Hsieh, Manying; Stright, Anne Dopkins
This study examined the relationships among adolescents' emotion regulation strategies (suppression and cognitive reappraisal), self-concept, and internalizing problems using structural equation modeling. The sample consisted of 438 early adolescents (13 to 15 years old) in Taiwan, including 215 boys and 223 girls. For both boys and girls,…
Langton, Emma Gore; Collishaw, Stephan; Goodman, Robert; Pickles, Andrew; Maughan, Barbara
Background: While there is considerable evidence of income gradients in child and adolescent behaviour problems, evidence relating to children and young people's emotional difficulties is more mixed. Older studies reported no income differentials, while recent reports suggest that adolescents from low-income families are more likely to experience…
The author examined the association between emotional autonomy and problem behavior among Chinese adolescents living in Hong Kong. The respondents were 512 adolescents, 16 to 18 years of age, who were interviewed for a cross-sectional study. Three dimensions of emotional autonomy including individuation, nondependency on parents, and de-idealization of parents were significantly and positively correlated with the amount of problem behavior the participants engaged in during the past 6 months. Using a simple linear multiple regression model, the author found that problem behavior was associated with only one aspect of emotional autonomy-individuation. Results indicated that the relationship between problem behavior and three aspects of emotional autonomy was similar in both individualistic and collectivistic societies.
Van der Giessen, Daniëlle; Hollenstein, Tom; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan
Emotional variability reflects the ability to flexibly switch among a broad range of positive and negative emotions from moment-to-moment during interactions. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions is considered to be important for healthy socio-emotional functioning of mothers and adolescents. The current observational study examined whether dyadic emotional variability, maternal emotional variability, and adolescent emotional variability during conflict interactions in early adolescence predicted mothers' and adolescents' internalizing problems five years later. We used data from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (Mage T1 = 13.05; 65.20 % boys) who were videotaped at T1 while discussing a conflict. Emotional variability was derived from these conflict interactions and it was observed for mother-adolescent dyads, mothers and adolescents separately. Mothers and adolescents also completed questionnaires in early adolescence (T1) and five years later in late adolescence (T6) on mothers' internalizing problems, and adolescents' anxiety and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that less dyadic emotional variability in early adolescence predicted relative increases in mothers' internalizing problems, adolescents' depressive symptoms, and adolescents' anxiety symptoms from early to late adolescence. Less maternal emotional variability only predicted relative increases in adolescents' anxiety symptoms over time. The emotional valence (e.g., types of emotions expressed) of conflict interactions did not moderate the results. Taken together, findings highlighted the importance of considering limited emotional variability during conflict interactions in the development, prevention, and treatment of internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents.
Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.
Background: Adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) (ID-adolescents) and adolescents with chronic diseases are both more likely to have emotional and behavioural problems. The aim of this study was to assess the association between chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and emotional and behavioural problems in a large school-based sample.…
Muthupalaniappen, Leelavathi; Omar, Juslina; Omar, Khairani; Iryani, Tuti; Hamid, Siti Norain
We carried out a cross sectional study to detect emotional and behavioral problems among adolescents who smoke and their help-seeking behavior. This study was conducted in Sarawak, East Malaysia, between July and September 2006. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured using the Youth Self-Report (YSR/11-18) questionnaire; help seeking behavior was assessed using a help-seeking questionnaire. Three hundred ninety-nine students participated in the study; the smoking prevalence was 32.8%. The mean scores for emotional and behavioral problems were higher among smokers than non-smokers in all domains (internalizing, p = 0.028; externalizing, p = 0.001; other behavior, p = 0.001). The majority of students who smoked (94.7%) did not seek help from a primary health care provider for their emotional or behavioral problems. Common barriers to help-seeking were: the perception their problems were trivial (60.3%) and the preference to solve problems on their own (45.8%). Our findings suggest adolescent smokers in Sarawak, East Malaysia were more likely to break rules, exhibit aggressive behavior and have somatic complaints than non-smoking adolescents. Adolescent smokers preferred to seek help for their problems from informal sources. Physicians treating adolescents should inquire about smoking habits, emotional and behavioral problems and offer counseling if required.
Zach-Vanhorn, Sara M.
This research was conducted to explore predictors and moderators of bullying involvement, social and emotional problems, vocabulary knowledge, and crimes. There was one main research question: (1) Is there a the relationship between adolescents with social and emotional problems as measured by the SDQ (Goodman, 1997) and adolescents'…
Petot, Djaouida; Rescorla, Leslie; Petot, Jean-Michel
The present study examined agreement between scores obtained from self-reports of behavioral and emotional problems obtained from 513 Algerian adolescents on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) with scores obtained from reports provided by their parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The correlations between self- and parent-report were larger…
Petot, Djaouida; Rescorla, Leslie; Petot, Jean-Michel
The present study examined agreement between scores obtained from self-reports of behavioral and emotional problems obtained from 513 Algerian adolescents on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) with scores obtained from reports provided by their parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The correlations between self- and parent-report were larger than those observed in many other cultures (e.g., intraclass correlation coefficient=0.60 and Pearson r=0.65 for Total Problems). On the whole, cross-informant agreement did not vary significantly as a function of problem type, identity of the parental informant, gender and age of the adolescent. Similar to all studied cultures, adolescents on average reported more problems than their parents reported about them, but the discrepancies were smaller than in all previous societies. Mean YSR/CBCL score discrepancies indicated higher YSR scores for several scales, but variability across dyads was large, and many dyads showed the opposite pattern.
Betancourt, Theresa S.; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton
The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents. PMID:22443099
Betancourt, Theresa S; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton
The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents.
Motamedi, Farzaneh; Ghobari-Bonab, Bagher; Beh-pajooh, Ahmad; Yekta, Mohsen Shokoohi; Afrooz, Gholam Ali
Development of children and adolescents' personality is strongly affected by their parents, and absence of one of them has an undesirable effect on their development, and makes them vulnerable to later psychological disorders and behavioral problems. The purpose of this study was to develop an emotional intelligence training program and to…
Khor, Angela S; Melvin, Glenn A; Reid, Sophie C; Gray, Kylie M
Although daily hassles and coping are associated with behavior and emotional problems in non-clinical populations, few studies have investigated these relationships in individuals with high-functioning autism/Asperger's Disorder (HFASD). This study examined the relationships between daily hassles, coping and behavior and emotional problems in adolescents with HFASD. Thirty-one adolescents with HFASD completed questionnaires assessing their coping and behavior and emotional problems, and completed an Ecological Momentary Assessment run via a mobile phone application on their coping and daily hassles. Parents completed questionnaires of the adolescents' daily hassles, coping, and behavior and emotional problems. The disengagement coping style was associated with significantly higher levels of behavior and emotional problems regardless of respondent or methodology, suggesting it may be a valuable target for intervention.
Chan, Chia-Hua; Ting, Te-Tien; Chen, Yen-Tyng; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Chen, Wei J
This study aimed to investigate the relations of adolescent sexual experiences (particularly early initiation) to a spectrum of emotional/behavioral problems and to probe possible gender difference in such relationships. The 10th (N = 8,842) and 12th (N = 10,083) grade students, aged 16-19 years, participating in national surveys in 2005 and 2006 in Taiwan were included for this study. A self-administered web-based questionnaire was designed to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, sexual experience, substance use, and the Youth Self-Report Form. For the sexually experienced adolescents, their sexual initiation was classified as early initiation (<16 years) or non-early initiation (16-19 years). Gender-specific multivariate response profile regression was used to examine the relationship between sexual experience and the behavioral syndromes. Externalizing problems, including Rule-breaking Behavior and Aggressive Behavior, were strongly associated with sexual initiation in adolescence; the magnitude of the association increased for earlier sexual initiation, especially for females. As to internalizing problems, the connection was rather heterogeneous. The scores on some syndromes, such as Somatic Complaints and Anxious/Depressed, were higher only for females with early or non-early sexual initiation whereas the score on Withdrawn, along with Social Problems that is neither internalizing nor externalizing, was lower for the sexually experienced adolescents than for the sexually inexperienced ones. We concluded that earlier sexual initiation was associated with a wider range of behavioral problems in adolescents for both genders, yet the increased risk with emotional problems was predominately found in females.
Moed, Anat; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Eisenberg, Nancy; Hofer, Claire; Losoya, Sandra; Spinrad, Tracy L; Liew, Jeffrey
Although conflict is a normative part of parent-adolescent relationships, conflicts that are long or highly negative are likely to be detrimental to these relationships and to youths' development. In the present article, sequential analyses of data from 138 parent-adolescent dyads (adolescents' mean age was 13.44, SD = 1.16; 52 % girls, 79 % non-Hispanic White) were used to define conflicts as reciprocal exchanges of negative emotion observed while parents and adolescents were discussing "hot," conflictual issues. Dynamic components of these exchanges, including who started the conflicts, who ended them, and how long they lasted, were identified. Mediation analyses revealed that a high proportion of conflicts ended by adolescents was associated with longer conflicts, which in turn predicted perceptions of the "hot" issue as unresolved and adolescent behavior problems. The findings illustrate advantages of using sequential analysis to identify patterns of interactions and, with some certainty, obtain an estimate of the contingent relationship between a pattern of behavior and child and parental outcomes. These interaction patterns are discussed in terms of the roles that parents and children play when in conflict with each other, and the processes through which these roles affect conflict resolution and adolescents' behavior problems.
Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D
Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p < .05, ES = 0.15) related to less engagement in early health-risking sexual behaviors, possibly reflecting selective acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis.
Gonzálvez, María T; Espada, José P; Tejeiro, Ricardo
Problem use of video games is an increasing risk behaviour. High exposure of adolescents to video games has been linked to a variety of disorders, but the relationship between problem video game playing and emotional welfare is unknown. The aim of the study is to analyse problem video game playing in a sample of adolescents and to determine whether there are differences between online and offline players, in addition to examining its relationship with anxiety and depressive symptomatology. A sample of adolescents (N = 380) completed self-reports measuring video game use and symptoms of anxiety and depression. We found that 7.4% of females and 30% of males can be considered as playing at problem levels. Online players were almost 12 times more likely to play at high frequency than offline players (χ2 (1, 267) = 72.72, p < .001, OR = 11.63, 95% CI [6.31, 21.43]). Males play more frequently, and play more online (χ2 (1, 267) = 50.85, p < .001, OR = 6.74, 95% CI [3.90, 11.64]), with a clear relationship between problem video game playing and anxiety (r = .24; p < .001). In females, there is a relationship between problem video game playing and depression (r = .19; p < .05). Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the psychological variables involved in problem video game playing. The implementation of strategies is suggested in order to prevent pathological gaming and associated problems.
Wang, Biyao; Isensee, Corinna; Becker, Andreas; Wong, Janice; Eastwood, Peter R; Huang, Rae-Chi; Runions, Kevin C; Stewart, Richard M; Meyer, Thomas; Brüni, L G; Zepf, Florian D; Rothenberger, Aribert
Although the prevalence rates of sleep disorders at different stages of childhood and adolescence have been well established, little is known about the developmental course of general sleep problems. This also holds true for the bidirectional relationship between sleep problems and emotional as well as behavioral difficulties. This longitudinal study investigated the general pattern and the latent trajectory classes of general sleep problems from a large community sample aged 5-14 years. In addition, this study examined the predictive value of emotional/behavioral difficulties (i.e., anxiety/depression, attention problems, and aggressive behavior) on sleep problems latent trajectory classes, and vice-versa. Participants (N = 1993) were drawn from a birth cohort of Western Australian children born between 1989 and 1991 who were followed until 14 years of age. Sleep problems were assessed at ages 5, 8, 10, and 14, respectively, whereas anxiety/depression, attention problems, and aggressive behavior were assessed at ages 5 and 17 years. Latent growth curve modeling revealed a decline in an overall pattern of sleep problems during the observed 10-year period. Anxiety/depression was the only baseline factor that predicted the longitudinal course of sleep problems from ages 5 to 14 years, with anxious and depressed participants showing faster decreasing patterns of sleep problems over time than those without anxiety or depression. Growth mixture modeling identified two classes of sleep problem trajectories: Normal Sleepers (89.4%) and Troubled Sleepers (10.6%). Gender was randomly distributed between these groups. Childhood attention problems, aggressive behavior, and the interaction between gender and anxiety/depression were significantly predictive of membership in the group of Troubled Sleepers. Group membership in Troubled Sleepers was associated with higher probability of having attention problems and aggressive behavior in mid-adolescence. Boys and girls with
In this study, structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating role of resilience and self-esteem in the relationships between psychological maltreatment-emotional problems and psychological maltreatment-behavioral problems in adolescents. Participants were 937 adolescents from different high schools in Turkey. The sample included 502 female (53.6%) and 435 male (46.4%) students, 14-19 years old (mean age=16.51, SD=1.15). Results indicated that psychological maltreatment was negatively correlated with resilience and self-esteem, and positively correlated with behavioral problems and emotional problems. Resilience and self-esteem also predicted behavioral problems and emotional problems. Finally, psychological maltreatment predicted emotional and behavioral problems mediated by resilience and self-esteem. Resilience and self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between psychological maltreatment-behavioral and psychological maltreatment-emotional problems in adolescents. Thus, resilience and self-esteem appear to play a protective role in emotional problems and behavioral problems in psychologically maltreated individuals. Implications are discussed and suggestions for psychological counselors and other mental health professionals are presented.
Shen, Minxue; Hu, Ming; Sun, Zhenqiu
Objectives To develop and validate brief scales to measure common emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents in the examination-oriented education system and collectivistic culture of China. Setting Middle schools in Hunan province. Participants 5442 middle school students aged 11–19 years were sampled. 4727 valid questionnaires were collected and used for validation of the scales. The final sample included 2408 boys and 2319 girls. Primary and secondary outcome measures The tools were assessed by the item response theory, classical test theory (reliability and construct validity) and differential item functioning. Results Four scales to measure anxiety, depression, study problem and sociality problem were established. Exploratory factor analysis showed that each scale had two solutions. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable to good model fit for each scale. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability of all scales were above 0.7. Item response theory showed that all items had acceptable discrimination parameters and most items had appropriate difficulty parameters. 10 items demonstrated differential item functioning with respect to gender. Conclusions Four brief scales were developed and validated among adolescents in middle schools of China. The scales have good psychometric properties with minor differential item functioning. They can be used in middle school settings, and will help school officials to assess the students’ emotional/behavioural problems. PMID:28062469
Wang, Biyao; Isensee, Corinna; Becker, Andreas; Wong, Janice; Eastwood, Peter R.; Huang, Rae-Chi; Runions, Kevin C.; Stewart, Richard M.; Meyer, Thomas; Brüni, L. G.; Zepf, Florian D.; Rothenberger, Aribert
Although the prevalence rates of sleep disorders at different stages of childhood and adolescence have been well established, little is known about the developmental course of general sleep problems. This also holds true for the bidirectional relationship between sleep problems and emotional as well as behavioral difficulties. This longitudinal study investigated the general pattern and the latent trajectory classes of general sleep problems from a large community sample aged 5–14 years. In addition, this study examined the predictive value of emotional/behavioral difficulties (i.e., anxiety/depression, attention problems, and aggressive behavior) on sleep problems latent trajectory classes, and vice-versa. Participants (N = 1993) were drawn from a birth cohort of Western Australian children born between 1989 and 1991 who were followed until 14 years of age. Sleep problems were assessed at ages 5, 8, 10, and 14, respectively, whereas anxiety/depression, attention problems, and aggressive behavior were assessed at ages 5 and 17 years. Latent growth curve modeling revealed a decline in an overall pattern of sleep problems during the observed 10-year period. Anxiety/depression was the only baseline factor that predicted the longitudinal course of sleep problems from ages 5 to 14 years, with anxious and depressed participants showing faster decreasing patterns of sleep problems over time than those without anxiety or depression. Growth mixture modeling identified two classes of sleep problem trajectories: Normal Sleepers (89.4%) and Troubled Sleepers (10.6%). Gender was randomly distributed between these groups. Childhood attention problems, aggressive behavior, and the interaction between gender and anxiety/depression were significantly predictive of membership in the group of Troubled Sleepers. Group membership in Troubled Sleepers was associated with higher probability of having attention problems and aggressive behavior in mid-adolescence. Boys and girls with
Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Hong, Jinkuk; Orsmond, Gael I.
Expressed emotion measures the emotional climate of the family and is predictive of symptom levels in a range of medical and psychiatric conditions. This study extends the investigation of the effects of expressed emotion to families of individuals with autism. A sample of 149 mothers co-residing with their adolescent or adult child with autism…
Belhadj Kouider, Esmahan; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz
Based on findings of Stevens and Vollebergh , who analyzed cross-cultural topics, this review considers the current prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems of native children and adolescents in comparison with children with a migration background in European countries. 36 studies published from 2007 up to 2013 chosen from a systematic literature research were included and analyzed in their perspective design in detail. Previous studies showed great differences in their results: Especially in Germany, many studies compare the heterogeneous group of immigrant children with native children to analyze an ethnic minority or migration process effect. Only a British and Turkish study demonstrates the selection effect in migration. Most Dutch or British studies examined different ethnic groups, e.g. Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Pakistani, Indian or Black migrant children and adolescents. Migrant childhood in Europe could be declared a risk in increasing internalizing problem behavior while the prevalent rate in externalizing problem behavior was comparable between native and migrant children. A migration status itself can often be postulated as a risk factor for children's mental condition, in particular migration in first generation. Furthermore, several major influence factors in migrant children's mental health could be pointed out, such as a low socio-economic status, a Non-European origin, an uncertain cultural identity of the parents, maternal harsh parenting or inadequate parental occupation, a minority status, the younger age, gender effects or a specific culture declaration in diseases.
Hastings, Paul D.; Nuselovici, Jacob N.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Kendziora, Kimberly T.; Usher, Barbara A.; Ho, Moon-Ho R.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn
Background: Effective emotion regulation should be reflected in greater coherence between physiological and subjective aspects of emotional responses. Method: Youths with normative to clinical levels of internalizing problems (IP) and externalizing problems (EP) watched emotionally evocative film-clips while having heart rate (HR) recorded, and…
This practicum addressed the attitudes and behaviors of 10 adolescents with severe behavioral and emotional problems participating in a cooperative job training program. The intervention used an adventure approach to help the students replace aggression and misconduct with job-related social skills. A needs assessment was conducted to identify…
Shek, Daniel T. L.
The relationships between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and emotional quality of life (existential well-being, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of mastery, psychological morbidity) as well as problem behavior (substance abuse and delinquency) were examined in 1519 Chinese adolescents with and…
Hagborg, Johan Melander; Tidefors, Inga; Fahlke, Claudia
Emotional maltreatment is a common form of child abuse with a powerful negative impact on mental health. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of emotional maltreatment on mental health and mental well-being in a general population of Swedish 12- to 13-year old girls and boys. Data was collected via self-report questionnaires in classroom settings from 1134 students. Emotional maltreatment had significant effects on mental health and mental well-being for both girls and boys. Moreover, there were significant interaction effects between gender and levels of emotional maltreatment. Girls reported decreased mental health and mental well-being at lower degrees of emotional maltreatment compared to boys. Furthermore, girls reported larger decreases in mental health in response to exposure of emotional maltreatment. For internalizing symptoms, mental well-being and psychosomatic symptoms, exposure level of emotional maltreatment seemed to magnify the gender differences. For externalizing symptoms, there were no differences between girls and boys in the group reporting no emotional maltreatment and the increase in externalizing symptoms were of equal magnitude for both genders. Given the impact of emotional maltreatment on mental health in the general population, results from this study implies that a trauma-informed perspective is necessary in understanding gender differences in mental health in early adolescence. Further research is needed in order to understand the underlying processes generating the differences in girls and boys responses to emotional maltreatment.
Ravenel, Louise R.; And Others
The report examines needs and policy implications for serving emotionally disturbed and behavior disordered individuals in South Carolina. The first section focuses on children and adolescents and considers demographic and incidence figures as well as offering a composite profile. Students' problems and needs are identified, including a lack of…
Johnson, Beena; Francis, Johnson
Major physical illnesses usually have an impact on the psychological well-being of any individual. An illness of early onset, with necessity of frequent diagnostic and therapeutic interventions can adversely affect the emotional balance and behavioural adaptation of children and adolescents. This is applicable for congenital heart disease,…
Gelbmann, Gloria; Kuhn-Natriashvili, Sofia; Pazhedath, Thressia Joslin; Ardeljan, Marina; Wöber, Christian; Wöber-Bingöl, Ciçek
The relationship between morningness/eveningness, sleep, and psychological problems is well documented in adults as well as in adolescents. However, research on the circadian orientation and its concomitants in younger children is scarce. The authors investigated the distribution of morningness/eveningness and its connection to sleeping and psychological problems in 91 children and 151 adolescents in Austria. The authors found that morning (M) types had less sleep-related and psychological problems than intermediate (I) and evening (E) types, respectively. Among children, M-types suffered less from daytime sleepiness (females: χ(2)((2)) = 8.1, p = .017; males: χ(2)((2)) = 14.8, p = .001). Among adolescents, M-types showed fewer sleep-wake problems (females: χ(2)((2)) = 17.5, p < .001; males: χ(2)((2)) = 19.8, p < .001), and female M-types showed less externalizing (χ(2)((2)) = 8.7, p = .013) as well as internalizing problem behavior (χ(2)((2)) = 9.0, p = .011). In conclusion, these findings indicate that morningness may act as a protective factor against the development of sleep-related problems in childhood and sleep-related and psychological problems in adolescence, especially in females.
Beauchaine, Theodore P; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K
In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed.
Although recent studies have provided some explanation about the relationship between difficulties in emotion regulation and aggression in adolescence, the role of intervening variables in this connection has been ignored. The purpose of this research was to understand the relationship between adolescents' emotion regulation and aggression and to…
Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Yeung, Jerf W K; Low, Andrew Y T; Lo, Herman H M; Tam, Cherry H L
The study investigated the relationship among physical abuse, positive psychological factors including emotional competence and social problem-solving, and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China. The possible moderating effects of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the association between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation were also studied. A cross-sectional survey employing convenience sampling was conducted and self-administered questionnaires were collected from 527 adolescents with mean age of 14 years from the schools in Shanghai. Results showed that physical abuse was significantly and positively related to suicidal ideation in both male and female adolescents. Emotional competence was not found to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation, but rational problem-solving, a sub-scale of social problem-solving, was shown to be significantly and negatively associated with suicidal ideation for males, but not for females. However, emotional competence and rational problem-solving were shown to be a significant and a marginally significant moderator in the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation in females respectively, but not in males. High rational problem-solving buffered the negative impact of physical abuse on suicidal ideation for females. Interestingly, females with higher empathy and who reported being physically abused by their parents have higher suicidal ideation. Findings are discussed and implications are stated. It is suggested to change the attitudes of parents on the concept of physical abuse, guide them on appropriate attitudes, knowledge and skills in parenting, and enhance adolescents' skills in rational problem-solving.
Wills, Thomas A; Pokhrel, Pallav; Morehouse, Ellen; Fenster, Bonnie
In a structural model, we tested how relations of predictors to level of adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana), and to substance-related impaired-control and behavior problems, are moderated by good self-control and poor regulation in behavioral and emotional domains. The participants were a sample of 1,116 public high-school students. In a multiple-group analysis for good self-control, the paths from negative life events to substance use level and from level to behavior problems were lower among persons scoring higher on good behavioral self-control. In a multiple-group analysis for poor regulation, the paths from negative life events and peer use to level of substance use were greater among persons scoring higher on poor behavioral (but not emotional) regulation; an inverse path from academic competence to level was greater among persons scoring higher on both aspects of poor regulation. Paths from level to impaired-control and behavior problems were greater among persons scoring higher on both poor behavioral and poor emotional regulation. Theoretical implications concerning the role of behavioral and emotional regulation in moderation effects are discussed.
Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Lehtonen, Kimmo
This paper provides a list of signs, symptoms, and indicators of emotionally sensitive adolescents includes clinging behavior, withdrawn behavior, shy/inhibited behavior, represses anger, poor reaction to criticism, makes self-disparaging statements, low self-esteem, "can't forgive self or others," ruined by a small critical comment, exploding…
Liu, Xianchen; Zhao, Zhongtang; Jia, Cunxian
The aim of this study was to examine insomnia symptoms, behavioral problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac parents (IP) and non-insomniac parents (NIP). A family survey of sleep and health was conducted among 1090 adolescents and their parents in Jinan, China. Adolescents completed a sleep and health questionnaire to report their sleep and mental health problems. Parents reported their insomnia symptoms and history of mental disorders. Insomnia, behavioral problems, and suicidal behavior were compared between IP adolescents and NIP adolescents. IP adolescents were more likely than NIP adolescents to report insomnia symptoms, use of sleep medication, suicidal ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt. IP adolescents scored significantly higher than NIP adolescents on withdrawn and externalizing behavioral problems. After adjustment for demographics and behavioral problems, parental insomnia remained to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide plan. Our findings support the need for early screening and formal assessment of sleep and mental health in adolescents of insomniac parents.
de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J
This study is the third in a series to examine behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria in a comparative analysis between two clinics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In the present study, we report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) data on adolescents assessed in the Toronto clinic (n = 177) and the Amsterdam clinic (n = 139). On the CBCL and the YSR, we found that the percentage of adolescents with clinical range behavioral and emotional problems was higher when compared to the non-referred standardization samples but similar to the referred adolescents. On both the CBCL and the YSR, the Toronto adolescents had a significantly higher Total Problem score than the Amsterdam adolescents. Like our earlier studies of CBCL data of children and Teacher's Report Form data of children and adolescents, a measure of poor peer relations was the strongest predictor of CBCL and YSR behavioral and emotional problems in gender dysphoric adolescents.
Midgley, Erin Kathleen; Lo, Celia C.
The impact of a parent's incarceration and adolescents' emotional health on their substance abuse and delinquency is described for a group of at-risk 10- to 14-year-old adolescents. Data were drawn from a two-wave longitudinal study from the federally funded Children at Risk program, ongoing in five states from 1993 to 1997. Results point to a…
Belhadj Kouider, Esmahan; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz
The present review postulates the current mental health status in migrant children and adolescents in the North American continent. 35 studies published from 2009 to 2013 chosen from a systematic literature research were included. Almost all studies were conducted in the United States and Canada. From the perspective of selection effect, migration as a risk factor was not proven. The migration process perspective could have underestimated a higher danger of problem behavior in second-generation migrant children. Comparing native and migrant children, balanced results in problem behavior were reported, but the Asian migrant group was at higher risk of developing mental disorders. Family-based risk factors were offered: high acculturation stress, low English language competence, language brokering, discrepancies in children's and parent's cultural orientation, the non-Western cultural orientation, e.g., collectivistic, acceptance feelings of parents, or harsh parenting. However, the importance to support migrant families in the acculturation process becomes apparent.
The purpose of this article is to present narratives from 15 adolescents experiencing shy behaviour as an emotional and behavioural problem in the school context in light of narrative understanding. The investigation is intended to generate knowledge about this largely under-researched phenomenon based on the personal accounts of those who are…
Capron, Christiane; Therond, Carine; Duyme, Michel
The study investigated the relationship between depressive symptoms and emotional/behavioural problems in adolescent girls (N = 553) aged 12-13 years, menarcheal status and family structure, and considered whether the effect of family structure was the same in the presence or absence of menses. The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the…
Evenboer, K. E.; Huyghen, A. M. N.; Tuinstra, J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Knorth, E. J.
Objective: The Taxonomy of Care for Youth was developed to gather information about the care offered to children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems in various care settings. The aim was to determine similarities and differences in the content of care and thereby to classify the care offered to these children and youth within…
Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina
The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430…
Rose, Amanda J.; Swenson, Lance P.
Aggression is associated with a host of behavioral, social, and emotional adjustment difficulties. However, some aggressive youth are perceived as "popular" by peers. Although these perceived popular aggressive youth appear relatively well adjusted, especially in the social domain, the emotional well-being of these youth is understudied.…
Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina
The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430 children (aged 11-15 years) from three state secondary schools in disadvantaged areas in one county in the South East of England. Total difficulties (i.e., emotional symptoms, peer problems, hyperactivity, and conduct problems) were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adjustment was made for gender, age, ethnicity, special educational needs, exclusion history, family structure, and family socio-economic disadvantage. Adverse life events were measured with Tiet et al.'s (Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1191-1200, 1998) Adverse Life Events Scale. Non-verbal cognitive ability was measured with Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices Plus. Non-verbal cognitive ability moderated the effect of adverse life events both on total difficulties and on emotional symptoms. Overgeneralizing mediated the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events and total difficulties. Adverse life events were related to a tendency to overgeneralize which was associated with emotional and behavioral problems, but particularly among those adolescents with lower non-verbal cognitive ability.
Khor, Angela S.; Melvin, Glenn A.; Reid, Sophie C.; Gray, Kylie M.
Although daily hassles and coping are associated with behavior and emotional problems in non-clinical populations, few studies have investigated these relationships in individuals with high-functioning autism/Asperger's Disorder (HFASD). This study examined the relationships between daily hassles, coping and behavior and emotional problems in…
Duchesne, Stephane; Ratelle, Catherine
Recent literature on the determinants of academic motivation has shown that parenting and emotions are central elements in understanding students' achievement goals. The authors of this study set out to examine the predictive relationship between parental behaviors during the last year of elementary school and adolescents' achievement goals at the…
Merrilees, Christine E.; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed
The protective role of strength of group identity was examined for youth in a context of protracted political conflict. Participants included 814 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.61, SD = 1.99 at Time 1) participating in a longitudinal study in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, the results show that the effect of…
You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom; Fu, Kei
The present study explored the reciprocal relations between nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), negative emotions and relationship problems in a community sample of 2,435 (57.6% females) Chinese adolescents. Participants completed measures assessing 12 NSSI behaviors, three negative emotions (depression, anxiety and tension), and relationship problems at two time points over a 6-month period. A longitudinal cross-lag analysis was used to test the reciprocal relations among the studied variables. Results showed that after controlling for their initial associations, NSSI significantly predicted negative emotions over time but not vice versa, and relationship problems significantly predicted NSSI over time but not vice versa. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings were discussed.
This report reviews the impact of substance abuse and mental health problems among the adolescent population, examines the research issues and treatment delivery system, identifies model modalities and programs to address the needs of adolescents, and makes practical recommendations on the implementation of effective treatment methods for youths.…
Morrison, Gary N.; Morrison, Merrie B.
The paper addresses stressors facing parents of emotionally disturbed adolescents and suggests ways that parents can be helped to battle "burnout." Ten stressors are identified: problems innate with the handicap, lack of progress and development, negative public opinion, pressures from spouse or other family members, pressures from members of…
This study investigated the relationship between stress and attitudes toward negative emotions in adolescents. Adolescent students (N=1500) completed a questionnaire that measured attitudes toward negative emotions, emotional-stress reactions, and stress coping. Analysis of date yielded, two factors of the attitudes toward negative emotions: "Negative feelings about negative emotions" and "Capabilities of switching of negative emotions". In order to examine the theoretical relationships among attitudes toward negative emotions, emotional-stress reactions, and stress coping, a hypothetical model was tested by covariance structure analysis. This model predicted that students who have a high level of attitudes toward negative emotions would report enhanced problem solving which promoted stress coping. The results indicated that "Negative feelings about negative emotions" enhanced avoidable coping, and avoidable coping enhanced stress reactions. "Capabilities of switching of negative emotions" was related to a decrease of avoidable coping. Based on the results from covariance structure analysis and a multiple population analysis, the clinical significance and developmental characteristics were discussed.
Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Jakel, Anne; Schultze, Martin; Scheithauer, Herbert
Although many studies have reported on internalising and externalising problems related to cyberbullying roles, there is a lack of longitudinal research in this area. This study reports (1) cross-sectional data from 412 German middle-school students to examine differences between cyberbullies, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims compared to…
Smith, Rhiannon L
Although empathetic distress (i.e., taking on a friend's emotional distress as one's own) has been examined as a "cost of caring" especially common among girls, relations with adjustment remain untested. The current study tested associations of empathetic distress with friendship quality, depression, and anxiety. Adolescents (N = 300, ages 12-18) reported on their perceived experience of empathetic distress following a conversation with a friend about problems. The study also considered youths' emotional engagement in friends' positive life events, referred to as empathetic joy. Results indicated that girls reported greater empathetic distress and empathetic joy compared with boys. Findings also suggest that although empathetic distress may have positive implications for youths' friendship adjustment, this may come at the expense of emotional well-being. In contrast, empathetic joy was associated with greater positive friendship quality and fewer internalizing symptoms.
Non-Verbal Reasoning Ability and Academic Achievement as Moderators of the Relation between Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Early Adolescence: The Importance of Moderator and Outcome Specificity
Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos
This study was carried out to model the functional form of the effect of contextual risk (number of adverse life events) on emotional and behavioural problems in early adolescence, and to test how intelligence and academic achievement compare as moderators of this effect. The effect of number of adverse life events on emotional and behavioural…
Zimmermann, Peter; Iwanski, Alexandra; Çelik, Fatma
From an attachment perspective, insecure attachment patterns in both infancy and adolescence are risk factors for the development of anxiety disorders in adolescence. Dysfunctional emotion regulation and biased social information processing are possible mediating processes. This study examines differences in emotion regulation, emotional vulnerability, and behaviour inhibition in adolescents with clinical diagnosis of anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Adolescents with anxiety disorder reported more maladaptive emotion regulation depending on the specific emotion and a higher incidence of reporting hurt feelings in social interactions. In contrast, behaviour inhibition did not explain additional variance. The results suggest that adolescents with anxiety disorders show a bias in the interpretation of social interactions as frequently emotionally hurting, and the use of dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies that minimize the possibility for effective social emotion regulation by close others or therapists. The results are interpreted within attachment framework.
Carter, Rona; Jaccard, James; Silverman, Wendy K.; Pina, Armando A.
Using an "at-risk" sample of African American girls, the present study examined the link between girls' retrospective reports of pubertal timing, girls' perceived relative pubertal timing, and their behavioral and emotional problems as rated by the girls themselves (N = 102; 11-17 years), as well as teachers and parents. Structural equation…
Gray, Kylie; Keating, Caroline; Taffe, John; Brereton, Avril; Einfeld, Stewart; Tonge, Bruce
High rates of behavior and emotional problems have been consistently reported in children and adolescents with autism. Elevated rates of mental health problems have also been reported in adults with autism. Little is known, however, about the longitudinal development of behavior and emotional problems in autism. This study followed a cohort of…
Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Blair, Bethany L.
Adolescents' emotional reactivity in family, close friendships, and romantic relationships was examined in a community-based sample of 416 two-parent families. Six waves of annual data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Emotional reactivity to interparental conflict during early adolescence was associated prospectively with…
Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher
Descriptive and comparative follow-up studies of young adult males with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood, using both interview, self- and parent assessment instruments for the study of aspects of emotional well-being, social functioning, and cognitive-practical skills have not been performed in the past. One-hundred males with AS diagnosed in childhood were approached for the assessment using the Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Interview (ASDI), (personal and parent interview), the Leiter-R-Questionnaires, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). About 75% of the targeted group participated. The ASDI results came out significantly different at personal vs parent interviews in several key domains. In contrast, the Leiter-R-Questionnaires, showed no significant differences across the individuals with AS and their parents in the scoring of cognitive/social and emotional/adaptive skills. The BDI proved to be an adequate screening instrument for depression in that it correctly identified the vast majority of cases with clinical depression in the AS group. The DEX results suggested an executive function deficit problem profile in males with AS as severe as that reported in groups of individuals with traumatic brain injury and schizophrenia. Interviews (personal and collateral), and self-rating and parent-rating questionnaires all have a role in the comprehensive diagnostic process in AS and other autism spectrum disorders, and could be used as adjuncts when evaluating whether or not individuals meeting diagnostic symptom criteria for the condition have sufficient problems in daily life to warrant a clinical diagnosis of AS.
Koh, Bibiana D; Rueter, Martha A
Although most adopted children are well adjusted, research has consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. The present investigation tested a model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors. The study included 616 families with at least one parent and two adolescent siblings with a maximum 5-year age difference. The analyses used data from the mothers (M age = 45.56, SD = 4.23), fathers (M age = 48.23, SD = 4.42), and the elder sibling (M age = 16.14, SD = 1.5). Findings support two conflict-mediated family processes that contributed to externalizing behaviors: one initiated by parent-adolescent traits and one by adoption status. Findings also underscore the salience of conflict in families and the significance of aggressive traits and negative emotionality. Contrary to previous research, we found that adoption status did not directly add to our explanation of adolescent externalizing behaviors beyond our proposed process. Instead, adoption status was indirectly associated with externalizing problems through a conflict-mediated relationship.
Bergman, Kathleen N; Cummings, E Mark; Davies, Patrick T
Adolescents exposed to interparental aggression are at increased risk for developing adjustment problems. The present study explored intervening variables in these pathways in a community sample that included 266 adolescents between 12 and 16 years old (M = 13.82; 52.5% boys, 47.5% girls). A moderated mediation model examined the moderating role of adrenocortical reactivity on the meditational capacity of their emotional insecurity in this context. Information from multiple reporters and adolescents' adrenocortical response to conflict were obtained during laboratory sessions attended by mothers, fathers and their adolescent child. A direct relationship was found between marital aggression and adolescents' internalizing behavior problems. Adolescents' emotional insecurity mediated the relationship between marital aggression and adolescents' depression and anxiety. Adrenocortical reactivity moderated the pathway between emotional insecurity and adolescent adjustment. The implications for further understanding the psychological and physiological effects of adolescents' exposure to interparental aggression and violence are discussed.
Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael
Many adolescents are exposed to violence in their schools, communities and homes. Exposure to violence at high levels or across multiple contexts has been linked with emotional desensitization, indicated by low levels of internalizing symptoms. However, the long-term consequences of such desensitization are unknown. This study examined emotional desensitization to violence, together with externalizing problems, as mediators of the relationship between exposure to violence in pre-adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence. A community sample of youth (N = 704; 48% female; 76% African American, 22% Caucasian) reported on their exposure to violence in multiple settings at ages 11, 13 and 18. Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 11 and 13; violent behavior was measured at age 18. Structural Equation Modeling showed that exposure to high levels of violence at age 11 was associated with lower levels of internalizing problems (quadratic effect) at age 13, as was exposure to violence across multiple contexts (linear effect). In turn, fewer internalizing problems and more externalizing problems at age 13 predicted more violent behavior at age 18. The results suggest that emotional desensitization to violence in early adolescence contributes to serious violence in late adolescence.
Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher
Descriptive and comparative follow-up studies of young adult males with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood, using both interview, self- and parent assessment instruments for the study of aspects of emotional well-being, social functioning, and cognitive-practical skills have not been performed in the past. One-hundred males with AS…
Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith L.; Powers, Sally I.
Research on adolescent emotion has generally focused on expressions of emotion; however, there are reasons to believe that adolescents' experiences of emotion may be related to adolescent development in unique and important ways. This study examined the relation of adolescents' emotional experiences of conflict with their mothers to their…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.
This factsheet describes the different mental, emotional, and behavior problems that can occur during childhood and adolescence. The incidence and symptoms of the following disorders are discussed: (1) anxiety disorders (including phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder);…
Yap, Marie B. H.; Schwartz, Orli S.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.
This study examined the relation between mothers' positive and negative interaction behaviors during mother-child interactions and the emotion regulation (ER) and depressive symptoms of their adolescent offspring. Event-planning (EPI) and problem-solving interactions (PSI) were observed in 163 mother-adolescent dyads, and adolescents also provided…
Koh, Bibiana D.; Rueter, Martha A.
Although most adopted children are well adjusted, decades of descriptive research have consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. Yet we have little understanding of the specific contributing factors that help explain this increased risk. Therefore, the present investigation tested a process model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors. The study included 616 families from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS; McGue et al., 2007). The proposed model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Findings support two conflict-mediated family processes that contributed to externalizing behaviors: one initiated by parent-adolescent traits, and one by adoption status. Findings also underscore the salience of conflict in families and the significance of aggressive traits over the other lower order traits (alienation, stress reactivity) and higher order negative emotionality in our proposed process. Contrary to previous research, we found that adoption status did not directly add to our explanation of adolescent externalizing behaviors beyond our proposed process. Instead, adoption status was indirectly associated with externalizing problems through a conflict-mediated relationship. PMID:22023274
Edbrooke-Childs, Julian; Newman, Robbie; Fleming, Isobel; Deighton, Jessica; Wolpert, Miranda
Adults from black and minority ethnic (BAME) backgrounds are less likely to access mental health services through voluntary care pathways and are more likely to access through compulsory ones. The aim of the present research was to explore the association between ethnicity and care pathway through child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS), in terms of reason for referral and case closure, in children presenting with emotional problems. A sample of N = 11,592 children from 26 CAMHS was taken from a national routinely collected dataset (56 % female; 7 % aged 0-5 years, 40 % 6-12 years, 53 % 13-18 years, and <1 % 19-25 years). Multinomial logistic regressions showed that BAME children were consistently more likely to be referred to CAMHS through education, social, and other services than primary care, compared to White British children (odds ratio (OR) = 1.52-9.96, p < .001) and they were less likely to end treatment due to child and family non-attendance (OR = 0.59-0.79, p < .05). Similar to adults, children from BAME groups may be more likely to access CAMHS through compulsory than voluntary care pathways.
Parr, Naomi J; Zeman, Janice; Braunstein, Kara; Price, Natalee
Somatic symptoms tend to increase during early adolescence and although youth's social environments and emotional functioning play a role in somatic symptoms, few studies have examined mechanisms through which social interaction could influence youth's somatic wellbeing. Participants were 132 youth (61.6% girls, Mage = 12.61 years, 84.7% Caucasian) and their mothers. Reciprocated best-friend dyads participated in a video-taped problem discussion task to assess peer emotion socialization responses. Two supportive friend responses (i.e., emotion-focused, problem-focused) and two unsupportive responses (i.e., punitive, neglect) were examined. Mothers reported on their child's somatic complaints. Friends who provided emotion-focused, problem-focused, punitive, and neglect responses to their close friend's emotional disclosures had significantly fewer somatic symptoms. However, youth who received punitive responses to their emotional disclosures from their close friends had more somatic complaints. These findings provide initial evidence of a link between emotion socialization responses within close friendships and somatic complaints in early adolescence.
Buehler, Cheryl; Welsh, Deborah P.
This study examined adolescents' emotional reactivity to parents' marital conflict as a mediator of the association between triangulation and adolescents' internalizing problems in a sample of 416 two-parent families. Four waves of annual, multiple-informant data were analyzed (youth aged 11 – 15). Using structural equation modeling, triangulation was associated with increases in adolescents' internalizing problems, controlling for marital hostility and adolescent externalizing problems. There also was an indirect pathway from triangulation to internalizing problems across time through youths' emotional reactivity. Moderating analyses indicated that the second half of the pathway, the association between emotional reactivity and increased internalizing problems, characterized youth with lower levels of hopefulness and attachment to parents. The findings help detail why triangulation is a risk factor for adolescents' development and which youth will profit most from interventions focused on emotional regulation. PMID:19364211
Kim, Geunyoung; Walden, Tedra; Harris, Vicki; Karrass, Jan; Catron, Thomas
The present study examined the role of emotion and emotion control in children's externalizing problems. Third- to sixth-grade children were administered a self-report measure of positive emotion, negative emotion, and emotion control. Peer- and teacher-reported adjustment problems were assessed. Structural equations modeling revealed that…
Koh, Bibiana D.; Rueter, Martha A.
Although most adopted children are well adjusted, research has consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. The present investigation tested a model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors.…
Terzian, Mary; Hamilton, Katie; Ericson, Sara
Left untreated, internalizing problems, such as a depressive or anxious mood, negative self-perceptions, and emotional distress, can undermine one's ability to succeed in school, live a healthy lifestyle, form and maintain close relationships with others, and, in general, accomplish life goals. When internalizing problems are experienced daily for…
Turpyn, Caitlin C.; Chaplin, Tara M.
Mindful parenting is associated with greater adjustment and fewer behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, the mechanisms by which mindful parenting functions to mitigate risk in adolescence is not well understood. This study investigated parent emotional expression as a potential mechanism in the relationship between low mindful parenting and adolescent risk behaviors. A sample of 157 12-14 year old adolescents (49% female) and their primary caregivers (99% female) participated in an emotionally-arousing conflict interaction. Parents reported on their mindful parenting practices, and parents’ emotion expressions during the conflict interaction were coded including negative emotion, positive emotion, and shared parent-youth positive emotion. Adolescent substance use and sex behaviors were assessed through self-report, interview, and physical toxicology screens. Results indicated that mindful parenting was associated with less parental negative emotion and greater shared positive emotion during the parent-adolescent conflict. Further, results revealed a significant indirect effect of mindful parenting on youth's substance use through shared parent-adolescent positive emotion. Findings highlight the relevance of emotional functioning in the context of stressful parenting situations in mindful parenting. PMID:27087861
Kenny, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda
The aim of this study was to examine positive and negative qualities in adolescents' interpersonal relationships and their relative importance in predicting emotional distress. Participants were 260 students from three schools in the Dublin area (119 girls; 141 boys), aged 12-18 years (M = 15.32, SD = 1.91). Students completed questionnaires…
van den Bulk, Bianca G; Somerville, Leah H; van Hoof, Marie-José; van Lang, Natasja D J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Crone, Eveline A; Vermeiren, Robert R J M
Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD) show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral) in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N=25), adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N=19) and healthy controls (N=26). Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala.
Sarajlic Vukovic, Iris; Boricevic Maršanic, Vlatka; Aukst Margetic, Branka; Paradžik, Ljubica; Vidovic, Domagoj; Buljan Flander, Gordana
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male veterans has been linked with impaired family relationships and psychopathology in their children. Less is known about symptoms in children of veterans with partial PTSD. Objective: To compare mental health problems, family functioning and parent-child bonding among adolescent offspring of…
Bae, Sung Man
This study explored predictors of adolescent problem behavior utilizing panel data from the National Youth Policy Institute. Data were collected from June 2013 to August 2013 from 3195 middle school students living in 15 cities of South Korea. Data were analysed using hierarchical regression in two steps. The first step included gender and school…
Rosenthal, Susan L.; Simeonsson, Rune J.
This study of the communication effectiveness of 78 adolescents found that emotionally disturbed subjects were characterized by poorer communication and a lack of developmental change from early to late adolescence. Emotionally disturbed adolescents used less figurative information (form, size, color) than normal peers, but similar operative…
Nguyen-Michel, Selena T; Unger, Jennifer B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna
To better understand the relation between emotional eating and dietary choices, dietary correlates of emotional eating were investigated in an adolescent sample. Participants were 617 predominantly Latino middle school students from seven schools in Los Angeles County. Analyses of cross-sectional data revealed that emotional eating was associated with increased frequency of intake of sweet high energy-dense foods, such as cake and ice cream, salty high energy-dense foods like chips, and soda. Gender stratified analyses revealed an association between emotional eating and more frequent fruit and vegetable intake in boys only, and a positive association between emotional eating and salty high energy-dense intake in both boys and girls. These data support previous literature that reports a preference for high energy-dense food in emotional eating, and shows that this association may be generalizable to Latino youth. Considering that emotional eating may lead to overeating because it often takes place in the absence of hunger, it may be appropriate to develop interventions to teach youth healthier substitutions and regulate mood by means other than eating in order to reduce risk for obesity, especially in high risk populations, such as Latinos.
Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E.; Al-Ghamdi, Rahma A.; Halabi, Shaimaa A.
Objectives: To evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on limitation of physical activity and the associated effect on behavioral, school, and social problems among obese children in Western Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional obesity survey was conducted in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected between August 2014 and February 2015 from 281 obese children aged between 2-18 (girls: 130, boys: 151). Participants were selected randomly to represent different economic status, level of education, and family structure. Results: The mean age of participants was 10.5 years for girls and 10.6 years for boys. Higher BMI was associated with physical activity problems in walking (50.6%), running (55.8%), and exercise (44.3%), with school problems in attention (37.4%) and follow-up duties fade (31.3%), and with social problems in doing things other children could do (42.8%), playing with others (46%), and continuing play (33.4%). There was no significant relationship between BMI and emotional problems and school attendance. Conclusion: Higher BMI significantly increased physical limitation, problems maintaining attention in school, and social problems among obese children. However, emotional problems and school attendance did not show a significant correlation with BMI. PMID:26837399
McWhinney, Betty D.
Some adolescents present in school with problems of poor academic performance and unacceptable behaviour. A physician's evaluation of such a problem requires a careful history and consideration of emotional factors. A neuro-developmental assessment should reveal a pattern of strengths as well as any areas of delay. Management includes demystifying the problem to the student and counselling parents, as well as providing an explanation to the school staff. Stimulant medication, when the primary problem is one of attention-deficit disorder, can be a useful part of the therapeutic program. Long-term follow up, counselling and support are essential. Working within the school gives the counsellor access to teachers and other staff to ensure that understanding of, and help with, the problem continues. PMID:21267219
The suicide rate of young people in the United States rose 237 percent between 1960 and 1980. This paper addresses three related issues: epidemic versus artifact; stress in adolescence; and the distinctive traits of the lifestyles or careers of a random sample of young Chicago suicides. (Author/BL)
Sirpresi, S; Antoniazzi, F; Costantini, E; Zamboni, G; Tatò, L
Adolescence is usually defined as the period of rapid physical and psychological growth and development occurring during the second decade of life. After the introduction about the physiology of puberty and menstrual cycle, the major problems in female adolescents are discussed: delayed puberty, hypo and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, causes of primary and secondary amenorrhea, menstrual irregularity, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, breast disorders, hirsutism, acne. Finally, adolescent pregnancy prevention and contraception are discussed. The Authors want to stress the importance of the endocrinological and gynaecological disorders in female adolescents and their impact on the psychological and emotional development at this very delicate age.
Garnefski, Nadia; Koopman, Hendrik; Kraaij, Vivian; ten Cate, Rebecca
Objective of the study was to examine how cognitive emotion regulation strategies were related to psychological maladjustment in adolescents with a chronic disease. The sample consisted of adolescents with a diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). A self-report questionnaire was used to assess Internalizing problems and Quality of Life.…
Ingoglia, Sonia; Lo Coco, Alida; Liga, Francesca; Lo Cricchio, Maria Grazia
The study examined adolescents' emotional separation and detachment from parents, analyzing their relations with connectedness and agency, with some aspects of self-other boundary regulation and with problem behavior. The participants were 331 Italian adolescents, aged from 16 to 19 years (mean age = 17.40, SD = 1.14). Separation and detachment…
Alegre, Albert; Benson, Mark J.; Pérez-Escoda, Núria
This study examines the relation between maternal warmth and the internalizing and externalizing problems of early adolescents, and the potential mediation of this relation by emotional insecurity. The hypotheses for the study derive from Cummings and Davies' theory of emotional security. The current study extends the theory to security processes…
Over half of all significant events that occur in nuclear plants involve human performance problems. There is increasing worldwide recognition that human performance problems have a significant impact on the safety, cost, and efficiency of nuclear plant operations. Emotional stability components have an important direct and indirect impact on human performance problems. This paper examines emotional stability components that are currently incorporated into human performance evaluation systems (HPES) in nuclear plants. It describes HPES programs being developed around the world, the emotional stability components that are currently referred to in these programs, and suggestions for improving HPES programs through a greater understanding of emotion stability components. A review of emotional stability components that may hinder or promote a plant environment that encourages the voluntary reporting and correction of human error is also presented.
Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay
Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions.
Brand, Ann E.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
This chapter provides a review of the literature that examines the role of mothers and fathers in socializing emotion in their sons and daughters during adolescence. Within the context of this chapter, we focus on mother-father similarities, differences, and coordinated efforts in socializing the emotion of their adolescent children. Empirical…
Guyer, Amanda E.; Caouette, Justin D.; Lee, Clinton C.; Ruiz, Sarah K.
Relative to children and adults, adolescents are highly focused on being evaluated by peers. This increased attention to peer evaluation has implications for emotion regulation in adolescence, but little is known about the characteristics of the evaluatee and evaluator that influence emotional reactions to evaluative outcomes. The present study…
Hannigan, L.J.; Walaker, N.; Waszczuk, M.A.; McAdams, T.A.; Eley, T.C.
Emotional and behavioural problems in childhood and adolescence can be chronic and are predictive of future psychiatric problems. Understanding what factors drive the development and maintenance of these problems is therefore crucial. Longitudinal behavioural genetic studies using twin, sibling or adoption data can be used to explore the developmental aetiology of stability and change in childhood and adolescent psychopathology. We present a systematic review of longitudinal, behavioural genetic analyses of emotional and behavioural problems between ages 0 to 18 years. We identified 58 studies, of which 19 examined emotional problems, 30 examined behavioural problems, and 9 examined both. In the majority of studies, stability in emotional and behavioural problems was primarily genetically influenced. Stable environmental factors were also widely found, although these typically played a smaller role. Both genetic and environmental factors were involved in change across development. We discuss the findings in the context of the wider developmental literature and make recommendations for future research. PMID:28337341
Goh Kok Yew, Shaun; O'Kearney, Richard
Background: Language impairments are associated with an increased likelihood of emotional difficulties later in childhood or adolescence, but little is known about the impact of LI on the growth of emotional problems. Aims: To examine the link between early language status (language impaired (LI), typical language (TL)) and the pattern and…
Stanley, Mary Jo; Canham, Daryl L.; Cureton, Virginia Young
Schools are seeing an influx of disruptive behaviors related to an increase in emotional and behavioral issues. In the adolescent population, emotional and behavioral problems are manifested in a variety of forms and often result in some form of discipline within the school setting. Although discipline punishes the unwanted behavior, it does…
Buehler, Cheryl; Lange, Garrett; Franck, Karen L.
Early adolescents' (11-14 years) responses to marital hostility were examined in a sample of 416 families. The cognitive-contextual perspective and emotional security hypothesis guided the study and 9 adolescent responses were identified. Prospective associations were examined in several structural equation models that included adolescent problems…
Walther, Mireille; Hilbert, Anja
Overweight, a common health condition in adolescence, has been linked with difficulties in emotional processing. This study investigates associations between emotional processing, conceptualised through the model of Emotional Openness (EO), problematic eating behaviours, including Eating in the Absence of Hunger and disinhibited eating, and overweight in adolescents. Several self-report instruments were completed by 160 youngsters (mean age: 14.36±0.61years) from the community, including 39 overweight and obese adolescents (24.5%). In girls, bootstrap analyses supported a mediating effect of restrained eating on the relation between three EO dimensions and body mass index percentile, in particular the communication of emotions, the cognitive-conceptual representation of emotions, and the perception of bodily indicator of emotions. No mediating effect was found in boys. These results have important implications for psychological weight management interventions, as they underline the relevance of work on emotional processing in order to reduce problematic eating behaviours.
Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M
Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view.
Ahmed, Saz P; Bittencourt-Hewitt, Amanda; Sebastian, Catherine L
Emotion regulation is the ability to recruit processes to influence emotion generation. In recent years there has been mounting interest in how emotions are regulated at behavioural and neural levels, as well as in the relevance of emotional dysregulation to psychopathology. During adolescence, brain regions involved in affect generation and regulation, including the limbic system and prefrontal cortex, undergo protracted structural and functional development. Adolescence is also a time of increasing vulnerability to internalising and externalising psychopathologies associated with poor emotion regulation, including depression, anxiety and antisocial behaviour. It is therefore of particular interest to understand how emotion regulation develops over this time, and how this relates to ongoing brain development. However, to date relatively little research has addressed these questions directly. This review will discuss existing research in these areas in both typical adolescence and in adolescent psychopathology, and will highlight opportunities for future research. In particular, it is important to consider the social context in which adolescent emotion regulation develops. It is possible that while adolescence may be a time of vulnerability to emotional dysregulation, scaffolding the development of emotion regulation during this time may be a fruitful preventative target for psychopathology.
Shen, Xiaomei; Zhang, Wenhai
Hierarchical linear modeling techniques were used to explored individual and contextual factors of emotion regulation in a sample of 2074 adolescents from grade 7 through grade 12 and 54 head teachers in China mainland. Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) and Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised (EATQ-R) were administered among…
Lindsey, Eric W.; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Frabutt, James M.; Campbell Chambers, Jessica
The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent's hostile attributions of mother's intent and emotional self-expectancies as contributors to expression of emotion between mothers and adolescents. Data were collected from 268 10- to 12-year-olds (133 girls, 135 boys) and their mothers. Each dyad was observed in a conversational activity that…
Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Alvira-Hammond, Marta
Objectives Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been consistently linked in a strong and graded fashion to a host of health problems in later adulthood but few studies have examined the more proximate effect of ACE on health and emotional well-being in adolescence. Study Design Nationally representative cross-sectional study. Methods Using logistic regression on the 2011/12 National Survey of Children’s Health, we examined the cumulative effect of total ACE score on the health and emotional well-being of US adolescents ages 12 through 17. We investigated the moderating effect of family functioning on the impact of ACE on adolescent health and emotional well-being. Results Adolescents with higher ACE scores had worse reported physical and emotional well-being than adolescents with fewer ACEs net of key demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Family functioning moderated the negative impact of cumulative ACE on adolescent health and emotional well-being. Conclusions Adolescent well-being has enduring consequences; identifying children with ACE exposure who also have lower-functioning family could also help identify those families at particular risk. PMID:26718424
Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Coats, Abby Heckman
The authors examined regulation of the discrete emotions anger and sadness in adolescents through older adults in the context of describing everyday problem situations. The results support previous work; in comparison to younger age groups, older adults reported that they experienced less anger and reported that they used more passive and fewer proactive emotion-regulation strategies in interpersonal situations. The experience of anger partially mediated age differences in the use of proactive emotion regulation. This suggests that at least part of the reason why older adults use fewer proactive emotion-regulation strategies is their decreased experience of anger. Results are discussed in the context of lifespan theories of emotional development.
Karaman, Neslihan G.
Problem statement: Problem behavior theory describes both protective factors and risk factors to explain adolescent problem behaviors, such as delinquency, alcohol use, and reckless driving. The theory holds that problem behaviors involving risky behavior are used by adolescents as a means to gain peer acceptance and respect. Problem behaviors…
Jessar, Allison J.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.
The present study examined whether emotional abuse and neglect differentially predicted decreases in emotional clarity, and whether emotional clarity, in turn, predicted increases in depressive symptoms. Participants included 204 early adolescents (52% African American; 54% female; M age = 12.85 years) who completed four assessments with measures…
Nelis, Sharon M.; Rae, Gordon; Liddell, Christine
Research has suggested that self-report measures of expressed emotion (EE) may be employed as a proxy measure of environmental stress in the home. The appropriateness of the Level of Expressed Emotion scale as a measure of perceived expressed emotion was examined in a sample of adolescents. Participants were 239 male and 422 female adolescents…
Rabinowitz, Jill A; Osigwe, Ijeoma; Drabick, Deborah A G; Reynolds, Maureen D
Lower family cohesion is associated with adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. However, there are likely individual differences in youth's responses to family processes. For example, adolescents higher in negative emotional reactivity, who often exhibit elevated physiological responsivity to context, may be differentially affected by family cohesion. We explored whether youth's negative emotional reactivity moderated the relation between family cohesion and youth's symptoms and tested whether findings were consistent with the diathesis-stress model or differential susceptibility hypothesis. Participants were 651 adolescents (M = 12.99 ± .95 years old; 72% male) assessed at two time points (Time 1, ages 12-14; Time 2, age 16) in Pittsburgh, PA. At Time 1, mothers reported on family cohesion and youth reported on their negative emotional reactivity. At Time 2, youth reported on their symptoms. Among youth higher in negative emotional reactivity, lower family cohesion predicted higher symptoms than higher family cohesion, consistent with the diathesis-stress model.
Kliewer, Wendy; Riley, Tennisha; Zaharakis, Nikola; Borre, Alicia; Drazdowski, Tess K; Jäggi, Lena
Anticipatory cortisol is associated with risk for substance use in adolescents. The present study extended prior literature by testing a model linking family emotional climate, emotion dysregulation, anticipatory cortisol, and substance use. Participants were 229 adolescents (M = 11.94 years, SD = 1.55; 41% male; 92% African American) enrolled in a 4-wave study of stressors, physiological stress responses, and substance use. Caregivers completed measures of family emotional climate at baseline and adolescents' emotion dysregulation one and two years later; adolescents reported on their substance use at baseline and three years later at Wave 4. Adolescents completed a stress task at Wave 4; saliva samples taken immediately prior to the task were analyzed for cortisol. Longitudinal path models revealed that a negative emotional climate at home was associated with elevated emotion dysregulation at subsequent waves for all youth. Emotional dysregulation was prospectively associated with blunted anticipatory cortisol, which in turn was associated with elevated substance use, controlling for baseline substance use and age. However, these associations only were observed for females. This study suggests that helping girls in particular manage their emotional responses to stress more effectively may impact their physiological responses and reduce risk for substance use.
Hastings, Paul D.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Usher, Barbara A.
Behavioral responses to stress and challenge are based in emotional and physiological arousal reactions. Adolescents with maladaptive or problematic behavior patterns, such as internalizing or externalizing problems, are likely to show atypical emotional and physiological reactions to stress. Relations between problems and reactions to stress were…
Lin, Wen-Hsu; Yi, Chin-Chun
Although sleep has been linked to activities in various domains of life, one under-studied link is the relationship between unhealthy sleep practices and conduct problems among adolescents. The present study investigates the influence of adolescents' unhealthy sleep practices-short sleep (e.g., less than 6 h a day), inconsistent sleep schedule (e.g., social jetlag), and sleep problems-on conduct problems (e.g., substance use, fighting, and skipping class). In addition, this study examines unhealthy sleep practices in relationship to adolescent emotional well-being, defiant attitudes, and academic performance, as well as these three domains as possible mediators of the longitudinal association between sleep practices and conduct problems. Three waves of the Taiwan Youth Project (n = 2,472) were used in this study. At the first time-point examined in this study, youth (51% male) were aged 13-17 (M = 13.3). The results indicated that all three measures of unhealthy sleep practices were related to conduct problems, such that short sleep, greater social jetlag, and more serious sleep problems were concurrently associated with greater conduct problems. In addition, short sleep and sleep problems predicted conduct problems one year later. Furthermore, these three unhealthy sleep practices were differently related to poor academic performance, low levels of emotional well-being, and defiant attitudes, and some significant indirect effects on later conduct problems through these three attributes were found. Cultural differences and suggestions for prevention are discussed.
Lantrip, Crystal; Isquith, Peter K; Koven, Nancy S; Welsh, Kathleen; Roth, Robert M
Development of emotion regulation strategy use involves a transition from reliance on suppression during childhood to greater use of reappraisal in adolescence and adulthood-a transition that parallels developmental changes in executive functions. We evaluated the relationship between emotion regulation strategy use and executive functioning in the everyday life of 70 typically developing adolescents who completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Youth and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self-Report. Results indicated that greater reliance on reappraisal was associated with better executive functions, while reliance on suppression was related to poorer executive functions. Findings suggest that adolescents who rely on reappraisal may have more cognitive resources to help them remain attentive and well regulated in their daily lives. On the other hand, if better executive functions facilitate the use of reappraisal, adolescents' ability to regulate their emotions could potentially be enhanced via supports for executive functions.
Lomas, Justine; Stough, Con; Hansen, Karen; Downey, Luke A
In order to better understand bullying behaviours we examined for the first time the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) of adolescents, bullying behaviours and peer victimisation. The sample consisted of 68 adolescents from a secondary college. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire which assessed their EI, how frequently they engaged in bullying behaviours and how often they were the target of peer victimisation. Results of the study indicated that the EI dimensions of Emotions Direct Cognition and Emotional Management and Control, significantly predicted the propensity of adolescents to be subjected to peer victimisation. The EI dimension of Understanding the Emotions of Others was found to be negatively related with bullying behaviours. It was concluded that anti-bullying programs in schools could be improved by addressing deficits in EI in adolescents who bully others as well as those who are at a greater risk of being subjected to peer victimisation.
Killgore, William D S; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A
The somatic marker hypothesis posits a key role for the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and insula in the ability to utilize emotions to guide decision making and behavior. However, the relationship between activity in these brain regions and emotional intelligence (EQ) during adolescence, a time of particular importance for emotional and social development, has not been studied. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we correlated scores from the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, Youth Version (EQ-i:YV) with brain activity during perception of fearful faces in 16 healthy children and adolescents. Consistent with the neural efficiency hypothesis, higher EQ correlated negatively with activity in the somatic marker circuitry and other paralimbic regions. Positive correlations were observed between EQ and activity in the cerebellum and visual association cortex. The findings suggest that the construct of self-reported EQ in adolescents is inversely related to the efficiency of neural processing within the somatic marker circuitry during emotional provocation.
Sjursø, Ida Risanger; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Roland, Erling
Previous studies show an association between traditional and cyber victimization. However, there seem to be differences in how these forms of being bullied relates to emotional problems in the victims. Few studies focus on symptoms of general anxiety and depression as separate variables when comparing traditional and cyber victimization.…
Heller, Aaron S; Casey, B J
The study of development is, in and of itself, the study of change over time, but emotions, particularly emotional reactivity and emotional regulation, also unfold over time, albeit over briefer time-scales. Adolescence is a period of development characterized by marked changes in emotional processes and rewiring of the underlying neural circuitry, making this time of life formative. Yet this period is also a time of increased risk for anxiety and mood disorders. Changes in the temporal dynamics of emotional processes (e.g. magnitude, time-to-peak and duration) occur during this developmental period and have been associated with risk for mood and anxiety disorders. In this article, we describe how the temporal dynamics of emotions change during adolescence and how they may increase risk for these psychopathologies. We highlight studies that illustrate how formalizing temporal neurodynamics of emotion may enhance links among levels of analyses from neurobiological to real-world, moment-to-moment experiences.
Marston, Emily G.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.
This study used longitudinal, multireporter data, in a community sample, to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in late adolescents' social and emotional development. Rejection sensitivity was linked to a relative increase in adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms over a 3-year period, even after accounting for teens' baseline level of…
Lomas, Justine; Stough, Con; Hansen, Karen; Downey, Luke A.
In order to better understand bullying behaviours we examined for the first time the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) of adolescents, bullying behaviours and peer victimisation. The sample consisted of 68 adolescents from a secondary college. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire which assessed their EI, how frequently…
Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.
Investigated whether friendships with deviant peers would be related negatively to the emotional and behavioral adjustment of 305 adolescents, 13 years of age. Found that adolescents with deviant friends were more delinquent than those with no mutual friends or nondeviant friends, and showed similarly problematic depression levels as friendless…
Kemppainen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka; Jokela, Veikko; Pantelejev, Vladimir; Uhanov, Mihail
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to show that a syndrome of problem behaviours, i.e. early substance abuse, school and family problems and sexual promiscuity impairs normal development in adolescence. This comparative study looked for differences in the problem behaviour profiles of 15-year-old adolescents in the Pitkaranta district in Russia…
Hessler, Danielle M.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber
The current study examines associations between emotional competence (i.e., awareness, regulation, comfort with expression) and adolescent risky behavior. Children from a longitudinal study participated at age 9 and 16 (N = 88). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with children about their emotional experiences and coded for areas of…
Moksnes, Unni K.; Espnes, Geir A.; Lillefjell, Monica
The present paper investigates possible gender and age differences on emotional states (state depression and state anxiety) and sense of coherence (SOC) as well as the association between SOC and emotional states. The cross-sectional sectional sample consists of 1209 adolescents 13-18 years from public elementary and secondary schools in…
Fosco, Gregory M.; Lippold, Melissa; Feinberg, Mark
This study tests interparental boundary problems (IBPs), parent hostility with adolescents, and adolescent hostility with parents within a reciprocal influence model and tests each as risk factors for adolescent aggression problems. Prospective, longitudinal analyses were conducted with multi-informant data from 768 adolescents and their families, from 6th to 9th grade. Guided by spillover and social learning perspectives, our findings suggest that IBPs have a robust, negative influence on both parent and adolescent hostility. In turn, adolescent hostility was the best predictor of global adolescent aggression problems. Two indirect effects were found that link IBPs and adolescent aggression problems; however, findings indicate that adolescent hostile behavior in the family is the key risk indicator for adolescents' later aggression problems. Model invariance tests revealed that this model was not different for boys and girls, or for adolescents in families with two biological parents and youth in families with two caregivers (e.g. stepparent families). PMID:25844271
Russell, A T; Pasnau, R O; Taintor, Z C
The authors used a questionnaire technique to determine the magnitude of the problem of emotional illness and poor performance during psychiatric residency, the procedures that are used to screen for or help disturbed residents, and characteristics that differentiate residents who are at risk. The data indicated that residents who have problems that lead to termination are rarely free of emotional disturbance. The general belief that women, foreign medical graduates, and minority group members are at higher risk for problems during residency was not supported; however, younger residents and transfers from other programs appeared to be at risk. A disturbing finding was the high rate of suicide reported. The authors stress the need for further work with the "marginal" resident and for research on screening and supportive procedures.
Dahl, Ronald E.
Reviews current scientific and clinical information regarding consequences of insufficient sleep in adolescents, including sleepiness; tiredness; changes in mood, attention, and behavior; emotional and behavior problems' effects on sleep patterns; and bidirectional effects. Lifestyle forces are pushing teens' sleep/arousal balance in the wrong…
Rupa, Megha; Girimaji, Satish; Muthuswamy, Selvi; Jacob, Preeti; Ravi, Malavika
Anorexia nervosa is a rare but sever psychiatric disorder in adolescence, with chronicity and death being the most feared consequence. Emotional Insight into one's problem is considered a key determinant of success in therapy. The following case study of a 14-year-old client, describes the process of therapy as it unfolded across 45 sessions. An…
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…
Dever, Bridget V.; Mays, Kristen L.; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Dowdy, Erin
The BASC-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher, Child/Adolescent Form (BESS Teacher Form C/A; Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007) is a brief teacher-report rating scale designed to identify students who are at-risk for behavioral and emotional problems. The aim of this study was to describe the latent dimensions that underlie the…
Sim, Leslie; Adrian, Molly; Zeman, Janice; Cassano, Michael; Friedrich, William N.
Parents' responses to their children's emotional expressivity have been shown to significantly influence children's subsequent psychosocial functioning. This study hypothesized that adolescents' deliberate self-harm (DSH) may be an outcome associated with poor emotion regulation as well as an invalidating family environment. The mediational role…
Adolescent sexual activity is increasing globally. Abstinence and a delay in the start of sexual intercourse may be the most effective methods in preventing the consequences of teenage sexual activity. However, these goals are seldom met. With the change in social norms, peer pressure and media influences; teenagers are engaging in premarital sex earlier. Family life education in countries like Sweden and Finland reduces teenage pregnancy and abortion. It is unrealistic to expect sexually active adolescents to stop their sexual activity. An effective contraceptive method will provide an alternative to prevent teenage pregnancy. Issues on compliance of contraceptive use, especially at the very outset of sexual activity should be addressed. Most of the problems associated with teenage pregnancy are now thought to be related to the social circumstances of the mother, the poor nutritional status before pregnancy and poor attendance at antenatal clinics. Risk-taking behaviour in this age group will also make them more prone to contracting sexually transmitted diseases. High risk groups should be screened and treated early. Contraceptive methods with protection against sexually transmitted diseases should be advised.
Hare, Todd A.; Tottenham, Nim; Galvan, Adriana; Voss, Henning U.; Glover, Gary H.; Casey, B.J.
Background Adolescence is a transition period from childhood to adulthood that is often characterized by emotional instability. This period is also a time of increased incidence of anxiety and depression underscoring the importance of understanding biological substrates of behavioral and emotion regulation during adolescence. Developmental changes in the brain in concert with individual predispositions for anxiety may underlie the increased risk for poor outcomes reported during adolescence. We tested the hypothesis that difficulties in regulating behavior in emotional contexts in adolescents may be due to competition between heightened activity in subcortical emotional processing systems and immature top-down prefrontal systems. Individual differences in emotional reactivity may put some teens at greater risk during this sensitive transition in development. Methods We examined the association between emotion regulation, and frontoamygdala circuitry in 60 children, adolescents, and adults using an emotional go/nogo paradigm. We went beyond examining the magnitude of neural activity and focused on neural adaptation within this circuitry across time using fMRI. Results Adolescents showed exaggerated amygdala activity relative to children and adults. This age-related difference decreased with repeated exposures to the stimuli, and individual differences in self-ratings of anxiety predicted the extent of adaptation or habituation in amygdala. Individuals with higher trait anxiety showed less habituation over repeated exposures. This failure to habituate was associated with less functional connectivity between ventral prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Conclusions These findings suggest that exaggerated emotional reactivity during adolescence may increase the need for top-down control and put individuals with less control at greater risk for poor outcomes. PMID:18452757
Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang
Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…
Oron Semper, Jose V; Murillo, Jose I; Bernacer, Javier
In this article we introduce the hypothesis that neuropsychological adolescent maturation, and in particular emotional management, may have opposing explanations depending on the interpretation of the assumed brain architecture, that is, whether a componential computational account (CCA) or a dynamic systems perspective (DSP) is used. According to CCA, cognitive functions are associated with the action of restricted brain regions, and this association is temporally stable; by contrast, DSP argues that cognitive functions are better explained by interactions between several brain areas, whose engagement in specific functions is temporal and context-dependent and based on neural reuse. We outline the main neurobiological facts about adolescent maturation, focusing on the neuroanatomical and neurofunctional processes associated with adolescence. We then explain the importance of emotional management in adolescent maturation. We explain the interplay between emotion and cognition under the scope of CCA and DSP, both at neural and behavioral levels. Finally, we justify why, according to CCA, emotional management is understood as regulation, specifically because the cognitive aspects of the brain are in charge of regulating emotion-related modules. However, the key word in DSP is integration, since neural information from different brain areas is integrated from the beginning of the process. Consequently, although the terms should not be conceptually confused, there is no cognition without emotion, and vice versa. Thus, emotional integration is not an independent process that just happens to the subject, but a crucial part of personal growth. Considering the importance of neuropsychological research in the development of educational and legal policies concerning adolescents, we intend to expose that the holistic view of adolescents is dependent on whether one holds the implicit or explicit interpretation of brain functioning.
Oron Semper, Jose V.; Murillo, Jose I.; Bernacer, Javier
In this article we introduce the hypothesis that neuropsychological adolescent maturation, and in particular emotional management, may have opposing explanations depending on the interpretation of the assumed brain architecture, that is, whether a componential computational account (CCA) or a dynamic systems perspective (DSP) is used. According to CCA, cognitive functions are associated with the action of restricted brain regions, and this association is temporally stable; by contrast, DSP argues that cognitive functions are better explained by interactions between several brain areas, whose engagement in specific functions is temporal and context-dependent and based on neural reuse. We outline the main neurobiological facts about adolescent maturation, focusing on the neuroanatomical and neurofunctional processes associated with adolescence. We then explain the importance of emotional management in adolescent maturation. We explain the interplay between emotion and cognition under the scope of CCA and DSP, both at neural and behavioral levels. Finally, we justify why, according to CCA, emotional management is understood as regulation, specifically because the cognitive aspects of the brain are in charge of regulating emotion-related modules. However, the key word in DSP is integration, since neural information from different brain areas is integrated from the beginning of the process. Consequently, although the terms should not be conceptually confused, there is no cognition without emotion, and vice versa. Thus, emotional integration is not an independent process that just happens to the subject, but a crucial part of personal growth. Considering the importance of neuropsychological research in the development of educational and legal policies concerning adolescents, we intend to expose that the holistic view of adolescents is dependent on whether one holds the implicit or explicit interpretation of brain functioning. PMID:27602012
Keiley, Margaret K; Zaremba-Morgan, Ali; Datubo-Brown, Christiana; Pyle, Raven; Cox, Milira
The multiple-family group intervention is an effective, yet affordable, 8-week treatment that is conducted in a juvenile correctional institution in Alabama with adolescents who sexually offend and their families. Data from 115 incarcerated male adolescents and their male and female caregivers collected at pre-, post-, and 1-year follow-up were used to determine that problem behaviors (internalizing, externalizing) decreased over pre- and posttest and the significant decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation predicted those changes. Adolescent-reported anxiety over abandonment and attachment dependence on parents increased significantly; these changes were predicted by decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation. Linear growth models were also fit over the 3 time points and indicate decreases in adolescent problem behavior and maladaptive emotion regulation.
Repinski, Daniel J.; Shonk, Susan M.
This study examined the degree to which adolescent self-system processes (self-efficacy, emotional reactivity) and reports of mothers' and fathers' behavior (warmth/support, hostility) predict adolescents' behavior toward siblings and their friends' problem behavior. Subjects were 76 seventh-grade adolescents who provided self-reports of parent…
Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Coats, Abby Heckman
The authors examined regulation of the discrete emotions anger and sadness in adolescents through older adults in the context of describing everyday problem situations. The results support previous work; in comparison to younger age groups, older adults reported that they experienced less anger and reported that they used more passive and fewer…
Lougheed, Jessica P; Craig, Wendy M; Pepler, Debra; Connolly, Jennifer; O'Hara, Arland; Granic, Isabela; Hollenstein, Tom
Emotion socialization by close relationship partners plays a role in adolescent depression. In the current study, a microsocial approach was used to examine how adolescents' emotions are socialized by their mothers and close friends in real time, and how these interpersonal emotion dynamics are related to adolescent depressive symptoms. Participants were 83 adolescents aged 16 to 17 years who participated in conflict discussions with their mothers and self-nominated close friends. Adolescents' positive and negative emotions, and mothers' and peers' supportive regulation of adolescent emotions, were coded in real time. Two multilevel survival analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework predicted the hazard rate of (1) mothers' supportive regulation of adolescents' emotions, and (2) peers' supportive regulation of adolescents' emotions. The likelihood of maternal supportiveness, regardless of adolescent emotions, was lower for adolescents with higher depressive symptoms. In addition, peers were less likely to up-regulate adolescent positive emotions at higher levels of adolescent depressive symptoms. The results of the current study support interpersonal models of depression and demonstrate the importance of real-time interpersonal emotion processes in adolescent depressive symptoms.
Liu, Lisa L.; Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong
This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who…
Langton, Callie E.; Berger, Lawrence M.
This study uses data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine family structure's associations with adolescent physical health, behavior, and emotional well-being. Findings suggest that adolescents in most other family types tend to have poorer outcomes than those in two-biological-parent families. Adolescents living with their biological father but not their mother have similar outcomes to those living with their single, biological mother. Although transitioning to a single-parent family is adversely associated with multiple outcomes, few associations are found for other types of transitions, and there are few differences in adolescent outcomes by parental marital status. Estimates from models utilizing adolescent- and caregiver-reported outcome measures, though similar with regard to behavior problems, differ considerably with regard to physical health and emotional well-being such that those using adolescent reports suggest a stronger relation between family structure and adolescent well-being than those using caregiver reports. PMID:23788821
Xu, Yuechun; Cui, Zhihua; Zeng, Jianchao
Nonlinear programming problem is one important branch in operational research, and has been successfully applied to various real-life problems. In this paper, a new approach called Social emotional optimization algorithm (SEOA) is used to solve this problem which is a new swarm intelligent technique by simulating the human behavior guided by emotion. Simulation results show that the social emotional optimization algorithm proposed in this paper is effective and efficiency for the nonlinear constrained programming problems.
Salam, A A; Alshekteria, A A; Mohammed, H A A; Al Abar, N M; Al Jhany, M M; Al Flah, F
Adolescence and youth are stages of life that other great opportunities for reduction of future health needs. A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the physical, mental, emotional and social health status of adolescents and youths attending 2 large universities in Benghazi city, Libya, and to determine variables associated with their health status. Stratified sampling was used to select 383 students aged 17-24 years and data were collected by face-to-face interview and self-administered questionnaires. Major health problems were depression/anxiety and pain/discomfort, and these were suffered by significantly more females than males. Mental health was at the transitional stage in Dabrowski's emotional development theory (spontaneous multilevel disintegration). Females had higher levels of emotional development. Regular physical activity was practised by 34.7% overall (25.8% of women) and 17.2% were smokers. The main social activity was visiting family members.
Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Mok, Pearl L.H.; Pickles, Andrew; Durkin, Kevin
Adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) are at a greater risk of emotional and behavioral problems compared to their typically developing (TD) peers, but little is known about their self-perceived strengths and difficulties. In this study, the self-reported social, emotional and behavioral functioning of 139 adolescents with a history of SLI and 124 TD individuals at age 16 was examined. The self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess their prosocial behavior and levels of peer, emotional and behavioral difficulties. Associations of these areas of functioning with gender, verbal and non-verbal skills were also investigated. Adolescents with a history of SLI were more likely than their TD peers to report higher levels of peer problems, emotional symptoms, hyperactivity and conduct problems. The majority of adolescents in both groups (87% SLI and 96% TD), however, reported prosocial behavior within the typical range. Difficulty with peer relations was the strongest differentiator between the groups, with the odds of reporting borderline or abnormally high levels of peer problems being 12 times higher for individuals with a history of SLI. Adolescents with poorer receptive language skills were also more likely to report higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties. The findings of this study identify likely traits that may lead to referral to services. PMID:24077068
Okado, Yuko; Bierman, Karen L
To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5-7) to late adolescence (ages 17-19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger ("conduct problems"), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation ("mood dysregulation"), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality--possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder--emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood.
Weinberg, Anna; Klonsky, E. David
The construct of emotion dysregulation increasingly has been used to explain diverse psychopathologies across the lifespan. The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; K. L. Gratz & L. Roemer, 2004) represents the most comprehensive measure of the construct to date and exhibits good reliability and validity in adults; however, the…
Plattner, Belinda; Karnik, Niranjan; Jo, Booil; Hall, Rebecca E.; Schallauer, Astrid; Carrion, Victor; Feucht, Martha; Steiner, Hans
Objective: To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents. Method: Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions…
Snedker, Karen A.; Herting, Jerald R.
The purpose of this article is to explore the role of neighborhood characteristics, specifically economic disadvantage/advantage, residential instability, and racial/ethnic heterogeneity on emotional distress (depressed affect, anxiety, hopelessness) among youth. Using a regional sample of adolescents and matching their data to census tracts, we…
Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Thomas, Kathleen M.
This study investigated the changing relation between emotion and inhibitory control during adolescence. One hundred participants between 11 and 25 years of age performed a go-nogo task in which task-relevant stimuli (letters) were presented at the center of large task-irrelevant images depicting negative, positive, or neutral scenes selected from…
AN EFFECTIVE AND PLEASANT THERAPEUTIC EFFECT CAN BE PRODUCED BY ENCOURAGING EMOTIONALLY-DISTURBED ADOLESCENTS TO LOOK AT, WORK WITH, AND WRITE UNRESTRICTEDLY ABOUT NATURAL BEAUTY. THEIR OCCASIONAL UNRESPONSIVENESS IS CHANGED TO WILLINGNESS AND THEIR CREATIVE EFFORTS ARE RE-DIRECTED FROM EXPRESSIONS OF FEAR AND DESPAIR AS THEY OBSERVE COLORFUL…
Bukowski, William M.; And Others
Discusses a model that suggests that popularity and friendship are linked to different forms of adjustment and emotional well-being and emphasizes that friendship is an important mediator between popularity and loneliness. Results of a study that involved 169 early adolescents in fifth and sixth grades supported the model. (BB)
Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A; Haugan, Gørill
This paper aims to investigate the association between the domains of stress, sense of coherence (SOC) and emotional symptoms (depression and anxiety) in adolescents, as well as the potential moderating role of SOC on the relationship between stress and emotional symptoms. The study is based on a cross-sectional sample of 1183 adolescents aged 13-18 who attend public elementary and secondary schools in Mid-Norway. The results showed that girls scored higher than boys on stress related to peer pressure, home life, school performance, school/leisure conflict and emotional symptoms. Conversely, boys reported higher SOC than girls. Results from multiple hierarchical regression analyses showed that for boys, stress related to school performance was positively associated with symptoms of both depression and anxiety, whereas stress from peer pressure was associated with depressive symptoms. For girls, stress from peer pressure, romantic relationships and school was associated with more depressive symptoms. SOC was strongly and inversely associated with emotional symptoms, especially anxiety in girls. SOC also moderated the association between stress related to peer pressure and depressive symptoms in both genders. The study provides evidence of the association of SOC with stress and emotional symptoms during adolescence.
Snoek, Harriëtte M; van Strien, Tatjana; Janssens, Jan M A M; Engels, Rutger C M E
The purpose of this study was to determine how emotional, external and restrained eating behavior and other health-related lifestyle factors were associated with being overweight in adolescents. Moreover, demographic and ethnic differences in eating behavior have been examined. The respondents were 10,087 Dutch adolescents aged 11-16 years (M= 13.0, SD= 0.8). Self-reported eating behavior was measured with the DEBQ. Health-related lifestyle was determined by physical activity, breakfasting, fruit consumption and snacking. High restrained, and low external eating were positively associated with being overweight, whereas no significant association between emotional eating and being overweight was found for girls, and a negative association for boys. Adolescents who ate breakfast on a daily basis were less likely to be overweight than those who ate breakfast irregularly or never. Being overweight was positively associated with fruit consumption for girls and negatively with physical activity for boys.
Schwartz, Orli S; Sheeber, Lisa B; Dudgeon, Paul; Allen, Nicholas B
This review evaluates research addressing the association between parent-child emotional interactions and the development and maintenance of depression in adolescence, with a focus on studies using observational research methods that assess parental responses to children and adolescents' emotional displays. We argue that parental socialization behaviors in response to different emotions expressed by youths may have distinct associations with depressive outcomes. In particular, parental behaviors that reinforce depressive behavior, reciprocate aggression, and fail to positively reinforce positive behavior have each been associated with youth depression. This review identifies a need for more observational research, including prospective, longitudinal studies, to better understand these behaviors, elucidate the directionality of influence between parental socialization behaviors and youth depression, and more clearly identify protective parental socialization behaviors. However, the use of existing findings to inform family-based interventions may improve prevention and treatment efforts directed at youth depression.
Ittel, Angela; Müller, Christin R; Pfetsch, Jan; Walk, Sebastian
The experience of cybervictimization is related to health, psychological, and behavioral problems among children and adolescents. Up to today research is scarce, how the persons affected by cybervictimization react and which determinants influence the choice for social, problem-focused, technical, or helpless coping behavior. The current online study with 428 adolescents considers age, sex, mean internet use, frequency of victimization, roles in cyberbullying, and emotional reactions to cybervictimization as potential determinants of the mentioned coping strategies. Based on the participant role approach, roles of cyberbullies, cybervictims, defenders or outsiders are frequently changing. Logistic regression analyses point out the important relevance of emotional reactions like anger or helplessness and the roles as cyberbully-victim or outsider. Further, younger participants reported cybervictimization more often, while the frequency of cybervictimization and sex did not and internet use only partially predict coping strategies. These findings corroborate the relevance of emotional reactions and the roles in the process of cyberbullying. As a starting point for prevention and intervention of cybervictimization, we suggest emotion regulation, teaching of technical coping behaviors as well as reflexion of roles in the context of cyberbullying. If feasible, different stakeholders should be engaged in this process: adolescents, parents, educational staff inside and outside of schools, experts from counseling and therapy as well as internet and mobile phone service providers.
Bierman, Karen L.
To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5–7) to late adolescence (ages 17–19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger (“conduct problems”), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation (“mood dysregulation”), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality – possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder – emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood. PMID:25183553
Kahn, Rachel E; Ermer, Elsa; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A
Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions and to use this information to guide thinking and behavior adaptively. Youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits demonstrate a variety of affective deficits, including impairment in recognition of emotion and reduced emotional responsiveness to distress or pain in others. We examined the association between ability EI and CU traits in a sample of incarcerated adolescents (n = 141) using an expert-rater device (Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL-YV; Manual for the Hare psychopathy checklist: Youth version. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, 2003) and self-report assessments of CU traits. EI was assessed using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test-Youth Version, Research Version (MSCEIT-YV-R; MSCEIT YV: Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test: Youth version, research version 1.0. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, Ontario, 2005). Similar to findings in adult forensic populations, high levels of CU traits in incarcerated adolescents were associated with lower EI, particularly higher order EI skills. Identifying impairment on EI abilities may have important implications for emerging treatment and intervention developments for youth with high levels of CU traits.
Hunter, Erin C.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Shortt, Joann Wu; Davis, Betsy; Leve, Craig; Allen, Nicholas B.; Sheeber, Lisa B.
Emotional and cognitive changes that occur during adolescence set the stage for the development of adaptive or maladaptive beliefs about emotions. Although research suggests that parents' behaviors and beliefs about emotions relate to children's emotional abilities, few studies have looked at parental socialization of children's emotions,…
Pearson, Deborah A; Loveland, Katherine A; Lachar, David; Lane, David M; Reddoch, Stacy L; Mansour, Rosleen; Cleveland, Lynne A
Behavioral symptomatology was compared in 26 children and adolescents with Autistic Disorder ("autism") and 25 children and adolescents with Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified ("PDD-NOS"). Relative to individuals with PDD-NOS, those with autism had more symptoms of depression, social withdrawal, atypical behavior, and immature social skills--and fewer family problems. These differences remained even when group differences in intellectual ability were statistically controlled. No group differences emerged in somatization, anxiety, or hyperactivity. Findings suggest that although both groups demonstrate considerable evidence of behavioral and emotional problems, those with autism are at particularly high risk for comorbid behavioral and emotional disabilities.
Schmidt, Ricarda; Tetzlaff, Anne; Hilbert, Anja
A sizeable body of research has documented Expressed Emotion (EE) to predict clinical outcomes in various psychiatric disorders, including eating disorders. Patients' perceptions of relative's EE, however, were found to play an important role in the processing of EE. This study aimed to examine the level of perceived EE in adolescent binge-eating disorder (BED) and its impact on eating disorder psychopathology. Adolescents (12-20 years) seeking treatment for BED (n = 40) were compared to adolescents without current or lifetime eating disorder (CG; n = 40). Both groups were stratified according to age, sex, body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), and socio-economic status. The Five Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) and the Brief Dyadic Scale of EE were administered to assess patients' perceived maternal EE. Additionally, adolescents and mothers completed questionnaires on eating disorder and general psychopathology. On the FMSS, 37.5 % of patients with BED perceived their mothers as high EE (vs. 12.5 % in the CG). On the Brief Dyadic Scale of EE, patients with BED reported significantly higher levels of perceived maternal criticism, emotional overinvolvement, and lower levels of perceived warmth than controls. After controlling for the diagnosis of BED, perceived criticism and warmth, as assessed by questionnaire, significantly explained adolescents' global eating disorder psychopathology. Negative perceptions of maternal behavior and emotional atmosphere towards the child are characteristic of adolescent BED. As documented for other eating disorders, family factors are likely to have substantial implications for the maintenance and treatment of adolescent BED.
Adamia, N; Jorjoliani, L; Manjavidze, N; Ubiria, I; Saginadze, L
Allergic rhinitis is a widespread allergic disease, with 35-40% prevalence in the world population. It is characterized with increasing frequency, particularly in children's population. Goal of the work - study of psycho-emotional profile in adolescents with allergic rhinitis of different severity. Single-stage research was conducted, in compliance with the ethical norms. Study included 86 children (41% girls and 45% boys) of age from 11 to 13 years with allergic rhinitis of different severity and 30 healthy children. For the purpose of study of the patients' psychological profile Esenek Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) intended for assessment of characterological and individual psychological features in children and adolescents (10-15 years) was used. Psycho-emotional sphere of the adolescents with allergic rhinitis was assessed also by Psychopathologic Symptom Checklist (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised-SCL-90-R). Clinical scale of self-assessment of psychical condition is widely applied in ambulatory and hospital practice. At the final stage of research the mathematical-statistical data processing was provided by means of SPSS/v12 software package. According to the research results, susceptibility to significant and mild introversion was identified in severe and average AR cases. Such patients are often locked into their inner world. These children are reserved, communicate with the parents and close friends only. They make decisions with due care, love order, control their emotions, are pessimistic and rarely aggressive. Results of neuroticism study by G. Esenek techniques are provided in Table. Neuroticism is associated with the lability of nervous system, characterizes emotional condition or emotional lability (emotional stability or instability). According to the research results, allergic rhinitis is characterized with emotional instability, anxiety, as manifested by unsatisfactory adaptation, instable nature, depression, low resistance to the stress situations
Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dumenci, Levent; Almqvist, Fredrik; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Broberg, Anders; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Forns, Maria; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank
In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs) ranged from 3% to 9%, whereas those for gender and age…
Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla
This study examined the relationship of emotional detachment from parents, parental support, and problem behaviors and focused on the unique and common contribution that detachment and parental support made to internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. A total of 461 young adolescents, 13 to 14 years old ("M" = 13.4;…
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri; Rantanen, Päivi; Rimpelä, Matti
This study set out to assess the relationship between pubertal timing and emotional and behavioural problems in middle adolescence. The study involved a school based survey of health, health behaviour and behaviour in school as well as questions about emotional and behavioural problems (the School Health Promotion Study). Secondary schools in four regions and 13 towns in Finland participated in the study in 1998. The respondents were 36,549 adolescents aged 14-16. The study included questions on depression, bulimia nervosa, psychosomatic symptoms, anxiety, drinking, substance use, smoking, bullying and truancy. Among girls, both internalising and externalising symptoms were more common the earlier puberty occurred. Among boys, externalising symptoms only were associated with early puberty. It is concluded that early pubertal timing is associated with increased mental health problems. Professionals working with adolescents should consider the mental health needs of early maturing adolescents.
Smith-Bynum, Mia A; Anderson, Riana E; Davis, BreAnna L; Franco, Marisa G; English, Devin
This study examined patterns of (a) observed racial socialization messages in dyadic discussions between 111 African American mothers and adolescents (Mage = 15.50) and (b) mothers' positive emotions displayed during the discussion. Mothers displayed more advocacy on behalf of their adolescents in response to discrimination by a White teacher than to discrimination by a White salesperson. Mothers displayed consistent emotional support of adolescents' problem solving across both dilemmas but lower warmth in response to the salesperson dilemma. Findings illustrate evidence of the transactional nature of racial socialization when presented with adolescents' racial dilemmas. The role of adolescent gender in mothers' observed racial socialization responses is also discussed. A framework for a process-oriented approach to racial socialization is presented.
Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Deng, Jianxiong; Gao, Xue; Xu, Yan; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jinghui; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ciyong
Abstract A growing body of studies have indicated the associations between substance use and psychosocial problems in adolescents. However, few of them have examined whether these psychosocial problems form a syndemic, which means the co-occurrence of psychosocial problems accompanied by additional effects on substance use. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 82,812 Chinese adolescents who were selected using a multistage random procedure. Bivariate associations were estimated between selected syndemic indicators and adolescent substance use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the syndemic indicator count score (the count of syndemic indicators) and adolescent substance use. In addition, cluster analysis was used to partition participants reporting at least one of syndemic indicators to assess associations between resolved cluster memberships and adolescent substance use. All selected syndemic indicators were associated with each other and with adolescent substance use. As the number of syndemic indicators increases, stronger associations with substance use were found in our analysis: the range of adjusted OR was from 1.57 (95% CI: 1.38–1.79) for 1 syndemic indicator to 9.45 (95% CI: 7.60–11.76) for 5 or 6 syndemic indicators. There was no effect modification of gender on these additive associations. The multivariate logistic regression indicated that the cluster membership of nonlow SES academic failures has the highest odds of using substance (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 2.12–2.41), compared to students reporting none syndemic indicators. Our findings support the syndemic hypothesis that adolescents bearing multiple psychosocial problems experience additive risks of using substance. Our findings support that a comprehensive approach to substance use prevention in adolescents would necessitate the involvement of a variety of providers. PMID:26717391
Chen, Zhiyan; Guo, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Li, Xinying; Duan, Qing; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Xiaojia
Adolescents' romantic relationships have been associated with higher levels of depression, although their links with externalizing behavioral problems remain unclear. The present study examined the impact of adolescent romantic relationships on depression and externalizing behaviors in a large sample of 10,509 Chinese secondary school students…
Hare, Amanda L.; Marston, Emily G.; Allen, Joseph P.
With substantive evidence suggesting that adolescents' disclosure is likely a protective factor against problem behaviors, as well as evidence that many adolescents will go to great lengths to "avoid" sharing information with parents, one may conclude that parents' face a formidable task. Previous studies have identified parental acceptance as a…
Surveyed 446 late adolescents concerning their assessment of specific social issues as problems existing in contemporary American society. Subjects overwhelmingly pointed to drug use, pollution, hunger, nuclear war, and poverty as serious to very serious problems, while ageism, and racial and sexual discrimination were regarded as substantially…
Milan, Stephanie; Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Kershaw, Trace; Lewis, Jessica; Meade, Christina; Ethier, Kathleen
This study examines trajectories and correlates of emotional distress symptoms in pregnant adolescents (n = 203) and nulliparous adolescents (n = 188) from economically disadvantaged communities over an 18-month period. For both groups, the prevalence of significant emotional distress exceeded expectation based on adolescent norms; however, the…
The current study examines how Latino adolescents' daily cybervictimization experiences are associated with their emotional and physical well-being and school adjustment. Latino high school students (N = 118) completed daily checklists across five consecutive school days. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that daily cybervictimization experiences were associated with greater feelings of distress, anger, shame and physical symptoms. Moderation analyses showed gender differences such that the daily level associations with distress and anger were significant for Latinas but not Latino adolescents. Daily cybervictimization experiences were also related to increased school attendance problems such as arriving late to class or skipping a class. Mediation models indicated that daily feelings of distress accounted for the association between single episodes of cybervictimization and attendance problems. The results address several voids in the cybervictimization literature and demonstrate that a discrete encounter of victimization online is associated with compromised well-being and school adjustment among Latino adolescents.
Malmquist, Carl P
Criminologists contribute to the knowledge regarding the continuing problem of parricide by way of macrostudies, utilizing large samples that reveal patterns of how such acts are carried out, gender differences, and other aspects. Clinicians have the opportunity to pursue microinvestigations into the details of how cognitive processes and emotions operate in the adolescent who engages in such behavior. Such investigations entail pursuing specifics in the psychosocial realm, such as earlier maltreatments and ongoing psychological conflicts, and also being alert to the neurobiological differences between adolescents and adults. The use of battered child syndrome as a legal defense is discussed, with contrasts made between relying on a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) approach and a duress defense, based on explanations related to shame and humiliation.
Dierker, Lisa; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin
Background Despite the highly replicated relationship between symptoms associated with both alcohol and nicotine, little is known about this association across time and exposure to both drinking and smoking. In the present study, we evaluate if problems associated with alcohol use are related to emerging nicotine dependence symptoms and whether this relationship varies from adolescence to young adulthood, after accounting for both alcohol and nicotine exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which measured smoking, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and alcohol related problems over 6 assessment waves spanning 6 years. Analyses were based on repeated assessment of 864 participants reporting some smoking and drinking 30 days prior to individual assessment waves. Mixed-effects regression models were estimated to examine potential time, smoking and/or alcohol varying effects in the association between alcohol problems and nicotine dependence. Findings Inter-individual differences in mean levels of alcohol problems and within subject changes in alcohol problems from adolescence to young adulthood were each significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms over and above levels of smoking and drinking behaviour. This association was consistent across both time and increasing levels of smoking and drinking. Conclusions Alcohol related problems are a consistent risk factor for nicotine dependence over and above measures of drinking and smoking and this association can be demonstrated from the earliest experiences with smoking in adolescents, through the establishment of more regular smoking patterns across the transition to young adulthood. These findings add to accumulating evidence suggesting that smoking and drinking may be related through a mechanism that cannot be wholly accounted for by exposure to either substance. PMID:27610424
Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Waber, Deborah P.; Hock, Rebecca S.; Harrison, Robert; Eaglesfield, G. David; Fitzmaurice, Garret
Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of conduct problems in a well-documented sample of Barbadian adolescents malnourished as infants and a demographic comparison group and to determine the extent to which cognitive impairment and environmental factors account for this association. Methods Behavioral symptoms were assessed using a 76-item self-report scale in 56 Barbadian youth (11–17 years of age) with histories of protein–energy malnutrition (PEM) limited to the first year of life and 60 healthy classmates. Group comparisons were carried out by longitudinal and cross-sectional multiple regression analyses at 3 time points in childhood and adolescence. Results Self-reported conduct problems were more prevalent among previously malnourished youth (P < 0.01). Childhood IQ and home environmental circumstances partially mediated the association with malnutrition. Teacher-reported classroom behaviors at earlier ages were significantly correlated with youth conduct problems, confirming the continuity of conduct problems through childhood and adolescence. Discussion Self-reported conduct problems are elevated in children and adolescents with histories of early childhood malnutrition. Later vulnerability to increased conduct problems appears to be mediated by the more proximal neurobehavioral effects of the malnutrition on cognitive function and by adverse conditions in the early home environment. PMID:22584048
Arsenio, William F; Adams, Erin; Gold, Jason
Connections between adolescents' social information processing (SIP), moral reasoning, and emotion attributions and their reactive and proactive aggressive tendencies were assessed. One hundred mostly African American and Latino 13- to 18-year-olds from a low-socioeconomic-status (SES) urban community and their high school teachers participated. Reactive aggression was uniquely related to expected ease in enacting aggression, lower verbal abilities, and hostile attributional biases, and most of these connections were mediated by adolescents' attention problems. In contrast, proactive aggression was uniquely related to higher verbal abilities and expectations of more positive emotional and material outcomes resulting from aggression. Discussion focused on the utility of assessing both moral and SIP-related cognitions, and on the potential influence of low-SES, high-risk environments on these findings.
Lee, Nikki C; Krabbendam, Lydia; White, Thomas P; Meeter, Martijn; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Heinz, Andreas; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Smolka, Michael N; Gallinat, Juergen; Schumann, Gunther; Shergill, Sukhi S
During adolescence social relationships become increasingly important. Establishing and maintaining these relationships requires understanding of emotional stimuli, such as facial emotions. A failure to adequately interpret emotional facial expressions has previously been associated with various mental disorders that emerge during adolescence. The current study examined sex differences in emotional face processing during adolescence. Participants were adolescents (n = 1951) with a target age of 14, who completed a forced-choice emotion discrimination task. The stimuli used comprised morphed faces that contained a blend of two emotions in varying intensities (11 stimuli per set of emotions). Adolescent girls showed faster and more sensitive perception of facial emotions than boys. However, both adolescent boys and girls were most sensitive to variations in emotion intensity in faces combining happiness and sadness, and least sensitive to changes in faces comprising fear and anger. Furthermore, both sexes overidentified happiness and anger. However, the overidentification of happiness was stronger in boys. These findings were not influenced by individual differences in the level of pubertal maturation. These results indicate that male and female adolescents differ in their ability to identify emotions in morphed faces containing emotional blends. The findings provide information for clinical studies examining whether sex differences in emotional processing are related to sex differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders within this age group.
Gómez-Ortiz, Olga; Romera, Eva M.; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario; Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
Emotion regulation (ER) is a basic psychological process that has been broadly linked to psychosocial adjustment. Due to its relationship with psychosocial adjustment, a significant number of instruments have been developed to assess emotion regulation in a reliable and valid manner. Among these, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross and John, 2003) is one of the most widely used, having shown good psychometric properties with adult samples from different cultures. Studies of validation in children and adolescents are, however, scarce and have only been developed for the Australian and Portuguese populations. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the ERQ for use in adolescents and determine possible differences according to the gender and age of young people. The sample consisted of 2060 adolescents (52.1% boys). Exploratory and Confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA), multi-group analysis and Two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed and the percentiles calculated. The results of the AFE and CFA corroborated the existence of two factors related to the emotion regulation strategies of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, showing acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Both factors also showed good criterion validity with personality traits, self-esteem, and social anxiety. Differences in cognitive reappraisal were found with regard to age, with younger students exhibiting the greatest mastery of this strategy. Gender differences were observed regarding the expressive suppression strategy, with boys being more likely to use this strategy than girls. A gender-age interaction effect was also observed, revealing that the use of the expressive suppression strategy did not vary by age in girls, and was more widely used by boys aged 12–14 years than those aged 15–16 years. However, we found evidence of measurement invariance across sex and age groups. The results suggest
Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje
The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way.
Roeser, Robert W.; van der Wolf, Kees; Strobel, Karen R.
This study collected data from adolescents, ages 12 to 14, in California and Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Two questions were presented concerning social-emotional and school functioning. Consistent with previous research, American youth reported more internalizing and externalizing problems than their Dutch peers and said that their negative moods…
Salguero, Jose M.; Palomera, Raquel; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo
In recent years, emotional intelligence has appeared as a predictor of adults' mental health, but little research has examined its involvement in adolescents' psychological adjustment. In this paper, we analyzed the predictive validity of perceived emotional intelligence (attention to feelings, emotional clarity, and emotional repair) over…
Kehoe, Christiane E.; Havighurst, Sophie S.; Harley, Ann E.
This study investigated the relationship between parent emotion socialization and youth somatic complaints (SC) in an early adolescent sample using a longitudinal experimental design. An emotion-focused parenting intervention, which taught parent's skills to improve their emotional competence and emotion socialization, was used to examine whether…
Loney, Bryan R.; Lima, Elizabeth N.; Butler, Melanie A.
This study examined for profiles of positive trait affectivity (PA) and negative trait affectivity (NA) associated with adolescent conduct problems. Prior trait affectivity research has been relatively biased toward the assessment of adults and internalizing symptomatology. Consistent with recent developmental modeling of antisocial behavior, this…
The pediatrician is often expected by families to deal with sexual problems of children and adolescents. The physician should be able to identify problems and to guide parents in more meaningful communication and education of their children. Hopefully, he will be able to identify family conflicts and make the appropriate intervention or referral. He should be aware of his own sexual attitudes so as to avoid having his bias interfere with treatment. The childs behavior should not be isolated, but considered in the context of his family, his peers, and his own growth and development. Often, it is more useful to advise the family than to work with a young child. Adolescents present particular problems because of their conflicts over sexual identity, their reluctance to admit to problems, and frequently a mistrust of adults. They often feel a need for a trusting relationship with an adult, however, and are able to relate to a sensitive, non-judgmental professional.
Webber, Jo; Coleman, Maggie
Teachers are encouraged to utilize rational-emotive therapy to prevent and deal with classroom behavior problems. Rational-emotive therapy is defined, the ABC model of rational thinking briefly explained, types of irrational thinking identified, and suggestions for becoming a rational thinker are offered. Classroom examples are given. (DB)
Walsh, Sophie D.; Molcho, Michal; Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Huynh, Quynh; Kukaswadia, Atif; Aasvee, Katrin; Várnai, Dora; Ottova, Veronika; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Pickett, William
Then aims of the current study were 1) to provide cross-national estimates of the prevalence of physical fighting and weapon carrying among adolescents aged 11–15 years; (2) To examine the possible effects of physical fighting and weapon carrying on the occurrence of physical (medically treated injuries) and emotional health outcomes (multiple health complaints) among adolescents within the theoretical framework of Problem Behaviour Theory. 20,125 adolescents aged 11–15 in five countries (Belgium, Israel, USA, Canada, FYR Macedonia) were surveyed via the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey. Prevalence was calculated for physical fighting and weapon carrying along with physical and emotional measures that potentially result from violence. Regression analyses were used to quantify associations between violence/weapon carrying and the potential health consequences within each country. Large variations in fighting and weapon carrying were observed across countries. Boys reported more frequent episodes of fighting/weapon carrying and medically attended injuries in every country, while girls reported more emotional symptoms. Although there were some notable variations in findings between different participating countries, increased weapon carrying and physical fighting were both independently and consistently associated with more frequent reports of the potential health outcomes. Adolescents engaging in fighting and weapon carrying are also at risk for physical and emotional health outcomes. Involvement in fighting and weapon carrying can be seen as part of a constellation of risk behaviours with obvious health implications. Our findings also highlight the importance of the cultural context when examining the nature of violent behaviour for adolescents. PMID:23437126
Walsh, Sophie D; Molcho, Michal; Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Huynh, Quynh; Kukaswadia, Atif; Aasvee, Katrin; Várnai, Dora; Ottova, Veronika; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Pickett, William
Then aims of the current study were 1) to provide cross-national estimates of the prevalence of physical fighting and weapon carrying among adolescents aged 11-15 years; (2) To examine the possible effects of physical fighting and weapon carrying on the occurrence of physical (medically treated injuries) and emotional health outcomes (multiple health complaints) among adolescents within the theoretical framework of Problem Behaviour Theory. 20,125 adolescents aged 11-15 in five countries (Belgium, Israel, USA, Canada, FYR Macedonia) were surveyed via the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey. Prevalence was calculated for physical fighting and weapon carrying along with physical and emotional measures that potentially result from violence. Regression analyses were used to quantify associations between violence/weapon carrying and the potential health consequences within each country. Large variations in fighting and weapon carrying were observed across countries. Boys reported more frequent episodes of fighting/weapon carrying and medically attended injuries in every country, while girls reported more emotional symptoms. Although there were some notable variations in findings between different participating countries, increased weapon carrying and physical fighting were both independently and consistently associated with more frequent reports of the potential health outcomes. Adolescents engaging in fighting and weapon carrying are also at risk for physical and emotional health outcomes. Involvement in fighting and weapon carrying can be seen as part of a constellation of risk behaviours with obvious health implications. Our findings also highlight the importance of the cultural context when examining the nature of violent behaviour for adolescents.
Stikkelbroek, Yvonne; Bodden, Denise H. M.; Kleinjan, Marloes; Reijnders, Mirjam; van Baar, Anneloes L.
Background Depression during adolescence is a serious mental health problem. Difficulties in regulating evoked emotions after stressful life events are considered to lead to depression. This study examined if depressive symptoms were mediated by various cognitive emotion regulation strategies after stressful life events, more specifically, the loss of a loved one, health threats or relational challenges. Methods We used a sample of 398 adolescents (Mage = 16.94, SD = 2.90), including 52 depressed outpatients, who all reported stressful life event(s). Path analyses in Mplus were used to test mediation, for the whole sample as well as separately for participants scoring high versus low on depression, using multigroup analyses. Results Health threats and relational challenging stressful life events were associated with depressive symptoms, while loss was not. More frequent use of maladaptive strategies was related to more depressive symptoms. More frequent use of adaptive strategies was related to less depressive symptoms. Specific life events were associated with specific emotion regulation strategies. The relationship between challenging, stressful life events and depressive symptoms in the whole group was mediated by maladaptive strategies (self-blame, catastrophizing and rumination). No mediation effect was found for adaptive strategies. Conclusion The association between relational challenging, stressful life events and depressive symptoms was mediated by maladaptive, cognitive emotion regulation strategies. PMID:27571274
Coelho, Ken Russell
Alcohol and Other Drug abuse in adolescents and adults continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. Care in intervention programs aimed at high risk populations identified occurs after the maladaptive behavioral delinquency has occurred, and only then is an individual afforded the opportunity to join an intervention program. The focus of this paper is to illustrate and highlight the value of prevention programs which emphasize altering maladaptive behavior before the behavior becomes problematic. Emotional Intelligence is not only an indicator of alcohol and other drug abuse, but is linked to emotional competence, social and emotional learning, the development of healthy and life promoting behavior, and has been proven to reduce some of the risk factors associated with alcohol and other drug abuse in adolescents and adults. This paper seeks to recognize the significance of Emotional Intelligence as a desirable health promoting attribute and to establish the importance of its conceptual use in a prevention based model for reducing associated high risk behaviors. PMID:22570777
Herring, S.; Gray, K.; Taffe, J.; Tonge, B.; Sweeney, D.; Einfeld, S.
Background: Behavioural and emotional problems occur at a high rate in children and adolescents with intellectual disability, often from a young age. Some studies have indicated that children and adolescents with autism present with even higher rates. Less is known about the presentation, development and family impact of these difficulties in…
Liu, Lisa L; Benner, Aprile D; Lau, Anna S; Kim, Su Yeong
This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents' heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth.
Dishion, Thomas J; Tipsord, Jessica M
In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that "select" adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors.
The current study examines how Latino adolescents’ daily cybervictimization experiences are associated with their emotional and physical well-being and school adjustment. Latino high school students (N = 118) completed daily checklists across five consecutive school days. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that daily cybervictimization experiences were associated with greater feelings of distress, anger, shame and physical symptoms. Moderation analyses showed gender differences such that the daily level associations with distress and anger were significant for Latinas but not Latino adolescents. Daily cybervictimization experiences were also related to increased school attendance problems such as arriving late to class or skipping a class. Mediation models indicated that daily feelings of distress accounted for the association between single episodes of cybervictimization and attendance problems. The results address several voids in the cybervictimization literature and demonstrate that a discrete encounter of victimization online is associated with compromised well-being and school adjustment among Latino adolescents. PMID:27307652
Appel, Philip W.; Kaestner, Elisabeth
Measured problem-solving abilities of narcotics abusers using the modified means-ends problem-solving procedure. Good subjects had more total relevent means (RMs) for solving problems, used more introspective and emotional RMs, and were better at RM recognition, but did not have more sufficient narratives than poor subjects. (Author/BEF)
Bradford, Leland P.
Gives recommendations for both long-range preparation and last-minute preretirement planning. Methods are being developed that can alert those facing retirement to the emotional difficulties they may face and help them plan ways of coping with problems. Difficulties include sense of belonging, socialization problems, achievement problems and…
Margolis, Howard; Pica, Louis, Jr.
Examines the degree to which audiotaped progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) training influenced the oral and silent reading performance of eight adolescents who were legally classified as emotionally disturbed. Finds that PMR training can have a positive influence on the reading performance of emotionally disturbed adolescents. (MG)
Skaar, Nicole R.; Williams, John E.
The current study aimed to investigate emotional intelligence as a predictor of adolescent risk participation and risk perception. While research has suggested that certain personality traits relate to adolescent risk behavior and perception, the extent to which emotional intelligence relates to risk behavior participation and perception is…
Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad
The study examined the impact of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement of adolescent girls of Jammu and Kashmir. The purpose of the investigation was to study the relationship and effect of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement among adolescent girls. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the…
Snyder, Hannah R.; Gulley, Lauren D.; Bijttebier, Patricia; Hartman, Catharina A.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Mezulis, Amy; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.
Temperament is associated with important outcomes in adolescence, including academic and interpersonal functioning and psychopathology. Rothbart’s temperament model is among the most well-studied and supported approaches to adolescent temperament, and contains three main components: positive emotionality (PE), negative emotionality (NE), and effortful control (EC). However, the latent factor structure of Rothbart’s temperament measure for adolescents, the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire Revised (EATQ-R, Ellis & Rothbart, 2001) has not been definitively established. To address this problem and investigate links between adolescent temperament and functioning, we used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the latent constructs of the EATQ-R in a large combined sample. For EC and NE, bifactor models consisting of a common factor plus specific factors for some sub-facets of each component fit best, providing a more nuanced understanding of these temperament dimensions. The nature of the PE construct in the EATQ-R is less clear. Models replicated in a hold-out dataset. The common components of high NE and low EC where broadly associated with increased psychopathology symptoms, and poor interpersonal and school functioning, while specific components of NE were further associated with corresponding specific components of psychopathology. Further questioning the construct validity of PE as measured by the EATQ-R, PE factors did not correlate with construct validity measures in a way consistent with theories of PE. Bringing consistency to the way the EATQ-R is modeled and using purer latent variables has the potential to advance the field in understanding links between dimensions of temperament and important outcomes of adolescent development. PMID:26011660
Background "The gender gap" refers to a lifelong higher rate of emotional problems in girls, as compared to boys, that appears during adolescence. The gender gap is a well-replicated finding among older adolescents and is assumed to be a cross-cultural phenomenon. However, these cross-cultural studies have not investigated the gender gap in ethnic minorities but sampled ethnic majority adolescents in different countries. Some studies that investigated the gender gap across ethnic groups indirectly (by presenting emotional problem scores stratified by gender and ethnic group) indicate that the gender gap is less prominent or even absent among minorities. The aims of this study were to assess whether the gender gap is found in both majority and minority preadolescents, and to investigate whether a possible (gender and ethnic) group difference can be accounted for by differences in home or school hassles. Methods Participants were 902 preadolescent students (aged 10 to 12) from two cities in Norway. We collected self-report measures of emotional problems and home and school hassles. Using mediated moderation analysis we tested whether the interaction effect between gender and ethnic minority background on emotional problems was mediated by home or school hassles. Results The gender gap in emotional problems was restricted to ethnic majority preadolescents. School hassles but not home hassles accounted in part for this effect. Conclusions The absence of the gender gap among minority as opposed to majority preadolescents may indicate that social circumstances may postpone or hamper the emergence and magnitude of the gender gap in ethnic minority preadolescents. In this study, school hassles partly accounted for the combined gender and ethnic group differences on emotional problems. This indicates that school hassles may play a role in the higher levels of emotional problems in preadolescent minority boys and consequently the absence of a gender gap found in our minority
Barker, Erin T.; Hartley, Sigan L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Floyd, Frank J.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Orsmond, Gael I.
Raising an adolescent or adult child with a developmental disability confers exceptional caregiving challenges on parents. We examined trajectories of two indicators of emotional well-being (depressive symptoms and anxiety) in a sample of primarily Caucasian mothers (N = 379; Mage = 51.22 years at Time 1) of adolescent and adult children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Mage = 21.91 years at Time 1, 73.2% male). We also investigated within-person associations of child context time-varying covariates (autism symptoms, behavior problems, residential status) and maternal context time-varying covariates (social support network size and stressful family events) with the trajectories of emotional well-being. Data were collected on 5 occasions across a 10-year period. Average patterns of stable (depressive symptoms) and improved (anxiety) emotional well-being were evident and well-being trajectories were sensitive to fluctuations in both child and maternal context variables. On occasions when behavior problems were higher, depressive symptoms and anxiety were higher. On occasions after which the grown child moved out of the family home, anxiety was lower. Anxiety was higher on occasions when social support networks were smaller and when more stressful life events were experienced. These results have implications for midlife and aging families of children with an ASD and those who provide services to these families. PMID:21171753
Rice, Timothy R
Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents aged 14-19 years. Pediatricians report strong interest in receiving additional training to reduce suicide mortality, and physician education is one of the most robust means of suicide prevention. However, many studies suggest that existing educational methods and means leave much room for improvement. In light of the emerging evidence that emotion regulation (ER) deficits are significantly associated with adolescent suicide, this paper proposes the untested hypothesis that a module on the brain-based ER system may strengthen existing methods of provider education. The ER system and the evidence supporting its association with adolescent suicide are reviewed. The ability to ground an approach to suicide prevention within this brain-based medical model may be appealing to pediatricians; its transdiagnostic breadth and dimensional makeup may also be appealing to pediatricians. Most importantly, its emphasis on the negative effects of impoverished self-regulation broaden non-specialist concern from a restriction upon withdrawn, depressed adolescents to those with a wide range of psychopathology. Implications and further considerations are discussed.
El-Sheikh, Mona; Buckhalt, Joseph A
We examined the role of children's emotional intensity and vagal functioning in predicting sleep problems in healthy elementary school-aged children. Children's dispositional emotionality was examined via parent report, and their vagal regulation was assessed via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during a baseline and a reaction time (RT) task. Sleep problems were examined through both child reports, and home monitoring with wrist actigraphs for four consecutive nights. Increased emotional intensity was predictive of a reduced amount of sleep and increased night activity. Less apt vagal regulation, characterized by lower levels of RSA suppression to the RT task, was predictive of increased sleep problems as assessed through both subjective and actigraphy-based measures of sleep. Results indicate that children's emotionality and regulation predict unique variance in the amount and quality of children's sleep, and suggest that they may underlie, at least in part, sleep disturbances in healthy children.
Wang, Ming-Te; Hill, Nancy E; Hofkens, Tara
This study examined longitudinal trajectories of parental involvement across middle and high school, and how these trajectories related to adolescents' academic, behavioral, and emotional adjustment. In addition, ethnic and socioeconomic status differences in longitudinal associations and the potential moderating role of parental warmth were assessed. Longitudinal growth modeling technique was used to describe trajectories of different types of parental involvement and adolescent outcomes over 7th, 9th, and 11th grades (mean ages = 12.9, 14.3, and 17.2 years, respectively) on an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 1,400 adolescents (51% female, 56% African American, 39% European American, 5% others). Each aspect of parental involvement contributed differentially but significantly to adolescent outcomes. Finally, parental warmth moderated the associations between providing structure at home and adolescent grade point average and problem behavior.
Leist, Tatyana; Dadds, Mark R
Emotional processing styles appear to characterize various forms of psychopathology and environmental adversity in children. For example, autistic, anxious, high- and low-emotion conduct problem children, and children who have been maltreated, all appear to show specific deficits and strengths in recognizing the facial expressions of emotions. Until now, the relationships between emotion recognition, antisocial behaviour, emotional problems, callous-unemotional (CU) traits and early maltreatment have never been assessed simultaneously in one study, and the specific associations of emotion recognition to maltreatment and child characteristics are therefore unknown. We examined facial-emotion processing in a sample of 23 adolescents selected for high-risk status on the variables of interest. As expected, maltreatment and child characteristics showed unique associations. CU traits were uniquely related to impairments in fear recognition. Antisocial behaviour was uniquely associated with better fear recognition, but impaired anger recognition. Emotional problems were associated with better recognition of anger and sadness, but lower recognition of neutral faces. Maltreatment was predictive of superior recognition of fear and sadness. The findings are considered in terms of social information-processing theories of psychopathology. Implications for clinical interventions are discussed.
Crestani, Carlos C
Emotional stress has been recognized as a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Adolescence has been proposed as a developmental period of vulnerability to stress. This idea has been mainly supported by experimental research in animals demonstrating a higher impact of chronic emotional stress in adolescents compared with adults. Adolescent vulnerability is also based on evidence that stress during this developmental period affects development, so that enduring changes are found in adult animals that experienced stress during adolescence. The purpose of the present review is to discuss experimental research in rodent models that investigated the impact of long-term exposure to stressful events during adolescence on cardiovascular function. The development of cardiovascular function and autonomic activity in rodents is initially reviewed. Then, a discussion of an adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular effects of chronic stress is presented. From the reviewed literature, perspective for future research is proposed to better elucidate adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular complications evoked by chronic emotional stress.
David, Kevin M.; Murphy, Bridget C.
The present study examined the extent to which individuals exposed to frequent and intense interparental conflict (IPC) across childhood and adolescence are sensitized to conflict during late adolescence. Late adolescents' perceptions of their exposure to IPC while growing up were examined in relation to their self-reported emotional and…
Spangler, Gottfried; Zimmermann, Peter
The aim of the present study was to examine differences in emotion expression and emotion regulation in emotion-eliciting situations in early adolescence from a bio-psycho-social perspective, specifically investigating the influence of early mother-infant attachment and attachment disorganization on behavioural and adrenocortical responses. The…
Freed, Rachel D.; Rubenstein, Liza M.; Daryanani, Issar; Olino, Thomas M.; Alloy, Lauren B.
Emotion regulation has been implicated in the etiology of depression. A first step in adaptive emotion regulation involves emotional clarity, the ability to recognize and differentiate one’s emotional experience. As family members are critical in facilitating emotional understanding and communication, we examined the impact of family functioning on adolescent emotional clarity and depressive symptoms. We followed 364 adolescents (ages 12–17; 52.5% female; 51.4 % Caucasian, 48.6% African American) and their mothers over 2 years (3 time points) and assessed emotional clarity, depressive symptoms, and adolescent-reported and mother-reported family functioning. Emotional clarity mediated the relationship between adolescent-reported family functioning and depressive symptoms at all time points cross-sectionally, and according to mother-reported family functioning at Time 1 only. There was no evidence of longitudinal mediation for adolescent- or mother-reported family functioning. Thus, family functioning, emotional clarity, and depressive symptoms are strongly related constructs during various time points in adolescence, which has important implications for intervention, especially within the family unit. PMID:26832726
Parra, Agueda; Oliva, Alfredo
The purpose of the present paper was to study the development of emotional autonomy through adolescence analysing its association with family relationships. The development of emotional autonomy involves an increase in adolescents' subjective sense of his or her independence, especially in relation to parents. From some scholars emotional autonomy is a normative manifestation of the detachment process from parents, however, others point out that detachment from parental ties is not the norm, so high level of adolescent emotional autonomy is the consequence of negative family relationships. In our study a sample of 101 adolescents were followed for 5 years, from early to middle adolescence, and completed questionnaires to measure their emotional autonomy and the quality of their family relationships. Our results showed that over the course of adolescence some dimensions of emotional autonomy increase, meanwhile others decrease, so the global level of emotional autonomy global level remains stable. On the other hand, emotional autonomy is associated with negative family relationships, so emotional autonomy, more than a necessary process to become adult, could be indicating an insecure attachment to parents.
Maskey, Morag; Warnell, Frances; Parr, Jeremy R.; Le Couteur, Ann; McConachie, Helen
The type, frequency and inter-relationships of emotional and behavioural problems in 863 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were investigated using the population-based Database of children with ASD living in the North East of England (Daslne). A high rate of problems was reported, with 53% of children having 4 or more types of problems…
Success at school increases self-esteem. Any difficulty will have consequential effects on the psychological health of the subject. The conditions now prevailing in the educational institutions (mass schooling without any individual orientation before the end of college) oblige the teenager to submit to teaching methods and to the school system. School can reveal the subject's personal problems (anxiety, phobia or depression), but may equally create pathology by not recognising the heterogeneity of individual development and differences in cognitive functioning. In adolescence, the ego is particularly vulnerable. Anything that may induce its instability can create behavioural problems (instability, aggressiveness, inhibition) or problems of thought (anxiety links, difficulties in abstraction). In order to cope with such a haemorrhage of the ego, the adolescent may have recourse to certain behaviours (e.g. use of drugs leading to dependence). So it is important the know well the links between school failure and behavioural problems or drug consumption because, in one way or another, by their sanction or by lack of motivation, these situations will lead very quickly to school disengagement, which in turn leads to the breakdown of the ego.
Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P
The present study analyzed change in psychological problems of German adolescents with and without visual impairment across a 2-year interval. A total of 182 adolescents with severe visual impairment and 560 sighted adolescents provided longitudinal data. At the start of the study, adolescents with visual impairment had, on average, elevated scores on all difficulties scales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (Goodman R, J Child Psychol Psychiat 38:581-586), 1997 and about 39 % of them scored in the abnormal range of one or more scales as compared to 30.5 % of their sighted peers (p < 0.05). However, between-group differences of emotional and total problems declined over time. While adolescents who are blind and those who have low vision had similar levels of psychological problems, SDQ scores showed less improvement in adolescents with an earlier age at onset of vision loss. In conclusion, a minority of adolescents with visual impairment and with early onset of visual impairment in particular, may benefit from psychological interventions aimed at preventing and reducing psychological problems and increasing the ability to cope with stressors associated with vision loss.
d'Acremont, Mathieu; Van der Linden, Martial
The aim of this study was to validate a French version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ; Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, P., 2001. Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1311-1327) and to explore its relationships with impulsivity and depression. Teenagers from a junior secondary (n=107, 13-16 years) and a secondary school (n=110, 15-19 years) completed the CERQ, which assesses regulation strategies in response to negative events. The secondary school adolescents also completed the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (Whiteside, S. P., & Lynam, D. R., 2001. The five factor model and impulsivity: Using a structural model of personality to understand impulsivity. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 669-689) and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (Reynolds, W. M., 1987. Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale: Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources). Factor analysis for the CERQ confirmed the presence of the nine original regulation strategies. In the secondary school students, impulsivity was related to depression. A path analysis revealed that regulation strategies mediated this relationship. The role of emotion regulation in the development of adolescent psychopathology is discussed.
Shek, Daniel T. L.; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C. F.
Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661
Seymour, Karen E; Jones, Richard N; Cushman, Grace K; Galvan, Thania; Puzia, Megan E; Kim, Kerri L; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P
Little is known about the bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying and differentiating suicide attempts from non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents. Adolescents who attempt suicide or engage in NSSI often report significant interpersonal and social difficulties. Emotional face recognition ability is a fundamental skill required for successful social interactions, and deficits in this ability may provide insight into the unique brain-behavior interactions underlying suicide attempts versus NSSI in adolescents. Therefore, we examined emotional face recognition ability among three mutually exclusive groups: (1) inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide (SA, n = 30); (2) inpatient adolescents engaged in NSSI (NSSI, n = 30); and (3) typically developing controls (TDC, n = 30) without psychiatric illness. Participants included adolescents aged 13-17 years, matched on age, gender and full-scale IQ. Emotional face recognition was evaluated using the diagnostic assessment of nonverbal accuracy (DANVA-2). Compared to TDC youth, adolescents with NSSI made more errors on child fearful and adult sad face recognition while controlling for psychopathology and medication status (ps < 0.05). No differences were found on emotional face recognition between NSSI and SA groups. Secondary analyses showed that compared to inpatients without major depression, those with major depression made fewer errors on adult sad face recognition even when controlling for group status (p < 0.05). Further, compared to inpatients without generalized anxiety, those with generalized anxiety made fewer recognition errors on adult happy faces even when controlling for group status (p < 0.05). Adolescent inpatients engaged in NSSI showed greater deficits in emotional face recognition than TDC, but not inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide. Further results suggest the importance of psychopathology in emotional face recognition. Replication of these preliminary results and examination of the role
Wang, Frances L; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Spinrad, Tracy L
We contribute to the literature on the relations of temperament to externalizing and internalizing problems by considering parental emotional expressivity and child gender as moderators of such relations and examining prediction of pure and co-occurring problem behaviors during early to middle adolescence using bifactor models (which provide unique and continuous factors for pure and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems). Parents and teachers reported on children's (4.5- to 8-year-olds; N = 214) and early adolescents' (6 years later; N = 168) effortful control, impulsivity, anger, sadness, and problem behaviors. Parental emotional expressivity was measured observationally and with parents' self-reports. Early-adolescents' pure externalizing and co-occurring problems shared childhood and/or early-adolescent risk factors of low effortful control, high impulsivity, and high anger. Lower childhood and early-adolescent impulsivity and higher early-adolescent sadness predicted early-adolescents' pure internalizing. Childhood positive parental emotional expressivity more consistently related to early-adolescents' lower pure externalizing compared to co-occurring problems and pure internalizing. Lower effortful control predicted changes in externalizing (pure and co-occurring) over 6 years, but only when parental positive expressivity was low. Higher impulsivity predicted co-occurring problems only for boys. Findings highlight the probable complex developmental pathways to adolescent pure and co-occurring externalizing and internalizing problems.
Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bulbul, Selda Fatma; Turğut, Mahmut; Ağirtaş, Gülşah
We investigated the sleep problems and sleep habits of adolescents at three public primary schools and two high schools. Our study included 428 Turkish school children (244 girls and 184 boys). We used a questionnaire to determine the time they went to sleep at night; waking time in the morning; incidence of nightmares, snoring, daytime sleepiness, and intrafamilial physical trauma; concentration difficulty in class; and school success. The students were divided into age-related groups (group 1 = 11 to 13 years of age; group 2 = 14 to 15 years; group 3 = 16 to 18 years). The time they went to sleep was mostly between 10 and 11 p.m. in groups 1 and 2, and 11 to 12 p.m. in group 3. Difficulty in falling asleep was reported by 16.8 to 19.6% of the students in the three groups. Difficulty in waking up in the morning was reported by 12.7% of group 1, 16.0% of group 2, and 16.8% of group 3. Snoring was present in 12.1% of females and 22.0% of males. The occurrence of one nightmare in the preceding 3 months was reported by 11.3% of the students; 17.9% of the students reported having nightmares several times. Daytime sleepiness was present in 65.1%, and concentration difficulty was present in 56.8% of the students. We conclude that difficulty in falling asleep, snoring, and daytime sleepiness may be seen in adolescents who are in both primary and high schools. Watching inappropriate programs and movies on television and intrafamilial physical trauma may cause nightmares and sleeping problems in these adolescents. Students and families should be educated about the importance of sleep in academic performance. Countries' public health policies should address sleep problems and related educational activities.
Lee, Young Mun; Shin, Ok Ja
Objective As the number of North Korean adolescent refugees drastically increased in South Korea, there is a growing interest in them. Our study was conducted to evaluate the mental health of the North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea. Methods The subjects of this study were 102 North Korean adolescent refugees in Hangyeore middle and high School, the public educational institution for the North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea, and 766 general adolescents in the same region. The Korean version of Child Behavior Check List (K-CBCL) standardized in South Korea was employed as the mental health evaluation tool. Results The adolescent refugees group showed a significantly different score with that of the normal control group in the K-CBCL subscales for sociality (t=29.67, p=0.000), academic performance (t=17.79, p=0.000), total social function (t=35.52, p=0.000), social withdrawal (t=18.01, p=0.000), somatic symptoms (t=28.85, p=0.000), depression/anxiety (t=13.08, p=0.000), thought problems (t=6.24, p=0.013), attention problems (t=4.14, p=0.042), internalized problems (t=26.54, p=0.000) and total problems (t=5.23, p=0.022). Conclusion The mental health of the North Korean adolescent refugees was severe particularly in internalized problems when compared with that of the general adolescents in South Korea. This result indicates the need for interest in not only the behavior of the North Korean adolescent refugees but also their emotional problem. PMID:22993519
Price, Shelley A; Beech, Anthony R; Mitchell, Ian; Humphreys, Glyn W
Adolescent sexual abusers are a heterogeneous group of offenders that often receive generic assessment and treatment services that are modeled on research findings from adult sex offender samples. The emotional Stroop task has been used to measure deviant sexual interest in adult samples. The purpose of the present study was to test whether the emotional Stroop task could also be used to assess deviant sexual interest in adolescent samples. Three groups of adolescents (a) sexual abusers (n = 24); (b) offending controls (n = 21); and (c) nonoffending controls (n = 21) completed two emotional Stroop tasks related to deviant sexual interest and tests of executive function. Adolescent sexual abusers were significantly slower to color-name some word stimuli than both adolescent offending controls and adolescent nonoffending controls. However, the task was unable to differentiate between the groups on most of the Stroop word categories. Very little research has been conducted with adolescent offender samples and the emotional Stroop task. Reaction time (RT) and Stroop bias outcome data for adolescent samples appear to be more unsystematic and weaker than has been observed in previous adult data. Based on potential difficulties with reading and development, the emotional Stroop task may not be a task suitable for measuring deviant sexual interest in adolescent samples.
Guerra, Cristóbal; Pereda, Noemí
The aim of this study was to evaluate the emotional impact on adolescent victims of sexual abuse from participating in a study addressing the consequences of their abuse. A total of 114 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old participated (54 sexually abused adolescents and 60 nonabused students). Both groups responded to a battery of scales to determine their coping strategies and some psychological consequences linked to stressful experiences and two questions about the emotional impact of participating in the study. Sexually abused adolescents reported fewer unpleasant emotions after participating than did nonvictim students (mean difference = .45, t = -2.934; p < .01). Adolescents who had more symptoms reported more discomfort (rS scores between .35 and .49; p < .01). These results suggest that when ethical guidelines are followed, it is possible to survey adolescent victims of sexual abuse on aspects related to their experience without causing them significant distress.
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
This study explored the relations between parental problem drinking, adolescent-parent communication, and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. Surveys were administered to a diverse sample of 683 15-17-years-old adolescents in the spring of 2007 and again in the spring of 2008. Results indicated that paternal problem drinking directly predicted…
Lindsey, Eric W.; Chambers, Jessica Campbell; Frabutt, James M.; Mackinnon-Lewis, Carol
This study examined the role of mother-adolescent emotional reciprocity in connections between marital conflict and adolescent aggression with peers. Data were collected from a racially diverse community sample of 268 adolescents and their mothers. Adolescents reported on parents' marital conflict, and mother-adolescent positive and negative…
Maskey, Morag; Warnell, Frances; Parr, Jeremy R; Le Couteur, Ann; McConachie, Helen
The type, frequency and inter-relationships of emotional and behavioural problems in 863 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were investigated using the population-based Database of children with ASD living in the North East of England (Dasl(n)e). A high rate of problems was reported, with 53 % of children having 4 or more types of problems frequently. Sleep, toileting and eating problems, hyperactivity, self injury and sensory difficulties were greater in children with lower language level and in special schooling. However, anxiety, tantrums and aggression towards others were frequent regardless of age, ability or schooling. The frequency of co-existing conditions, including such emotional and behavioural problems, in children with ASD has implications for designing appropriate support services for children and families.
Smith, Kelly A; Barstead, Matthew G; Rubin, Kenneth H
Social withdrawal, or refraining from social interaction in the presence of peers, places adolescents at risk of developing emotional problems like anxiety and depression. The personality traits of neuroticism and conscientiousness also relate to emotional difficulties. For example, high conscientiousness predicts lower incidence of anxiety disorders and depression, while high neuroticism relates to greater likelihood of these problems. Based on these associations, socially withdrawn adolescents high in conscientiousness or low in neuroticism were expected to have lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants included 103 adolescents (59 % female) who reported on their personality traits in 8th grade and their anxiety and depressive symptoms in 9th grade. Peer ratings of social withdrawal were collected within schools in 8th grade. A structural equation model revealed that 8th grade withdrawal positively predicted 9th grade anxiety and depressive symptoms controlling for 8th grade anxiety and depressive symptoms, but neuroticism did not. Conscientiousness moderated the relation of withdrawal with depressive symptoms but not anxiety, such that high levels of conscientiousness attenuated the association between withdrawal and depressive symptoms. This buffering effect may stem from the conceptual relation between conscientiousness and self-regulation. Conscientiousness did not, however, moderate the association between withdrawal and anxiety, which may be partly due to the role anxiety plays in driving withdrawal. Thus, a conscientious, well-regulated personality partially protects withdrawn adolescents from the increased risk of emotional difficulties.
Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate; Martin, Amber; Hankin, Benjamin L
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common child and adolescent disorder that is associated with negative outcomes (e.g., emotional and behavioral problems, substance use) and is often comorbid with Conduct Problems (CP). Research findings are mixed as to whether youth with ADHD alone or comorbid ADHD/CP suffer from low self-esteem. Research has also shown links between low self-esteem and ADHD (alone and with CP) with substance use; yet, no research has examined the links between self-esteem and substance use in adolescents with ADHD and CP. The current study examined the relation between ADHD with and without comorbid CP and self-esteem, and whether self-esteem moderated the relation between ADHD and ADHD/CP with substance use among adolescents. We hypothesized that adolescents with comorbid ADHD/CP would experience lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or with neither disorder and that self-esteem would moderate the association between ADHD, CP, and substance use. Participants were 62 adolescents who completed the laboratory-based study with a parent. Results suggested that adolescents with comorbid ADHD and CP had significantly lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or neither disorder. Self-esteem was not significantly different for adolescents with ADHD alone versus those in the control group. There was one marginally significant interaction between ADHD and self-esteem predicting substance use, such that individuals with comorbid ADHD/CP who also had low self-esteem tended to use more substances. Results have implications for treatments that target adolescents with ADHD and comorbid CP, as these adolescents are at risk for many deleterious outcomes.
Weiss, Jonathan A
Youth with autism spectrum disorder often struggle to cope with co-occurring anxiety, depression, or anger, and having both internalizing and externalizing symptoms is a common clinical presentation. A number of authors have designed cognitive-behavioral interventions to address transdiagnostic factors related to multiple emotional problems, although none have applied this focus to youth with ASD. The current review article describes how a transdiagnostic emotion regulation framework may inform cognitive-behavioral interventions for youth with ASD, which until now have focused almost exclusively on anxiety. Research is needed to empirically test how a transdiagnostic intervention can address the processes of emotion regulation and assist youth with ASD to cope with their emotional disorders. PMID:25673923
Kuppens, Peter; Sheeber, Lisa B; Yap, Marie B H; Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B
Emotional inertia refers to the degree to which a person's current emotional state is predicted by their prior emotional state, reflecting how much it carries over from one moment to the next. Recently, in a cross-sectional study, we showed that high inertia is an important characteristic of the emotion dynamics observed in psychological maladjustment such as depression. In the present study, we examined whether emotional inertia prospectively predicts the onset of first-episode depression during adolescence. Emotional inertia was assessed in a sample of early adolescents (N = 165) based on second-to-second behavioral coding of videotaped naturalistic interactions with a parent. Greater inertia of both negative and positive emotional behaviors predicted the emergence of clinical depression 2.5 years later. The implications of these findings for the understanding of the etiology and early detection of depression are discussed.
Shapero, Benjamin G; Hamilton, Jessica L; Liu, Richard T; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B
Adolescence is marked by increases in stressful life events. Although research has demonstrated that depressed individuals generate stress, few studies investigate the generation of emotional victimization. The current study examined the effects of rumination and internalizing symptoms on experiences of peer victimization and familial emotional abuse. Participants were 216 adolescents (M = 14-years-old; 58% female; 47% African-American) who completed two assessments. Results showed that rumination predicted peer victimization and emotional abuse. The effect of rumination on emotional victimization is heightened for those who have higher levels of depression symptoms. That is, individuals who ruminate and who have depression symptoms experience increases in both peer emotional victimization and parental emotional abuse. This study builds upon prior research and indicates that rumination may be a stronger predictor of emotional victimization than symptoms of depression or anxiety. Identifying underlying mechanisms may yield targets for interventions aimed at addressing the chronic nature of depression.
Asikhia, Olubusayo Aduke; Mohangi, Kesh
Various studies have reported a huge increase in the numbers of orphaned adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa and its effects on their psychological, emotional and behavioural development. Yet, their needs are seldom recognised or adequately addressed in policy and programmes.This article uses a qualitative study to report the experiences of 11 orphaned adolescents (5 boys and 6 girls aged between 15 and 18 years) affected by HIV and AIDS in a secondary school (in Atteridgeville, Pretoria, South Africa) and the school support provided by them. The primary data-generation strategies were informal interviews and the Beck Youth Inventories-II (BYI-II) (adopted to measure the participants' level of emotional, behavioural and psychological problems). All interview transcriptions with the participants were thematically analysed. BYI-II data were subjected to T scores (in percentages) to know the participant's psychological, behavioural and emotional problems in order to compare it with their perceptions on the degree of support provided by the school. Result shows that participants have a high prevalence of psychological, behavioural and emotional problems and that the school support provided to them (teachers' support, the general school environment and the degree of discrimination, labelling and bullying that exists in the school) was not sufficient. The participants, however, reported a high level of support from the principal. In conclusion, we have suggested the urgent need for teachers to acquire and possess basic knowledge and skills in caring and paying attention to learners affected by HIV and AIDS and for government agencies and NGOs working with HIV-and AIDS-affected children, to focus on proposals that address the psychological, behavioural and emotional problems in such affected adolescents.
The Counseling Service of Addison County, a community mental health clinic, began in 1966 as a four-year project under a National Institutes of Mental Health grant to determine whether emotional problems could be prevented by the early assignment of college student volunteers (from Middlebury College) to underachievers in the early grades of…
McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E.; McClowry, Sandee G.
We examined relations between parent involvement and kindergarten students' behavior problems in classrooms with varying levels of teacher emotional support. Multi-informant data were collected on "n" = 255 low-income Black and Hispanic students, and "n" = 60 kindergarten classrooms in the baseline year of an intervention…
Caballero, Ana; Blanco, Lorenzo J.; Guerrero, Eloisa
Our work is based on two premises. The first is that affective factors (beliefs, attitudes, and emotions) influence teaching and learning mathematics, and problem solving in particular. The second is that initial teacher education is an important element in the process of improving overall educational practice. On this basis, our research group…
Mazza, Elena T.
The professional literature on gatekeeping in social work education has grown; however, there remains a dearth in the literature regarding how educators truly work to engage students who are experiencing a psychiatric disability or other emotional problem. This qualitative study explored the experiences of 26 social work educators from 22 colleges…
Pakalnis, Ann; Butz, Catherine; Splaingard, Deborah; Kring, Donna; Fong, Joanna
Chronic daily headaches are an increasingly recognized neurologic issue in children. Frequent headaches can be a source of significant disability and family discord with work/school absenteeism. Medication overuse and emotional disorder would significantly impact treatment and progression. This study examined the frequency of emotional and behavioral problems in children and adolescents with chronic daily headache compared with age-related healthy controls. Prevalence of medication overuse in this chronic daily headache group was evaluated. Otherwise healthy children and adolescents with chronic daily headache (according to International Classification of Headache Disorders-II criteria) were enrolled from the Headache Clinic. Healthy controls were prospectively enrolled from physician offices. Multiple psychological rating scales, headache diaries, presence of medication overuse, and disability surveys (Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment Survey) were completed. A total of 57 healthy controls and 70 patients were studied. The sample consisted largely of females, many of whom (60%) had medication overuse before medical treatment. Headache patients had significantly more symptoms of anxiety, depression, and somatization compared with controls. Patients with chronic daily headache were at higher risk for emotional disorders, and medication overuse was a significant occurrence, suggesting a need for multisystem treatment approach.
Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Dennison, Meg; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B
Adolescence is a crucial period for the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Despite the fact that structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex during adolescence is often assumed to underlie the maturation of emotion regulation strategies, no longitudinal studies have directly assessed this relationship. This study examined whether use of cognitive reappraisal strategies during late adolescence was predicted by (i) absolute prefrontal cortical thickness during early adolescence and (ii) structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex between early and mid-adolescence. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans when they were aged approximately 12 and 16 years, respectively. FreeSurfer software was used to obtain cortical thickness estimates for three prefrontal regions [anterior cingulate cortex; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC); ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)]. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire was completed when adolescents were aged approximately 19 years. Results showed that greater cortical thinning of the left dlPFC and left vlPFC during adolescence was significantly associated with greater use of cognitive reappraisal in females, though no such relationship was evident in males. Furthermore, baseline left dlPFC thickness predicted cognitive reappraisal at trend level. These findings suggest that cortical maturation may play a role in the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies during adolescence.
Hobbs, Tom R.; Radka, Jerome E.
This article described a short-term therapeutic camping program for emotionally disturbed adolescent boys employing behavior modification techniques, reliable observation of target behaviors, and implementation by staff members of the local community mental health clinic. (Author/RK)
Hendricks, Leo E.; Howard, Cleopatra S.; Caesar, Patricia P.
This research examines the kinds of problems these young fathers are likely to seek help for and addresses itself to the question: Is there a difference in the help-seeking behavior of unwed adolescent fathers who reside in different cities? Despite the complexity and diversity of their difficulties, it was clear from the analyses that the young fathers were likely to have emotional as well as concrete needs. Additionally, it was found that the unmarried adolescent fathers in this research were more similar than they were different in their help-seeking behavior. PMID:7277520
Luebbe, Aaron M; Fussner, Lauren M; Kiel, Elizabeth J; Early, Martha C; Bell, Debora J
Depressive symptomatology is associated with impaired recognition of emotion. Previous investigations have predominantly focused on emotion recognition of static facial expressions neglecting the influence of social interaction and critical contextual factors. In the current study, we investigated how youth and maternal symptoms of depression may be associated with emotion recognition biases during familial interactions across distinct contextual settings. Further, we explored if an individual's current emotional state may account for youth and maternal emotion recognition biases. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 128) completed measures of depressive symptomatology and participated in three family interactions, each designed to elicit distinct emotions. Mothers and youth completed state affect ratings pertaining to self and other at the conclusion of each interaction task. Using multiple regression, depressive symptoms in both mothers and adolescents were associated with biased recognition of both positive affect (i.e., happy, excited) and negative affect (i.e., sadness, anger, frustration); however, this bias emerged primarily in contexts with a less strong emotional signal. Using actor-partner interdependence models, results suggested that youth's own state affect accounted for depression-related biases in their recognition of maternal affect. State affect did not function similarly in explaining depression-related biases for maternal recognition of adolescent emotion. Together these findings suggest a similar negative bias in emotion recognition associated with depressive symptoms in both adolescents and mothers in real-life situations, albeit potentially driven by different mechanisms.
Laible, Deborah J; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin
The goal of this study was to examine whether moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases independently predicted adolescents' prosocial and aggressive behavior in adolescence. A total of 148 adolescents completed self-report measures of prosocial and aggressive behavior, moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases. Although in general all 3 factors (emotional, moral, and social cognitive) were correlated with adolescent social behavior, the most consistent independent predictors of adolescent social behavior were moral affect and cognition. These findings have important implications for intervention and suggest that programs that promote adolescent perspective taking, moral reasoning, and moral affect are needed to reduce aggressive behavior and promote prosocial behavior.
Vilhjalmsdottir, Arndis; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
Theory holds that income inequality may harm adolescent mental health by reducing social capital within neighborhood communities. However, research on this topic has been very limited. We use multilevel data on 102 public schools and 5958 adolescents in Iceland (15 and 16 years old) to examine whether income inequality within neighborhoods is associated with emotional distress in adolescents. Moreover, we test whether indicators of social capital, including social trust and embeddedness in neighborhood social networks, mediate this contextual effect. The findings show that neighborhood income inequality positively influences emotional distress of individual adolescents, net of their personal household situations and social relations. However, although the indicators of social capital negatively influence emotional distress, they do not mediate the contextual effect of neighborhood income inequality. The study illustrates the role of economic disparities in adolescent mental health, but calls for more research on the underlying social and social-psychological mechanisms.
Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong
This study examined the role of adolescents’ and mothers’ self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth’s academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents’ heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth. PMID:19636729
Frost, Allison; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Chung, Alissa Levy; Adam, Emma K
Depression is a prevalent and debilitating illness facing many adolescents, especially adolescent girls, whose risk for this disorder is approximately twice that of boys. Many studies have identified mechanisms that place girls at higher risk for depression during adolescence. Few, however, have examined differences in the everyday emotional experiences of boys and girls with varying levels of depressive symptoms. Using the Experience Sampling Method, this study investigated the roles of gender and depressive symptomatology in the emotional experiences of a community sample of youth (11-18 year-olds) from the Sloan 500 Family Study. Females with higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely than females with fewer depressive symptoms and all males to experience strong negative emotions and to attribute the cause of these emotions to other people. These results suggest that emotional reactivity in interpersonal contexts is especially important to understand gender differences in the daily experience of depressive symptoms.
La Greca, Annette M.; Chan, Sherilynn F.
Objective Peer victimization (PV) is a key interpersonal stressor that can be traumatizing for youth. This study evaluated the relationships between overt, relational, reputational, and cyber PV and adolescents’ somatic complaints and sleep problems. Symptoms of depression and social anxiety were examined as potential mediators. Method Adolescents (N = 1,162; M age = 15.80 years; 57% female; 80% Hispanic) were assessed at three time points, 6 weeks apart, using standardized measures of PV, depression, social anxiety, sleep problems, and somatic complaints. Structural equation modeling evaluated key study aims. Results Relational, reputational, and cyber PV, but not overt PV, were directly or indirectly associated with subsequent somatic complaints and/or sleep problems. Depression and social anxiety mediated relationships between relational PV and health outcomes, whereas reputational PV was indirectly associated with somatic complaints via depression only. Discussion The stress of PV may contribute to adolescents’ sleep problems and somatic complaints and has implications for pediatric psychologists. PMID:26050245
Brown, Matthew R. G.; Benoit, James R. A.; Juhás, Michal; Dametto, Ericson; Tse, Tiffanie T.; MacKay, Marnie; Sen, Bhaskar; Carroll, Alan M.; Hodlevskyy, Oleksandr; Silverstone, Peter H.; Dolcos, Florin; Dursun, Serdar M.; Greenshaw, Andrew J.
High-risk behavior in adolescents is associated with injury, mental health problems, and poor outcomes in later life. Improved understanding of the neurobiology of high-risk behavior and impulsivity shows promise for informing clinical treatment and prevention as well as policy to better address high-risk behavior. We recruited 21 adolescents (age 14–17) with a wide range of high-risk behavior tendencies, including medically high-risk participants recruited from psychiatric clinics. Risk tendencies were assessed using the Adolescent Risk Behavior Screen (ARBS). ARBS risk scores correlated highly (0.78) with impulsivity scores from the Barratt Impulsivity scale (BIS). Participants underwent 4.7 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an emotional Go/NoGo task. This task presented an aversive or neutral distractor image simultaneously with each Go or NoGo stimulus. Risk behavior and impulsivity tendencies exhibited similar but not identical associations with fMRI activation patterns in prefrontal brain regions. We interpret these results as reflecting differences in response inhibition, emotional stimulus processing, and emotion regulation in relation to participant risk behavior tendencies and impulsivity levels. The results are consistent with high impulsivity playing an important role in determining high risk tendencies in this sample containing clinically high-risk adolescents. PMID:26483645
Weis, Robert; Crockett, Thomas E.; Vieth, Sasha
Military-style residential treatment for adolescents with academic and conduct problems is an increasingly popular alternative to traditional school-based services. However, dropout from "boot camp" programs is a primary reason for their high cost. Social-emotional functioning before referral may differentiate adolescents who…
Silva, Carla Sofia; Calheiros, Maria Manuela; Carvalho, Helena
Adolescents' signs of emotional insecurity in the context of interparental conflict (IC) - emotional reactivity, internal representations (i.e., constructive/destructive; spillover) and behavioral responses (i.e., withdrawal; inhibition; involvement) - were examined as mediators in the relation between IC and adolescents' self-representations. Self-reported measures were filled out by 221 Portuguese adolescents (59.3% girls; Mage = 12.91), attending public elementary and secondary schools. IC predicted less favorable self-representations. Adolescents' emotional reactivity and withdrawal mediated the relation between IC and emotional and physical appearance self-representations, while conflict spillover representations and constructive family representations mediated associations between IC and instrumental self-representations. This study emphasizes the importance of interparental conflict and adolescent emotional insecurity in the construction of their self-representations, having important theoretical and practical implications. It highlights the value of analyzing the specific role of several emotional insecurity dimensions, and informs practitioners' work aimed at promoting constructive conflict and adaptive emotional regulation skills.
Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Wilson, Anna C; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa
The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N=196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point occurring 1 year apart. LPA identified 5 frustration and 4 anxiety regulation profiles based on children's physiological, behavioral, and self-reported reactions to emotion-eliciting tasks. The relation of effortful control to conduct problems was mediated by frustration regulation profiles, as was the relation of effortful control to depression. Anxiety regulation profiles did not mediate relations between temperament and adjustment.
Rabbani, Ali; Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Mohammad, Kazem; Ardalan, Gelayol; Maftoon, Farzaneh; Shahryari, Safiyeh; Khodaei, Shahnaz; Sotoudeh, Aria; Ziaaldini, Hassan; Kamali, Kobra; Motaghian, Molouk
Mental health problems including emotional and behavioral problems during puberty may be under influence of different risk factors including cultures, living in urban or rural areas and ethnic factors which may vary between different countries. The main aim of this study is to investigate the profile of emotional and behavioral problems and the role of factors such as age, stage of puberty, ethnicity, rurality and living in urban area, as risk factors in Iranian girls. As a part of a large national study we evaluated the emotional and behavioral problems in different stages of puberty in a community sample of Iranian adolescent girls from public schools that were selected by clustered random sampling method. In all subjects, demographic characteristics, and pubertal stages were measured. Emotional and behavioral problems were evaluated using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The associations of age, pubertal development indices, socioeconomic and demographic factors with the behavioral problems were assessed. A total number of 4576 students enrolled the study and responded to the questions. The mean age of participants was 13.83 ± 2.19 years. The mean total score of difficulties in participants was 14.34 ± 5.81. According to these results 813 (17.8%) adolescents had total problem scores higher than Goodman's cutoff points and the most frequent problem domain was conduct problems (20.5%). According to the results the most related variable with the total difficulty score of SDQ were ethnicity, residency in urban areas and development of menstrual cycle respectively. The results of this study showed that the most correlated factors with mental health problems in Iranian girls during puberty are ethnicity, urbanity and development of menstrual cycle.
Hersh, Matthew A.; Hussong, Andrea M.
The current study examined the moderating influence of observed parental emotion socialization (PES) on self-medication in adolescents. Strengths of the study include the use of a newly developed observational coding system further extending the study of PES to adolescence, the use of an experience sampling method to assess the daily covariation…
Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley
This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents…
Schuppert, H. Marieke; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Bloo, Josephine; van Gemert, Tonny G.; Wiersema, Herman M.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Nauta, Maaike H.
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Emotion Regulation Training (ERT), a 17-session weekly group training for adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. Method: One hundred nine adolescents with borderline traits (73% meeting the full criteria for BPD) were randomized to treatment as usual only (TAU) or ERT + TAU.…
Cejudo, Javier; Latorre, Sebastián
Introduction: The aim of the present research is to experimentally assess the effects of a videogame program ("Spock") for improving emotional intelligence (EI) as an ability among a sample of adolescents. Method: The sample was made up of 92 adolescents, aged 17 to 19, who were currently studying the second year of…
Suh, Go Woon; Fabricius, William V.; Stevenson, Matthew M.; Parke, Ross D.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Braver, Sanford L.; Saenz, Delia S.
We examined the mediational roles of multiple types of adolescents' emotional security in relations between multiple aspects of the interparental relationship and adolescents' mental health from ages 13 to 16 (N = 392). General marital quality, nonviolent parent conflict, and physical intimate partner violence independently predicted mental…
Puhl, Rebecca M.; Luedicke, Joerg
Weight-based victimization is a frequent experience for adolescents, but little is known about their emotional reactions and coping strategies in response to weight-based teasing and bullying. The present study examined the ways that adolescents cope with experiences of weight-based victimization at school. An initial sample of 1,555 students from…
Quintin, Eve-Marie; Bhatara, Anjali; Poissant, Helene; Fombonne, Eric; Levitin, Daniel J.
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) succeed at a range of musical tasks. The ability to recognize musical emotion as belonging to one of four categories (happy, sad, scared or peaceful) was assessed in high-functioning adolescents with ASD (N = 26) and adolescents with typical development (TD, N = 26) with comparable performance IQ,…
Bender, Patrick K.; Sømhovd, Mikael; Pons, Francisco; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L.; Esbjørn, Barbara H.
Theoretical views and empirical findings suggest interrelations among attachment security, emotion dysregulation and anxiety in childhood and adolescence. However, the associations among the three constructs have rarely been investigated in children, and no study has yet addressed these associations in adolescence. The aim of the present study was…
Zullig, Keith J.; Teoli, Dac A.; Valois, Robert F.
This study examined relationships between emotional self-efficacy (ESE) and alcohol and tobacco use in a statewide sample of public high school adolescents (n?=?2,566). The Center for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey and an adolescent ESE scale were utilized. Logistic regression analyses indicated the presence of any significant race by…
Holm, Marja Eliisa; Hannula, Markku Sakari; Björn, Piia Maria
This study examined the relation of mathematics performance and gender with seven mathematics-related emotions (enjoyment, pride, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness and boredom) among adolescents. Using strict and lenient mathematics performance cut-off scores, respective groups of adolescents with mathematics difficulties (MD, n = 136), low (LA,…
Valois, Robert F.; Umstattd, M. Renee; Zullig, Keith J.; Paxton, Raheem J.
Background: This study explored relationships between physical activity (PA) behaviors and emotional self-efficacy (ESE) in a statewide sample of public high school adolescents in South Carolina (n = 3836). Methods: The Center for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey PA items and an adolescent ESE scale were used. Logistic regression…
Pedrosa, Ignacio; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Lozano, Luis M.; Muñiz, José; García-Cueto, Eduardo
Adolescence is a critical period of life during which significant psychosocial adjustment occurs and in which emotional intelligence plays an essential role. This article provides validity evidence for the Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) scores based on an item response theory (IRT) approach. A sample of 2,693 Spanish adolescents (M = 16.52…
Maras, Pam; Moon, Amy; Gupta, Taveeshi; Gridley, Nicole
The relationship between materialism and social-emotional behavioural difficulties (SEBDs) was assessed by comparing a sample of adolescents receiving in-school behavioural support with adolescents not receiving any support. All participants completed the Youth Materialism Scale and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Binary logistic…
Barker, Erin T.; Hartley, Sigan L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Floyd, Frank J.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Orsmond, Gael I.
Raising an adolescent or adult child with a developmental disability confers exceptional care giving challenges on parents. We examined trajectories of 2 indicators of emotional well-being (depressive symptoms and anxiety) in a sample of primarily Caucasian mothers (N = 379; M[subscript age] = 51.22 years at Time 1) of adolescent and adult…
Maras, P. F.; Moon, A.; Gridley, N.
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between attribution style and social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBDs), and to explore differences in attribution tendencies between adolescents with and without SEBDs. In total, 72 adolescents attending a school in London were recruited; 27 were receiving support for SEBDs…
Shaffer, Anne; Yates, Tuppett M.; Egeland, Byron R.
Objectives: This investigation examined developmental pathways between childhood emotional maltreatment and adaptational outcomes in early adolescence. This study utilized a developmental psychopathology perspective in adopting a multidimensional approach to the assessment of different forms of emotional maltreatment and later adjustment outcomes.…
Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Voltas, Nuria; Hernandez-Martinez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria
Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, we assess the effect, according to gender, of emotional psychopathology in preadolescence on anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescence (N = 229). Psychopathology was assessed using the "Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Children's…
Emerson, E.; Robertson, J.; Wood, J.
Over the past decade, increased attention has been paid to identifying and responding to the emotional and behavioural needs of children and adolescents with intellectual disability (ID). The aims of the present study were to add to this body of knowledge by identifying factors associated with emotional and behavioural needs among a sample of…
Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Namadian, Gholamreza; Hatami, Seyed Esmaeil; Norozi Khalili, Mina
Parental substance abuse is associated with impaired skills and ability to take care of children. Children of substance-abusing parents display higher levels of emotional difficulties. This article shows the effectiveness of emotional intelligence group training on anger in adolescents with substance-abusing fathers. The sample consisted of 60…
Lordo, Danielle N.; Bertolin, Madison; Sudikoff, Eliana L.; Keith, Cierra; Braddock, Barbara; Kaufman, David A. S.
The current study examined the effectiveness of a social skills treatment (PEERS) for improving socio-emotional competencies in a sample of high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Neuropsychological and self- and parent-report measures assessing social, emotional, and behavioral functioning were administered before and after treatment. Following…
Pine, Daniel S.; Lissek, Shmuel; Klein, Rachel G.; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Moulton, John L., III; Guardino, Mary; Woldehawariat, Girma
Background: Studies in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) document abnormalities in both memory and face-emotion processing. The current study used a novel face-memory task to test the hypothesis that adolescent MDD is associated with a deficit in memory for face-emotions. The study also examines the relationship between parental MDD and…
Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Garnefski, Nadia; Kraaij, Vivian
This study aimed to assess the prevalence of war experiences and the use of specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies in response to these experiences among 294 formerly abducted adolescents at three rehabilitation centres in Uganda. Cognitive strategies were measured by Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). Symptoms of…
Whitcomb, Sara A.; Merrell, Kenneth W.
Generally recognized as the standard work in its field, "Behavioral, Social, and Emotional Assessment of Children and Adolescents" provides a comprehensive foundation and guide for conducting conceptually sound, culturally responsive, and ecologically oriented assessments of student social and emotional behavior. It is aimed at graduate…
Liau, Albert K.; Liau, Agnes W.; Teoh, George B. S.; Liau, Michael T. L.
Identifies a renaissance in civics and moral education in the Asia-Pacific region. Discusses the need to incorporate emotional literacy in these programs and analyze the influence of emotional literacy on problem behaviors in Malaysian secondary school students. Links results of emotional literacy to internalizing and externalizing problem…
Stange, Jonathan P.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y.
Objective Negative inferential style and deficits in emotional clarity have been identified as vulnerability factors for depression in adolescence, particularly when individuals experience high levels of life stress. However, previous research has not integrated these characteristics when evaluating vulnerability to depression. Method In the present study, a racially-diverse community sample of 256 early adolescents (ages 12 and 13) completed a baseline visit and a follow-up visit nine months later. Inferential style, emotional clarity, and depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline, and intervening life events and depressive symptoms were assessed at follow-up. Results Hierarchical linear regressions indicated that there was a significant three-way interaction between adolescents’ weakest-link negative inferential style, emotional clarity, and intervening life stress predicting depressive symptoms at follow-up, controlling for initial depressive symptoms. Adolescents with low emotional clarity and high negative inferential styles experienced the greatest increases in depressive symptoms following life stress. Emotional clarity buffered against the impact of life stress on depressive symptoms among adolescents with negative inferential styles. Similarly, negative inferential styles exacerbated the impact of life stress on depressive symptoms among adolescents with low emotional clarity. Conclusions These results provide evidence of the utility of integrating inferential style and emotional clarity as constructs of vulnerability in combination with life stress in the identification of adolescents at risk for depression. They also suggest the enhancement of emotional clarity as a potential intervention technique to protect against the effects of negative inferential styles and life stress on depression in early adolescence. PMID:23215673
Meng, Xianxin; Liu, Wenwen; Zhang, Ling; Li, Xiang; Yao, Bo; Ding, Xinsheng; Yuan, JiaJin; Yang, Jiemin
Background: Our recent event-related potential (ERP) study showed that adolescents are more emotionally sensitive to negative events compared to adults, regardless of the valence strength of the events. The current work aimed to confirm this age-related difference in response to emotional stimuli of diverse intensities by examining Electroencephalography (EEG) oscillatory power in time-frequency analysis. Methods: Time-frequency analyses were performed on the EEG data recorded for highly negative (HN), moderately negative (MN) and Neutral pictures in 20 adolescents and 20 adults during a covert emotional task. The results showed a significant age by emotion interaction effect in the theta and beta oscillatory power during the 500–600 ms post stimulus. Results: Adolescents showed significantly less pronounced theta synchronization (ERS, 5.5–7.5 Hz) for HN stimuli, and larger beta desynchronization (ERD; 18–20 Hz) for both HN and MN stimuli, in comparison with neutral stimuli. By contrast, adults exhibited no significant emotion effects in theta and beta frequency bands. In addition, the analysis of the alpha spectral power (10.5–12 Hz; 850–950 ms) showed a main effect of emotion, while the emotion by age interaction was not significant. Irrespective of adolescents or adults, HN and MN stimuli elicited enhanced alpha suppression compared to Neutral stimuli, while the alpha power was similar across HN and MN conditions. Conclusions: These results confirmed prior findings that adolescents are more sensitive to emotionally negative stimuli compared to adults, regardless of emotion intensity, possibly due to the developing prefrontal control system during adolescence. PMID:27242568
Morosan, Larisa; Badoud, Deborah; Zaharia, Alexandra; Brosch, Tobias; Eliez, Stephan; Bateman, Anthony; Heller, Patrick; Debbané, Martin
Background Previous research suggests that antisocial individuals present impairment in social cognitive processing, more specifically in emotion recognition (ER) and perspective taking (PT). The first aim of the present study was to investigate the recognition of a wide range of emotional expressions and visual PT capacities in a group of incarcerated male adolescents in comparison to a matched group of community adolescents. Secondly, we sought to explore the relationship between these two mechanisms in relation to psychopathic traits. Methods Forty-five male adolescents (22 incarcerated adolescents (Mage = 16.52, SD = 0.96) and 23 community adolescents (Mage = 16.43, SD = 1.41)) participated in the study. ER abilities were measured using a dynamic and multimodal task that requires the participants to watch short videos in which trained actors express 14 emotions. PT capacities were examined using a task recognized and proven to be sensitive to adolescent development, where participants had to follow the directions of another person whilst taking into consideration his perspective. Results We found a main effect of group on emotion recognition scores. In comparison to the community adolescents, the incarcerated adolescents presented lower recognition of three emotions: interest, anxiety and amusement. Analyses also revealed significant impairments in PT capacities in incarcerated adolescents. In addition, incarcerated adolescents’ PT scores were uniquely correlated to their scores on recognition of interest. Conclusions The results corroborate previously reported impairments in ER and PT capacities, in the incarcerated adolescents. The study also indicates an association between impairments in the recognition of interest and impairments in PT. PMID:28122048
Adam, Emma K
In a community sample of 52 adolescents, multilevel growth curve modeling was utilized to examine whether within-person changes in momentary mood states, and individual differences in trait emotional functioning, were related to adolescent cortisol levels in naturalistic settings. Salivary cortisol levels were measured seven times a day on two typical weekdays in conjunction with diary reports of adolescent mood states. Questionnaire reports of trait emotional functioning (depression, anxiety, and anger) were obtained, as were reports of demographic, developmental, and health control variables. After accounting for the effects of time of day and a wide range of control variables, within-person increases in state negative mood (worry/stress and anger/frustration) were significantly associated with within-person increases in cortisol. When examining trait emotional functioning, adolescents with higher levels of depressive symptoms had slightly lower basal cortisol levels, and adolescents with higher levels of trait anger had a significantly stronger cortisol response to awakening. Several developmental effects were found-adolescents at higher stages of pubertal development had daytime basal cortisol curves that were more elevated, had a steeper diurnal decline, and showed a lesser cortisol awakening response, and cortisol responses to worry/stress increased with age. Cortisol levels were also higher at moments adolescents were alone rather than with others, an effect that declined significantly with age. Cortisol levels were also higher at moments adolescents were alone rather than with others, an effect that declined significantly with age. Results suggest that ongoing transactions occur between adolescents' everyday emotional experiences and their cortisol levels, and that adolescent cortisol activity is modified by age/pubertal stage and by trait emotional functioning.
Vetter, Nora C; Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Weigelt, Sarah; Ripke, Stephan; Smolka, Michael N
Appropriate reactions toward emotional stimuli depend on the distribution of prefrontal attentional resources. In mid-adolescence, prefrontal top-down control systems are less engaged, while subcortical bottom-up emotional systems are more engaged. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to follow the neural development of attentional distribution, i.e. attending versus ignoring emotional stimuli, in adolescence. 144 healthy adolescents were studied longitudinally at age 14 and 16 while performing a perceptual discrimination task. Participants viewed two pairs of stimuli--one emotional, one abstract--and reported on one pair whether the items were the same or different, while ignoring the other pair. Hence, two experimental conditions were created: "attending emotion/ignoring abstract" and "ignoring emotion/attending abstract". Emotional valence varied between negative, positive, and neutral. Across conditions, reaction times and error rates decreased and activation in the anterior cingulate and inferior frontal gyrus increased from age 14 to 16. In contrast, subcortical regions showed no developmental effect. Activation of the anterior insula increased across ages for attending positive and ignoring negative emotions. Results suggest an ongoing development of prefrontal top-down resources elicited by emotional attention from age 14 to 16 while activity of subcortical regions representing bottom-up processing remains stable.
Quintin, Eve-Marie; Bhatara, Anjali; Poissant, Hélène; Fombonne, Eric; Levitin, Daniel J
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) succeed at a range of musical tasks. The ability to recognize musical emotion as belonging to one of four categories (happy, sad, scared or peaceful) was assessed in high-functioning adolescents with ASD (N = 26) and adolescents with typical development (TD, N = 26) with comparable performance IQ, auditory working memory, and musical training and experience. When verbal IQ was controlled for, there was no significant effect of diagnostic group. Adolescents with ASD rated the intensity of the emotions similarly to adolescents with TD and reported greater confidence in their responses when they had correctly (vs. incorrectly) recognized the emotions. These findings are reviewed within the context of the amygdala theory of autism.
Lejuez, Carl W.
Rates of substance use and comorbid psychopathology peak during adolescence, highlighting the need to identify transdiagnostic risk processes that cut across conditions and elucidate early embedded risk factors for comorbidity across development. The current review highlights emotion regulation deficits as a core transdiagnostic risk factor underlying the development of substance use, addiction, and comorbid psychopathology in adolescence. We present the dual systems model of neurological development to highlight adolescence as a critical period of increased risk for emotion regulation difficulties, corresponding risk behaviors, and psychopathology. We describe malfunction in the neurobiological regulation system underlying the relationship between emotion regulation and risk for addiction and comorbidity. We pull from two established developmental theories including both the externalizing pathway and the internalizing pathway to substance use disorders, which together highlight how early embedded risk in the form of emotion regulation deficits can explain mechanisms underlying the development of addiction and comorbid psychiatric disorders. PMID:26889402
Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.
Objective This study possessed two aims: (1) to develop and validate aclinician -friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with ADHD and (2) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Method Within a sample of 324 adolescents with DSM-IV-TR diagnosed ADHD (age M=13.07, SD=1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, inter-rater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Results Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Conclusions Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215
Sibley, Margaret H; Altszuler, Amy R; Morrow, Anne S; Merrill, Brittany M
This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a sample of 324 adolescents with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision diagnosed ADHD (age M = 13.07, SD = 1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, interrater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth.
Wainryb, Cecilia; Recchia, Holly E
Far from being unthinking energies or irrational impulses that control or push people around, emotions are intricately connected to the way people perceive, understand, and think about the world. As such, emotions are also an inextricable part of people's moral lives. As people go about making moral judgments and decisions, they do not merely apply abstract principles in a detached manner. Their emotions--their loves and sympathies, angers and fears, grief and sadness, guilt and shame--are inseparable from how they make sense of and evaluate their own and others' actions, the way things are, and the ways things ought to be. While this is not to say that emotions have a privileged role in morality, it does mean that emotions cannot be reasonably sidelined from the study of people's moral lives. Thus, an important part of formulating a theory of moral development is to articulate a framework for capturing children's relevant emotional experiences in the context of morally laden events. Such a framework should also help us understand how these sometimes turbulent or bewildering experiences inform, enrich, and change children's thinking about what is right and wrong and about themselves as moral agents. This article considers the research on the relation between emotion and moral thinking, offers a perspective that aims to broaden and elaborate our understanding of the connections between emotion and morality in adolescence, and sets a new agenda for research on this topic.
Forslund, Tommie; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla; Granqvist, Pehr; Eninger, Lilianne
This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachment in 184 typically developing children (M age = 6 years, 10 months, SD = 1.7). Parental ratings provided measures of emotion regulation, emotionality, and externalizing behaviour problems. Results revealed that cognitive inhibition, regulation of positive emotion, and positive emotionality were independently and specifically related to ADHD symptoms. Disorganized attachment and negative emotionality formed independent and specific relations to conduct problems. Our findings support the multiple pathways perspective on ADHD, with poor regulation of positive emotion and high positive emotionality making distinct contributions to ADHD symptoms. More specifically, our results support the proposal of a temperamentally based pathway to ADHD symptoms. The findings also indicate that disorganized attachment and negative emotionality constitute pathways specific to conduct problems rather than to ADHD symptoms.
Knatz, Stephanie; Braden, Abby; Boutelle, Kerri N
A significant proportion of both healthy and treatment-seeking youth report eating for emotional reasons. Emotional eating (EE) is associated with medical and psychological sequelae including overeating and eating disorder symptoms. Youth with EE are thought to have a predisposition toward a high level of emotional sensitivity, with a tendency to experience emotions intensely, and for a long duration. Interventions are needed to address emotion dysregulation associated with EE. Parent-focused interventions that emphasize training parents to respond to emotion dysregulation in their children have the potential to reduce the incidence of EE. This article describes an emotion-focused parent training intervention for youth who engage in EE.
St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina
Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.
Chan, Siu Mui; Chan, Kwok-Wai
Studies on factors affecting susceptibility to peer pressure are not plentiful although this susceptibility has been found to be associated with youth problems such as substance use and risky sexual behavior. The present study examined how adolescents' susceptibility to peer pressure is related to their relationships with mothers and emotional…
Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Harrist, Amanda W; Larzelere, Robert E; Criss, Michael M; Houltberg, Benjamin J
The current study examined associations between adolescent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during an angry event discussion task and adolescents' emotion regulation and adjustment. Data were collected from 206 adolescents (10-18 years of age, M age = 13.37). Electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration data were collected from adolescents, and RSA values and respiration rates were computed. Adolescents reported on their own emotion regulation, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. Multilevel latent growth modeling was employed to capture RSA responses across time (i.e., linear and quadratic changes; time course approach), and adolescent emotion regulation and adjustment variables were included in the model to test their links to RSA responses. Results indicated that high RSA baseline was associated with more adolescent prosocial behavior. A pattern of initial RSA decreases (RSA suppression) in response to angry event recall and subsequent RSA increases (RSA rebound) were related to better anger and sadness regulation and more prosocial behavior. However, RSA was not significantly linked to adolescent aggressive behavior. We also compared the time course approach with the conventional linear approach and found that the time course approach provided more meaningful and rich information. The implications of adaptive RSA change patterns are discussed.
Reddy, Linda A; Pfeiffer, Steven I
To examine the behavioral and emotional difficulties of 73 children and adolescents with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), mental retardation-only, and dual diagnosis (i.e., mental retardation and psychiatrically disordered) on the Devereux Scales of Mental Disorders (DSMD: Naglieri, LeBuffe, & Pfeiffer, Devereux Scales of Mental Disorders (DSMD) San Antonio, TX: PsychCorp 1994). Multivariate analyses and "Italic">d-ratios were computed to assess the statistical and clinically meaningful differences between pairs of samples. The PWS sample exhibited statistically significant higher levels of psychopathology than the mentally-retarded-only sample on the Total, Externalizing, Internalizing, Attention/Delinquency, Conduct, Anxiety, and Acute Problems Scales. When compared to the dually-diagnosed sample, children with PWS Syndrome had comparable levels of psychopathology, but lower levels of depression. Results revealed that PWS represents a highly unique and complex psychological disorder with multiple areas of disturbances.
Heikkinen, Jenna; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Toivanen, Juhani; Suominen, Kalervo; Väyrynen, Eero; Moilanen, Irma; Seppänen, Tapio
Asperger's syndrome (AS) belongs to the group of autism spectrum disorders and is characterized by deficits in social interaction, as manifested e.g. by the lack of social or emotional reciprocity. The disturbance causes clinically significant impairment in social interaction. Abnormal prosody has been frequently identified as a core feature of AS. There are virtually no studies on recognition of basic emotions from speech. This study focuses on how adolescents with AS (n=12) and their typically developed controls (n=15) recognize the basic emotions happy, sad, angry, and 'neutral' from speech prosody. Adolescents with AS recognized basic emotions from speech prosody as well as their typically developed controls did. Possibly the recognition of basic emotions develops during the childhood.
Shalev, Lilach; Kolodny, Tamar; Shalev, Nir; Mevorach, Carmel
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by high levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity; however, these symptoms can result from a variety of reasons. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the various difficulties of individuals with ADHD, especially when co-occurrence difficulties are present, it is essential to combine neuropsychological and subjective assessment tools. In the present field study the authors investigated a group of adolescents with multiple deficits (MD) using neuropsychological and subjective measures. Teachers' ratings verified extremely high levels of symptoms of oppositional behavior, inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, social problems, and emotional problems in this group. As expected, MD group participants showed decreased abilities to maintain attention on task for a long period of time, focus attention and effectively inhibit adjacent distractors, and resist conflicting irrelevant information. Importantly, although significant differences in the attention measures were observed at the group level, not all MD participants displayed deviant performance. Thus, we conclude that the heterogeneous group of adolescents with MD comprises individuals with primary attention deficits as well as those with other nonattentional deficits that show equivalent behavioral symptoms. Using neuropsychological tools can be useful in differentiating between different core deficits and in guiding appropriate interventions.
Potenza, Marc N.; Wareham, Justin D.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Desai, Rani A.
Objective: The Internet represents a new and widely available forum for gambling. However, relatively few studies have examined Internet gambling in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the correlates of at-risk or problem gambling in adolescents acknowledging or denying gambling on the Internet. Method: Survey data from 2,006 Connecticut…
Kenny, Thomas J.; And Others
Using the Canter Background Interference Procedure with the Bender Gestalt Test, a group of 18 adolescent suicide attempters earned test scores indicating they had significantly more problems with visual motor coordination than did a control group of 21 adolescents. (Author/SBH)
Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.
This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…
Lippold, Melissa A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.
This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found…
Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.
The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal…
Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.
This study examined relations among emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 122 boys from low-income families who participated in a summer camp and were followed longitudinally from early childhood to early adolescence. Emotional self- regulation strategies were coded in early childhood from a waiting task, measures of peer rejection were collected during middle childhood at the summer camp, and reports of antisocial behavior were obtained during early adolescence. Structural equation modeling was utilized to examine longitudinal relations among these constructs, with results supporting a negative association between use of active distraction and peer rejection and a positive association between peer rejection and antisocial behavior. Furthermore, an indirect effect of active distraction on antisocial behavior was found through peer rejection. Thus, adaptive self-regulation strategy use in early childhood demonstrated direct longitudinal relations with peer rejection and an indirect association with antisocial behavior in early adolescence. Results have implications for early prevention and intervention efforts to foster adaptive self-regulation of emotion and reduce risk for later social problems and delinquency. PMID:20161105
White, Hannah J; Haycraft, Emma; Wallis, Deborah J; Arcelus, Jon; Leung, Newman; Meyer, Caroline
This study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Mealtime Emotions Measure for adolescents (MEM-A), a novel measure of emotional responses experienced during family mealtimes. Additionally, it examined gender differences in mealtime emotions and also the relationships between mealtime emotions and levels of eating psychopathology, when controlling for anxiety or depression. Adolescent participants (N = 527; 282 girls, 245 boys) with a mean age of 15.9 years completed the new mealtime measure for adolescents (MEM-A), in addition to questions about family mealtime atmosphere, and measures assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and eating psychopathology. Factor analysis produced a three factor solution for the MEM-A with two subscales relating to different types of negative mealtime emotions (Anxiety-related mealtime emotions and Anger-related mealtime emotions) and one subscale relating to Positive mealtime emotions. Generally, girls reported experiencing more Anxiety-related mealtime emotions compared to boys. Having conducted separate analyses controlling for levels of either anxiety or depression, there were several significant associations for both girls and boys between mealtime emotions, particularly Anxiety-related emotions, and eating psychopathology. The findings suggest that some mealtime emotions are associated with increased eating psychopathology. Replication and detailed examination of these emotional responses is required.
McLaughlin, Katie A.; Garrad, Megan C.; Somerville, Leah H.
Adolescence is a phase of the lifespan associated with widespread changes in emotional behavior thought to reflect both changing environments and stressors, and psychological and neurobiological development. However, emotions themselves are complex phenomena that are composed of multiple subprocesses. In this paper, we argue that examining emotional development from a process-level perspective facilitates important insights into the mechanisms that underlie adolescents' shifting emotions and intensified risk for psychopathology. Contrasting the developmental progressions for the antecedents to emotion, physiological reactivity to emotion, emotional regulation capacity, and motivation to experience particular affective states reveals complex trajectories that intersect in a unique way during adolescence. We consider the implications of these intersecting trajectories for negative outcomes such as psychopathology, as well as positive outcomes for adolescent social bonds. PMID:26869841
McLaughlin, Katie A; Garrad, Megan C; Somerville, Leah H
Adolescence is a phase of the lifespan associated with widespread changes in emotional behavior thought to reflect both changing environments and stressors, and psychological and neurobiological development. However, emotions themselves are complex phenomena that are composed of multiple subprocesses. In this paper, we argue that examining emotional development from a process-level perspective facilitates important insights into the mechanisms that underlie adolescents' shifting emotions and intensified risk for psychopathology. Contrasting the developmental progressions for the antecedents to emotion, physiological reactivity to emotion, emotional regulation capacity, and motivation to experience particular affective states reveals complex trajectories that intersect in a unique way during adolescence. We consider the implications of these intersecting trajectories for negative outcomes such as psychopathology, as well as positive outcomes for adolescent social bonds.
Lee, Junghan; Lee, Seojung; Chun, Ji Won; Cho, Hyun; Kim, Dai-jin; Jung, Young-Chul
Increased reports of impulsivity and aggression in male adolescents with Internet gaming might reflect their dysfunction in emotion regulation, particularly in suppression of negative emotions, which should affect the various stages of Internet gaming disorder. This study tested the hypothesis that adolescents with Internet gaming disorder would be more disturbed by the emotional interference and demonstrate compromised dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activation during a Stroop Match-to-Sample task. In addition, functional connectivity analysis was conducted to examine the interplays between neural correlates involved in emotional processing and how they were altered in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder. The Internet gaming disorder group demonstrated weaker dACC activation and stronger insular activations to interfering angry facial stimuli compared with the healthy control group. Negative functional connectivity between stronger insular activation and weaker dorsolateral prefrontal activation correlated with higher cognitive impulsivity in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder. These findings provide evidence of the compromised prefrontal cognitive control over emotional interference in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder.
Cullen, Kathryn R; Westlund, Melinda K; LaRiviere, Lori L; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
The management of nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior is a common focus of clinical care, particularly in the treatment of adolescents and young adults. Increased recognition of this problem has led to proposed criteria for future study in DSM-5, which may be beneficial in advancing the field. Clinical care may be fruitfully informed by an understanding of the neurodevelopmental underpinnings of this behavior. The authors discuss the current status of neurobiological research related to nonsuicidal self-injury with a focus on the key dimension of emotion regulation. A case is presented to illustrate the critical points. Preliminary empirical evidence suggests disturbances in neurobiological systems relevant to emotion regulation. Disturbances involve engagement of limbic brain regions and frontal regulatory brain regions that may evolve over time. Additionally, disturbances are observed in serotonin and physiological response systems relevant to emotion regulation. Treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be most beneficial in combination with dialectical behavioral therapy to address safety, build self-soothing strategies to enhance emotion regulation, and reduce interpersonal sensitivity. Delineation of the neurobiological markers that reflect successful treatment response will help in the identification of new avenues for research and the development of personalized treatments for adolescents with nonsuicidal self-injury.
Aebi, Marcel; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Plattner, Belinda
The objective of the present study was to analyse patterns of emotional, physical and sexual maltreatment in detained male juvenile offenders using latent class analysis (LCA). The association of maltreatment related LCA profiles with psychopathology and criminal behaviors was also studied. LCA based on the items of the Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse was performed in a sample of 260 male adolescent offenders (mean age = 16.5 years, SD = 1.29 years). Chi square tests and general linear models were performed to assess the associations of CTQ profiles with categorical interview-based psychiatric disorders, dimensional Youth Self-Report problem scales, and officially registered offenses. LCA suggested a three class solution: (1) a no/mild trauma (NM; 76 %) (2) emotional and physical trauma (EP; 18 %) and (3) emotional, physical, and sexual trauma (EPS; 8 %). The classes EP and EPS were related to a variety of psychiatric disorders and self-reported mental health problems. Furthermore, EPS showed higher presence of a subsequent re-incarceration compared to NM. A majority of sexually abused juveniles also experienced emotional and physical abuse reflecting gravely disturbed family systems. Multiple abuse in childhood was associated with a broad variety of disorders including externalizing disorders and repeated criminal offending. Such findings indicate that trauma assessment is also relevant in externalizing youth. A comprehensive treatment approach for detained boys with multiple abuse experiences is required targeting both mental health needs and the reduction of criminal behaviors.
Barker, Edward D.; Oliver, Bonamy R.; Maughan, Barbara
Background: It is increasingly recognized that youth who follow early onset persistent (EOP), childhood limited (CL) and adolescent onset (AO) trajectories of conduct problems show somewhat varying patterns of risk (in childhood) and adjustment problems (in adolescence and adulthood). Little, however, is known about how other adjustment problems…
Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J
While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10-15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence.
Secades-Villa, Roberto; Martínez-Loredo, Victor; Grande-Gosende, Aris; Fernández-Hermida, José R.
Gambling has become one of the most frequently reported addictive behaviors among young people. Understanding risk factors associated with the onset or maintenance of gambling problems in adolescence has implications for its prevention and treatment. The main aim of the present study was to examine the potential relationships between impulsivity and problem gambling in adolescence. Participants were 874 high school students (average age: 15 years old) who were surveyed to provide data on gambling and impulsivity. Self-reported gambling behavior was assessed using the South Oaks Gambling Screen – Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA) and impulsivity was measured using the Impulsive Sensation Seeking Questionnaire (ZKPQ), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11-A), and a delay discounting task. The data were analyzed using both a prospective-longitudinal and a cross-sectional design. In the longitudinal analyses, results showed that the impulsivity subscale of the ZKPQ increased the risk of problem gambling (p = 0.003). In the cross-sectional analyses, all the impulsivity measures were higher in at-risk/problem gamblers than in non-problem gamblers (p = 0.04; 0.03; and 0.01, respectively). These findings further support the relationship between impulsivity and gambling in adolescence. Moreover, our findings suggest a bidirectional relationship between impulsivity and problem gambling in adolescence. These results have consequences for the development of prevention and treatment programs for adolescents with gambling problems. PMID:28008322
Dispositional shame and guilt have been associated with psychopathology and an increasing number of studies have traced this relation back to adolescence. This developmental period is thought to be characterized by maturational changes in emotion regulation, which also play an important role in vulnerability to psychopathology, but little is known about the links between emotion regulation and dispositional shame and guilt. The current study investigated the relations between individual differences in the habitual use of a wide range of emotion regulation strategies and proneness to shame and guilt in a large sample of adolescents (N = 706), aged 13 to 17 years. History of childhood trauma was also assessed. Our results showed that emotion regulation independently explained about 20% of the variance of shame-proneness and guilt-proneness. Higher use of maladaptive (e.g., Self-Blaming, Catastrophizing) and lower use of adaptive (e.g., Refocus on Planning, Positive Reappraisal) emotion regulation strategies were positively associated with shame-proneness. In contrast, lower use of maladaptive (e.g., Catastrophizing, Blaming Others) and higher use of adaptive (e.g., Refocus on Planning, Positive Reappraisal) emotion regulation strategies were associated with guilt-proneness, independent of the influence of childhood trauma, which also explained a relatively minor portion of guilt-proneness. Although there were age differences (i.e., rumination was used more by older adolescents, and the influence of emotion regulation on depression and anxiety symptoms increased with age) and sex differences (i.e., girls reported higher use of Putting into Perspective and Other Blaming compared to boys) in emotion regulation, age and sex were not significantly associated with proneness to shame and guilt. The positive relations with maladaptive emotion regulation underscores the dysfunctional nature of shame-proneness. Future studies could use longitudinal measures to establish that
McGee, R A; Wolfe, D A; Wilson, S K
By adolescence, appraisal of one's past life experience becomes critical to the stage-salient issue of identity formation. This study examined adolescents' perceptions of their maltreatment experiences. It scrutinized the combined and unique contribution of five maltreatment types (i.e., physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, neglect, and exposure to family violence) to variance in adolescent adjustment. It was predicted that these maltreatment types would account for significant variance in adjustment when controlling for the context variables of age, sex, socioeconomic status, IQ, and stressful life events. Adolescents (N = 160, aged 11-17) were randomly selected from the open caseload of a child protection agency. Participants completed global severity ratings regarding their experiences of the five types of maltreatment, as well as a battery of measures assessing self- and caretaker-reported externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. The youths' maltreatment ratings significantly predicted self-reported adjustment, even when controlling for all context variables. Psychological maltreatment was the most predictively potent maltreatment type, and enhanced the predictive utility of other maltreatment types. Significant sex differences in the sequelae of perceived maltreatment were evident. Also, interactions between youths' ratings and those obtained from CPS files were detected. The findings were consistent with recent research in child maltreatment, and contribute to our understanding of developmental psychopathology among adolescents.
Dingle, Genevieve A.; Hodges, Joseph; Kunde, Ashleigh
This paper presents an effectiveness study of Tuned In, a novel emotion regulation intervention that uses participant selected music to evoke emotions in session and teaches participants emotional awareness and regulation skills. The group program content is informed by a two dimensional model of emotion (arousal, valence), along with music psychology theories about how music evokes emotional responses. The program has been evaluated in two samples of adolescents: 41 “at risk” adolescents (76% males; Mage = 14.8 years) attending an educational re-engagement program and 216 students (100% females; Mage = 13.6 years) attending a mainstream secondary school. Results showed significant pre- to post-program improvements in measures of emotion awareness, identification, and regulation (p < 0.01 to p = 0.06 in the smaller “at risk” sample and all p < 0.001 in the mainstream school sample). Participant ratings of engagement and likelihood of using the strategies learned in the program were high. Tuned In shows promise as a brief emotion regulation intervention for adolescents, and these findings extend an earlier study with young adults. Tuned In is a-theoretical in regard to psychotherapeutic approach and could be integrated with other program components as required. PMID:27375537
Salvia, Emilie; Süß, Moritz; Tivadar, Ruxandra; Harkness, Sarah; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène
Observing others’ actions enhances muscle-specific cortico-spinal excitability, reflecting putative mirror neurons activity. The exposure to emotional stimuli also modulates cortico-spinal excitability. We investigated how those two phenomena might interact when they are combined, i.e., while observing a gesture performed with an emotion, and whether they change during the transition between adolescence and adulthood, a period of social and brain maturation. We delivered single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand area of the left primary motor cortex of 27 healthy adults and adolescents and recorded their right first dorsal interossus (FDI) muscle activity (i.e., motor evoked potential – MEP), while they viewed either videos of neutral or angry hand actions and facial expressions, or neutral objects as a control condition. We reproduced the motor resonance and the emotion effects – hand-actions and emotional stimuli induced greater cortico-spinal excitability than the faces/control condition and neutral videos, respectively. Moreover, the influence of emotion was present for faces but not for hand actions, indicating that the motor resonance and the emotion effects might be non-additive. While motor resonance was observed in both groups, the emotion effect was present only in adults and not in adolescents. We discuss the possible neural bases of these findings. PMID:27489547
Dingle, Genevieve A; Hodges, Joseph; Kunde, Ashleigh
This paper presents an effectiveness study of Tuned In, a novel emotion regulation intervention that uses participant selected music to evoke emotions in session and teaches participants emotional awareness and regulation skills. The group program content is informed by a two dimensional model of emotion (arousal, valence), along with music psychology theories about how music evokes emotional responses. The program has been evaluated in two samples of adolescents: 41 "at risk" adolescents (76% males; M age = 14.8 years) attending an educational re-engagement program and 216 students (100% females; M age = 13.6 years) attending a mainstream secondary school. Results showed significant pre- to post-program improvements in measures of emotion awareness, identification, and regulation (p < 0.01 to p = 0.06 in the smaller "at risk" sample and all p < 0.001 in the mainstream school sample). Participant ratings of engagement and likelihood of using the strategies learned in the program were high. Tuned In shows promise as a brief emotion regulation intervention for adolescents, and these findings extend an earlier study with young adults. Tuned In is a-theoretical in regard to psychotherapeutic approach and could be integrated with other program components as required.
Emerson, Erin; Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen
Objective This study examined gender differences in family, peer, partner, and mental health characteristics related to sexual experience among emotionally and behaviorally disordered students in therapeutic day schools, a population at elevated risk for negative sexual health outcomes. Methods A total of 417 13- to 20-year-old adolescents reported on their family functioning, peer and partner relationship characteristics, mental health problems, and self-reported sexual behavior. Results For boys and girls, peer influence and conduct problems predicted sexual experience, and family dysfunction was related to negative peer influence. Greater rejection sensitivity was related to less sexual experience for boys and girls. The final path model revealed indirect effects of family dysfunction on boys’ but not girls’ sexual experiences. Conclusions Findings underscore the utility of an ecological approach to understand social and personal mechanisms that increase risk and mitigate negative outcomes among emotionally and behaviorally disordered boys and girls in therapeutic day schools. PMID:22467883
Deng, Xinmei; Sang, Biao; Chen, Xinyin
There is growing interest in understanding how beliefs about emotion regulation are related to individual emotional experiences. Extant studies have mainly focused on explicit beliefs about emotion regulation among individuals in Western societies. The current study examined implicit emotion regulation and explored their contributions to emotional…
Schwarz, Beate; Stutz, Melanie; Ledermann, Thomas
Although there is strong evidence for the effect of interparental conflict on adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems, little is known about the effect on the quality of adolescents' relationships. The current study investigates the link between adolescents' friendships and interparental conflict as reported by both parents and…
Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Bukowski, William M.
Examined the relationship between early adolescents' involvement in romantic relationships and their emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment, depending on same-sex peer relationships. Found a negative relationship between romantic involvement and emotional and behavioral adjustment for adolescents who were unpopular with same-sex peers.…
Liu, Jie; Chaplin, Tara M.; Wang, Fei; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.; Blumberg, Hilary P.
Objective: Adolescence is a critical period in the development of lifelong patterns of responding to stress. Understanding underpinnings of variations in stress reactivity in adolescents is important, as adolescents with altered stress reactivity are vulnerable to negative risk-taking behaviors including substance use, and have increased lifelong…
Burwell, Rebecca A.
Rumination has been linked with a number of deleterious outcomes, though relatively little is known about self-evaluative and emotion processes by which it develops. The current investigation uses a prospective, longitudinal design and self-report measures to examine the role of contingent self-worth, perfectionism, negative emotion beliefs, and suppression of negative emotion in predicting the development of brooding and reflective forms of rumination among 168 adolescents (98 girls, 79.6% European-American) undergoing the transition to high school (Mage = 13.58). Results of structural equation modeling indicate that self-evaluative vulnerability (i.e., self-worth contingencies, perfectionism) and negative emotion beliefs, but not the suppression of negative emotion, predict brooding (but not reflective) rumination. The current study demonstrates how brooding is intertwined with views of self and core assumptions about emotion. PMID:25900099
Burwell, Rebecca A
Rumination has been linked with a number of deleterious outcomes, though relatively little is known about self-evaluative and emotion processes by which it develops. The current investigation uses a prospective, longitudinal design and self-report measures to examine the role of contingent self-worth, perfectionism, negative emotion beliefs, and suppression of negative emotion in predicting the development of brooding and reflective forms of rumination among 168 adolescents (98 girls, 79.6% European-American) undergoing the transition to high school (Mage = 13.58). Results of structural equation modeling indicate that self-evaluative vulnerability (i.e., self-worth contingencies, perfectionism) and negative emotion beliefs, but not the suppression of negative emotion, predict brooding (but not reflective) rumination. The current study demonstrates how brooding is intertwined with views of self and core assumptions about emotion.
Vrijen, Charlotte; Hartman, Catharina A.; Lodder, Gerine M. A.; Verhagen, Maaike; de Jonge, Peter; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
Many psychiatric problem domains have been associated with emotion-specific biases or general deficiencies in facial emotion identification. However, both within and between psychiatric problem domains, large variability exists in the types of emotion identification problems that were reported. Moreover, since the domain-specificity of the findings was often not addressed, it remains unclear whether patterns found for specific problem domains can be better explained by co-occurrence of other psychiatric problems or by more generic characteristics of psychopathology, for example, problem severity. In this study, we aimed to investigate associations between emotion identification biases and five psychiatric problem domains, and to determine the domain-specificity of these biases. Data were collected as part of the ‘No Fun No Glory’ study and involved 2,577 young adults. The study participants completed a dynamic facial emotion identification task involving happy, sad, angry, and fearful faces, and filled in the Adult Self-Report Questionnaire, of which we used the scales depressive problems, anxiety problems, avoidance problems, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) problems and antisocial problems. Our results suggest that participants with antisocial problems were significantly less sensitive to happy facial emotions, participants with ADHD problems were less sensitive to angry emotions, and participants with avoidance problems were less sensitive to both angry and happy emotions. These effects could not be fully explained by co-occurring psychiatric problems. Whereas this seems to indicate domain-specificity, inspection of the overall pattern of effect sizes regardless of statistical significance reveals generic patterns as well, in that for all psychiatric problem domains the effect sizes for happy and angry emotions were larger than the effect sizes for sad and fearful emotions. As happy and angry emotions are strongly associated with approach and
Russell, Stephen T; Consolacion, Theodora B
Research on adolescent same-sex sexuality has focused almost exclusively on risk in the lives of self-identified lesbians, gays, and bisexuals. The attention to same-sex self identity may obscure heterogeneity in same-sex romance (attractions and relationships) and thus may inaccurately characterize sexual-minority youth as more different than heterosexual youth in terms of emotional health risk. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examine the nexus of romantic attractions and relationships among contemporary U.S. adolescents, linking experiences of romance to indicators of emotional health. We conclude that broadening the scope of inquiry beyond binaries of identity (that is, gay vs. straight) provides the opportunity to more fully understand the health and well-being of all adolescents.
Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.
Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is associated with depression and may confer risk for the development of depressed mood, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated OGM as a predictor of depressive symptoms in early adolescence, particularly in the context of environmental stressors. We investigated whether OGM and emotional maltreatment would interact to predict prospective increases in depressive symptoms in early adolescents and whether these effects differed by race. Among 174 seventh-graders, OGM and familial emotional abuse interacted to predict depressive symptoms eight months later, controlling for initial depressive symptoms. Specifically, emotional abuse predicted increases in depressive symptoms among Caucasian adolescents with more OGM, but not among those with less OGM. This association was not significant for African American adolescents. These results provide support for a cognitive vulnerability-stress relationship between OGM and emotional abuse in early adolescence and suggest that these mechanisms of risk for depression may be specific to Caucasian adolescents. PMID:23186994
Stange, Jonathan P; Hamlat, Elissa J; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B
Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is associated with depression and may confer risk for the development of depressed mood, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated OGM as a predictor of depressive symptoms in early adolescence, particularly in the context of environmental stressors. We investigated whether OGM and emotional maltreatment would interact to predict prospective increases in depressive symptoms in early adolescents and whether these effects differed by race. Among 174 seventh-graders, OGM and familial emotional abuse interacted to predict depressive symptoms eight months later, controlling for initial depressive symptoms. Specifically, emotional abuse predicted increases in depressive symptoms among Caucasian adolescents with more OGM, but not among those with less OGM. This association was not significant for African American adolescents. These results provide support for a cognitive vulnerability-stress relationship between OGM and emotional abuse in early adolescence and suggest that these mechanisms of risk for depression may be specific to Caucasian adolescents.
Houck, Christopher D.; Hadley, Wendy; Barker, David; Brown, Larry K.; Hancock, Evan; Almy, Brandon
This study aimed to evaluate an intervention designed to enhance early adolescents’ emotion regulation skill use and to decrease risk behaviors. Adolescents 12 to 14 years old (N = 420; 53% male) with mental health symptoms were referred for participation in either an Emotion Regulation (ER) or Health Promotion (HP) intervention consisting of twelve after-school sessions. Participants completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires on laptop computers. Using a generalized analysis of covariance controlling for baseline scores, participants in the ER intervention were less likely to be sexually active and engage in other risk behaviors, such as fighting, at the conclusion of the program. Additionally, participants in the ER intervention reported greater use of emotion regulation strategies and more favorable attitudes toward abstinence. Interventions directly targeting emotion regulation may be useful in addressing health risk behaviors of adolescents with mental health symptoms. PMID:26297499
Batool, Syeda Shahida; Bond, Rod
The present study was designed to examine the relationship between parents' emotional intelligence and adolescents' aggression, through the mediation of parenting styles. Two hundred and twenty five undergraduate students (113 boys & 112 girls; age 17-18 years), from four universities in Pakistan, participated with their parents. The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (Robinson, Mandleco, Olsen, & Hart, 1995), and the Scale of Emotional Intelligence (Batool & Khalid, 2011) were completed by parents. The Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) was completed by their adolescent offspring. Mediational path analysis supported our hypothesised model. Results indicate that emotional intelligence of parents indirectly links to aggression among offspring, through parenting styles. It was concluded that emotional intelligence training will help parents to improve their parenting styles, and it will lower the risk of aggression in their children.
Keulers, Esther H H; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Stiers, Peter; Jolles, Jelle
This study examined (1) emotional versus cognitive developmental trajectories and (2) the influence of age-extrinsic factors (i.e., sex and puberty). Using a cross-sectional design, adolescents (N = 252) divided into four age-groups (ages 13, 15, 17, 19) performed two versions of a mentalizing task, about emotions and actions, as well as the Tower task. First, performance on all tasks improved linearly into late adolescence (age 19). Thus no differential trajectories were found for emotional versus cognitive development. Second, girls outperformed boys in mentalizing speed regarding both emotions and actions. In boys, a later pubertal phase was associated with increased mentalizing speed after controlling for age-group.
Polan, Julie C; Sieving, Renee E; McMorris, Barbara J
This study examined relationships between social-emotional skills and involvement in bullying and violence among young adolescents from ethnically diverse, economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. Data were from 171 sixth- and seventh-grade students involved in a larger intervention study. Analyses examined relationships between social-emotional skills measures (intrapersonal skills, stress management skills, interpersonal skills) and involvement in violence, physical bullying, and relational aggression. Of social-emotional skills indicators, interpersonal skills and stress management skills demonstrated significant bivariate relationships with each of the bullying and violence outcomes. In multivariate models, greater interpersonal skills and greater stress management skills were significantly associated with lower odds of violence involvement. Greater stress management skills were also significantly associated with lower levels of physical bullying and relational aggression. Findings suggest that efforts to foster development of young adolescents' social-emotional skills may, in turn, reduce their risk for involvement in bullying and violence.
Rivers, Susan E.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Mills, Britain
Fuzzy-trace theory explains risky decision making in children, adolescents, and adults, incorporating social and cultural factors as well as differences in impulsivity. Here, we provide an overview of the theory, including support for counterintuitive predictions (e.g., when adolescents “rationally” weigh costs and benefits, risk taking increases, but it decreases when the core gist of a decision is processed). Then, we delineate how emotion shapes adolescent risk taking—from encoding of representations of options, to retrieval of values/principles, to application of those values/principles to representations of options. Our review indicates that: (i) Gist representations often incorporate emotion including valence, arousal, feeling states, and discrete emotions; and (ii) Emotion determines whether gist or verbatim representations are processed. We recommend interventions to reduce unhealthy risk-taking that inculcate stable gist representations, enabling adolescents to identify quickly and automatically danger even when experiencing emotion, which differs sharply from traditional approaches emphasizing deliberation and precise analysis. PMID:19255597
Havas, Jano; de Nooijer, Jascha; Crutzen, Rik; Feron, Frans
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the needs and views of adolescents regarding the development of online support for mental health problems. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured qualitative focus group interviews were conducted with ten groups of Dutch adolescents (n=106), aged 12-19 years, from four urban secondary schools…
Duberg, Anna; Möller, Margareta; Sunvisson, Helena
Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13–18 were included in the study. The dance intervention group comprised 59 girls, 24 of whom were strategically chosen to be interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The experiences of the dance intervention resulted in five generic categories: (1) An Oasis from Stress, which represents the fundamental basis of the intervention; (2) Supportive Togetherness, the setting; (3) Enjoyment and Empowerment, the immediate effect; (4) Finding Acceptance and Trust in Own Ability, the outcome; and (5) Dance as Emotional Expression, the use of the intervention. One main category emerged, Finding Embodied Self-Trust That Opens New Doors, which emphasizes the increased trust in the self and the ability to approach life with a sense of freedom and openness. The central understanding of the adolescent girls’ experiences was that the dance intervention enriched and gave access to personal resources. With the non-judgmental atmosphere and supportive togetherness as a safe platform, the enjoyment and empowerment in dancing gave rise to acceptance, trust in ability, and emotional expression. Taken together, this increased self-trust and they discovered a new ability to “claim space.” Findings from this study may provide practical information on designing future interventions for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. PMID:27416014
Duberg, Anna; Möller, Margareta; Sunvisson, Helena
Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13-18 were included in the study. The dance intervention group comprised 59 girls, 24 of whom were strategically chosen to be interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The experiences of the dance intervention resulted in five generic categories: (1) An Oasis from Stress, which represents the fundamental basis of the intervention; (2) Supportive Togetherness, the setting; (3) Enjoyment and Empowerment, the immediate effect; (4) Finding Acceptance and Trust in Own Ability, the outcome; and (5) Dance as Emotional Expression, the use of the intervention. One main category emerged, Finding Embodied Self-Trust That Opens New Doors, which emphasizes the increased trust in the self and the ability to approach life with a sense of freedom and openness. The central understanding of the adolescent girls' experiences was that the dance intervention enriched and gave access to personal resources. With the non-judgmental atmosphere and supportive togetherness as a safe platform, the enjoyment and empowerment in dancing gave rise to acceptance, trust in ability, and emotional expression. Taken together, this increased self-trust and they discovered a new ability to "claim space." Findings from this study may provide practical information on designing future interventions for adolescent girls with internalizing problems.
Verdejo-García, Antonio; Bechara, Antoine; Recknor, Emily C; Pérez-García, Miguel
Impulsivity is predominant among users of several drugs of abuse including alcohol, cocaine, and amphetamines, and it is considered a risk factor for later development of alcohol and substance abuse and dependence. However, there is little consensus on how impulsivity should be defined and measured, and there are few studies on the relationship between separate dimensions of impulsivity and substance dependence. We used a multidimensional measure of impulsivity (the UPPS scale) to examine differences between 36 individuals with substance dependence (ISD) and 36 drug-free controls on the dimensions of urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. In addition, we examined which dimensions of impulsivity better predicted addiction-related problems as measured with the addiction severity index. Results revealed that ISD show high scores on dimensions of urgency, lack of perseverance, and lack of premeditation (effect sizes ranging from 1.10 to 1.96), but not on sensation seeking. Among the different impulsivity dimensions, urgency was the best predictor of severity of medical, employment, alcohol, drug, family/social, legal and psychiatric problems in ISD, explaining 13-48% of the total variance of these indices. Furthermore, urgency scores alone correctly classified 83% of the participants in the ISD group. Urgency is characterized by a tendency to act impulsively in response to negative emotional states. Thus, our results could have important implications for novel treatment approaches for substance dependence focused on emotional regulation.
EKİNCİ, Özalp; ÇELİK, Tanju; SAVAŞ, Nazan; TOROS, Fevziye
Introduction Sleep problems are commonly encountered in adolescents. It has been shown that electronic media have a negative influence on the sleep quality and daytime functioning in adolescents. This study aims to investigate the association between internet use and sleep problems in adolescents. Method A total of 1212 adolescents were recruited to the study. Self-report study questionnaire included two main parts: Young’s Internet Addiction Scale (IAS) and a semi-structured inquiry on sleep habits/problems. Results Of the study sample, 16% (n=198) reported their sleep quality as bad or very bad. One-fourth of the sample reported using internet everyday and 27% of them reported spending more than one hour when online. The mean IAS total score was 35.56±13.87. Adolescents with a higher IAS score reported getting to bed later in the night, needing more time to fall asleep and having an increased number of awakenings in the night than the adolescents with lower IAS score (p=.001). They were also found to have higher frequencies of several sleep problems including difficulty in initiating and sustaining sleep, difficulty in waking up and feelings of sleepiness in day. In addition, sleep quality of them was worse when compared to the adolescents with a lower IAS score (p=.001). Conclusion Problematic sleep habits and sleep problems were found to be more frequent in adolescents with a higher IAS total score. Health care providers must be aware of the possible negative impact of excessive and uncontrolled internet use on adolescents’ sleep habits.
The tendency to defy the world around them, to defy adults, a characteristic trait of adolescents who are members of groups that spend leisure time together, is manifested in a number of demonstrative characteristics of their behavior: symbols of independence such as a certain kind of clothing, jargon, and borrowing vocabulary from the criminal…
Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri
Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon of…
Trujillo, Ángela; Obando, Diana; Trujillo, Carlos A
The literature indicates a close relationship between family dynamics and psychoactive substance use among adolescents, and multi-causality among substance use-related problems, including personal adolescent characteristics as potential influential aspects in this relationship. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of emotional symptoms and sensation seeking as mediators in the relationship between family dynamics and alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents. The sample consisted of 571 high school students with a mean age of 14.63, who completed the Communities That Care Youth Survey in its Spanish version. We propose and test a mediation-in-serial model to identify the relationships between the study variables. The results of the mediation models indicate that, in most cases, the relationship between family dynamics and the substance use variables is meaningfully carried through the proposed mediators, first through negative emotional symptoms, and then through sensation seeking. The meaning of the mediation varies as a function of the facet of family dynamics (conflict or attachment) and the use aspect (age of onset, frequency of use, and use intention). We discuss the implications of these findings for intervention and prevention strategies.
Drozdikova-Zaripova, Albina R.; Kostyunina, Nadezhda Yu.
The purpose of the article is to present and analyze the results of experimental work to verify the efficiency of the developed and approved program aimed at the formation of social competence in adolescents with physical problems. The leading method in the study of this problem is a consequent version of the pedagogical experiment. The results of…
Freeman, Kurt A.
This special issue of Behavior Modification is designed to add to the literature on the behavioral assessment and treatment of CP displayed by adolescents. Contained in this issue are six empirical articles dealing with important issues on the topic. They provide examples of the richness of clinical problems classified as "conduct problems"…
Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.
This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a…
Griesler, Pamela C.; Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark
Used longitudinal sample of 187 mother-child dyads to examine the role of child behavior problems in explaining the effect of maternal prenatal smoking on adolescent daughters' smoking. Found that maternal prenatal smoking retained a unique effect on girls' current smoking with controls for current maternal smoking, child behavior problems, and…
Oliva, Alfredo; Parra, Águeda; Reina, M. Carmen
Background: Over the past decades, ample empirical evidence has been collected about the factors linked to internalizing problems during adolescence. However, there is a lack of research that use holistic approaches to study the joint analysis of a series of contextual and personal variables considered to be related to internalizing problems.…
von Salisch, Maria; Lüpschen, Nadine; Kanevski, Rimma
Supportive friendships are an invaluable resource for adolescents because of their various developmental tasks, but establishing and maintaining them requires particular interpersonal skills. In order to identify social-emotional competencies associated with having and losing friends, N = 206 early adolescents (12-14 years of age) were examined longitudinally right after the transition to secondary school in the beginning of grade 7 and again at the end of this school year. Adolescents who had at least one reciprocal friend at both times were compared to those who lost all their friends over the school year. Repeated-measures MANOVAs indicate effects of time (and development) that underline an increase of self-disclosure, explanations and humor as well as a general decrease of openly aggressive behavior when angry at the friend. Interaction effects suggest that adolescents who lost their friend(s) intensified their use of physically and relationally aggressive behavior and of fantasies of revenge over time while continuously befriended adolescents decreased in their aggressive behavior when coping with anger in their friendships. Adolescents who had friends at both times were more willing to disclose private information whereas the self-disclosure of adolescents who lost their friends stagnated. These results are discussed in terms of deficient social-emotional competencies as the cause and the consequence of losing friends.
Van Loon, Linda M A; Van de Ven, Monique O M; Van Doesum, Karin T M; Hosman, Clemens M H; Witteman, Cilia L M
When adolescents live with a parent with mental illness, they often partly take over the parental role. Little is known about the consequences of this so-called parentification on the adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. This survey study examined this effect cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a sample of 118 adolescents living with a parent suffering from mental health problems. In addition, the study examined a possible indirect effect via perceived stress. Path analyses were used to examine the direct associations between parentification and problem behavior as well as the indirect relations via perceived stress. The results showed that parentification was associated with both internalizing and externalizing problems cross-sectionally, but it predicted only internalizing problems 1 year later. An indirect effect of parentification on adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems via perceived stress was found, albeit only cross-sectionally. These findings imply that parentification can be stressful for adolescents who live with a parent with mental health problems, and that a greater awareness of parentification is needed to prevent adolescents from developing internalizing problems.
Rienecke, Renee D.; Accurso, Erin C.; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel
The current study examined the relation between parental expressed emotion (EE) and treatment outcome among adolescents participating in a treatment study for adolescent anorexia nervosa, as well as its impact on family functioning. One hundred and twenty-one families were assigned to family-based treatment or adolescent-focused therapy. Paternal criticism predicted lesser improvement in eating disorder psychopathology at end of treatment. There was also a significant interaction between maternal hostility and treatment, indicating that adolescents whose mothers displayed hostility had greater increases in percent of expected body weight in adolescent-focused therapy than family-based treatment. In addition, maternal hostility predicted less improvement in general family functioning and family communication at the end of treatment. Findings suggest that maternal and paternal EE may differentially impact treatment outcome and should be directly attended to in clinical settings. Future research is needed to further explore ways in which parental EE can be effectively modified in treatment. PMID:26201083
Smith, Ashley R; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence
While there is little doubt that risk-taking is generally more prevalent during adolescence than before or after, the underlying causes of this pattern of age differences have long been investigated and debated. One longstanding popular notion is the belief that risky and reckless behavior in adolescence is tied to the hormonal changes of puberty. However, the interactions between pubertal maturation and adolescent decision making remain largely understudied. In the current review, we discuss changes in decision making during adolescence, focusing on the asynchronous development of the affective, reward-focused processing system and the deliberative, reasoned processing system. As discussed, differential maturation in the structure and function of brain systems associated with these systems leaves adolescents particularly vulnerable to socio-emotional influences and risk-taking behaviors. We argue that this asynchrony may be partially linked to pubertal influences on development and specifically on the maturation of the affective, reward-focused processing system.
De Los Reyes, Andres; Lerner, Matthew D; Thomas, Sarah A; Daruwala, Samantha; Goepel, Katherine
Parents and children and adolescents commonly disagree in their perceptions of a variety of behaviors, including the family relationship and environment, and child and adolescent psychopathology. To this end, numerous studies have examined to what extent increased discrepant perceptions-particularly with regard to perceptions of the family relationship and environment-predict increased child and adolescent psychopathology. Parents' and children and adolescents' abilities to decode and identify others' emotions (i.e., emotion recognition) may play a role in the link between discrepant perceptions and child and adolescent psychopathology. We examined parents' and adolescents' emotion recognition abilities in relation to discrepancies between parent and adolescent perceptions of daily life topics. In a sample of 50 parents and adolescents ages 14-to-17 years (M = 15.4 years, 20 males, 54 % African-American), parents and adolescents were each administered a widely used performance-based measure of emotion recognition. Parents and adolescents were also administered a structured interview designed to directly assess each of their perceptions of the extent to which discrepancies existed in their beliefs about daily life topics (e.g., whether adolescents should complete their homework and carry out household chores). Interestingly, lower parent and adolescent emotion recognition performance significantly related to greater parent and adolescent perceived discrepant beliefs about daily life topics. We observed this relation whilst accounting for adolescent age and gender and levels of parent-adolescent conflict. These findings have important implications for understanding and using informant discrepancies in both basic developmental psychopathology research and applied research in clinic settings (e.g., discrepant views on therapeutic goals).
Pons, Francisco; de Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick K; Doudin, Pierre-André; Harris, Paul L; Giménez-Dasí, Marta
Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse and learning difficulties on simple and complex components of emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence. A total of 28 older children and young adolescents were selected for the study. Half of the participants had suffered from severe abuse, and half of these abused children additionally had learning disabilities. The remaining half of the sample had no history of abuse but were matched with the abused children on learning difficulties, age and gender. The participants' emotion understanding was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Results showed that (a) learning difficulties but not abuse had an impact on emotion understanding, (b) there was no interaction effect of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding, and (b) the observed effects of learning difficulties were most apparent for the understanding of relatively complex components of emotion and not for simple components. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications.
Heitzeg, Mary M.; Cope, Lora M.; Martz, Meghan E.; Hardee, Jillian E.; Zucker, Robert A.
This work investigated the impact of heavy marijuana use during adolescence on emotional functioning, as well as the brain functional mediators of this effect. Participants (n=40) were recruited from the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS). Data on marijuana use were collected prospectively beginning in childhood as part of the MLS. Participants were classified as heavy marijuana users (n=20) or controls with minimal marijuana use. Two facets of emotional functioning—negative emotionality and resiliency (a self-regulatory mechanism)—were assessed as part of the MLS at three time points: mean age 13.4; mean age 19.6; and mean age 23.1. Functional neuroimaging data during an emotion-arousal word task were collected at mean age 20.2.Negative emotionality decreased and resiliency increased across the three time points in controls but not heavy marijuana users. Compared with controls, heavy marijuana users had less activation to negative words in temporal, prefrontal, and occipital cortices, insula, and amygdala. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to negative words mediated an association between marijuana group and later negative emotionality. Activation of the cuneus/lingual gyrus mediated an association between marijuana group and later resiliency. Results support growing evidence that heavy marijuana use during adolescence affects later emotional outcomes. PMID:26403581
The literature is divided on the issue of what matters for adolescents' well-being, with one approach focusing on quality and the other on routine family time. Using the experience sampling method, a unique form of time diary, and survey data drawn from the 500 Family Study ("N" = 237 adolescents with 8,122 observations), this study examined the…
Mason, Michael J.; Korpela, Kalevi
This study analyzed routine locations (activity spaces) of urban adolescents enrolled in a substance abuse treatment program to understand the relationship between their spatial lives and health outcomes such as substance use and mental health. Sixty-eight adolescents were interviewed and produced a list of 199 locations identified as most…
Bernard, Michael E.
Presents rational-emotive therapy (RET) conceptualization of childhood disorders, discussing interaction of child temperament and parenting styles. Discusses RET child treatment goals, which involve modification of negative and inappropriate childhood emotions. Illustrates particular RET cognitive change methods (philosophical disputation;…
Wells, Alan; Hakanen, Ernest A.
Follows up on some recent calls for study of music as a mass medium. Finds that music serves as a powerful communication medium, speaking directly to the emotions (excitement, happiness, love) of high school students. Finds that women were somewhat more likely to associate emotions with music and to use music for mood management. (PRA)
Boivin, Sophie; Lavoie, Francine; Hebert, Martine; Gagne, Marie-Helene
This study aimed to understand the nature of the relationships between three forms of past victimizations (exposure to interparental violence in childhood, sexual harassment by peers since beginning high school, prior experience of dating violence), physical dating violence perpetration by adolescents, and anger-hostility and emotional distress.…
Broderick, Patricia C.; Jennings, Patricia A.
This article reviews the contextual and neuropsychological challenges of the adolescent period with particular attention to the role that universal prevention can play in moderating the harmful effects of stress. The centrality of emotion regulation skills to long-term health and wellness suggests their importance in prevention and intervention…
Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla
We examined the relations between depression, emotional autonomy quality-related constructs of separation and detachment, and suicidal ideation, focusing on the unique and common contribution that depression, separation and detachment made to suicidal ideation. We also examined gender differences. 403 adolescents, 196 boys and 207 girls, completed…
Chen, Zeng-Yin; Dornbusch, Sanford M.
Used a structural-equation model with latent constructs to differentiate the domains of adolescent emotional autonomy from parents and specify the intervening processes. Found that individuation was associated with lower academic achievement and higher rates of deviant behavior through the intervening effects of higher susceptibility to negative…
Valois, Robert F.; Zullig, Keith J.
Background: Preliminary data were collected to evaluate the psychometric properties of an emotional self-efficacy (ESE) measure in a sample of 3836 public high school adolescents who completed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Survey in South Carolina. Methods: Principal axis factor analysis was followed by a…
Margolis, Howard; Pica, Louis, Jr.
A study examined the degree to which audiotaped progressive muscle relaxation training influenced the oral and silent reading performance of eight adolescents who were legally classified as emotionally disturbed. A single-case ABAB withdrawal design was used to examine the effects of relaxation training on oral reading. In addition, a…
Peach, Walter; And Others
The document is based on a panel presentation describing the development, implementation, and evaluation of a Fairfax County (Virginia) program, the Cooperative Career Employment Program (CO-CEP) for Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents. The program is provided to students in a self-contained high school setting and involves the…
Sharp, Carla; Pane, Heather; Ha, Carolyn; Venta, Amanda; Patel, Amee B.; Sturek, Jennifer; Fonagy, Peter
Objective: Dysfunctions in both emotion regulation and social cognition (understanding behavior in mental state terms, theory of mind or mentalizing) have been proposed as explanations for disturbances of interpersonal behavior in borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study aimed to examine mentalizing in adolescents with emerging BPD from a…
Adrian, Molly; Zeman, Janice; Erdley, Cynthia; Lisa, Ludmila; Sim, Leslie
The purpose of this study was to examine a model of factors that place psychiatrically hospitalized girls at risk for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). The role of familial and peer interpersonal difficulties, as well as emotional dysregulation, were examined in relationship to NSSI behaviors. Participants were 99 adolescent girls (83.2% Caucasian;…
Coplan, Robert J.; Ooi, Laura L.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda
The goal of this study was to examine links between observed social participation in the schoolyard and indices of socio-emotional functioning in early adolescence. Participants were children (N = 290) aged 9 to 12 years. Social participation (e.g., solitary play, dyadic interaction, group interaction) was assessed in the schoolyard during recess…
Single mothers of adolescents with emotional disabilities (ED) have a unique and sometimes difficult childrearing task. Researchers in some studies concluded that these children have a significantly higher incidence of school aggression than their peers from two-parent families. A substantive body of research explores parenting in families of…
Saelen, Cecile; Markovits, Henry
This study examined the idea that expectations of behavior in hypothetical situations involving potential moral transgressions are related to emotion attributions relating to both moral and cost-benefit considerations. We asked younger (14 years 5 months) and older (16 years 1 month) female and male adolescents (a) to make predictions about the…
Robinson, Ross; Roberts, William L.; Strayer, Janet; Koopman, Ray
Two groups of male adolescents, incarcerated young offenders (N = 64, mean age = 16.3 years) and a comparison group of community youth (N = 60; mean age = 16.6 years), were administered the Empathy Continuum (measuring cognitive-affective responses to persons in emotionally evocative videotaped vignettes) and questionnaire measures of empathy,…
Sim, Leslie; Zeman, Janice
This study examined emotion-identification skills in 19 adolescent girls (M age = 16 years, 8 months) diagnosed with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV], American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis of bulimia nervosa or eating disorder not otherwise specified in the bulimic spectrum, 19 age-matched girls…
Bogdaniak, Roman C.
Dually diagnosed adolescents suffering from both severe emotional disturbance and substance abuse/addiction constitute a special population which poses a challenge to health professionals in special education as well as clinical settings. The prevalence of substance use, abuse, and addiction has been shown to be significantly above the national…
Arsenio, William F.; Adams, Erin; Gold, Jason
Connections between adolescents' social information processing (SIP), moral reasoning, and emotion attributions and their reactive and proactive aggressive tendencies were assessed. One hundred mostly African American and Latino 13- to 18-year-olds from a low-socioeconomic-status (SES) urban community and their high school teachers participated.…
Sommer, Kristen S.; Whitman, Thomas L.; Borkowski, John G.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Burke, Jennifer; Maxwell, Scott E.; Weed, Keri
Examines relationships among prenatal characteristics of 121 adolescent mothers -- including cognitive readiness for parenting, intelligence, social support, and personal adjustment -- and intellectual-linguistic development, social-emotional functioning, and adaptive behavior of their children at three years of age. Only 28% of the children…
Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wolff, Jennifer M.; Beal, Sarah J.
This study was designed to examine the roles of emotional reactivity, self-regulation, and pubertal timing in prosocial behaviors during adolescence. Participants were 850 sixth graders (50 percent female, mean age = 11.03, standard deviation = 0.17) who were followed up at the age of 15. In hierarchical regression models, measures of emotional…
The newsletter describes two projects of the Teaching Research Infant and Child Center (Oregon) which are developing assessment systems for use with severely emotionally disturbed (SED) adolescents. The first project focuses on job-related social behavior while the second project addresses social behavior in community settings. An introductory…
Pristas, Erica V.; Rosenberg, Harold
The Adolescent Responses to Alcohol and Drug Offers Scale (ARADOS) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess a respondent's anticipated emotional reactions and intended use of cognitive-behavioral refusal skills in response to an offer of alcohol or other drug. A sample of 267 students enrolled in the 11th and 12th grades of four public…
van Durme, Kim; Braet, Caroline; Goossens, Lien
The present study investigated whether associations exist between attachment dimensions toward mother and different forms of eating pathology (EP) in a group of early adolescent boys and girls, and whether these associations were mediated by maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) strategies. Developmentally appropriate self-report questionnaires were…
Winter-Messiers, Mary Ann
The purpose of the present study was to increase our understanding of the relations among embarrassment, Theory of Mind (ToM), and emotion dysregulation in adolescents with Asperger's Syndrome and High Functioning Autism (AS/HFA), topics that have not previously been the foci of research in this population. The research sample consisted of 42…
Reddy, Linda A.; Pfeiffer, Steven I.
To examine the behavioral and emotional difficulties of 73 children and adolescents with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), mental retardation-only, and dual diagnosis (i.e., mental retardation and psychiatrically disordered) on the Devereux Scales of Mental Disorders (DSMD: Naglieri, LeBuffe, & Pfeiffer, "Devereux Scales of Mental Disorders" (DSMD) San…
Chilver-Stainer, Jennifer; Gasser, Luciano; Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina
Children and adolescents with hearing impairments are at risk of being excluded from activities with hearing peers. Moral emotion attributions may represent important indicators for children's identification with the moral norm not to exclude peers based on disability. Against this background, we investigated how 10-, 12- and 15-year-olds…
Maalouf, Fadi T; Clark, Luke; Tavitian, Lucy; Sahakian, Barbara J; Brent, David; Phillips, Mary L
The aim of the current research was to examine for the first time the extent to which bias to negative emotions in an inhibitory control paradigm is a state or trait marker in major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents. We administered the affective go/no go task which measures the ability to switch attention to or away from positive or negative emotional stimuli to 40 adolescents with MDD (20 in acute episode (MDDa) and 20 in remission (MDDr)) and 17 healthy controls (HC). MDDa were significantly faster on the shift to negative target blocks as compared to shift to positive target blocks while HC and MDDr displayed the opposite pattern as measured by an "emotional bias index" (EBI=latency (shift to negative targets)-latency (shift to positive targets)). There was also a trend for an effect of group on commission errors, suggesting more impulsive responding by MDDa than both MDDr and HC independently of stimulus valence throughout the task. Negative bias was not associated with depression severity or medication status. In conclusion, bias to negative emotional stimuli appears to be present in the acute stage of MDD and absent in remission suggesting that it is a depression state-specific marker of MDD in adolescents. Latency emerges as a better proxy of negative bias than commission errors and accuracy on this inhibitory control task in adolescents with MDD.
Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Nelson, J. Ron; Gutkin, Terry B.; Saunders, Anita; Galloway, Ann; Shwery, Craig S.
This article systematically reviews the available research on rational emotive behavioral therapy (REBT) with children and adolescents. Meta-analytic procedures were applied to 19 studies that met inclusion criteria. The overall mean weighted effect of REBT was positive and significant. Weighted z[r] effect sizes were also computed for five…
Hughes, Elizabeth K.; Gullone, Eleonora; Dudley, Amanda; Tonge, Bruce
The current study aimed to investigate emotion regulation (ER) strategy use in a sample of 21 clinic-referred children and adolescents (10-14 years old) presenting with school refusal, all of whom were diagnosed with at least one anxiety disorder. Being the first known study to examine ER and school refusal, hypotheses were guided by previous…
Rubenstein, Liza M.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.
Deficits in emotional clarity, the understanding and awareness of one’s own emotions and the ability to label them appropriately, are associated with increased depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, few studies have examined factors associated with reduction in emotional clarity for adolescents, such as depressed mood and ruminative response styles. The present study examined rumination as a potential mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and changes in emotional clarity, focusing on sex differences. Participants included 223 adolescents (51.60% female, Mean age = 12.39). Controlling for baseline levels of emotional clarity, initial depressive symptoms predicted decreases in emotional clarity. Further, rumination prospectively mediated the relationship between baseline depressive symptoms and follow-up emotional clarity for girls, but not boys. Findings suggest that depressive symptoms may increase girls’ tendencies to engage in repetitive, negative thinking, which may reduce the ability to understand and label emotions, a potentially cyclical process that confers vulnerability to future depression. PMID:25931160
Rubenstein, Liza M; Hamilton, Jessica L; Stange, Jonathan P; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B
Deficits in emotional clarity, the understanding and awareness of one's own emotions and the ability to label them appropriately, are associated with increased depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, few studies have examined factors associated with reduction in emotional clarity for adolescents, such as depressed mood and ruminative response styles. The present study examined rumination as a potential mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and changes in emotional clarity, focusing on sex differences. Participants included 223 adolescents (51.60% female, Mean age = 12.39). Controlling for baseline levels of emotional clarity, initial depressive symptoms predicted decreases in emotional clarity. Further, rumination prospectively mediated the relationship between baseline depressive symptoms and follow-up emotional clarity for girls, but not boys. Findings suggest that depressive symptoms may increase girls' tendencies to engage in repetitive, negative thinking, which may reduce the ability to understand and label emotions, a potentially cyclical process that confers vulnerability to future depression.
Martínez, Rebecca S; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret
Early adolescents (Grades 6-8) with multiple learning disabilities (LD; reading and math) in inclusive settings were compared to adolescents with single LD (reading or math) and typically achieving (TA) peers regarding their psychosocial functioning in two areas of adolescent well-being: emotional adjustment and school functioning. The Behavior Assessment System for Children (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1998) Self-Report of Personality for adolescents was used to determine well-being. One hundred twenty middle school students-15 boys and 15 girls in each group-were included in the current study. The results confirmed that adolescents with multiple LD (reading and math) reported poorer functioning (i.e., higher T scores) on school maladjustment, clinical maladjustment, emotional symptoms index, attitude to school, atypicality, and depression when compared to TA peers but not when compared to peers with a single LD (reading or math). All three groups differed from the TA group (but not from each other) on sense of inadequacy, with the multiple LD group reporting the highest T scores. Additional analyses indicated significant differences between girls and boys, regardless of disability status. Girls reported higher T scores on the emotional symptoms index, social stress, and depression, but boys reported greater school maladjustment and sensation seeking. Implications for practice and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Windecker-Nelson, Bess
We addressed the question of whether mothers of conduct-problem (CP) children differ from mothers of non-CP children in their awareness and coaching of emotion, and also examined whether mother's awareness and coaching of emotion is associated with better peer relations in CP children. Meta-emotion philosophy, assessed through audio taped…
Wallensteen, Lena; Zimmermann, Marius; Sandberg, Malin Thomsen; Gezelius, Anton; Nordenström, Anna; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Lajic, Svetlana
Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) treatment in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is effective in reducing virilization in affected girls, but other lasting effects are largely unknown. Here, we explore potential side effects of the treatment that will eventually help to make risk benefit analyses of the treatment. Therefore, we investigated the long-term effects of such prenatal DEX treatment on behavioral problems and temperament in children aged 7-17years. Standardized parent-completed questionnaires were used to evaluate adaptive functioning, behavioral and emotional problems (using CBCL), social anxiety (SPAI-C-P), and temperament (EAS). Self-reports were used to assess the children's own perception of social anxiety (SASC-R). The study compared 34 DEX-treated children and adolescents who were treated during the first trimester of fetal life and do not have CAH with 66 untreated controls from the Swedish population. No statistically significant differences were found between groups, suggesting that healthy children who were treated with DEX during early fetal life seem to be well adjusted without major behavioral or emotional problems as assessed by their parents. Moreover, self-reported social anxiety was not increased in DEX-exposed children and adolescents. In fact, the control group scored higher on items assessing anxiety in new, social situations. Nevertheless, for some of these comparisons, non-significant moderate to large effect sizes were observed, implying that the null findings should be interpreted with caution and require studies on larger, internationally combined cohorts.
Zullig, Keith J; Matthews-Ewald, Molly R; Valois, Robert F
Although emotional disorders and disordered eating behaviors are known to be related, the relationship between emotional self-efficacy (ESE) and disordered eating is unknown. This study examined the relationship between ESE and disordered eating in a statewide sample of public high school adolescents (n=2566). The Centers for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey and an adolescent ESE scale were utilized. Logistic regression adjusted for key covariates explored the relationship between low ESE and disordered eating among selected race and gender groups. Self-perceived weight as underweight or overweight; and dieting, vomiting or taking laxatives, taking diet pills, and fasting to lose weight were each associated (p<.05) with lower levels of ESE for certain race/gender groups. Findings provide increased justification for tailoring disordered eating interventions and treatments to accommodate the highest risk groups. Measures of ESE should be considered for adolescent mental health assessments in fieldwork, research, and evaluation efforts.
Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A
The present paper investigates possible gender and age differences on emotional states (depression and anxiety) and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and emotional states. The cross-sectional sectional sample consists of 1,209 adolescents 13-18 years from public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway. The results showed that girls reported higher scores on state anxiety and state depression, whereas boys consistently scored higher on self-esteem in all age groups. Self-esteem was strongly and inversely associated with both state depression and state anxiety. An interaction effect of gender by self-esteem was found on state depression, where the association was stronger for girls than for boys. The associations found give support for the positive role of self-esteem in relation to adolescents' emotional health and well-being.
Grube, J W; Morgan, M
Problem behaviour theory proposes that adolescent substance use and other problem behaviours comprise a single dimension reflecting a general underlying tendency towards deviance. This general deviance hypothesis was tested with survey data obtained from 2731 adolescents from Dublin, Ireland. A series of hierarchical maximum likelihood factor analyses indicated that three specific factors were necessary to account for the covariation among problem behaviour measures. These factors corresponded to substance use (drinking, smoking, marijuana use, and other drug use), relatively minor problem behaviours (swearing, lying), and relatively serious problem behaviours (stealing, vandalism). Contrary to the general deviance hypothesis, a second order factor representing general deviance accounted for only 14% of the variance in substance use, on the average, as opposed to 74% of the variance in minor and serious problem behaviours. These findings thus indicate that substance use among these Irish adolescents is relatively independent of a general tendency toward deviance. They also suggest that the general deviance hypothesis, as it usually is applied, may be culturally specific and relevant only for adolescents from the United States and similar cultural contexts.
Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor; Motalebi, Seyedeh Ameneh
Background: Given that happiness is an important construct to enable adolescents to cope better with difficulties and stress of life, it is necessary to advance our knowledge about the possible etiology of happiness in adolescents. Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the relationships of emotional intelligence, depressive symptoms, and happiness in a sample of male students in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of high school students in Tehran in 2012. The participants comprised of 188 male students (aged 16 to 19 years old) selected by multi-stage cluster sampling method. For gathering the data, the students filled out assessing emotions scale, Beck depression inventory-II, and Oxford happiness inventory. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive and analytical statistics in statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software. Results: The findings showed that a significant positive association existed between high ability of emotional intelligence and happiness (P < 0.01). Conversely, the low ability of emotional intelligence was associated with unhappiness (P < 0.01), there was a positive association between non-depression symptoms and happiness (P < 0.05), and severe depressive symptoms were positively associated with unhappiness (P < 0.01). High ability of emotional intelligence (P < 0.01) and non-depression symptoms (P < 0.05) were the strongest predictors of happiness. Conclusions: These findings reinforced the importance of emotional intelligence as a facilitating factor for happiness in adolescences. In addition, the findings suggested that depression symptoms may be harmful for happiness in adolescents. PMID:26834804
Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.
The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal maternal and early childhood externalizing problems. Social competency and depression during middle childhood moderated the relationship between victimization and violent behaviors for girls, but not boys: Lower levels of social competency and depression served as risk factors for delinquency among teenage girls who experienced victimization during childhood. These findings have important implications for youth violence prevention programs. PMID:21720452
SHAHEEN, Abeer; NASSAR, Omayyah; SALEH, Mohammad; ARABIA T, Diana
Abstract Background Students emotional health and bullying behavior are receiving greater attention worldwide due to their long-term effects on students’ health. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived school climate, peer support, teacher support, school pressure and emotional health and bullying among adolescent school students in Jordan. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to recruit a sample of 1166 in-school adolescents in Amman between November 2013 and January 2014. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select respondents and Health Behavior in School Aged Children questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using Pearson Correlation to detect relationships among study variables. Results Significant correlations (P value was ≤.05) were found between school climate including teacher and peer support and emotional health and bullying behavior of school students. School pressure was not correlated significantly with emotional health and bullying. Conclusion Study findings emphasize the importance of school related factors in influencing students’ emotional health and bullying behavior. This indicates that the issue of bullying and emotional health of students in Jordanian schools requires further attention, both for future research and preventive intervention. PMID:26060720
This study developed a scale to measure the respect-related emotional traits (the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale) for late adolescence and examined the reliability and validity. In study 1,368 university students completed the items of the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale and other scales of theoretically important personality constructs including adult attachment style, the "Big Five," self-esteem, and two types of narcissistic personality. Factor analysis indicated that there are three factors of trait respect-related emotions: (a) trait (prototypical) respect; (b) trait idolatry (worship and adoration); and (c) trait awe. The three traits associated differentially with the daily experience (frequency) of the five basic respect-related emotions (prototypical respect, idolatry, awe, admiration, and wonder), and other constructs. In Study 2, a test-retest correlation of the new scale with 60 university students indicated good reliability. Both studies generally supported the reliability and validity of the new scale. These findings suggest that, at Ieast in late adolescence, there are large individual differences in respect-related emotion experiences and the trait of respect should be considered as multi-dimensional structure.
Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, David W; Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S
Tobacco use and its concomitant, nicotine dependence, are increasing in African countries and other parts of the developing world. However, little research has assessed nicotine dependence in South Africa or other parts of the African continent. Previous research has found that adolescent problem behaviors, including tobacco use, tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between nicotine dependence and adolescent problem behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of urban South African adolescents. A community sample (N = 731) consisting of "Black," "White," "Coloured," and "Indian" youths aged 12-17 years was drawn from the Johannesburg metropolitan area. Structured interviews were administered by trained interviewers. Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence. Logistic regression analyses showed that higher levels of nicotine dependence significantly predicted elevated levels of violent behavior, deviant behavior, marijuana and other illegal drug use, binge drinking, early sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use, despite control on the adolescents' demographic characteristics, peer smoking, conflict with parents, peer deviance, and the availability of legal and illegal substances. These relationships were robust across ethnicity and gender. The findings indicate the need for policy makers and prevention and intervention programs in South Africa to consider adolescent nicotine dependence in conjunction with comorbid problem behaviors, including other substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and deviant behaviors.
Bingham, C. Raymond; Shope, Jean T.
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among drivers younger than age 35, making problem driving behavior among young drivers a significant public concern. Effective intervention requires a better understanding of the antecedents of problem driving. Problem behavior theory, social control theory, and Kandel's model of substance use…
De Los Reyes, Andres; Lerner, Matthew D.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Daruwala, Samantha; Goepel, Katherine
Parents and children and adolescents commonly disagree in their perceptions of a variety of behaviors, including the family relationship and environment, and child and adolescent psychopathology. To this end, numerous studies have examined to what extent increased discrepant perceptions—particularly with regard to perceptions of the family relationship and environment—predict increased child and adolescent psychopathology. Parents’ and children and adolescents’ abilities to decode and identify others’ emotions (i.e., emotion recognition) may play a role in the link between discrepant perceptions and child and adolescent psychopathology. We examined parents’ and adolescents’ emotion recognition abilities in relation to discrepancies between parent and adolescent perceptions of daily life topics. In a sample of 50 parents and adolescents ages 14-to-17 years (M = 15.4 years, 20 males, 54% African-American), parents and adolescents were each administered a widely used performance-based measure of emotion recognition. Parents and adolescents were also administered a structured interview designed to directly assess each of their perceptions of the extent to which discrepancies existed in their beliefs about daily life topics (e.g., whether adolescents should complete their homework and carry out household chores). Interestingly, lower parent and adolescent emotion recognition performance significantly related to greater parent and adolescent perceived discrepant beliefs about daily life topics. We observed this relation whilst accounting for adolescent age and gender and levels of parent-adolescent conflict. These findings have important implications for understanding and using informant discrepancies in both basic developmental psychopathology research and applied research in clinic settings (e.g., discrepant views on therapeutic goals). PMID:23504303
Poulou, Maria S.
Trait emotional intelligence construct shifted the interest in personality research to the investigation of the effect of global personality characteristics on behaviour. The Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) movement emphasised the cultivation of social skills for positive relationships. In this paper we investigate the role of students' global…
Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.
The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on their self-consciousness, internalizing problems, and the quality of their best friendship. Results indicated stronger associations between private self-consciousness and internalizing correlates than between public self-consciousness and internalizing problems, suggesting that private self-consciousness may be a stronger risk factor during adolescence. Contrary to expectations, evidence revealed that positive friendship quality may exacerbate some difficulties associated with self-consciousness. Results pertaining to friendship quality add to the growing literature on the ways in which friendships can contribute to adjustment difficulties. PMID:19998530
Gust, Nicole; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz
The present study examines the relation between knowledge of emotion regulation strategies and social behavior in preschoolers. Knowledge of emotion regulation strategies of 210 children (mean age 55 months) was assessed. Teachers rated children's social behavior with SDQ. Linear regression analysis examined how knowledge of emotion regulation strategies influenced social behavior of children. Significant effects of gender on SDQ scales "prosocial behavior", "hyperactivity", "behavior problems", and SDQ total problem scale were identified. Age was a significant predictor of SDQ scales "prosocial behavior", "hyperactivity", "problems with peers" and SDQ total problem scale. Knowledge of emotion regulation strategies predicted SDQ total problem scores. Results suggest that deficits in knowledge of emotion regulation strategies are linked with increased problem behavior.
Daniel, William A., Jr.
Written to orient the physician and paramedical personnel to the adolescent patient, the book provides information concerning the changes of adolescence, and age-related problems and illnesses. Part 1 discusses the essence of adolescence by describing physical, mental, and emotional growth and development. Part 2, the major section, consists of 21…
Rose, Amanda J.; Smith, Rhiannon L.; Glick, Gary C.; Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.
This research highlights the critical role of gender in the context of problem talk and social support in adolescents' friendships. Early- and middle-adolescents' (N = 314 friend dyads; Ms = 13.01 and 16.03 years) conversations about problems were studied using observation and a short-term longitudinal design. Mean-level gender differences emerged…
Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawmeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Benton, Laura
There is equivocal evidence as to whether there is a deficit in recognising emotional expressions in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study compared emotion recognition in ASD in three types of emotion expression media (still image, dynamic image, auditory) across human stimuli (e.g. photo of a human face) and animated stimuli (e.g. cartoon face). Participants were 37 adolescents (age 11-16) with a diagnosis of ASD (33 male, 4 female). 42 males and 39 females served as typically developing, age-matched controls. Overall there was significant advantage for control groups over the ASD group for emotion recognition in human stimuli but not animated stimuli, across modalities. For static animated images specifically, those with ASD significantly outperformed controls. The findings are consistent with the ASD group using atypical explicit strategies.
García-Ael, Cristina; Cuadrado, Isabel; Molero, Fernando
From the perspective of the Think manager--think male, this study was conducted to examine the type of leadership role depending on gender in a sample of 158 Spanish adolescents -according to three types of leaders: "male middle leader", "female middle leader" and "middle leader in general". The kind of emotional expression (positive and negative) evoked by their leadership behaviors (task- and relationship- oriented) was also analyzed. Lastly, whether adolescents' sexist beliefs affected the attribution of traits and the emotional expression towards these leaders was examined. Results showed that task-oriented traits were more characteristic of the leadership role than relationship-oriented traits. Adolescents expressed more positive emotions towards a task-oriented leader and towards a leader behaving in ways associated with both task- and relationship- oriented styles, but only for men. Finally, hostile sexism predicted fewer task-oriented traits to female leaders, more negative affect towards task-oriented male leaders and towards counter-stereotypic leaders. These results were moderated by the sex of adolescents.
Flannery, Jessica E; Giuliani, Nicole R; Flournoy, John C; Pfeifer, Jennifer H
Adolescence is a sensitive period of social-affective development, characterized by biological, neurological, and social changes. The field currently conceptualizes these changes in terms of an imbalance between systems supporting reactivity and regulation, specifically nonlinear changes in reactivity networks and linear changes in regulatory networks. Previous research suggests that the labeling or reappraisal of emotion increases activity in lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), and decreases activity in amygdala relative to passive viewing of affective stimuli. However, past work in this area has relied heavily on paradigms using static, adult faces, as well as explicit regulation. In the current study, we assessed cross-sectional trends in neural responses to viewing and labeling dynamic peer emotional expressions in adolescent girls 10-23 years old. Our dynamic adolescent stimuli set reliably and robustly recruited key brain regions involved in emotion reactivity (medial orbital frontal cortex/ventral medial prefrontal cortex; MOFC/vMPFC, bilateral amygdala) and regulation (bilateral dorsal and ventral LPFC). However, contrary to the age-trends predicted by the dominant models in studies of risk/reward, the LPFC showed a nonlinear age trend across adolescence to labeling dynamic peer faces, whereas the MOFC/vMPFC showed a linear decrease with age to viewing dynamic peer faces. There were no significant age trends observed in the amygdala.
Kaplow, Julie B.; Gipson, Polly Y.; Horwitz, Adam G.; Burch, Bianca N.; King, Cheryl A.
Suicidal ideation substantially increases the odds of future suicide attempts, and suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents. A history of adverse life events has been linked with future suicidal ideation and attempts, although studies examining potential mediating variables have been scarce. One probable mediating mechanism is how the individual copes with adverse life events. For example, certain coping strategies appear to be more problematic than others in increasing future psychopathology, and emotional suppression in particular has been associated with poor mental health outcomes in adults and children. However, no studies to date have examined the potential mediating role of emotional suppression in the relation between adverse life events and suicidal thoughts/behavior in adolescence. The goal of the current study was to examine emotional suppression as a mediator in the relation between childhood adversity and future suicidal thoughts/behaviors in youth. A total of 625 participants, aged 14–19 years, seeking ER services were administered measures assessing adverse life events, coping strategies, suicidal ideation in the last 2 weeks, and suicide attempts in the last month. The results suggest that emotional suppression mediates the relation between adversity and both (1) suicidal thoughts and (2) suicide attempts above and beyond demographic variables and depressive symptoms. This study has important implications for interventions aimed at preventing suicidal thoughts and behavior in adolescents with histories of adversity. PMID:23412949
Boniel-Nissim, Meyran; Barak, Azy
Research shows that writing a personal diary is a valuable therapeutic means for relieving emotional distress and promoting well-being, and that diary writing during adolescence helps in coping with developmental challenges. Current technologies and cultural trends make it possible and normative to publish personal diaries on the Internet through blogs--interactive, online forms of the traditional personal diary. We examined the therapeutic value of blogging for adolescents who experience social-emotional difficulties. The field experiment included randomly assigned adolescents, preassessed as having social-emotional difficulties, to 6 groups (26-28 participants in each): Four groups were assigned to blogging (writing about their difficulties or free writing; either open or closed to responses), a group assigned to writing a diary on personal computers, and a no-treatment control group. Participants in the 5 writing groups were instructed to post messages at least twice a week over 10 weeks. Outcome measures included scales of social-emotional difficulties and self-esteem, a social activities checklist, and textual analyses of participants' posts. Measurement took place at pre- and postintervention and at follow-up 2 months later. Results showed that participants maintaining a blog significantly improved on all measures. Participants writing about their difficulties in blogs open to responses gained the most. These results were consistent in the follow-up evaluation.
Burrell, Ginger Lockhart; Roosa, Mark W.
Concerns about the heightened prevalence of behavior problems among adolescents from low-income families have prompted researchers to understand processes through which economic variables influence functioning within multiple domains. Guided by a stress process framework and social contextual theory, this study examines processes linking perceived…
Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.
The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…
Chiu, Eddie Yu-Wai; Woo, Kent
This preliminary study examined the characteristics and risk factors of problem gambling among Chinese American adolescents. A total of 192 Chinese American students (aged 13-19) from 9th to 12th grades were recruited from three high schools in San Francisco, California. Students were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for…
Grimes, Jeff, Ed.; Thomas, Alex, Ed.
This document contains articles addressing a variety of psychological and behavioral problems of adolescents and children and is intended as a resource tool for school psychologists. Articles include background information, approaches regarding assessment of the behavior of concern, intervention possibilities, monitoring methods, and references.…
Jenson, Jeffrey M.
Recent advances in the field of prevention have led to a deeper understanding of the causes of adolescent problem behavior and to the identification of efficacious strategies to prevent delinquency, drug use, and other antisocial conduct. This 2009 Aaron Rosen lecture to members of the "Society for Social Work and Research" traces the evolution of…
Grimes, Jeff, Ed.
This document, intended as a resource for school psychologists, contains articles addressing a variety of psychological and behavioral problems of children and adolescents. Each chapter includes the following content: background information concerning the specific topic, approaches for assessing the behavior of concern, intervention possibilities,…
National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2011
This report finds that adolescent smoking, drinking, misusing prescription drugs and using illegal drugs is, by any measure, a public health problem of epidemic proportion, presenting clear and present danger to millions of America's teenagers and severe and expensive long-range consequences for the entire population. This report is a wake-up call…
Hoffman, John P.
A number of models have been proposed to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescent problem behaviors, including several that consider parent-child relations, family income, stress, and residential mobility. However, studies have not explored whether the different types of communities within which families reside affect the…
Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S.; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.
This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a…
This paper attempts to account for the upsurge of adolescents' problem behavior in high-income countries in terms of Lifton's paradigm of symbolic immortality. Whilst most of the works dealing with this subject focus on the level of the individual adolescent and his or her surrounding, Lifton shows that societal processes can affect the individual. Drawing upon his approach, it was argued that desymbolization,--the collapse of society's symbols system--produces "divided selves," individuals who harbor an 'aggressor-victim double' in their psyche, wherein an internal conflict between the aggressor and the victim engenders self-destructive impulses. In this study it is hypothesized that problem behaviors are external manifestations of underlying self-destructiveness. Thirty-four Jewish-Israeli adolescents involved in sexual promiscuity, drug abuse, anorexia nervosa, and violence were interviewed. It was found that despite individual and social dissimilarities, and the different problem behaviors, the participants were marked by inner-directed destructiveness as well as a sense of meaninglessness of life and lack of symbolic relationship to what transcends their here-and-now selves. Significantly, violent adolescents whose aggression is other-directed were found to be marked by underlying self-directed aggression as well. If the findings of this study are representative of Israeli society at large or of other affluent societies, then the epidemic proportions of youth problem behavior may indicate that these societies are undergoing desymbolization, a psychocultural breakdown.
Pérez, Silvia; Peñate, Wenceslao; Bethencourt, Juan M; Fumero, Ascensión
It is well-known that traumatic events and adverse life situations are very important in both physical and psychological health. Prevalence studies suggested that adolescents experience at least one potentially traumatic event before reaching age 18. The paradigm of research centered on expressive writing has evidenced the beneficial effects that the emotional disclosure of previous traumas produces on physical health and psychological adjustment. The aims of the study are threefold: determining the prevalence of adverse or traumatic events; examining the extent to which psychopathological symptoms developed in those exposed to traumatic events; and exploring an verbal emotional disclosure (VED) paradigm in which variations on time spent talking about traumatic experiences to others resulted in a reduction of the psychological impact of trauma in a sample of Spanish adolescents. 422 volunteer adolescents participated, 226 boys and 192 girls, from 10 to 19 years old, all of them living in Tenerife. The mean age was 14.8 years (SD = 1.83). All of them completed the instruments used to assess the psychological impact of traumatic experiences and VED. The main results indicated that 77% of the participants had suffered a traumatic situation. The participants who have been exposed to traumatic events scored significantly higher in measures of post-traumatic stress, disorder, intrusive thoughts, avoidance behaviors, anxiety and depression, compared to those without trauma. Furthermore, results show a decrease in symptomatology scores as a function of time spent disclosing emotional experiences to others, particularly when disclosure occurred several times. In conclusion, stressful events or traumatic experiences and their concomitant emotional effects are highly prevalent in adolescents, and repeated VED to others appears to ameliorate their impact. VED shows greater therapeutic benefits when adolescents narrate the experience on several occasions and in an extensive way.
Pérez, Silvia; Peñate, Wenceslao; Bethencourt, Juan M.; Fumero, Ascensión
It is well-known that traumatic events and adverse life situations are very important in both physical and psychological health. Prevalence studies suggested that adolescents experience at least one potentially traumatic event before reaching age 18. The paradigm of research centered on expressive writing has evidenced the beneficial effects that the emotional disclosure of previous traumas produces on physical health and psychological adjustment. The aims of the study are threefold: determining the prevalence of adverse or traumatic events; examining the extent to which psychopathological symptoms developed in those exposed to traumatic events; and exploring an verbal emotional disclosure (VED) paradigm in which variations on time spent talking about traumatic experiences to others resulted in a reduction of the psychological impact of trauma in a sample of Spanish adolescents. 422 volunteer adolescents participated, 226 boys and 192 girls, from 10 to 19 years old, all of them living in Tenerife. The mean age was 14.8 years (SD = 1.83). All of them completed the instruments used to assess the psychological impact of traumatic experiences and VED. The main results indicated that 77% of the participants had suffered a traumatic situation. The participants who have been exposed to traumatic events scored significantly higher in measures of post-traumatic stress, disorder, intrusive thoughts, avoidance behaviors, anxiety and depression, compared to those without trauma. Furthermore, results show a decrease in symptomatology scores as a function of time spent disclosing emotional experiences to others, particularly when disclosure occurred several times. In conclusion, stressful events or traumatic experiences and their concomitant emotional effects are highly prevalent in adolescents, and repeated VED to others appears to ameliorate their impact. VED shows greater therapeutic benefits when adolescents narrate the experience on several occasions and in an extensive way
Tarullo, Amanda R; Youssef, Adriana; Frenn, Kristin A; Wiik, Kristen; Garvin, Melissa C; Gunnar, Megan R
Internationally adopted postinstitutionalized (PI) children are at risk for lower levels of emotion understanding. This study examined how postadoption parenting influences emotion understanding and whether lower levels of emotion understanding are associated with behavior problems. Emotion understanding and parent mental state language were assessed in 3-year-old internationally adopted PI children (N = 25), and comparison groups of children internationally adopted from foster care (N = 25) and nonadopted (NA) children (N = 36). At 5.5-year follow-up, PI children had lower levels of emotion understanding than NA children, a group difference not explained by language. In the total sample, parent mental state language at age 3 years predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding after controlling for child language ability. The association of parent mental state language and 5.5-year emotion understanding was moderated by adoption status, such that parent mental state language predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding for the internationally adopted children, but not for the NA children. While postadoption experience does not erase negative effects of early deprivation on emotion understanding, results suggest that parents can promote emotion understanding development through mental state talk. At 5.5 years, PI children had more internalizing and externalizing problems than NA children, and these behavioral problems related to lower levels of emotion understanding.
Peh, Chao Xu; Shahwan, Shazana; Fauziana, Restria; Mahesh, Mithila V; Sambasivam, Rajeswari; Zhang, YunJue; Ong, Say How; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
Although child maltreatment exposure is a recognized risk factor for self-harm, mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Self-harm may function as a compensatory strategy to regulate distressing emotions. This cross-sectional study examines if emotion dysregulation mediates between the severity of maltreatment exposure and self-harm, adjusting for demographic variables and depressive symptoms. Participants were 108 adolescent patients recruited from a psychiatric hospital in Singapore (mean age 17.0 years, SD=1.65; 59.3% female). Study measures included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF), Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8). Path analysis was conducted to examine the direct and indirect effects of maltreatment exposure on self-harm via emotion dysregulation, controlling for demographic variables and depressive symptoms. Indirect effects were tested using bootstrapped confidence intervals (CI). Results showed that self-harm was highly prevalent in our sample (75.9%). Emotion dysregulation and depressive symptoms were found to be associated with higher self-harm frequency. In addition, results from path analysis showed that the association between the severity of maltreatment exposure and self-harm frequency was significantly mediated by emotion dysregulation B=0.07, p<0.05, 95% CI [0.02, 0.16]. Thus, emotion dysregulation may be a proximal mechanism linking maltreatment exposure and adolescent self-harm. Notably, self-harm may represent maladaptive attempts to manage emotion dysregulation that may have resulted from maltreatment. Findings from the study have implications for the prevention and treatment of self-harm in maltreated youth.
Coyne, Lisa W.; Thompson, Alysha D.
Childhood internalizing problems may occur as early as preschool, tend to be stable over time, and undermine social and academic functioning. Parent emotion regulatory behaviors may contribute to child internalizing problems and may be especially important during the preschool years when parents model emotion coping and regulation for their…
Mekonnen, Mulat; Hannu, Savolainen; Elina, Lehtomäki; Matti, Kuorelahti
This study compares the socio-emotional problems experienced by deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students with those of hearing students in Ethiopia. The research involved a sample of 103 grade 4 students attending a special school for the deaf, a special class for the deaf and a regular school. Socio-emotional problems were measured using Goodman's…
Menting, Barbara; Koot, Hans; van Lier, Pol
Difficulties in peer acceptance during elementary school have been associated with emotional and behavioural problems. This study used a randomized controlled intervention design to test whether improvements in peer acceptance mediated reduced rates of emotional and behavioural problems in intervention compared to control-group children. A total…
Eisenberg, Nancy; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Fabes, Richard A.; Shepard, Stephanie; Losoya, Sandra; Murphy, Bridget C.; Jones, Sarah; Paulin, Rick; Reiser, Mark
Examined the moderating role of individual differences in negative emotionality in the relations of behavioral and attentional regulation to externalizing problem behaviors. Found that at two ages behavioral dysregulation predicted externalizing behavior problems for children both high and low in negative emotionality, whereas prediction of…
Magallón-Neri, Ernesto; Kirchner-Nebot, Teresa; Forns-Santacana, Maria; Calderón, Caterina; Planellas, Irina
AIM To analyze the viability of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) for measuring the mental states associated with psychopathological problems in adolescents. METHODS In a sample of 110 adolescents, a sociodemographic data survey and an EMA Smartphone application over a one-week period (five times each day), was developed to explore symptom profiles, everyday problems, coping strategies, and the contexts in which the events take place. RESULTS The positive response was 68.6%. Over 2250 prompts about mental states were recorded. In 53% of situations the smartphone was answered at home, 25.5% of cases they were with their parents or with peers (20.3%). Associations were found with attention, affective and anxiety problems (P < 0.001) in the participants who took longer to respond to the EMA app. Anxious and depressive states were highly interrelated (rho = 0.51, P < 0.001), as well as oppositional defiant problems and conduct problems (rho = 0.56, P < 0.001). Only in 6.2% of the situations the subjects perceived they had problems, mainly associated with inter-relational aspects with family, peers, boyfriends or girlfriends (31.2%). We also found moderate-high reliability on scales of satisfaction level on the context, on positive emotionality, and on the discomfort index associated with mental health problems. CONCLUSION EMA methodology using smartphones is a useful tool for understanding adolescents’ daily dynamics. It achieved moderate-high reliability and accurately identified psychopathological manifestations experienced by community adolescents in their natural context. PMID:27679769
Cheah, Charissa S L; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Leung, Christy Y Y
The present study examined the mediating role of perceived parental warmth and support in predicting Chinese Malaysian adolescents' filial behaviors from their age, perceived parental investments, and positive filial emotions toward their parents. The effects of these predictors were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Participants included 122 Chinese adolescents (M = 13.14 years; SD = 2.22) in Malaysia. Adolescents' perceived parental investments, filial emotions, and warmth and support from each parent were positively, and age was negatively associated with their filial behaviors. No gender differences were found. Perceived maternal warmth and support significantly mediated the effect of age, perceived investments from, and filial emotions toward mothers on adolescents' filial behaviors, but perceived paternal warmth and support did not have a mediating role. The present study sheds light on the unique maternal versus paternal filial role, and important familial processes in Chinese-Malaysian children and adolescents from a cultural perspective.
Barbalat, Guillaume; Bazargani, Narges; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne
Prior expectations influence the way incoming stimuli are processed. A standard, validated way of manipulating prior expectations is to bias participants to perceive a stimulus by instructing them to look out for this type of stimulus. Here, we investigated the influence of prior expectations on the processing of incoming stimuli (emotional faces) in adolescence. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed activity and functional connectivity in 13 adolescents and 13 healthy adults (matched for gender and intelligence quotient), while they were presented with sequences of emotional faces (happy, fearful, or angry). A specific instruction at the start of each sequence instructed the participants to look out for fearful or angry faces in the subsequent sequence. Both groups responded more accurately and with shorter reaction times (RTs) to faces that were congruent with the instruction. For anger, this bias was lower in the adolescents (for RTs), and adults demonstrated greater activation than adolescents in the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) and greater functional connectivity between the vMPFC and the thalamus when the face was congruent with the instruction. Our results demonstrate that the influence of prior expectations (in the form of an instruction) on the subsequent processing of face stimuli is still developing in the adolescent brain.
Delgado-Rico, Elena; Río-Valle, Jacqueline S; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Campoy, Cristina; Verdejo-García, Antonio
Adolescent obesity is increasingly viewed as a brain-related dysfunction, whereby reward-driven urges for pleasurable foods "hijack" response selection systems, such that behavioral control progressively shifts from impulsivity to compulsivity. In this study, we aimed to examine the link between personality factors (sensitivity to reward (SR) and punishment (SP), BMI, and outcome measures of impulsivity vs. flexibility in--otherwise healthy--excessive weight adolescents. Sixty-three adolescents (aged 12-17) classified as obese (n = 26), overweight (n = 16), or normal weight (n = 21) participated in the study. We used psychometric assessments of the SR and SP motivational systems, impulsivity (using the UPPS-P scale), and neurocognitive measures with discriminant validity to dissociate inhibition vs. flexibility deficits (using the process-approach version of the Stroop test). We tested the relative contribution of age, SR/SP, and BMI on estimates of impulsivity and inhibition vs. switching performance using multistep hierarchical regression models. BMI significantly predicted elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity (positive and negative urgency) and inferior flexibility performance in adolescents with excess weight--exceeding the predictive capacity of SR and SP. SR was the main predictor of elevations in sensation seeking and lack of premeditation. These findings demonstrate that increases in BMI are specifically associated with elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility, supporting a dimensional path in which adolescents with excess weight increase their proneness to overindulge when under strong affective states, and their difficulties to switch or reverse habitual behavioral patterns.
Herr, Nathaniel R; Rosenthal, M Zachary; Geiger, Paul J; Erikson, Karen
Problems with interpersonal functioning and difficulties with emotion regulation are core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Little is known, however, about the interrelationship between these areas of dysfunction in accounting for BPD symptom severity. The present study examines a model of the relationship between difficulties with emotion regulation and interpersonal dysfunction in a community sample of adults (n = 124) with the full range of BPD symptoms. Results showed that difficulties with emotion regulation fully mediated the relationship between BPD symptom severity and interpersonal dysfunction. An alternative model indicated that interpersonal problems partially mediated the relationship between difficulties with emotion regulation and BPD symptom severity. These findings support existing theories of BPD, which propose that difficulties with emotion regulation may account for the types of interpersonal problems experienced by individuals with BPD and suggest further examination of the possibility that interpersonal dysfunction may worsen these individuals' difficulties with emotion regulation.
Mason, W. Alex; January, Stacy-Ann A.; Fleming, Charles B.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Snyder, James J.
Adolescent problem behaviors are costly for individuals and society. Promoting the self-regulatory functioning of youth may help prevent the development of such behaviors. Parent-training and family intervention programs have been shown to improve child and adolescent self-regulation. This study helps fill gaps in knowledge by testing for indirect effects of the Common Sense Parenting® (CSP) program on reduced substance use, conduct problems, and school suspensions through previously identified short-term improvements in parents’ reports of their children’s emotion regulation skills. Over two cohorts, 321 low income families of 8th graders were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the standard CSP program, an adapted CSP Plus program, or a minimal-contact control condition. Pretest, posttest, 1-year follow-up, and 2-year follow-up survey assessments were completed by parents and students with 94% retention. Intent-to-treat multivariate path analyses were conducted. Neither intervention had statistically significant total effects on the three targeted adolescent outcomes. CSP, but not CSP Plus, had statistically significant indirect effects on reduced substance use and school suspensions at the 1-year follow-up as well as conduct problems and school suspensions at the 2-year follow-up through increased child emotion regulation skills at posttest. Findings provide some support for emotion regulation as one pathway through which the intervention was associated, indirectly, with reduced substance use, conduct problems, and school suspensions among at-risk students over the high school transition. PMID:26778871
Mason, W Alex; January, Stacy-Ann A; Fleming, Charles B; Thompson, Ronald W; Parra, Gilbert R; Haggerty, Kevin P; Snyder, James J
Adolescent problem behaviors are costly for individuals and society. Promoting the self-regulatory functioning of youth may help prevent the development of such behaviors. Parent-training and family intervention programs have been shown to improve child and adolescent self-regulation. This study helps fill gaps in knowledge by testing for indirect effects of the Common Sense Parenting(®) (CSP) program on reduced substance use, conduct problems, and school suspensions through previously identified short-term improvements in parents' reports of their children's emotion regulation skills. Over two cohorts, 321 low income families of 8(th) graders were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the standard CSP program, an adapted CSP Plus program, or a minimal-contact control condition. Pretest, posttest, 1-year follow-up, and 2-year follow-up survey assessments were completed by parents and students with 94% retention. Intent-to-treat multivariate path analyses were conducted. Neither intervention had statistically significant total effects on the three targeted adolescent outcomes. CSP, but not CSP Plus, had statistically significant indirect effects on reduced substance use and school suspensions at the 1-year follow-up as well as conduct problems and school suspensions at the 2-year follow-up through increased child emotion regulation skills at posttest. Findings provide some support for emotion regulation as one pathway through which the intervention was associated, indirectly, with reduced substance use, conduct problems, and school suspensions among at-risk students over the high school transition.
Han, Doug Hyun; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Kim, Bung Nyun; McMahon, William; Renshaw, Perry F
Studies of social dysfunction in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have generally focused on the perception of emotional words and facial affect. Brain imaging studies have suggested that the fusiform gyrus is associated with both the comprehension of language and face recognition. We hypothesized that patients with ASD would have decreased ability to recognize affect via emotional words and facial emoticons, relative to healthy comparison subjects. In addition, we expected that this decreased ability would be associated with altered activity of the fusiform gyrus in patients with ASD. Ten male adolescents with ASDs and ten age and sex matched healthy comparison subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. The diagnosis of autism was further evaluated with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Brain activity was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in response to emotional words and facial emoticon presentation. Sixty emotional words (45 pleasant words +15 unpleasant words) were extracted from a report on Korean emotional terms and their underlying dimensions. Sixty emoticon faces (45 pleasant faces +15 unpleasant faces) were extracted and modified from on-line sites. Relative to healthy comparison subjects, patients with ASD have increased activation of fusiform gyrus in response to emotional aspects of words. In contrast, patients with ASD have decreased activation of fusiform gyrus in response to facial emoticons, relative to healthy comparison subjects. We suggest that patients with ASD are more familiar with word descriptions than facial expression as depictions of emotion.
Bons, Danielle; van den Broek, Egon; Scheepers, Floor; Herpers, Pierre; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan K; Buitelaaar, Jan K
It is unclear which aspects of empathy are shared and which are uniquely affected in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD) as are the neurobiological correlates of these empathy impairments. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the overlap and specificity of motor, emotional, and cognitive aspects of empathy in children and adolescents with ASD or CD. Motor and cognitive empathy impairments are found in both ASD and CD, yet the specificity seems to differ. In ASD facial mimicry and emotion recognition may be impaired for all basic emotions, whereas in CD this is only the case for negative emotions. Emotional empathy and the role of attention to the eyes therein need further investigation. We hypothesize that impaired motor and cognitive empathy in both disorders are a consequence of lack of attention to the eyes. However, we hypothesize major differences in emotional empathy deficits between ASD and CD, probably due to emotional autonomic and amygdala hyper-responsivity in ASD versus hypo-responsivity in CD, both resulting in lack of attention to the eyes.
Kranzler, Amy; Young, Jami F; Hankin, Benjamin L; Abela, John R Z; Elias, Maurice J; Selby, Edward A
Research increasingly suggests that low emotional awareness may be associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety among children and adolescents. However, because most studies have been cross-sectional, it has remained unclear whether low emotional awareness predicts subsequent internalizing symptoms. The current study used longitudinal data to examine the role of emotional awareness as a transdiagnostic predictor of subsequent symptoms of depression and anxiety. Participants were 204 youth (86 boys and 118 girls) ages 7-16 who completed self-report measures of emotional awareness, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms at baseline, as well as measures of depression and anxiety symptoms every 3 months for a year. Results from hierarchical mixed effects modeling indicated that low baseline emotional awareness predicted both depressive and anxiety symptoms across a 1-year period. These findings suggest that emotional awareness may constitute a transdiagnostic factor, predicting symptoms of both depression and anxiety, and that emotional awareness training may be a beneficial component of treatment and prevention programs for youth depression and anxiety.
Kungl, Melanie T.; Leyh, Rainer; Spangler, Gottfried
Frontal and parietal asymmetries have repeatedly been shown to be related to specific functional mechanisms involved in emotion regulation. From a developmental perspective, attachment representations based on experiences with the caregiver are theorized to serve regulatory functions and influence how individuals deal with emotionally challenging situations throughout the life span. This study aimed to investigate neural substrates of emotion regulation by assessing state- and trait dependent EEG asymmetries in secure, insecure-dismissing and insecure-preoccupied subjects. The sample consisted of 40 late adolescents. The Adult Attachment Interview was administered and they were asked to report upon personally highly salient emotional memories related to anger, happiness and sadness. EEG was recorded at rest and during the retrieval of each of these emotional memories, and frontal and parietal hemispheric asymmetry were analyzed. We found attachment representations to differentially affect both the frontal and parietal organization of hemispheric asymmetry at rest and (for parietal region only) during the retrieval of emotional memories. During rest, insecure-dismissing subjects showed an elevated right-frontal brain activity and a reduced right-parietal brain activity. We interpret this finding in light of a disposition to use withdrawal strategies and low trait arousal in insecure-dismissing subjects. Emotional memory retrieval did not affect frontal asymmetry. However, both insecure groups showed an increase in right-sided parietal activity indicating increased arousal during the emotional task as compared to the resting state suggesting that their emotion regulation capability was especially challenged by the retrieval of emotional memories while securely attached subjects maintained a state of moderate arousal. The specific neurophysiological pattern of insecure-dismissing subjects is discussed with regard to a vulnerability to affective disorders. PMID
Kungl, Melanie T; Leyh, Rainer; Spangler, Gottfried
Frontal and parietal asymmetries have repeatedly been shown to be related to specific functional mechanisms involved in emotion regulation. From a developmental perspective, attachment representations based on experiences with the caregiver are theorized to serve regulatory functions and influence how individuals deal with emotionally challenging situations throughout the life span. This study aimed to investigate neural substrates of emotion regulation by assessing state- and trait dependent EEG asymmetries in secure, insecure-dismissing and insecure-preoccupied subjects. The sample consisted of 40 late adolescents. The Adult Attachment Interview was administered and they were asked to report upon personally highly salient emotional memories related to anger, happiness and sadness. EEG was recorded at rest and during the retrieval of each of these emotional memories, and frontal and parietal hemispheric asymmetry were analyzed. We found attachment representations to differentially affect both the frontal and parietal organization of hemispheric asymmetry at rest and (for parietal region only) during the retrieval of emotional memories. During rest, insecure-dismissing subjects showed an elevated right-frontal brain activity and a reduced right-parietal brain activity. We interpret this finding in light of a disposition to use withdrawal strategies and low trait arousal in insecure-dismissing subjects. Emotional memory retrieval did not affect frontal asymmetry. However, both insecure groups showed an increase in right-sided parietal activity indicating increased arousal during the emotional task as compared to the resting state suggesting that their emotion regulation capability was especially challenged by the retrieval of emotional memories while securely attached subjects maintained a state of moderate arousal. The specific neurophysiological pattern of insecure-dismissing subjects is discussed with regard to a vulnerability to affective disorders.
Thatcher, Dawn L.; Pajtek, Stefan; Tarter, Ralph; Long, Elizabeth C.; Clark, Duncan B.
Studies are needed that examine neurobiological characteristics in high risk individuals prior to substance use disorder (SUD) development. In this pilot study, 4 adolescent subjects at high risk (having at least 1 parent with a SUD) for SUD were compared with 4 adolescent reference subjects on a corticolimbic reactivity paradigm, where they were presented with affect-laden faces or geometric shapes. FMRI was used to measure cortical activation in response to these stimuli. High risk subjects, compared to low risk, exhibited greater left amygdala activation (t=3.60, df=6, p=0.01), suggesting they may exhibit hyper-responsivity of the amygdala in response to emotional stimuli. PMID:24748761
McLeod, Jane D; Uemura, Ryotaro; Rohrman, Shawna
Prior research on the association of mental health and behavior problems with academic achievement is limited because it does not consider multiple problems simultaneously, take co-occurring problems into account, and control for academic aptitude. We addressed these limitations using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,315). We estimated the associations of depression, attention problems, delinquency, and substance use with two indicators of academic achievement (high school GPA and highest degree received) with controls for academic aptitude. Attention problems, delinquency, and substance use were significantly associated with diminished achievement, but depression was not. Combinations of problems involving substance use were especially consequential. Our results demonstrate that the social consequences of mental health problems are not the inevitable result of diminished functional ability but, rather, reflect negative social responses. These results also encourage a broader perspective on mental health by demonstrating that behavior problems heighten the negative consequences of more traditional forms of distress.
D'Amico, Elizabeth J.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven; Klein, David J.
Objective: The current study explores three avenues in early young adulthood through which adolescent problems may be linked to later substance use problems: problematic substance use, failure to assume adult roles and responsibilities, and exposure to pro-drug social influences. Method: Participants (N = 1,986; 49% female) filled out surveys at…
Abdollahi, Abbas; Talib, Mansor Abu; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah
Smoking is the biggest threat to public health, and it remains a serious cause of death in the world. It even causes acute and chronic diseases in passive smokers. Remarkably, the age of the onset of cigarette smoking is decreasing. Therefore, it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the attitudes among adolescents toward cigarette…
Baum, Katherine T.; Desai, Anjali; Field, Julie; Miller, Lauren E.; Rausch, Joseph; Beebe, Dean W.
Background: The relationship between inadequate sleep and mood has been well-established in adults and is supported primarily by correlational data in younger populations. Given that adolescents often experience shortened sleep on school nights, we sought to better understand the effect of experimentally induced chronic sleep restriction on…
Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Winsper, Catherine; Tang, Nicole K Y; Wolke, Dieter
Sleep disorders, such as insomnia and nightmares, are commonly associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in adulthood. Whether nightmares and sleep-onset and maintenance problems predate BPD symptoms earlier in development is unknown. We addressed this gap in the literature using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Participants included 6050 adolescents (51.4 % female) who completed the UK Childhood Interview for DSM-IV BPD at 11 to 12 years of age. Nightmares and sleep onset and maintenance problems were prospectively assessed via mother report when children were 2.5, 3.5, 4.8 and 6.8 years of age. Psychopathological (i.e., emotional temperament; psychiatric diagnoses; and emotional and behavioural problems) and psychosocial (i.e., abuse, maladaptive parenting, and family adversity) confounders were assessed via mother report. In logistic regressions, persistent nightmares (i.e., regular nightmares at 3 or more time-points) were significantly associated with BPD symptoms following adjustment for sleep onset and maintenance problems and all confounders (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.62; 95 % Confidence Interval = 1.12 to 2.32). Persistent sleep onset and maintenance problems were not significantly associated with BPD symptoms. In path analysis controlling for all associations between confounders, persistent nightmares independently predicted BPD symptoms (Probit co-efficient [β] = 0.08, p = 0.013). Emotional and behavioural problems significantly mediated the association between nightmares and BPD (β =0.016, p < 0.001), while nightmares significantly mediated associations between emotional temperament (β = 0.001, p = 0.018), abuse (β = 0.015, p = 0.018), maladaptive parenting (β = 0.002, p = 0.021) and subsequent BPD. These findings tentatively support that childhood nightmares may potentially increase the risk of BPD symptoms in early adolescence via a number of aetiological pathways. If
Lee, Tiffany T-Y; Gorzalka, Boris B
Adolescence is a period characterized by many distinct physical, behavioral, and neural changes during the transition from child- to adulthood. In particular, adolescent neural changes often confer greater plasticity and flexibility, yet with this comes the potential for heightened vulnerability to external perturbations such as stress exposure or recreational drug use. There is substantial evidence to suggest that factors such as adolescent stress exposure have longer lasting and sometimes more deleterious effects on an organism than stress exposure during adulthood. Moreover, the adolescent neuroendocrine response to stress exposure is different from that of adults, suggesting that further maturation of the adolescent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is required. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is a potential candidate underlying these age-dependent differences given that it is an important regulator of the adult HPA axis and neuronal development. Therefore, this review will focus on (1) the functionality of the adolescent HPA axis, (2) eCB regulation of the adult HPA axis, (3) dynamic changes in eCB signaling during the adolescent period, (4) the effects of adolescent stress exposure on the eCB system, and (5) modulation of HPA axis activity and emotional behavior by adolescent cannabinoid treatment. Collectively, the emerging picture suggests that the eCB system mediates interactions between HPA axis stress responsivity, emotionality, and maturational stage. These findings may be particularly relevant to our understanding of the development of affective disorders and the risks of adolescent cannabis consumption on emotional health and stress responsivity.
Larson, Reed; Richards, Maryse H.
Detailing experiences of real families, this book attempts to capture the emotional drama inherent in daily family life. The study that preceded the book involved 55 mostly white, middle- and working-class Chicago-area families who reported on random, everyday moments in their families' lives. The experience sampling method (ESM) was the research…
Thomas, Laura A.; De Bellis, Michael D.; Graham, Reiko; Labar, Kevin S.
The ability to interpret emotions in facial expressions is crucial for social functioning across the lifespan. Facial expression recognition develops rapidly during infancy and improves with age during the preschool years. However, the developmental trajectory from late childhood to adulthood is less clear. We tested older children, adolescents…
Lashbrook, Jeffrey T.
Using a framework drawn from recent social psychological work on shame and related feelings, this study collected qualitative data from twelve college students. Findings indicate that negative emotions play a role in peer influence, particularly feelings of inadequacy and isolation, as well as feeling ridiculed, all of which are indicative of…
Kuusikko, Sanna; Haapsamo, Helena; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Hurtig, Tuula; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Jussila, Katja; Bolte, Sven; Moilanen, Irma
We examined upper facial basic emotion recognition in 57 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (M = 13.5 years) and 33 typically developing controls (M = 14.3 years) by using a standardized computer-aided measure (The Frankfurt Test and Training of Facial Affect Recognition, FEFA). The ASD group scored lower than controls on the total…
Ferreira-Bacci, Adriana do Vale; Cardoso, Carmen Lúcia Cardoso; Díaz-Serrano, Kranya Victoria
Bruxism has a multifactorial etiology, and psychosocial factors have been considered to increase the risk of occurrence of this parafunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior profile of a group of children diagnosed with bruxism. Eighty 7-11-year-old children of both genders (mean age 8.8 years) first recruited as eligible participants. Twenty-nine children (18 males and 11 females) whose parents/guardians reported to present frequent episodes of tooth grinding/clenching while awake or during sleep (at least 3 nights a week) in the previous 3 months were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of bruxism was established based on the parents/guardians' report about the children's behavior, habits and possible discomforts in the components of the stomatognathic system allied to the presence of signs and symptoms such as pain on the masticatory muscles, masseter muscle hypertrophy, wear facets, fractures of restorations, dental impressions on the cheek mucosa and tongue. As part of the psychological evaluation, the Rutter's Child Behavior Scale-A2 was applied to the parents/caregivers (one for each child) and the Child Stress Scale was applied to the children. Data were analyzed descriptively based on the frequency of each studied variable. Twenty-four (82.76%) children needed psychological or psychiatric intervention; 17 of them presented neurotic disorders and 7 children presented antisocial disorders. Six (20.70%) children presented significant physical and psychological manifestations of stress. The findings of the present study suggest that behavioral problems and potential emotional problems can be risk factors to bruxism in children.
Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wilson, Anna C.; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa
The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point…
Huber, Maria; Burger, Thorsten; Illg, Angelika; Kunze, Silke; Giourgas, Alexandros; Braun, Ludwig; Kröger, Stefanie; Nickisch, Andreas; Rasp, Gerhard; Becker, Andreas; Keilmann, Annerose
The aims of the present multi-center study were to investigate the extent of mental health problems in adolescents with a hearing loss and cochlear implants (CIs) in comparison to normal hearing (NH) peers and to investigate possible relations between the extent of mental health problems of young CI users and hearing variables, such as age at implantation, or functional gain of CI. The survey included 140 adolescents with CI (mean age = 14.7, SD = 1.5 years) and 140 NH adolescents (mean age = 14.8, SD = 1.4 years), their parents and teachers. Participants were matched by age, gender and social background. Within the CI group, 35 adolescents were identified as “risk cases” due to possible and manifest additional handicaps, and 11 adolescents were non-classifiable. Mental health problems were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the versions “Self,” “Parent,” and “Teacher.” The CI group showed significantly more “Peer Problems” than the NH group. When the CI group was split into a “risk-group” (35 “risk cases” and 11 non-classifiable persons) and a “non-risk group” (n = 94), increased peer problems were perceived in both CI subgroups by adolescents themselves. However, no further differences between the CI non-risk group and the NH group were observed in any rater. The CI risk-group showed significantly more hyperactivity compared to the NH group and more hyperactivity and conduct problems compared to the CI non-risk group. Cluster analyses confirmed that there were significantly more adolescents with high problems in the CI risk-group compared to the CI non-risk group and the NH group. Adolescents with CI, who were able to understand speech in noise had significantly less difficulties compared to constricted CI users. Parents, teachers, and clinicians should be aware that CI users with additionally special needs may have mental health problems. However, peer problems were also experienced by CI
David-Ferdon, Corinne; Hertz, Marci Feldman
Adolescents' access to and use of new media technology (e.g., cell phone, personal data assistant, computer for Internet access) are on the rise, and this explosion of technology brings with it potential benefits and risks. Attention is growing about the risk of adolescents to become victims of aggression perpetrated by peers with new technology. In September 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a panel of experts in technology and youth aggression to examine this specific risk. This special issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health presents the data and recommendations for future directions discussed at the meeting. The articles in the Journal support the argument that electronic aggression is an emerging public health problem in need of additional prevalence and etiological research to support the development and evaluation of effective prevention programs.
Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra
The provision and receipt of emotion work-defined as intentional activities done to promote another's emotional well-being-are central dimensions of marriage. However, emotion work in response to physical health problems is a largely unexplored, yet likely important, aspect of the marital experience. We analyze dyadic in-depth interviews with husbands and wives in 21 mid- to later-life couples to examine the ways that health-impaired people and their spouses provide, interpret, and explain emotion work. Because physical health problems, emotion work, and marital dynamics are gendered, we consider how these processes differ for women and men. We find that wives provide emotion work regardless of their own health status. Husbands provide emotion work less consistently, typically only when the husbands see themselves as their wife's primary source of stability or when the husbands view their marriage as balanced. Notions of traditional masculinity preclude some husbands from providing emotion work even when their wife is health-impaired. This study articulates emotion work around physical health problems as one factor that sustains and exacerbates gender inequalities in marriage with implications for emotional and physical well-being.
Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra
The provision and receipt of emotion work—defined as intentional activities done to promote another’s emotional well-being—are central dimensions of marriage. However, emotion work in response to physical health problems is a largely unexplored, yet likely important, aspect of the marital experience. We analyze dyadic in-depth interviews with husbands and wives in 21 mid-to later-life couples to examine the ways that health-impaired people and their spouses provide, interpret, and explain emotion work. Because physical health problems, emotion work, and marital dynamics are gendered, we consider how these processes differ for women and men. We find that wives provide emotion work regardless of their own health status. Husbands provide emotion work less consistently, typically only when the husbands see themselves as their wife’s primary source of stability or when the husbands view their marriage as balanced. Notions of traditional masculinity preclude some husbands from providing emotion work even when their wife is health-impaired. This study articulates emotion work around physical health problems as one factor that sustains and exacerbates gender inequalities in marriage with implications for emotional and physical well-being. PMID:25661852
Cooley, Shelby; Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie
This article examines children's moral judgments and emotional evaluations in the context of social exclusion. As they age, children and adolescents face increasingly complex situations in which group membership and allegiance are in opposition with morally relevant decisions, such as the exclusion of an individual from a group. While adolescents are often characterized as being conformists to group norms, research demonstrates that their judgments about fairness, justice, and rights can supersede negative or exclusive norms espoused by groups. Additionally, young people's emotional evaluations of members who do not conform to a group norm are in concert with these fairness judgments. Implications for social and moral development will be discussed in the context of empirical findings.
Cooley, Shelby; Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie
This chapter examines children's moral judgments and emotional evaluations in the context of social exclusion. With age, children and adolescents face increasingly complex situations in which group membership and allegiance are in contrast to morally relevant decisions, such as the exclusion of a individual from a group 16. While adolescents are often characterized as being conformists to group norms, research demonstrates that youth's judgments about fairness, justice, and rights can supersede negative or exclusive norms espoused by groups. Additionally, youth's emotional evaluations of members who do not conform to a group norm are in concert with these fairness judgments. Implications for social and moral development will be discussed in the context of empirical findings. PMID:23359443
Huang, Heqing; Su, Yanjie
Previous studies have found mixed results on the relationship between empathy and peer acceptance. Emotional and cognitive components of empathy were hypothesised to play different roles in peer acceptance, and the relationship between empathy and peer acceptance differed across genders. In this study, 375 Chinese adolescents completed self-report measures of emotional and cognitive empathy. They also provided peer nominations that allowed for the determination of social preference and social impact scores. The results showed that a boy's cognitive empathy positively correlated with the extent to which he was liked by his male classmates, whereas a girl's cognitive empathy positively correlated with her social impact among her female classmates. This study suggests that empathy does not affect peer acceptance among adolescents uniformly; instead, gender plays a determinative role in the dialectics between social acceptance and empathy.
Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others
Compares the extent to which adolescents worry about nuclear war to their frequency of worry about other issues. Looks at the empirical relationships among worry and grade level, gender, trait emotionality, and drug use. Results indicate that adolescents worry more often about school performance and social interactions than about nuclear war.…
Reddy, Linda A.; Newman, Erik; De Thomas, Courtney Anne; Chun, Victoria
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of school-based prevention and intervention programs for children and adolescents at-risk for and with emotional disturbance. Published outcome studies (k = 29) from December, 1988, to March, 2006, including 1405 children and adolescents were reviewed. Each investigation was coded on several variables…
Gomez-Baya, Diego; Mendoza, Ramon; Paino, Susana
Research to date has identified various risk factors in the emergence of depressive disorders in adolescence. There are very few studies, however, which have analyzed the role of perceived emotional intelligence in depressive symptoms longitudinally during adolescence. This work aimed to analyze longitudinal relationships between perceived…
Hong, Zuway R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.
The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents' positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group.…
Betts, Jennifer; Gullone, Eleonora; Allen, J. Sabura
Given that depression is a debilitating disorder, it is critical that we advance our understanding about the aetiology of this disorder. This study investigated both traditional (temperament and parenting) and novel (emotion regulation strategy) risk factors associated with adolescent depression. Forty-four adolescents (12-16 years; 64% females)…
Woodward, L J; Fergusson, D M
Using prospective longitudinal data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, this paper examined the relationship between teacher reported peer relationship problems at age 9 and psychosocial adjustment in late adolescence. Results showed that, by age 18, children with high rates of early peer relationship problems were at increased risk of externalizing behavior problems such as criminal offending and substance abuse, but were not at increased risk of anxiety disorder or major depression. Subsequent analyses revealed that these associations were largely explained by the effects of child and family factors associated with both early peer relationship problems and later adjustment. The most influential variable in explaining associations between peer relationship problems and later adjustment was the extent of children's early conduct problems. These results suggest that reported associations between early peer problems and later adjustment are noncausal, and appear to reflect underlying continuities in behavioral adjustment.
Grossman, Ruth B.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen
Data on emotion processing by individuals with ASD suggest both intact abilities and significant deficits. Signal intensity may be a contributing factor to this discrepancy. We presented low- and high-intensity emotional stimuli in a face-voice matching task to 22 adolescents with ASD and 22 typically developing (TD) peers. Participants heard…
Bridges, Lisa J.; Margie, Nancy Geyelin; Zaff, Jonathan F.
This paper reviews the research literature on factors contributing to adolescent emotional well-being, focusing on generalized mood/affective states, emotion regulation and coping, and feelings about self, including self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control. Each construct is defined and evidence from research is presented to indicate the…
Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.
This study examined relations among emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 122 boys from low-income families who participated in a summer camp and were followed longitudinally from early childhood to early adolescence. Emotional self-regulation strategies were coded in early childhood from a waiting task,…
Wagner, Jennifer B.; Hirsch, Suzanna B.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Redcay, Elizabeth; Nelson, Charles A.
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty with social-emotional cues. This study examined the neural, behavioral, and autonomic correlates of emotional face processing in adolescents with ASD and typical development (TD) using eye-tracking and event-related potentials (ERPs) across two different paradigms. Scanning of…
Lam, Un Fong; Chen, Wei-Wen; Zhang, Jingqi; Liang, Ting
This study examined the relationships between school belonging, academic emotions, and academic achievement in Macau adolescents. A survey of 406 junior high school students in Macau was used to collect information on the extent to which these students felt accepted and respected in their schools (school belonging), the emotions they experienced…
Hershenberg, Rachel; Davila, Joanne; Yoneda, Athena; Starr, Lisa R.; Miller, Melissa Ramsay; Stroud, Catherine B.; Feinstein, Brian A.
Because the ability to flexibly experience and appropriately express emotions across a range of developmentally relevant contexts is crucial to adaptive functioning, we examined how adolescent attachment security may be related to more functional emotional behavior during a relationship promoting interaction task. Data were collected from 74 early…
Sugden, Karen; Arseneault, Louise; Harrington, HonaLee; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Williams, Benjamin; Caspi, Avshalom
Objective Bullying is the act of intentionally and repeatedly causing harm to someone who has difficulty defending him or herself, and is a relatively wide-spread school-age phenomenon. Being the victim of bullying is associated with a broad spectrum of emotional problems; however, not all children who are bullied go on to develop such problems. Method We tested the hypothesis that the relationship between bullying victimization and emotional problems was moderated by variation in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene in 2,232 British children comprising the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) study cohort. Results Our data supported the hypothesis that children's bullying victimization leads to their developing emotional problems, and that genetic variation in the 5-HTTLPR moderates this relationship. Specifically, frequently bullied children with the SS genotype were at greater risk of developing emotional problems at age 12 than children with the SL or LL genotype. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this genetic moderation persisted (a) after controlling for children's pre-victimization emotional problems by assessing intra-individual change in problems between ages 5 and 12 years, and (b) after controlling for other risk factors shared by children growing up in the same family by comparing emotional problems in twins discordant for bullying victimization. Conclusions These findings are further evidence that the 5-HTTLPR moderates the risk of emotional disturbance after exposure to stressful events. PMID:20643316
Speed, Brittany C; Nelson, Brady D; Perlman, Greg; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman; Hajcak, Greg
Neuroticism and extraversion are multifaceted affective-laden personality traits that have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Research and theory have argued that extraversion, and particularly its facet positive emotionality, is specific to MDD, while neuroticism is common across internalizing disorders. Converging evidence has suggested that MDD is associated with reduced engagement with emotional stimuli, but it remains unclear whether either extraversion, neuroticism, or both modulate reactivity to emotional cues. The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related brain potential that is uniquely suited to assess engagement with emotional stimuli because it reflects sustained attention toward emotional content. The current study examined the LPP in relation to personality traits that may confer risk for depression by examining the relationship between the LPP and both neuroticism and extraversion in never-depressed adolescent girls. Specifically, 550 girls aged 13.5-15.5 with no lifetime history of depression completed an emotional picture-viewing task, and the LPP was measured in response to neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. Personality traits were gathered via self- and informant report. Results indicated that high extraversion was associated with a potentiated LPP to emotional pictures-and this effect was accounted for by positive emotionality in particular. In contrast, there was no association between the LPP and neuroticism or its facets. The present study is one of the first to demonstrate that extraversion is associated with variation in neural indices of emotional picture processing, similar to what has been observed among individuals with depression and at high risk for depression.
Kelly, Nichole R.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Vannucci, Anna; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Altschul, Annie M.; Schvey, Natasha A.; Shank, Lisa M.; Brady, Sheila M.; Galescu, Ovidiu; Kozlosky, Merel; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.
Objective To examine the associations among self-reported loss-of-control (LOC) eating, emotion dysregulation, body mass, and objective energy intake among youth. Emotion dysregulation may be one individual factor that promotes excess energy intake and increases in body mass among youth with LOC eating. Methods Children and adolescents (N=230; 8 to 17 years) enrolled in a non-intervention study completed a structured interview to determine the presence or absence of self-reported LOC eating. Children’s emotion dysregulation was assessed via parent-report with the Child Behavior Checklist. Youth also completed two test meals to capture “binge” and “normal” eating. Body composition was examined using air displacement plethysmography. Results After controlling for relevant covariates, youth with self-reported LOC eating had higher parent-reported emotion dysregulation than those without LOC. Parent-reported emotion dysregulation was also associated with greater observed energy intake (after accounting for body mass), as well as higher fat mass. Emotion dysregulation also moderated associations between LOC status/sex and body mass variables; among youth with self-reported LOC eating and girls, those with high parent-described emotion dysregulation (versus low) had significantly higher fat mass and BMIz. Conclusions Data from the current study suggest that emotion dysregulation may play a role in energy intake and obesity, particularly among youth with self-reported LOC eating and girls. Additional studies are needed to identify the prospective mechanisms linking poor emotion regulation and LOC eating. These mechanisms, in turn, may inform future interventions targeting excess energy intake and obesity in pediatric samples. PMID:27505194
Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.
A biopsychosocial model of the development of adolescent chronic conduct problems is presented and supported through a review of empirical findings. This model posits that biological dispositions and sociocultural contexts place certain children at risk in early life but that life experiences with parents, peers, and social institutions increment and mediate this risk. A transactional developmental model is best equipped to describe the emergence of chronic antisocial behavior across time. Reciprocal influences among dispositions, contexts, and life experiences lead to recursive iterations across time that exacerbate or diminish antisocial development. Cognitive and emotional processes within the child, including the acquisition of knowledge and social-information-processing patterns, mediate the relation between life experiences and conduct problem outcomes. Implications for prevention research and public policy are noted. PMID:12661890
Quas, Jodi A; Rush, Elizabeth B; Yim, Ilona S; Edelstein, Robin S; Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom
Despite considerable interest in understanding how stress influences memory accuracy and errors, particularly in children, methodological limitations have made it difficult to examine the effects of stress independent of the effects of the emotional valence of to-be-remembered information in developmental populations. In this study, we manipulated stress levels in 7-8- and 12-14-year-olds and then exposed them to negative, neutral, and positive word lists. Shortly afterward, we tested their recognition memory for the words and false memory for non-presented but related words. Adolescents in the high-stress condition were more accurate than those in the low-stress condition, while children's accuracy did not differ across stress conditions. Also, among adolescents, accuracy and errors were higher for the negative than positive words, while in children, word valence was unrelated to accuracy. Finally, increases in children's and adolescents' cortisol responses, especially in the high-stress condition, were related to greater accuracy but not false memories and only for positive emotional words. Findings suggest that stress at encoding, as well as the emotional content of to-be-remembered information, may influence memory in different ways across development, highlighting the need for greater complexity in existing models of true and false memory formation.
Bounoua, Nadia; Felton, Julia F; Long, Katie; Stadnik, Ryan D; Loya, Jennifer M; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, Carl W
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a pervasive personality disorder that poses a burden for affected individuals, their family members and society as a whole. Current research suggests that early childhood abuse, including emotional abuse, may be an important predictor of later BPD symptomology. Further, an emerging body of literature suggests that anxiety sensitivity (AS) may serve as a form of emotional vulnerability and be a key variable in the relation between abuse and the development of BPD symptomatology. This literature has relied on retrospective recall of abuse and AS in adult samples. As a result, there is a dearth of literature examining these variables in adolescence, which is a developmental period in which personality traits begin to emerge. This study explored the impact of AS in the development of BPD symptoms in a group of 277 adolescents. Results suggest a significant indirect effect of emotional abuse on BPD symptoms via AS, after controlling for sex, grade and prior levels of AS (indirect effect = 0.04, standard error (SE) = 0.02 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.001-0.070)). These findings suggest that, among adolescents, AS may serve as an important contributor to the development of BPD symptoms. Implications for interventions and future research are further discussed.
Rofey, Dana L; McMakin, Dana L; Shaw, Daniel; Dahl, Ronald E
Self-regulation-the ability to manage motivations, emotions, physiological sensations, and behavior to meet internal and external demands of the environment-is critical to health and development. Adolescence represents a dynamic period of change in both the demand and capacity for self-regulation. As teens mature and become more autonomous, they are confronted with decisions in determining where they spend their time, what they eat, when they go to bed, and how they prioritize and pursue various social, academic, and recreational goals. We highlight opportunities to improve self-regulatory capacities and related health outcomes during this important developmental window. In particular, we focus on emotion regulation, sleep regulation, and weight regulation as three separate but synergistic self-regulatory systems that may provide unique opportunities for intervention to optimize health outcomes. To this end, we begin by describing developmental changes that occur in emotion, sleep and weight regulatory systems during the transitional period of adolescence, as well as how these changes can lead to profound and enduring health consequences. Next, we describe emerging evidence that indicates complex and synergistic interactions among these regulatory systems during adolescence. Last, we end with possible prevention and intervention efforts that capitalize on the interactions among these three regulatory domains.
McCoy, Dana Charles; Raver, C. Cybele
The present study examined the relationships between caregivers' self-reported positive and negative emotional expressiveness, observer assessments of children's emotion regulation, and teachers' reports of children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a sample of 97 primarily African American and Hispanic Head Start families. Results…
Ioannou, Christina; Zein, Marwa El; Wyart, Valentin; Scheid, Isabelle; Amsellem, Frédérique; Delorme, Richard; Chevallier, Coralie; Grèzes, Julie
Although, the quest to understand emotional processing in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has led to an impressive number of studies, the picture that emerges from this research remains inconsistent. Some studies find that Typically Developing (TD) individuals outperform those with ASD in emotion recognition tasks, others find no such difference. In this paper, we move beyond focusing on potential group differences in behaviour to answer what we believe is a more pressing question: do individuals with ASD use the same mechanisms to process emotional cues? To this end, we rely on model-based analyses of participants’ accuracy during an emotion categorisation task in which displays of anger and fear are paired with direct vs. averted gaze. Behavioural data of 20 ASD and 20 TD adolescents revealed that the ASD group displayed lower overall performance. Yet, gaze direction had a similar impact on emotion categorisation in both groups, i.e. improved accuracy for salient combinations (anger-direct, fear-averted). Critically, computational modelling of participants’ behaviour reveals that the same mechanism, i.e. increased perceptual sensitivity, underlies the contextual impact of gaze in both groups. We discuss the specific experimental conditions that may favour emotion processing and the automatic integration of contextual information in ASD. PMID:28218248
Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Heijmans, Jolina; van Hulten, Sandra; Kaanen, Linsy; Oerlemans, Birgit; Stikkelbroeck, Tessa; Tielemans, Tim
The present study examined the relationships between dysregulations in self-conscious emotions and psychopathology in clinically referred children and adolescents. For this purpose, parent-, teacher-, and self-report Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment data of 1000 youth aged 4-18 years was analyzed as this instrument not only provides information on the intensity levels of lack of guilt, guilt, and shame, but also on the severity of various types of psychopathology. The results first of all indicated that dysregulations of self-conscious emotions were more common in this clinical sample than in the general population. Further, a consistent pattern was found with regard to the relationships between self-conscious emotions and childhood psychopathology. That is, lack of guilt was predominantly associated with oppositional defiant and conduct (i.e., externalizing) problems, while guilt and shame were primarily linked with affective and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) problems. By and large, these findings confirm what has been found in non-clinical youth, and suggest that self-conscious emotions play a small but significant role in the psychopathology of children and adolescents.
Martinez, Charles R.; McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark
This study examined behavioral and emotional adjustment in family contexts in which there was high versus low demand for adolescents to serve as language brokers in a sample of 73 recently immigrated Latino families with middle-school-aged adolescents. Language brokering was conceptualized as a family process rather than merely an individual phenomenon. Multiple agents were used to assess language brokering and parent and youth adjustment. Results indicated that high language brokering contexts had negative associations with family stress, parenting effectiveness, and adolescent adjustment in terms of academic functioning, socioemotional health, and substance use. The findings are particularly important given the limited and mixed findings from formative research on language brokering, particularly in areas within the United States with emerging immigrant populations. Findings suggest the need for advancing practices that increase language and cultural supports for immigrant families and support parents’ efforts to foster positive youth and family adjustment. PMID:19898605
Lando-King, Elizabeth; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gower, Amy L.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Pettingell, Sandra; Sieving, Renee E.
Social-emotional intelligence (SEI) has been linked with a number of health behaviors in adolescent populations. However, little is known about the influence of SEI on sexual behavior. This study examined associations between three indicators of SEI (intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, stress management skills) and adolescent girls’ sexual risk behaviors. Data come from a cross-sectional sample of sexually active adolescent girls (ages 13 to 17 years) at high risk for pregnancy (N = 253), recruited from health care clinics in a Midwest metropolitan area during 2007 and 2008. Results of multivariable regression models controlling for participants’ age and race/ethnicity indicated that each aspect of SEI was related to distinct sexual risk behaviors. Specifically, girls with greater intrapersonal skills had significantly fewer male sex partners in the past six months (b = −0.16). Participants with greater interpersonal skills reported earlier communication with their sexual partner about sexual risk (b = 0.14), and those with a better ability to manage stress reported more consistent condom use (b = 0.31). Study findings suggest that SEI may provide a protective buffer against sexual risk behaviors. Building adolescent girls’ social and emotional skills may be an effective strategy for reducing their risk for early pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:25621508
Eggum, Natalie D.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos; Sallquist, Julie; Michalik, Nicole M.; Liew, Jeffrey
Data regarding children's shyness and emotionality were collected at three time points, two years apart (T1: N = 214, M = 6.12 years; T2: N = 185, M = 7.67 years; T3: N = 185, M = 9.70 years), and internalizing data were collected at T1 and T3. Relations among parent-rated shyness, emotionality [parent- and teacher-rated anger, sadness, and…
Toomey, Russell B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.
Engagement in problem behaviors during adolescence has important implications for academic achievement and psychosocial well-being. The current study examined engagement in problem behavior across the transition from pregnancy to parenthood among a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (ages 15-18 years; Mage = 16.8 at Time 1) to better understand the behaviors in which this sample engaged and how engagement changed over this period of transition. Descriptively, this sample engaged in relatively low levels of problem behaviors. Frequently endorsed problem behaviors included missing school or work without an excuse, lying or disobeying parents, and engagement in dangerous behaviors for a thrill; notably, substance use was not a frequently endorsed behavior until the final waves of the study, when most of the mothers were of legal age for these behaviors. Further, latent growth curve modeling revealed a non-linear pattern of change in problem behaviors, such that engagement decreased substantially from the third trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum, but then leveled off between 36 and 48 months postpartum. Findings suggest a need for future research to better understand how engagement in problem behaviors changes pre- to post-pregnancy, and how to best support the decrease in problem behaviors once a pregnancy has been detected. PMID:25893152
Dishion, Thomas J; Forgatch, Marion; Van Ryzin, Mark; Winter, Charlotte
In this study we examined the videotaped family interactions of a community sample of adolescents and their parents. Youths were assessed in early to late adolescence on their levels of antisocial behavior. At age 16-17, youths and their parents were videotaped interacting while completing a variety of tasks, including family problem solving. The interactions were coded and compared for three developmental patterns of antisocial behavior: early onset, persistent; adolescence onset; and typically developing. The mean duration of conflict bouts was the only interaction pattern that discriminated the 3 groups. In the prediction of future antisocial behavior, parent and youth reports of transition entropy and conflict resolution interacted to account for antisocial behavior at age 18-19. Families with low entropy and peaceful resolutions predicted low levels of youth antisocial behavior at age 18-19. These findings suggest the need to study both attractors and repellers to understand family dynamics associated with health and social and emotional development.
Havighurst, Sophie S; Duncombe, Melissa; Frankling, Emma; Holland, Kerry; Kehoe, Christiane; Stargatt, Robyn
This paper evaluates the real-world effectiveness of an emotion-focused, multi-systemic early intervention combining an emotion socialization parenting program with a child and school socio-emotional intervention for children with emerging conduct problems. Schools in lower socioeconomic areas of Victoria, Australia were randomized into intervention or wait-list control. Children in the first 4 years of elementary school were screened for behavior problems and those in the top 8 % of severity were invited to participate in the intervention. The study sample consisted of 204 primary caregivers and their children (Mage = 7.05, SD = 1.06; 74 % boys). Data were collected at baseline and 10 months later using parent and teacher reports and direct child assessment. Measures of parent emotion socialization, family emotion expressiveness, and children's emotion competence, social competence and behavior were administered. Results showed intervention parents but not controls became less emotionally dismissive and increased in empathy, and children showed better emotion understanding and behavior compared to control children. These outcomes lend support for an emotion-focused approach to early intervention in a real-world context for children with conduct problems.
Hong, Zuway R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.
The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents' positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group. Fifty-seven eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (30 boys and 27 girls) volunteered to participate in the assessments and were used as the comparison group. Additionally, 15 experimental students were recruited to be observed and interviewed. Paired t-tests, correlations, and analyses of covariance assessed the similarity and differences between groups. The findings were that the experimental group significantly outperformed its counterpart on positive thinking and emotional perceptions, and all participants' positive thinking scores were significantly related to their emotional perceptions about learning science. Recommendations for integrating science and societal implication for adolescents are provided.
Lu, Ying; Markowitz, James
Adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease face daily and long-term challenges that may be difficult for teenagers to manage. The developmental and psychosocial changes unique to this age group include becoming more autonomous and being more vulnerable to peer influence. These changes may lead to problems in medical management such as poor medication adherence and risky behavior. Being aware of these issues will help the medical team provide anticipatory guidance to address these concerns. PMID:21734775
Heleniak, Charlotte; Jenness, Jessica L; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A
Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology.
Jenness, Jessica L.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A.
Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology. PMID:27695145
Jee, Sandra H.; Conn, Anne-Marie; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Blumkin, Aaron; Baldwin, Constance D.; Szilagyi, Moira A.
Background: Little is known about how best to implement behavioral screening recommendations in practice, especially for children in foster care, who are at risk for having social-emotional problems. Two validated screening tools are recommended for use with young children: the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE) identifies…
Kaufhold, John A.; Johnson, Lori R.
The study's purpose was to examine emotional intelligence skills and potential problem areas of elementary educators. The study provided elementary educators with a self-assessment of emotional intelligence skills to utilize in the workplace and beyond. An improved understanding of personal skills and weaknesses may lessen educator's risk of…
Charman, Tony; Ricketts, Jessie; Dockrell, Julie E.; Lindsay, Geoff; Palikara, Olympia
Background: Although it is well-established that children with language impairment (LI) and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) both show elevated levels of emotional and behavioural problems, the level and types of difficulties across the two groups have not previously been directly compared. Aims: To compare levels of emotional and…
Fergus, Esther O.; And Others
Data on demographics, physical capability and social-emotional behavioral variables for 134 residents between the ages of 50 and 96 were collected in four nursing homes to examine the dimensions related to problem behaviors. Social-emotional behaviors related on six scales of reliabilities ranging from .90 to .74. The scales included depression,…
Pasalich, Dave S.; Dadds, Mark R.; Vincent, Lucy C.; Cooper, Francesca A.; Hawes, David J.; Brennan, John
This study examined relationships between parent-child emotional communication and callous-unemotional (CU) traits and conduct problems. References to negative and positive emotions made by clinic-referred boys (3-9 years) and their parents were coded from direct observations of family interactions involving the discussion of shared emotional…
Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S
Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), as well as their mothers and teachers, reported on bullying in childhood (7-10 years) and internalizing problems in early adolescence (11-14 years). Controlling for prior psychopathology, family adversity, gender and IQ, being a victim of bullying was associated with higher overall scores, as well as increased odds of scoring in the severe range (>90(th) percentile) for emotional and depression symptoms. Victims were also more likely to show persistent depression symptoms over a 2-year period. These associations were found independent of whether mothers, teachers or the children reported on bullying. It is concluded that peer victimization in childhood is a precursor of both short-lived and persistent internalizing symptoms, underlining the importance of environmental factors such as peer relationships in the etiology of internalizing problems.
Demirci, Esra; Erdogan, Ayten
The objectives of this study were to evaluate both face and emotion recognition, to detect differences among attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subgroups, to identify effects of the gender and to assess the effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine treatment on both face and emotion recognition in patients with ADHD. The study sample consisted of 41 male, 29 female patients, 8-15 years of age, who were diagnosed as having combined type ADHD (N = 26), hyperactive/impulsive type ADHD (N = 21) or inattentive type ADHD (N = 23) but had not previously used any medication for ADHD and 35 male, 25 female healthy individuals. Long-acting methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) was prescribed to 38 patients, whereas atomoxetine was prescribed to 32 patients. The reading the mind in the eyes test (RMET) and Benton face recognition test (BFRT) were applied to all participants before and after treatment. The patients with ADHD had a significantly lower number of correct answers in child and adolescent RMET and in BFRT than the healthy controls. Among the ADHD subtypes, the hyperactive/impulsive subtype had a lower number of correct answers in the RMET than the inattentive subtypes, and the hyperactive/impulsive subtype had a lower number of correct answers in short and long form of BFRT than the combined and inattentive subtypes. Male and female patients with ADHD did not differ significantly with respect to the number of correct answers on the RMET and BFRT. The patients showed significant improvement in RMET and BFRT after treatment with OROS-MPH or atomoxetine. Patients with ADHD have difficulties in face recognition as well as emotion recognition. Both OROS-MPH and atomoxetine affect emotion recognition. However, further studies on the face and emotion recognition are needed in ADHD.
Bimmel, Nicole; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; De Geus, Eco J. C.
The present longitudinal study examined resting heart rate and heart rate variability and reactivity to a stressful gambling task in adopted adolescents with aggressive, delinquent, or internalizing behavior problems and adopted adolescents without behavior problems (total N=151). Early-onset delinquent adolescents showed heart rate…
Larson, Bruce A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an adventure camp program on the self-concept of adolescents with behavioral problems. Subjects in the study included 61 randomly selected male and female adolescents ranging in age from 9 to 17 years with behavioral problems. The treatment group of 31 adolescents was randomly selected from a…
Sakai, Joseph T; Dalwani, Manish S; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Raymond, Kristen; McWilliams, Shannon; Tanabe, Jody; Rojas, Don; Regner, Michael; Banich, Marie T; Crowley, Thomas J
We sought to identify brain activation differences in conduct-problem youth with limited prosocial emotions (LPE) compared to conduct-problem youth without LPE and community adolescents, and to test associations between brain activation and severity of callous-unemotional traits. We utilized a novel task, which asks subjects to repeatedly decide whether to accept offers where they will benefit but a beneficent other will be harmed. Behavior on this task has been previously associated with levels of prosocial emotions and severity of callous-unemotional traits, and is related to empathic concern. During fMRI acquisition, 66 male adolescents (21 conduct-problem patients with LPE, 21 without, and 24 typically-developing controls) played this novel game. Within typically-developing controls, we identified a network engaged during decision involving bilateral insula, and inferior parietal and medial frontal cortices, among other regions. Group comparisons using non-parametric (distribution-free) permutation tests demonstrated LPE patients had lower activation estimates than typically-developing adolescents in right anterior insula. Additional significant group differences emerged with our a priori parametric cluster-wise inference threshold. These results suggest measurable functional brain activation differences in conduct-problem adolescents with LPE compared to typically-developing adolescents. Such differences may underscore differential treatment needs for conduct-problem males with and without LPE.
Molet, J; Heins, K; Zhuo, X; Mei, Y T; Regev, L; Baram, T Z; Stern, H
Vulnerability to emotional disorders including depression derives from interactions between genes and environment, especially during sensitive developmental periods. Across evolution, maternal care is a key source of environmental sensory signals to the developing brain, and a vast body of work has linked quantitative and qualitative aspects of maternal care to emotional outcome in children and animals. However, the fundamental properties of maternal signals, that promote advantageous vs pathological outcomes in the offspring, are unknown and have been a topic of intense study. We studied emotional outcomes of adolescent rats reared under routine or impoverished environments, and used mathematical approaches to analyze the nurturing behaviors of the dams. Unexpectedly, whereas the quantity and typical qualities of maternal care behaviors were indistinguishable in the two environments, their patterns and rhythms differed drastically and influenced emotional outcomes. Specifically, unpredictable, fragmented maternal care patterns translated into high-entropy rates of sensory signals to the offspring in the impoverished cages. During adolescence, these offspring had significant reductions in sucrose preference and in peer-play, two independent measures of the ability to experience pleasure. This adolescent anhedonia, often a harbinger of later depression, was not accompanied by measures of anxiety or helplessness. Dopaminergic pleasure circuits underlying anhedonia are engaged by predictable sequences of events, and predictable sensory signals during neonatal periods may be critical for their maturation. Conversely, unpredictability maternal-derived signals may disrupt these developmental processes, provoking anhedonia. In sum, high-entropy and fragmented patterns of maternal-derived sensory input to the developing brain predicts, and might promote, the development of anhedonia in rodents, with potential clinical implications. PMID:26731439
Ciccarelli, Maria; Griffiths, Mark D; Nigro, Giovanna; Cosenza, Marina
In the psychological literature, many studies have investigated the neuropsychological and behavioral changes that occur developmentally during adolescence. These studies have consistently observed a deficit in the decision-making ability of children and adolescents. This deficit has been ascribed to incomplete brain development. The same deficit has also been observed in adult problem and pathological gamblers. However, to date, no study has examined decision-making in adolescents with and without gambling problems. Furthermore, no study has ever examined associations between problem gambling, decision-making, cognitive distortions and alcohol use in youth. To address these issues, 104 male adolescents participated in this study. They were equally divided in two groups, problem gamblers and non-problem gamblers, based on South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents scores. All participants performed the Iowa gambling task and completed the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale and the alcohol use disorders identification test. Adolescent problem gamblers displayed impaired decision-making, reported high cognitive distortions, and had more problematic alcohol use compared to non-problem gamblers. Strong correlations between problem gambling, alcohol use, and cognitive distortions were observed. Decision-making correlated with interpretative bias. This study demonstrated that adolescent problem gamblers appear to have the same psychological profile as adult problem gamblers and that gambling involvement can negatively impact on decision-making ability that, in adolescence, is still developing. The correlations between interpretative bias and decision-making suggested that the beliefs in the ability to influence gambling outcomes may facilitate decision-making impairment.
Couyoumdjian, Alessandro; Ottaviani, Cristina; Petrocchi, Nicola; Trincas, Roberta; Tenore, Katia; Buonanno, Carlo; Mancini, Francesco
Anxiety disorders may not only be characterized by specific symptomatology (e.g., tachycardia) in response to the fearful stimulus (primary problem or first-level emotion) but also by the tendency to negatively evaluate oneself for having those symptoms (secondary problem or negative meta-emotion). An exploratory study was conducted driven by the hypothesis that reducing the secondary or meta-emotional problem would also diminish the fear response to the phobic stimulus. Thirty-three phobic participants were exposed to the phobic target before and after undergoing a psychotherapeutic intervention addressed to reduce the meta-emotional problem or a control condition. The electrocardiogram was continuously recorded to derive heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) and affect ratings were obtained. Addressing the meta-emotional problem had the effect of reducing the physiological but not the subjective symptoms of anxiety after phobic exposure. Preliminary findings support the role of the meta-emotional problem in the maintenance of response to the fearful stimulus (primary problem).
Couyoumdjian, Alessandro; Ottaviani, Cristina; Petrocchi, Nicola; Trincas, Roberta; Tenore, Katia; Buonanno, Carlo; Mancini, Francesco
Anxiety disorders may not only be characterized by specific symptomatology (e.g., tachycardia) in response to the fearful stimulus (primary problem or first-level emotion) but also by the tendency to negatively evaluate oneself for having those symptoms (secondary problem or negative meta-emotion). An exploratory study was conducted driven by the hypothesis that reducing the secondary or meta-emotional problem would also diminish the fear response to the phobic stimulus. Thirty-three phobic participants were exposed to the phobic target before and after undergoing a psychotherapeutic intervention addressed to reduce the meta-emotional problem or a control condition. The electrocardiogram was continuously recorded to derive heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) and affect ratings were obtained. Addressing the meta-emotional problem had the effect of reducing the physiological but not the subjective symptoms of anxiety after phobic exposure. Preliminary findings support the role of the meta-emotional problem in the maintenance of response to the fearful stimulus (primary problem). PMID:27504102
Lane, Bruce; And Others
The article describes the origin, philosophy, planning, and evaluation of the Grundy, Illinois, alternative school program which enables secondary students to talk about their emotional and behavior problems during healthful group walks. (MC)
Lashbrook, J T
The general public and academic researchers alike have long recognized the importance of peer relations in the lives of young people. However, three issues are notably absent from the dominant models of peer influence. First, these models neglect the affective dimension of a youth's experiences. Second, the models tend to ascribe a passive role to the youth, a stance also reflected methodologically by the absence of the youth's voice. Third, the motivational component remains unspecified; that is, why does a youth conform to peer influence? Using a framework drawn from recent social psychological work on shame and related feelings, the present study collected qualitative data from twelve college students. The findings indicate that negative emotions play a role in peer influence, particularly feelings of inadequacy and isolation, as well as feeling ridiculed, all of which may be indicative of shame. Thus, shame-related feelings may be instrumental in motivating individuals to conform. A variety of directions for future research are suggested.
Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Kimonis, Eva R; Frick, Paul J; Aucoin, Katherine J
Different patterns of emotional reactivity characterize proactive and reactive functions of aggressive behavior, and theory also suggests a link of both types with narcissism. How people with narcissistic traits respond emotionally to competitive scenarios could influence their aggressiveness. Participants were 85 adolescent boys from a detention center. Several indices of emotional functioning were assessed, including attentional bias to negative emotional stimuli and psychophysiological responding. In addition, we included self-report and laboratory measures of aggression and measures of psychopathy-linked narcissism, callous-unemotional traits, and impulsivity. Psychopathy-linked narcissism was uniquely related to unprovoked aggression (i.e., proactive aggression) and to heightened attention to pictures depicting others' distress. Compared with those scoring low on narcissism, those high on narcissism, who were the least physiologically reactive group, evinced greater proactive aggression, whereas those showing a pattern of coactivation (i.e., sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic reactivity) evinced greater reactive aggression. Results are consistent with descriptions of narcissistic individuals as being hypervigilant to negative cues and exhibiting poor emotion regulation. These characteristics may lead to aggressive and violent behavior aimed at maintaining dominance over others.
Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah
Background There are several negative stereotypes about older adults that have negatively influenced people’s attitude about aging. The present study compared emotional well-being between older adults and adolescents. Methods Data for this study came from 1,403 community-dwelling elderly persons and 1,190 secondary school students and were obtained from two national cross-sectional surveys. Emotional well-being was measured using the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index. Data analysis was conducted using a multivariate analysis of covariance with SPSS software version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). Results Elderly people significantly scored higher levels of emotional well-being (mean, 62.3; standard deviation, 22.55) than younger people (mean, 57.9; standard deviation, 18.46; t, 5.32; P≤0.001). The findings from the multivariate analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between older adults and younger people in emotional well-being [F(3, 2587)=120.21; P≤0.001; η2=0.122] after controlling for sex. Conclusion Contrary to negative stereotypes about aging, our findings show a higher level of emotional well-being among older adults compared with younger people. PMID:24872683