise.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; Achtzehn, Silvia; Hildebrand, Ursula; Predel, Hans-Georg; Mester, Joachim; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2012-02-01

    Iron depletion seems to occur more frequently among athletes than in the general population and may affect performance capacity. Only little information is available about the prevalence of iron status abnormalities in young elite athletes and whether iron depletion is associated with gender, sport, age or nutrition- and exercise-related factors in this group. Hence, diet, exercise and haematological data from 193 elite athletes (96 males, 97 females; 16.2 ± 2.7 years) from 24 different sports were analyzed retrospectively. Most female athletes failed to meet the recommended daily allowance for iron, even though dietary iron density was higher than in males (5.75 ± 0.78 vs. 6.17 ± 0.98 mg/1,000 kcal; P = 0.001). Iron depletion (serum ferritin < 35 μg/L) occurred in 31% of male and 57% of female athletes (P < 0.001). Low haemoglobin (males: <13 g/dL; females: <12 g/dL) and haematocrit (males: <40%; females: <36%) values were equally prevalent in both genders [haemoglobin: 7.3% (males), 6.2% (females); haematocrit: 13.5% (males); 15.5% (females)]. In females, reduced ferritin levels were associated with a lower dietary iron density (5.9 ± 0.8 vs. 6.6 ± 1.1 mg/1,000 kcal; P = 0.002). Males with iron depletion had a significantly higher estimated energy expenditure (48.7 ± 7.0 vs. 44.4 ± 7.6 kcal/kg/day; P = 0.009).

  9. Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, A-S; Moberg, T; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Fahlke, C; Rosén, T

    2014-12-01

    Physical training has been shown to reduce mortality in normal subjects, and athletes have a healthier lifestyle after their active career as compared with normal subjects. Since the 1950s, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been frequent, especially in power sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate mortality, including causes of death, in former Swedish male elite athletes, active 1960-1979, in wrestling, powerlifting, Olympic lifting, and the throwing events in track and field when the suspicion of former AAS use was high. Results indicate that, during the age period of 20-50 years, there was an excess mortality of around 45%. However, when analyzing the total study period, the mortality was not increased. Mortality from suicide was increased 2-4 times among the former athletes during the period of 30-50 years of age compared with the general population of men. Mortality rate from malignancy was lower among the athletes. As the use of AAS was marked between 1960 and 1979 and was not doping-listed until 1975, it seems probable that the effect of AAS use might play a part in the observed increased mortality and suicide rate. The otherwise healthy lifestyle among the athletes might explain the low malignancy rates.

  10. The food and weight combat. A problematic fight for the elite combat sports athlete.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Stefan; Pipping Ekström, Marianne; Berg, Christina M

    2012-10-01

    Weight reduction in athletes is motivated by optimisation of performance, aesthetic reasons or to achieve a pre-designated weight. Previous research has shown that dietary restraint and short term weight regulation frequently takes place among combat sports athletes such as wrestlers and judokas. The aim of this study was to explore negative experiences related to dietary strategies and weight-making practises used by elite combat sports athletes. Using semi-structured interviews, 14 Swedish national team athletes in wrestling, judo and taekwondo were asked about their dietary intake and their engagement in both long- and short-term weight regulation practises. Content analysis of the transcribed interviews, display a constant struggle regarding nutritional standpoints. Sport demands such as achieving an optimal weight and nutritional intake were considered as central in order for excellent performance. Adhering to these demands was found to be problematic however, primarily because of; (1) negative physiological responses and (2) opposing ideals of a non-sport related nature, such as the importance of the athletes to be healthy and social in their everyday lives.

  11. Do the coach and athlete have the same "picture" of the situation? Distributed Situation Awareness in an elite sport context.

    PubMed

    Macquet, Anne-Claire; Stanton, Neville A

    2014-05-01

    Athletes and their coach interpret the training situations differently and this can have important implications for the development of an elite athlete's performance. It is argued that, from a schema-theoretic perspective, the difference in these interpretations needs to be better understood. A post-performance, self-confrontation, interview was conducted with a number of athletes and their coaches. The interviews revealed differences between the athlete and their coach in the information they are aware of. In comparison with athletes, coaches more frequently compared the phenotype with genotype schemata rather than just describing the phenotype schemata. Results suggest SA information elements showed some common ground but also revealed some important differences between the athlete and coach. The awareness was directed externally towards the environment and internally, towards the individual, depending on his/her role. The investigation showed that the schemata used to 'frame' the information elements were different, but compatible, between athlete and coach.

  12. Age-Related, Sport-Specific Adaptions of the Shoulder Girdle in Elite Adolescent Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Ann M.; Palmans, Tanneke; Johansson, Fredrik R.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Tennis requires repetitive overhead movements that can lead to upper extremity injury. The scapula and the shoulder play a vital role in injury-free playing. Scapular dysfunction and glenohumeral changes in strength and range of motion (ROM) have been associated with shoulder injury in the overhead athlete. Objective: To compare scapular position and strength and shoulder ROM and strength between Swedish elite tennis players of 3 age categories (<14, 14–16, and >16 years). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Tennis training sports facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-nine adolescent Swedish elite tennis players (ages 10–20 years) selected based on their national ranking. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used a clinical screening protocol with a digital inclinometer and a handheld dynamometer to measure scapular upward rotation at several angles of arm elevation, isometric scapular muscle strength, glenohumeral ROM, and isometric rotator cuff strength. Results: Players older than 16 years showed less scapular upward rotation on the dominant side at 90° and 180° (P < .05). Although all absolute scapular muscle strength values increased with age, there was no change in the body-weight–normalized strength of the middle (P = .9) and lower (P = .81) trapezius or serratus anterior (P = .17). Glenohumeral internal-rotation ROM and total ROM tended to decrease, but this finding was not statistically significant (P = .052 and P = .06, respectively). Whereas normalized internal-rotator strength increased from 14 to 16 years to older than 16 years (P = .009), normalized external-rotator and supraspinatus strength remained unchanged. Conclusions: Age-related changes in shoulder and scapular strength and ROM were apparent in elite adolescent tennis players. Future authors should examine the association of these adaptations with performance data and injury incidence. PMID:25098662

  13. Acute Traumatic Tear of Latissimus Dorsi Muscle in an Elite Track Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Çelebi, Mehmet Mesut; Ergen, Emin; Üstüner, Evren

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissue injuries constitute 30-50% of all sports related injuries; however, injury to the latissimus dorsi muscle is quite rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. Herein, we describe an acute traumatic tear of the latissimus dorsi muscle in an elite track athlete, which has not been reported in the track and field sports before. The injury was caused by forceful resisted arm adduction that took place at hurdling and starting from the block. A pseudotumor appearance in the axillary region was misdiagnosed as a mass. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound alone and the patient was managed conservatively. PMID:24765503

  14. Acute traumatic tear of latissimus dorsi muscle in an elite track athlete.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Mehmet Mesut; Ergen, Emin; Ustüner, Evren

    2013-08-02

    Soft tissue injuries constitute 30-50% of all sports related injuries; however, injury to the latissimus dorsi muscle is quite rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. Herein, we describe an acute traumatic tear of the latissimus dorsi muscle in an elite track athlete, which has not been reported in the track and field sports before. The injury was caused by forceful resisted arm adduction that took place at hurdling and starting from the block. A pseudotumor appearance in the axillary region was misdiagnosed as a mass. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound alone and the patient was managed conservatively.

  15. Inside the brain of an elite athlete: the neural processes that support high achievement in sports.

    PubMed

    Yarrow, Kielan; Brown, Peter; Krakauer, John W

    2009-08-01

    Events like the World Championships in athletics and the Olympic Games raise the public profile of competitive sports. They may also leave us wondering what sets the competitors in these events apart from those of us who simply watch. Here we attempt to link neural and cognitive processes that have been found to be important for elite performance with computational and physiological theories inspired by much simpler laboratory tasks. In this way we hope to inspire neuroscientists to consider how their basic research might help to explain sporting skill at the highest levels of performance.

  16. Evaluation of postural asymmetry and gross joint mobility in elite female volleyball athletes.

    PubMed

    Vařeková, Renata; Vařeka, Ivan; Janura, Miroslav; Svoboda, Zdenek; Elfmark, Milan

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate marked postural asymmetry and gross joint mobility in elite female volleyball athletes. Sixty-two Czech and Slovak elite female volleyball athletes (age 20.7±2.03 years, body mass 71.1±6.18 kg, body height 1.804±.0618 m, BMI 21.8±1.78) were examined by an experienced rehabilitation physician. The set of tests included the frontal posture gross examination, the forward bending test from the standing position and the deep squat test. The spiking hand and the presence of any lower extremity injury were estimated by interview. The proportion test, Mann-Whitney test and t-test were used to evaluate statistical significance (p<0.05). Fifty subjects (80.6%) exhibited "typical" frontal plane posture in which the acromion, scapula and the iliac crest were in a higher position on the left side than on the right, significantly more frequently than all the other patterns (proportion test, p<0.0001). Ninety-eight percent of the subjects with the "LLL pattern" preferred the right arm for spiking (proportion test, p<0.0001). Forty-one subjects (66%) exhibited hypermobility in the forward bending test, significantly more frequently than twenty-one subjects (34%) with normal results (proportion test, p=0.0003). Thirty-four subjects (55%) did not succeed in the deep squat test and hypermobility in the forward bending test paradoxically prevailed in them significantly (proportion test, p=0.004). Restriction in the deep squat test was not linked to obesity, age (t-test, p=0.081) nor knee (proportion test, p=0.85) and ankle injury (Mann-Whitney test, p=0.36) in the past. Significant prevalence of hypermobility in the forward bending test was not surprising because of general body composition and the performance of regular stretching exercises in elite female volleyball athletes. On the other hand, surprisingly, more than half of the subjects did not succeed in the deep squat test. The cause of poor results in the deep squat test could be due

  17. Accuracy of predictive equations for resting metabolic rate in Korean athletic and non-athletic adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hee; Kim, Myung-Hee; Kim, Gwi-Sun; Park, Ji-Sun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Athletes generally desire changes in body composition in order to enhance their athletic performance. Often, athletes will practice chronic energy restrictions to attain body composition changes, altering their energy needs. Prediction of resting metabolic rates (RMR) is important in helping to determine an athlete's energy expenditure. This study compared measured RMR of athletic and non-athletic adolescents with predicted RMR from commonly used prediction equations to identify the most accurate equation applicable for adolescent athletes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 50 athletes (mean age of 16.6 ± 1.0 years, 30 males and 20 females) and 50 non-athletes (mean age of 16.5 ± 0.5 years, 30 males and 20 females) were enrolled in the study. The RMR of subjects was measured using indirect calorimetry. The accuracy of 11 RMR prediction equations was evaluated for bias, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis. RESULTS Until more accurate prediction equations are developed, our findings recommend using the formulas by Cunningham (-29.8 kcal/day, limits of agreement -318.7 and +259.1 kcal/day) and Park (-0.842 kcal/day, limits of agreement -198.9 and +196.9 kcal/day) for prediction of RMR when studying male adolescent athletes. Among the new prediction formulas reviewed, the formula included in the fat-free mass as a variable [RMR = 730.4 + 15 × fat-free mass] is paramount when examining athletes. CONCLUSIONS The RMR prediction equation developed in this study is better in assessing the resting metabolic rate of Korean athletic adolescents. PMID:26244075

  18. Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2013-06-01

    Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less

  19. Out of bounds? A critique of the new policies on hyperandrogenism in elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Karkazis, Katrina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Davis, Georgiann; Camporesi, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    In May 2011, more than a decade after the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) abandoned sex testing, they devised new policies in response to the IAAF's treatment of Caster Semenya, the South African runner whose sex was challenged because of her spectacular win and powerful physique that fueled an international frenzy questioning her sex and legitimacy to compete as female. These policies claim that atypically high levels of endogenous testosterone in women (caused by various medical conditions) create an unfair advantage and must be regulated. Against the backdrop of Semenya's case and the scientific and historical complexity of "gender verification" in elite sports, we question the new policies on three grounds: (1) the underlying scientific assumptions; (2) the policymaking process; and (3) the potential to achieve fairness for female athletes. We find the policies in each of these domains significantly flawed and therefore argue they should be withdrawn.

  20. Out of Bounds? A Critique of the New Policies on Hyperandrogenism in Elite Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Karkazis, Katrina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Davis, Georgiann; Camporesi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    In May 2011, more than a decade after the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) abandoned sex testing, they devised new policies in response to the IAAF’s treatment of Caster Semenya, the South African runner whose sex was challenged because of her spectacular win and powerful physique that fueled an international frenzy questioning her sex and legitimacy to compete as female. These policies claim that atypically high levels of endogenous testosterone in women (caused by various medical conditions) create an unfair advantage and must be regulated. Against the backdrop of Semenya’s case and the scientific and historical complexity of “gender verification” in elite sports, we question the new policies on three grounds: (1) the underlying scientific assumptions; (2) the policymaking process; and (3) the potential to achieve fairness for female athletes. We find the policies in each of these domains significantly flawed and therefore argue they should be withdrawn. PMID:22694023

  1. Coaching Strategies for Helping Adolescent Athletes Cope with Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jenelle N.; Gilbert, Wade; Morawski, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the various sources of athlete stress and the strategies that coaches can use to help young athletes cope with it. The information is based on a study with a competitive adolescent soccer team and its two coaches, and a review of the coaching and sport psychology literature. The suggested coaching strategies can help to…

  2. Zinc and copper biochemical indices of antioxidant status in elite athletes of different modalities.

    PubMed

    Koury, Josely C; de Olilveria, Astrogildo V; Portella, Emílson S; de Olilveria, Cyntia F; Lopes, Gustavo C; Donangelo, Carmen M

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare zinc and copper biochemical indices of antioxidant status and their relationship in elite athletes of different modalities: aerobic with high-impact (triathletes, n = 10 and long-distance runners, n = 12), anaerobic with high-impact (short-distance runners, n = 9), and anaerobic with low-impact (short-distance swimmers, n = 13). The influence of recent dietary intake and body composition was also evaluated. A venous blood sample was drawn 16-20 hr after competition for the following measurements: packed-cell volume and hemoglobin in blood; copper and zinc in plasma and erythrocytes; ceruloplasmin in plasma; superoxide dismutase activity and metal-lothionein in erythrocytes; and erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Zinc and copper intakes were not different in the athlete groups and did not affect the biochemical indices measured. Athletes of the long-distance high-impact aerobic modalities had higher indices of antioxidant protection (erythrocyte zinc, superoxide dismutase activity, and metallothionein) than those of the short-distance low-impact modalities, suggesting that there is adaptation of the antioxidant capacity to the specific training. Significant correlations were observed in all athletes between erythrocyte zinc, superoxide dismutase activity, and metallothionein consistent with the importance of an adequate zinc status in the response of antioxidant mechanisms to intense exercise.

  3. Hydration status in elite wrestlers, judokas, boxers, and taekwondo athletes on competition day.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Stefan; Berg, Christina M

    2014-06-01

    Weight category athletes are known for practicing rapid weight loss before competition weigh-in. After weigh-in, athletes strive to restore euhydration and body mass through food and fluid intake. The aim of the current study was to assess prevalence of hypohydration at competition time among elite athletes' in four different combat sports, and how water intake and timing of official weigh-in were related to hydration status. Participants were 31 taekwondo practitioners and wrestlers who performed evening weigh-in (EWI) the night before competition day and had thus time for rehydration, and 32 boxers and judokas conducting competition day morning weigh-in (MWI). In total, 32% were female. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured by refractometry on the competition day's first morning urine sample. Hypohydration was defined as USG ≥ 1.020 and serious hypohydration as USG > 1.030. Water intake was measured by means of dietary records. The prevalence of hypohydration was 89% in the morning of competition day. Serious hypohydration was also prevalent. This was found in over 50% of MWI athletes and in 42% of the EWI group. A higher water intake, from both fluids and solid foods, in the evening before competition day was not associated with a more favorable hydration status the following morning. In conclusion, neither weigh-in close to competition nor evening weigh-in with more time for rehydration seems to prevent hypohydration before competition.

  4. Oral health of elite athletes and association with performance: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, P; Di Iorio, A; Cole, E; Tanday, A; Needleman, I

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to systematically review the epidemiology of oral disease and trauma in the elite athlete population and to investigate the impact of oral health on sporting performance. Methods Authors searched Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to October 2013), Ovid EMBASE (1980 to October 2013), EBSCO SPORTDiscus (up to October 2013) and OpenGrey (http://www.opengrey.eu). No date or language restrictions were applied. Papers were included if they evaluated the oral health of professional athletes. The methodological quality of papers was evaluated using a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results The literature search led to 9858 potentially relevant citations. Following a set of predefined exclusion criteria, 34 studies remained. Twenty-six studies reported on dental trauma, which ranged in prevalence from 14% to 47% varying by sport and country. Sixteen studies considered the oral health of athletes and reported high prevalence of oral diseases: dental caries 15–75%, dental erosion 36–85%, periodontal disease 15%. In four studies, a range between 5% and 18% of athletes reported negative impact of oral health or trauma on performance. The methodological quality of included studies was generally low. Conclusions Within the limits of the review, oral health of athletes is poor. We hypothesise that poor oral health associates with self-reported performance; however, this needs to be tested. Further studies on representative samples of athletes are needed to assess the size of the problem of poor oral health as well as to investigate the possible impact on performance using objective measures of performance. PMID:25388551

  5. PPAR-α and PPARGC1A gene variants have strong effects on aerobic performance of Turkish elite endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Tural, Ercan; Kara, Nurten; Agaoglu, Seydi Ahmet; Elbistan, Mehmet; Tasmektepligil, Mehmet Yalcin; Imamoglu, Osman

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPAR-α intron 7G>C and PPARGC1A gene Gly482Ser polymorphisms on aerobic performance of elite level endurance athletes. This study was carried out on 170 individuals (60 elite level endurance athletes and 110 sedentary controls). Aerobic performance of athletes and sedentary control groups were defined by maximal oxygen uptake capacity. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood using GeneJet Genomic DNA Purification kit. Genotyping of the PPAR-α intron 7G>C and PPARGC1A Gly482Ser polymorphisms was performed using PCR-RFLP methods, and statistical evaluations were carried out using SPSS 15.0. Mean age of athletes were 21.38 ± 2.83 (18-29) and control mean age were 25.92 ± 4.88 (18-35). Mean maximal oxygen consumption of athletes were 42.14 ± 7.6 ml/(kg min) and controls were 34.33 ± 5.43 ml/(kg min). We found statistically significant differences between the athlete and control groups with respect to both PPAR-α and PPARGC1A genotype distributions (p = 0.006, <0.001, respectively) and allele frequencies (<0.001, <0.001, respectively). Additionally, when we examined PPAR-α and PPARGC1A genotype distributions according to the aerobic performance test parameters, we found a statistically significant association between velocity, time and maximal oxygen consumption and PPAR-α and PPARGC1A genotypes (p < 0.001). To our knowledge, this is the first study in Turkey examined PPAR-α intron 7G>C and PPARGC1A Gly482Ser gene polymorphisms in elite level endurance athletes. Our results suggest that PPAR-α and PPARGC1A genes have strong effect on aerobic performance of elit level athletes.

  6. Asthma and the elite athlete: summary of the International Olympic Committee's consensus conference, Lausanne, Switzerland, January 22-24, 2008.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Kenneth D; Sue-Chu, Malcolm; Anderson, Sandra D; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Hancox, Robert J; McKenzie, Donald C; Backer, Vibeke; Rundell, Kenneth W; Alonso, Juan M; Kippelen, Pascale; Cummiskey, Joseph M; Garnier, Alain; Ljungqvist, Arne

    2008-08-01

    Respiratory symptoms cannot be relied on to make a diagnosis of asthma and/or airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in elite athletes. For this reason, the diagnosis should be confirmed with bronchial provocation tests. Asthma management in elite athletes should follow established treatment guidelines (eg, Global Initiative for Asthma) and should include education, an individually tailored treatment plan, minimization of aggravating environmental factors, and appropriate drug therapy that must meet the requirements of the World Anti-Doping Agency. Asthma control can usually be achieved with inhaled corticosteroids and inhaled beta(2)-agonists to minimize exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and to treat intermittent symptoms. The rapid development of tachyphylaxis to beta(2)-agonists after regular daily use poses a dilemma for athletes. Long-term intense endurance training, particularly in unfavorable environmental conditions, appears to be associated with an increased risk of developing asthma and AHR in elite athletes. Globally, the prevalence of asthma, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, and AHR in Olympic athletes reflects the known prevalence of asthma symptoms in each country. The policy of requiring Olympic athletes to demonstrate the presence of asthma, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, or AHR to be approved to inhale beta(2)-agonists will continue.

  7. Thalamo-Sensorimotor Functional Connectivity Correlates with World Ranking of Olympic, Elite, and High Performance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zirui; Davis Iv, Henry Hap; Wolff, Annemarie; Northoff, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Brain plasticity studies have shown functional reorganization in participants with outstanding motor expertise. Little is known about neural plasticity associated with exceptionally long motor training or of its predictive value for motor performance excellence. The present study utilised resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in a unique sample of world-class athletes: Olympic, elite, and internationally ranked swimmers (n = 30). Their world ranking ranged from 1st to 250th: each had prepared for participation in the Olympic Games. Combining rs-fMRI graph-theoretical and seed-based functional connectivity analyses, it was discovered that the thalamus has its strongest connections with the sensorimotor network in elite swimmers with the highest world rankings (career best rank: 1-35). Strikingly, thalamo-sensorimotor functional connections were highly correlated with the swimmers' motor performance excellence, that is, accounting for 41% of the individual variance in best world ranking. Our findings shed light on neural correlates of long-term athletic performance involving thalamo-sensorimotor functional circuits.

  8. Thalamo-Sensorimotor Functional Connectivity Correlates with World Ranking of Olympic, Elite, and High Performance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    Brain plasticity studies have shown functional reorganization in participants with outstanding motor expertise. Little is known about neural plasticity associated with exceptionally long motor training or of its predictive value for motor performance excellence. The present study utilised resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in a unique sample of world-class athletes: Olympic, elite, and internationally ranked swimmers (n = 30). Their world ranking ranged from 1st to 250th: each had prepared for participation in the Olympic Games. Combining rs-fMRI graph-theoretical and seed-based functional connectivity analyses, it was discovered that the thalamus has its strongest connections with the sensorimotor network in elite swimmers with the highest world rankings (career best rank: 1–35). Strikingly, thalamo-sensorimotor functional connections were highly correlated with the swimmers' motor performance excellence, that is, accounting for 41% of the individual variance in best world ranking. Our findings shed light on neural correlates of long-term athletic performance involving thalamo-sensorimotor functional circuits. PMID:28261504

  9. Reliability of knee biomechanics during a vertical drop jump in elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Mok, Kam-Ming; Petushek, Erich; Krosshaug, Tron

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the within-session and between-session reliability of knee kinematics and kinetics in a vertical drop jump task among elite female handball and football athletes. Specifically, we aimed to quantify the within-session waveform consistency and between-session consistency of the subject ranking for a variety of knee kinematics and kinetics. Forty-one elite female handball and football (soccer) athletes were tested in two sessions. The reliability of three-dimensional knee biomechanical measurements was quantified by the intra-class correlation, Spearman's rank correlation, and typical error. All the selected discrete variables achieved excellent within-session reliability (ICC>0.87). The typical error of valgus angles, internal rotation angles, and internal rotation moment was constant throughout the whole stance phase. For between-session reliability, the selected discrete variables achieved good to excellent reliability (ICC>0.69), except peak internal rotation moment (ICC=0.40). All between-session rank correlation coefficients ranged from 0.56 to 0.90. Most of the discrete variables achieved good to excellent reliability in both within-session and between-session analysis. Moreover, moderate to strong between-session consistency of subject rankings was found, implying that the measurements assessed during the vertical drop jump demonstrate sufficient reliability to be used in both single-session and multiple-session studies.

  10. Short-Term Heart Rate Recovery is Related to Aerobic Fitness in Elite Intermittent Sport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew M; Brickson, Stacey L; Prawda, Evan R; Sanfilippo, Jenifer L

    2017-04-01

    Watson, AM, Brickson, SL, Prawda, ER, and Sanfilippo, JL. Short-term heart rate recovery is related to aerobic fitness in elite intermittent sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1055-1061, 2017-Although heart rate recovery (HRR) has been suggested as a measure of fitness, minimal data exist among athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine if HRR is related to aerobic fitness in elite athletes and whether this relationship is influenced by sex or body composition. Eighty-four collegiate athletes (45 male athletes) underwent body fat percentage (BF%) determination by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and maximal treadmill testing followed by 5 minutes of recovery. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and heart rate (HRmax) were determined, and HRR was calculated as a percentage of HRmax at 10 seconds, 30 seconds, and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 minutes after test completion. After stratifying by sex, participants were grouped as high fit or low fit based on V[Combining Dot Above]O2max median split. Heart rate recovery was compared between sexes and fitness level at each time point. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of HRR using V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, BF%, and sex as covariates. Heart rate recovery did not differ significantly between sexes and was faster among high-fit participants at 10 and 30 seconds, but at no other time. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was significantly correlated with HRR at 10 and 30 seconds (r = -0.34, p < 0.001 and r = -0.28, p = 0.008) only. After controlling for BF% and sex, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max remained significantly associated with HRR at 10 seconds (p = 0.007) but not at 30 seconds (p = 0.067) or any time thereafter. Aerobic capacity is related to faster HRR during the first 30 seconds only, suggesting that only very short term HRR should be used as a measure of aerobic fitness in intermittent sport athletes.

  11. The elite young athlete: strategies to ensure physical and emotional health

    PubMed Central

    Sabato, Todd M; Walch, Tanis J; Caine, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a current review of the risk of physical and psychological injury associated with participation in elite youth sport, and suggests strategies to ensure the physical and emotional health of these young athletes. Although there is lack of epidemiological data, especially with regard to psychological injury, preliminary data suggest that the risk of injury is high in this population. While there is lack of incident and follow-up data, there is also concern regarding burnout, disordered eating, and the long-term consequences of injury. Modifiable injury risk factors identified include postural control, competition anxiety, life events, previous injury, and volume of training. There are presently no studies designed to determine the effectiveness of injury prevention measures in elite youth sports. However, there is adequate evidence arising from injury prevention studies of youth sports participants – including neuromuscular training, protective equipment, mental training to enhance self-esteem, and sport rules modification – to prevent injuries in elite youth sports settings. Although not tested, psychosocial prevention strategies such as adoption of task-oriented coping mechanisms, autonomous support from parents, and a proactive organizational approach also show promise in injury prevention. PMID:27621677

  12. The elite young athlete: strategies to ensure physical and emotional health.

    PubMed

    Sabato, Todd M; Walch, Tanis J; Caine, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a current review of the risk of physical and psychological injury associated with participation in elite youth sport, and suggests strategies to ensure the physical and emotional health of these young athletes. Although there is lack of epidemiological data, especially with regard to psychological injury, preliminary data suggest that the risk of injury is high in this population. While there is lack of incident and follow-up data, there is also concern regarding burnout, disordered eating, and the long-term consequences of injury. Modifiable injury risk factors identified include postural control, competition anxiety, life events, previous injury, and volume of training. There are presently no studies designed to determine the effectiveness of injury prevention measures in elite youth sports. However, there is adequate evidence arising from injury prevention studies of youth sports participants - including neuromuscular training, protective equipment, mental training to enhance self-esteem, and sport rules modification - to prevent injuries in elite youth sports settings. Although not tested, psychosocial prevention strategies such as adoption of task-oriented coping mechanisms, autonomous support from parents, and a proactive organizational approach also show promise in injury prevention.

  13. Elite sport is not an additional source of distress for adolescents with high stress levels.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Brand, Serge

    2011-04-01

    This study examined whether participation in elite sport interacts with stress in decreasing or increasing symptoms of depression and anxiety among adolescents, and further, whether the interplay between participation in high-performance sport and stress is related to the perceived quality of sleep. 434 adolescents (278 girls, 156 boys; age: M = 17.2 yr.) from 15 "Swiss Olympic Sport Classes" and 9 conventional classes answered a questionnaire and completed a 7-day sleep log. Analyses of covariance showed that heightened stress was related to more depressive symptoms and higher scores for trait-anxiety. Moreover, those classified as having poor sleep by a median split cutoff reported higher levels of depressive symptoms. No significant (multivariate) main effects were found for high-performance sport athletes. Similarly, no significant two- or three-way interaction effects were found. These results caution against exaggerated expectations concerning sport participation as a stress buffer. Nevertheless, participation in high-performance sport was not found to be an additional source of distress for adolescents who reported high stress levels despite prior research that has pointed toward such a relationship.

  14. Exercise-induced changes in redox status of elite karate athletes.

    PubMed

    Pesic, Snezana; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Djordjevic, Dusica; Cubrilo, Dejan; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Jorga, Vladimir; Mujovic, Vujadin; Djuric, Dragan; Stojimirovic, Biljana

    2012-02-29

    Regular training has been claimed to increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes and, consequently, augments the resistance to oxidative stress; however, large volumes of training performed by elite sportsmen could lead to a chronic oxidative stress state. The aim of our study was to assess the oxidative status of elite athletes at the beginning of the preparatory and the beginning of the competition training phases, so that the influence of three months of programmed physical activity on redox status could be determined. The chronic effects of exercise on the redox state of the athletes were compared to the effects of a single bout of karate training. Thirty elite karate athletes, 16-30 years old, were subjected to maximal graded exercise test to estimate their aerobic capacity; blood sampling was also performed to measure levels of superoxide anion radical (O₂⁻), hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT). The only significant change after the three-month training process was found in the significantly decreased CAT activity (X ± SE: 7.95 ± 0.13 U/g Hb × 10³ in the preparatory period, 6.65 ± 0.28 U/g Hb × 10³ in the competition stage; P < 0.01). After a single karate training session, there was statistically significant decrease of O₂⁻(X ± SE: 32.7 ± 4.9 nmol/ml in the preparatory period, 24.5 ± 2.5 nmol/ml in the competition stage; P < 0.05) and increase of H₂O₂(X ± SE: 11.8 ± 1.0 nmol/ml in the preparatory period, 14.2 ± 0.9 nmol/ml in the competition stage; P < 0.01), as well as significant CAT increase (X ± SE: 6.6 ± 0.6 U/g Hb × 10³ in the preparatory period, 8.5 ± 0.5 U/g Hb × 10³ in the competition stage; P < 0.05). Although the three-month training process induced, at the first sight, negative changes in the redox state, expressed through the decrease in CAT activity, adequate response of the antioxidant system of our athletes to acute exercise was preserved.

  15. 25(OH)D Status of Elite Athletes with Spinal Cord Injury Relative to Lifestyle Factors

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett, Kelly; Pritchett, Robert; Ogan, Dana; Bishop, Phil; Broad, Elizabeth; LaCroix, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the potential negative impact of low Vitamin D status on performance-related factors and the higher risk of low Vitamin D status in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) population, research is warranted to determine whether elite athletes with SCI have sufficient 25(OH)D levels. The purposes of this study were to examine: (1) the seasonal proportion of vitamin D insufficiency among elite athletes with SCI; and (2) to determine whether lifestyle factors, SCI lesion level, and muscle performance/function are related to vitamin D status in athletes with SCI. Methods: Thirty-nine members of the Canadian Wheelchair Sports Association, and the US Olympic Committee Paralympic program from outdoor and indoor sports were recruited for this study. Dietary and lifestyle factors, and serum 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed during the autumn (October) and winter (February/March). An independent t-test was used to assess differences in 25(OH)D status among seasons, and indoor and outdoor sports in the autumn and winter, respectively. Results: Mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D concentration was 69.6 ± 19.7 nmol/L (range from 30 to 107.3 nmol/L) and 67.4 ± 25.5 nmol/L (range from 20 to 117.3 nmol/L)in the autumn and winter, respectively. In the autumn, 15.4% of participants were considered vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) whereas 51.3% had 25(OH)D concentrations that would be considered insufficient (<80 nmol/L). In the winter, 15.4% were deficient while 41% of all participants were considered vitamin D insufficient. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of elite athletes with SCI have insufficient (41%–51%) and deficient (15.4%) 25(OH)D status in the autumn and winter. Furthermore, a seasonal decline in vitamin D status was not observed in the current study. PMID:27322316

  16. Patterns of ventricular tachyarrhythmias associated with training, deconditioning and retraining in elite athletes without cardiovascular abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Biffi, Alessandro; Maron, Barry J; Culasso, Franco; Verdile, Luisa; Fernando, Fredrick; Di Giacinto, Barbara; Di Paolo, Fernando M; Spataro, Antonio; Delise, Pietro; Pelliccia, Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Ventricular tachyarrhythmias commonly occur in trained athletes during ambulatory Holter electrocardiography and are usually associated with a benign course. Such arrhythmias have been demonstrated to be sensitive to short periods of athletic deconditioning; however, their response to retraining is not known. Twenty-four hour Holter electrocardiographic monitoring was performed at peak training and after 3 to 6 months of deconditioning and was repeated in the present study after 2, 6, and 12 months of retraining in 37 athletes with frequent and complex ventricular tachyarrhythmias and without cardiovascular abnormalities. These subjects showed partial (101 to 500 ventricular premature complexes [VPCs]/24 hours) or marked (<100 VPCs) reversibility of arrhythmias after deconditioning. Retraining initially resulted in a significant increase in arrhythmia frequency compared with deconditioning (from 280 ± 475 to 1,542 ± 2,186 VPCs; p = 0.005), couplets (0.14 ± 0.42 to 4.4 ± 8.2; p = 0.005), and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (from 0 to 0.8 ± 1.8; p = 0.02). Subsequently, a progressive reduction was seen in the frequency of all ventricular arrhythmias during the 1 year of training to well below that at the peak training levels (VPCs 917 ± 1,630, couplets 1.8 ± 4.2, and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia 0.4 ± 1.2). Such annual arrhythmia reduction was significantly greater statistically in those athletes with marked reversibility after deconditioning than in the athletes with partial reversibility (69 ± 139 vs 1,496 ± 1,917 VPCs/24 hours, respectively; p = 0.007). No cardiac events or symptoms occurred during 1 year of follow-up. In conclusion, in elite athletes without cardiovascular disease, a resumption in intense training after deconditioning was associated with variable, but prolonged, suppression of ventricular ectopy. The absence of adverse clinical events or symptoms associated with the resumption of training supports the continued eligibility

  17. Using squat testing to predict training loads for lower-body exercises in elite karate athletes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Del P; Tan, Erik C H; Chaouachi, Anis; Carling, Christopher; Castagna, Carlo; Bloomfield, Jonathan; Behm, David G

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between squat loads and 2 bilateral and 2 unilateral stepping lower-body exercises in predominantly unilateral movement elite athletes (Karate). Equations to predict loads for lower-body exercises based on the squat load were also determined. Fourteen male elite Karate athletes (age = 22.6 ± 1.2 years) performed 6 repetition maximum (RM) of the following free-weight bilateral exercises: back half squat, deadlift, leg press and unilateral stepping exercises, lunge; and step-up. Results showed that 6RM squat load was significantly (p < 0.001) correlated with deadlift (r = 0.86), leg press (r = 0.76), lunge (r = 0.86), and step-up (r = 0.92). Linear regression showed that the 6RM squat load was a significant predictor for deadlift, leg press, lunge, and step-up (R2 range from 0.57 to 0.85, p < 0.001). The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a) Deadlift = squat load (1.12)-16.60 kg, (b) Leg press = squat load (1.66) + 16.10 kg, (c) Lunge = squat load (0.61) + 9.39 kg, and (d) step-up = squat load (0.85)-10.36 kg. Coaches and fitness professionals can use the 6RM squat load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for both bilateral and unilateral lower-body exercises with quadriceps as the prime mover. Load prescriptions for unilateral exercises should take into account the type of athletic population.

  18. Exploring athletic identity in elite-level English youth football: a cross-sectional approach.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Tom O; Nesti, Mark; Richardson, David; Midgley, Adrian W; Eubank, Martin; Littlewood, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first empirical investigation that has explored levels of athletic identity in elite-level English professional football. The importance of understanding athletes' psychological well-being within professional sport has been well documented. This is especially important within the professional football industry, given the high attrition rate (Anderson, G., & Miller, R. M. (2011). The academy system in English professional football: Business value or following the herd? University of Liverpool, Management School Research Paper Series. Retrieved from http://www.liv.ac.uk/managementschool/research/working%20papers/wp201143.pdf ) and distinct occupational practices (Roderick, M. (2006). The work of professional football. A labour of love? London: Routledge). A total of 168 elite youth footballers from the English professional football leagues completed the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). Multilevel modelling was used to examine the effect of playing level, living arrangements and year of apprentice on the total AIMS score and its subscales (i.e., social identity, exclusivity and negative affectivity). Football club explained 30% of the variance in exclusivity among players (P = .022). Mean social identity was significantly higher for those players in the first year of their apprenticeship compared to the second year (P = .025). All other effects were not statistically significant (P > .05). The novel and unique findings have practical implications in the design and implementation of career support strategies with respect to social identity. This may facilitate the maintenance of motivation over a 2-year apprenticeship and positively impact on performance levels within the professional football environment.

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II for Chinese College Students and Elite Chinese Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chun-Qing; Chung, Pak-Kwong; Si, Gangyan; Liu, Jing Dong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) across two samples of Chinese college students (n = 183 and n = 366) and a sample of elite Chinese athletes (n = 330). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the existence of a…

  20. The "Inclusion" of Elite Athletes with Disabilities in the 2002 Manchester Commonwealth Games: An Exploratory Analysis of British Newspaper Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Thomas, Nigel

    2005-01-01

    The XVII 2002 Commonwealth Games held in Manchester, England, was the first major international multi-sport event to include elite athletes with disabilities (EADs) in its main sports programme and medal table. In this exploratory article we seek to examine some of the complex issues surrounding the inclusion of EADs in the Manchester Games by…

  1. Shoulder proprioception is not related to throwing speed or accuracy in elite adolescent male baseball players.

    PubMed

    Freeston, Jonathan; Adams, Roger D; Rooney, Kieron

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence throwing speed and accuracy is critical to performance in baseball. Shoulder proprioception has been implicated in the injury risk of throwing athletes, but no such link has been established with performance outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe any relationship between shoulder proprioception acuity and throwing speed or accuracy. Twenty healthy elite adolescent male baseball players (age, 19.6 ± 2.6 years), who had represented the state of New South Wales in the past 18 months, were assessed for bilateral active shoulder proprioception (shoulder rotation in 90° of arm abduction moving toward external rotation using the active movement extent discrimination apparatus), maximal throwing speed (MTS, meters per second measured via a radar gun), and accuracy (total error in centimeters determined by video analysis) at 80 and 100% of MTS. Although proprioception in the dominant and nondominant arms was significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.54, p < 0.01), no relationship was found between shoulder proprioception and performance. Shoulder proprioception was not a significant determinant of throwing performance such that high levels of speed and accuracy were achieved without a high degree of proprioception. There is no evidence to suggest therefore that this particular method of shoulder proprioception measurement should be implemented in clinical practice. Consequently, clinicians are encouraged to consider proprioception throughout the entire kinetic chain rather than the shoulder joint in isolation as a determining factor of performance in throwing athletes.

  2. Simple anthropometry and peak expiratory flow rate in elite South Asian athletes.

    PubMed

    De, A K; Roy, A S; Ray, A; Debnath, P K

    1991-12-01

    The athletes (n = 40) of South Asian Federation (SAF) Games were examined each taking a very short time. The athletes were runners (short distance, long distance and marathon), jumpers and throwers who were persuaded for the purpose. The throwers and the jumpers respectively comprised the oldest and youngest group of athletes in the study. The throwers were observed to be the tallest (mean height 179.96 +/- 1.49 cm) and heaviest (mean weight 92.27 +/- 3.81), whereas the long distance runners were of short height (mean value 162.80 +/- 2.61 cm) and light weight (mean value 50.41 +/- 2.58 kg). The highest mean values of PEFR (lit/min) were noted among the throwers (596.60 +/- 27.53) followed by marathon (590.0 +/- 32.18) and long distance runners (588.0 +/- 27.35). The lower values of PEFR were noted among the short distance runners (528.60 +/- 15.83) and jumpers (525.70 +/- 22.60). The PEFR values, when arranged according to height, were noted to be insignificantly increasing with the increase in age. The overall values of height, weight and PEFR were all found to be higher in these elite sportsmen when compared with their non-sportsman Indian counterparts.

  3. Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports.

    PubMed

    Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J

    2010-11-01

    White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology.

  4. Analysis of the Relative Age Effect in Elite Youth Judo Athletes.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, David H

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate relative age effects (RAEs) in elite youth judo athletes from different chronological age groups, between sexes, and across weight categories. Data from 1542 place winners of the cadet (under 17 y, 2009-2013) and junior judo world championships (under 20/21 y, 1990-2013) were separated by birth month into quarters (Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4). The observed values were compared with expected annual age distributions using χ2 analyses, and odd ratios (OR) were used to evaluate effect sizes between quarters. The observed frequency of place winners was significantly different from the expected frequency for the age-group and sex comparisons and all body-mass groups (P < .05) with the exception of the extra-light categories (P = .572). When comparing Q1 with Q4 (OR, 95% confidence interval), small effect sizes were observed for cadets (1.72, 1.12-2.66), juniors (1.54, 1.23-1.94), males (1.75, 1.32-2.33), females (1.39, 1.03-1.87), and the light- (1.79, 1.21-2.64) and middle-weight (1.80, 1.20-2.70) categories. RAEs are apparent in cadet and junior judo athletes. Thus, coaches and administrators should consider the potential for physical and/or competitive advantages while adopting strategies that encourage long-term participation in youth judo athletes.

  5. Environmental Influences on Elite Sport Athletes Well Being: From Gold, Silver, and Bronze to Blue Green and Gold

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Aoife A.; MacIntyre, Tadhg E.; O’Sullivan, Nollaig; Warrington, Giles; Harrison, Andrew J.; Igou, Eric R.; Jones, Marc; Gidlow, Chris; Brick, Noel; Lahart, Ian; Cloak, Ross; Lane, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the environmental impact on well-being and performance in elite athletes during Olympic competition. The benefits of exercising in natural environments are recognized, but less is known about the effects on performance and health in elite athletes. Although some Olympic events take place in natural environments, the majority occur in the host city, usually a large densely populated area where low exposure to natural environments is compounded by exposure to high levels of air, water, and noise pollution in the ambient environment. By combining methods and expertise from diverse but inter-related disciplines including environmental psychology, exercise physiology, biomechanics, environmental science, and epidemiology, a transdisciplinary approach will facilitate a greater understanding of the effects of the environment on Olympic athletes. PMID:27540370

  6. Environmental Influences on Elite Sport Athletes Well Being: From Gold, Silver, and Bronze to Blue Green and Gold.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Aoife A; MacIntyre, Tadhg E; O'Sullivan, Nollaig; Warrington, Giles; Harrison, Andrew J; Igou, Eric R; Jones, Marc; Gidlow, Chris; Brick, Noel; Lahart, Ian; Cloak, Ross; Lane, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the environmental impact on well-being and performance in elite athletes during Olympic competition. The benefits of exercising in natural environments are recognized, but less is known about the effects on performance and health in elite athletes. Although some Olympic events take place in natural environments, the majority occur in the host city, usually a large densely populated area where low exposure to natural environments is compounded by exposure to high levels of air, water, and noise pollution in the ambient environment. By combining methods and expertise from diverse but inter-related disciplines including environmental psychology, exercise physiology, biomechanics, environmental science, and epidemiology, a transdisciplinary approach will facilitate a greater understanding of the effects of the environment on Olympic athletes.

  7. Energy availability and the female athlete triad in elite endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Melin, A; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, S; Møller, S S; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Faber, J; Sidelmann, J J; Aziz, M; Sjödin, A

    2015-10-01

    The female athlete triad (Triad), links low energy availability (EA), with menstrual dysfunction (MD), and impaired bone health. The aims of this study were to examine associations between EA/MD and energy metabolism and the prevalence of Triad-associated conditions in endurance athletes. Forty women [26.2 ± 5.5 years, body mass index (BMI) 20.6 ± 2.0 kg/m(2), body fat 20.0 ± 3.0%], exercising 11.4 ± 4.5 h/week, were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocol included gynecological examination; assessment of bone health; indirect respiratory calorimetry; diet and exercise measured 7 days to assess EA; eating disorder (ED) examination; blood analysis. Subjects with low/reduced EA (< 45 kcal/kg FFM/day), had lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) compared with those with optimal EA [28.4 ± 2.0 kcal/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day vs 30.5 ± 2.2 kcal/kg FFM/day, P < 0.01], as did subjects with MD compared with eumenorrheic subjects (28.6 ± 2.4 kcal/kg FFM/day vs 30.2 ± 1.8 kcal/kg FFM/day, P < 0.05). 63% had low/reduced EA, 25% ED, 60% MD, 45% impaired bone health, and 23% had all three Triad conditions. 53% had low RMR, 25% hypercholesterolemia, and 38% hypoglycemia. Conclusively, athletes with low/reduced EA and/or MD had lowered RMR. Triad-associated conditions were common in this group of athletes, despite a normal BMI range. The high prevalence of ED, MD, and impaired bone health emphasizes the importance of prevention, early detection, and treatment of energy deficiency.

  8. Warm-up Practices in Elite Boxing Athletes: Impact on Power Output.

    PubMed

    Cunniffe, Brian; Ellison, Mark; Loosemore, Mike; Cardinale, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Cunniffe, B, Ellison, M, Loosemore, M, and Cardinale, M. Warm-up practices in elite boxing athletes: Iimpact on power output. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 95-105, 2017-This study evaluated the performance impact of routine warm-up strategies in elite Olympic amateur boxing athletes and physiological implications of the time gap (GAP) between warm-up and boxing activity. Six male boxers were assessed while performing standardized prefight warm-up routines. Core and skin temperature measurements (Tcore and Tskin), heart rate, and upper- and lower-body power output (PO) were assessed before and after warm-up, during a 25-minutes GAP and after 3 × 2 minutes rounds of sparring. Reflected temperature (Tc) was also determined using high-resolution thermal images at fixed time-points to explore avenues for heat loss. Despite individual differences in warm-up duration (range 7.4-18.5 minutes), increases in Tcore and Tskin occurred (p ≤ 0.05). Corresponding increases (4.8%; p ≤ 0.05) in countermovement jump (CMJ) height and upward-rightward shifts in upper-body force-velocity and power-velocity curves were observed. Athletes remained inactive during the 25-minutes GAP with a gradual and significant increase in Tc occurring by the end of GAP suggesting the likelihood of heat loss. Decreases in CMJ height and upper-body PO were observed after 15 minutes and 25 minutes GAP (p ≤ 0.05). By the end of GAP period, all performance variables had returned to pre-warm-up values. Results suggest routine warm-ups undertaken by elite boxers have acute effects on power-generating capacity. Gradual decreases in performance variables are evident with inactivity and seem related to alterations in body temperature. Considering the constraints of major competitions and time spent in air conditioned holding areas before fights, practitioners should be aware of the potential of nullifying the warm-up effects.

  9. Eating attitudes and food intakes of elite adolescent female figure skaters: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elite adolescent female figure skaters compete in an aesthetic-based sport that values thin builds and lithe figures. To conform to the sport’s physical requirements, skaters may alter their eating patterns in unhealthful directions. This study assesses the eating attitudes and dietary intakes of elite adolescent female figure skaters to assess the potential nutritional risks among them. Methods Thirty-six elite competitive adolescent female figure skaters (mean age 16 ± 2.5 SD years) completed self-administered three-day records of dietary intake and simultaneous physical activity records during training season. Two months later, they attended a national training camp during which they completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), provided fasting blood samples, and had heights and weights measured. Results Participants’ mean body mass index (BMI) was 19.8 ± 2.1 SD. Their BMIs were within the normal range, and the majority (70%) did not report a history of recent weight loss. The mean EAT-40 score was normal (19.5 ± 13.5 SD) and below the cut-off score of 30 that indicates clinically significant eating pathology. However, one-quarter of the skaters had EAT-40 scores above 30. The skaters reported a mean energy intake of 1491 ± 471 SD kcal/day (31 ± 10 SD kcal/kg), with 61.6% of calories from carbohydrate, 14.6% from protein, and 23.7% from fat. Their reported dietary intakes were high in carbohydrates but low in total energy, fat, and bone-building nutrients. Conclusions Although these highly active young women compete in a sport that prizes leanness, they had appropriate weights. The athletes reported dietary intakes that were far below estimated energy needs and were at moderate risk of disordered eating. Anticipatory guidance is warranted to improve their dietary intakes, particularly of bone-building nutrients. PMID:23237333

  10. Risk of nutrient inadequacies in elite Canadian athletes with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Krempien, Jennifer L; Barr, Susan I

    2011-10-01

    Energy intakes of adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) have been reported to be relatively low, with many micronutrients below recommended amounts, but little is known about the diets of athletes with SCI. The purpose of this cross-sectional, observational study was to assess energy intakes and estimate the prevalence of dietary inadequacy in a sample of elite Canadian athletes with SCI (n = 32). Three-day self-reported food diaries completed at home and training camp were analyzed for energy (kcal), macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals and compared with the dietary reference intakes (DRIs). The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy was estimated by the proportion of athletes with mean intakes below the estimated average requirement (EAR). Energy intakes were 2,156 ± 431 kcal for men and 1,991 ± 510 kcal for women. Macronutrient intakes were within the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges. While at training camp, >25% of men had intakes below the EAR for calcium, magnesium, zinc, riboflavin, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin D. Thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, and vitamin D intakes were higher at home than training camp. Over 25% of women had intakes below the EAR for calcium, magnesium, folate, and vitamin D, with no significant differences in mean intakes between home and training camp. Vitamin/mineral supplement use significantly increased men's intakes of most nutrients but did not affect prevalence of inadequacy. Women's intakes did not change significantly with vitamin/mineral supplementation. These results demonstrate that athletes with SCI are at risk for several nutrient inadequacies relative to the DRIs.

  11. Epidemiology of injuries in elite taekwondo athletes: two Olympic periods cross-sectional retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Altarriba-Bartes, Albert; Drobnic, Franchek; Til, Lluís; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Montoro, José Bruno; Irurtia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Taekwondo injuries differ according to the characteristics of the athletes and the competition. This analytical cross-sectional retrospective cohort study aimed to describe reported taekwondo injuries and to determine the prevalence, characteristics and possible risk factors for injuries sustained by athletes of the Spanish national team. In addition, we compared each identified risk factor—age, weight category, annual quarter, injury timing and competition difficulty level—with its relation to injury location and type. Settings Injury occurrences in taekwondo athletes of the Spanish national team during two Olympic periods at the High Performance Centre in Barcelona were analysed. Participants 48 taekwondo athletes (22 male, 26 female; age range 15–31 years) were studied; 1678 injury episodes occurred. Inclusion criteria were: (1) having trained with the national taekwondo group for a minimum of one sports season; (2) being a member of the Spanish national team. Results Independently of sex or Olympic period, the anatomical sites with most injury episodes were knee (21.3%), foot (17.0%), ankle (12.2%), thigh (11.4%) and lower leg (8.8%). Contusions (29.3%) and cartilage (17.6%) and joint (15.7%) injuries were the prevalent types of injury. Chronological age, weight category and annual quarter can be considered risk factors for sustaining injuries in male and female elite taekwondists according to their location and type (p≤0.001). Conclusions This study provides epidemiological information that will help to inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies and recommendations to reduce the number of injuries in taekwondo competition. PMID:24531455

  12. Health Psychological Constructs as Predictors of Doping Susceptibility in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Cornelia; Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Leichtfried, Veronika; Duschek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background Doping is a highly relevant problem in sport, even in adolescent athletes. Knowledge of the psychological factors that influence doping susceptibility in young elite athletes remains sparse. Objectives This study investigated the predictive potential of different health-psychological constructs and well-being on doping susceptibility. The main hypotheses to be tested were positive associations of fear of failure, external locus of control, and ego-oriented goal orientation as well as negative associations of confidence of success, task orientation, internal locus of control, and performance motivation with doping susceptibility. Low levels of well-being are furthermore expected to be associated with doping susceptibility. Methods Within this cross-sectional study, 1,265 Austrian junior athletes aged between 14 and 19 years responded to a paper-pencil questionnaire. Results Performance motivation was a negative, while depressive mood, self-esteem, fear of failure and ego-oriented goal orientation were positive predictors of doping susceptibility. In addition, participants who were offered performance enhancing substances in the past were particularly susceptible to doping. Conclusions The study corroborates the predictive value of classical psychological constructs in doping research, initially analyzed in view of adult athletes, also for adolescents’ doping susceptibility. PMID:28144408

  13. Macronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Endurance, Team, and Strength Athletes: Does Intake Differ between Sport Disciplines?

    PubMed

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-02-10

    Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566-2985 kcal and 1997-2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg(-1) of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%-80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg(-1) bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 minutes per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg(-1). However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation.

  14. Macronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Endurance, Team, and Strength Athletes: Does Intake Differ between Sport Disciplines?

    PubMed Central

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566–2985 kcal and 1997–2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg−1 of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%–80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg−1 bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 min per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg−1. However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation. PMID:28208581

  15. Origins and consequences of tripartite efficacy beliefs within elite athlete dyads.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Ben; Knapp, Peter; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2008-10-01

    Drawing from Lent and Lopez's (2002) "tripartite" model of relational efficacy, the overall purpose of this study was to examine antecedents and consequences of self-efficacy, other-efficacy, and relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE) within six international-level athlete dyads. Semistructured interviews were conducted and data were content analyzed using deductive and inductive procedures. Sources of efficacy emerged in relation to perceptions regarding (i) oneself, (ii) one's partner, (iii) the dyad/relationship, and (iv) external factors. Results also revealed the emergence of a number of salient intrapersonal and interpersonal outcomes, incorporating cognitive, affective, as well as behavioral consequences. Implications for theory development and future research are considered, and applied propositions are discussed with regard to effective relationship management in elite sport.

  16. Idiopathic intrafascicular reentrant left ventricular tachycardia in an elite cyclist athlete.

    PubMed

    Riera, Andrés Ricardo Pérez; Ragognete, Ricardo Gitti; Filho, Celso Ferreira; Ferreira, Marcelo; Schapachnik, Edgardo; Dubner, Sergio; Ferreira, Celso; Mochon, Agnieszka; Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    A 32 year-old Caucasian male, an elite athlete, was admitted to the emergency department because of a sudden onset of palpitations which had lasted more than 12 hours and were associated with chest discomfort. He had a two-year history of recurrent stress-induced palpitations. He denied either episodes of syncope or any family history of sudden death. Physical examination was normal. He had no evidence of structural heart disease. The electrocardiography (ECG) documented during the event supported the diagnosis of idiopathic reentrant left ventricular tachycardia. Ventricular tachycardia ablation was successful. This case demonstrates that a careful physical examination and correct ECG diagnosis can lead to an appropriate arrhythmia management.

  17. Comparison of Athletes’ Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes’ depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (Mage = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p < 0.05; d = 0.30]. Furthermore, negative attribution after failure was associated with individual sports (β = 0.27; p < 0.001), as well as with the dependent variable depression (β = 0.26; p < 0.01). Mediation hypothesis was supported by a significant indirect effect (β = 0.07; p < 0.05). Negative attribution after failure mediated the relationship between individual sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to

  18. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in elite power athletes during maximal weight-lifting.

    PubMed

    Dickerman, R D; McConathy, W J; Smith, G H; East, J W; Rudder, L

    2000-06-01

    Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) has been shown to significantly increase during dynamic exercise (running) secondary to increases in cardiac output. Static exercise (weight-lifting) induces supraphysiological arterial pressures up to 450/380 mmHg, and thus may alter CBFV. Catastrophic brain injuries such as stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, retinal hemorrhage and retinal detachment have been associated with weight-lifting. A recent study has shown that intra-ocular pressure (IOP), which is an indirect measure of intracranial pressure, elevates to pathophysiologic levels during weight-lifting. Recent CBFV studies instituting Valsalva have demonstrated decreases in CBFV from 21%-52%. To date, no studies have examined CBFV during maximal weight-lifting to elucidate the cerebrovascular responses to extreme pressure alterations. We recruited nine elite power athletes, including a multi-world record holder in powerlifting, for a transcranial Doppler study of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity at rest and during maximal weight-lifting. All subjects' resting blood flow velocities were within normal ranges (mean 64.4 +/- 9.5 cm sec2). Blood flow velocities were significantly (p < 0.0001) decreased in all subjects during maximal lifting (mean 48.4 +/- 10.1 cm sec2). Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant inverse linear relationship in the net change of blood velocities from rest to maximal lift for each subject (r = 0.8585, p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that blood flow velocities are significantly decreased during heavy resistance training. The drop in CBFV during weight-lifting was significantly less than previous Valsalva studies, which likely reveals the cardiovascular, baroreflex, and cerebrovascular system adaptations occurring in these elite power athletes.

  19. Off-season physiological profiles of elite National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III male soccer players.

    PubMed

    Miller, Douglas K; Kieffer, H Scott; Kemp, Heather E; Torres, Sylvia E

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of soccer-related fitness parameters on elite National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III male soccer players during the off-season. Sixteen underclassmen from a recent NCAA Division III national championship soccer team completed a series of tests across 3 separate occasions over a 15-day period, with adequate recovery time between sessions to eliminate any carryover effect. Physiological parameters measured included aerobic endurance, anaerobic power and capacity, jumping power, agility, hamstring flexibility, and body composition. Descriptive statistics such as the mean (±SD) and range were calculated for each test. Two-tailed Pearson correlations were run to determine significant relationships that existed between variables. Test results were T-Tests (9.9 ± 0.4), Active Knee Extension degrees (-34.2 ± 11.9 right, -34.0 ± 13.9 left), vertical jump (61.8 ± 7.2 cm), percent fat (5.6 ± 1.6), Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) laps (113.2 ± 12.3), estimated VO2max (53.6 ± 2.9 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)), Wingate peak (802.7 ± 155.6 W), Wingate peak (10.9 ± 1.2 W · kg(-1)), Wingate mean (651.2 ± 101.6 W), Wingate mean (8.9 ± 0.6 W · kg), and Wingate fatigue rate (35.9 ± 8.4%). Strong correlations existed between PACER laps and percent fat, between peak W and peak W · kg(-1), and between peak W and fatigue rate. These results suggest that elite Division III soccer players maintain relatively high fitness levels during the off-season. Additionally, they provide coaches with preliminary norms that can be used to determine off-season training expectations and adjust programs accordingly for their athletes.

  20. Oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines

    PubMed Central

    Hadžović - Džuvo, Almira; Valjevac, Amina; Lepara, Orhan; Pjanić, Samra; Hadžimuratović, Adnan; Mekić, Amel

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training may increase production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species in different ways. The training type and intensity may influence free radicals production, which leads to differences in oxidative stress status between athletes, but the results of the previous studies are incosistent. The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines. The study included 39 male highly skilled professional competitors with international experience (2 Olympic players): 12 wrestlers, 14 soccer players and 13 basketball players in whom we determined the levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as markers of oxidative stress and the total antioxidative capacity (ImAnOX) using commercially available assay kits. The mean AOPP concentration was not significantly different between soccer players, wrestler and basketball players (60.0±23.0 vs. 68.5±30.8 and 80.72±29.1 μmol/L respectively). Mean ImAnOX concentration was not different between soccer players (344.8±35.6 μmol/L), wrestlers (342±36.2 μmol/L) and basketball players (347.95±31.3 μmol/L). Mean MDA concentration was significantly higher in basketball players (1912.1±667.7 ng/mL) compared to soccer players (1060.1±391.0 ng/mL, p=0.003). In spite of this fact, oxidative stress markers levels were increased compared to referral values provided by the manufacturer. Type of sports (soccer, wrestler or basketball) have no impact on the levels of oxidative stress markers. Elite sports engagement is a potent stimulus of oxidative stress that leads to the large recruitment of antioxidative defense. Oxidative stress status monitoring followed by appropriate use of antioxidants is recommended as a part of training regime. PMID:24856375

  1. Oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines.

    PubMed

    Hadžović-Džuvo, Almira; Valjevac, Amina; Lepara, Orhan; Pjanić, Samra; Hadžimuratović, Adnan; Mekić, Amel

    2014-05-01

    Exercise training may increase production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species in different ways. The training type and intensity may influence free radicals production, which leads to differences in oxidative stress status between athletes, but the results of the previous studies are incosistent. The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines. The study included 39 male highly skilled professional competitors with international experience (2 Olympic players): 12 wrestlers, 14 soccer players and 13 basketball players in whom we determined the levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as markers of oxidative stress and the total antioxidative capacity (ImAnOX) using commercially available assay kits. The mean AOPP concentration was not significantly different between soccer players, wrestler and basketball players (60.0 ± 23.0 vs. 68.5 ± 30.8 and 80.72 ± 29.1 μmol/L respectively). Mean ImAnOX concentration was not different between soccer players (344.8 ± 35.6 μmol/L), wrestlers (342.5 ± 36.2 μmol/L) and basketball players (347.95 ± 31.3 μmol/L). Mean MDA concentration was significantly higher in basketball players (1912.1 ± 667.7 ng/mL) compared to soccer players (1060.1 ± 391.0 ng/mL, p=0.003). In spite of this fact, oxidative stress markers levels were increased compared to referral values provided by the manufacturer. Type of sports (soccer, wrestler or basketball) have no impact on the levels of oxidative stress markers. Elite sports engagement is a potent stimulus of oxidative stress that leads to the large recruitment of antioxidative defense. Oxidative stress status monitoring followed by appropriate use of antioxidants is recommended as a part of training regime.

  2. ACTN3 R577X Gene Variant is Associated with Muscle-related Phenotypes in elite Chinese Sprint/Power Athletes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruoyu; Shen, Xunzhang; Wang, Yubin; Voisin, Sarah; Cai, Guang; Fu, Yongnan; Xu, Wangyu; Eynon, Nir; Bishop, David J; Yan, Xu

    2016-07-16

    The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism (rs1815739) has been shown to influence athletic performance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of this polymorphism in elite Chinese track and field athletes, and to explore its effects on athletes' level of competition and lower-extremity power. We compared the ACTN3 R577X genotypes and allele frequencies in 59 elite sprint/power athletes, 44 elite endurance athletes, and 50 healthy controls from Chinese Han origin. We then subcategorized the athletes into international-level and national-level, and investigated the effects of ACTN3 genotype on lower-extremity power. Genotype distribution of the sprint/power athletes was significantly different from endurance athletes (p = 0.001) and controls (p < 0.001). The frequency of the RR genotype was significantly higher in international-level than in the national-level sprint/power athletes (p = 0.004), with no international-level sprint/power athletes with XX genotype. The best standing long jump (SLJ) and standing vertical jump (SVJ) results of sprint/power athletes were better in the RR than the RX+XX genotypes (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism influences the level of competition and lower extremity power of elite Chinese S/P athletes. Including relevant phenotypes such as muscle performance in future studies is important to further understand the effects of gene variants on elite athletic performance.

  3. Structural differences in basal ganglia of elite running versus martial arts athletes: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Tsai, Jack Han-Chao; Wang, Chun-Chih; Chang, Erik Chihhung

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize and compare microscopic differences in white matter integrity in the basal ganglia between elite professional athletes specializing in running and martial arts. Thirty-three young adults with sport-related skills as elite professional runners (n = 11) or elite professional martial artists (n = 11) were recruited and compared with non-athletic and healthy controls (n = 11). All participants underwent health- and skill-related physical fitness assessments. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), the primary indices derived from DTI, were computed for five regions of interest in the bilateral basal ganglia, including the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus internal segment (GPi), globus pallidus external segment (GPe), and subthalamic nucleus. Results revealed that both athletic groups demonstrated better physical fitness indices compared with their control counterparts, with the running group exhibiting the highest cardiovascular fitness and the martial arts group exhibiting the highest muscular endurance and flexibility. With respect to the basal ganglia, both athletic groups showed significantly lower FA and marginally higher MD values in the GPi compared with the healthy control group. These findings suggest that professional sport or motor skill training is associated with changes in white matter integrity in specific regions of the basal ganglia, although these positive changes did not appear to depend on the type of sport-related motor skill being practiced.

  4. The adolescent female athlete: current concepts and conundrums.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Omar, Hatim; Pratt, Helen D

    2010-06-01

    The adolescent female athlete has become a common part of the sports environment at all levels from childhood play to professional adult sports. This article considers various issues common to this athlete to help clinicians care for their patients. Basic sports physiology is reviewed and then specific conditions are considered, including iron deficiency anemia, stress urinary incontinence, breast issues (ie, pain, asymmetry, galactorrhea, injury), the female athlete triad (ie, menstrual dysfunction, abnormal eating patterns, and osteopenia or osteoporosis), and injuries. Clinical conundrums are considered including the difficulty in caring for a dedicated athlete whose intense love of her sport may lead to menstrual and bone loss complications. The knowledgeable clinician in the twenty-first century can be of considerable help to the female athlete who is at and beyond puberty.

  5. Low back pain status in elite and semi-elite Australian football codes: a cross-sectional survey of football (soccer), Australian rules, rugby league, rugby union and non-athletic controls

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Wayne; Pollard, Henry; Daff, Chris; Odell, Andrew; Garbutt, Peter; McHardy, Andrew; Hardy, Kate; Dragasevic, George

    2009-01-01

    Background Our understanding of the effects of football code participation on low back pain (LBP) is limited. It is unclear whether LBP is more prevalent in athletic populations or differs between levels of competition. Thus it was the aim of this study to document and compare the prevalence, intensity, quality and frequency of LBP between elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group. Methods A cross-sectional survey of elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group was performed. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire incorporating the Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale (QVAS) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (short form) (MPQ-SF), along with additional questions adapted from an Australian epidemiological study. Respondents were 271 elite players (mean age 23.3, range 17–39), 360 semi-elite players (mean age 23.8, range 16–46) and 148 non-athletic controls (mean age 23.9, range 18–39). Results Groups were matched for age (p = 0.42) and experienced the same age of first onset LBP (p = 0.40). A significant linear increase in LBP from the non-athletic group, to the semi-elite and elite groups for the QVAS and the MPQ-SF was evident (p < 0.001). Elite subjects were more likely to experience more frequent (daily or weekly OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.29–2.42) and severe LBP (discomforting and greater OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.29–2.38). Conclusion Foolers in Australia have significantly more severe and frequent LBP than a non-athletic group and this escalates with level of competition. PMID:19371446

  6. Right Ventricular Adaptation Is Associated with the Glu298Asp Variant of the NOS3 Gene in Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kolossváry, Márton; Tóth, Attila; Vágó, Hajnalka; Lendvai, Zsuzsanna; Kiss, Loretta; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Bagyura, Zsolt; Merkely, Béla

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an important endogenous pulmonary vasodilator is synthetized by the endothelial NO synthase (NOS3). Reduced NO bioavailability and thus the Glu298Asp polymorphism of NOS3 may enhance right ventricular (RV) afterload and hypertrophic remodeling and influence athletic performance. To test this hypothesis world class level athletes (water polo players, kayakers, canoeists, rowers, swimmers, n = 126) with a VO2 maximum greater than 50ml/kg/min were compared with non-athletic volunteers (n = 155). Cardiopulmonary exercise tests and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) were performed to determine structural or functional changes. Genotype distribution of the NOS3 Glu298Asp polymorphism was not affected by gender or physical performance. Cardiac MRI showed increased stroke volume with eccentric hypertrophy in all athletes regardless of their genotype. However, the Asp allelic variant carriers had increased RV mass index (32±6g versus 27±6g, p<0.01) and larger RV stroke volume index (71±10ml versus 64±10ml, p<0.01) than athletes with a Glu/Glu genotype. Genotype was not significantly associated with athletic performance. In the non-athletic group no genotype related differences were detected. The association between the NOS3 Glu298Asp polymorphism and RV structure and dimension in elite athletes emphasizes the importance of NOS3 gene function and NO bioavailability in sport related cardiac adaptation. PMID:26517550

  7. Right Ventricular Adaptation Is Associated with the Glu298Asp Variant of the NOS3 Gene in Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Szelid, Zsolt; Lux, Árpád; Kolossváry, Márton; Tóth, Attila; Vágó, Hajnalka; Lendvai, Zsuzsanna; Kiss, Loretta; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Bagyura, Zsolt; Merkely, Béla

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an important endogenous pulmonary vasodilator is synthetized by the endothelial NO synthase (NOS3). Reduced NO bioavailability and thus the Glu298Asp polymorphism of NOS3 may enhance right ventricular (RV) afterload and hypertrophic remodeling and influence athletic performance. To test this hypothesis world class level athletes (water polo players, kayakers, canoeists, rowers, swimmers, n = 126) with a VO2 maximum greater than 50ml/kg/min were compared with non-athletic volunteers (n = 155). Cardiopulmonary exercise tests and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) were performed to determine structural or functional changes. Genotype distribution of the NOS3 Glu298Asp polymorphism was not affected by gender or physical performance. Cardiac MRI showed increased stroke volume with eccentric hypertrophy in all athletes regardless of their genotype. However, the Asp allelic variant carriers had increased RV mass index (32±6g versus 27±6g, p<0.01) and larger RV stroke volume index (71±10ml versus 64±10ml, p<0.01) than athletes with a Glu/Glu genotype. Genotype was not significantly associated with athletic performance. In the non-athletic group no genotype related differences were detected. The association between the NOS3 Glu298Asp polymorphism and RV structure and dimension in elite athletes emphasizes the importance of NOS3 gene function and NO bioavailability in sport related cardiac adaptation.

  8. Studies concerning chronic and acute effects of L-carnitina in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Drăgan, I G; Vasiliu, A; Georgescu, E; Eremia, N

    1989-01-01

    Chronic and acute effects of L-Carnitina (vials of 1 g L-Carnitina endovenous; per orally administered vials of 1 g L-Carnitina; tablets of 1 g L-Carnitina) were recorded in 110 top athletes (rowing, kayak-canoe, swimming, weightlifting medium and long-distance runners), 47 girls and 63 boys, by six double blind placebo trials and cross over. Significant changes were registered after L-Carnitina treatment (both for a single dose or after 3 weeks of treatment) compared to placebo, for FFA, triglycenides, lactic acid after exercise, evoked muscular potential, plasma carnitine (free and acetyl-carnitine), urine carnitine (free carnitine) and others. The authors explain these changes by the increase of free carnitine, which permits a larger quantity of FFA to enter the mitochondria and to be more extensively used as energy source in endurance and strength efforts. Based on these results the authors recommend L-Carnitina as an ergogenic aid in elite athletes, especially in endurance and strength sports.

  9. Holistic Life-Span Health Outcomes Among Elite Intercollegiate Student–Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Scholefield, Robin M.; Martin, Brandon E.; Gordon, James E.; Azen, Stanley P.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Salem, George J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Competitive sports are recognized as having unique health benefits and risks, and the effect of sports on life-span health among elite athletes has received increasing attention. However, supporting scientific data are sparse and do not represent modern athletes. Objective: To assess holistic life-span health and health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) among current and former National Collegiate Athletic Association student–athletes (SAs). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A large Division I university. Patients or Other Participants: Population-based sample of 496 university students and alumni (age 17–84 years), including SAs and an age-matched and sex-matched nonathlete (NA) control group. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants completed anonymous, self-report questionnaires. We measured the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) physical and mental component HRQL scores and cumulative lifetime experience and relative risk of treatment for joint, cardiopulmonary, and psychosocial health concerns. Results: Older alumni (age 43+ years) SAs reported greater joint health concerns than NAs (larger joint summary scores; P = .04; Cohen d = 0.69; probability of clinically important difference [pCID] = 77%; treatment odds ratio [OR] = 14.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6, 126). Joint health for current and younger alumni SAs was similar to that for NAs. Older alumni reported greater cardiopulmonary health concerns than younger alumni (summary score P < .001; d = 1.05; pCID = 85%; OR = 5.8, 95% CI = 2.0, 16) and current students (P < .001; d = 2.25; pCID >99.5%; OR = 7.1, 95% CI = 3.3, 15), but the risk was similar for SAs and NAs. Current SAs demonstrated evidence of better psychosocial health (summary score P = .006; d = −0.52; pCID = 40%) and mental component HRQL (P = .008; d = 0.50; pCID = 48%) versus NAs but similar psychosocial treatment odds (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.9). Psychosocial health and mental component HRQL were similar between alumni SAs and NAs

  10. Caffeine improves muscular performance in elite Brazilian Jiu-jitsu athletes.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Lara, Francisco Javier; Del Coso, Juan; García, Jose Manuel; Portillo, Luis J; Areces, Francisco; Abián-Vicén, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Scientific information about the effects of caffeine intake on combat sport performance is scarce and controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of caffeine to improve Brazilian Jiu-jitsu (BJJ)-specific muscular performance. Fourteen male and elite BJJ athletes (29.2 ± 3.3 years; 71.3 ± 9.1 kg) participated in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled and crossover experiment. In two different sessions, BJJ athletes ingested 3 mg kg(-1) of caffeine or a placebo. After 60 min, they performed a handgrip maximal force test, a countermovement jump, a maximal static lift test and bench-press tests consisting of one-repetition maximum, power-load, and repetitions to failure. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the caffeine increased: hand grip force in both hands (50.9 ± 2.9 vs. 53.3 ± 3.1 kg; respectively p < .05), countermovement jump height (40.6 ± 2.6 vs. 41.7 ± 3.1 cm; p = .02), and time recorded in the maximal static lift test (54.4 ± 13.4 vs. 59.2 ± 11.9 s; p < .01).The caffeine also increased the one-repetition maximum (90.5 ± 7.7 vs. 93.3 ± 7.5 kg; p = .02), maximal power obtained during the power-load test (750.5 ± 154.7 vs. 826.9 ± 163.7 W; p < .01) and mean power during the bench-press exercise test to failure (280.2 ± 52.5 vs. 312.2 ± 78.3 W; p = .04). In conclusion, the pre-exercise ingestion of 3 mg kg(-1) of caffeine increased dynamic and isometric muscular force, power, and endurance strength in elite BJJ athletes. Thus, caffeine might be an effective ergogenic aid to improve physical performance in BJJ.

  11. Sex and Weight Category Differences in Time-Motion Analysis of Elite Judo Athletes: Implications for Assessment and Training.

    PubMed

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna; Miarka, Bianca; Fukuda, David H

    2017-03-01

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, K, Miarka, B, and Fukuda, DH. Sex and weight category differences in time-motion analysis of elite judo athletes: implications for assessment and training. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 817-825, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to support training program development through the comparison of combat and pause phases during elite male and female judo competition in athletes of varying weight categories. A total of 1,411 video recorded judo matches between athletes who qualified for the 2012 Olympic Games were analyzed. Within the matches, 111,203 competitive situations were categorized as combat (with subphases of approach, gripping, attack, defense, and groundwork) or pause phases. Time-motion analysis data were compared between extra light, light, middle, and heavyweight categories for men and women. Median times varied between sex and weight category groups for individual combat (23.9-28.5 seconds), pause (4.0-8.8 seconds), and combat subphases (p ≤ 0.05). Sex-based differences in accumulated combat and combat subphase times were primarily found in the middleweight athletes. Heavyweight female athletes had longer accumulated groundwork and pause times, extra lightweight women had greater groundwork time, and both extra light and lightweight women had shorter accumulated attack times compared with their male counterparts. No differences between men and women were found for the time to complete an individual combat action; however, the pause phase and most of the combat subphases displayed differences. The lightest and heaviest judo athletes displayed unique characteristics compared with athletes in the other weight categories, particularly in the attack, defense, groundwork, and pause phases. These results have important implications related to training program design and support the need for the development of normative data for male and female judo athletes of varying weight categories.

  12. AMPD1 rs17602729 is associated with physical performance of sprint and power in elite Lithuanian athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The C34T genetic polymorphism (rs17602729) in the AMPD1 gene, encoding the skeletal muscle-specific isoform of adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD1), is a common polymorphism among Caucasians that can impair exercise capacity. The aim of the present study was twofold: (1) to determine the C34T AMPD1 allele/genotype frequency distributions in Lithuanian athletes (n = 204, stratified into three groups: endurance, sprint/power and mixed) and compare them with the allele/genotype frequency distributions in randomly selected healthy Lithuanian non-athletes (n = 260) and (2) to compare common anthropometric measurements and physical performance phenotypes between the three groups of athletes depending on their AMPD1 genotype. Results The results of our study indicate that the frequency of the AMPD1 TT genotype was 2.4% in the control group, while it was absent in the athlete group. There were significantly more sprint/power-orientated athletes with the CC genotype (86.3%) compared with the endurance-orientated athletes (72.9%), mixed athletes (67.1%), and controls (74.2%). We determined that the AMPD1 C34T polymorphism is not associated with aerobic muscle performance phenotype (VO2max). For CC genotype the short-term explosive muscle power value (based on Vertical Jump test) of athletes from the sprint/power group was significantly higher than that of the endurance group athletes (P < 0.05). The AMPD1 CC genotype is associated with anaerobic performance (Vertical Jump). Conclusions The AMPD1 C allele may help athletes to attain elite status in sprint/power-oriented sports, and the T allele is a factor unfavourable for athletics in sprint/power-oriented sports categories. Hence, the AMPD1 C allele can be regarded as a marker associated with the physical performance of sprint and power. Replications studies are required to confirm this association. PMID:24885427

  13. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR) if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement. PMID:28212284

  14. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements.

    PubMed

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-02-15

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR) if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement.

  15. Creatine and the Male Adolescent Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumaker, Shauna; Eyers, Christina; Cappaert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    As the level of competition in youth sports increases, so does athletes' vulnerability to experimenting with performance-enhancing aids (PEAs) at alarmingly young ages. One of the more commonly used PEAs is a supplement called creatine, which has the ability to generate muscular energy, allowing athletes to train at higher intensities for longer…

  16. Gratitude and Adolescent Athletes' Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Lung Hung; Kee, Ying Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to examine the relationships between gratitude and athletes' well-being. Study 1 examines the relationship between dispositional gratitude and well-being, while Study 2 investigates the relationship between sport-domain gratitude and well-being. In Study 1, 169 Taiwanese senior high school athletes (M =…

  17. A Mismatch Between Athlete Practice and Current Sports Nutrition Guidelines Among Elite Female and Male Middle- and Long-Distance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Heikura, Ida Aliisa; Stellingwerff, Trent; Mero, Antti A; Uusitalo, Arja Leena Tuulia; Burke, Louise Mary

    2017-03-24

    Contemporary nutrition guidelines promote a variety of periodized and time-sensitive recommendations, but current information regarding the knowledge and practice of these strategies among world-class athletes is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate this theme by implementing a questionnaire on dietary periodization practices in national/international level female (n=27) and male (n=21) middle- and long-distance runners/race-walkers. The questionnaire aimed to gain information on between and within-day dietary choices, as well as timing of pre- and post-training meals and practices of training with low or high carbohydrate (CHO) availability. Data are shown as percentage (%) of all athletes, with differences in responses between sub-groups (sex or event) shown as Chi-square x(2) when p<0.05. Nearly two-thirds of all athletes reported that they aim to eat more food on, or after, hard training days. Most athletes said they focus on adequate fueling (96%) and adequate CHO and protein (PRO) recovery (87%) around key sessions. Twenty-six percent of athletes (11% of middle vs 42% of long-distance athletes [x(2) (1, n=46) = 4.308, p=0.038, phi=0.3])) reported to undertake training in the fasted state, while 11% said they periodically restrict CHO intake, with 30% ingesting CHO during training sessions. Our findings show that elite endurance athletes appear to execute pre- and post-key session nutrition recovery recommendations. However, very few athletes deliberately undertake some contemporary dietary periodization approaches, such as training in the fasted state or periodically restricting CHO intake. This study suggests mismatches between athlete practice and current and developing sports nutrition guidelines.

  18. Mobility and muscle strength in male former elite endurance and power athletes aged 66-91 years.

    PubMed

    Manderoos, S; Wasenius, N; Laine, M K; Kujala, U M; Mälkiä, E; Kaprio, J; Sarna, S; Bäckmand, H M; Kettunen, J A; Heinonen, O J; Jula, A M; Aunola, S; Eriksson, J G

    2016-10-05

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare mobility and muscle strength in male former elite endurance and power athletes aged 66-91 years (n = 150; 50 men in both former elite athlete groups and in their control group). Agility, dynamic balance, walking speed, chair stand, self-rated balance confidence (ABC-scale), jumping height, and handgrip strength were assessed. Former elite power athletes had better agility performance time than the controls (age- and body mass index, BMI-adjusted mean difference -3.6 s; 95% CI -6.3, -0.8). Adjustment for current leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and prevalence of diseases made this difference non-significant (P = 0.214). The subjects in the power sports group jumped higher than the men in the control group (age- and BMI-adjusted mean differences for vertical squat jump, VSJ 4.4 cm; 95% CI 2.0, 6.8; for countermovement jump, CMJ 4.0 cm; 95% CI 1.7, 6.4). Taking current LTPA and chronic diseases for adjusting process did not improve explorative power of the model. No significant differences between the groups were found in the performances evaluating dynamic balance, walking speed, chair stand, ABC-scale, or handgrip strength. In conclusion, power athletes among the aged former elite sportsmen had greater explosive force production in their lower extremities than the men in the control group.

  19. Dynamic and Static Exercises Differentially Affect Plasma Cytokine Content in Elite Endurance- and Strength-Trained Athletes and Untrained Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kapilevich, Leonid V; Zakharova, Anna N; Kabachkova, Anastasia V; Kironenko, Tatyana A; Orlov, Sergei N

    2017-01-01

    Extensive exercise increases the plasma content of IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and several other cytokines via their augmented transcription in skeletal muscle cells. However, the relative impact of aerobic and resistant training interventions on cytokine production remains poorly defined. In this study, we compared effects of dynamic and static load on cytokine plasma content in elite strength- and endurance-trained athletes vs. healthy untrained volunteers. The plasma cytokine content was measured before, immediately after, and 30 min post-exercise using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pedaling on a bicycle ergometer increased IL-6 and IL-8 content in the plasma of trained athletes by about 4- and 2-fold, respectively. In contrast to dynamic load, weightlifting had negligible impact on these parameters in strength exercise-trained athletes. Unlike IL-6 and IL-8, dynamic exercise had no impact on IL-15 and LIF, whereas static load increases the content of these cytokines by ~50%. Two-fold increment of IL-8 content seen in athletes subjected to dynamic exercise was absent in untrained individuals, whereas the ~50% increase in IL-15 triggered by static load in the plasma of weightlifting athletes was not registered in the control group. Thus, our results show the distinct impact of static and dynamic exercises on cytokine content in the plasma of trained athletes. They also demonstrate that both types of exercises differentially affect cytokine content in plasma of athletes and untrained persons.

  20. Dynamic and Static Exercises Differentially Affect Plasma Cytokine Content in Elite Endurance- and Strength-Trained Athletes and Untrained Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Kapilevich, Leonid V.; Zakharova, Anna N.; Kabachkova, Anastasia V.; Kironenko, Tatyana A.; Orlov, Sergei N.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive exercise increases the plasma content of IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and several other cytokines via their augmented transcription in skeletal muscle cells. However, the relative impact of aerobic and resistant training interventions on cytokine production remains poorly defined. In this study, we compared effects of dynamic and static load on cytokine plasma content in elite strength- and endurance-trained athletes vs. healthy untrained volunteers. The plasma cytokine content was measured before, immediately after, and 30 min post-exercise using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pedaling on a bicycle ergometer increased IL-6 and IL-8 content in the plasma of trained athletes by about 4- and 2-fold, respectively. In contrast to dynamic load, weightlifting had negligible impact on these parameters in strength exercise-trained athletes. Unlike IL-6 and IL-8, dynamic exercise had no impact on IL-15 and LIF, whereas static load increases the content of these cytokines by ~50%. Two-fold increment of IL-8 content seen in athletes subjected to dynamic exercise was absent in untrained individuals, whereas the ~50% increase in IL-15 triggered by static load in the plasma of weightlifting athletes was not registered in the control group. Thus, our results show the distinct impact of static and dynamic exercises on cytokine content in the plasma of trained athletes. They also demonstrate that both types of exercises differentially affect cytokine content in plasma of athletes and untrained persons. PMID:28194116

  1. Left Ventricle Fibrosis Associated With Nonsustained Ventricular Tachycardia in an Elite Athlete: Is Exercise Responsible? A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Poussel, Mathias; Djaballah, Karim; Laroppe, Julien; Brembilla-Perrot, Béatrice; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Chenuel, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To emphasize the potentially harmful effects of high-intensity exercise on cardiac health and the fine line between physiologic and pathologic adaptation to chronic exercise in the elite athlete. This case also highlights the crucial need for regular evaluation of symptoms that suggest cardiac abnormality in athletes. Background: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) of young athletes is always a tragedy because they epitomize health. However, chronic, high-intensity exercise sometimes has harmful effects on cardiac health, and pathologic changes, such as myocardial fibrosis, have been observed in endurance athletes. In this case, a highly trained 30-year-old cyclist reported brief palpitations followed by presyncope feeling while exercising. Immediate investigations revealed nonsustained ventricular tachycardia originating from the left ventricle on a stress test associated with myocardial fibrosis of the left ventricle as shown with magnetic resonance imaging. Despite complete cessation of exercise, life-threatening arrhythmia and fibrosis persisted, leading to complete restriction from competition. Differential Diagnosis: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, postmyocarditis, use of drugs and toxic agents, doping, and systemic disease. Treatment: The arrhythmia could not be treated with catheter ablation procedure or drug suppression. Therefore, the athlete was instructed to withdraw completely from sport participation and to have a medical follow-up twice each year. Uniqueness: To our knowledge, no other report of left ventricle exercise-induced fibrosis associated with life-threatening arrhythmia in a living young elite athlete exists. Only postmortem evidence supports such myocardial pathologic adaptation to exercise. Conclusions: To prevent SCD in young athletes, careful attention must be paid to exercise-related symptoms that suggest a cardiac abnormality because they more often are linked to life

  2. Grape extract improves antioxidant status and physical performance in elite male athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lafay, Sophie; Jan, Caroline; Nardon, Karine; Lemaire, Benoit; Ibarra, Alvin; Roller, Marc; Houvenaeghel, Marc; Juhel, Christine; Cara, Louis

    2009-01-01

    g·dL-1, p < 0.05), suggesting that GE administration might protect cell damage during exercise. The high variability between sport disciplines did not permit to observe the differences in the effort test. Analyzing each individual group, handball players increased their physical performance by 24% (p < 0.05) and explosive power by 6.4% (p = 0.1) after GE supplementation compared to the placebo. Further analyses showed that CPK and Hb were the only biomarkers correlated with the increase in performance. In conclusion, GE ameliorates the oxidative stress/antioxidant status balance in elite athletes in the competition period, and enhances performance in one category of sportsmen (handball). Our results suggest that the enhancement in performance might be caused by the protective action of GE during physical exercise. These findings encourage conducting further studies to confirm the efficacy and mechanisms of action of GE on elite and occasional athletes. Key points Grape extract consumption improves the oxidative stress/antioxidant status balance in sportsmen. Grape extract consumption enhances physical performance in one category of sportsmen (Handball). The performance enhancement might be caused by the protective action of grape extract during physical exercise. PMID:24150013

  3. Effect of lower limb compression on blood flow and performance in elite wheelchair rugby athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vaile, Joanna; Stefanovic, Brad; Askew, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of compression socks worn during exercise on performance and physiological responses in elite wheelchair rugby athletes. Design In a non-blinded randomized crossover design, participants completed two exercise trials (4 × 8 min bouts of submaximal exercise, each finishing with a timed maximal sprint) separated by 24 hr, with or without compression socks. Setting National Sports Training Centre, Queensland, Australia. Participants Ten national representative male wheelchair rugby athletes with cervical spinal cord injuries volunteered to participate. Interventions Participants wore medical grade compression socks on both legs during the exercise task (COMP), and during the control trial no compression was worn (CON). Outcome Measures The efficacy of the compression socks was determined by assessments of limb blood flow, core body temperature, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion, perceived thermal strain, and physical performance. Results While no significant differences between conditions were observed for maximal sprint time, average lap time was better maintained in COMP compared to CON (P<0.05). Lower limb blood flow increased from pre- to post-exercise by the same magnitude in both conditions (COMP: 2.51 ± 2.34; CON: 2.20 ± 1.85 ml.100 ml.−1min−1), whereas there was a greater increase in upper limb blood flow pre- to post-exercise in COMP (10.77 ± 8.24 ml.100 ml.−1min−1) compared to CON (6.21 ± 5.73 ml.100 ml.−1min−1; P < 0.05). Conclusion These findings indicate that compression socks worn during exercise is an effective intervention for maintaining submaximal performance during wheelchair exercise, and this performance benefit may be associated with an augmentation of upper limb blood flow. PMID:25582434

  4. Chronic effects of different resistance training exercise orders on flexibility in elite judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Alam R; Reis, Victor M; Costa, Pablo B; Bentes, Claudio M; Costa E Silva, Gabriel V; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2014-03-27

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of twelve weeks of resistance training with different exercise orders (upper limbs and lower limbs vs. lower limbs and upper limbs) on flexibility levels in elite judo athletes. Thirty-nine male athletes were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: G1 (n = 13), G2 (n = 13), and CG (n = 13). The flexibility was assessed on 8 joint movements: shoulder flexion and shoulder extension, shoulder abduction and shoulder adduction, trunk flexion and trunk extension, and hip flexion and hip extension. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (time [pre-experimental vs. post-experimental] × group [G1 vs. G2 vs. CG]) were used to compare the differences between pre- and post-test situations and the differences among groups. The results from the within-group (pre vs. post) comparisons demonstrated significant increases (p < 0.05) in the range of motion of 3.93 and 5.96% for G1 and G2 training groups, respectively, in all joints. No significant changes (p > 0.05) were observed for the CG. The results from the between-group comparisons demonstrated no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the range of motion between G1post vs. G2post (1.15%). Although both exercise orders (from upper to lower limbs and from lower to upper limbs) increased flexibility, no significant variations were observed between the different exercise orders. Nevertheless, these findings demonstrate that flexibility gains could be obtained with a resistance training program, and thus, more time can be devoted to sports-specific judo training.

  5. Risk factors and injury prevention in elite athletes: a descriptive study of the opinions of physical therapists, doctors and trainers

    PubMed Central

    Saragiotto, Bruno T.; Di Pierro, Carla; Lopes, Alexandre D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal injuries occur frequently in elite athletes. Understanding what professionals who work with patients with sports injuries think about prevention has been suggested as an important aspect to improve the effectiveness of programs to prevent sports injuries. Objectives To describe and characterize the opinions of physical therapists, physicians and trainers on 'risk factors' and 'prevention of injury' in elite athletes. Method This is a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews with members of the medical and technical department of the Brazilian delegation who participated in the Pan American Games of Guadalajara 2011. The interview was conducted using two questions: 1) "What do you think can cause injuries in athletes participating in your sport?" 2) "What do you do to prevent injuries in your sport?" The interviews were analyzed in two stages, the identification of thematic units, followed by the categorization and grouping of thematic units. Results We interviewed a total of 30 professionals. Regarding question 1, the main factors attributed as responsible for injury were over-training and incorrect sports techniques. Regarding question 2, the main reported strategies used to prevent injuries were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance. Conclusions The main factors affecting the appearance of lesions were over-training, incorrect sports technique, inadequate nutrition and factors related to the athlete's behavior. The main injury prevention strategies were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance. PMID:24845023

  6. Bone-mineral density and other features of the female athlete triad in elite endurance runners: a longitudinal and cross-sectional observational study.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Noel; Grogan, Claire; Perry, Mark; Pedlar, Charles; Cooke, Karl; Morrissey, Dylan; Dimitriou, Lygeri

    2010-10-01

    Low bone-mineral density (BMD) is associated with menstrual dysfunction and negative energy balance in the female athlete triad. This study determines BMD in elite female endurance runners and the associations between BMD, menstrual status, disordered eating, and training volume. Forty-four elite endurance runners participated in the cross-sectional study, and 7 provided longitudinal data. Low BMD was noted in 34.2% of the athletes at the lumbar spine, and osteoporosis in 33% at the radius. In cross-sectional analysis, there were no significant relationships between BMD and the possible associations. Menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and low BMD were coexistent in 15.9% of athletes. Longitudinal analysis identified a positive association between the BMD reduction at the lumbar spine and training volume (p=.026). This study confirms the presence of aspects of the female athlete triad in elite female endurance athletes and notes a substantial prevalence of low BMD and osteoporosis. Normal menstrual status was not significantly associated with normal BMD, and it is the authors' practice that all elite female endurance athletes undergo dual-X-ray absorptiometry screening. The association between increased training volume, trend for menstrual dysfunction, and increased loss of lumbar BMD may support the concept that negative energy balance contributes to bone loss in athletes.

  7. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism and elite endurance athlete status: the Genathlete study.

    PubMed

    Wolfarth, B; Rankinen, T; Mühlbauer, S; Ducke, M; Rauramaa, R; Boulay, M R; Pérusse, L; Bouchard, C

    2008-08-01

    In the Genathlete study, we examined the contribution of three polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) gene to discriminate elite endurance athletes (EEA) from sedentary controls (SC). The EEA group included a total of 316 Caucasian males with a VO2max >75 mL/kg. The SC group comprised 299 unrelated sedentary Caucasian males who had VO2max values below 50 mL/kg. The polymerase chain reaction technique was used to amplify a microsatellite (CA)(n) repeat in intron 13, a 27 bp repeat in intron 4 and a third fragment in exon 7 containing the Glu298Asp SNP. No difference was found between the EEA and SC groups for the 27 bp repeat and the Glu298Asp polymorphism. Chi-square analysis of the overall allelic distribution of the (CA)(n) repeat revealed no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.135). However, comparing carriers and non-carriers for the most common (CA)(n) repeat alleles, we found significant differences between SC and EEA, with more EEA subjects carrying the 164 bp allele (P=0.007). In summary, we found suggestive evidence that the 164 bp allele of the (CA)(n) repeat in intron 13 is associated with EEA status and may account for some of the differences between EEA and SC.

  8. Plasma zinc, copper, leptin, and body composition are associated in elite female judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Koury, Josely Correa; de Oliveira, Karla de Jesus Fernandes; Lopes, Gustavo Casimiro; de Oliveira, Astrogildo Vianna; Portella, Emilson Souza; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Donangelo, Carmen Marino

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated levels of plasma zinc, copper, and leptin, body composition, and their relationship in nine elite female judo athletes under two different training conditions. Body composition and biochemical measurements (hematological indexes, plasma zinc, plasma copper, and plasma leptin) were analyzed 24 h after intense training and following a 5-d period without training (no-training). Plasma leptin and plasma zinc increased with no-training. Plasma zinc correlated negatively with percent fat mass (r= -0.62; r=0.05) and positively with plasma leptin (r=0.83; p=0.002) in the no-training condition. Plasma copper did not change during the study and correlated positively with plasma leptin (r=0.66; p=0.05) and with percent fat mass (r=0.80; p=0.007) after training. Percent fat mass was associated negatively with plasma zinc (r=-0.62; p=0.05) in the no-training condition. Moreover, percent fat mass was negatively associated with the Zn/Cu plasma ratio under both training conditions (r< -0.78, p< 0.001). These results are consistent with the possible function of zinc as a lipid-mobilizing factor and of copper as a limiting factor in energy metabolism.

  9. Power output in the jump squat in adolescent male athletes.

    PubMed

    Dayne, Andrea M; McBride, Jeffrey M; Nuzzo, James L; Triplett, N Travis; Skinner, Jared; Burr, Alan

    2011-03-01

    The load that maximizes power output in the jump squat (JS) in college-aged athletic males has been reported to be 0% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM] squat strength) or in other words body mass. No data exist concerning adolescent athletic males. In addition, strength levels have been theorized to possibly affect the load that maximizes power output in the JS. The purpose of this investigation was to identify the load that maximizes power output in the JS in adolescent athletic men, and concurrently describe their strength level and its effect on the load that maximizes power output. Eleven high-school male athletes were tested on 2 occasions, first determining their 1RM in the squat (1RM = 141.14 ± 28.08 kg; squat 1RM-to-body mass ratio = 1.76 ± 0.15) and then performing JS testing at loads equal to 0% (body mass), 20, 40, 60, and 80% of squat 1RM. Peak power (PP), peak force, peak velocity (PV), and peak displacement were measured at each load. Jump squat at the 0% load produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher PP, PV, and peak displacement in comparison with the 40, 60, and 80% loading conditions. It was concluded that the load that maximizes power output in the JS is 0% of 1RM in adolescent athletic men, the same as found in college-aged athletic men. In addition, strength level relative to body mass did not affect the load that maximized power output. Practically, when devising a training program to increase PP, it is important to include JSs at body mass along with traditional strength training at heavier loads to increase power output across the entire loading spectrum.

  10. Ephedra Use in a Select Group of Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    P. Schaefer, Michael; Smith, Jay; L. Dahm, Diane; C. Sorenson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Ephedra-containing dietary supplements are consumed to improve sports performace, but may carry risks of cardiac and neurological adverse events. Little is known of their use by young athletes. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and patterns of ephedra use among high school athletes. An anonymous survey was performed in Rochester, Minnesota on high school athletes who participated in fall sports during 2003-04. Parental consent was obtained for athletes under age 18 years. Surveys were distributed at preparticipation examinations and in- school survey stations. The response rate to the survey was 68.2%, or 311 respondents out of a possible 456 with consent (or 26% of all 1197 athletes eligible prior to the consent process). Seven of 311 (2.3%) respondents used dietary supplements containing ephedra. Only one of seven users (14.3%) knew that the supplements they used contained ephedra. Ephedra use was more common in boys (five) than girls (two). Ephedra use was only found in 17 and 18-year-olds. The most common sports among ephedra users were football, track and field, and weightlifting. This study suggests that Ephedra use was infrequent among the young athletes in this population. However, ephedra users were generally unaware that the dietary supplements they consumed contained ephedra. Users were more likely to participate in football, track and field, and weightlifting. Ephedra users were likely to obtain supplements from their peers, and were largely uninformed of the content of their supplements. Key Points Ephedra is an herbal stimulant used as an ergogenic aide. Adolescent ephedra users most commonly obtain it from their friends. Adolescent athletes are likely to take ephedra unknowningly. PMID:24353458

  11. Effects of high-intensity training and resumed training on macroelement and microelement of elite basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jiahong; He, Wangxiao; Huang, Hongen

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of high-intensity training and resumed training in hot and humid environment on plasma macro- and microelements levels of elite Han Chinese basketball players. Ten well-trained elite basketball athletes' plasma macroelements (chlorin, sodium, potassium, and calcium), creatine kinase (CK), and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) were measured before and after a 2-h high-intensity training, and microelements (zinc, copper, iron, and selenium) were determined before and after a 1-week high-intensity training and after a 1-week resumed training. The blood CK and CK-MB levels of the elite basketball athletes were significantly increased (P < 0.05) after high-intensity basketball training. The macroelements (chlorin, sodium, and calcium) levels of blood increased significantly except potassium after high-intensity basketball training. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in zinc and copper levels; nevertheless, the levels of plasma selenium and plasma iron were significantly lower (P < 0.05) after a 1-week high-intensity training. After a 1-week resumed training, except zinc, all of microelements measured had a trend toward original levels. These results implicated that high-intensity training would provoke the change of macroelements which would lead to electrolyte disturbance. In addition, the present study suggested that a 1-week high-intensity training would have an impact on microelement levels, especially for selenium and iron.

  12. Body Mass-Related Predictors of the Female Athlete Triad Among Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Thralls, Katie J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T; Kern, Mark; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2016-02-01

    Early detection of the female athlete triad is essential for the long-term health of adolescent female athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between common anthropometric markers (ideal body weight [IBW] via the Hamwi formula, youth-percentile body mass index [BMI], adult BMI categories, and body fat percentage [BF%]) and triad components, (low energy availability [EA], measured by dietary restraint [DR], menstrual dysfunction [MD], low bone mineral density [BMD]). In the sample (n = 320) of adolescent female athletes (age 15.9± 1.2 y), Spearman's rho correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations between anthropometric clinical cutoffs and triad components. All underweight categories for the anthropometric measures predicted greater likelihood of MD and low BMD. Athletes with an IBW >85% were nearly 4 times more likely to report MD (OR = 3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.9]) and had low BMD (OR = 4.1, 95% CI [1.2, 14.2]). Those in <5th percentile for their age-specific BMI were 9 times more likely to report MD (OR 9.1, 95% CI [1.8, 46.9]) and had low BMD than those in the 50th to 85th percentile. Athletes with a high BF% were almost 3 times more likely to report DR (OR = 2.8, 95% CI [1.4, 6.1]). Our study indicates that low age-adjusted BMI and low IBW may serve as evidence-based clinical indicators that may be practically evaluated in the field, predicting MD and low BMD in adolescents. These measures should be tested for their ability as tools to minimize the risk for the triad.

  13. The influence of upper-body strength on flat-water sprint kayak performance in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    McKean, Mark R; Burkett, Brendan J

    2014-07-01

    Dry-land strength training is a fundamental component for elite kayak performance. The aims of this research were 3-fold: 1st, to determine the relationship between performance time and strength scores for elite kayakers; 2nd, to identify how strength changes (gains or losses) over 3 training y relate with changes in performance time for elite kayakers; and 3rd, to compare the progression in performance times for elite athletes with the top 3 performers from the national championships. The performance data for 15 elite male and 10 elite female kayakers were collected over 2 y. This group was reduced to 9 men and 8 women in the 3rd and final year. There were direct and significant correlations between strength scores and performance times across the 3 y. Bench-press 1RM increased by 34.8% for men and 42.3% for women. Over the 3 seasons, mean 1000-m time decreased by approximately 4.8%, 500-m times decreased by 7.3% (women), and 200-m times decreased by 9.1%. The women's 500-m changed from 11.9% difference from medalists to within 1.1% during the 3 y. During the 3 y of this study a change in 1-repetitionmaximum (1RM) bench press of 13% for men and 6.5% in women coincided with a change in performance times of 1%. For 1RM pull-up a change of 10% in men and 2.3% in women coincided with a change in performance times of 1%.

  14. Energy expenditure and habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Zinzen, Evert; Clarys, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess total energy expenditure (TEE) and specific habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes. Two methods used to estimate TEE, an activity diary (AD) and SenseWear armband (SWA), were compared. Sixteen athletes (6 girls, 10 boys, mean age 16.5 ± 1.6 yr) simultaneously wore a SWA and completed an AD and food diary during one week. Basal energy expenditure as given by the SWA when taken off was corrected for the appropriate MET value using the AD. TEE as estimated by the AD and SWA was comparable (3196 ± 590 kcal and 3012 ± 518 kcal, p = 0.113) without day-to-day variations in TEE and energy expended in activities of high intensity. Daily energy intake (2569 ± 508 kcal) did not match TEE according to both the AD and SWA (respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). Athletes were in a supine position for a longer time on weekend days than on week days and slept longer on Sundays. Athletes reported a longer time of high-intensive physical activities in the AD than registered by the SWA on 4 out of 7 days. In addition to specific sprint activities on 3 to 7 days per week, 11 out of 16 athletes actively commuted to school where they participated in sports once or twice per week. The AD and the SWA are comparable in the estimation of TEE, which appears realistic and sustainable. The SWA offers an appropriate and objective method in the assessment of TEE, sleeping and resting in adolescent athletes on the condition that detailed information is given for the times the armband is not worn. The AD offers activity specific information but relies on the motivation, compliance and subjectivity of the individual, especially considering high-intensive intermittent training. Key pointsThe activity diary and Sensewear armband provide comparable estimates of TEE in adolescent sprint athletes.A high inter-individual variation was observed in time spent in high-intensity physical activities, advocating an individual based assessment when coaching

  15. Fatigue Shifts and Scatters Heart Rate Variability in Elite Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Laurent; Regnard, Jacques; Desmarets, Maxime; Mauny, Fréderic; Mourot, Laurent; Fouillot, Jean-Pierre; Coulmy, Nicolas; Millet, Grégoire

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal study aimed at comparing heart rate variability (HRV) in elite athletes identified either in ‘fatigue’ or in ‘no-fatigue’ state in ‘real life’ conditions. Methods 57 elite Nordic-skiers were surveyed over 4 years. R-R intervals were recorded supine (SU) and standing (ST). A fatigue state was quoted with a validated questionnaire. A multilevel linear regression model was used to analyze relationships between heart rate (HR) and HRV descriptors [total spectral power (TP), power in low (LF) and high frequency (HF) ranges expressed in ms2 and normalized units (nu)] and the status without and with fatigue. The variables not distributed normally were transformed by taking their common logarithm (log10). Results 172 trials were identified as in a ‘fatigue’ and 891 as in ‘no-fatigue’ state. All supine HR and HRV parameters (Beta±SE) were significantly different (P<0.0001) between ‘fatigue’ and ‘no-fatigue’: HRSU (+6.27±0.61 bpm), logTPSU (−0.36±0.04), logLFSU (−0.27±0.04), logHFSU (−0.46±0.05), logLF/HFSU (+0.19±0.03), HFSU(nu) (−9.55±1.33). Differences were also significant (P<0.0001) in standing: HRST (+8.83±0.89), logTPST (−0.28±0.03), logLFST (−0.29±0.03), logHFST (−0.32±0.04). Also, intra-individual variance of HRV parameters was larger (P<0.05) in the ‘fatigue’ state (logTPSU: 0.26 vs. 0.07, logLFSU: 0.28 vs. 0.11, logHFSU: 0.32 vs. 0.08, logTPST: 0.13 vs. 0.07, logLFST: 0.16 vs. 0.07, logHFST: 0.25 vs. 0.14). Conclusion HRV was significantly lower in 'fatigue' vs. 'no-fatigue' but accompanied with larger intra-individual variance of HRV parameters in 'fatigue'. The broader intra-individual variance of HRV parameters might encompass different changes from no-fatigue state, possibly reflecting different fatigue-induced alterations of HRV pattern. PMID:23951198

  16. Performance enhancement, elite athletes and anti doping governance: comparing human guinea pigs in pharmaceutical research and professional sports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In light of the World Anti Doping Agency’s 2013 Code Revision process, we critically explore the applicability of two of three criteria used to determine whether a method or substance should be considered for their Prohibited List, namely its (potential) performance enhancing effects and its (potential) risk to the health of the athlete. To do so, we compare two communities of human guinea pigs: (i) individuals who make a living out of serial participation in Phase 1 pharmacology trials; and (ii) elite athletes who engage in what is effectively 'unregulated clinical research’ by using untested prohibited or non-prohibited performance enhancing substances and methods, alone or in combination. Our comparison sheds light on norms of research ethics that these practices exacerbate with respect to the concepts of multiplicity, visibility, and consistency. We argue for the need to establish a proper governance framework to increase the accountability of these unregulated research practices in order to protect the human guinea pigs in elite sports contexts, and to establish reasonable grounds for the performance enhancing effects, and the risks to the health of the athlete, of the methods and substances that might justify their inclusion on the Prohibited List. PMID:24499536

  17. Effect of the period of resting in elite judo athletes: hematological indices and copper/ zinc-dependent antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Koury, Josely C; de Oliveira, Cyntia F; Portella, Emilson S; Oliveira, Astrogildo V; Donangelo, Carmen M

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the resting period on hematological and copper-zinc-dependent antioxidant indices in Brazilian elite judo athletes (n = 7). Venous blood samples were collected after 24-h and 5-d periods of resting following a competition, with an interval of 30 d between collections. Two months prior to and during the study, each athlete received an individualized adequate diet. Body composition was determined at both study periods. The following were analyzed: in whole blood, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, red cell distribution width, and white cell count; in plasma, zinc, copper, iron, ceruloplasmin, and total iron-binding capacity; in erythrocytes, metallothionein, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, and osmotic fragility. Dietary intake and body composition did not affect the biochemical measurements. A significant reduction in ceruloplasmin and superoxide dismutase activity was found after 5 d compared to 24 h of resting. A significant correlation between erythrocyte metallothionein and red cell distribution width was observed after 24 h of resting (r = -0.83, p = 0.02), whereas positive correlations of metallothionein with hemoglobin, red cell count, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed after 5 d of resting (r >/= 0.76, p elite judo athletes.

  18. Tendon Adaptation to Sport-specific Loading in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Cassel, M; Carlsohn, A; Fröhlich, K; John, M; Riegels, N; Mayer, F

    2016-02-01

    Tendon adaptation due to mechanical loading is controversially discussed. However, data concerning the development of tendon thickness in adolescent athletes is sparse. The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in Achilles (AT) and patellar tendon (PT) thickness in adolescent athletes while considering age, gender and sport-specific loading. In 500 adolescent competitive athletes of 16 different sports and 40 recreational controls both ATs and PTs were sonographically measured. Subjects were divided into 2 age groups (< 13; ≥ 13 years) and 6 sport type categories (ball, combat, and water sports, combined disciplines, cycling, controls). In addition, 3 risk groups (low, moderate, high) were created according to the athlete's risk of developing tendinopathy. AT and PT thickness did not significantly differ between age groups (AT/PT:<13: 5.4±0.7 mm/3.6±0.5 mm;≥13: 5.3±0.7 mm/3.6±0.5 mm). In both age groups males presented higher tendon thickness than females (p<0.001). AT thickness was highest in ball sports/cyclists and lowest in controls (p≤0.002). PT thickness was greatest in water sports and lowest in controls (p=0.02). High risk athletes presented slightly higher AT thickness compared to the low risk group (p=0.03). Increased AT and PT thickness in certain sport types compared to controls supports the hypothesis of structural tendon adaptation due to sport-specific loading.

  19. Peri-epiphyseal and Overuse Injuries in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Frush, Todd J.; Lindenfeld, Thomas N.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Overuse injuries of the musculoskeletal system in immature athletes are commonly seen in medical practice. Evidence Acquisition: An analysis of published clinical, outcome, and biomechanical studies of adolescent epiphyseal and overuse injuries was performed through 2008 to increase recognition and provide treatment recommendations. Results: Adolescent athletes can sustain physeal and bony stress injuries. Recovery and return to play occur more swiftly if such injuries are diagnosed early and immobilized until the patient is pain-free, typically about 4 weeks for apophyseal and epiphyseal overuse injuries. Certain epiphyseal injuries have prolonged symptoms with delayed treatment, including those involving the bones in the hand, elbow, and foot. If such injuries are missed, prolonged healing and significant restrictions in athletic pursuits may occur. Conclusion: Some of these injuries are common to all weightbearing sports and are therefore widely recognized. Several are common in gymnastics but are rarely seen in other athletes. Early recognition and treatment of these conditions lead to quicker recovery and so may prevent season-ending, even career-ending, events from occurring. PMID:23015873

  20. Effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on aerobic and anaerobic performance and perception of fatigue in male elite judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Anis; Coutts, Aaron J; Chamari, Karim; Wong, Del P; Chaouachi, Mustapha; Chtara, Moktar; Roky, Rachida; Amri, Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the Ramadan intermittent fast (RIF) on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance in elite judo athletes (Judokas) maintaining their usual training loads. Physical performance tests (squat jump [SJ]), countermovement jump [CMJ], 30-second repeated jump, 30-m sprint, and the multistage fitness test) and fatigue scores were measured in 15 elite Judokas on 4 occasions: before Ramadan (T1), at the beginning of Ramadan (T2), at the end of Ramadan (T3) and 3 weeks after Ramadan. Results showed that 30-m sprint performance, multistage shuttle run test, SJ, and CMJ did not change during Ramadan. However, average power during the 30-second repeated jump test was slightly lower at the end of Ramadan (22.4 +/- 2.3 W/kg; P < 0.05) than before Ramadan (23.4 +/- 2.3 W/kg). There was a minor reduction of 1.3 kg in body mass and an increase in total fatigue scores (T2, 19 +/- 5; T3, 16 +/- 4; both P < 0.05) during Ramadan in comparison with the control period (T1, 12 +/- 3). These results show that the RIF has little effect on aerobic performance and on very short duration sprinting and jumping test performance in elite Judokas. Additionally, experienced athletes can maintain both sufficient energy intake and normal training loads during the RIF. The slight reduction in the 30-second jump test may be associated with reduced central drive and body mass. Collectively, these results suggest that the RIF has little effect on the performance of experienced Judokas, but Muslim athletes who train during the RIF should carefully periodize their training load and monitor their food intake and fatigue levels to avoid performance decrements.

  1. Is excessive running predictive of degenerative hip disease? Controlled study of former elite athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Marti, B.; Knobloch, M.; Tschopp, A.; Jucker, A.; Howald, H.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the effects of regular long distance running on the state of the hips in later life. DESIGN--Retrospective study of a cohort of elite athletes and a group of normal, healthy, untrained controls examined 15 years after initial testing. SETTING--Research project at school for physical education and sports. SUBJECTS--27 Former long distance runners (mean age 42), nine former bobsleigh riders (mean age 42), and 23 normal, healthy, untrained men (mean age 35) who had been examined in 1973 and who agreed to re-examination in 1988. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Radiological evidence of degenerative hip disease in 1988. RESULTS--Physiological and exercise characteristics of all subjects had been recorded in 1973, and in 1988 these measurements were repeated together with radiological examination of the hips. An additive radiological index of hip disease based on grades of subchondral sclerosis, osteophyte formation, and joint space narrowing was significantly increased among runners as compared with bobsleigh riders and untrained controls. After adjustment for age the significant effect of type of sports activity remained (p = 0.032). In multivariate analyses age and milage run in 1973 (97 km/week) emerged as independent, significant, and positive predictors of radiological signs of degenerative hip disease in 1988 (p = 0.017 and p = 0.024 respectively). Among runners alone running pace in 1973 rather than milage run was the stronger predictor of subsequent degenerative hip disease. The milage run in 1988 was not particularly predictive of the radiological index, but endurance in 1988 was inversely related to degenerative hip disease seen radiologically. CONCLUSION--Long term, high intensity, high milage running should not be dismissed as a potential risk factor for premature osteoarthritis of the hip. PMID:2504343

  2. The key to success in elite athletes? Explicit and implicit motor learning in youth elite and non-elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Verburgh, L; Scherder, E J A; van Lange, P A M; Oosterlaan, J

    2016-09-01

    In sports, fast and accurate execution of movements is required. It has been shown that implicitly learned movements might be less vulnerable than explicitly learned movements to stressful and fast changing circumstances that exist at the elite sports level. The present study provides insight in explicit and implicit motor learning in youth soccer players with different expertise levels. Twenty-seven youth elite soccer players and 25 non-elite soccer players (aged 10-12) performed a serial reaction time task (SRTT). In the SRTT, one of the sequences must be learned explicitly, the other was implicitly learned. No main effect of group was found for implicit and explicit learning on mean reaction time (MRT) and accuracy. However, for MRT, an interaction was found between learning condition, learning phase and group. Analyses showed no group effects for the explicit learning condition, but youth elite soccer players showed better learning in the implicit learning condition. In particular, during implicit motor learning youth elite soccer showed faster MRTs in the early learning phase and earlier reached asymptote performance in terms of MRT. Present findings may be important for sports because children with superior implicit learning abilities in early learning phases may be able to learn more (durable) motor skills in a shorter time period as compared to other children.

  3. Floating patella: combined quadriceps tendon, retinacula, and patellar tendon ruptures in a high-performance elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Langer, Phillip R; Selesnick, F Harlan

    2010-09-01

    Simultaneous quadriceps and patellar tendon rupture is rare. To our knowledge, we present the first known case of simultaneous quadriceps tendon, patella tendon, and retinacula rupture in the ipsilateral knee of a high-performance elite athlete. This disabling injury in the active person results in an inability to actively obtain and maintain full knee extension. When the tendons do not heal properly, at the correct length and tension, knee range of motion and strength can become significantly altered, leading to early fatigue, patellofemoral pain, and possibly instability, preventing return to preinjury status. Immediate surgical repair is recommended for optimal return of knee function and power.

  4. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment.

  5. Validity of the jump-and-reach test in sub-elite adolescent handball players.

    PubMed

    Muehlbauer, Thomas; Pabst, Jan; Granacher, Urs; Büsch, Dirk

    2016-08-18

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine concurrent validity of the jump-and-reach (JaR) test using the Vertec system and a criterion device (i.e., Optojump system). In separate sub-analyses, we investigated the influence of gym floor condition and athletes' sex on the validity of vertical jump height. Four hundred and forty sub-elite adolescent female (n = 222, mean age: 14 ± 1 years, age range: 13-15 years) and male (n = 218, mean age: 15 ± 1 years, age range: 14-16 years) handball players performed the JaR test in gyms with region or point elastic floors. Maximal vertical jump height was simultaneously assessed using the Vertec and the Optojump system. In general, significantly higher jump heights were obtained for the Vertec compared to the Optojump system (11.2 cm, [INCREMENT]31%, Cohen´s d = 2.58). The sub-analyses revealed significantly larger jump heights for the Vertec compared to the Optojump system irrespective of gym floor condition and players' sex. The association between Optojump and Vertec-derived vertical jump height amounted to rP = 0.84, with a coefficient of determination (R) of 0.71. The sub-analyses indicated significantly larger correlations in males (rP = 0.75, R = 0.56) than in females (rP = 0.63, R = 0.40). Yet, correlations were not significantly different between region (rP = 0.83, R = 0.69) as opposed to point elastic floor (rP = 0.87, R = 0.76). Our findings indicate that the two apparatus cannot be used interchangeably. Consequently, gym floor and sex specific regression equations were provided to estimate true (Optojump system) vertical jump height from Vertec-derived data.

  6. Effects of auricular acupuncture on heart rate, oxygen consumption and blood lactic acid for elite basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zen-Pin; Chen, Yi-Hung; Fan, Chia; Wu, Huey-June; Lan, Lawrence W; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of auricular acupuncture on athletes' recovery abilities after exercise. Subjects were selected from twenty-four male elite university basketball players, randomly divided into two groups: auricular acupuncture group (AAG), and normal control group (NCG), each group containing twelve subjects. Auricular acupuncture was experimented to each AAG athlete while no auricular acupuncture was conducted to each NCG athlete. Each subject in both groups performed a ride on the stationary bike until exhausted. The data of heart rate (HR(max)), oxygen consumption (VO(2 max)), and blood lactic acid were measured at four points of time: during the rest period after warm-ups and at the 5th, 30th and 60th minutes post-exercise, respectively. One-way ANOVA and repeated Scheffé methods were used to test the differences of the data between these two groups. The results showed that both HR(max) and blood lactic acid in AAG were significantly lower than those in NCG at the 30th and 60th minutes post-exercise. This suggests that auricular acupuncture can enhance athletes' recovery abilities after aggressive exercise.

  7. An athletic adolescent girl with proteinuria and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dante, Siddhartha; Glunz, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    An 18-year-old athletic adolescent presents with hypertension found during a routine screening. Her prior history includes familial hyperlipidemia. Hypertension in the adolescent is classified based on percentiles for age, sex, and height. The most common secondary cause of hypertension in the pediatric and adolescent patient is renal disease. This patient was found to have nephrotic syndrome and because of her age, a renal biopsy was required to make the diagnosis and to direct subsequent treatment plans. She was diagnosed with C3 glomerulopathy, which is the result of dysregulation and uncontrolled activation of the alternative complement pathway; new therapies are emerging for this disease. In this case, we review the diagnosis and initial assessment of hypertension in the pediatric patient, and the causes of nephrotic syndrome with a focus on C3 glomerulopathy.

  8. Assessment of myocardial function in elite athlete's heart at rest - 2D speckle tracking echocardiography in Korean elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Eun, Lucy Youngmin; Chae, Hyun Wook

    2016-12-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Korean elite soccer players' myocardial function using the conventional and advanced speckle tracking imaging to compare the difference with the normal controls. We used 2D echocardiography speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) to evaluate LV regional strain in 29 elite soccer players compared to 29 age-matched healthy controls. Conventional, tissue Doppler, and STI echocardiography was performed, for strain at base and apex, rotation and torsion. There is no difference in longitudinal strain (-17.6 ± 1.8 vs -17.3 ± 2.9, p = ns), and basal radial strain. However, the significant increases were noticed in basal circumferential strain (-17.5 ± 2.6 vs -15.5 ± 8.9, p = 0.05), apical radial strain (33.1 ± 20.5 vs 22.5 ± 19.4, p = 0.02), and apical circumferential strain in soccer players (-21.4 ± 4.8 vs -16.8 ± 7.6, p = 0.005). Soccer players showed the higher rotation at base (-3.9 ± 1.9 vs -2.6 ± 3.2, p = 0.03), and apex (6.98 ± 2.62 vs 6.21 ± 3.81, p = 0.05), higher torsion (10.9 ± 3.7 vs 8.8 ± 6.3, p = 0.05). In conclusion, the elite soccer players' heart demonstrated the unique ventricular adaptation. These alterations could benefit the cardiovascular adjustment to exercise without much loss of myocardial energy expenditure.

  9. Strength, flexibility, and maturity in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Pratt, M

    1989-05-01

    The relationship between lower-extremity strength and flexibility and maturational status as measured by Tanner staging (TS) was assessed in 84 male high school athletes. The sum of one-repetition maximum lifts for knee extension and flexion was determined and flexibility was measured with the American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance sit-and-reach test. Chronologic age, body weight, and percent fat were also recorded. Strength and flexibility were compared for each maturational and chronologic age category. Maturational age was better correlated with strength and flexibility than was chronologic age. All correlations were significant. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated significant correlations of TS and age with strength and flexibility. Tanner staging had greater predictive value than age for strength and flexibility. After adjusting for age, the relationship between TS and strength remained significant.

  10. Assessment of balance among adolescent track and field athletes.

    PubMed

    Knight, Adam C; Holmes, Megan E; Chander, Harish; Kimble, Amari; Stewart, Joshua Ty

    2016-06-01

    Track and field events place different demands on athletes and may have an effect on balance. This study investigated the effects of event specialty, gender, and leg dominance on balance among adolescent track and field athletes. Forty healthy adolescent track and field athletes (male = 23, female = 17) categorised into three different groups (sprinter = 20, distance runners = 13, throwers = 7) had their single leg static balance measured with the eyes open and the eyes closed using an AMTI force platform. Dependent variables included average displacement (cm) of the centre of pressure (COP) in the anterior/posterior direction and medial/lateral directions, the average velocity of the COP (cm/s) and the 95% ellipse area (cm(2)). Variables were analysed using a 3 (event specialty) × 2 (gender) × 2 (leg) ANOVA with repeated measures on the leg variable (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the average displacement of the COP in the medial/lateral direction for both the eyes open and closed condition, with the non-dominant leg demonstrating greater displacement than the dominant leg. This might increase the risk of injury for the non-dominant leg, but additional data should be collected and analysed on both dynamic balance and performance.

  11. Adaptation and validation of the athletic identity questionnaire-adolescent for use with children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article describes the adaptation of the Athletic Identity Questionnaire (AIQ) for Adolescents for use with children and evaluates its construct validity. Based on a theoretical model supported in adults and adolescents, the AIQ-Child measures the general attribute of athletic, which encompasses...

  12. Airway inflammation, cough and athlete quality of life in elite female cross-country skiers: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, M D; Davidson, W J; Wong, L E; Traves, S L; Leigh, R; Eves, N D

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a season of cross-country training and racing on airway inflammation, cough symptoms, and athlete quality of life in female skiers. Eighteen elite female skiers performed sputum induction and completed the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) and the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q) at three time points (T1 - May/Jun, T2 - Oct/Nov, T3 - Jan-Mar) during the year. No changes were observed between T1 and T2. However, an increase in sputum eosinophils and lymphocytes (P < 0.05) and a significant change in all three domains of the LCQ were observed between T1 and T3 (P < 0.05). A significant association was found between the total yearly hours of training and the change in the total cell count (r(2)  = 0.74; P = 0.006), and a number of other sputum cell counts between T1 and T3. No changes were observed for any domain of the REST-Q. The results of this study demonstrate that airway inflammation and cough symptoms are significantly increased in elite female cross-country skiers across a year of training and racing. The increase in airway inflammation is related to the total amount of training and is worse during the winter months when athletes are training and racing in cold, dry air.

  13. Perceived autonomy support, personal goal content, and emotional well-being among elite athletes: mediating effects of reasons for goals.

    PubMed

    Solberg, Paul André; Halvari, Hallgeir

    2009-06-01

    The relations between perceived support of autonomy from coaches, characteristics of personal goals, and emotional well-being from the perspective of self-determination theory was examined among 95 elite athletes (59% men; M = 21.6 yr., SD = 6.1) from Track and Field, Greco-Roman Wrestling, Taekwondo, and Power Lifting. Elite athletes were those representing their country in their sport. It was hypothesized that having autonomous reasons for goals would mediate the positive associations between perceived autonomy support and intrinsic goal content with subjective positive emotional well-being, and that controlled reasons for goals would mediate the association between extrinsic goal content and subjective negative emotional well-being. An idiographic approach to measures of personal goals and the autonomous and controlled reasons and intrinsic and extrinsic contents were performed. Perceived autonomy support from the coach was assessed with the Sport Climate Questionnaire and subjective emotional well-being was assessed with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. All hypotheses were supported by path analyses using LISREL.

  14. Effects of 14-week swimming training program on the psychological, hormonal, and physiological parameters of elite women athletes.

    PubMed

    Santhiago, Vanessa; Da Silva, Adelino S R; Papoti, Marcelo; Gobatto, Claudio A

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of a 14-week swimming training program on psychological, hormonal, and performance parameters of elite women swimmers. Ten Olympic and international-level elite women swimmers were evaluated 4 times along the experiment (i.e., in T1, T2, T3, and T4). On the first day at 8:00 am, before the blood collecting at rest for the determination of hormonal parameters, the athletes had their psychological parameters assessed by the profile of mood-state questionnaire. At 3:00 am, the swimmers had their anaerobic threshold assessed. On the second day at 3:00 am, the athletes had their alactic anaerobic performance measured. Vigor score and testosterone levels were lower (p ≤ 0.05) in T4 compared with T3. In addition, the rate between the peak blood lactate concentration and the median velocity obtained in the alactic anaerobic performance test increased in T4 compared with T3 (p ≤ 0.05). For practical applications, the swimming coaches should not use a tapering with the present characteristics to avoid unexpected results.

  15. Validity of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test in sub-elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Lyndell; Moule, Simon

    2016-12-20

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the suitability of the 30-15 IFT as a test in netball using female athletes. 26 female sub-elite netballers (mean age = 19.7 ± 4.6 years, mean height = 176.0 ± 6.1 cm, mean body mass = 69.7 ± 9.3 kg) completed the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (yo-yo IRT1) and the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15 IFT). Participants performed both assessments one week apart prior to the intervention and both tests one week apart following the training intervention (for a total of four testing sessions). A six-week training intervention occurred between the test occasions. Pearson's correlations revealed significant very large relationships between the 30-15 IFT and yo-yo IRT on both test occasions (test occasion 1: r = 0.71, p = 0.003 (95% CI 0.35 - 0.89), magnitude of effect, most likely; test occasion 2: r = 0.72, p = 0.001 (95% CI 0.42 - 0.88), magnitude of effect, most likely). Repeated measures ANOVAs examining the effect of position on performance changes revealed main effects for test occasion and a position x test occasion interaction for both the 30-15 IFT and the yo-yo IRT1 (30-15 IFT: test occasion (F(1,14) = 28.68, p = 0.001, ηp = .67), position x test occasion interaction (F(2,14) = 9.38, p = 0.003, ηp = .57; yo-yo IRT1: test occasion (F(1,15) = 11.72, p = 0.004, ηp = .44), position x test occasion interaction (F(2,15) = 9.96, p = 0.002, ηp = .57). Results show that the 30-15 IFT is a suitable test for female netballers as it was able to detect improvements in performance after a training intervention, in addition to having a very large significant relationship with the yo-yo IRT1.

  16. Whole-body fat oxidation increases more by prior exercise than overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Andersson Hall, Ulrika; Edin, Fredrik; Pedersen, Anders; Madsen, Klavs

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare whole-body fat oxidation kinetics after prior exercise with overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes. Thirteen highly trained athletes (9 men and 4 women; maximal oxygen uptake: 66 ± 1 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed 3 identical submaximal incremental tests on a cycle ergometer using a cross-over design. A control test (CON) was performed 3 h after a standardized breakfast, a fasting test (FAST) 12 h after a standardized evening meal, and a postexercise test (EXER) after standardized breakfast, endurance exercise, and 2 h fasting recovery. The test consisted of 3 min each at 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of maximal oxygen uptake and fat oxidation rates were measured through indirect calorimetry. During CON, maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.51 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) compared with 0.69 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) in FAST (P < 0.01), and 0.89 ± 0.05 g·min(-1) in EXER (P < 0.01). Across all intensities, EXER was significantly higher than FAST and FAST was higher than CON (P < 0.01). Blood insulin levels were lower and free fatty acid and cortisol levels were higher at the start of EXER compared with CON and FAST (P < 0.05). Plasma nuclear magnetic resonance-metabolomics showed similar changes in both EXER and FAST, including increased levels of fatty acids and succinate. In conclusion, prior exercise significantly increases whole-body fat oxidation during submaximal exercise compared with overnight fasting. Already high rates of maximal fat oxidation in elite endurance athletes were increased by approximately 75% after prior exercise and fasting recovery.

  17. The Relationship between Personality Traits, the 5HTT Polymorphisms, and the Occurrence of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sessa, Francesco; D'Andrea, Giovanna; Margaglione, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between personality, the serotonin transporter (5HTT) polymorphisms and the occurrence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in elite athletes. 133 healthy participants completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). The mood states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. The athlete’s mental skills were assessed through the Sport Performance Psychological Inventory (IPPS-48). The occurrence of psychiatric and personality disorders was assessed using the Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to identify genotypes at the 5HTTLPR polymorphism. The 5HTTLPR s/s genotype was associated with both neuroticism (p< 0.001) and tension/anxiety symptoms according to the POMS (p<0.02), cognitive anxiety and emotional arousal control according to the IPPS-48 (p<0.01). Significant correlations were proved between neuroticism and symptoms of anxiety and depression (p<0.05). Neuroticism mediates the association between the 5HTTLPR polymorphism and symptoms of cognitive anxiety and emotional arousal control (p<0.05). These results suggest a significant interaction between the 5HTTLPR polymorphism, neuroticism and sport related stress that predict adverse mental health outcomes in athletes. Identification of homogeneous groups of athletes having predispositions to anxiety and depressive symptoms may help to implement early prevention programs. PMID:27257942

  18. Irisin: A Potential Link between Physical Exercise and Metabolism—An Observational Study in Differently Trained Subjects, from Elite Athletes to Sedentary People

    PubMed Central

    Invernizzi, Pietro Luigi; Vianello, Elena; Banfi, Giuseppe; Terruzzi, Ileana; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco

    2017-01-01

    We compared irisin levels among groups of differently trained healthy individuals to explore the role of irisin as a physiological linker between exercise and metabolic health. Irisin and biochemical parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed in 70 healthy volunteers stratified for sport performance level into four groups: (1) 20 elite athletes of national level, (2) 20 subelite athletes of local level, (3) 20 recreational athletes, and (4) 10 sedentary subjects. All biochemical parameters were within the ranges of normality. Fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, and total cholesterol levels were inversely related to the degree of physical activity. HbA1c was higher in elite athletes compared to all the other groups (p < 0.01). A U-shaped relation between free fatty acids and the degree of physical activity was observed. All groups showed similar plasma irisin levels. After correction for the degree of insulin resistance (irisin/HOMA-IR), elite athletes showed higher levels compared to sedentary and recreational subjects (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, resp.). In addition, the number of metabolic parameters correlated with irisin increased at increasing the training status. Our study suggests a correlation between sport performance, insulin sensitivity, and irisin levels. Irisin may be one potential mediator of the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolic profile. PMID:28386566

  19. The effects of altitude/hypoxic training on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity in elite athletes – a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hun-young; Hwang, Hyejung; Park, Jonghoon; Lee, Seongno; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed as a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing effectiveness of altitude/hypoxic training (experimental) versus sea-level training (control) on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity of elite athletes in Korea. [Methods] Databases (Research Information Service System, Korean studies Information Service System, National Assembly Library) were for randomized controlled trials comparing altitude/hypoxic training versus sea-level training in elite athletes. Studies published in Korea up to December 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Oxygen delivery capacity of the blood was quantified by red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), erythropoietin (EPO); and aerobic exercise capacity was quantified by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). RBC, Hb, Hct, VO2max represented heterogeneity and compared post-intervention between altitude/hypoxic training and sea-level training in elite athletes by a random effect model meta-analysis. EPO represented homogeneity and meta-analysis performed by a fixed effect model. Eight independent studies with 156 elite athletes (experimental: n = 82, control: n = 74) were included in the metaanalysis. [Results] RBC (4.499×105 cell/ul, 95 % CI: 2.469 to 6.529), Hb (5.447 g/dl, 95 % CI: 3.028 to 7.866), Hct (3.639 %, 95 % CI: 1.687 to 5.591), EPO (0.711 mU/mL, 95% CI: 0.282 to 1.140), VO2max (1.637 ml/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.599 to 1.400) showed significantly greater increase following altitude/hypoxic training, as compared with sea-level training. [Conclusion] For elite athletes in Korea, altitude/ hypoxic training appears more effective than sea-level training for improvement of oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity. PMID:27298808

  20. Effects of exercise on alterations in redox homeostasis in elite male and female endurance athletes using a clinical point-of-care test.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nathan A; Towey, Colin; Bruinvels, Georgie; Howatson, Glyn; Pedlar, Charles R

    2016-10-01

    Exercise causes alterations in redox homeostasis (ARH). Measuring ARH in elite athletes may aid in the identification of training tolerance, fatigued states, and underperformance. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined ARH in elite male and female distance runners at sea level. The monitoring of ARH in athletes is hindered by a lack of reliable and repeatable in-the-field testing tools and by the rapid turnaround of results. We examined the effects of various exercise intensities on ARH in healthy (non-over-reached) elite male and female endurance athletes using clinical point-of-care (POC) redox tests, referred to as the free oxygen radical test (FORT) (pro-oxidant) and the free oxygen radical defence (FORD) (antioxidant). Elite male and female endurance athletes (n = 22) completed a discontinuous incremental treadmill protocol at submaximal running speeds and a test to exhaustion. Redox measures were analyzed via blood sampling at rest, warm-up, submaximal exercise, exhaustion, and recovery. FORD was elevated above rest after submaximal and maximal exercise, and recovery (p < 0.05, d = 0.87-1.55), with only maximal exercise and recovery increasing FORT (p < 0.05, d = 0.23-0.32). Overall, a decrease in oxidative stress in response to submaximal and maximal exercise was evident (p < 0.05, d = 0.46). There were no gender differences for ARH (p > 0.05). The velocity at lactate threshold (vLT) correlated with the FORD response at rest, maximal exercise, and recovery (p < 0.05). Using the clinical POC redox test, an absence of oxidative stress after exhaustive exercise is evident in the nonfatigued elite endurance athlete. The blood antioxidant response (FORD) to exercise appears to be related to a key marker of aerobic fitness: vLT.

  1. Individual variability in cardiac biomarker release after 30 min of high-intensity rowing in elite and amateur athletes.

    PubMed

    Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro; López-Laval, Isaac; George, Keith; Puente-Lanzarote, Juan José; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Ayala-Tajuelo, Vicente Javier; Mayolas-Pi, Carmen; Reverter-Masià, Joaquín

    2015-09-01

    This study had two objectives: (i) to examine individual variation in the pattern of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) release in response to high-intensity rowing exercise, and (ii) to establish whether individual heterogeneity in biomarker appearance was influenced by athletic status (elite vs. amateur). We examined cTnI and NT-proBNP in 18 elite and 14 amateur rowers before and 5 min, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after a 30-min maximal rowing test. Compared with pre-exercise levels, peak postexercise cTnI (pre: 0.014 ± 0.030 μg·L(-1); peak post: 0.058 ± 0.091 μg·L(-1); p = 0.000) and NT-proBNP (pre: 15 ± 11 ng·L(-1); peak post: 31 ± 19 ng·L(-1); p = 0.000) were elevated. Substantial individual heterogeneity in peak and time-course data was noted for cTnI. Peak cTnI exceeded the upper reference limit (URL) in 9 elite and 3 amateur rowers. No rower exceeded the URL for NT-proBNP. Elite rowers had higher baseline (0.019 ± 0.038 vs. 0.008 ± 0.015 μg·L(-1); p = 0.003) and peak postexercise cTnI (0.080 ± 0.115 vs. 0.030 ± 0.029 μg·L(-1); p = 0.022) than amateur rowers, but the change with exercise was similar between groups. There were no significant differences in baseline and peak postexercise NT-proBNP between groups. In summary, marked individuality in the cTnI response to a short but high-intensity rowing bout was observed. Athletic status did not seem to affect the change in cardiac biomarkers in response to high-intensity exercise.

  2. Antecedents of Emotions in Elite Athletes: A Cognitive Motivational Relational Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uphill, Mark A.; Jones, Marc V.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive motivational relational theory suggests that cognitive appraisals or core relational themes (a composite summary of appraisal components) represent the proximal determinants of athletes' emotions. Semistructured interviews with 12 current international athletes (1 woman and 11 men) ages 19 to 37 years (M age = 27 years, SD = 6.03),…

  3. The Impact of Desegregation on College Choices of Elite Black Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Noue, George R.; Bennett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Even a casual observer of American college athletics can see the emergence of star black athletes in conferences that once were racially segregated. By analyzing the college origins of National Football League and National Basketball Association draft choices between 1947 and 2011, this research measures the impact of higher education…

  4. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin P; Erdman, Kelly A

    2016-08-26

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11-18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717-2437) in 11-13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291-3483) in 14-18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1-10.5); 2.4 (1.6-3.4) in males 11-13 years, 5.7 (4.5-7.9); 2.0 (1.4-2.6) in females 11-13 years, 5.3 (4.3-7.4); 2.0 (1.5-2.4) in males 14-18 y and 4.9 (4.4-6.2); 1.7 (1.3-2.0) in females 14-18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14-18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72-112), folate 89% (61-114) and calcium 84% (48-106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  5. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Jill A.; Wiens, Kristin P.; Erdman, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437) in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483) in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5); 2.4 (1.6–3.4) in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9); 2.0 (1.4–2.6) in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4); 2.0 (1.5–2.4) in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2); 1.7 (1.3–2.0) in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112), folate 89% (61–114) and calcium 84% (48–106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary. PMID:27571101

  6. Social comparison processes, narrative mapping and their shaping of the cancer experience: a case study of an elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, Andrew C; Pérez-Samaniego, Víctor; Smith, Brett

    2012-09-01

    Drawing on data generated by life history interviews and fieldwork observations we illuminate the ways in which a young elite athlete named David (a pseudonym) gave meaning to his experiences of cancer that eventually led to his death. Central to this process were the ways in which David utilized both social comparisons and a narrative map provided by the published autobiography of Lance Armstrong (2000). Our analysis reveals the selective manner in which social comparison processes operated around the following key dimensions: mental attitude to treatment; the sporting body; the ageing body; and physical appearance. The manner in which different comparison targets were chosen, the ways in which these were framed by Armstrong's autobiography, and the work that the restitution narrative as an actor did in this process are also examined. Some reflections are offered regarding the experiential consequences of the social comparison processes utilized by David when these are shaped by specific forms of embodiment and selective narrative maps of cancer survival.

  7. Cardiovascular effects of the valsalva maneuver during static arm exercise in elite power lifting athletes.

    PubMed

    Zebrowska, Aleksandra; Gasior, Zbigniew; Jastrzebski, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether a blood pressure increase during static exercises might affect the left ventricular function and whether a possible pressure overload might decrease cardio-respiratory adaptation to aerobic exercise in power lifting athletes. Nine resistance-trained athletes and ten age-matched untrained men participated in high intensity isometric exercise performed during the Valsalva maneuver and in an incremental arm cranking test. All subjects underwent echocardiographic evaluation. The combine effect of exercise and increased intrathoracic pressure due to the Valsalva maneuver was a significant increase in systolic blood pressure in the athletes compared with controls. Echocardiography demonstrated significant differences in left ventricular mass and left ventricular mass index; both being higher in the athletes than in controls. The intraventricular septum diameter and left ventricular posterior wall thickness were significantly greater and the myocardial performance index was lower in the athletes compared with controls, indicating a better left ventricular function in the athletes. A cumulative effect of mechanical compression of peripheral blood vessels by contracting muscles and intrathoracic pressure increase during the Valsalva maneuver did not compromise myocardial contractility and cardiorespiratory adaptation to incremental arm exercise in power lifting athletes.

  8. Sport-Specific Capacity to Use Elastic Energy in the Patellar and Achilles Tendons of Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wiesinger, Hans-Peter; Rieder, Florian; Kösters, Alexander; Müller, Erich; Seynnes, Olivier R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: During running and jumping activities, elastic energy is utilized to enhance muscle mechanical output and efficiency. However, training-induced variations in tendon spring-like properties remain under-investigated. The present work extends earlier findings on sport-specific profiles of tendon stiffness and cross-sectional area to examine whether years of distinct loading patterns are reflected by tendons' ability to store and return energy. Methods:Ultrasound scans were performed to examine the morphological features of knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle-tendon units in elite ski jumpers, distance runners, water polo players, and sedentary controls. Tendon strain energy and hysteresis were measured with combined motion capture, ultrasonography, and dynamometry. Results: Apart from the fractional muscle-to-tendon cross-sectional area ratio being lower in the knee extensors of ski jumpers (−31%) and runners (−33%) than in water polo players, no difference in the considered muscle-tendon unit morphological features was observed between groups. Similarly, no significant difference in tendon energy storage or energy return was detected between groups. In contrast, hysteresis was lower in the patellar tendon of ski jumpers (−33%) and runners (−30%) compared to controls, with a similar trend for the Achilles tendon (significant interaction effect and large effect sizes η2 = 0.2). Normalized to body mass, the recovered strain energy of the patellar tendon was ~50% higher in ski jumpers than in water polo players and controls. For the Achilles tendon, recovered strain energy was ~40% higher in ski jumpers and runners than in controls. Discussion: Advantageous mechanical properties related to tendon spring-like function are observed in elite athletes whose sport require effective utilization of elastic energy. However, the mechanisms underpinning the better tendon capacity of some athletes to retain elastic energy could not be ascribed to

  9. Sport-Specific Capacity to Use Elastic Energy in the Patellar and Achilles Tendons of Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Wiesinger, Hans-Peter; Rieder, Florian; Kösters, Alexander; Müller, Erich; Seynnes, Olivier R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: During running and jumping activities, elastic energy is utilized to enhance muscle mechanical output and efficiency. However, training-induced variations in tendon spring-like properties remain under-investigated. The present work extends earlier findings on sport-specific profiles of tendon stiffness and cross-sectional area to examine whether years of distinct loading patterns are reflected by tendons' ability to store and return energy. Methods:Ultrasound scans were performed to examine the morphological features of knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle-tendon units in elite ski jumpers, distance runners, water polo players, and sedentary controls. Tendon strain energy and hysteresis were measured with combined motion capture, ultrasonography, and dynamometry. Results: Apart from the fractional muscle-to-tendon cross-sectional area ratio being lower in the knee extensors of ski jumpers (-31%) and runners (-33%) than in water polo players, no difference in the considered muscle-tendon unit morphological features was observed between groups. Similarly, no significant difference in tendon energy storage or energy return was detected between groups. In contrast, hysteresis was lower in the patellar tendon of ski jumpers (-33%) and runners (-30%) compared to controls, with a similar trend for the Achilles tendon (significant interaction effect and large effect sizes η(2) = 0.2). Normalized to body mass, the recovered strain energy of the patellar tendon was ~50% higher in ski jumpers than in water polo players and controls. For the Achilles tendon, recovered strain energy was ~40% higher in ski jumpers and runners than in controls. Discussion: Advantageous mechanical properties related to tendon spring-like function are observed in elite athletes whose sport require effective utilization of elastic energy. However, the mechanisms underpinning the better tendon capacity of some athletes to retain elastic energy could not be ascribed to intrinsic or

  10. Eating patterns and composition of meals and snacks in elite Canadian athletes.

    PubMed

    Erdman, Kelly Anne; Tunnicliffe, Jasmine; Lun, Victor M; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the meal- and snack-eating frequency and the nutritional composition of each eating occasion of Canadian high-performance athletes during training. Athletes from 8 Canadian Sport Centres prospectively completed 3-d dietary records including all food, fluid, and supplements consumed. The time of consumption and whether the consumption was a meal or snack were also identified. The dietary records were analyzed for energy (kcal) and macronutrient intake (carbohydrate, protein, and fat) and compared based on gender, age, meal vs. snack, and training vs. rest days. Three hundred twenty-four athletic subjects (64% female and 36% male) completed the study. On average, the athletes ate 4.8 ± 0.8 times daily. Nearly all athletes consumed 3 daily meals of breakfast (98.9%), lunch (97.9%), and dinner (98.7%), with few having snacks: 57%, 71.6%, and 58.1% of athletes consumed an a.m., p.m., and evening snack, respectively. Training-day meal frequency did not differ from that during rest days; however, fewer snacks were consumed on rest days. A.m. and p.m. snacks were consumed significantly more often on training days than rest days. Overall, snacks contributed 24.3% of total daily energy intake. Few dietary variations were discovered between genders, while the youngest athletes (<18 yr) ate less often, especially their morning snack, than the older athletes. In conclusion, Canadian high-performance athletes self-adjusted their energy intakes on training vs. rest days primarily by snacking less and reducing their carbohydrate and protein intakes on rest days, yet they consistently ate regular meals.

  11. Nutritional supplementation habits and perceptions of elite athletes within a state-based sporting institute.

    PubMed

    Dascombe, B J; Karunaratna, M; Cartoon, J; Fergie, B; Goodman, C

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the nutritional supplement intake of athletes from a state-based sports institute. Athletes (n=72) from seven sports (kayaking, field hockey, rowing, waterpolo, swimming, athletics and netball) completed a questionnaire detailing their daily usage and rationale therefore. The large majority (63/72; 87.5+/-12.5%) of surveyed athletes reported using nutritional supplements, with no difference between female (31/36; 86.1+/-13.9%) and male (32/36; 88.9+/-11.1%) athletes. Kayakers (6.0+/-2.9) consumed a higher number of nutritional supplements than swimmers (4+/-2.2), field hockey (1.5+/-1.0), rowing (2.4+/-1.4), waterpolo (2.3+/-2.4), athletics (2.5+/-1.9) and netball (1.7+/-1.0) athletes. The athletes believed that nutritional supplements are related to performance enhancements (47/72; 65.3%), positive doping results (45/72; 62.5%), and that heavy training increases supplement requirements (47/72; 65.3%). The cohort was equivocal as to their health risks (40/72; 55.6%) or their need with a balanced diet (38/72; 52.8%). The most popular supplements were minerals (33/72; 45.8%), vitamins (31/72; 43.1%), other (23/72; 31.9%), iron (22/72; 30.6%), caffeine (16/72; 22.2%), protein (12/72; 16.7%), protein-carbohydrate mix (10/72; 13.9%), creatine (9/72; 12.5%) and glucosamine (3/72; 4.2%). The majority of supplementing athletes (n=63) did not know their supplements active ingredient (39/63; 61.9%), side effects (36/63; 57.1%) or mechanism of action (34/63; 54.0%) and admitted to wanting additional information (36/63; 57.0%). Only half of the athletes knew the recommended supplement dosages (33/63; 52.4%). The performance enhancing perception may explain the large proportion of athletes that reported using nutritional supplements, despite over half of the athletes believing that supplements are not required with a balanced diet and can cause positive doping violations.

  12. The effect of overhead target on the lower limb biomechanics during a vertical drop jump test in elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Mok, K-M; Bahr, R; Krosshaug, T

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of an overhead target on the jump height and lower limb biomechanics in all three planes of motion in a vertical drop jump (VDJ) task among elite female handball and football (soccer) players. The hypothesis was that adding an overhead target to the VDJ task improves jump height, increases joint loading, and decreases frontal plane knee control. Five hundred and twenty-three female handball and football players (mean ± SD: 21 ± 4 years, 168 ± 6 cm, 65 ± 8 kg) completed the test. The overhead target increased jumping height by 5.8%. Furthermore, the overhead target led to statistically significant changes in many of the lower limb biomechanical variables examined. However, all the changes in kinematics and kinetics were clinically insignificant, as indicated by the small effect sizes. Strong to moderate positive Spearman's rank correlations were found between the two conditions. Therefore, an overhead target is unlikely to increase the range of responses in biomechanical variables in elite female handball and football athletes.

  13. Measurement precision of body composition variables in elite wheelchair athletes, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Keil, Mhairi; Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia O; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of body composition measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 12 elite male wheelchair basketball players (age 31 ± 7 years, BMI 21 ± 2 kg/m(2) and onset of disability 25 ± 9 years). Two whole body scans were performed on each participant in the supine position on the same day, using Lunar Prodigy Advance DXA (GE Lunar, Madison, WI, USA). Participants dismounted from the scanning table and were repositioned in-between the first and second scan. Whole body coefficient of variation (CV) values for bone mineral content (BMC), fat mass (FM) and soft tissue lean mass (LTM) were all <2.0%. With the exclusion of arm FM (CV = 7.8%), CV values ranged from 0.1 to 3.7% for all total body and segmental measurements of BMC, FM and LTM. The least significant change that can be attributed to the effect of treatment intervention in an individual is 1.0 kg, 1.1 kg, 0.12 kg for FM, LTM, and BMC, respectively. This information can be used to determine meaningful changes in body composition when assessed using the same methods longitudinally. Whilst there may be challenges in the correct positioning of an individual with disability that can introduce greater measurement error, DXA is a highly reproducible technique in the estimation of total and regional body composition of elite wheelchair basketball athletes.

  14. Sports Dietitians Australia position statement: sports nutrition for the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Desbrow, Ben; McCormack, Joanna; Burke, Louise M; Cox, Gregory R; Fallon, Kieran; Hislop, Matthew; Logan, Ruth; Marino, Nello; Sawyer, Susan M; Shaw, Greg; Star, Anita; Vidgen, Helen; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-10-01

    It is the position of Sports Dietitians Australia (SDA) that adolescent athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the demands of growth and development. As such, SDA established an expert multidisciplinary panel to undertake an independent review of the relevant scientific evidence and consulted with its professional members to develop sports nutrition recommendations for active and competitive adolescent athletes. The position of SDA is that dietary education and recommendations for these adolescent athletes should reinforce eating for long term health. More specifically, the adolescent athlete should be encouraged to moderate eating patterns to reflect daily exercise demands and provide a regular spread of high quality carbohydrate and protein sources over the day, especially in the period immediately after training. SDA recommends that consideration also be given to the dietary calcium, Vitamin D and iron intake of adolescent athletes due to the elevated risk of deficiency of these nutrients. To maintain optimal hydration, adolescent athletes should have access to fluids that are clean, cool and supplied in sufficient quantities before, during and after participation in sport. Finally, it is the position of SDA that nutrient needs should be met by core foods rather than supplements, as the recommendation of dietary supplements to developing athletes over-emphasizes their ability to manipulate performance in comparison with other training and dietary strategies.

  15. Psychological skills training of an elite wheelchair water-skiing athlete: a single-case study.

    PubMed

    de Bressy de Guast, Virginie; Golby, Jim; Van Wersch, Anna; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne

    2013-10-01

    This study presents a complete psychological skills training (PST) program with a wheelchair athlete and examines the program effectiveness using a mixed-method approach. After initial testing, the athlete followed a two-month program of self-confidence building, motivational, visualization/relaxation, and injury management techniques. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine the impacts on performance and psychological abilities. The triangulated results suggest that the PST program was perceived as effective by the athlete in terms of his sporting performances and mental skills. The characteristics and implications of a PST program with this wheelchair athlete are discussed, as well as the study limitations and the perspectives for future research.

  16. Antecedents of emotions in elite athletes: a cognitive motivational relational theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Uphill, Mark A; Jones, Marc V

    2007-03-01

    Cognitive motivational relational theory suggests that cognitive appraisals or core relational themes (a composite summary of appraisal components) represent the proximal determinants of athletes' emotions. Semistructured interviews with 12 current international athletes (1 woman and 11 men) ages 19 to 37 years (M age = 27 years, SD = 6.03), representing a range of sports (badminton, golf rugby union, athletics, archery, sailing, and snooker) explored the association between athletes' appraisals and emotions. Concurrent inductive and deductive content analyses suggested that primary and secondary appraisal components (goal relevance, goal congruence, ego-involvement, blame/credit, coping potential, future expectations) were associated with a range of emotions: anger anxiety, guilt, happiness, pride, relief sadness, and shame. A hierarchical content analysis provided some support for Lazarus' (1991) core relational themes. Limitations and applications of this study are discussed.

  17. The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude: a comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives (ISA3600)

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Gregory D; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Soria, Rudy; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J; Sargent, Charli

    2013-01-01

    Background Altitude exposure causes acute sleep disruption in non-athletes, but little is known about its effects in elite athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of altitude on two groups of elite athletes, that is, sea-level natives and high-altitude natives. Methods Sea-level natives were members of the Australian under-17 soccer team (n=14). High-altitude natives were members of a Bolivian under-20 club team (n=12). Teams participated in an 18-day (19 nights) training camp in Bolivia, with 6 nights at near sea level in Santa Cruz (430 m) and 13 nights at high altitude in La Paz (3600 m). Sleep was assessed on every day/night using activity monitors. Results The Australians’ sleep was shorter, and of poorer quality, on the first night at altitude compared with sea level. Sleep quality returned to normal by the end of the first week at altitude, but sleep quantity had still not stabilised at its normal level after 2 weeks. The quantity and quality of sleep obtained by the Bolivians was similar, or greater, on all nights at altitude compared with sea level. The Australians tended to obtain more sleep than the Bolivians at sea level and altitude, but the quality of the Bolivians’ sleep tended to be better than that of the Australians at altitude. Conclusions Exposure to high altitude causes acute and chronic disruption to the sleep of elite athletes who are sea-level natives, but it does not affect the sleep of elite athletes who are high-altitude natives. PMID:24282197

  18. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397

  19. Treating the elite athlete: anti-doping information for the health professional.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Shikha; Bowers, Larry D; Fedoruk, Matthew N

    2015-01-01

    Physicians and health professionals are a vital component in preserving the integrity of competition and the core principles of true sport. When treating an athlete, health professionals need to be cognizant of the anti-doping rules of the relevant sport organization. This review aims to provide an overview of the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, Therapeutic Use Exemptions, roles and responsibilities of the health professional, as well as provide resources that will guide their work with athletes.

  20. Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): III. An examination of the external validity across gender, and the expansion and clarification of the Sport Commitment Model.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Tara K; Russell, David G; Magyar, T Michelle; Scanlan, Larry A

    2009-12-01

    The Sport Commitment Model was further tested using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method to examine its generalizability to New Zealand's elite female amateur netball team, the Silver Ferns. Results supported or clarified Sport Commitment Model predictions, revealed avenues for model expansion, and elucidated the functions of perceived competence and enjoyment in the commitment process. A comparison and contrast of the in-depth interview data from the Silver Ferns with previous interview data from a comparable elite team of amateur male athletes allowed assessment of model external validity, tested the generalizability of the underlying mechanisms, and separated gender differences from discrepancies that simply reflected team or idiosyncratic differences.

  1. New approaches to determine fatigue in elite athletes during intensified training: Resting metabolic rate and pacing profile

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Elite rowers complete a high volume of training across a number of modalities to prepare for competition, including periods of intensified load, which may lead to fatigue and short-term performance decrements. As yet, the influence of substantial fatigue on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and exercise regulation (pacing), and their subsequent utility as monitoring parameters, has not been explicitly investigated in elite endurance athletes. Method Ten National-level rowers completed a four-week period of intensified training. RMR, body composition and energy intake were assessed PRE and POST the four-week period using indirect calorimetry, Dual-Energy X-Ray Densitometry (DXA), and three-day food diary, respectively. On-water rowing performance and pacing strategy was evaluated from 5 km time trials. Wellness was assessed weekly using the Multicomponent Training Distress Scale (MTDS). Results Significant decreases in absolute (mean ± SD of difference, p-value: -466 ± 488 kJ.day-1, p = 0.01) and relative RMR (-8.0 ± 8.1 kJ.kg.FFM-1, p = 0.01) were observed. Significant reductions in body mass (-1.6 ± 1.3 kg, p = 0.003) and fat mass (-2.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.0001) were detected, while energy intake was unchanged. On-water 5 km rowing performance worsened (p < 0.05) and an altered pacing strategy was evident. Fatigue and total mood disturbance significantly increased across the cycle (p < 0.05), and trends were observed for reduced vigour and increased sleep disturbance (p < 0.1). Conclusion Four weeks of heavy training decreased RMR and body composition variables in elite rowers and induced substantial fatigue, likely related to an imbalance between energy intake and output. This study demonstrates that highly experienced athletes do not necessarily select the correct energy intake during periods of intensified training, and this can be assessed by reductions in RMR and body composition. The shortfall in energy availability likely affected recovery from

  2. Neuromuscular Responses to Short-Term Resistance Training With Traditional and Daily Undulating Periodization in Adolescent Elite Judoka.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Boris; Pelzer, Thiemo; Oliveira, Sergio; Pfeiffer, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Ullrich, B, Pelzer, T, Oliveira, S, and Pfeiffer, M. Neuromuscular responses to short-term resistance training with traditional and daily undulating periodization in adolescent elite judoka. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2083-2099, 2016-The influence of different periodization models on neuromuscular outcomes after short-term strength training periods has not been examined in adolescent athletes. Eleven elite judoka (age: 14.8 ± 0.6 years, height: 163.2 ± 7.5 cm, body mass: 57.3 ± 11.1 kg, 5 boys/6 girls, and strength training experience: 2.7 ± 1.1 years) performed two 4-week strength training mesocycles (each with 12 sessions) with either traditional (TP) or daily undulating (DUP) periodization. Both mesocycles were separated by a 7-week washout period and added to the regular judo training. Strength training was performed as lifting and lowering of weights using squats, knee flexion curl, clean & jerk, snatch, bench press, barbell bench pull, and lat pull-down. The mesocycles were equated for the number of repetitions and different intensity zones (50-90% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), addressing the optimization of strength, power, or velocity. Laboratory and 1RM testing was carried out 2 times during the baseline (T1 and T2), after the TP mesocycle (T3), after the washout period (T4), and after the DUP mesocycle (T5). Isometric knee extensor and knee flexor maximum voluntary contractive capacity (MVC), electromyographic-estimated neural drive of the quadriceps femoris, vastus lateralis (VL) muscle architecture, and 1RMs of all training exercises were measured. ANOVA revealed moderate (5.5-13.5%) but significant (p ≤ 0.05) temporal gains in knee extensor MVC, 1RMs, and VL architecture during both the mesocycles. Wilcoxon tests detected no significant differences for the percentage changes of any outcome between the mesocycles. For adolescent judoka, TP and DUP were equally adept in improving neuromuscular outcomes during short-term training periods.

  3. Knotless Repair of Achilles Tendon Rupture in an Elite Athlete: Return to Competition in 18 Weeks.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Paul A; Hopper, Graeme P; Wilson, William T; Mackay, Gordon M

    Rupture of the Achilles tendon is an increasingly common injury, particularly in physically active males, and current evidence favors minimally invasive surgical repair. We describe the case of a 36-year-old male elite bobsled athlete with complete rupture of the Achilles tendon. He was treated with surgical repair of the ruptured tendon using an innovative, minimally invasive procedure based on an internal bracing concept and was able to undergo early mobilization and aggressive physiotherapy rehabilitation. His recovery was such that he returned to training at 13 weeks postoperatively and participated in an international competition at 18 weeks, winning a World Cup silver medal. He subsequently raced at the 2014 Winter Olympic Games at 29 weeks after surgery. At >2 years since his injury, he has experienced no complications or reinjury. This represents an exceptional recovery that far exceeds the standard expected for such injuries. The use of this technique for athletes could enable accelerated return to sporting activity and attainment of their preinjury activity levels.

  4. Smena: Case Study of a Soviet Sport School for Elite Young Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Stephen C.

    This paper describes "Smena," a Specialist Children's and Young People's Sport School of Olympic Reserves, located in Leningrad, which trains elite young soccer players. Information is given on: (1) the facilities of the school; (2) the schools' long-range individual and team goals; (3) instructional methods and hours; (4) the…

  5. Anthropometrical, physiological, and tracked power profiles of elite taekwondo athletes 9 weeks before the Olympic competition phase.

    PubMed

    Ball, Nick; Nolan, Emily; Wheeler, Keane

    2011-10-01

    Physiological, anthropometric, and power profiling data were retrospectively analyzed from 4 elite taekwondo athletes from the Australian National Olympic team 9 weeks from Olympic departure. Power profiling data were collected weekly throughout the 9-week period. Anthropometric skinfolds generated a lean mass index (LMI). Physiological tests included a squat jump and bench throw power profile, bleep test, 20-m sprint test, running VO2max test, and bench press and squat 3 repetition maximum (3RM) strength tests. After this, the athletes power, velocity, and acceleration profile during unweighted squat jumps and single-leg jumps were tracked using a linear position transducer. Increases in power, velocity, and acceleration between weeks and bilateral comparisons were analyzed. Athletes had an LMI of 37.1 ± 0.4 and were 173.9 ± 0.2 m and 67 ± 1.1 kg. Relatively weaker upper body (56 ± 11.97 kg 3RM bench press) compared to lower body strength (88 ± 2.89 kg 3RM squat) was shown alongside a VO2max of 53.29 ml(-1)·min(-1)·kg, and a 20-m sprint time of 3.37 seconds. Increases in all power variables for single-leg squat and squat jumps were found from the first session to the last. Absolute peak power in single-leg squat jumps increased by 13.4-16% for the left and right legs with a 12.9% increase in squat jump peak power. Allometrically scaled peak power showed greater increases for single-leg (right leg: 18.55%; left: 23.49%) and squat jump (14.49%). The athlete's weight did not change significantly throughout the 9-week mesocycle. Progressions in power increases throughout the weeks were undulating and can be related to the intensity of the prior week's training and athlete injury. This analysis has shown that a 9-week mesocycle before Olympic departure that focuses on core lifts has the ability to improve power considerably.

  6. ACTN3 R577X and other polymorphisms are not associated with elite endurance athlete status in the Genathlete study.

    PubMed

    Döring, Frank E; Onur, Simone; Geisen, Ulf; Boulay, Marcel R; Pérusse, Louis; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rauramaa, Rainer; Wolfahrt, Bernd; Bouchard, C

    2010-10-01

    Homozygosity for a premature stop codon at amino acid position 577 in the alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene leads to α-actinin-3 deficiency. This genotype is observed in approximately 18% of Caucasians. The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism has been previously associated with indicators of physical performance in several, but not all, studies. We examined the prevalence of R577X (rs1815739) and two additional haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) of the ACTN3 gene (rs1791690 and rs2275998) in the Genathlete study comprising 316 male elite endurance athletes (VO2max 79.0+3.5 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); mean +/- s) from North America, Finland, and Germany and 304 sedentary controls (VO2max 40.1+7.0 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1) matched by country of origin. The distribution of genotype and allele frequencies between the two groups was tested by Pearson chi-square and/or Fischer exact test. The prevalence of the 577X homozygote genotype was similar in endurance athletes and controls (20% and 17.5%, respectively). The resulting odds ratio for endurance performance in 577X homozygotes compared with 577R-allele carriers was 1.24 (95%CI 0.82-1.87, P = 0.3). The genotype distribution of the two htSNPs and haplotype frequencies did not differ significantly between athletes and controls. In conclusion, our findings indicate that ACTN3 R577X and other SNPs in ACTN3 are not genetic determinants of endurance performance in Caucasian males.

  7. Dynamic Compression Enhances Pressure-to-Pain Threshold in Elite Athlete Recovery: Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Sands, William A; McNeal, Jeni R; Murray, Steven R; Stone, Michael H

    2015-05-01

    Athlete recovery-adaptation is crucial to the progress and performance of highly trained athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess peristaltic pulse dynamic compression (PPDC) in reducing short-term pressure-to-pain threshold (PPT) among Olympic Training Center athletes after morning training. Muscular tenderness and stiffness are common symptoms of fatigue and exercise-induced muscle microtrauma and edema. Twenty-four highly trained athletes (men = 12 and women = 12) volunteered to participate in this study. The athletes were randomly assigned to experimental (n = 12) and control (n = 12) groups. Pressure-to-pain threshold measurements were conducted with a manual algometer on 3 lower extremity muscles. Experimental group athletes underwent PPDC on both legs through computer-controlled circumferential inflated leggings that used a peristaltic-like pressure pattern from feet to groin. Pressures in each cell were set to factory defaults. Treatment time was 15 minutes. The control group performed the same procedures except that the inflation pump to the leggings was off. The experimental timeline included a morning training session, followed by a PPT pretest, treatment application (PPDC or control), an immediate post-test (PPT), and a delayed post-test (PPT) after the afternoon practice session. Difference score results showed that the experimental group's PPT threshold improved after PPDC treatment immediately and persisted the remainder of the day after afternoon practice. The control group showed no statistical change. We conclude that PPDC is a promising means of accelerating and enhancing recovery after the normal aggressive training that occurs in Olympic and aspiring Olympic athletes.

  8. Validation of web-based, multiple 24-h recalls combined with nutritional supplement intake questionnaires against nitrogen excretions to determine protein intake in Dutch elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Wardenaar, F C; Steennis, J; Ceelen, I J M; Mensink, M; Witkamp, R; de Vries, J H M

    2015-12-28

    Information on dietary composition is vitally important for elite athletes to optimise their performance and recovery, which requires valid tools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of assessing protein intake using three web-based 24-h recalls and questionnaires, by comparing these with three urinary N excretions on the same day. A total of forty-seven Dutch elite top athletes, both disabled and non-disabled, aged between 18 and 35 years, with a BMI of 17·5-31 kg/m2, exercising >12 h/week were recruited. Estimated mean dietary protein intake was 109·6 (sd 33·0) g/d by recalls and questionnaires v. 141·3 (sd 38·2) g/d based on N excretions in urine; the difference was 25·5 (sd 21·3) % between the methods (P<0·05). We found a reasonably good association between methods for protein intake of 0·65 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·79). On an individual level, under-reporting was larger with higher protein intakes than with lower intakes. No significant differences were found in reporting absolute differences between subcategories (sex, under-reporting, BMI, collection of recalls within a certain amount of time and using protein supplements or not). In conclusion, combined, multiple, 24-h recalls and questionnaires underestimated protein intake in these young elite athletes more than that reported for non-athlete populations. The method proved to be suitable for ranking athletes according to their protein intake as needed in epidemiological studies. On an individual level, the magnitude of underestimation was about equal for all athletes except for those with very high protein intakes.

  9. Qualitative evidence of a primary intervention point for elite athlete doping.

    PubMed

    Mazanov, Jason; Huybers, Twan; Connor, James

    2011-03-01

    Anti-doping activities in sport have shifted from secondary prevention (intervening after athletes have used) to educational strategies focused on primary prevention through promoting abstinence. There is no empirical evidence to guide targeting of anti-doping education initiatives. In this paper, a heuristic to guide education initiatives was derived by re-analysing a series of interviews (n=20) with athletes, coaches, sports managers, physiotherapists and sports nutritionists. The findings indicate primary prevention of doping may be enhanced by timing it around periods of career instability where athlete vulnerability to doping may increase as a function of winning or losing sponsorship. Sponsorship is broadly defined as financial (e.g. salary stipend) and non-financial support (e.g. training facilities). This provides a basis for targeting education interventions to promote abstinence. Two options are offered to mitigate the need to time prevention activity around career instability by lessening the effect of sponsorship on athlete doping. The first is liberalising access to legitimate performance enhancing technologies (e.g. training techniques or nutritional supplements). The second is to delay access to financial sponsorship (beyond living expenses) until retirement, with monetary gains (e.g. prize money) deposited into an account where penalties are debited if the athlete is caught doping.

  10. Parent Perceptions of Their Adolescent Athlete's Concussion: A Preliminary Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Sandel, Natalie; Henry, Luke C; French, Jonathan; Lovell, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Parent reports of their adolescent athletes' recovery from concussion are often considered by clinicians, but limited research has explored the factors (i.e., athletes' symptoms and neurocognitive performance) predicting parents' perceptions of athletes' recovery and how these factors relate to previous research on athletes' self-perceptions of recovery. The current study included 67 athletes aged 12 to 18 years old (M = 14.69 years, SD = 1.67) who were evaluated for a sports-related concussion within 6 months postinjury and were accompanied by a parent to their evaluation. Athletes and parents were asked to rate athletes' percent "back to normal" (i.e., perception of recovery), and athletes completed Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing and symptom reports on the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale. Results of a multiple regression for athletes' total symptom score and neurocognitive performance (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Visuomotor Speed, and Reaction Time) was significant and accounted for 47.9% of the variance in parents' perceptions of recovery with total symptoms as the only significant predictor. A stepwise regression for symptom clusters (somatic, cognitive, sleep, and neuropsychiatric) demonstrated that somatic complaints were the most predictive of parents' perceptions. Parents' and athletes' perceptions are predicted by athletes' somatic symptoms, rather than athletes' performance on objective assessments.

  11. Lower limb joint kinetics during the first stance phase in athletics sprinting: three elite athlete case studies.

    PubMed

    Bezodis, Neil Edward; Salo, Aki Ilkka Tapio; Trewartha, Grant

    2014-01-01

    This study analysed the first stance phase joint kinetics of three elite sprinters to improve the understanding of technique and investigate how individual differences in technique could influence the resulting levels of performance. Force (1000 Hz) and video (200 Hz) data were collected and resultant moments, power and work at the stance leg metatarsal-phalangeal (MTP), ankle, knee and hip joints were calculated. The MTP and ankle joints both exhibited resultant plantarflexor moments throughout stance. Whilst the ankle joint generated up to four times more energy than it absorbed, the MTP joint was primarily an energy absorber. Knee extensor resultant moments and power were produced throughout the majority of stance, and the best-performing sprinter generated double and four times the amount of knee joint energy compared to the other two sprinters. The hip joint extended throughout stance. Positive hip extensor energy was generated during early stance before energy was absorbed at the hip as the resultant moment became flexor-dominant towards toe-off. The generation of energy at the ankle appears to be of greater importance than in later phases of a sprint, whilst knee joint energy generation may be vital for early acceleration and is potentially facilitated by favourable kinematics at touchdown.

  12. Exercise and pregnancy in recreational and elite athletes: 2016 evidence summary from the IOC expert group meeting, Lausanne. Part 2-the effect of exercise on the fetus, labour and birth.

    PubMed

    Bø, Kari; Artal, Raul; Barakat, Ruben; Brown, Wendy; Dooley, Michael; Evenson, Kelly R; Haakstad, Lene A H; Larsen, Karin; Kayser, Bengt; Kinnunen, Tarja I; Mottola, Michelle F; Nygaard, Ingrid; van Poppel, Mireille; Stuge, Britt; Davies, Gregory A L

    2016-10-12

    This is Part 2 of 5 in the series of evidence statements from the IOC expert committee on exercise and pregnancy in recreational and elite athletes. Part 1 focused on the effects of training during pregnancy and on the management of common pregnancy-related symptoms experienced by athletes. In Part 2, we focus on maternal and fetal perinatal outcomes.

  13. The Impact of Exposure to Elite Wheelchair Athletes: Perceptions of Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richey, Lenoise, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of six pre-service physical education teachers on students and athletes who use a wheelchair. The study used qualitative techniques to interview each individual participant twice, once prior to the experiences and once following all experiences. Critical incidents were recorded following each experience, and…

  14. No effect of weight cycling on the post-career BMI of weight class elite athletes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Repetitions of pre-competition weight-loss diets done by athletes participating in weight class sports can be regarded as periods of weight cycling. The aim of the present study is to identify the long term post-career (22 years) evolutionary profile of athletes’ BMI after such weight cycling. Methods One hundred and thirty-six retired French athletes who participated in major international competitions in weight class sports (rowers, wrestlers, boxers, and judokas) were included. Former and current body mass, height, dietary characteristics during the career (annual frequency, amount of weight lost), current physical activity, and answers on the eating-attitude test were collected by phone interview (consistency was tested by comparison with measured weight). We performed ANOVA tests for comparison between groups (sport, dieting), post-hoc tests (Bonferroni test) to identify differences within groups. BMI’s changes were treated using a mixed model. Results The recorded weight changes did not depend upon time since retirement. Between 18 y and 50 y, athletes’ BMI increased by 3.2 kg/m2 compared to the 4.2 kg/m2 increase in the general population. This increase was independent of the number of diets during the career. Retired athletes declared a mean weekly physical activity of 4.8 h ± 4.3. The eating-attitude test showed low scores for all sports without any correlation to diet characteristics. Conclusion Weight cycling during an athletic career does not induce a massive weight gain after retirement, probably due to the high level of physical activity still practiced after retirement by these athletes. PMID:23711106

  15. Influence of caffeine and sodium citrate ingestion on 1,500-m exercise performance in elite wheelchair athletes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Mettler, Samuel; Perret, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether caffeine and/or sodium citrate have an ergogenic effect on the 1,500-m exercise performance in elite wheelchair athletes. A placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over and double-blind study design was conducted with the four treatments placebo, caffeine, sodium citrate and the combination of caffeine and sodium citrate. Nine healthy, elite wheelchair-racing athletes (median: [min; max] age: 28 y [23; 54]; height: 173 cm [165; 188]; weight: 62.9 kg [48.9; 68.4], category T53/54) completed the study. All athletes were national team members, including several Paralympic Games, World and European Championship medalists. The athletes performed a 1,500-m time trial four times on a wheelchair training roller. Time to complete 1,500-m, pH, bicarbonate and sodium concentration as well as lactate concentration were measured. The time to complete 1,500-m was not significantly different between the four treatments (placebo: 170.6 s [141.7; 232.0]; caffeine: 179.5 s [134.8; 239.6]; sodium citrate: 178.3 s [136.4; 247.1]; combination: 177.6 s [136.1; 256.2]). However, pH and bicarbonate concentrations were significantly increased with sodium citrate ingestion compared with placebo. Moreover, maximal lactate concentrations were significantly higher in the caffeine and the combination treatment compared with placebo. The supplementation with sodium citrate and/or caffeine did not provide an ergogenic effect on the 1,500-m exercise performance in wheelchair elite athletes.

  16. Differences in muscle mechanical properties between elite power and endurance athletes: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; Gil, Saulo; Laurino, Cristiano Frota de Souza; Roschel, Hamilton; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Nakamura, Fabio Y

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare muscle mechanical properties (using tensiomyography-TMG) and jumping performance of endurance and power athletes and to quantify the associations between TMG parameters and jumping performance indices. Forty-one high-level track and field athletes from power (n = 22; mean ± SD age, height, and weight were 27.2 ± 3.6 years; 180.2 ± 5.4 cm; and 79.4 ± 8.6 kg, respectively) and endurance (endurance runners and triathletes; n = 19; mean ± SD age, height, and weight were 27.1 ± 6.9 years; 169.6 ± 9.8 cm; 62.2 ± 13.1 kg, respectively) specialties had the mechanical properties of their rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) assessed by TMG. Muscle displacement (Dm), contraction time (Tc), and delay time (Td) were retained for analyses. Furthermore, they performed squat jumps (SJs), countermovement jumps (CMJs), and drop jumps to assess reactive strength index (RSI), using a contact platform. Comparisons between groups were performed using differences based on magnitudes, and associations were quantified by the Spearman's ρ correlation. Power athletes showed almost certain higher performance in all jumping performance indices when compared with endurance athletes (SJ = 44.9 ± 4.1 vs. 30.7 ± 6.8 cm; CMJ = 48.9 ± 4.5 vs. 33.6 ± 7.2 cm; RSI = 2.19 ± 0.58 vs. 0.84 ± 0.39, for power and endurance athletes, mean ± SD, respectively; 00/00/100, almost certain, p ≤ 0.05), along with better contractile indices reflected by lower Dm, Tc, and Td (Tc BF = 14.3 ± 2.3 vs. 19.4 ± 3.3 milliseconds; Dm BF = 1.67 ± 1.05 vs. 4.23 ± 1.75 mm; Td BF = 16.8 ± 1.6 vs. 19.6 ± 1.3 milliseconds; Tc RF = 18.3 ± 2.8 vs. 22.9 ± 4.0 milliseconds; Dm RF = 4.98 ± 3.71 vs. 8.88 ± 3.45 mm; Td RF = 17.5 ± 1.0 vs. 20.9 ± 1.6 milliseconds, for power and endurance athletes, mean ± SD, respectively; 00/00/100, almost certain, p ≤ 0.05). Moderate correlations (Spearman's ρ between -0.61 and -0.72) were found between TMG and jumping

  17. Influences of coaches, parents, and peers on the motivational patterns of child and adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Chan, D K; Lonsdale, C; Fung, H H

    2012-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess the relative impact of social influences initiated by coach, parents, and peers on children and adolescent athletes' motivational patterns, involving self-rated effort, enjoyment, competence, and competitive trait anxiety. Questionnaire data were collected from 408 youth swimmers (aged 9-18 years). Results of multi-group structural equation modeling analyses generally showed that compared with athletes in the other age group, the social influence from mother was stronger in childhood (mean age=10.87 years; SD=1.00), and that from peers was greater in adolescence (mean age=16.32 years; SD=1.15). The social influence from coach was more influential for athletes' effort and enjoyment in childhood, and competence in adolescence. We concluded that age appeared to moderate the impact of social influence from significant others on young athletes' sport experiences.

  18. Humeral Shaft Fracture Treatment in the Elite Throwing Athlete: A Unique Application of Flexible Intramedullary Nailing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christopher S.; Davis, Shane M.; Fronek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Humeral shaft stress fractures are being increasingly recognized as injuries that can significantly impact throwing mechanics if residual malalignment exists. While minimally displaced and angulated injuries are treated nonoperatively in a fracture brace, the management of significantly displaced humeral shaft fractures in the throwing athlete is less clear. Currently described techniques such as open reduction and internal fixation with plate osteosynthesis and rigid antegrade/retrograde locked intramedullary nailing have significant morbidity due to soft tissue dissection and damage. We present a case report of a high-level baseball pitcher whose significantly displaced humeral shaft stress fracture failed to be nonoperatively managed and was subsequently treated successfully with unlocked, retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing. The athlete was able to return to pitching baseball in one year and is currently pitching in Major League Baseball. We were able to recently collect 10-year follow-up data. PMID:24369515

  19. Humeral shaft fracture treatment in the elite throwing athlete: a unique application of flexible intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher S; Davis, Shane M; Ho, Hoang-Anh; Fronek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Humeral shaft stress fractures are being increasingly recognized as injuries that can significantly impact throwing mechanics if residual malalignment exists. While minimally displaced and angulated injuries are treated nonoperatively in a fracture brace, the management of significantly displaced humeral shaft fractures in the throwing athlete is less clear. Currently described techniques such as open reduction and internal fixation with plate osteosynthesis and rigid antegrade/retrograde locked intramedullary nailing have significant morbidity due to soft tissue dissection and damage. We present a case report of a high-level baseball pitcher whose significantly displaced humeral shaft stress fracture failed to be nonoperatively managed and was subsequently treated successfully with unlocked, retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing. The athlete was able to return to pitching baseball in one year and is currently pitching in Major League Baseball. We were able to recently collect 10-year follow-up data.

  20. Survival estimates for elite male and female Olympic athletes and tennis championship competitors.

    PubMed

    Coate, D; Sun, R

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we report survival estimates for male and female Olympic medal winners and for male and female finalists at the British and U S national tennis championships. We find a consistent longevity advantage of Olympic medal-winning female athletes over Olympic medal-winning male athletes competing separately in the same events since 1900 and for female finalists over male finalists competing separately in the finals of the national tennis championships of Britain and of the United States since the 1880s. This is the case for sample mean comparisons, for Kaplan-Meier survival function estimates, including life expectancy, and for Cox proportional hazard estimates, which show statistically significant lower hazard rates for women with birth year and other variables constant. The female longevity advantage over males is similar in the early period samples (birth years before 1920) and in the full period samples, and is 5-7 years.

  1. Effects of acute supplementation of L-arginine and nitrate on endurance and sprint performance in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Sandbakk, Silvana Bucher; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Peacock, Oliver; James, Philip; Welde, Boye; Stokes, Keith; Böhlke, Nikolai; Tjønna, Arnt Erik

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of acute supplementation with L-arginine and nitrate on running economy, endurance and sprint performance in endurance-trained athletes. In a randomised cross-over, double-blinded design we compared the effects of combined supplementation with 6 g L-arginine and 614 mg nitrate against 614 mg nitrate alone and placebo in nine male elite cross-country skiers (age 18 ± 0 years, VO2max 69.3 ± 5.8 ml ⋅ min(-1) ⋅ kg(-1)). After a 48-hour standardisation of nutrition and exercise the athletes were tested for plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations, blood pressure, submaximal running economy at 10 km ⋅ h(-1) and 14 km ⋅ h(-1) at 1% incline and 180 m as well as 5-km time-trial running performances. Plasma nitrite concentration following L-arginine + nitrate supplementation (319 ± 54 nmol ⋅ L(-1)) did not differ from nitrate alone (328 ± 107 nmol ⋅ L(-1)), and both were higher than placebo (149 ± 64 nmol ⋅ L(-1), p < 0.01). There were no differences in physiological responses during submaximal running or in 5-km performance between treatments. The plasma nitrite concentrations indicate greater nitric oxide availability both following acute supplementation of L-arginine + nitrate and with nitrate alone compared to placebo, but no additional effect was revealed when L-arginine was added to nitrate. Still, there were no effects of supplementation on exercise economy or endurance running performance in endurance-trained cross-country skiers.

  2. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Tsaklis, Panagiotis; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Korakakis, Vasileios; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Pyne, Debasish; Malliaras, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises. Methods Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student’s t-test. Results The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (<50% MVIC) and all showed higher EMG activity for semitendinosus than for biceps femoris. Bridge was low but approaching medium intensity, and the TRX, hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (≥50% or <80% MVIC). The Nordic, fitball, and slide leg exercises were all high intensity exercises. Only the fitball exercise showed higher EMG activity in the biceps femoris compared with the semitendinosus. Only lunge and kettle swings showed peak EMG in the muscle-tendon unit lengthening phase and both these exercises involved faster speed. Conclusion Some exercises selectively activated the lateral and medial distal hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength

  3. Plasma leptin, plasma zinc, and plasma copper are associated in elite female and male judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Lopes, Gustavo; de Oliveira-Junior, Astrogildo Vianna; Portella, Emilson Souza; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Koury, Josely Correa

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare plasma leptin, plasma zinc, and plasma copper levels and their relationship in trained female and male judo athletes (n = 10 women; n = 8 men). Blood samples were obtained 24 h after training to measure plasma zinc, copper, and leptin levels. Subjects presented similar values to age (22 +/- 2 years old), body mass index (24 +/- 1 kg/m(2)), plasma zinc (17.2 +/- 2 micromol/L), copper (12.5 +/- 2 micromol/L), and leptin (5.6 +/- 1.3 microg/L). However, height, total body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and sum of ten-skinfold thickness were higher in male than female. Plasma leptin was associated with sum of ten skinfolds in male (r = 0.91; p < 0.001) and female athletes (r = 0.84; p < 0.003). Plasma zinc was associated with leptin in males (r = 0.82; p < 0.05) while copper was associated with plasma leptin in females (r = 0.66; p < 0.05). Our results suggest that young judo athletes lost sex-related differences in leptin levels. Plasma zinc, plasma copper, and energy homeostasis may be involved in regulation of plasma leptin.

  4. The verification phase and reliability of physiological parameters in peak testing of elite wheelchair athletes.

    PubMed

    Leicht, Christof A; Tolfrey, Keith; Lenton, John P; Bishop, Nicolette C; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to examine the value of a verification phase (VER) in a peak testing protocol and (2) to assess the reliability of peak physiological variables in wheelchair athletes. On two separate days, eight tetraplegic (TETRA), eight paraplegic (PARA) and eight non-spinal cord-injured (NON-SCI) athletes performed treadmill ergometry, consisting of a graded exercise test to exhaustion (GXT) followed by a VER. Peak oxygen uptake (.VO2peak) was compared (1) between GXT and VER and (2) between test days. .VO2peak did not differ between GXT and VER (P = 0.27), and coefficients of variation between GXT and VER were in the range of 2.9 and 6.4 % for all subgroups. Coefficients of variation of .VO2peak between test days were 9.3 % (TETRA), 4.5 % (PARA) and 3.3 % (NON-SCI). It is therefore concluded that whilst a VER can be used for a more robust determination of .VO2peak, a deviation of up to ~6 % between GXT and VER should be considered as acceptable. For between-day analyses, relatively large changes in .VO2peak are required to confirm "true" differences, especially in TETRA athletes. This may be due to their lower aerobic capacity, which results in a larger relative variation compared with the other subgroups.

  5. A multidisciplinary approach including the use of platelet-rich plasma to treat an elite athlete with patellar tendinopathy – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Tracy L.; Drouin, Jillian L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Patellar tendinopathy affects a substantial proportion of athletes involved in jumping or kicking activities. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) injections may be a promising treatment used in conjunction with common traditional therapies. Clinical Features: Patellar tendinopathy is often the result of repetitive or excessive overload on the patellar tendon. Activity modification, cryotherapy, eccentric exercises, shockwave therapy, and PRP have been indicated as treatment options during various stages of this condition. Intervention and Outcome: A 23 year old female, elite track and field athlete was managed for patellar tendinopathy with a combination of traditional therapeutic interventions as well as a PRP injection. This athlete returned to pre-injury level of competition six months post-injection. Conclusion: Emerging literature on PRP appears to be promising for patellar tendinopathy, however, it remains unclear which patients may benefit most and whether the stage of the disorder has an impact on the clinical outcome. PMID:24302777

  6. Comparative Kinematic Analysis of the Snatch Lifts in Elite Male Adolescent Weightlifters

    PubMed Central

    Harbili, Erbil; Alptekin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the linear kinematics of the barbell and the angular kinematics of the lower limb during the snatch lifts of two different barbell weights in elite male adolescent weightlifters. In the national team level, nine elite male adolescent weightlifters participated in the study. The snatch lifts were recorded by two video cameras under competitive conditions in preparation period before the European Junior Championship (Sony MiniDv PAL- 50 field/s) and the two heaviest successful lifts were selected for kinematic analysis. The little toe, ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder on the body and one point on the barbell were digitized using Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS, San Diego, CA, USA). Significant decreases were found in the maximum barbell height, the relative power output during the second pull, and the maximum vertical velocity of the barbell during the second pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05). Maximum extension velocity of the hip joint significantly increased during the first pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05). As the mass of the barbell increased, the maximum vertical velocity and the maximum height of the barbell and relative power output during the second pull decreased in the heaviest lift performed by adolescent weightlifters. Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters. Key points The results demonstrate that the maximum strength of the extensor muscles of the hip during the first pull and their explosive strength during the second pull must be improved. Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters. PMID:24790499

  7. Hormonal Neuroendocrine and Vasoconstrictor Peptide Responses of Ball Game and Cyclic Sport Elite Athletes by Treadmill Test

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to evaluate complex hormonal response in ball game and cyclic sport elite athletes through an incremental treadmill test, since, so far, variables in experimental procedures have often hampered comparisons of data. Methods We determined anthropometric data, heart rate, maximal oxygen uptake, workload, plasma levels of lactate, adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, cortisol, angiontensinogen and endothelin in control (n = 6), soccer (n = 8), handball (n = 12), kayaking (n = 9) and triathlon (n = 9) groups based on a Bruce protocol through a maximal exercise type of spiroergometric test. Results We obtained significant increases for adrenaline, 2.9- and 3.9-fold by comparing the normalized means for soccer players and kayakers and soccer players and triathletes after/before test, respectively. For noradrenaline, we observed an even stronger, three-time significant difference between each type of ball game and cyclic sport activity. Conclusions Exercise related adrenaline and noradrenaline changes were more pronounced than dopamine plasma level changes and revealed an opportunity to differentiate cyclic and ball game activities and control group upon these parameters. Normalization of concentration ratios of the monitored compounds by the corresponding maximal oxygen uptake reflected better the differences in the response level of adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine and cortisol. PMID:26717409

  8. Functional anatomy and muscle moment arms of the pelvic limb of an elite sprinting athlete: the racing greyhound (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, S B; Wilson, A M; Rhodes, L; Andrews, J; Payne, R C

    2008-01-01

    We provide quantitative anatomical data on the muscle–tendon architecture and geometry of the pelvic limb of an elite sprint athlete, the racing greyhound. Specifically, muscle masses, muscle lengths, fascicle lengths, pennation angles and muscle moment arms were measured. Maximum isometric force and power of muscles, the maximum muscle torque at joints and tendon stress and strain were estimated. We compare data with that published for a generalized breed of canid, and other cursorial mammals such as the horse and hare. The pelvic limb of the racing greyhound had a relatively large volume of hip extensor muscle, which is likely to be required for power production. Per unit body mass, some pelvic limb muscles were relatively larger than those in less specialized canines, and many hip extensor muscles had longer fascicle lengths. It was estimated that substantial extensor moments could be created about the tarsus and hip of the greyhound allowing high power output and potential for rapid acceleration. The racing greyhound hence possesses substantial specializations for enhanced sprint performance. PMID:18657259

  9. Functional anatomy and muscle moment arms of the pelvic limb of an elite sprinting athlete: the racing greyhound (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Williams, S B; Wilson, A M; Rhodes, L; Andrews, J; Payne, R C

    2008-10-01

    We provide quantitative anatomical data on the muscle-tendon architecture and geometry of the pelvic limb of an elite sprint athlete, the racing greyhound. Specifically, muscle masses, muscle lengths, fascicle lengths, pennation angles and muscle moment arms were measured. Maximum isometric force and power of muscles, the maximum muscle torque at joints and tendon stress and strain were estimated. We compare data with that published for a generalized breed of canid, and other cursorial mammals such as the horse and hare. The pelvic limb of the racing greyhound had a relatively large volume of hip extensor muscle, which is likely to be required for power production. Per unit body mass, some pelvic limb muscles were relatively larger than those in less specialized canines, and many hip extensor muscles had longer fascicle lengths. It was estimated that substantial extensor moments could be created about the tarsus and hip of the greyhound allowing high power output and potential for rapid acceleration. The racing greyhound hence possesses substantial specializations for enhanced sprint performance.

  10. Can clinicians and scientists explain and prevent unexplained underperformance syndrome in elite athletes: an interdisciplinary perspective and 2016 update

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Nathan A; Collins, Dave; Pedlar, Charles R; Rogers, John P

    2015-01-01

    The coach and interdisciplinary sports science and medicine team strive to continually progress the athlete's performance year on year. In structuring training programmes, coaches and scientists plan distinct periods of progressive overload coupled with recovery for anticipated performances to be delivered on fixed dates of competition in the calendar year. Peaking at major championships is a challenge, and training capacity highly individualised, with fine margins between the training dose necessary for adaptation and that which elicits maladaptation at the elite level. As such, optimising adaptation is key to effective preparation. Notably, however, many factors (eg, health, nutrition, sleep, training experience, psychosocial factors) play an essential part in moderating the processes of adaptation to exercise and environmental stressors, for example, heat, altitude; processes which can often fail or be limited. In the UK, the term unexplained underperformance syndrome (UUPS) has been adopted, in contrast to the more commonly referenced term overtraining syndrome, to describe a significant episode of underperformance with persistent fatigue, that is, maladaptation. This construct, UUPS, reflects the complexity of the syndrome, the multifactorial aetiology, and that ‘overtraining’ or an imbalance between training load and recovery may not be the primary cause for underperformance. UUPS draws on the distinction that a decline in performance represents the universal feature. In our review, we provide a practitioner-focused perspective, proposing that causative factors can be identified and UUPS explained, through an interdisciplinary approach (ie, medicine, nutrition, physiology, psychology) to sports science and medicine delivery, monitoring, and data interpretation and analysis. PMID:27900140

  11. The effects of verbal encouragement and conscientiousness on maximal voluntary contraction of the triceps surae muscle in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Binboğa, Erdal; Tok, Serdar; Catikkas, Fatih; Guven, Senol; Dane, Senol

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of verbal encouragement on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) level of the triceps surae muscle group. Our secondary focus was to examine whether the effect of verbal encouragement on MVC level varies as a result of conscientiousness. While the participants performed plantar flexion, MVCs of the triceps surae muscle group were measured using rectified and smoothed surface electromyography (rsEMG) during the absence and presence of verbal encouragement. Participants completed questions from the Five Factor Personality Inventory concerning conscientiousness and were divided into high- and low-conscientiousness groups according to a median split. The sample included 30 female and 53 male elite athletes. In the entire cohort, there was no significant difference in MVCs with and without verbal encouragement. When the sample was partitioned by conscientiousness scores, verbal encouragement led to a significant increase in MVC in the low-conscientiousness group, whereas verbal encouragement led to a non-significant decrease in MVC in the high-conscientiousness group. Percentage change in MVC across experimental conditions was significantly different between the groups, with a 9.72% increase during verbal encouragement of the low-conscientiousness group, and a 2.47% decrease during verbal encouragement of the high-conscientiousness group.

  12. Eating attitudes and behaviours in elite Canadian athletes with a spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Krempien, Jennifer Luella; Barr, Susan Irene

    2012-01-01

    Athletes with a spinal cord injury (SCI) appear to have relatively modest energy requirements despite demanding training regimes. Virtually nothing is known about the factors which influence the energy intake of those with a SCI including food related attitudes and behaviours. Using a cross-sectional observational design, three aspects of eating attitudes were measured using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) along with six days of self-reported dietary intake and anthropometrics. Between March 2007 and May 2009, a total of 32 Canadian athletes with a SCI (n=24 men, n=8 women) completed the study. The TFEQ scales showed a cognitive dietary restraint score of 10.8±4.7, disinhibition score of 2.8±1.8 and hunger score of 3.1±2.2. When the group was split into high and low restraint groups using a median of 11.5, no differences were detected in any of the absolute parameters of reported dietary intake although the higher restraint group had protein intakes account for a greater proportion of total energy. Those with higher restraint scores also had a relatively higher disinhibition score. While the cognitive dietary restraint scores for the women were similar to other able-bodied populations, the scores for men were higher than population norms from other studies. The scores for disinhibition and hunger were lower than reported ranges from able-bodied subjects. These athletes may be actively monitoring or limiting dietary intake to avoid the high prevalence of obesity associated with a SCI or perhaps to maintain an ideal body composition for their sport performance.

  13. The training intensity distribution among well-trained and elite endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Sperlich, Billy

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have retrospectively analyzed the training intensity distribution (TID) of nationally and internationally competitive athletes in different endurance disciplines to determine the optimal volume and intensity for maximal adaptation. The majority of studies present a “pyramidal” TID with a high proportion of high volume, low intensity training (HVLIT). Some world-class athletes appear to adopt a so-called “polarized” TID (i.e., significant % of HVLIT and high-intensity training) during certain phases of the season. However, emerging prospective randomized controlled studies have demonstrated superior responses of variables related to endurance when applying a polarized TID in well-trained and recreational individuals when compared with a TID that emphasizes HVLIT or threshold training. The aims of the present review are to: (1) summarize the main responses of retrospective and prospective studies exploring TID; (2) provide a systematic overview on TIDs during preparation, pre-competition, and competition phases in different endurance disciplines and performance levels; (3) address whether one TID has demonstrated greater efficacy than another; and (4) highlight research gaps in an effort to direct future scientific studies. PMID:26578968

  14. Prediction of Sport Adherence Through the Influence of Autonomy-Supportive Coaching Among Spanish Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Bartolomé J.; Sáenz-López, Pedro; Moreno, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model of the coach-athlete relationship, based on self-determination theory and on the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The sample comprised of 608 athletes (ages of 12-17 years) completed the following measures: interest in athlete's input, praise for autonomous behavior, perceived autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and the intention to be physically active. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Finally, intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Further, the results provide information related to the possible objectives of future interventions for the education of coaches, with the goal of providing them with tools and strategies to favor the development of intrinsic motivation among their athletes. In conclusion, the climate of autonomy support created by the coach can predict the autonomy perceived by the athletes which predicts the intrinsic motivation experienced by the athletes, and therefore, their adherence to athletic practice. Key points Importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. PMID:24149380

  15. ACL Injury, Return To Play And Reinjury In The Elite, Collegiate Athlete: An Analysis Of A Single, Division I NCAA Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Ganesh V.; Murphy, Timothy; Creighton, Robert A.; Taft, Timothy N.; Spang, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Graft survivorship, reinjury rates, and career length are poorly understood after ACL reconstruction in the elite, NCAA Division-I athlete. The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes of ACL reconstruction in a Division-I athlete cohort. Methods: Retrospective chart review was performed of all Division-I athletes at a single, public university from 2000 to 2009 until completion of eligibility. Athletes with a Pre-collegiate (PC) and Intra-collegiate (IC) ACL reconstruction were separated into two cohorts. Graft survivorship, reoperation rates, and career length information was collected. Results: 35 athletes were identified with a pre-collegiate (PC) ACL reconstruction; 60 with an intra-collegiate (IC) reconstruction. The PC group had a 17.1% injury rate to the original graft, with a 20.0% rate of contralateral ACL injury. For the IC group, the reinjury rates were 1.9% to the ACL graft, with a 9.2% rate of contralateral ACL injury after an IntraCollegiate ACL reconstruction. The PC group used 78% of their total eligibility (avg 3.11 yrs). Athletes in the IC group used an average of 77% of their remaining NCAA eligibility. 88.3% of the IC group played an additional non-redshirt year after their injury. Reoperation rate for the PC group was 51.4% and 20.3% for the IC group. Conclusion: Reoperation and reinjury rates are high after ACL reconstruction in the Division-I athlete. Pre-collegiate ACL reconstruction is associated with a very high rate of repeat ACL reinjury to the graft or opposite knee (37.1%). The majority of athletes are able to return to play after successful reconstruction.

  16. An Examination of the Dual Model of Perfectionism and Adolescent Athlete Burnout: A Short-Term Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Lung Hung; Kee, Ying Hwa; Tsai, Ying-Mei

    2009-01-01

    The dual model of perfectionism (Slade and Owens, Behav Modificat 22(3):372-390, 1998) is adopted to examine the influence of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism on adolescent athlete burnout in Taiwan. Participants were 188 high school adolescent student-athletes (M = 16.48, SD = 0.59). They were administered the Multidimensional Inventory of…

  17. Eight-Week Training Cessation Suppresses Physiological Stress but Rapidly Impairs Health Metabolic Profiles and Aerobic Capacity in Elite Taekwondo Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Sung, Yu-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Changes in an athlete’s physiological and health metabolic profiles after detraining have not been studied in elite Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. To enable a better understanding of these physiological changes to training cessation, this study examined the effects of 8-weeks detraining on the aerobic capacity, body composition, inflammatory status and health metabolic profile in elite TKD athletes. Sixteen elite TKD athletes (age: 21.0 ± 0.8 yrs, BMI: 22.4 ± 3.9 kg/m2; Mean ± SD; 11 males and 5 females) participated in this study. Physical activity level assessment using computerized physical activity logs was performed during the competitive preparation season (i.e. one-week before national competition) and at two week intervals throughout the detraining period. Participant aerobic capacity, body fat, and blood biomarkers were measured before and after detraining, and the blood biomarker analyses included leukocyte subpopulations, blood glucose, insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), and cortisol. Eight-week detraining increased DHEA-S/cortisol ratio (+57.3%, p = 0.004), increased insulin/cortisol ratio (+59.9%, p = 0.004), reduced aerobic power (–2.43%, p = 0.043), increased body fat accumulation (body fat%: +21.3%, p < 0.001), decreased muscle mass (muscle mass%: –4.04%, p < 0.001), and elevated HOMA-IR (the biomarker of systemic insulin resistance; +34.2%, p = 0.006). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a systemic inflammatory index, increased by 48.2% (p = 0.005). The change in aerobic capacity was correlated with the increased fat mass (r = –0.429, p = 0.049) but not with muscle loss. An increase in the NLR was correlated to the changes in HOMA-IR (r = 0.44, p = 0.044) and aerobic capacity (r = –0.439, p = 0.045). We demonstrate that 8-week detraining suppresses physiological stress but rapidly results in declines in athletic performance and health metabolic profiles, including reduced aerobic capacity, increased body fat, muscle

  18. POPLITEUS STRAIN WITH CONCURRENT DELTOID LIGAMENT SPRAIN IN AN ELITE SOCCER ATHLETE: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Josh; Tarnay, Lorena; Silvers, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Study Design: Case Report (Differential diagnosis) Background and Purpose: Differential diagnosis of knee pathology after trauma may be difficult when diagnosing an isolated popliteus strain and concurrent medial deltoid ligament sprain. Upon a thorough search of the published literature, the authors found no reports delineating a popliteus strain in professional soccer in the United States. The joints most affected by injury in soccer players are the knee and ankle joints. The purpose of this case report is to describe the presentation of and difficulties encountered in diagnosing a popliteus strain in a Major League Soccer athlete. Case Description: During an in-season away game, an outside defender was slide-tackled from behind when his right shank was caught in an externally rotated position underneath himself and the opposing player. The initial point of contact was made to the proximal third of the posterior right shank with an anteromedially directed force. The medial longitudinal arch of the foot was forced into a more midfoot pronated position and the subtalar joint was forced into eversion. Diagnosis: The athlete was diagnosed with a moderate strain of the right popliteus muscle with a concurrent medial deltoid ligament sprain of the right ankle. This mechanism of injury, pain with passive knee flexion and internal rotation during McMurray's test, pain with Garrick's Test and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study confirmed the diagnosis. The athlete returned to full ninety-minute game participation after an intensive 15-day rehabilitation program. Discussion: This case is unique because the injury manifested itself at multiple joints and specifically involved the popliteus muscle. The mechanism of injury can be associated with many other soft tissue injuries to the knee, and thus, may not lead the clinician initially to consider the diagnosis of a popliteus strain. Diagnosis of this entity may be difficult due to the possible shared attachment of the

  19. Relation of motivational climate and fear of failure in Taiwanese adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-04-01

    In this study, the relationship between motivational climate and fear of failure in sport was examined. 176 adolescent athletes were recruited (M = 16.3 yr., SD = 1.3). Athletes completed the Chinese Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire and the Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory. Results indicated a performance climate was positively related to the fear of failure, while a mastery climate was not.

  20. Decision making in elite white-water athletes paddling on a kayak ergometer.

    PubMed

    Davranche, Karen; Paleresompoulle, Danny; Pernaud, Rémy; Labarelle, Julie; Hasbroucq, Thierry

    2009-08-01

    The present study investigated the effects of acute paddling on performance in a typical decision-making task. It was aimed at assessing whether the effects of moderate exercise can be replicated using the feet as response effectors when physical exercise essentially solicits upper-body muscles. Twelve national-level paddling athletes performed a Simon task while paddling at a moderate (75% of maximal heart rate, HRmax) and at very light (40% of HR(max)) intensities. The results showed that the effects of moderate exercise can be generalized to exercises involving different response effectors and upper-body muscle groups. They suggest (1) that the activation-suppression hypothesis (Ridderinkhof, 2002) holds when the task is performed with the feet, and (2) that moderate exercise speeds up reaction time and impairs the suppression of direct response activation.

  1. Thai Adolescents' Normative Beliefs of the Popularity of Smoking among Peers, Adults, the Successful and Elite, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Sloan, Arielle; Kironde, Jennifer; West, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions of Thailand adolescents regarding the prevalence of smoking, the popularity of smoking among successful/elite elements of society, and disapproval of smoking by friends and parents. These perceptions were analyzed in conjunction with actual smoking and smoking susceptibility rates among the…

  2. Prevalence, age at onset, and risk factors of self-reported asthma among Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, L M; Irewall, T; Lindberg, Anne; Stenfors, Nikolai

    2017-03-17

    The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and age at asthma onset between Swedish adolescent elite skiers and a reference group and to assess risk factors associated with asthma. Postal questionnaires were sent to 253 pupils at the Swedish National Elite Sport Schools for cross-country skiing, biathlon, and ski-orienteering ("skiers") and a random sample of 500 adolescents aged 16-20, matched for sport school municipalities ("reference"). The response rate was 96% among the skiers and 48% in the reference group. The proportion of participants with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma was higher among skiers than in the reference group (27 vs. 19%, p = 0.046). Female skiers reported a higher prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma compared to male skiers (34 vs. 20%, p = 0.021). The median age at asthma onset was higher among skiers (12.0 vs. 8.0 years; p < 0.001). Female sex, family history of asthma, nasal allergy, and being a skier were risk factors associated with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers have a higher asthma prevalence and later age at asthma onset compared to a reference population. Being an adolescent elite skier is an independent risk factor associated with asthma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Cervical muscle strength measurement in two groups of elite Greco-Roman and free style wrestlers and a group of non-athletic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Rezasoltani, A; Ahmadi, A; Nehzate-Khoshroh, M; Forohideh, F; Ylinen, J; Malkia, E

    2005-01-01

    Background: Free style and Greco-Roman are two types of wrestling. Methods: Fourteen elite Greco-Roman wrestlers (aged 19–25 years), 16 elite free style wrestlers (aged 18–25 years), and 16 non-athletic subjects (aged 18–25 years) participated in this study. All wrestlers competed at international level with the Iranian national team. Maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) of cervical extensor and flexor muscles were measured using a custom made device. The ratios of ISCE to weight (ISCE/weight), ISCF to weight (ISCF/weight), and ISCF to ISCE (ISCF/ISCE) were calculated for group comparisons. Pearson product moment test was used to estimate correlation between maximal isometric strength measurements and anthropometric variables. A one way analysis of variance was computed to compare ISCE/weight, ISCF/weight, and ISCF/ISCE among groups. Results: There was significant correlation between maximum cervical extension and flexion strengths and weight in all groups (p<0.05, n = 46). The ratios of cervical muscle strengths to weight were significantly higher in wrestlers than in non-athletic subjects (p<0.00). Greco-Roman wrestlers appeared to be stronger than free style wrestlers following comparison of all ratios. Conclusions: Neck muscle force measurements may be a useful test for athletes in combat sports like wrestling. They can be applied to identify the weakness of a group of muscles in the neck area and to devise a proper training program. PMID:15976167

  4. Modelling the relationships between training, anxiety, and fatigue in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Millet, G P; Groslambert, A; Barbier, B; Rouillon, J D; Candau, R B

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 40-week training on anxiety and perceived fatigue in four elite triathletes. Anxiety and perceived fatigue were self-reported by the subjects twice a week by the way of a specific questionnaire and were linked by a mathematical model to the training loads calculated from the exercise heart rate. A significant relationship (r=0.32; p<0.001) between the training loads and anxiety was identified using a two-component model: a first, negative (i.e., anxiety decreased) short-term (tau (1)=23 days) function and a second, positive long-term (tau (2)=59 days) function. The relationship between the training loads and perceived fatigue was significant (r=0.30; p<0.001), with one negative function (tau (1)=4 days). This mathematical model can potentially describe the relationships between training loads and anxiety or perceived fatigue and may improve both the adjustment of the duration of tapering and the early detection of staleness.

  5. Leaving the professional tennis circuit: exploratory study of experiences and reactions from elite female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Young, J A; Pearce, A J; Kane, R; Pain, M

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, Tennis Australia commissioned a report into the experiences of elite female past players on leaving the professional tennis circuit. Australian players who were in the top 800 of the Women's Tennis Association (WTA) end of year rankings and who had left the professional circuit within the previous 15 years were asked by mail to respond to a questionnaire. The questionnaire asked players to describe their feelings about leaving the tour during the time leading up to leaving the tour to two years after retirement. The main findings of the study suggested that those who planned to leave the tour found the transition process easy, whereas those who did not plan to leave the tour found the process difficult. Most players (66%) did not regret leaving the tour, and, although the remaining players responded that they regretted leaving, none attempted a comeback. Tennis Australia has implemented strategies to assist current players on the professional tour based on the results of this study. PMID:16632584

  6. Dietary acid-base balance in adolescent sprint athletes: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Deriemaeker, Peter; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Clarys, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Sprinters are advised to include additional protein sources in their diet. Basal metabolism and vigorous physical activities generate hydrogen ions that need to be buffered. The present follow-up study estimates the dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) in adolescent sprint athletes. Seven-day food diaries and anthropometrics of 60 adolescent sprint athletes (mean age at start 14.7 ± 1.9 years) were collected every six months over a three year period. Comparisons were made between athletes with a negative (PRAL(-)) versus positive PRAL (PRAL(+)). For the entire sample, mean PRAL values of up to 6 mEq/day were slightly positive despite a relatively high protein intake of around 1.5 g/kg. The NEAP ranging between 42 and 46 mEq/day remained stable during the study period. Athletes with a PRAL(-) (-8 to -10 mEq/day) consumed significantly more fruit and fruit juice than athletes with a PRAL(+) (+9 to 14 mEq/day). Athletes with a PRAL(+) did not consume more meat, fish and poultry than athletes with a PRAL(-). Grains and dairy products were only discriminative between the two groups on one measurement occasion. Lowering the PRAL can be obtained by increasing the consumption of potatoes, fruits, vegetables and vegetable soup.

  7. [AUTONOMIC CONTROL OF HEART RATE, BLOOD LACTATE AND ACCELERATION DURING COMBAT SIMULATION IN TAEKWONDO ELITE ATHLETES].

    PubMed

    Cerda-Kohler, Hugo; Aguayo Fuentealba, Juan Carlos; Francino Barrera, Giovanni; Guajardo-Sandoval, Adrián; Jorquera Aguilera, Carlos; Báez-San Martín, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    Propósito: el objetivo del estudio fue determinar la frecuencia cardiaca de recuperación (FCR), lactato sanguíneo y aceleración pico (ACCp) durante un combate simulado de atletas de taekwondo de elite. Métodos: doce (n = 12) sujetos varones, seleccionados nacionales y con más de cinco años de práctica en esta disciplina participaron en el estudio. Los atletas realizaron un combate simulado de tres asaltos de dos minutos con un minuto de pausa entre ellos, evaluando los siguientes parámetros: (¡) lactato sanguíneo al final de cada minuto de descanso entre asaltos; (¡¡) FCR a los treinta y sesenta segundos en cada minuto de descanso; (¡¡¡) ACCp en cada asalto disputado. El nivel de significancia se propuso a un valor de p < 0,05. Resultados: los resultados muestran que no hubo diferencias significativas entre ganadores y perdedores en la FCR (p > 0,05) a los treinta y sesenta segundos en ninguna de las pausas, en el delta de lactato sanguíneo al final de cada pausa (p > 0,05), en la aceleración pico por round (p > 0,05) y en la aceleración promedio del combate (p = 0,18). Tampoco se encontraron correlaciones entre delta de lactato y FCR (r = -0,23; p = 0,18), entre delta de lactato y ACCp (r = 0,01; p = 0,93), y entre ACCp y FCR (r = 0,003; p = 0,98). Conclusiones: los datos sugieren que las variables estudiadas no serían determinantes en el resultado final de un combate simulado. Otros factores, como variables técnico/tácticas o psicológicas, podrían influir de manera significativa en el rendimiento deportivo.

  8. Poor precompetitive sleep habits, nutrients' deficiencies, inappropriate body composition and athletic performance in elite gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Silva, M-R G; Paiva, T

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate body composition, sleep, precompetitive anxiety and dietary intake on the elite female gymnasts' performance prior to an international competition. Sixty-seven rhythmic gymnasts of high performance level were evaluated in relation to sport and training practice, body composition, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), sleep quality by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), precompetitive anxiety by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test form A (SCAT-A) and detailed dietary intake just before an international competition. Most gymnasts (67.2%) suffered from mild daytime sleepiness, 77.6% presented poor sleep quality and 19.4% presented high levels of precompetitive anxiety. The majority of gymnasts reported low energy availability (EA) and low intakes of important vitamins including folate, vitamins D, E and K; and minerals, including calcium, iron, boron and magnesium (p < .05). Gymnasts' performance was positively correlated with age (p = .001), sport practice (p = .024), number of daily training hours (p = .000), number of hours of training/week (p = .000), waist circumference (WC) (p = .008) and sleep duration (p = .005). However, it was negatively correlated with WC/hip circumference (p = .000), ESS (p = .000), PSQI (p = .042), SCAT-A (p = .002), protein g/kg (p = .028), EA (p = .002) and exercise energy expenditure (p = .000). High performance gymnasts presented poor sleep habits with consequences upon daytime sleepiness, sleep quality and low energy availability.

  9. The Landing Error Scoring System as a Screening Tool for an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury–Prevention Program in Elite-Youth Soccer Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Padua, Darin A.; DiStefano, Lindsay J.; Beutler, Anthony I.; de la Motte, Sarah J.; DiStefano, Michael J.; Marshall, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Context Identifying neuromuscular screening factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a critical step toward large-scale deployment of effective ACL injury-prevention programs. The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) is a valid and reliable clinical assessment of jump-landing biomechanics. Objective To investigate the ability of the LESS to identify individuals at risk for ACL injury in an elite-youth soccer population. Design Cohort study. Setting Field-based functional movement screening performed at soccer practice facilities. Patients or Other Participants A total of 829 elite-youth soccer athletes (348 boys, 481 girls; age = 13.9 ± 1.8 years, age range = 11 to 18 years), of whom 25% (n = 207) were less than 13 years of age. Intervention(s) Baseline preseason testing for all participants consisted of a jump-landing task (3 trials). Participants were followed prospectively throughout their soccer seasons for diagnosis of ACL injuries (1217 athlete-seasons of follow-up). Main Outcome Measure(s) Landings were scored for “errors” in technique using the LESS. We used receiver operator characteristic curves to determine a cutpoint on the LESS. Sensitivity and specificity of the LESS in predicting ACL injury were assessed. Results Seven participants sustained ACL injuries during the follow-up period; the mechanism of injury was noncontact or indirect contact for all injuries. Uninjured participants had lower LESS scores (4.43 ± 1.71) than injured participants (6.24 ± 1.75; t1215 = −2.784, P = .005). The receiver operator characteristic curve analyses suggested that 5 was the optimal cutpoint for the LESS, generating a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 64%. Conclusions Despite sample-size limitations, the LESS showed potential as a screening tool to determine ACL injury risk in elite-youth soccer athletes. PMID:25811846

  10. The Neuromuscular, Biochemical, and Endocrine Responses to a Single-Session Vs. Double-Session Training Day in Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Michael J; Cook, Christian J; Drake, David; Costley, Lisa; Johnston, Julie P; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-11-01

    Johnston, MJ, Cook, CJ, Drake, D, Costley, L, Johnston, JP, and Kilduff, LP. The neuromuscular, biochemical, and endocrine responses to a single-session vs. double-session training day in elite athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3098-3106, 2016-The aim of this study was to compare the acute neuromuscular, biochemical, and endocrine responses of a training day consisting of a speed session only with performing a speed-and-weights training session on the same day. Fifteen men who were academy-level rugby players completed 2 protocols in a randomized order. The speed-only protocol involved performing 6 maximal effort repetitions of 50-m running sprints with 5 minutes of recovery between each sprint, whereas the speed-and-weights protocol involved the same sprinting session but was followed 2 hours later by a lower-body weights session consisting of 4 sets of 5 backsquats and Romanian deadlift at 85% one repetition maximum. Testosterone, cortisol, creatine kinase, lactate, and perceived muscle soreness were determined immediately before, immediately after, 2 hours after, and 24 hours after both the protocols. Peak power, relative peak power, jump height, and average rate of force development were determined from a countermovement jump (CMJ) at the same time points. After 24-hours, muscle soreness was significantly higher after the speed-and-weights protocol compared with the speed-only protocol (effect size η = 0.253, F = 4.750, p ≤ 0.05). There was no significant difference between any of the CMJ variables at any of the posttraining time points. Likewise, creatine kinase, testosterone, and cortisol were unaffected by the addition of a weight-training session. These data indicate that the addition of a weight-training session 2 hours after a speed session, whereas increasing the perception of fatigue the next day does not result in a difference in endocrine response or in neuromuscular capability.

  11. An accelerometer-based system for elite athlete swimming performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Neil P.; Anderson, Megan E.; James, Daniel A.

    2005-02-01

    The measurement of sport specific performance characteristics is an important part of an athletes training and preparation for competition. Thus automated measurement, extraction and analysis of performance measures is desired and addressed in this paper. A tri-axial accelerometer based system was located on the lower back or swimmers to record acceleration profiles. The accelerometer system contained two ADXL202 bi-axial accelerometers positioned perpendicular to one another, and can store over 6 hours of data at 150Hz per channel using internal flash memory. The simultaneous collection of video and electronics touch pad timing was used to validate the algorithm results. Using the tri-axial accelerometer data, algorithms have been developed to derive lap times and stroke count. Comparison against electronic touch pad timing against accelerometer lap times has produced results with a typical error of better than +/-0.5 seconds. Video comparison of the stroke count algorithm for freestyle also produced results with an average error of +/-1 stroke. The developed algorithms have a higher level of reliability compared to hand timed and counted date that is commonly used during training.

  12. A Unique Patient Population? Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Athletes Versus General, Healthy Adolescent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kenneth C.; Valier, Alison R. Snyder; Bay, R. Curtis; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2013-01-01

    Context: Normative scores for patient-rated outcome (PRO) instruments are important for providing patient-centered, whole-person care and making informed clinical decisions. Although normative values for the Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Scale (PedsQL) have been established in the general, healthy adolescent population, whether adolescent athletes demonstrate similar values is unclear. Objective: To compare PedsQL scores between adolescent athletes and general, healthy adolescent individuals. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Secondary schools. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of 2659 interscholastic athletes (males = 2059, females = 600, age = 15.7 ± 1.1 years) represented the athlete group (ATH), and a previously published normative dataset represented the general, healthy adolescent group (GEN). Intervention(s): All participants completed the PedsQL during 1 testing session. Main Outcome Measure(s): The PedsQL consists of 2 summary scores (total, psychosocial) and 4 subscale scores (physical, emotional, social, school), with higher scores indicating better health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Groups were stratified by age (14, 15, or 16 years old). Independent-samples t tests were conducted to compare between-groups and sex differences. Results: The ATH group scored higher than the GEN group across all ages for total and psychosocial summary scores and for emotional and social functioning subscale scores (P ≤ .005). For physical functioning, scores of the 15-year-old ATH were higher than for their GEN counterparts (P = .001). Both 14- and 15-year-old ATH scored higher than their GEN counterparts for the school functioning subscale (P ≤ .013), but differences between 16-year olds were not significant (P = .228). Male adolescent athletes reported higher scores than female adolescent athletes across all scores (P ≤ .001) except for social functioning (P = .229). Conclusions: Adolescent athletes reported better HRQOL than

  13. Comparison of nutritional intake in US adolescent swimmers and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andy C; Ward, Kenneth D; Mirza, Bridget; Slawson, Deborah L; McClanahan, Barbara S; Vukadinovich, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    Swimming is a very popular sport among adolescents in the US. Little is known about the diet of competitive adolescent swimmers in the US but data from other countries indicate several inadequacies, including excessive intake of fat and lower than recommended intake of carbohydrate and several micronutrients that may affect athletic performance and bone accrual. We assessed usual diet, using a food frequency questionnaire and calcium checklist, among 191 adolescent males and females [91 swimmers (mean 13.7, s = 2.5 years) and 100 non-athletes (mean 14.4, s = 2.8 years)]. For both males and females, swimmers and non-athletes generally had similar average intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients, including higher than recommended amounts of total fat (36%) and saturated fat (12%), and inadequate amounts of calcium, vitamin D, and daily servings of fruits, vegetables, grains, and dairy products. This first study of nutritional intake among adolescent swimmers in the US suggests that dietary habits of adolescents who swim competitively may jeopardize optimal athletic performance and place them at risk for future chronic diseases, including osteoporosis.

  14. Comparison of nutritional intake in US adolescent swimmers and non-athletes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andy C.; Ward, Kenneth D.; Mirza, Bridget; Slawson, Deborah L.; McClanahan, Barbara S.; Vukadinovich, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Swimming is a very popular sport among adolescents in the US. Little is known about the diet of competitive adolescent swimmers in the US but data from other countries indicate several inadequacies, including excessive intake of fat and lower than recommended intake of carbohydrate and several micronutrients that may affect athletic performance and bone accrual. We assessed usual diet, using a food frequency questionnaire and calcium checklist, among 191 adolescent males and females [91 swimmers (mean 13.7, s = 2.5 years) and 100 non-athletes (mean 14.4, s = 2.8 years)]. For both males and females, swimmers and non-athletes generally had similar average intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients, including higher than recommended amounts of total fat (36%) and saturated fat (12%), and inadequate amounts of calcium, vitamin D, and daily servings of fruits, vegetables, grains, and dairy products. This first study of nutritional intake among adolescent swimmers in the US suggests that dietary habits of adolescents who swim competitively may jeopardize optimal athletic performance and place them at risk for future chronic diseases, including osteoporosis. PMID:27672430

  15. Monitoring internal load parameters during competitive synchronized swimming duet routines in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara; Iglesias, Xavier; Barrero, Anna; Torres, Lorena; Chaverri, Diego; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study is to compare the heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) responses as internal load indicators while performing duet routines during training and competition, both in the technical and free programs of synchronized swimming (SS). Participants were 10 SS Olympic medalists (age, 17.4 ± 3.0 years; height, 164.0 ± 6.1 cm; body mass, 52.0 ± 6.4 kg; training, 36.3 ± 6.2 h·wk; experience, 9.2 ± 2.6 years). They were monitored while performing the same technical duet or free duet, during a training session (T) and during an official competition (C). Heart rate was continuously monitored. Rate of perceived exertion was assessed using the Borg CR10 scale. Heart rate responses during T and C were almost identical: pre-exercise mean HR (b·min) was 130.5 ± 13.9 (T) and 133.6 ± 7.7 (C) and quickly increased yielding mean peak values of 184.8 ± 5.8 (T) and 184.8 ± 6.6 (C), with interspersed bradycardic events down to 86.6 ± 4 (T) and 86.3 ± 5 (C). Routines were perceived as "hard" to "extremely hard" by the swimmers in both conditions, and mean RPE scores (0-10+) were equally high during C (7.9 ± 1.2) and T (7.5 ± 1.2) (p = 0.223). Rate of perceived exertion inversely correlated with minimum (R = -0.545; p = 0.008) and mean HR (R = -0.452; p = 0.026) and positively correlated with HRrange (R = 0.520; p = 0.011). The internal load imposed by SS duets performed during training is virtually identical to that elicited in a real competitive situation. Therefore, practicing competitive routines is suitable for developing and maintaining the cardiovascular fitness that is needed for specific conditioning in elite synchronized swimmers, with the added value of favoring exercise automaticity, interindividual coordination, and artistic expression simultaneously.

  16. Hematological, oxidative stress, and immune status profiling in elite combat sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Dopsaj, Violeta; Martinovic, Jelena; Dopsaj, Milivoj; Kasum, Goran; Kotur-Stevuljevic, Jelena; Koropanovski, Nenad

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to profile hematological, oxidative stress, and immunological parameters in male athletes who practiced combat sports and to determine whether the type of combat sport influenced the measured parameters. Eighteen karate professionals, 15 wrestlers, and 14 kickboxers participated in the study. Hematological, iron-related, oxidative stress, and immunological parameters were measured at the beginning of a precompetitive period. The general linear model showed significant differences between the karate professionals, wrestlers, and kickboxers with respect to their hematological and iron status parameters (Wilks' Lambda = 0.270, F = 2.186, p < 0.05) and oxidative stress status (Wilks' Lambda = 0.529, F = 1.940, p < 0.05). The immature reticulocyte fraction was significantly higher in wrestlers (0.30 ± 0.03) compared with kickboxers (0.24 ± 0.04; p < 0.05) and karate professionals (0.26 ± 0.04; p < 0.05). Low hemoglobin density was significantly lower in wrestlers and kickboxers (p < 0.05) compared with karate professionals (karate: 3.51 ± 1.19, wrestlers: 1.95 ± 1.10, and kickboxers: 1.77 ± 0.76). Significant differences were observed between the karate professionals and wrestlers with respect to their pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (437 ± 103 vs. 323 ± 148, p < 0.05) and superoxide-dismutase activity (SOD) (73 ± 37 vs. 103 ± 30, p < 0.05). All the measured parameters (with the exception of SOD activity) fell within their physiological ranges, indicating that the study participants represented a young and healthy male population. Hematological parameters differed between kickboxers and karate professionals. The low pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance and high SOD activity in wrestlers could be associated with the long-term impact of wrestling as a type of strenuous exercise.

  17. Body composition and physical capacity of elite adolescent female tennis players.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Ewa; Sledziewska, Ewelina; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Gibson, Ann L; Wierzba, Tomasz H

    2011-01-01

    The study was performed to evaluate relationships among the major anthropological parameters: (body mass - BM, height, body mass index - BMI, lean body mass - FFM, proportion of fat mass -Fat%), physical capacity, and the tennis federations ranking position as an index of the temporal sport success. Seventeen elite female tennis players, divided into three age-matched groups (15, 16, and 17 yr) participated in this study. All the players had a national singles ranking (positions between 1st-80th) and in International Tennis Federation's Junior Circuit ranking (ITFJC; 21st to 990th position of ITF). Body composition was assessed via bioelectrical impedance. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was calculated from the distance covered in 12-min run test via Cooper's formula. Wingate test with lactate assay was used as an index of anaerobic capacity. There was a significant age-related trend for an increase in BM, height, FFT, and Fat%, associated with impressive shift of the anthropological indexes of body weight and height, assessed by the percentile chart analysis. The unexpected body growth spurt evidently observed between aged 15 and 17 is supposed to reflect a delay in somatic development, related to extensive exercise load. Body composition did not correlate to the ranking positions. All tested tennis players revealed excellent aerobic capacity associated with poor indices of anaerobic fitness. The position in the tennis federations rankings correlated to VO2max but not with maximal power or maximal work output assessed by Wingate test. In the whole group the maximal power and work output were proportional to BMI and FFM, but not to Fat%. In conclusion, in light of the contradictory reports concerning a possible link between strenuous regular exercise performed by young children and adolescent elite sportsmen our data indicate a delayed growth spurt in the elite female tennis players to occur between ages 15 and 17. The other important finding in terms of

  18. Stress fracture and premenstrual syndrome in Japanese adolescent athletes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Imoto, Yoko; Nagasawa, Hiroyo; Takeshita, Atsuko; Shiina, Masami

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between the occurrence of stress fracture and premenstrual syndrome (PMS)/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in Japanese adolescent athletes. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Osaka, Japan. Participants A school-based survey on menstruation and school life was conducted using a sample of 1818 Japanese female students who belonged to two public high schools in Japan. Among them, we recruited 394 athletes who had regular menstrual cycles (25–38 days) and completed a questionnaire about their premenstrual symptoms and their competitive career. Main outcome measure Premenstrual symptoms and the occurrence of stress fracture. Results The prevalences of moderate-to-severe PMS and PMDD were 8.9% and 1.3%, respectively, which were the same as in collegiate athletes in a previous study. Premenstrual symptoms disturbed ‘Work efficiency or productivity, home responsibilities’, ‘Relationships with coworkers or family’ and ‘Athletic performance in training or competition’ more severely than menstrual pain (p=0.031, p=0.004 and p<0.001, respectively). 66 athletes (16.8%) reported having experienced a stress fracture. The severity of ‘Overeating or food cravings’, ‘Physical symptoms’ and ‘Performance in training or competition’ in athletes with previous stress fractures were much higher than in those without a history of stress fractures (p=0.015, p=0.008 and p=0.006, respectively). In terms of premenstrual symptoms, ‘Physical symptoms’ was associated with an increased risk of stress fractures in athletes (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.62). Conclusions The results from this study indicated that premenstrual symptoms may affect athletic performance and has the risk of stress fractures in adolescent athletes. PMID:27798029

  19. Racial/ethnic, gender, and BMI differences in athletic identity in children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in athletic self-concept, a hypothesized mediator of physical activity and sedentary behavior, by gender, racial/ethnic, and overweight status in elementary and middle school children. Children (Grades 4-5, n=936) and adolescents (Grades 7-8, n=1...

  20. Sports and Athletics: Issues for Adolescents with Chronic Illnesses and Disabilities. CYDLINE Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on issues in sports and athletics for adolescents and young adults with chronic illnesses and disabilities. The listings are drawn from the National Resource Library of the National Center for Youth with Disabilities, which includes journals, books, and non-published materials. The section on bibliographic…

  1. The Contribution of Organized Youth Sport to Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutten, Esther A.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Biesta, Gert J. J.; Schuengel, Carlo; Dirks, Evelien; Hoeksma, Jan B.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the contribution of organized youth sport to antisocial and prosocial behavior in adolescent athletes. The sample consisted of N = 260 male and female soccer players and competitive swimmers, 12 to 18 years of age. Multilevel regression analysis revealed that 8% of the variance in antisocial behavior and 7% of the…

  2. Prevalence of Achilles and patellar tendinopathy and their association to intratendinous changes in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Cassel, M; Baur, H; Hirschmüller, A; Carlsohn, A; Fröhlich, K; Mayer, F

    2015-06-01

    Achilles (AT) and patellar tendons (PT) are commonly affected by tendinopathy in adult athletes but prevalence of symptoms and morphological changes in adolescents is unclear. The study aimed to determine prevalence of tendinopathy and intratendinous changes in ATs and PTs of adolescent athletes. A total of 760 adolescent athletes (13.0 ± 1.9 years; 160 ± 13 cm; 50 ± 14 kg) were examined. History, local clinical examination, and longitudinal Doppler ultrasound analysis for both ATs and PTs were performed including identification of intratendinous echoic changes and vascularization. Diagnosis of tendinopathy was complied clinically in case of positive history of tendon pain and tendon pain on palpation. Achilles tendinopathy was diagnosed in 1.8% and patellar tendinopathy in 5.8%. Vascularizations were visible in 3.0% of ATs and 11.4% of PTs, hypoechogenicities in 0.7% and 3.2% as well as hyperechogenicities in 0% and 0.3%, respectively. Vascularizations and hypoechogenicities were statistically significantly more often in males than in females (P ≤ 0.02). Subjects with patellar tendinopathy had higher prevalence of structural intratendinous changes than those without PT symptoms (P ≤ 0.001). In adolescent athletes, patellar tendinopathy is three times more frequent compared with Achilles tendinopathy. Longitudinal studies are necessary to investigate physiological or pathological origin of vascularizations and its predictive value in development of tendinopathy.

  3. Adolescent Siblings' Daily Discussions: Connections to Perceived Academic, Athletic, and Peer Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Winzeler, Abby

    2007-01-01

    First- and second-born adolescent siblings from 21 families completed a daily diary on each of 7 days. The frequency and content of siblings' conversations are described and the relationship between the content of siblings' discussion and their perceived academic, athletic, and peer competency is explored. Siblings most often talked about…

  4. The impact of exercise training on basal BDNF in athletic adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Il

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of exercise training on basal brain-derived neurotrophic factor in athletic adolescents. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two male adolescents participated in this study. The subjects were divided into a control group (n=9) and trained group (n=13). The trained group comprised table tennis athletes with more than 3 years of training who regularly exercised 18 hours per week. [Results] The results of this study show the trained group had significantly lower basal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels than the control group. Further, platelet levels were significantly higher in the trained group than in the control group. However, no significant differences were observed between the groups in serum nerve growth factor level or physical characteristics (body weight, body mass index, fasting blood glucose). [Conclusion] This study showed that the basal brain-derived neurotrophic factor level of well-trained athletic adolescents was lower than that of the control group. Further research with a larger sample size is required to confirm the finding that lower basal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels are associated with long-term habitual exercise in athletic adolescents. PMID:27942121

  5. The mechanics of American football cleats on natural grass and infill-type artificial playing surfaces with loads relevant to elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Kent, Richard; Forman, Jason L; Lessley, David; Crandall, Jeff

    2015-06-01

    This study quantified the mechanical interactions of 19 American football cleats with a natural grass and an infill-type artificial surface under loading conditions designed to represent play-relevant manoeuvres of elite athletes. Variation in peak forces and torques was observed across cleats when tested on natural grass (2.8-4.2 kN in translation, 120-174 Nm in rotation). A significant (p < 0.05) relationship was found between the peak force and torque on natural grass. Almost all of the cleats caused shear failure of the natural surface, which generated a divot following a test. This is a force-limiting cleat release mode. In contrast, all but one of the cleat types held fast in the artificial turf, resulting in force and torque limited by the prescribed input load from the test device (nom. 4.8 kN and 200 Nm). Only one cleat pattern, consisting of small deformable nubs, released on the artificial surface and generated force (3.9 kN) comparable to the range observed with natural grass. These findings (1) should inform the design of cleats intended for use on natural and artificial surfaces and (2) suggest a mechanical explanation for a higher lower-limb injury rate in elite athletes playing on artificial surfaces.

  6. Back pain in the pediatric and adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Haus, Brian M; Micheli, Lyle J

    2012-07-01

    Clinicians taking care of athletes are likely to see many young patients complaining of back pain. The young athlete places significant repetitive stresses across the growing thoracolumbar spine, which can cause acute and overuse injuries that are unique to this age and patient population. Fortunately, by using a careful and systematic approach, with a sport-specific history, careful physical exam, and proper imaging, most problems can be properly identified. Although it is important to always remember that rare and more serious problems such as a neoplasm or infection maybe a source of pain in the athletic patient, most problems are benign and can be treated conservatively. Accurate diagnosis and management of back pain not only can prevent long-term deformity and disability, but it can also allow young athletes to return to doing what they love to do most: play sports.

  7. Comparison of Upper Extremity Physical Characteristics Between Adolescent Competitive Swimmers and Nonoverhead Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E.; Laudner, Kevin; Berkoff, David J.; Kucera, Kristen L.; Yu, Bing; Myers, Joseph B.

    2016-01-01

    Context Alterations to upper extremity physical characteristics of competitive swimmers (posture, range of motion [ROM], and subacromial-space distance) are commonly attributed to cumulative training load during a swimmer's competitive career. However, this accepted clinical belief has not been established in the literature. It is important to understand whether alterations in posture and associated physical characteristics occur as a result of sport training or factors other than swimming participation to better understand injury risk and possible interventions. Objective To compare posture, subacromial-space distance, and glenohumeral external-rotation, internal-rotation, and horizontal-adduction ROM between adolescent competitive swimmers and nonoverhead athletes. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Local swimming pools and high school athletic training rooms. Patients or Other Participants Forty-four competitive adolescent swimmers and 31 nonoverhead athletes who were not currently experiencing any elbow, shoulder, neck, or back pain that limited their sport activity. Intervention(s) Posture, subacromial-space distance, and glenohumeral ROM were measured using photography, diagnostic ultrasound, and a digital inclinometer, respectively. Main Outcome Measure(s) Forward shoulder posture, forward head posture, normalized subacromial-space distance, internal-rotation ROM, and external-rotation ROM. Results No clinically significant differences existed between swimmers and nonoverhead athletes for posture, normalized subacromial-space distance, or external- or internal-rotation ROM. Swimmers presented with less horizontal-adduction ROM than nonoverhead athletes. Conclusions Factors other than swimming participation, such as school and technology use, play important roles in the adaptation of physical characteristics in adolescents. Adolescents, regardless of swimming participation, presented with postural deviations. It is important to consider factors other than

  8. Aerobic Fitness Level Typical of Elite Athletes is not Associated With Even Faster VO2 Kinetics During Cycling Exercise.

    PubMed

    Figueira, Tiago R; Caputo, Fabrizio; Machado, Carlos E P; Denadai, Benedito S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to address the question if the VO2 kinetics is further improved as the aerobic training status increases from trained to elite level athletes. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), work-rate associated to VO2max (IVO2max) and VO2 kinetics of moderate (Mod) and maximal exercise (Max) were determined in fifty- five subjects. Then, they were assigned into three groups: low (LF), intermediate (IF) and high (HF) aerobic fitness level. In average, the VO2max of LF, IF and HF groups were, respectively, 36.0 ± 3.1, 51.1 ± 4.5 and 68.1 ± 3.9 ml·kg·min(-1) (p ≤ 0.05 among each other). VO2 kinetics mean response time of both exercise intensities were significantly faster (p ≤ 0.05) in HF (Mod, 27.5 ± 5.5 s; Max, 32.6 ± 8.3 s) and IF (Mod, 25.0 ± 3.1 s; Max, 42.6 ± 10.4 s) when compared to LF (Mod, 35.7 ± 7.9 s; Max: 57.8 ± 17.8 s). We can conclude that VO2 kinetics is improved as the fitness level is increased from low to intermediate but not further improved as the aerobic fitness level increases from intermediate to high. Key pointsCurrently, it is reasonable to believe that the rate-limiting step of VO2 kinetics depends on exercise intensity.The well known physiological adaptations induced by endurance training are likely the most extreme means to overcome rate-limiting steps determining VO2 kinetics across exercise intensities.However, exercise adaptation leading individuals to the high-end of aerobic fitness level range (VO2max > 65 ml.kg.min-1) is not able to further improve VO2 kinetics during both, moderate and maximal intensity exercise.

  9. Sex Objects, Athletes, and Sexy Athletes: How Media Representations of Women Athletes Can Impact Adolescent Girls and College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to the large body of research examining the negative effects of idealized media images on girls' and women's body image, little research has investigated whether media images can positively impact body concept among females. Using a between-participants experimental design, this study examined how images of performance athletes,…

  10. Comparing Postoperative Pain Experiences of the Adolescent and Adult Athlete After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stanish, William D.; Reardon, Gerald; Coady, Catherine; Sullivan, Michael J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine age-related differences in pain, catastrophizing, and affective distress (depression and anxiety) after athletic injury and knee surgery. Design and Setting: Participants were assessed with measures of pain intensity, pain-related catastrophizing, depression, and anxiety symptoms at 24 hours after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Subjects: Twenty patients (10 adolescents, 10 adults) with an acute complete tear of the ACL. Measurements: Pain was assessed by Visual Analog Scale (VAS), catastrophizing with the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), depressive symptoms with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and anxiety with the state form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S). Results: At 24 hours postsurgery, adolescents reported greater pain, catastrophizing, and anxiety than adults. Ancillary analyses showed that helplessness and rumination were significant contributors to the differences in catastrophizing. Further, an analysis of covariance showed that controlling for the effects of catastrophizing, the adolescent and adult differences in pain scores were reduced to a null effect. Conclusions: After ACL surgery, athletic adolescents and adults differed significantly in pain, catastrophizing, and anxiety. Catastrophizing seemed to be a particularly strong factor in postoperative pain differences between adolescents and adults, with clinical-management implications. These data indicate the need for continued research into specific pain- and age-related factors during the acute postoperative period for athletes undergoing ACL surgery. PMID:12937527

  11. Toward an integrative model of doping use: an empirical study with adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Lazuras, Lambros; Barkoukis, Vassileios; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2015-02-01

    The present study assessed adolescent athletes' intentions toward doping by using an integrative theoretical model. Overall, 650 adolescent athletes from team and individual sports completed an anonymous structured questionnaire including demographic information, social desirability, achievement goals, motivational regulations, sportspersonship orientations, social cognitive variables, and anticipated regret. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the integrative model predicted 57.2% of the variance in doping intentions. Social cognitive variables and anticipated regret directly predicted doping intentions. Anticipated regret added 3% incremental variance on top of other predictors. Multiple mediation analyses showed that the effects of achievement goals on intentions were mediated by self-efficacy beliefs, whereas the effects of sportspersonship were mediated by attitudes and anticipated regret. The present study confirmed the dual structure of an integrative model of doping intentions and further highlighted the role of anticipated regret in the study of adolescent doping use.

  12. Lumbar Mechanics in Tennis Groundstrokes: Differences in Elite Adolescent Players With and Without Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Amity; Straker, Leon; Whiteside, David; O'Sullivan, Peter; Elliott, Bruce; Reid, Machar

    2016-02-01

    Adolescent tennis players are at risk for low back pain (LBP). Recent research has demonstrated a potential mechanical etiology during serves; however, groundstrokes have also been suggested to load this region. Therefore, this study compared lumbar mechanics between players with and without a history of LBP during open and square stance tennis forehands and backhands. Nineteen elite, adolescent, male tennis players participated, 7 with a history of recurrent disabling LBP and 12 without. Differences in three-dimensional lumbar kinetics and kinematics were compared between pain/no pain groups and groundstrokes using linear mixed models (P < .01). There were no significant differences between pain/no pain groups. Relative to a right-handed player, groundstroke comparisons revealed that forehands had greater racquet velocity, greater lumbar right lateral flexion force, as well as upper lumbar extension/rightward rotation and lower lumbar right rotation/lateral flexion movements that were closer to or further beyond end of range than backhands. Backhands required upper lumbar leftward rotation that was beyond end range, while forehands did not. Given that players typically rotated near to their end of range during the backswing of both forehands and backhands, independent of pain, groundstrokes may contribute to the cumulative strain linked to LBP in tennis players.

  13. Charlie's Words: Supporting Gifted Male Athletes Using Athletes' Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A gifted student-athlete, Charlie Bloomfield is introduced to athlete's journals by his coaches at Burke Mountain Academy (Vermont), an elite American ski school. Used by Olympians and professionals alike, journals provide athletes with ways to organize and reflect on training and competitions. Athlete's journals help gifted male athletes address…

  14. Recent Injury and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Bay, R. Curtis; Parsons, John T.; Sauers, Eric L.; Snyder, Alison R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Context: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a global concept that takes into account the physical, psychological, and social domains of health. Determining the extent to which injury affects HRQOL is an important aspect of rehabilitation practice, enabling comparisons of clinical outcomes across different conditions in diverse patient groups. Objective: To examine the extent to which a self-reported recent injury affected HRQOL in adolescent athletes using 2 generic patient self-report scales. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: High school classrooms and athletic training facilities. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of uninjured (n  =  160) and injured (n  =  45) adolescent athletes. Intervention(s): The independent variable was injury status: uninjured versus injured. All participants completed a self-administered brief health status questionnaire and the Short Form–36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36) and Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) in a counterbalanced manner. Main Outcome Measure(s): Dependent variables included 8 subscale and 2 composite scores of the SF-36 and 5 subscale scores and 1 global score of the PODCI. Group differences were assessed with the Mann-Whitney U test (P ≤ .05) and reported as median and interquartile range. Results: On the SF-36, the injured group demonstrated lower scores (P < .008) for physical functioning, limitations due to physical health problems, bodily pain, social functioning, and the physical composite. On the PODCI, the injured group reported lower scores (P < .01) on the pain and comfort subscale and the global score. Conclusions: Adolescent athletes with self-reported injuries demonstrated lower HRQOL than their uninjured peers. As expected, recent injury affected physical functioning and pain. Social functioning (on the SF-36) and global HRQOL (on the PODCI) also decreased, suggesting that injuries affected areas beyond the expected physical

  15. Common injuries of the foot and ankle in the child and adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Gerard A; Ramirez-Del Toro, Jose A

    2008-05-01

    A myriad problems in the foot and ankle are specific to child and adolescent athletes. The anatomy of young athletes with respect to the presence of a growth plate makes their injury patterns different from those seen in adults. The main general injury patterns seen in the feet and ankles of children are related to growth and development or occur from overuse syndromes or acute trauma. In this article we outline in an anatomically oriented manner most of the common problems in this population.

  16. Consistency of Self-Reported Concussion History in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, Magdalena; Iverson, Grant L; Silverberg, Noah D; Mannix, Rebekah; Zafonte, Ross; Maxwell, Bruce; Berkner, Paul D

    2017-01-15

    Relying on self-reported concussion injury history is common in both clinical care and research. However, young athletes may not provide consistent medical information. To date, little is known about the reliability of self-reported concussion history in high school students. This study examined whether student athletes reported their lifetime history of concussions consistently over time. Self-reported concussion history was examined in 4792 student athletes (ages 13-18) from Maine who completed a preseason health survey on two occasions (median re-test interval = 23.7 months; standard deviation = 7.3; interquartile range = 12.4-24.5). Consistency of self-reported concussion history was determined by differences in the number of concussions reported during the second survey. Inconsistent concussion history was defined primarily by a decrease in the number of lifetime concussions reported at the second testing, compared with at the first testing. The majority of the sample (80.3%) reported no change in the number of concussions between the two baseline assessments. A minority (15.9%; n = 763) reported more concussions during the second assessment. Only 3.8% (n = 181) of student athletes provided inconsistent concussion histories, defined as fewer concussions at the second assessment. Boys provided inconsistent concussion histories a little more frequently, compared with girls (5.3% and 2.0%, respectively; p < 0.001). Similarly, athletes with self-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) provided inconsistent concussion histories somewhat more frequently, compared with those without ADHD (7.8% and 3.5%, respectively; p < 0.001). Of the athletes with inconsistent concussion histories, greater degree of inconsistency was associated with a greater number of concussions initially reported at baseline (rs = 0.54; p < 0.001). Only a small proportion of student athletes provided inconsistent concussion histories. Male

  17. Adaptation to hot environmental conditions: an exploration of the performance basis, procedures and future directions to optimise opportunities for elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Guy, Joshua H; Deakin, Glen B; Edwards, Andrew M; Miller, Catherine M; Pyne, David B

    2015-03-01

    Extreme environmental conditions present athletes with diverse challenges; however, not all sporting events are limited by thermoregulatory parameters. The purpose of this leading article is to identify specific instances where hot environmental conditions either compromise or augment performance and, where heat acclimation appears justified, evaluate the effectiveness of pre-event acclimation processes. To identify events likely to be receptive to pre-competition heat adaptation protocols, we clustered and quantified the magnitude of difference in performance of elite athletes competing in International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) World Championships (1999-2011) in hot environments (>25 °C) with those in cooler temperate conditions (<25 °C). Athletes in endurance events performed worse in hot conditions (~3 % reduction in performance, Cohen's d > 0.8; large impairment), while in contrast, performance in short-duration sprint events was augmented in the heat compared with temperate conditions (~1 % improvement, Cohen's d > 0.8; large performance gain). As endurance events were identified as compromised by the heat, we evaluated common short-term heat acclimation (≤7 days, STHA) and medium-term heat acclimation (8-14 days, MTHA) protocols. This process identified beneficial effects of heat acclimation on performance using both STHA (2.4 ± 3.5 %) and MTHA protocols (10.2 ± 14.0 %). These effects were differentially greater for MTHA, which also demonstrated larger reductions in both endpoint exercise heart rate (STHA: -3.5 ± 1.8 % vs MTHA: -7.0 ± 1.9 %) and endpoint core temperature (STHA: -0.7 ± 0.7 % vs -0.8 ± 0.3 %). It appears that worthwhile acclimation is achievable for endurance athletes via both short-and medium-length protocols but more is gained using MTHA. Conversely, it is also conceivable that heat acclimation may be counterproductive for sprinters. As high-performance athletes are often time-poor, shorter duration protocols may

  18. Adolescent athletes and the demand and supply of drugs to improve their performance.

    PubMed

    Laure, Patrick; Binsinger, Caroline

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to gather information into the principal methods and means employed to supply adolescents with doping agents and others substances used to improve their sporting performance. We conducted a nation wide study in France among adolescent athletes, using a self-completed questionnaire. Exploitable questionnaires (n = 6402) were returned, corresponding to 48.9% for the girls and 51.1% for the boys, both aged on average from 16.1 ± 2.2 years. These adolescents practise on average 10.0 ± 5.2 hours of sport per week. 21.9% participate on a national or international competition level. Of our respondents, 4.0% (95% confidence interval: 3.5% - 4.5%) say they have been enticed into using products which are prohibited for athletes. 10.3% of the adolescents say that they have received substances to improve their performance at least once from an average of two different people. It was mostly a friend, their parents and the family doctor. On average, in 33.2% of the cases, the adolescent received the product without asking for it, and in nearly half the cases (46.6%), the adolescent paid for the product. We feel that it is necessary to better understand the ways in which this black market functions: for example; the initial sources of the products sold, the number and the 'profiles' of the dealers, the general organisation of the market and the sums of money involved. Key PointsThis study confirms the existence of a 'black market' for products to improve performance, which is directed at adolescent athletes engaged in high-level competitions.This market is characterized by its ease of accessibility and also the diversity of its 'suppliers', the two main sources being friends and parents.

  19. Adolescent Athletes and the Demand and Supply of Drugs to Improve Their Performance

    PubMed Central

    Laure, Patrick; Binsinger, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gather information into the principal methods and means employed to supply adolescents with doping agents and others substances used to improve their sporting performance. We conducted a nation wide study in France among adolescent athletes, using a self-completed questionnaire. Exploitable questionnaires (n = 6402) were returned, corresponding to 48.9% for the girls and 51.1% for the boys, both aged on average from 16.1 ± 2.2 years. These adolescents practise on average 10.0 ± 5.2 hours of sport per week. 21.9% participate on a national or international competition level. Of our respondents, 4.0% (95% confidence interval: 3.5% - 4.5%) say they have been enticed into using products which are prohibited for athletes. 10.3% of the adolescents say that they have received substances to improve their performance at least once from an average of two different people. It was mostly a friend, their parents and the family doctor. On average, in 33.2% of the cases, the adolescent received the product without asking for it, and in nearly half the cases (46.6%), the adolescent paid for the product. We feel that it is necessary to better understand the ways in which this black market functions: for example; the initial sources of the products sold, the number and the ‘profiles’ of the dealers, the general organisation of the market and the sums of money involved. Key Points This study confirms the existence of a ‘black market’ for products to improve performance, which is directed at adolescent athletes engaged in high-level competitions. This market is characterized by its ease of accessibility and also the diversity of its ‘suppliers’, the two main sources being friends and parents. PMID:24453531

  20. Incidence of exercise-induced asthma in adolescent athletes under different training and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulou, Maria P; Kokaridas, Dimitrios G; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi F; Karadonas, Michalis I; Fotiadou, Eleni G

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish if there were differences in the incidence of exercise-induced bronchospasm between athletes in different sports, which take place under different environmental conditions such as open places, closed courses, and swimming pools with similar exercise intensity (football, basketball, water polo) using the free running test. The study included 90 adolescents (3 groups of 30) aged 14-18 years recruited from academies in northern Greece. All the participants were initially subjected to (a) a clinical examination and cardiorespiratory assessment by a physician and (b) free running test of a 6-minute duration and measurement with a microspirometer of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁). Only the participants who had measured a decrease in FEV₁ ≥ 10% were reevaluated with the microspirometer during a training session. The examination of all the participants during the free running test showed that 22 athletes, that is, 9, 8, and 5 of football, basketball, and water polo athletes, respectively, demonstrated an FEV₁ ≥ 10 drop. Reevaluation of the 22 participants during training showed that 5 out 9 (55%) football athletes, 4 out of 8 basketball athletes (50%), and none of the 5 athletes of the water polo team displayed a drop of FEV₁ ≥ 10%. Despite the absence of any significant statistical differences between the 3 groups, the analysis of variances did show a trend of a lower incidence of EIA in the water polo athletes. It was found that a football or basketball game can induce EIA in young athletes but to a lesser degree than the free running test can induce. The water polo can be a safer sport even for participants with a medical history of asthma or allergies.

  1. Contributions of athletic identity to child and adolescent physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identity theorists maintain that domain-specific self-concepts help explain the differential investment of people's time and effort in various activities. This study examined the contribution of athletic identity and three key demographic variables to physical activity and sports team participation...

  2. Exercise Fatigue in Adolescents: Diagnosis of Athlete Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Chronic fatigue, declining performance, and mental lassitude, all symptoms of athlete burnout syndrome, require a comprehensive diagnostic approach. Many factors which can interfere with normal exercise capacity are easily treatable so a careful search is important. Three case studies are presented. (Author/MT)

  3. Asymptomatic Elite Adolescent Tennis Players' Signs of Tendinosis in Their Dominant Shoulder Compared With Their Nondominant Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Fredrik R.; Skillgate, Eva; Adolfsson, Anders; Jenner, Göran; DeBri, Edin; Swärdh, Leif; Cools, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Context Tennis is an asymmetric overhead sport with specific muscle-activation patterns, especially eccentrically in the rotator cuff. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in asymptomatic adolescent elite tennis players have not previously been reported. Objective The first aim of the study was to describe MRI findings regarding adaptations or abnormalities, as well as muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), of the rotator cuff. The second aim of the study was to investigate the rotator cuff based on the interpretation of the MRI scans as normal versus abnormal, with the subdivision based on the grade of tendinosis, and its association with eccentric rotator cuff strength in the dominant arm (DA) of the asymptomatic elite adolescent tennis player. Setting Testing environment at the radiology department of Medicinsk Röntgen AB. Patients or Other Participants Thirty-five asymptomatic elite tennis players (age = 17.4 ± 2.7 years) were selected based on ranking and exposure time. Intervention(s) We assessed MRI scans and measured the CSA of the rotator cuff muscle. The non-DA (NDA) was used as a control. In addition, eccentric testing of the external rotators of the DA was performed with a handheld dynamometer. Results The DA and NDA displayed different frequencies of infraspinatus tendinosis (grade 1 changes) (P < .05). Rotator cuff measurements revealed larger infraspinatus and teres minor CSA (P < .05) in the DA than in the NDA. Mean eccentric external-rotation strength in the DA stratified by normal tendon and tendinosis was not different between groups (P = .723). Conclusions Asymptomatic adolescent elite tennis players demonstrated infraspinatus tendinosis more frequently in the DA than in the NDA. Clinicians must recognize these tendon changes in order to modify conditioning and performance programs appropriately. PMID:26651279

  4. Combat sports practice favors bone mineral density among adolescent male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Raouf; Hassen Zrour, Saoussen; Rebai, Haithem; Neffeti, Fadoua; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Bergaoui, Naceur; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of combat sports practice on bone mineral density (BMD) and to analyze the relationship between bone parameters and anthropometric measurements, bone markers, and activity index (AI). In other words, to detect the most important determinant of BMD in the adolescent period among combat sports athletes. Fifty athletes engaged in combat sports, mean age 17.1±0.2 yr, were compared with 30 sedentary subjects who were matched for age, height, and pubertal stage. For all subjects, the whole-body BMD, lumbar spine BMD (L2-L4), and BMD in the pelvis, arms, and legs was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and anthropometric measurements were evaluated. Daily calcium intake, bone resorption, and formation markers were measured. BMD measurements were greater in the combat sports athletes than in the sedentary group (p<0.01). Weight, body mass index, and lean body mass were significantly correlated with BMD in different sites. Daily calcium consumption lower than daily calcium intake recommended in both athletes and sedentary group. AI was strongly correlated with all BMD measurements particularly with the whole body, legs, and arms. Negative correlations were observed between bone markers and BMD in different sites. The common major predictor of BMD measurements was AI (p<0.0001). AI associated to lean body mass determined whole-body BMD until 74%. AI explained both BMD in arms and L2-L4 at 25%. AI associated to height can account for 63% of the variance in BMD legs. These observations suggested that the best model predicting BMD in different sites among adolescent combat sports athletes was the AI. Children and adolescents should be encouraged to participate in combat sports to maximize their bone accrual.

  5. Beliefs about the causes of success in sports and susceptibility for doping use in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Lazuras, Lambros; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2014-01-01

    The present study set out to assess the impact of attributional beliefs about success on the susceptibility for doping use in adolescent athletes. The sample consisted of 309 adolescent athletes participating in both team and individual sports. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires including Beliefs about the Causes of Success in Sport Questionnaire (BACSSQ), current and past doping use, and measures of attitudes, norms, situational temptation and social desirability. Variance reduction rate analysis revealed that social desirability did not act as a confounder in the relationship between doping susceptibility and its predictors. With regard to beliefs about the causes of success dimensions, only deception emerged as a significant predictor of doping use susceptibility over and above the effects of well-established social-cognitive predictors of doping intentions and use. These findings imply that beliefs about the causes of success in youth sports may comprise another dimension of risk factors for doping susceptibility and use.

  6. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified. PMID:25729154

  7. Lower and upper body anaerobic performance in male and female adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Nindl, B C; Mahar, M T; Harman, E A; Patton, J F

    1995-02-01

    Little data exist for upper and lower body mechanical power capability of adolescent athletes. This study compared arm (A) and leg (L) anaerobic peak and mean power (PP and MP) of 20 male and 20 female adolescent athletes after normalization for body mass (BM), fat-free mass (FFM), and lean A and L cross-sectional area (CSA). Power outputs were assessed by the Wingate anaerobic test. FFM and CSA were estimated via anthropometry. No significant (P > 0.05) differences existed between the sexes in Tanner sexual maturity, chronological age, or overall training activity. Males had higher (P < 0.001) absolute PP (W) (L 694 vs 442; A 494 vs 309) and MP (L 548 vs 307; A 337 vs 214). Ratio normalization and ANCOVA were used to remove the influence of body size differences. Ratio normalization showed that males had greater leg PP/BM, MP/BM, MP/FFM, MP/CSA, as well as arm PP/BM and MP/BM, whereas all leg and arm PP and MP ANCOVA adjusted means for BM, FFM, and CSA, except arm MP adjusted for FFM, were significantly (P < 0.01) higher for males than females. We conclude that factors other than muscle mass, possibly qualitative in nature, are responsible for the sex difference in anaerobic performance of adolescent athletes.

  8. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Garthe, Ina

    2011-01-01

    The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that a high proportion of athletes are using extreme weight-control methods and that the rules of some sports might be associated with the risk of continuous dieting, energy deficit, and/or use of extreme weight-loss methods that can be detrimental to health and performance. Thus, preventive strategies are justified for medical as well as performance reasons. The most urgent needs are: (1) to develop sport-specific educational programmes for athletic trainers, coaches, and athletes; (2) modifications to regulations; and (3) research related to minimum percentage body fat and judging patterns.

  9. Effect of a Nutritional Intervention in Athlete's Body Composition, Eating Behaviour and Nutritional Knowledge: A Comparison between Adults and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Marcus; Silva, Danielle; Ribeiro, Sandra; Nunes, Marco; Almeida, Marcos; Mendes-Netto, Raquel

    2016-09-07

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult. In a before and after quasi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20-32 years; 11 adolescents, age range: 12-19 years) participated in a nutritional counselling consisting of four consultations separated by an interval of 45 to 60 days. The athlete's eating behaviour, body composition and nutrition knowledge were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Both groups increased lean body mass and nutritional knowledge. Adolescents increased their mid-arm muscle circumference and improved meal frequency, and daily water intake. Athletes of both groups improved their ingestion of vegetables and fruits and decreased the ingestion of sweets and oils. Adolescents showed a higher prevalence of individuals that remained within or approached to the recommendations of sweets. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult athletes body composition, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge. The nutritional counselling has been effective in promoting beneficial changes on the athlete's eating behaviour, nutritional knowledge and body composition, however, some healthy changes were only experienced by adolescents, especially in the frequency of meals and the intake of sweets.

  10. Rhinitis in Elite and Non-Elite Field Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Walker, A; Surda, P; Rossiter, M; Little, S

    2017-01-01

    Rhinitis has been demonstrated to impose a significant disease burden upon the general population. We sought to determine the prevalence of rhinitis in athletes; to investigate its relationship with co-existing allergic symptoms; and to quantify the impact of rhinitis on quality of life in the athlete.3 subgroups were studied: elite field hockey players (FHP); non-elite FHP; and a sedentary control group.Participants were asked to complete a rhinitis self-report questionnaire; the "Allergic Questionnaire for Athletes" (AQUA), and quality of life Sinonasal Outcome Test - 22 (SNOT-22).142 participants completed the study (52 elite FHP; 40 non-elite FHP; 50 controls). There was a significantly higher prevalence of rhinitis in the elite and non-elite FHP groups than the sedentary control group (52% and 43% vs. 22%, p<0.05). Mean AQUA score was significantly higher in athletes with rhinitis. Quality of life scores were significantly worse in athletes with rhinitis than those without rhinitis (p<0.05).This study suggests regular exercise is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of rhinitis. Elite FHP were most likely to report rhinitis, but the least likely to be using regular treatment. Quality of life was negatively affected, confirming the importance of nasal health to athlete welfare.

  11. Secondary elements of blood pH variation can influence the effort effectiveness based on adaptive changes within a group of elite athletes

    PubMed Central

    MARTIN, ŞTEFAN ADRIAN; TOMESCU, VALERIU; VOIDĂZAN, SEPTIMIU

    2016-01-01

    Aim pH is the direct indicator of the body reaction following the activities performed. Establishing precise correlations between pH and blood biochemical parameters might support the balancing of values during periods of marked physical activity. Method We conducted a case study in a group of elite rowers. Twelve athletes were included in the study. Monitoring was carried out by collecting biological samples several times a day: in the morning, 80 minutes pre-workout, 12 hours after the last physical effort performed, at two different times, 10 days apart. Determinations were aimed at adapting the reported biochemical parameters depending on the effort performed. The following parameters were monitored: pH, HCO3, pCO2, pO2, BE, SBE, SBC, Ca++, Mg++, LDH, GPT, T-Pro, and Alb. Results The mean value of pH found in athletes was 7.41±0.024. The value obtained was significantly correlated to biochemical parameters such as BE (2.32±1.79), SBC (1.67±1.45), SBE (2.70±1.75). However, bicarbonate (HCO3) was statistically significantly related with SBE, SBC, SBE, and pO2, but did not present a strong association with the pH value (p=0.094). However, values such as Alb, Ca++, LDH, BE, SBC are related to pH value as a result of variations in the data submitted. Conclusions The processed data evidence the fact that blood pH, in this case, is significantly influenced by a number of indices that correlate energy system activity, individual adaptation to effort, and the recovery process. The parameters under investigation (SBE, SBC, SBE, CPK, LDH) are associated with pH changes that could confirm the recovery efficiency of the athlete, along with a possible metabolic acidosis/alkalosis. PMID:27857520

  12. Within-subject haemoglobin variation in elite athletes: a longitudinal investigation of 13 887 haemoglobin concentration readings.

    PubMed

    Lobigs, Louisa M; Knight, Emma J; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Gore, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) estimates individualized reference ranges for key blood markers, such as haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), using predetermined population mean, between- and within-subject variances. Here, we aim to reassess previously published estimates for within-subject [Hb] variance and determine whether sex-, analyzer-, sport-, or season-specific values are required. Our reference population contains 7723 male (mean ± SD, 22.3 ± 4.6 years of age) and 6164 female (21.6 ± 4.3) athlete observations from 49 sports. [Hb] was calculated using one of three cytometers; Bayer-H3 (1997-1999, n = 4554), ADVIA-120 (1999-2010, n = 8636) and Sysmex XT-2000i (2010-2012, n = 697). The final model was a linear mixed model for [Hb] with analyzer (H3, ADVIA, Sysmex), sex (male, female), sport (power-endurance, endurance, skill, team, disabled and non-athletes), season (summer, winter), and the interaction between sex and sport as fixed effects and athlete as a random effect. The model included an exponential correlation structure to allow for within-subject autocorrelation, and allowed different within-subject variances for each sport. Within-subject [Hb] variance (g(2) /L(2) ) was significantly less for power endurance (35.09, 95% CI 33.50 to 36.76), disabled (25.82, 95% CI 21.71 to 35.28) and non-athletes (34.30, 95% CI 28.53 to 35.87) than for endurance (40.35, 95% CI 39.62 to 47.22) and team sports (38.70, 95% CI 37.68 to 39.76) athletes. No new evidence was found to justify adjusting the current within-subject [Hb] variance estimate.

  13. Analysis of Consumption of Energy Drinks by a Group of Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drinks (EDs) have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of factors influencing consumption, and risks associated with EDs and EDs mixed with alcohol (AmEDs). Methods: The study involved a specially designed questionnaire, which was completed by 707 students, 14.3 years of age on average, attending secondary sports schools. Results: EDs were consumed by 69% of the young athletes, 17% of whom drank EDs quite often: every day or 1–3 times a week. Most respondents felt no effects after drinking EDs, but some reported symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety, tachycardia, nervousness and irritability. The major determinant of the choice of EDs was taste (47%), followed by price (21%). One in ten respondents admitted to consumption of AmEDs. Among the consequences reported were: abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, amnesia, headache, and hangover. Conclusions: EDs consumption among adolescent athletes was relatively high. Considering the habit of AmEDs and literature data, it is worth emphasizing that it may lead to health problems in the near future, alcohol- or drug-dependence, as well as other types of risk behaviour. PMID:27483299

  14. Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): IV. identification of new candidate commitment sources in the sport commitment model.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Tara K; Russell, David G; Scanlan, Larry A; Klunchoo, Tatiana J; Chow, Graig M

    2013-10-01

    Following a thorough review of the current updated Sport Commitment Model, new candidate commitment sources for possible future inclusion in the model are presented. They were derived from data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method. Three elite New Zealand teams participated: amateur All Black rugby players, amateur Silver Fern netball players, and professional All Black rugby players. An inductive content analysis of these players' open-ended descriptions of their sources of commitment identified four unique new candidate commitment sources: Desire to Excel, Team Tradition, Elite Team Membership, and Worthy of Team Membership. A detailed definition of each candidate source is included along with example quotes from participants. Using a mixed-methods approach, these candidate sources provide a basis for future investigations to test their viability and generalizability for possible expansion of the Sport Commitment Model.

  15. The German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL Study): design of a mixed-method study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to perform at top levels, elite athletes have to both protect and risk their health at the same time. Adolescent elite athletes have the additional challenge of coping with substantial physical, psychological and social transformations. The contradictory phenomenon of protecting and risking the adolescent athletes' health in sports challenges the development of health promotion and protection strategies. The GOAL Study (German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study) analyzes the individual and organizational management of health in adolescent elite sports. Methods/design We combine quantitative and qualitative approaches in a mixed-method study. This allows us to gather a broad range of representative information on squad athletes from all Olympic disciplines as well as in-depth information on four selected Olympic disciplines (artistic gymnastics, biathlon, handball and wrestling). Within the quantitative section we attempt to identify the young athletes' health and nutrition behavior, their subjective health state and their lay health representations, health-related social networks, and structures of medical attendance. 1138 national team level athletes born between 1992 and 1995 from 51 Olympic disciplines responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 61,75%). The qualitative section investigates the meaning and relevance of health and nutrition within the athletes' sports specific surroundings, the impact of biographic backgrounds on individual health behavior, and sports specific cultures of health, nutrition and risk. We interviewed 24 athletes and 28 coaching and medical experts, and carried out 14 multi-day participant observations at training sessions and competitions. Conclusions The studies' results will serve as the basis for developing tailored health promotion strategies to be in cooperation with German elite sports associations. PMID:21627777

  16. Effects of drop jumps added to the warm-up of elite sport athletes with a high capacity for explosive force development.

    PubMed

    Hilfiker, Roger; Hübner, Klaus; Lorenz, Tobias; Marti, Bernard

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate influence of eccentric muscle action on vertical jump performance in athletes performing sports with a high demand of explosive force development. In this randomized, controlled crossover trial, 13 Swiss elite athletes (national team members in ski jump, ski alpine, snowboard freestyle and alpine, ski freestyle, and gymnastics) with a mean age of 22 years (range 20-28) were randomized into 2 groups. After a semistandardized warm-up, group 1 did 5 jumps from a height of 60 cm, landing with active stabilization in 90 degrees knee flexion. One minute after these modified drop jumps, they performed 3 single squat jumps (SJ) and 3 single countermovement jumps (CMJ) on a force platform. The athletes repeated the procedure after 1 hour without the modified drop jumps. In a crossover manner, group 2 did the first warm-up without and the second warm-up with the modified drop jumps. Differences of the performance (jump height and maximal power) between the different warm-ups were the main outcomes. The mean absolute power and absolute height (without drop jumps) were CMJ 54.9 W.kg(-1) (SD = 4.1), SJ 55.0 W.kg(-1) (SD = 5.1), CMJ 44.1 cm (SD = 4.1), and SJ 40.8 cm (SD = 4.1). A consistent tendency for improvement with added drop jumps to the warm-up routine was observed compared with warm-up without drop jumps: maximal power CMJ +1.02 W.kg(-1) (95% confidence interval [CI] = +0.03 to +2.38), p = 0.045; maximal power SJ +0.8 W.kg(-1) (95% CI = -0.34 to +2.02), p = 0.148; jump height CMJ +0.48 cm (95% CI = -0.26 to +1.2), p = 0.182; SJ +0.73 cm (95% CI = -0.36 to +1.18), p = 0.169. Athletes could add modified drop jumps to the warm-up before competitions to improve explosive force development.

  17. Energy and macronutrient intake in adolescent sprint athletes: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Deriemaeker, Peter; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Clarys, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Macronutrient intake, height, weight, and body composition of 60 adolescent sprint athletes were estimated every 6 months over 3 years. Seven-day food records were analysed based on the Belgian and Dutch food databanks. The age of participants at the start of the 3-year study was 14.8 ± 1.6 years for female athletes and 14.7 ± 1.9 years for male athletes. Girls and boys gained height (3.4 ± 4.6 cm and 5.9 ± 6.6 cm respectively) and weight (5.6 ± 3.5 kg and 8.7 ± 5.5 kg respectively), whereas percent body fat remained unchanged in both girls and boys (around 17.0% and 8.5% respectively). Mean protein intake of around 1.5 g · kg⁻¹ body weight was within recommendations on each occasion for both sexes. Carbohydrate intakes between 5 and 7 g · kg⁻¹ body weight support a training programme of moderate intensity. Total and saturated fat intakes were high at the start of the study (girls: 31.8 ± 3.5% and 12.2 ± 2.0% of energy intake; boys: 30.3 ± 4.6% and 12.0 ± 1.9% of energy intake) and it appeared to be difficult to achieve and maintain lower intakes. Consistent low fluid intakes around 40 ml · kg⁻¹ body weight were observed. General non-stringent advice for improvement of the diet resulted in significant favourable changes only for the consumption of wholegrain bread, vegetables, and soft drinks. Dietary habits of adolescent sprint athletes are not always according to guidelines and are relatively stable but repeated advice can induce moderate improvements.

  18. Two emerging concepts for elite athletes: the short-term effects of testosterone and cortisol on the neuromuscular system and the dose-response training role of these endogenous hormones.

    PubMed

    Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian; Cardinale, Marco; Weatherby, Robert P; Lowe, Tim

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight two emerging concepts for the elite athlete using the resistance-training model: (i) the short-term effects of testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) on the neuromuscular system; and (ii) the dose-response training role of these endogenous hormones. Exogenous evidence confirms that T and C can regulate long-term changes in muscle growth and performance, especially with resistance training. This evidence also confirms that changes in T or C concentrations can moderate or support neuromuscular performance through various short-term mechanisms (e.g. second messengers, lipid/protein pathways, neuronal activity, behaviour, cognition, motor-system function, muscle properties and energy metabolism). The possibility of dual T and C effects on the neuromuscular system offers a new paradigm for understanding resistance-training performance and adaptations. Endogenous evidence supports the short-term T and C effects on human performance. Several factors (e.g. workout design, nutrition, genetics, training status and type) can acutely modify T and/or C concentrations and thereby potentially influence resistance-training performance and the adaptive outcomes. This novel short-term pathway appears to be more prominent in athletes (vs non-athletes), possibly due to the training of the neuromuscular and endocrine systems. However, the exact contribution of these endogenous hormones to the training process is still unclear. Research also confirms a dose-response training role for basal changes in endogenous T and C, again, especially for elite athletes. Although full proof within the physiological range is lacking, this athlete model reconciles a proposed permissive role for endogenous hormones in untrained individuals. It is also clear that the steroid receptors (cell bound) mediate target tissue effects by adapting to exercise and training, but the response patterns of the membrane-bound receptors remain highly speculative. This information

  19. Repetitive Concussions in Adolescent Athletes – Translating Clinical and Experimental Research into Perspectives on Rehabilitation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Bridgette D.; Lee, Sangmi; Sadjadi, Raha; Fritz, Nora; Carlson, Jaclyn; Griep, Carrie; Ho, Vanessa; Jang, Patrice; Lamb, Annick; Popolizio, Beth; Saini, Sonia; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.; Prins, Mayumi L.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Basso, D. Michele; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are particularly common during adolescence, a time when even mild brain injuries may disrupt ongoing brain maturation and result in long-term complications. A recent focus on the consequences of repetitive concussions among professional athletes has prompted the development of several new experimental models in rodents, as well as the revision of guidelines for best management of sports concussions. Here, we consider the utility of rodent models to understand the functional consequences and pathobiology of concussions in the developing brain, identifying the unique behavioral and pathological signatures of concussive brain injuries. The impact of repetitive concussions on behavioral consequences and injury progression is also addressed. In particular, we focus on the epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence underlying current recommendations for physical and cognitive rest after concussion, and highlight key areas in which further research is needed. Lastly, we consider how best to promote recovery after injury, recognizing that optimally timed, activity-based rehabilitative strategies may hold promise for the adolescent athlete who has sustained single or repetitive concussions. The purpose of this review is to inform the clinical research community as it strives to develop and optimize evidence-based guidelines for the concussed adolescent, in terms of both acute and long-term management. PMID:25883586

  20. Generic anthropometric and performance characteristics among elite adolescent boys in nine different sports.

    PubMed

    Pion, Johan; Segers, Veerle; Fransen, Job; Debuyck, Gijs; Deprez, Dieter; Haerens, Leen; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Flemish Sports Compass (FSC), a non-sport-specific generic testing battery. It was hypothesised that a set of 22 tests would have sufficient discriminant power to allocate athletes to their own sport based on a unique combination of test scores. First, discriminant analyses were applied to the 22 tests of anthropometry, physical fitness and motor coordination in 141 boys under age 18 (16.1 ± 0.8 years) and post age at peak height velocity (maturity offset = 2.674 ± 0.926) from Flemish Top Sport Academies for badminton, basketball, gymnastics, handball, judo, soccer, table tennis, triathlon and volleyball. Second, nine sequential discriminant analyses were used to assess the ability of a set of relevant performance characteristics classifying participants and non-participants for the respective sports. Discriminant analyses resulted in a 96.4% correct classification of all participants for the nine different sports. When focusing on relevant performance characteristics, 80.1% to 97.2% of the total test sample was classified correctly within their respective disciplines. The discriminating characteristics were briefly the following: flexibility in gymnastics, explosive lower-limb strength in badminton and volleyball, speed and agility in badminton, judo, soccer and volleyball, upper-body strength in badminton, basketball and gymnastics, cardiorespiratory endurance in triathletes, dribbling skills in handball, basketball and soccer and overhead-throwing skills in badminton and volleyball. The generic talent characteristics of the FSC enable the distinction of adolescent boys according to their particular sport. Implications for talent programmes are discussed.

  1. The 2015 Pediatric Endocrine Society Ethics Symposium: Controversies Regarding 'Gender Verification' of Elite Female Athletes - Sex Testing to Hyperandrogenism.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Jill L; Genel, Myron

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the Pediatric Endocrine Society's Ethics Symposium held in April 2015 at the annual meeting of the Pediatric Academic Societies is provided by the panel moderators with a summary of efforts by international athletic governing bodies over several decades to 'verify' the eligibility of athletes to compete in female only events, culminating in the hyperandrogenism policies that were the focus of the panel debate. This history was extensively reviewed in the symposium's opening presentation by Alan Rogol, in collaboration with Lindsay Pieper. Two sharply divergent views were then conveyed. David Allen's, in support, is provided in his article which follows. The opposing case, provided by Katrina Karkazis, is extensively summarized herein and reflected in her Science essay with Rebecca Jordan-Young which appeared shortly after the meeting. The subsequent ruling by the international Court of Arbitration for Sport to suspend the hyperandrogenism rule is noted with some speculation regarding the implications if it is upheld.

  2. Effect of a four-week exercise program on the secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-6 cytokines in elite Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine how a 4-week exercise program affects the serum levels of certain cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The study involved 10 elite male Taekwondo athletes (mean age, 20.67±0.24 years; mean weight, 65.45±1.69 kg) who were studying at the Physical Education and Sports High School of Selçuk University (Konya, Turkey) in June 2014. The subjects were involved in a Taekwondo exercise program on every weekday for 4 weeks. The subjects were also engaged in an exercise to exhaustion session twice; once before starting the 4-week exercise program and once upon completion of the program. Blood samples were collected from the subjects in four rounds: During rest, upon fatigue, and before and after the 4-week exercise program. These samples were analyzed to establish the serum levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-6 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kits. Pre- and post-exercise program, the IFN-γ and TNF-α levels did not show any significant difference. When compared with the pre-exercise levels, serum IL-2 levels of the subjects were found to be elevated after the 4-week exercise program. The highest serum IL-6 values were established after the subjects were exercised to fatigue before the exercise program was initiated (P<0.05). The 4-week exercise program resulted in a decrease in IL-6 levels (P<0.05). The findings of the study indicate that a 4-week exercise program did not result in significant changes in IFN-γ and TNF-α levels, but led to an increase in IL-2 levels. The notable finding of the present study is that a 4-week exercise program reduces cellular immune functions and, thus, the levels of IL-6, which negatively influences performance. PMID:27588179

  3. Increasing Performance of Professional Soccer Players and Elite Track and Field Athletes with Peak Performance Training and Biofeedback: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rijken, Noortje H; Soer, Remko; de Maar, Ewold; Prins, Hilco; Teeuw, Wouter B; Peuscher, Jan; Oosterveld, Frits G J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of an intervention consisting of mental coaching combined with either electro encephalogram (EEG) alpha power feedback or heart rate variability (HRV) feedback on HRV, EEG outcomes and self-reported factors related to stress, performance, recovery and sleep quality in elite athletes. A prospective pilot study was performed with two distinct cohorts. Soccer players were provided with four sessions of mental coaching combined with daily HRV biofeedback (Group A); track and field athletes were provided with four sessions of mental coaching in combination with daily neurofeedback (Group B). Measurements were performed at baseline, post intervention and at 5 weeks follow-up. Objective measures: EEG and ECG. Subjective measures: Numeric Rating Scale for performance, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Rest and Stress Questionnaire and Sports Improvement-60. Group characteristics were too distinct to compare the interventions. Linear mixed models were used to analyze differences within groups over time. In Group A, significant changes over time were present in alpha power at 5 of 7 EEG locations (p < 0.01-0.03). LF/HF ratio significantly increased (p = 0.02) and the concentration (p = 0.02) and emotional scale (p = 0.03) of the SIM-60 increased significantly (p = 0.04). In Group B, the HRV low frequency power and recovery scale of the REST-Q significantly increased (p = 0.02 and <0.01 resp.). Other measures remained stable or improved non-significantly. A mental coaching program combined with either HRV or EEG alpha power feedback may increase HRV and alpha power and may lead to better performance-related outcomes and stress reduction. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of either type of feedback and to compare effects with a control group.

  4. Effect of a four-week exercise program on the secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-6 cytokines in elite Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Oktay

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine how a 4-week exercise program affects the serum levels of certain cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The study involved 10 elite male Taekwondo athletes (mean age, 20.67±0.24 years; mean weight, 65.45±1.69 kg) who were studying at the Physical Education and Sports High School of Selçuk University (Konya, Turkey) in June 2014. The subjects were involved in a Taekwondo exercise program on every weekday for 4 weeks. The subjects were also engaged in an exercise to exhaustion session twice; once before starting the 4-week exercise program and once upon completion of the program. Blood samples were collected from the subjects in four rounds: During rest, upon fatigue, and before and after the 4-week exercise program. These samples were analyzed to establish the serum levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-6 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kits. Pre- and post-exercise program, the IFN-γ and TNF-α levels did not show any significant difference. When compared with the pre-exercise levels, serum IL-2 levels of the subjects were found to be elevated after the 4-week exercise program. The highest serum IL-6 values were established after the subjects were exercised to fatigue before the exercise program was initiated (P<0.05). The 4-week exercise program resulted in a decrease in IL-6 levels (P<0.05). The findings of the study indicate that a 4-week exercise program did not result in significant changes in IFN-γ and TNF-α levels, but led to an increase in IL-2 levels. The notable finding of the present study is that a 4-week exercise program reduces cellular immune functions and, thus, the levels of IL-6, which negatively influences performance.

  5. Prediction versus reality: the use of mathematical models to predict elite performance in swimming and athletics at the olympic games.

    PubMed

    Heazlewood, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    A number of studies have attempted to predict future Olympic performances in athletics and swimming based on trends displayed in previous Olympic Games. Some have utilised linear models to plot and predict change, whereas others have utilised multiple curve estimation methods based on inverse, sigmoidal, quadratic, cubic, compound, logistic, growth and exponential functions. The non linear models displayed closer fits to the actual data and were used to predict performance changes 10's, 100's and 1000's of years into the future. Some models predicted that in some events male and female times and distances would crossover and females would eventually display superior performance to males. Predictions using mathematical models based on pre-1996 athletics and pre-1998 swimming performances were evaluated based on how closely they predicted sprints and jumps, and freestyle swimming performances for both male and females at the 2000 and 2004 Olympic Games. The analyses revealed predictions were closer for the shorter swimming events where men's 50m and women's 50m and 100m actual times were almost identical to predicted times. For both men and women, as the swim distances increased the accuracy of the predictive model decreased, where predicted times were 4.5-7% faster than actual times achieved. The real trends in some events currently displaying performance declines were not foreseen by the mathematical models, which predicted consistent improvements across all athletic and swimming events selected for in this study. Key PointsPrediction of future Olympic performance based on previous performance trends.Application of non-linear mathematical equations resulting in better fitting models.Application of mathematical predictive models to the Olympic sports of athletics and swimming.Accuracy of mathematical models in predicting sprint events in running and swimming.A research approach to predict future Olympic performance and set future performance standards that could be

  6. Acute effect of a complex training protocol of back squats on 30-m sprint times of elite male military athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Álvaro Huerta; Ríos, Luis Chirosa; Barrilao, Rafael Guisado; Serrano, Pablo Cáceres

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect temporal of a complex training protocol on 30 meter sprint times. A secondary objective was to evaluate the fatigue indexes of military athletes. [Subjects and Methods] Seven military athletes were the subjects of this study. The variables measured were times in 30-meter sprint, and average power and peak power of squats. The intervention session with complex training consisted of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 30% 1RM + 4 repetitions at 60% 1RM + 3 repetitions of 30 meters with 120-second rests. For the statistical analysis repeated measures of ANOVA was used, and for the post hoc analysis, student’s t-test was used. [Results] Times in 30 meter sprints showed a significant reduction between the control set and the four experimental sets, but the average power and peak power of squats did not show significant changes. [Conclusion] The results of the study show the acute positive effect of complex training, over time, in 30-meter sprint by military athletes. This effect is due to the post activation potentiation of the lower limbs’ muscles in the 30 meters sprint. PMID:27134353

  7. Autologous tenocyte implantation, a novel treatment for partial-thickness rotator cuff tear and tendinopathy in an elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Wang, Allan W; Bauer, Stefan; Goonatillake, Matthew; Breidahl, William; Zheng, Ming-Hao

    2013-01-11

    Tendinopathy and small partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff tendon are common presentations in sports medicine. No promising treatment has yet been established. Corticosteroid injections may improve symptoms in the short term but do not primarily treat the tendon pathology. Ultrasound-guided autologous tenocyte implantation (ATI) is a novel bioengineered treatment approach for treating tendinopathy. We report the first clinical case of ATI in a 20-year-old elite gymnast with a rotator cuff tendon injury. The patient presented with 12 months of increasing pain during gymnastics being unable to perform most skills. At 1 year after ATI the patient reported substantial improvement of clinical symptoms. Pretreatment and follow-up MRIs were reported and scored independently by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Tendinopathy was improved and the partial-thickness tear healed on 3 T MRI. The patient was able to return to national-level competition.

  8. Autologous tenocyte implantation, a novel treatment for partial-thickness rotator cuff tear and tendinopathy in an elite athlete

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Allan W; Bauer, Stefan; Goonatillake, Matthew; Breidahl, William; Zheng, Ming-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Tendinopathy and small partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff tendon are common presentations in sports medicine. No promising treatment has yet been established. Corticosteroid injections may improve symptoms in the short term but do not primarily treat the tendon pathology. Ultrasound-guided autologous tenocyte implantation (ATI) is a novel bioengineered treatment approach for treating tendinopathy. We report the first clinical case of ATI in a 20-year-old elite gymnast with a rotator cuff tendon injury. The patient presented with 12 months of increasing pain during gymnastics being unable to perform most skills. At 1 year after ATI the patient reported substantial improvement of clinical symptoms. Pretreatment and follow-up MRIs were reported and scored independently by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Tendinopathy was improved and the partial-thickness tear healed on 3 T MRI. The patient was able to return to national-level competition. PMID:23314880

  9. Influence of growth rate on nitrogen balance in adolescent sprint athletes.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Poortmans, Jacques Remi; Hauspie, Ronald; Clarys, Peter

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to estimate nitrogen balance and protein requirements in adolescent sprint athletes as a function of growth rate and physical development. Sixty adolescent sprint athletes were followed up biannually over a 2-yr period. Individual growth curves and age at peak height velocity were determined. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was estimated based on anthropometric measurements and fat mass was estimated by underwater densitometry. Seven-day diet and physical activity diaries were completed to estimate energy balance and protein intake. Nitrogen analysis of 24-hr urine samples collected on 1 weekday and 1 weekend day allowed calculation of nitrogen balance. Body height, weight, and SMM increased throughout the study period in both genders. Mean protein intakes were between 1.4 and 1.6 g kg-1 day-1 in both genders. A protein intake of 1.46 g kg-1 day-1 in girls and 1.35 g kg-1 day-1 in boys was needed to yield a positive nitrogen balance. This did not differ between participants during and after their growth spurt. None of the growth parameters was significantly related to nitrogen balance. It can be concluded that a mean protein intake around 1.5 g kg-1 day-1 was sufficient to stay in a positive nitrogen balance, even during periods of peak growth. Therefore, protein intake should not be enhanced in peak periods of linear or muscular growth.

  10. Radiological analysis of the medial epicondyle in the adolescent throwing athlete

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wuey Min; Chan, Chee Ken; Takahashi, Norimasa; Kawai, Nobuaki; Teh, Kok Kheng; Saravana, R; Sugaya, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Injuries to the medial structures of the elbow due to overhead throwing games are well documented. However, variations of medial epicondyles are not well described, especially in athletes with fused medial epicondyles. In this study, we evaluated variations in the medial epicondyle of baseball players who were aged 15–17 years and had fused epicondyles. METHODS In this cross-sectional observational study, 155 skeletally mature baseball players with unilateral medial elbow pain and 310 elbow radiographs were reviewed by two independent reviewers. The medial epicondyles were categorised into three groups: normal, elongated or separated. RESULTS Among the 155 patients, 65 (41.9%) had normal epicondyles, 41 (26.5%) had elongated epicondyles and 49 (31.6%) had separated epicondyles. The medial epicondyle was larger on the dominant arm for 125 (80.6%) patients; the mean surface area on the dominant arm was 222.50 ± 45.77 mm2, while that of the non-dominant arm was 189.14 ± 39.56 mm2 (p < 0.01). Among the three categories of medial epicondyles, separated epicondyles had the largest surface area, followed by elongated and normal epicondyles. CONCLUSION Medial epicondyles in adolescent throwing athletes can be categorised into three different groups according to their shape (normal, elongated and separated). We observed a correlation between the shape and the surface area of the medial epicondyle in adolescent throwing athletes, with separated medial epicondyles having the largest surface area. Further studies and follow-up are needed to determine the prognostic value and clinical significance of these morphological variations. PMID:26976222

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRUNK ENDURANCE PLANK TESTS AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE TESTS IN ADOLESCENT SOCCER PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Kaneoka, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Background Although it is believed that trunk function is important for athletic performance, few researchers have demonstrated a significant relationship between the trunk function and athletic performance. Recently, the prone plank and side plank tests have been used to assess trunk function. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between trunk endurance plank tests and athletic performance tests, including whether there is a relationship between long distance running and trunk endurance plank tests in adolescent male soccer players. Study design Cross sectional study design. Methods Fifty-five adolescent male soccer players performed prone and side plank tests and seven performance tests: the Cooper test, the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, the step 50 agility test, a 30-m sprint test, a vertical countermovement jump, a standing five-step jump, and a rebound jump. The relationships between each individual plank test, the combined score of both plank tests, and performance tests were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results The combined score of plank tests was highly correlated with the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (r = 0.710, p < 0.001), and was moderately correlated with the Cooper test (r = 0.567, p < 0.001). Poor correlation was observed between the prone plank test and step 50 agility test (r = -0.436, p = 0.001) and no significant correlations were observed between plank tests and jump performance tests. Conclusions The results suggest that trunk endurance plank tests are positively correlated with the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, the Cooper test, and the step 50 agility test. Level of Evidence Level 2 PMID:27757284

  12. Privilege: The Making of an Adolescent Elite at St. Paul's School. Princeton Studies in Cultural Sociology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Shamus Rahman

    2012-01-01

    As one of the most prestigious high schools in the nation, St. Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire, has long been the exclusive domain of America's wealthiest sons. But times have changed. Today, a new elite of boys and girls is being molded at St. Paul's, one that reflects the hope of openness but also the persistence of inequality. In…

  13. Coaching the Vegetarian Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandali, Swarna L.

    2011-01-01

    Good nutrition is important for optimal athletic performance. Adolescent athletes often depend on their coaches for nutritional information on weight management, dietary supplements, and dietary practices. Some dietary practices, such as vegetarianism, have the potential to be harmful to the adolescent athlete if not followed with careful…

  14. Serum zinc is associated with plasma leptin and Cu-Zn SOD in elite male basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiexiu; Fan, Bin; Wu, Zhaozhao; Xu, Minxiao; Luo, Yufeng

    2015-04-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between plasma trace element and plasma leptin, as well as percent fat mass, in 16 male basketball athletes. Blood samples were obtained before intensive training and 24h after intensive training to measure plasma zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and leptin levels. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), triglyceride (TG), total and cholesterol (TC) levels were determined using commercially available kits for humans. Subjects presented similar values in terms of age (21.1±2.2 years old), body mass index (23.9±2.00kg/m(2)), percent body fat (14.40±1.52%), plasma hemoglobin (150.1±9.4g/L), plasma Zn (17.47±1.28μmol/l), plasma Cu (13.42±1.40μmol/L), plasma Ca (2.41±0.14mmol/L), and plasma Mg (0.96±0.02mmol/L). The correlation analysis between degree of plasma leptin and plasma element contents was performed using the SPSS 16.0 software. Plasma Zn correlated positively with plasma leptin (r=0.746, P<0.01), Cu-Zn SOD (r=0.827, P<0.01), and negatively with percent fat mass (r=-0.598, P<0.05) under no-training conditions. Meanwhile, plasma Cu, Ca, Mg, and Fe did not correlate with plasma leptin or percent fat mass (P>0.05). In conclusion, plasma Zn may be involved in the regulation of plasma leptin and may serve as a lipid-mobilizing factor in Chinese men's basketball athletes.

  15. RELIABILITY OF THE ONE REPETITION-MAXIMUM POWER CLEAN TEST IN ADOLESCENT ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; McFarland, James E.; Herman, Robert; Naclerio, Fernando; Ratamess, Nicholas A.; Kang, Jie; Myer, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Although the power clean test is routinely used to assess strength and power performance in adult athletes, the reliability of this measure in younger populations has not been examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the one repetition maximum (1 RM) power clean in adolescent athletes. Thirty-six male athletes (age 15.9 ± 1.1 yrs, body mass 79.1 ± 20.3 kg, height 175.1 ±7.4 cm) who had more than 1 year of training experience with weightlifting exercises performed a 1 RM power clean on two nonconsecutive days in the afternoon following standardized procedures. All test procedures were supervised by a senior level weightlifting coach and consisted of a systematic progression in test load until the maximum resistance that could be lifted for one repetition using proper exercise technique was determined. Data were analyzed using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC [2,k]), Pearson correlation coefficient (r), repeated measures ANOVA, Bland-Altman plot, and typical error analyses. Analysis of the data revealed that the test measures were highly reliable demonstrating a test-retest ICC of 0.98 (95% CI = 0.96–0.99). Testing also demonstrated a strong relationship between 1 RM measures on trial 1 and trial 2 (r=0.98, p<0.0001) with no significant difference in power clean performance between trials (70.6 ± 19.8 vs. 69.8 ± 19.8 kg). Bland Altman plots confirmed no systematic shift in 1 RM between trial 1 and trial 2. The typical error to be expected between 1 RM power clean trials is 2.9 kg and a change of at least 8.0 kg is indicated to determine a real change in lifting performance between tests in young lifters. No injuries occurred during the study period and the testing protocol was well-tolerated by all subjects. These findings indicate that 1 RM power clean testing has a high degree of reproducibility in trained male adolescent athletes when standardized testing procedures are followed and qualified instruction

  16. Reliability of the one-repetition-maximum power clean test in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; McFarland, James E; Herman, Robert E; Naclerio, Fernando; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Kang, Jie; Myer, Gregory D

    2012-02-01

    Although the power clean test is routinely used to assess strength and power performance in adult athletes, the reliability of this measure in younger populations has not been examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) power clean in adolescent athletes. Thirty-six male athletes (age 15.9 ± 1.1 years, body mass 79.1 ± 20.3 kg, height 175.1 ±7.4 cm) who had >1 year of training experience in weightlifting exercises performed a 1RM power clean on 2 nonconsecutive days in the afternoon following standardized procedures. All test procedures were supervised by a senior level weightlifting coach and consisted of a systematic progression in test load until the maximum resistance that could be lifted for 1 repetition using proper exercise technique was determined. Data were analyzed using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC[2,k]), Pearson correlation coefficient (r), repeated measures analysis of variance, Bland-Altman plot, and typical error analyses. Analysis of the data revealed that the test measures were highly reliable demonstrating a test-retest ICC of 0.98 (95% confidence interval = 0.96-0.99). Testing also demonstrated a strong relationship between 1RM measures in trials 1 and 2 (r = 0.98, p < 0.0001) with no significant difference in power clean performance between trials (70.6 ± 19.8 vs. 69.8 ± 19.8 kg). Bland-Altman plots confirmed no systematic shift in 1RM between trials 1 and 2. The typical error to be expected between 1RM power clean trials is 2.9 kg, and a change of at least 8.0 kg is indicated to determine a real change in lifting performance between tests in young lifters. No injuries occurred during the study period, and the testing protocol was well tolerated by all the subjects. These findings indicate that 1RM power clean testing has a high degree of reproducibility in trained male adolescent athletes when standardized testing procedures are followed and qualified

  17. The mechanical interactions between an American football cleat and playing surfaces in-situ at loads and rates generated by elite athletes: a comparison of playing surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kent, Richard; Forman, Jason L; Crandall, Jeff; Lessley, David

    2015-03-01

    This study quantified the mechanical interactions between an American football cleat and eight surfaces used by professional American football teams. Loading conditions were applied with a custom-built testing apparatus designed to represent play-relevant maneuvers of elite athletes. Two natural grass and six infill artificial surfaces were tested with the cleated portion of a shoe intended for use on either surface type. In translation tests with a 2. 8-kN vertical load, the grass surfaces limited the horizontal force on the cleats by tearing. This tearing was not observed with the artificial surfaces, which allowed less motion and generated greater horizontal force (3.2 kN vs. 4.5 kN, p < 0.05). Similarly, rotation tests generated less angular displacement and greater torque on the artificial surfaces (145 N m vs. 197 N m, p < 0.05). Translation/drop tests, in which the foot-form was launched into the surfaces with both horizontal and vertical velocity components generated less peak horizontal force on the natural surfaces than on the artificial surfaces (2.4 kN vs. 3.0 kN, p < 0.05). These results suggest a force-limiting mechanism inherent to natural grass surfaces. Future work should consider implications of these findings for performance and injury risk and should evaluate the findings' sensitivity to cleat pattern and playing conditions.

  18. The relationship of symptoms and neurocognitive performance to perceived recovery from sports-related concussion among adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Sandel, Natalie K; Lovell, Mark R; Kegel, Nathan E; Collins, Michael W; Kontos, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    Sports medicine practitioners often consider athletes' self-reports of recovery for the management of concussion, and it is not clear which factors (i.e., neurocognitive performance and symptoms) athletes consider when forming perceptions of recovery from concussion. The current study assessed the relationship of perceptions of recovery to neurocognitive performance on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery and to symptoms using the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). A total of 101 concussed athletes (62 males, 39 females) aged 12 to 18 years old were included in the study (M(age) = 14.75, SD = 1.76). Athletes were asked to rate their "percent back to normal" (i.e., perception of recovery) at the time of evaluation. A multiple regression for neurocognitive performance and symptoms revealed a significant model that accounted for 58% of the variance in perceptions of recovery. Adolescent athletes base their perceptions primarily on somatic symptoms (e.g., headache, nausea, vomiting, etc.), and these perceptions may be incongruent with objective neurocognitive measures. Athletes' tendency to overlook several factors when forming their perceptions of recovery should caution the sports medicine practitioner from relying on self-reported symptoms as their primary criterion for return-to-play decisions. These data further support the need for valid and reliable measures for concussion management.

  19. Concussion History in Adolescent Athletes with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Grant L; Atkins, Joseph E; Zafonte, Ross; Berkner, Paul D

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about the rate of concussions in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that high school athletes with ADHD would report a greater history of concussion than students without ADHD. A total of 6529 adolescent and young adult student athletes, between the ages of 13 and 19 years (mean, 15.9; standard deviation, 1.3), completed a preseason health survey in 2010. Of those with ADHD, 26.1% reported a history of one or more concussions, compared to 17.1% of those without ADHD (p<0.00001; odds ratio [OR], 1.71). Stratified by gender, 27.0% of boys with ADHD reported a history of one or more concussions, compared to 20.0% of boys without ADHD (p<0.004; OR, 1.48), and 23.6% of girls with ADHD reported a history of one or more concussions, compared to 13.6% of girls without ADHD (p<0.003; OR, 1.97). Of those with ADHD, 9.8% reported a history of two or more concussions, compared to 5.5% of those without ADHD (p<0.0003; OR, 1.87). Stratified by gender, 10.0% of boys with ADHD reported a history of two or more concussions, compared to 6.7% of boys without ADHD (p<0.033; OR, 1.54), and 9.1% of girls with ADHD reported a history of two or more concussions, compared to 3.8% of girls without ADHD (p<0.006; OR, 2.51). In this large-scale, retrospective survey study, boys and girls with ADHD were significantly more likely to report a history of concussion. Additional research is needed to determine whether students with ADHD are more susceptible to injury (i.e., have a lower threshold) or have different recovery trajectories.

  20. Modifying spike jump landing biomechanics in female adolescent volleyball athletes using video and verbal feedback.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Joanne L; Alexander, Marion J L

    2012-04-01

    Landing awkwardly from a jump is a common mechanism of injury for the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee. Augmented feedback, such as verbal or visual instruction, has been shown to cause an immediate, positive change in landing biomechanics in a laboratory setting. No data exist on the longer term effects of feedback on jump landing biomechanics in a sports-specific setting. The purpose of this study was to explore whether providing video and verbal feedback to adolescent (12-14 years old) female volleyball athletes would improve their landing technique. Trunk and lower extremity kinematic variables were measured in 19 participants before a feedback session was provided to the intervention group (IG). Follow-up kinematic measurements of the IG were taken immediately postintervention, and again after 2 and 4 weeks. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the IG with a control group (CG), who received no feedback. The IG (n = 10) demonstrated increased maximal hip and trunk flexion compared with the CG (n = 9) at week 4 (p ≤ 0.05). One-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine if changes were evident within the IG over time. Ankle dorsiflexion, right knee and hip flexion, and trunk flexion changed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) over the 4-week period. Augmented feedback appeared to produce a positive change in landing biomechanics in adolescent female volleyball athletes performing a sports-specific skill. Courtside video and verbal feedback may present a relatively simple, cost-effective method of introducing one component of a comprehensive ACL injury prevention program at a young age.

  1. Predicting punching acceleration from selected strength and power variables in elite karate athletes: a multiple regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Kobal, Ronaldo; Gil, Saulo; Franchini, Emerson

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship between punching acceleration and selected strength and power variables in 19 professional karate athletes from the Brazilian National Team (9 men and 10 women; age, 23 ± 3 years; height, 1.71 ± 0.09 m; and body mass [BM], 67.34 ± 13.44 kg). Punching acceleration was assessed under 4 different conditions in a randomized order: (a) fixed distance aiming to attain maximum speed (FS), (b) fixed distance aiming to attain maximum impact (FI), (c) self-selected distance aiming to attain maximum speed, and (d) self-selected distance aiming to attain maximum impact. The selected strength and power variables were as follows: maximal dynamic strength in bench press and squat-machine, squat and countermovement jump height, mean propulsive power in bench throw and jump squat, and mean propulsive velocity in jump squat with 40% of BM. Upper- and lower-body power and maximal dynamic strength variables were positively correlated to punch acceleration in all conditions. Multiple regression analysis also revealed predictive variables: relative mean propulsive power in squat jump (W·kg-1), and maximal dynamic strength 1 repetition maximum in both bench press and squat-machine exercises. An impact-oriented instruction and a self-selected distance to start the movement seem to be crucial to reach the highest acceleration during punching execution. This investigation, while demonstrating strong correlations between punching acceleration and strength-power variables, also provides important information for coaches, especially for designing better training strategies to improve punching speed.

  2. Estimating Body Composition in Adolescent Sprint Athletes: Comparison of Different Methods in a 3 Years Longitudinal Design

    PubMed Central

    Aerenhouts, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A recommended field method to assess body composition in adolescent sprint athletes is currently lacking. Existing methods developed for non-athletic adolescents were not longitudinally validated and do not take maturation status into account. This longitudinal study compared two field methods, i.e., a Bio Impedance Analysis (BIA) and a skinfold based equation, with underwater densitometry to track body fat percentage relative to years from age at peak height velocity in adolescent sprint athletes. In this study, adolescent sprint athletes (34 girls, 35 boys) were measured every 6 months during 3 years (age at start = 14.8 ± 1.5yrs in girls and 14.7 ± 1.9yrs in boys). Body fat percentage was estimated in 3 different ways: 1) using BIA with the TANITA TBF 410; 2) using a skinfold based equation; 3) using underwater densitometry which was considered as the reference method. Height for age since birth was used to estimate age at peak height velocity. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson correlations between measurement methods at each occasion. Data were analyzed longitudinally using a multilevel cross-classified model with the PROC Mixed procedure. In boys, compared to underwater densitometry, the skinfold based formula revealed comparable values for body fatness during the study period whereas BIA showed a different pattern leading to an overestimation of body fatness starting from 4 years after age at peak height velocity. In girls, both the skinfold based formula and BIA overestimated body fatness across the whole range of years from peak height velocity. The skinfold based method appears to give an acceptable estimation of body composition during growth as compared to underwater densitometry in male adolescent sprinters. In girls, caution is warranted when interpreting estimations of body fatness by both BIA and a skinfold based formula since both methods tend to give an overestimation. PMID:26317426

  3. After-school fitness performance is not altered after physical education lessons in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; McFarland, James E; Buchanan, Erin; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Kang, Jie; Hoffman, Jay R

    2010-03-01

    Physical education (PE) provides a unique opportunity for school-age youth to establish health habits, although some young athletes are exempt from PE and others do not participate because of a concern regarding the lingering effects of fatigue on after-school fitness performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different PE lessons on after-school fitness performance in young athletes. Twenty athletes (14-18 years) participated in 3 different PE lessons that consisted of aerobic exercise (AE), resistance training (RT), or basketball skill training (BS). Fitness performance was assessed after-school following each lesson and after a control day without PE. There were no significant differences in flexibility (34.1 +/- 6.5, 34.7 +/- 1.3, 33.5 +/- 7.2, and 33.6 +/- 7.3 cm), vertical jump (46.3 +/- 14.7, 46.2 +/- 13.6, 46.4 +/- 13.4, and 45.6 +/- 14.2 cm), long jump (175.0 +/- 36.4, 174.2 +/- 36.3, 172.7 +/- 35.8, and 171.9 +/- 34.7 cm), medicine ball toss (348.9 +/- 121.8, 342.0 +/- 120.6, 353.9 +/- 123.6, and 348.4 +/- 129.1 cm), proagility shuttle run (5.8 +/- 0.5, 5.7 +/-0.53, 5.8 +/- 0.52, and 5.8 +/- 0.5 seconds), 20-m sprint (3.7 +/- 0.4, 3.7 +/- 0.4, 3.7 +/- 0.3, and 3.7 +/- 0.3 seconds), and 200-m sprint (36.3 +/- 4.7, 35.1 +/- 4.0, 35.9 +/- 5.9, and 35.4 +/- 5.4 seconds) after AE, RT, BS, or the control day, respectively. These findings suggest that an exercise lesson or skill-based PE class will not have an adverse effect on after-school fitness performance in adolescent athletes.

  4. Bone mineral density, rib pain and other features of the female athlete triad in elite lightweight rowers

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriou, Lygeri; Weiler, Richard; Lloyd-Smith, Rebecca; Turner, Antony; Heath, Luke; James, Nic; Reid, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine bone mineral density (BMD) and the associations among BMD, menstrual history, disordered eating (DE), training history, intentional weight loss (IWL) and rib pain for the first time in female lightweight rowers. Setting 9 lightweight rowing clubs, UK. Participants 29 Caucasian female lightweight rowers volunteered. 21 (12 active, 9 retired) completed the study. Inclusion criteria: female lightweight rowers aged over 18 years. Exclusion criteria: participants with a history of bone disease, used medications known to influence BMD or if they were pregnant, lactating or postmenopausal. Main outcome measures Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured total body (TB) composition and BMD at the spine, femoral neck (FN), radius and TB. DE, oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhoea years; rib pain and training history. Results DE was reported in six of the rowers. The active with DE started rowing younger (p<0.05) than those without, and their amount of IWL was associated with Eating Attitudes Test-26 score (p<0.05). Some participants reported a history of oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhoea 17 (76%) and/or rib pain 7 (32%) with those with rib pain having lower spine and TB Z-scores (p<0.05) than those without. Those with oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhoea had lower spine Z-scores (p<0.01) than those without. Twelve participants had low BMD; three at spine; one at FN; and eight at radius. Thirteen per cent of mean total training hours (18.6±9.1 h/week) were spent strength training (2.4±2.2 h/week). Conclusions Upper body exercises incorporating multidimensional high peak bone strain were not reported and may need to be considered in their strength training to improve radial BMD. Results suggest IWL and high-level training at a young age increases the likelihood of DE and there may be a lack of quality nutritional support for these athletes. Thus, multidisciplinary sport science support should be offered at a young age and perhaps also to consider changing the weight rules

  5. How Healthy is the Behavior of Young Athletes? A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Katharina; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan; Mayer, Jochen; Litaker, David G; Schneider, Sven

    2012-06-01

    Participation in sports during adolescence is considered a healthy behavior. The extent to which adolescent athletes engage in other healthful (or risky) behaviors is less clear, however. We conducted a systematic literature review following the PRISMA Statement to assess the frequency of risky behaviors among athletes in this age group. We searched the PubMed, PsycINFO and SCA Sociological Abstracts databases for observational studies published in English over the last twenty years on the frequency of selected risk behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking behavior, use of illicit drugs, unhealthy nutrition, and doping) in adolescent athletes. Two independent reviewers selected articles following the PRISMA Statement. Behavior frequency was assessed as was comparability of study design and methods. When possible, meta- analyses were performed using data from subgroups of studies in which operational indicators were comparable. Seventy-eight articles met eligibility criteria. Although report of risky behaviors varied across studies, we observed overall, that studies tend to report higher alcohol use, less smoking, less recreational drug use, and more smokeless tobacco use in (high-involved) athletes. Considerable heterogeneity was noted in study design, definition of target groups and use of operational indicators (I(2) ranged from 93.2% to 100%). Especially the higher prevalence of using alcohol and smokeless tobacco needs more attention in interventions targeted to this group. Overall, greater consensus on methods used to assess risky behaviors in adolescent athletes. Key pointsThis is the first systematic review focusing on different health related risk behaviors of adolescent athletes aged ≤ 18 years from different countries.Health related risk behaviors such as alcohol consumption are common among recreational and elite adolescent athletes.Athletes were more likely to consume alcohol, smokeless tobacco, and steroids and less likely to smoke and to use

  6. Training increases anabolic response and reduces inflammatory response to a single practice in elite male adolescent volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Nemet, Dan; Portal, Shawn; Zadik, Zvi; Pilz-Burstein, Rutie; Adler-Portal, Dana; Meckel, Yoav; Eliakim, Alon

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effect of training on hormonal and inflammatory response to a single volleyball practice in elite adolescent players. Fourteen male, elite, national team-level, Israeli volleyball players (age, 16.3±1.1 years, Tanner stage 4-5) participated in the study. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after a typical 60-min volleyball practice, before and after 7 weeks of training during the initial phases of the volleyball season. Hormonal measurements included the anabolic hormones growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, and testosterone; the catabolic hormone cortisol; the pro-inflammatory markers interleukin (IL) 6, and the anti-inflammatory marker IL-1 receptor antagonist. Training led to a significant improvement of both anaerobic and aerobic properties. Before the training intervention, the typical volleyball practice was associated with a significant increase of GH and testosterone and also with a significant increase of IL-6. Training resulted in a significantly greater GH response (ΔGH, 2.5±2.4 vs. 4.7±3.0 ng/mL, before and after training, respectively; p<0.02) and reduced IL-6 response (ΔIL-6, 2.0±1.6 vs. 0.6±0.7 pg/mL, before and after training, respectively; p<0.01) to the same relative intensity volleyball practice. The results suggest that, along with the improvement of anaerobic and aerobic characteristics, training leads to a greater anabolic and reduced inflammatory response to exercise.

  7. Physical characteristics of elite adolescent female basketball players and their relationship to match performance

    PubMed Central

    Montalvo, Alicia; Latinjak, Alexander; Unnithan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There were two aims of this study: first, to investigate physical fitness and match performance differences between under-16 (U16) and under-18 (U18) female basketball players, and second, to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and game-related performances. Twenty-three young, female, elite Spanish basketball players (16.2 1.2 years) participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: U16 and U18 players. The average scores from pre- and post-season physical fitness measurements were used for subsequent analyses. Anthropometric variables were also measured. To evaluate game performance, game-related statistics, including the number of games and minutes played, points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks per game, were recorded for every competitive match in one season. When anthropometric and physical performance variables were compared between groups, the U18 group demonstrated significantly (p<0.05) higher values in upper (+21.2%) and lower (+27.11%) limb strength compared to the U16 group. Furthermore, no significant differences between groups were observed in match performance outcomes. Only two performance variables, steals and assists per game, correlated significantly with jump capacity, speed, agility, anaerobic power, repeated sprint ability and aerobic power (p ≤ 0.005). These findings can help optimize training programs for young, elite female basketball players. PMID:28149421

  8. A Comparison of the Developmental Experiences of Elite and Sub-Elite Swimmers: Similar Developmental Histories Can Lead to Differences in Performance Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Michael B.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Edmonds, William A.; Castillo, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    The current study fills a void in the literature that investigates the factors required for elite athlete development. Previous studies have (a) illustrated psychological and physiological differences between elites and non-elites; "or" (b) described the psychological and physiological developmental experiences of elite performers. The…

  9. Basketball Performance Is Related to Maturity and Relative Age in Elite Adolescent Players.

    PubMed

    Torres-Unda, Jon; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Gravina, Leyre; Zubero, Jaime; Seco, Jesús; Gil, Susana M; Gil, Javier; Irazusta, Jon

    2016-05-01

    During a national championship, the anthropometric, physiological, and maturation characteristics of 13- to 14-year-old players of elite basketball teams and their association with sport performance were analyzed. Body parameters (weight, height, skinfold thicknesses, and lengths) were measured and physiological capacities assessed by sprint (20 m) and jump tests (i.e., countermovement jump with arm swing). Chronological age (CA) and maturity offset (years from age at peak height velocity; YAPHV) were calculated, and then predicted age at peak height velocity, as the difference between CA and YAPHV. Game performance was assessed with point averages and the performance index rating (PIR). The birth-date distribution of players was biased, those born early in the selection year outnumbering those born later. Anthropometric analysis indicated that players who performed better had longer body lengths. Physiological testing showed that semi-finalists had better sprint performance than quarter-finalists and those players with greater jump capacity scored more points. Early maturation and advanced maturity status were also associated with better PIR and scored points per game. Multiple blockwise regression analysis showed that, among the factors analyzed, YAPHV was the best predictor of basketball performance. In conclusion, around puberty, physical and physiological parameters associated with maturity and CA are important in determining the success of elite basketball players. Consequently, boys who are born in the second half of the year and/or late maturing tend to be marginalized or totally excluded, and not given the chance to play under equal conditions; their careers may then be held back by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience.

  10. Panopticonics: The Control and Surveillance of Black Female Athletes in a Collegiate Athletic Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Kevin Michael

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes black female student athletes' participation in an elite collegiate athletic program by showing how the program maximizes black females' athletic and academic potential through surveillance, control, and discipline. The program instills in black female athletes a model of womanhood whereby they come to expect and achieve academic and…

  11. Functional Connectivity Is Altered in Concussed Adolescent Athletes Despite Medical Clearance to Return to Play: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Mary R.; Li, Xiaoqi; Lin, Xiaodi; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Ott, Summer; Biekman, Brian; Hunter, Jill V.; Dash, Pramod K.; Taylor, Brian A.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2016-01-01

    Recovery following sports-related concussion (SRC) is slower and often more complicated in young adolescent athletes than in collegiate players. Further, the clinical decision to return to play is currently based on symptoms and cognitive performance without direct knowledge of brain function. We tested the hypothesis that brain functional connectivity (FC) would be aberrant in recently concussed, asymptomatic athletes who had been cleared to return to play. A seed-based FC analysis measured the FC of the default mode network (DMN) (seeds = anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), right lateral parietal cortex, and left lateral parietal cortex) 30 days after SRC in asymptomatic high school athletes cleared to return to play (n = 13) and was compared to the FC of high school athletes with orthopedic injury (OI) (n = 13). The SRC group demonstrated greater FC than the OI group between the PCC and the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex, as well as between the right lateral parietal cortex and lateral temporal cortex (with regions both outside of and within the DMN). Additionally, the OI group demonstrated greater FC than the SRC group between right lateral parietal cortex and supramarginal gyrus. When relating the FC results to verbal memory performance approximately 1 week and 1 month after injury, significantly different between-group relations were found for the posterior cingulate and right lateral parietal cortex seeds. However, the groups did not differ in verbal memory at 1 month. We suggest that changes in FC are apparent 1-month post-SRC despite resolution of post-concussion symptoms and recovery of cognitive performance in adolescent athletes cleared to return to play. PMID:27504104

  12. Usefulness of combined history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and limited echocardiogram in screening adolescent athletes for risk for sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey B; Grenier, Michelle; Edwards, Nicholas M; Madsen, Nicolas L; Czosek, Richard J; Spar, David S; Barnes, Allison; Pratt, Jesse; King, Eileen; Knilans, Timothy K

    2014-12-01

    Sudden cardiac death in the young (SCDY) is the leading cause of death in young athletes during sport. Screening young athletes for high-risk cardiac defects is controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility and feasibility of a comprehensive cardiac screening protocol in an adolescent population. Adolescent athletes were recruited from local schools and/or sports teams. Each subject underwent a history and/or physical examination, an electrocardiography (ECG), and a limited echocardiography (ECHO). The primary outcome measure was identification of cardiac abnormalities associated with an elevated risk for sudden death. We secondarily identified cardiac abnormalities not typically associated with a short-term risk of sudden death. A total of 659 adolescent athletes were evaluated; 64% men. Five subjects had cardiac findings associated with an elevated risk for sudden death: prolonged QTc >500 ms (n = 2) and type I Brugada pattern (n = 1), identified with ECG; dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 1) and significant aortic root dilation; and z-score = +5.5 (n = 1). History and physical examination alone identified 76 (11.5%) subjects with any cardiac findings. ECG identified 76 (11.5%) subjects in which a follow-up ECHO or cardiology visit was recommended. Left ventricular mass was normal by ECHO in all but 1 patient with LVH on ECG. ECHO identified 34 (5.1%) subjects in whom a follow-up ECHO or cardiology visit was recommended. In conclusion, physical examination alone was ineffective in identification of subjects at elevated risk for SCDY. Screening ECHO identified patients with underlying cardiac disease not associated with immediate risk for SCDY. Cost of comprehensive cardiac screening is high.

  13. The child and adolescent athlete: a review of three potentially serious injuries.

    PubMed

    Caine, Dennis; Purcell, Laura; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The increased participation of children and