Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence. Although, these athletes apparently undergo sufficient physical activity to develop healthy bones, it is possible that other...
Background Elite adolescent female figure skaters compete in an aesthetic-based sport that values thin builds and lithe figures. To conform to the sport’s physical requirements, skaters may alter their eating patterns in unhealthful directions. This study assesses the eating attitudes and dietary intakes of elite adolescent female figure skaters to assess the potential nutritional risks among them. Methods Thirty-six elite competitive adolescent female figure skaters (mean age 16 ± 2.5 SD years) completed self-administered three-day records of dietary intake and simultaneous physical activity records during training season. Two months later, they attended a national training camp during which they completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), provided fasting blood samples, and had heights and weights measured. Results Participants’ mean body mass index (BMI) was 19.8 ± 2.1 SD. Their BMIs were within the normal range, and the majority (70%) did not report a history of recent weight loss. The mean EAT-40 score was normal (19.5 ± 13.5 SD) and below the cut-off score of 30 that indicates clinically significant eating pathology. However, one-quarter of the skaters had EAT-40 scores above 30. The skaters reported a mean energy intake of 1491 ± 471 SD kcal/day (31 ± 10 SD kcal/kg), with 61.6% of calories from carbohydrate, 14.6% from protein, and 23.7% from fat. Their reported dietary intakes were high in carbohydrates but low in total energy, fat, and bone-building nutrients. Conclusions Although these highly active young women compete in a sport that prizes leanness, they had appropriate weights. The athletes reported dietary intakes that were far below estimated energy needs and were at moderate risk of disordered eating. Anticipatory guidance is warranted to improve their dietary intakes, particularly of bone-building nutrients. PMID:23237333
Theran, Sally A; Newberg, Emily M; Gleason, Tracy R
We examined aspects of adolescent girls' parasocial interactions in the context of typical development. Parasocial interactions are defined as symbolic, one-sided quasi-interactions between a viewer and a media figure. In total, 107 adolescent girls were examined; 94% reported engaging in parasocial interactions to some degree. Preoccupied attachment style predicted the degree of involvement in and emotional intensity of parasocial interactions. Results suggest that parasocial interactions are characteristic of girls with preoccupied attachment, but are also part of normative development.
Monsma, Eva V.; Malina, Robert M.; Feltz, Deborah L.
This study considered the interrelationships among biological maturation and its physical correlates, social physique anxiety, and appearance-related physical self-perceptions in 113 adolescent female figure skaters participating in solo (n = 73) or partner contexts (n = 40). Participants were interviewed about their menarcheal status, underwent a…
Rush, Jean C.; Shumaker, Mary Susan
It is hypothesized that graphic skills among the general U.S. population level off at puberty. Examined were the characteristics of 357 pairs of pencil drawings of human figures (one man and one woman) made by male and female adolescents (eighth graders), nonartistic adults (university elementary education majors), and artistic adults (beginning…
Sugar, Max, Ed.
This book emphasizes female adolescents' healthy development within a psychoanalytic frame of reference for what is normative, that also indicates the boundaries of and transitions to what is deviant. The book's 12 articles relate to 3 general topics. The two articles in part 1 of the book, which addresses biological issues, are "Female…
Ma'ayan, Hadar Dubowsky
The current literatures on girls, queer youth, and multicultural education have ignored a significant group of young people and their experiences in school. This research is a retrospective exploratory study of masculine female adolescent schooling experiences, focusing on the school experiences of adults aged 18-54 who were socially defined as…
This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…
Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M
Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view.
Blum, Harold P
This paper explores early issues of separation-individuation, unconscious conflict, and trauma, revived and reworked in Picasso's turbulent protracted adolescence. During this critical period Picasso traveled between Barcelona and Paris four times, from age 19 to 23. His melancholic mood, related both to separation conflict and the current realities of his uprooted life and emerging career, was expressed in his painting of emaciated, despondent figures, the predominance of monochromatic blue, and his choice of social outcasts as subjects. Of particular significance are his paintings of blind persons. Separation and loss, his depressive disposition, and his choice of blind subjects were psychologically interrelated. Picasso's developmental transformation from adolescence to adulthood, marked by his finally settling in Paris, encompassed change in his personal and artistic identity.
Goodenow, Carol; Espin, Olivia M.
Based on semistructured interviews with five adolescent females, all recent immigrants from Latin America, discusses active role immigrant adolescents can take in balancing the influences of old and new cultures in formation of healthy bicultural identity, and special problems females face in adapting to new sex role culture. (Author/NB)
Pleydon, Anne P.; Schner, Joseph G.
Young female offenders (n=29) and female high school students (n=47) were compared in terms of delinquent behavior and relationships with their best female friend and peer group. Results indicated friendships of delinquent and nondelinquent female adolescents are essentially similar despite higher levels of peer pressure among delinquents. (BF)
Pleydon, A P; Schner, J G
Young female offenders (n = 29) and female high school students (n = 47) were compared in terms of delinquent behavior and relationships with their best female friend and peer group. Young offenders exhibited significantly more delinquent behavior than did high school students in the past year. Delinquents and nondelinquents did not significantly differ in amount of companionship, conflict, help, security, and closeness with their best female friend, and amount of trust, alienation, and perceived intimacy in their peer group. Less communication and more perceived peer pressure in the peer group distinguished delinquent females from nondelinquent females. Perceived peer pressure significantly predicted delinquent behavior in female adolescents. In short, friendships of delinquent and nondelinquent female adolescents are essentially similar despite higher levels of peer pressure among delinquents.
Hurowitz, Laurie; Gaier, Eugene
Focuses on one specific kind of information and guidance employed by many adolescent females as a source of information on sexuality, female erotica, and for information on the female role--the female self concept. (Author/RK)
Im-Bolter, Nancie; Cohen, Nancy J.; Farnia, Fataneh
Background: Language has been shown to play a critical role in social cognitive reasoning in preschool and school-aged children, but little research has been conducted with adolescents. During adolescence, the ability to understand figurative language becomes increasingly important for social relationships and may affect social adjustment. This…
Kim, Hyun-Bae; Stebbins, Charles L; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong-Kook
In this study, we determined the specificity of a low frequency taekwondo training programme on physical fitness levels in adolescent females who receive limited physical education instruction (i.e. 2 days per week). Major components of physical fitness assessed were: skeletal muscle fitness (hand grip strength, bent arm hang, standing long jump, and isokinetic strength), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), speed and agility (10 × 5-m shuttle run), and cardiovascular fitness (VO(2max) and 20-m shuttle run). Changes in body composition were also assessed (dual X-ray absorptiometry, DXA). Participants were divided into two groups, a taekwondo training group (n = 21), which trained 50 min a day, 2 days per week for 12 weeks, and a control group (n = 10). Taekwondo training improved isokinetic strength, standing long jump, and sit-and-reach performance. Body fat mass and percent body fat were reduced. No changes in grip strength, bent arm hang time, speed and agility, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed. Results indicate that low frequency taekwondo training in adolescent females produces beneficial changes in skeletal muscle fitness, flexibility, and body composition in a relatively short period of time. Consequently, this specific type of training can be useful to female adolescents in structured school environments where physical education classes are limited and there is little free time for physical activity.
Abell, S C; Horkheimer, R; Nguyen, S E
The human figure drawings of 200 adolescent boys were collected at a residential treatment center in a midsized, midwestern city. The drawings were scored for cognitive ability according to the systems of Buck (1966) and Goodenough and Harris (1963). Both scoring systems showed acceptable interrater reliability and both were positively and significantly related to IQ scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Buck's system, however, had less of a tendency to underestimate IQ scores. Buck's system may therefore hold greater promise for the intellectual assessment of adolescents with human figure drawings.
Allen, Melissa L.; Chambers, Alison
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can process both interpretations of an ambiguous figure (e.g. rabbit/duck) when told about the ambiguity, however they tend not to do so spontaneously. Here we show that although adolescents with ASD can explicitly experience such "reversals", implicit measures suggest they are conceptually…
Regan, Aine; Heary, Caroline
Engagement in excessive sedentary behaviour represents a health risk for adolescents. The current study aimed to investigate patterns of sedentary behaviour amongst Irish female adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years old. 314 adolescents completed a questionnaire on their sedentary behaviour habits, health behaviours (physical activity, smoking,…
Zacharias, Stephanie R. C.; Kelchner, Lisa N.; Creaghead, Nancy
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' attitudes toward, and perceptions of personality traits of, female adolescents who presented with voice disorders. Method: For this comparative study consisting of a 25-item web-based semantic differential survey, teachers rated voice recordings of 4 female adolescents (considered…
Rotheram-Borus, Mary J.; And Others
Compared cognitive style and pleasant activities of 77 suicide-attempting female minority adolescents with those of 39 psychiatrically disturbed and 23 nondisturbed female adolescents. Suicide attempters reported significantly fewer alternatives for solving interpersonal problems, were significantly more focused on problems, and were more likely…
Sirpresi, S; Antoniazzi, F; Costantini, E; Zamboni, G; Tatò, L
Adolescence is usually defined as the period of rapid physical and psychological growth and development occurring during the second decade of life. After the introduction about the physiology of puberty and menstrual cycle, the major problems in female adolescents are discussed: delayed puberty, hypo and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, causes of primary and secondary amenorrhea, menstrual irregularity, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, breast disorders, hirsutism, acne. Finally, adolescent pregnancy prevention and contraception are discussed. The Authors want to stress the importance of the endocrinological and gynaecological disorders in female adolescents and their impact on the psychological and emotional development at this very delicate age.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the experience of female voice change from the perspective of female middle and high school choral students. The study was guided by two questions: How do adolescent female choir students experience voice change? What is the essence of the experience of voice change for middle school…
Morrissey, Gabrielle; Higgs, Joy
This paper presents research in female first sexual intercourse in Australia. Previous research in adolescent sexual behavior, particularly issues around first sexual intercourse behavior, has mainly utilized quantitative methodology. Our research adopted a qualitative approach to provide unique insight into adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes,…
Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Simmendinger, Nicole; Klinkowski, Nora; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Pfeiffer, Ernst
This study investigated current comorbid Axis I diagnoses associated with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) in adolescents. The sample included 101 female adolescents treated at a psychiatric unit for primary DSM-IV diagnoses of AN. 73.3% of the AN patients were diagnosed as having a current comorbidity of at least one comorbid Axis I diagnosis, with no…
Lemaine, Valerie; Simmons, Patricia S
Congenital breast and genital tract anomalies are seen frequently in the care of children and adolescents. Breast and internal gynecologic anomalies more often present in adolescence than in early childhood. Management is best delivered through a multidisciplinary team approach. Carefully timed surgical intervention is of importance to optimize psychological, aesthetic and functional outcomes. An understanding of the female breast and genital tract embryology and anatomy is important for a meticulous clinical examination and appropriate surgical treatment. This article will review the normal embryology and anatomy of the adolescent female breast and genital tract.
Toomey, Russell B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.
Social support for adolescent mothers, particularly from mother figures, can buffer risks and promote well-being. To date, no longitudinal research has investigated how the dimensions of social support may change during the transition from pregnancy to parenthood for adolescent mothers. This study examined stability and change in dimensions of…
Ackerman, Kathryn E; Misra, Madhusmita
Peak bone mass (PBM) is a negative predictor of osteoporosis and lifelong fracture risk. Because osteoporosis is such a prevalent disease with life-threatening consequences, it is important to try to maximize PBM. Adolescence is a critical period for bone acquisition. This article discusses some of the differences in male and female skeletal development and modifiable factors that enhance bone accrual in this age group, particularly in athletes. Hormonal influences, effects of physical activity, and nutritional contributions are included, with a focus on the adolescent athlete. Emphasis is placed on the importance of appropriate energy availability in this age group. We also review prevention and treatment strategies for the female athlete triad (ie, the inter-relationship of decreased energy availability, menstrual irregularity, and low bone density) in adolescents and athletic women. Recommendations for maximizing bone density in both male and female adolescents are discussed.
Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren
Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…
Wainright, Jennifer L; Patterson, Charlotte J
This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics and drawn from a national sample. On both self-reported and peer-reported measures of relations with peers, adolescents were functioning well, and the quality of their peer relations was not associated with family type. Regardless of family type, adolescents whose parents described closer relationships with them reported higher quality peer relations and more friends in school and were rated as more central in their friendship networks.
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection.
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T.; Quinn, Camille R.; Cryer, Qiana R.
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/ or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman’s life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. PMID:25475102
Capetillo-Ventura, Nelly; Baeza, Inmaculada
The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is involved in the production of thyroid hormone which is needed to maintain the normal functioning of various organs and systems, including the central nervous system. This study reports a case of hypothyroidism in a fifteen-year-old female adolescent who was attended for psychiatric symptoms. This case reveals the importance of evaluating thyroid function in children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:25436160
Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L
Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual
Rubin, Roger H.
Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…
Bowers, Megan; Simson, Gabrielle Gold-von
An adolescent female with Moebius syndrome developed paroxysmal hypertension, orthostatic hypotension and autonomic symptoms. Common causes of dysautonomia were excluded by the work-up, which supported a diagnosis of baroreflex failure. Neurological testing suggested dysfunction of the tenth cranial nerve as the etiology. This report suggests that baroreflex dysfunction should be considered in Moebius syndrome patients displaying autonomic symptoms.
Fouquier, Katherine Ferrell; Camune, Barbara D
The complexity of caring for female adolescents with neurodisabilities often overshadows normal biological changes. These young women may require additional or individualized support as they adapt to normal puberty and sexual maturation. Many choices are available to assist in managing menstrual problems, hygiene issues, and contraception. Special considerations regarding contraceptive methods, sexual education, and improving service accessibility are explored for clinicians.
Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.
Examines ethnic differences in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in female adolescents (N=205) receiving care at two family-planning clinics; new infection and reinfection rates were also examined. Black teens had a higher rate of past STDs than Hispanics or Whites; however, there were no differences in rates at the time of the clinic…
Slater, Elisa J.; And Others
Examined the effects of separation and divorce on adolescents' (N=217) self-image, anxiety, locus of control, and perception of their family. Results indicated males from disrupted homes had better self-concepts and better perceptions of their family environment than those from intact homes. The opposite results were found among females. (JAC)
Montgomery, Judy K.; Sanger, Dixie; Moore-Brown, Barbara J.; Smith, Leslie; Scheffler, Marilyn
This study focused on increasing the awareness of educational leaders about the relationship between students with communication disorders and violence. A review of selected research on adolescent females with language problems residing in a correctional facility served to support a survey study and extend discussions about the need for…
Reichelt, Paul A.
In order to better meet the needs of female adolescents coming to a Planned Parenthood League Teen Center for prescription contraceptives, a study was undertaken to understand their psychosexual history. The study focused on the past and present sexual and contraceptive behavior of 532 new clients under the age of 18. The data were collected…
Bryla, Karen Y.
Disordered eating among American adolescent females represents a significant health issue in our current cultural climate. Disordered eating receives insufficient attention, however, due to the public's unfamiliarity with symptoms and consequences, absence of treatment options, and unreliable instrumentation to detect disordered eating. Disordered…
There has been a paucity of research on gifted individuals' perceptions of gender stereotypes. The purpose of this study was to explore mathematically gifted adolescent females' perceptions of gender stereotypes through a research design of the qualitative multiple case study involving the constant comparison and the Three C's analysis scheme.…
Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; White, Rebecca M. B.; Herzog, Melissa J.; Pflieger, Jacqueline C.; Madden-Derdich, Debra
The current study describes the development and psychometric testing of the Global Support From Mother Figure During Pregnancy Scale (GSMF-P). The measure is developed in both Spanish and English to assess social support provided to adolescents during their pregnancies. The current study examines the reliability, cross-language equivalence, and…
Latka, Mary H.; Kapadia, Farzana; Fortin, Princess
Data on adolescents' views regarding the female condom are limited. We conducted seven single-gender focus groups with 47 New York City boys and girls aged 15-20 years (72% African American; 43% ever on public assistance; 72% sexually active; 25% had either been pregnant or fathered a pregnancy). Conceptual mapping was performed by participants to…
Burg, Alison Joy
Female adolescent oncology patients undergo many physical changes throughout treatment that have challenging psychological, emotional, and social implications. Body image for this population is a subject that tends to be overlooked in the midst of the cancer experience. This article will examine the complex concept of body image and discuss why female adolescent patients are at such high risk for negative body image. Assessment and care strategies are needed to foster a positive body image, resiliency, and overall well-being. Although survivorship studies may offer insightful information about the effects of the cancer journey on long-term body image, focus should be on prevention and holistic care as part of the treatment itself. The health care team, especially nursing professionals, should acknowledge, recognize, and address this vital issue as a critical part of oncology care.
Choi, HyeJeong; Van Ouytsel, Joris; Temple, Jeff R
This study aims to investigate whether experiences of offline sexual coercion are associated with adolescent females' involvement in different types of sexting behaviors. It draws on data from 450 ethnically diverse female adolescents with an average age of 19.02 years (SD = 0.74) who were originally recruited in southeast Texas. The participants were asked about their experiences with sexual coercion, and their engagement in sexting behavior (i.e., sending, requesting, and being asked for a sext, and receiving a sext without giving permission). Logistic regressions were used to analyze these relationships, while controlling for age, ethnicity, education level, living situation, and sexting behaviors in the year prior of the study. Offline sexual coercion was significantly associated with sending and being asked for a naked image, as well as receiving a naked image without giving permission. The results suggest that sexting could function as an online extension of offline forms of sexual coercion.
Forste, R T; Heaton, T B
too restrictive increase the chance that 1st intercourse will be noncontracepted. In sum, adolescents need an environment balanced between the liberal and conservative extremes to reduce the rate of 1st intercourse and to increase the use of contraception at intercourse.
Yungblut, Hope E; Schinke, Robert J; McGannon, Kerry R
Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004). This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes.
Chang, Aurora; Welton, Anjale D.; Martinez, Melissa A.; Cortez, Laura
Research that exclusively focuses on pre-tenure racially underrepresented female faculty remains scarce. Our aim is to shed light on these rarely documented experiences in an effort to understand their navigation of the world of academia. Using critical ethnographic methodology, we argue that pre-tenure racially underrepresented female faculty…
Gong, Juan-Fen; Xie, Hong-Li; Mao, Xin-Jie; Zhu, Xue-Bo; Xie, Zuo-Kai; Yang, Hai-Hong; Gao, Yang; Jin, Xiao-Feng; Pan, Yu; Zhou, Fen
Background: Gender is one of the risk factors accounting for the high prevalence of adolescent myopia. Considerable research results have shown that myopia incidence of female is higher than that of male. This study aimed to analyze the correlation between ocular parameters and serum estrogen level and to investigate the vision changes along with estrogen change in menstrual cycle of adolescent females. Methods: A total of 120 young females aged between 15 and 16 years, diagnosed with myopia were recruited. Spherical lens, cylindrical lens, axis, interpupillary distance (IPD), and vision in each tested eye of the same subject were measured by automatic optometry and comprehensive optometry, with repetition of all measurements in the menstrual cycle of the 2nd or 3rd days, 14th days, and 28th days, respectively. Serum estradiol (E2) levels were assayed by chemiluminescence immunoassay at the same three times points of the menstrual cycle mentioned above. Results: In young females with myopia, the spherical lens showed a statistically significant difference among all different time in menstrual cycle (all P < 0.0001). The cylindrical lens, axis, and IPD were changed significantly during the menstrual cycle (P < 0.05). The vision of the three different time points in menstrual cycle had a significant difference (χ2 = 6.35, P = 0.042). The vision during the 14th and 28th day was higher compared to that on the 2nd or 3rd days (P = 0.021). Serum E2 levels were significantly different at different time points in menstrual cycle (P < 0.05). E2 levels reached its maximum value on the 14th day and the minimum value on the 2nd or 3rd day. Conclusions: In adolescent females, the spherical lens and other related ocular parameters vary sensitively with different levels of E2 in menstrual cycle. Vision in late menstrual stage is significantly higher than that in premenstrual stage. PMID:25698200
Carlson, Victor R.; Boden, Barry P.; Shen, Aricia; Jackson, Jennifer N.; Alter, Katharine E.; Sheehan, Frances T.
Background: Patellofemoral pain is one of the most common conditions seen in sports medicine practices, particularly among adolescent females. However, the natural history of the underlying pathology in patellofemoral pain during puberty remains poorly understood. Purpose: The purpose of this longitudinal study is to assess changes in patellar maltracking patterns in subjects with patellofemoral pain as they mature from mid- to late adolescence. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Three-dimensional patellofemoral kinematic data were acquired during active knee extension-flexion using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in 6 girls (10 knees; mean age, 14.0 years) with clinically diagnosed patellofemoral pain. The subjects then returned as late adolescents (mean age, 18.5 years) for follow-up scanning. Three-dimensional patellofemoral kinematic parameters were evaluated across the range of motion, but comparison between time points was restricted to 10° of flexion. Participation in impact and nonimpact physical activities, pain score based on the visual analog scale, and the anterior knee pain score were also compared across initial and follow-up visits. Results: All subjects reported improved patellofemoral pain symptoms at follow-up, and one subject reported complete resolution. However, relative to the initial visit, no differences were found in patellar maltracking. There was a decrease in hours engaged in impact physical activities for all subjects at follow-up. Conclusion: This study provides insight into the natural history of patellofemoral pain in adolescent females. The relatively unchanged patellofemoral maltracking across subjects suggests that potential anatomic and kinematic abnormalities contributing to patellofemoral pain during mid-adolescence persist during skeletal maturation. Symptom improvement for these subjects did not result from a change in patellofemoral tracking, but rather from other causes. PMID:28210658
Greydanus, Donald E; Omar, Hatim; Pratt, Helen D
The adolescent female athlete has become a common part of the sports environment at all levels from childhood play to professional adult sports. This article considers various issues common to this athlete to help clinicians care for their patients. Basic sports physiology is reviewed and then specific conditions are considered, including iron deficiency anemia, stress urinary incontinence, breast issues (ie, pain, asymmetry, galactorrhea, injury), the female athlete triad (ie, menstrual dysfunction, abnormal eating patterns, and osteopenia or osteoporosis), and injuries. Clinical conundrums are considered including the difficulty in caring for a dedicated athlete whose intense love of her sport may lead to menstrual and bone loss complications. The knowledgeable clinician in the twenty-first century can be of considerable help to the female athlete who is at and beyond puberty.
de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C.; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza
OBJECTIVE: To study anthropometrical and body composition variables as predictors of risk for metabolic alterations and metabolic syndrome in female adolescents. METHODS: Biochemical, clinical and corporal composition data of 100 adolescents from 14 to 17 years old, who attended public schools in Viçosa, Southeastern Brazil, were collected. RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, 83, 11 and 6% showed eutrophia, overweight/obesity and low weight, respectively, and 61% presented high body fat percent. Total cholesterol presented the highest percentage of inadequacy (57%), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL - 50%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL - 47%) and triacylglycerol (22%). Inadequacy was observed in 11, 9, 3 and 4% in relation to insulin resistance, fasting insulin, blood pressure and glycemia, respectively. The highest values of the fasting insulin and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were verified at the highest quartiles of body mass index (BMI), waist perimeter, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percent. Body mass index, waist perimeter, and waist-to-height ratio were the better predictors for high levels of HOMA-IR, blood glucose and fasting insulin. Waist-to-hip ratio was associated to arterial hypertension diagnosis. All body composition variables were effective in metabolic syndrome diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Waist perimeter, BMI and waist-to-height ratio showed to be good predictors for metabolic alterations in female adolescents and then should be used together for the nutritional assessment in this age range. PMID:25119752
Meltzer, Lisa J; Logan, Deirdre E; Mindell, Jodi A
This study examined sleep patterns in female adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Twenty-six participants with chronic musculoskeletal pain completed questionnaires during their clinic visit, and three 24-Hour Sleep Patterns Interviews during the following 2 weeks. Compared to normative data (Acebo & Carskadon, 2002), adolescents with chronic pain reported similar total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes. However, study participants reported significantly longer sleep onset latency, more night wakings, a later morning wake time, and more symptoms of daytime sleepiness. Pain improved after sleep for 27% of the study sample, and was associated with longer TST. Finally, depression and anxiety were related to daytime sleepiness, but not total sleep time or sleep onset latency. Female adolescents with chronic pain either may be more sensitive to the chronic sleep debt that is common in this age group, or they may experience underlying physiological sleep disrupters (e.g., periodic limb movement disorder) or sleep abnormalities (e.g., alpha-delta intrusions) not measured in this study. Additional research is needed to examine the complex relation between sleep and chronic musculoskeletal pain.
Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.
Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB) of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months). The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001) and T3 (p=0.001). The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04). The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year. PMID:24676195
Lynn, Debra A; Brown, Gillian R
During adolescence, rats gain independence from their mothers and disperse from the natal burrow, with males typically dispersing further than females. We predicted that, if dispersal patterns are associated with responsiveness to novelty, exploratory behavior in novel environments would increase across adolescence, and males would explore more than females. Alternatively, females might explore more than males, if females are more motivated than males to learn about the immediate environment or if females have poorer spatial abilities than males. Twenty-five male and 21 female rats were exposed to two novel environments (open field and elevated plus-maze) during early, mid-, or late adolescence. Total locomotion and amount of exploration directed towards aversive areas increased across adolescence, even when body weight was included as a covariate. Female adolescents locomoted more and spent more time exploring aversive areas than males. Developmental changes in neural function potentially underlie age and sex differences in exploratory behavior.
Huda, N.; Pant, Ajay; Jameel, Tariq
Osteochondroma or osteocartolaginous exostosis is by far the most common benign bone tumour, which accounts for 35% to 50% of benign bone neoplasms and 10% to 15% of all primary bone tumours. Osteochondroma represents a developmental enchondromatous hyperplasia which leads to formation of cartilage capped bony protrusions on bony surfaces. We present a case report of a 14-year- old female, who presented to us with a hard, gradually progressing, large painless swelling, over the left side of her neck. Swelling was nontender, extending from dorsal to ventral aspect, measuring 6 x 8 cm. Therefore, we are interested in introducing our case to medical fraternity, in which a giant lower cervical spine osteochondroma was seen in an adolescent female patient. PMID:24995199
King, S J; de Sales Turner
This phenomenological study was undertaken to explore in depth the experiences of registered nurses caring for adolescent anorexic females within paediatric wards of general hospitals in Victoria, Australia. A qualitative design underpinned by the philosophy of Edmund Husserl was employed for this study. Audio taped in-depth interviews with five registered nurses working within the public health care system were conducted. Using Colaizzi's procedural steps of analysis, six themes of meaning were explicated. They were: (a) personal core values of nurses; (b) core values challenged; (c) emotional turmoil; (d) frustration; (e) turning points; and (f) resolution. These themes, when taken together, described the essence of the journey undertaken by registered nurses who cared for adolescent anorexic females. The findings of this study indicated that there is a need for extensive registered nurse preparation, on-going support, and development of education programmes to enable registered nurses to care for these patients with greater understanding. Further, the participants identified the need for new care regimes and protocols to be developed that incorporated new ways of thinking. They also expressed a desire to be have greater involvement in the planned care of their patients.
Gunst, Noëlle; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Vasey, Paul L
We explored the role that sexual and social partners play in the expression of female homosexual behavior among adolescent female Japanese macaques at Arashiyama, Japan. Our data fully or partially supported all the predictions related to four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses, namely the "adult male disinterest in adolescent females" hypothesis, the "numerous homosexual adult females" hypothesis, the "safer homosexual interactions" hypothesis and the "same-sex sexual interactions" hypothesis. Our results show that both sexual context (e.g., lack of adolescent female attractivity toward adult males, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners), and social context (e.g., risk of aggression) help explain the high frequency and prevalence of homosexual behavior in adolescent females in the Arashiyama group of Japanese macaques. As with adult females, whose homosexual consortships do not reflect generalized patterns of social affiliation or kinship, we found that adolescent females' same-sex sexual partners were neither kin, nor were they non-kin individuals with whom adolescent females were closely affiliated outside of a consortship context. Our study furthers the growing database of female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques and provides additional evidence that homosexual behavior as expressed by adolescent female Japanese macaques is, like heterosexual behavior, sexual in nature. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a broader comparative approach that may shed light upon the development and evolution of human homosexuality.
Dillen, Claudia; Steyaert, Jean; Op de Beeck, Hans P.; Boets, Bart
The embedded figures test has often been used to reveal weak central coherence in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we administered a more standardized automated version of the embedded figures test in combination with the configural superiority task, to investigate the effect of contextual modulation on local feature…
Meurer, Elisea M; Garcez, Vera; von Eye Corleta, Helena; Capp, Edison
The objective of this study is to characterize voice intensity and stability of fundamental frequency, formants and diadochokinesis, vocal modulations, rhythms, and speed of speech in adolescents during follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Twenty-three adolescent females who were nonusers of oral contraceptives participated in a cross-sectional study of menstrual cycle influences on voicing and speaking tasks. Acoustic analyses were performed during both phases of the menstrual cycle using the Kay Elemetrics Computer Speech Lab Software Package. Data were analyzed using Student's paired sample t test. Phono-articulatory parameters were similar in both phases of the menstrual cycle (fundamental frequency: 192.6+/-23.9 Hz; minimum formant 891.7+/-110.3 Hz; and maximum formant: 2471.5+/-203.6 Hz). In diadochokinesis, they had a speed of 5.6+/-0.6 seg/s and vocal intensity was 61.5+/-2.6 dB. The mean values for the variations in voice modulations were as follows: anger (21.7+/-8.7 Hz)
Zweig, Janine M.; Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; McGinley, Karen Alexander
Examines the interrelationships among adolescent health risk behaviors using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health for 12,955 adolescents. Findings show distinct differences for males and females in risk profile, but few distinctions between profiles based on socioeconomic characteristics. (SLD)
There has been a scarcity of research studies addressing the dilemmas of peer relationships confronting gifted adolescent females. In this study, the peer relationships of nine mathematically gifted adolescent females living in Taiwan are explored using a qualitative multicase study. Data analysis revealed six compelling themes: a proclivity for…
Coleman, Katherine; Mills, Bethany
This psychoeducational counselling group is designed to explore the many facets of the emerging female adolescent identity and foster a high level of self-esteem. According to Powell (2004) adolescence is a time, and even more so for females, which can be marked by many identity conflicts and low levels of self-esteem. As such, this 14 week…
Pergadia, Michele L.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Lessov, Christina N.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Heath, Andrew C.
Background: The objective was to determine whether the pattern of environmental and genetic influences on deviant personality scores differs from that observed for the normative range of personality, comparing results in adolescent and adult female twins. Methods: A sample of 2,796 female adolescent twins ascertained from birth records provided…
Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela
The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…
Schneider, A S; Mayer, H M; Geißler, U; Rumpf, M C; Schneider, C
This study addresses the epidemiology of injuries in adolescent male and female soccer players in Germany. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to analyse the injuries in male and female youth soccer players in Germany. This study was designed as a cross-sectional web-based survey. From March until December 2011 we investigated 1110 soccer players (male n = 841; female n = 269) aged 12 - 19 years (15.0 ± 2.0 years) from 60 clubs in Southern Germany. A total of 664 (79 %) of the 841 boys and 67 (25 %) of the 269 girls reported being injured due to soccer. The total number of injuries was 2373. Respectively the frequency of injury was 2.85 in boys and 7.10 in girls. The lower extremities were affected in 70 % of all reported cases. Strains were the most common injuries in the lower and upper extremities (35 %). The boys reported in 51.5 % of all injuries that the injury was non-contact in nature. In contrast, 52.1 % of the injuries in girls were reported as contact injuries. Similar amounts of injuries were observed in training versus games for both genders. Prevention procedures, such as a thorough warm-up, should be implemented before every game and training to reduce the risk of injury.
Lardenoije, Céline; Aardenburg, Robert; Mertens, Helen
A 16-year-old girl presented with primary amenorrhea and had had cyclical abdominal pain for almost a year. At examination we observed a painful mass in the lower abdomen and normal secondary sex characteristics. Perineal examination showed a bluish bulging hymen. Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed a dense mass in the pelvis measuring about 12×11 cm. We diagnosed an imperforate hymen with haematocolpos and haematometra. The hymen was opened surgically and a large quantity of menstrual blood was drained from the vagina and uterus. Postoperative recovery was normal without any pain. The patient now menstruates regularly. An imperforate hymen occurs in 0.05% of women. It is important to be aware of this while examining a female adolescent presenting with cyclical abdominal pain and primary amenorrhea. Late discovery of an imperforate hymen may lead to pain, infections, hydronephrosis and endometriosis with subfertility as a possible consequence. PMID:21686660
Fehlandt, A; Micheli, L
Acute compartment syndromes usually occur as a complication of major trauma. While the chronic exertional anterior tibial compartment syndrome is well described in the sports medicine literature, reports of acute tibial compartment syndromes due to physical exertion, or repetitive microtrauma, are rare. The case of an adolescent female who developed an acute anterior compartment syndrome from running in a soccer game is described in this report. Failure to recognize the onset of an acute exertional compartment syndrome may lead to treatment delay and serious complications. Whereas the chronic exertional anterior compartment syndrome is characterized by pain that diminishes with the cessation of exercise, the onset of the acute exertional anterior compartment syndrome is heralded by pain that continues, or increases, after exercise has stopped. Compartment pressure measurement confirms the clinical diagnosis and helps guide treatment. True compartment syndromes require urgent fasciotomy.
Barth, H; Döbler, T; Galletzki, R; Amon, K
A questionnaire survey on sex knowledge of 930 female vocational students (17-18 year olds) was done to assess future needs in sex education. Main points in the questionnaire were sex upbringing and education received; peer groups, couple and contraceptive behavior; and attitude to family and family planning. Socioeconomic factors, parents' occupation, and size of residence were considered. Results showed: 70.4% had some kind of sex upbringing before age 12; 24.5% after age 12. Whereas up to 80% wanted sex education from parents, only about 55% actually received this (mothers mostly); 80% of actual sex information came from books and TV. Peers proved closer to the girls in confidence than parents. Although teachers were 3rd in line to provide actual sex education they were last as persons desired by the girls to provide this. Nearly 60% of the subjects desired more information in the areas of love and marriage, sex in adolescence, effects and side effects of the pill, general contraceptive methods and sex behavior. Conclusions from the survey point to the need to start sex education at an early age and extend it into adolescence and beyond; it should be direct, continuous and goal-oriented. Teenagers desire interpersonal dialogue with concerned adults. There should be cooperation in sex education between parents, teachers, and youth organizations. Teachers are insufficiently prepared to assume the role as sex educator. Teenagers need more factual information on conscious family planning and contraceptive methods.
Krauss, Ramona C; Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy
This paper investigated weight misperceptions as determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in body mass index (BMI) among adolescent females using data from the National Survey of Youth 1997. Compared to their white counterparts, higher proportions of black and Hispanic adolescent females underperceived their weight status; that is, they misperceived themselves to have lower weight status compared to their clinically defined weight status. Compared to their black counterparts, higher proportions of white and Hispanic adolescent females misperceived themselves to be heavier than their clinical weight status. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis showed that accounting for weight misperceptions, in addition to individual and contextual factors, increased the total explained portion of the black-white female BMI gap from 44.7% to 54.3% but only slightly increased the total explained portion of the Hispanic-white gap from 62.8% to 63.1%. Weight misperceptions explained 13.0% of the black-white female BMI gap and 3.3% of the Hispanic-white female BMI gap. The regression estimates showed that weight underperceptions were important determinants of adolescent female BMI, particularly among black and Hispanic adolescents. Education regarding identification and interpretation of weight status may play an important role to help reduce the incidence and racial disparity of female adolescent obesity.
This study investigates factors influencing participation of Afro-American female adolescents in sports. Following a review of the literature, two topics are addressed. The first of these, "Behavior in Sport," discusses benefits of sports to youth; stereotypes of Afro-American female sports participants; behaviors of female athletes; and…
Castillo Mezzich, A; Tarter, R E; Giancola, P R; Lu, S; Kirisci, L; Parks, S
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the etiological pathways towards substance use and risky sexual behavior in female adolescent substance abusers. The study had three aims: (1) to determine the relations between behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, and childhood victimization with substance use and risky sexual behavior, (2) to determine whether these relations are mediated by internalizing symptomatology, antisocial behavior, and affiliating with an adult boyfriend; and (3) to determine whether age of menarche moderates the relation between the mediating variables and substance use and risky sexual behavior. Multiple behavioral, psychiatric interview, and self-report measures were used to index behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, childhood victimization, internalizing symptomatology, antisocial behavior, affiliation with adult boyfriends, substance use, and risky sexual behavior in 125 substance abusing female adolescents and 78 controls between the ages of 14-18 years. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the etiological pathways. Results indicated that behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, and childhood victimization were related to substance use and risky sexual behavior. Age of menarche was significantly correlated with affiliation with an older boyfriend and risky sexual behavior. Antisocial behavior mediated the associations between behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity and childhood victimization with substance use and risky sexual behavior. Affiliation with an adult boyfriend was directly associated with substance use involvement and accounted for the relationship between chronological age and risky sexual behavior. Finally, late menarche enhanced the association between internalizing symptomatology and substance use involvement. The results highlight the importance of behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, and childhood victimization in predicting substance use and risky sexual
de Carvalho, Filipe Ricardo Pires; Figueira Martins, Ana Teresa da Conceição; Teixeira, Ana Maria Miranda Botelho
In spite of the advances in knowledge on the multi-factorial nature of obesity, many questions related to the consequences of the disease continue to be unanswered. Several studies have reported biomechanic and kinematic adaptation and alterations in walking and in tasks of every day life, motivated by the additional load of fat mass in children and adults. The main objective of this study was to understand the effect of obesity in the electromyographic activity of four lower extremity muscles during three speeds of walking and during a countermovement jump (CMJ) in twenty two (9 obese and 13 normal weight) female adolescents aged 13. Although electromyographic differences were not observed between groups for normal, slow and fast speeds, data suggests that the preferred pace of the obese is less efficient than that of the normal weight group. In CMJ task, differences in the after-fall jump phase were observed. More studies are needed to explain if the few differences observed between groups are caused by the bigger amount of fat mass.
Tolman, Deborah L.
This chapter challenges forthcoming research on adolescent female sexuality to take more seriously the role of dominant cultural ideologies regarding heterosexuality and to consider its theoretical and methodological implications.
Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang
This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.
Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang
This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.
Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores D.
When examining the experiences of adolescent girls, a study into the presumptions teachers have regarding female adolescent sexuality is a very important aspect to explore. This article presents the findings from a study we conducted with eleven middle- and high school teachers in a southeastern state from both rural and urban districts. In-depth…
Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Smith-Adcock, Sondra
According to the reputation enhancement theory, social bonds influence adolescents' delinquent activity indirectly through the reputations they select. Findings from the current study of a school-based sample of female adolescents indicate that bonds to parents affect reputation enhancement beliefs, which, in turn, predict delinquent activity.…
Swank, Jacqueline M.; Lenes, Emi A.
A sandtray group experience is a creative intervention that counselors may want to incorporate into their work with adolescents. This qualitative inquiry explored the experiences of adolescent females who participated in a sandtray group while attending an alternative school. The researchers identified five themes that emerged from the data: (a)…
Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Priore, Silvia Eloiza
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1), eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2), eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV). Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032). There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049). The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034) and percentage of central fat (p=0.039) compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751). Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess. PMID:24676194
Abrams, Laura S.; Stormer, Colleen Cook
Investigated the influences of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and ethnic peer group composition on awareness and internalization of socially sanctioned standards of appearance using the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Adolescence Questionnaire. Findings for 208 adolescent females highlight the importance of multiple ecological factors in…
Storch, Eric A.; Masia-Warner, Carrie
This study examined the relationship of overt and relational victimization to social anxiety, loneliness, and prosocial behaviours in a sample of female adolescents. The Social Experience Questionnaire, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 561 girls in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh grades of an…
Nelson, Christine Seipke; Keith, Joanne
Theory and research related to early adolescent sex role development needs to be addressed from both a life-span and an ecological perspective. A study was conducted to examine the development of female early adolescent sex role attitudes and behaviors in an ecological context as defined by Urie Bronfenbrenner. Data were the results of a…
Harrison, Kristen; Fredrickson, Barbara L.
Considers that sports media exposure may be linked to female adolescents' body perceptions. Tests this relationship from the perspective of objectification theory. Finds that self-objectification appears to be as problematic for adolescent girls as for college women, regardless of race or body mass. Focuses on self-objectification in adolescents…
Young, Joyce Lynom
Describes school counselor intervention program used for facilitating the personal development of adolescents. Notes that intervention occurred through activities that were designed for black female adolescents in a secondary public school. Describes how goals were met through structured developmental activities, counseling sessions, and organized…
Kosson, David S.; Neumann, Craig S.; Forth, Adelle E.; Salekin, Randall T.; Hare, Robert D.; Krischer, Maya K.; Sevecke, Kathrin
Despite substantial evidence for the fit of the 3- and 4-factor models of Psychopathy Checklist-based ratings of psychopathy in adult males and adolescents, evidence is less consistent in adolescent females. However, prior studies used samples much smaller than recommended for examining model fit. To address this issue, we conducted a confirmatory…
Brinson, Jesse A.
Examined African-American adolescents' use of alcohol and their perceptions of their family environments. Alcohol-using adolescents (n=71) completed Family Environment Scale (FES). Analyses of data revealed that females differed significantly from males on 4 of 10 FES subscales. Findings support view that alcohol affects perception of family…
Lo, Denise Swei; Shieh, Huei Hsin; Barreira, Eliane Roseli; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta; Gilio, Alfredo Elias
Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a rarely reported agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in the pediatric population. In our retrospective 3-year study, S. saprophyticus comprised 24.5% of 106 isolates of UTIs in female adolescents 12-15 years of age who attended an emergency department. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of this etiology when empirically treating UTIs in female adolescents.
Lee, Kyu-Jin; Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young; Jun, Tae-Won; Song, Wook
The purpose of this study was to assess differences in the levels of plasma visfatin among female adolescents and changes in plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents after 12 wk of aerobic exercise training. Twenty normal-weight female students (body-mass index [BMI] < 22.9 kg/m² and body fat ≤ 29.9) and 18 obese female students (BMI ≥ 25 kg/ m² and body fat ≥ 30%) participated in this study. Eleven obese students were assigned to an exercise group and completed a 12-wk aerobic exercise-training program that included four 40- to 50-min sessions per wk with an energy expenditure of 300-400 kcal/d. Seven obese students were assigned to a control group that received no exercise sessions or dietary restriction. The plasma visfatin levels of obese female adolescents were significantly higher (p < .05) than those of the normal-weight female adolescents. The plasma visfatin levels (294.00 ± 124.74 ng/ml to 185.55 ± 67.30 ng/ml, p < .01) and insulin resistance (p < .05) were significantly reduced after 12 wk of aerobic exercise. The results suggest that aerobic exercise resulting in an energy expenditure of 1,200-1,600 kcal/wk for 12 wk decreases plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents.
Kunz, Jennifer Hauser; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Mussatto, Kathleen A.; Roth-Wojcicki, Betsy; Miller, Tami; Freeman, Mary Ellen; Lerand, Sarah
Purpose To examine whether perceived peer/parent norms or personal beliefs about adolescent substance use influence substance use among female adolescents with chronic medical conditions. Methods 68 females reported on substance use, personal beliefs, and perceived peer/parent norms. Results Personal beliefs and perceived peer/parent norms were associated with adolescent’s current and future substance use. Although perceived peer norms accounted for variance in current substance use, only personal beliefs accounted for variance in future alcohol use. Conclusions Targeting perceived peer norms may be effective for intervention efforts among adolescents endorsing current substance use, whereas alcohol use prevention efforts should target personal beliefs. PMID:23524992
Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Lemaine, Valerie; Weathers, William M.; Chike-Obi, Chuma J.; Xue, Amy S.; Heller, Lior
Macromastia in adolescents is multifactorial and usually idiopathic, associated with obesity or hormonal imbalances. Less commonly, it can result from virginal or juvenile breast hypertrophy, a rare condition of unknown etiology, where an alarmingly rapid breast enlargement occurs during puberty. Breast hypertrophy in the adolescent population can have significant long-term medical and psychological impacts. Although symptoms can be severe, many plastic surgeons, pediatricians, and parents are often reluctant to surgically treat adolescent macromastia. However, reduction mammoplasty is a safe and effective treatment and may be the only way to alleviate the increased social, psychological, and physical strain caused by macromastia in adolescents. PMID:24872740
McCormick, C M; Mongillo, D L; Simone, J J
We previously observed that social instability stress (SS: daily 1 h isolation and change of cage partners for 16 days) in adolescence, but not in adulthood, decreased context and cue memory after fear conditioning in male rats. Effects of stress are typically sex-specific, and so here we investigated adolescent and adult SS effects in females on the strength of acquired contextual and cued fear conditioning, as well as extinction learning, beginning either the day after the stress procedure or four weeks later. For SS in adolescence, SS females spent more time freezing (fear measure) during extinction than did controls, whereas SS in adulthood had no effect on any measure of fear conditioning. The results also indicated an effect of age: females in late adolescence show more rapid extinction of cue and better memory of extinction of context compared to adult females, which may indicate resilience to acute footshock in adolescence. Thus fear circuitry continues to mature into late adolescence, which may underlie the heightened plasticity in response to chronic stressors of adolescents compared to adults.
Sharps, Maxine; Higgs, Suzanne; Blissett, Jackie; Nouwen, Arie; Chechlacz, Magdalena; Allen, Harriet A; Robinson, Eric
Behavioural mimicry is a potential mechanism explaining why adolescents appear to be influenced by their parents' eating behaviour. In the current study we examined whether there is evidence that adolescent females mimic their parents when eating. Videos of thirty-eight parent and female adolescent dyads eating a lunchtime meal together were examined. We tested whether a parent placing a food item into their mouth was associated with an increased likelihood that their adolescent child would place any food item (non-specific mimicry) or the same item (specific mimicry) in their mouth at three different time frames, namely, during the same second or within the next fifteen seconds (+15), five seconds (+5) or two second (+2) period. Parents and adolescents' overall food intake was positively correlated, whereby a parent eating a larger amount of food was associated with the adolescent eating a larger meal. Across all of the three time frames adolescents were more likely to place a food item in their mouth if their parent had recently placed that same food item in their mouth (specific food item mimicry); however, there was no evidence of non-specific mimicry. This observational study suggests that when eating in a social context there is evidence that adolescent females may mimic their parental eating behaviour, selecting and eating more of a food item if their parent has just started to eat that food.
van der Put, Claudia; van Vugt, Eveline S; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Hendriks, Jan
The present study aimed to examine differences in psychosocial and developmental characteristics between Adolescent Females who have committed Sexual Offenses (AFSOs; n = 40), Adolescent Females who have committed nonsexual Violent Offenses (AFVOs; n = 533), and Adolescent Males who have committed Sexual Offenses (AMSO, n = 743). Results showed that AFSOs and AMSOs were remarkably similar, whereas AFSOs and AFVOs were remarkably different on the measured variables. Compared to AFVOs, AFSOs less often had antisocial friends and problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school) and family (e.g., parental problems, poor authority and control, and run away from home). Victimization of sexual abuse outside the family and social isolation were found to be more common in AFSOs than in AFVOs. Victimization of sexual abuse outside the family was the only specific characteristic of female adolescent sexual offending, as this was more common in AFSOs than in both AMSOs and AFVOs.
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Piacentini, John; Van Rossem, Ronan; Graae, Flemming; Cantwell, Coleen; Castro-Blanco, David; Feldman, Julie
Disenfranchised Latina adolescents (N=140) and their mothers presenting at a large urban emergency room after a suicide attempt by the adolescent were assessed to examine treatment adherence. Predictor variables for treatment adherence were established. Results are discussed in relation to treatment session attendance. Implications for the…
Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee E.; Garwick, Ann W.
Background: Initiation of sexual intercourse during early adolescence is a known risk factor for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Purpose: To examine young women's stories describing peer in?uences on their romantic and sexual decisions and behavior during early adolescence. Methods: Semistructured ethnographic interviews were…
van der Molen, E.; Vermeiren, R. R. J. M.; Krabbendam, A. A.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Doreleijers, T. A. H.; Jansen, L. M. C.
Background: Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Method: Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 SD = 0.6) years later in young adulthood (mean age = 20.0,…
Welch, Chiquitia L.; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon
The rise in female delinquency has resulted in large numbers of girls being incarcerated in Youth Development Centers (YDC). However, there are few gender specific treatment programs for incarcerated female adolescent offenders, particularly for those with a history of substance dependency. In this article, we present a Multi-level Risk Model…
Pandey, Divya; Divedi, Pragati; Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Mishra, Pallav
Human myiasis refers to parasitic infestation of body tissues by larvae of several fly species. The entity has a simple management. Human myiasis is well-documented in the literature however genital myiasis in females is scarcely reported in the literature. We hereby report this entity in an adolescent female who presented with urinary retention and concomitant urinary tract infection.
Tschann, Jeanne M.; Adler, Nancy E.
Examined relationships among sexual self-acceptance, communication with sexual partners about sex and contraception, and contraceptive use in 201 adolescent females, ages 14 to 19. Found that females with greater sexual self-acceptance communicated more with partners about sex and contraception. Discussion about contraception, but not about sex,…
Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Steve; Khan, Umneea; Tan, Carol
This research investigated differences in delinquent activities and the reputational orientations of at-risk and not-at-risk male and female adolescents. Initially, we sought to establish that adolescent males and females differed in these respects. This was found to be the case: males (n = 722) scored significantly higher than females (n = 738)…
Madan, Rebecca Pellett; Carpenter, Colleen; Fiedler, Tina; Kalyoussef, Sabah; McAndrew, Thomas C.; Viswanathan, Shankar; Kim, Mimi; Keller, Marla J.; Fredricks, David N.; Herold, Betsy C.
Background Genital secretions collected from adult women exhibit in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), but prior studies have not investigated this endogenous antimicrobial activity or its mediators in adolescent females. Methodology/Principal Findings Anti-HSV and anti-E.coli activity were quantified from cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens collected from 20 sexually active adolescent females (15–18 years). Soluble immune mediators that may influence this activity were measured in CVL, and concentrations of Lactobacillus jensenii and crispatus were quantified by PCR from vaginal swabs. Results for adolescents were compared to those obtained from 54 healthy, premenopausal adult women. Relative to specimens collected from adults, CVL collected from adolescent subjects had significantly reduced activity against E. coli and diminished concentrations of protein, IgG, and IgA but significantly increased anti-HSV activity and concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Vaginal swabs collected from adolescent subjects had comparable concentrations of L. crispatus but significantly reduced concentrations of L. jensenii, relative to adult swabs. Conclusions/Significance Biomarkers of genital mucosal innate immunity may differ substantially between sexually active adolescents and adult women. These findings warrant further study and may have significant implications for prevention of sexually transmitted infections in adolescent females. PMID:22808157
Olivari, Maria Giulia; Santoro, Elena; Stagni Brenca, Elisa; Confalonieri, Emanuela; Di Blasio, Paola
Our aim was to explore health workers' perceptions of providing sexuality and contraception care for female adolescents within family health centers. We interviewed 26 volunteer health workers and analyzed the interviews using thematic analysis. We identified three main themes: (a) "adolescents and sexuality," with the subthemes "initiation rite," "me like the others," and "just for fun"; (b) "adolescents and contraception," with the subthemes "omnipotent adolescents," "aware adolescents," and "women's responsibility"; and
Lepusić, Dubravko; Radović-Radovcić, Sandra
Alcohol use has been linked to risky sexual practices among adolescents. However, limited research on alcohol use and risky sexual behavior has been conducted among female adolescents. This study examined a high quantity of alcohol as a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among female adolescents. Three hundred ninety-three adolescent females aged 15-21 were assessed for alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants also provided 2 swab specimens that were assayed for STDs. Use of high alcohol quantity was defined as > or = 3 drinks in 1 sitting. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of alcohol use at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STDs over a 12-month period. Age, intervention group and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that use of high alcohol quantity predicted inconsistent condom use, high sexual sensation seeking, multiple sexual partners, sex while high on alcohol or drugs, and having anal sex during 12-month follow-up period. These findings suggest that STD-related behavioral interventions for adolescents should discuss the link between alcohol and STD-risk behavior. Deeper understanding of alcohol as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among female adolescents is of paramount importance for development of efficient prevention programs at individual and community levels. The risk of acquiring an STD is higher among teenagers than among adults.
Aronowitz, Teri; Rennells, Rachel E; Todd, Erin
African Americans make up the greater proportion of AIDS cases in adolescent girls but little is understood about the development of sexual risk behaviors during the early adolescent years. This article will explore ecological factors influencing adolescent sexual risk behaviors. In the focus groups, which were conducted using 28 African American mothers and their early adolescent daughters, 2 major themes emerged: exposure and support systems. Mothers described the impact community had on their daughters and how monitoring and support systems worked together to control exposure. The girls detailed the different ways they were impacted by the community. Attitudes the girls adopted from their exposures resulted in risk-taking behaviors or a determination to positively impact the community. Community was shown to be the context of the acquisition of sexual knowledge and attitudes. These findings support the development of interventions to address the impact of community on the participation of sexual risk behaviors.
Rubino, Tiziana; Prini, Pamela; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Zamberletti, Erica; Trusel, Massimo; Melis, Miriam; Sagheddu, Claudia; Ligresti, Alessia; Tonini, Raffaella; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Parolaro, Daniela
Current concepts suggest that exposure to THC during adolescence may act as a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. However, the molecular underpinnings of this vulnerability are still poorly understood. To analyze this, we investigated whether and how THC exposure in female rats interferes with different maturational events occurring in the prefrontal cortex during adolescence through biochemical, pharmacological and electrophysiological means. We found that the endocannabinoid system undergoes maturational processes during adolescence and that THC exposure disrupts them, leading to impairment of both endocannabinoid signaling and endocannabinoid-mediated LTD in the adult prefrontal cortex. THC also altered the maturational fluctuations of NMDA subunits, leading to larger amounts of gluN2B at adulthood. Adult animals exposed to THC during adolescence also showed increased AMPA gluA1 with no changes in gluA2 subunits. Finally, adolescent THC exposure altered cognition at adulthood. All these effects seem to be triggered by the disruption of the physiological role played by the endocannabinoid system during adolescence. Indeed, blockade of CB1 receptors from early to late adolescence seems to prevent the occurrence of pruning at glutamatergic synapses. These results suggest that vulnerability of adolescent female rats to long-lasting THC adverse effects might partly reside in disruption of the pivotal role played by the endocannabinoid system in the prefrontal cortex maturation.
Sargent, Roger C.; And Others
Results indicated that black females ingested more energy, protein, calcium, and iron than did white females. Significant percentages of both black and white females' intakes of energy, calcium, and iron fell below recommended allowances, suggesting that most of those surveyed possessed poor prepregnancy nutritional status. (RJM)
Sher-Censor, Efrat; Oppenheim, David
The study examined the associations between female adolescents' individuation during mid-adolescence and their adjustment two years later to leaving home for mandatory military service. Forty nine daughter-mother dyads participated. Individuality and connectedness during adolescent-mother interactions were observed at age 16. Two years later girls reported on their psychological distress and negative expectations regarding the upcoming conscription, and both daughters and mothers reported on maternal support of daughters' autonomy. Controlling for these concurrent perceptions, girls' higher connectedness was associated with less psychological distress and their higher individuality in the context of low to medium connectedness was related to more negative expectations. These findings contribute to the literature on home leaving by showing that early individuation may play a role in female adolescents' adjustment to this transition.
Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Williams, David R.; Harvey-Mendoza, Elizabeth; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.
Objectives. We examined the impact of Arizona’s “Supporting Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act” (SB 1070, enacted July 29, 2010) on the utilization of preventive health care and public assistance among Mexican-origin families. Methods. Data came from 142 adolescent mothers and 137 mother figures who participated in a quasi-experimental, ongoing longitudinal study of the health and development of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers and their infants (4 waves; March 2007–December 2011). We used general estimating equations to determine whether utilization of preventive health care and public assistance differed before versus after SB 1070’s enactment. Results. Adolescents reported declines in use of public assistance and were less likely to take their baby to the doctor; compared with older adolescents, younger adolescents were less likely to use preventive health care after SB 1070. Mother figures were less likely to use public assistance after SB 1070 if they were born in the United States and if their post–SB 1070 interview was closer to the law’s enactment. Conclusions. Findings suggest that immigration policies such as SB 1070 may contribute to decreases in use of preventive health care and public assistance among high-risk populations. PMID:24354823
Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Dennison, Meg; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B
Adolescence is a crucial period for the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Despite the fact that structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex during adolescence is often assumed to underlie the maturation of emotion regulation strategies, no longitudinal studies have directly assessed this relationship. This study examined whether use of cognitive reappraisal strategies during late adolescence was predicted by (i) absolute prefrontal cortical thickness during early adolescence and (ii) structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex between early and mid-adolescence. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans when they were aged approximately 12 and 16 years, respectively. FreeSurfer software was used to obtain cortical thickness estimates for three prefrontal regions [anterior cingulate cortex; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC); ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)]. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire was completed when adolescents were aged approximately 19 years. Results showed that greater cortical thinning of the left dlPFC and left vlPFC during adolescence was significantly associated with greater use of cognitive reappraisal in females, though no such relationship was evident in males. Furthermore, baseline left dlPFC thickness predicted cognitive reappraisal at trend level. These findings suggest that cortical maturation may play a role in the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies during adolescence.
Cotter, Katie L; Smokowski, Paul R
Despite growing trends in adolescent female aggression, much adolescent aggression research has focused on males to the exclusion of their female counterparts. Using relational-cultural and social role theories, the current study identifies the risk and promotive factors associated with adolescent female aggression. Using data from the Rural Adaptation Project (a 5 year longitudinal panel study of youth from two rural, ethnically diverse, low income counties in North Carolina), a 2-level hierarchical linear model was estimated (N = 3580). Internalizing symptoms, association with delinquent friends, peer pressure, and parent-child conflict emerged as risk factors whereas teacher support was a significant promotive factor. Results suggest that interventions should focus on negative relationships in both the parent and peer domains and underscore the need for mental health services for aggressive girls.
Smith, Chad E; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Lieberth, Ann
Adolescent health and health literacy are critical health topics recognized in Healthy People 2020. Evidence indicates that adolescents who are d/Deaf have unique health-related needs, yet health communication efforts have not reached them. Despite the Internet's exponential growth and the growth of online health information-seeking behavior among adolescents, reliable information devoted specifically to d/Deaf adolescents who communicate primarily in ASL is rare. D/deaf adolescent females face numerous challenges accessing web-based health information to enhance their decision making about important health issues such as body image, physical activity and nutrition, puberty, and relationships. A strong need exists for interdisciplinary professionals to investigate the health interests and online health information-seeking behaviors of this group in order to effectively plan, implement, and evaluate a web-based health repository that delivers content in ASL. This Call to Action represents a first step in addressing that need.
Monsma, Eva V.
One study of figure skaters found that menarcheal status was a stronger predictor than age in explaining the variance in their self-perceptions. Postmenarcheal skaters had significantly lower self-esteem and physical self-concept and were less satisfied with their appearance than premenarcheal skaters. Surprisingly, skating context (i.e., skating…
Dalwani, Manish S.; McMahon, Mary Agnes; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Young, Susan E.; Regner, Michael F.; Raymond, Kristen M.; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Banich, Marie T.; Tanabe, Jody L.; Crowley, Thomas J; Sakai, Joseph T.
Objective Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages. Hypotheses: Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate), valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex) and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum). Methods We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years) with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8) toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold. Results Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls. Conclusions Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in
Murphy, Devin; Knapp, Caprice A.; Christie, Juliette; Phares, Vicky; Wells, Kristen J.
Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the coping styles of female adolescent cancer patients regarding potential loss of fertility. Expectations and desires for the future, coping styles in typical adolescence, and coping styles when faced with potential loss of fertility due to cancer treatment are discussed. Methods Female adolescents diagnosed with cancer aged 12–18 years at study (N=14) were administered a 10-item values clarification tool to pilot test the readability and relevance of the items on reproductive concerns, followed by a cognitive debriefing interview asking participants how they would respond to each item. These qualitative responses were assessed for coping style type using the constant comparative approach. Results All adolescent participants reported having a strong desire for biological children in the future. Reactions to questions regarding the loss of fertility fell into two categories of coping styles: emotion-focused coping or problem-focused (engagement) coping. Within emotion-focused coping, there were three distinct styles: externalizing attribution style, internalizing attribution style, and repressive adaptation. Problem-focused coping adolescents displayed optimism. Conclusion Successful interventions aimed at promoting adaptive coping styles should seek to uncover adolescents' values about future parenthood and reproduction. Development of an age-appropriate assessment to stimulate dialogue regarding fertility and initiate an adolescent's cognitive processing of potential fertility loss is warranted. PMID:23781403
Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Gayles, Jochebed G
The current study tested a developmental-contextual model of depressive symptomatology among Mexican-origin, female early and middle adolescents and their mothers. The final sample comprised 271 dyads. We examined the interrelations among cultural (i.e., acculturation dissonance), developmental (i.e., pubertal development and autonomy expectation discrepancies), and interpersonal (i.e., mother-daughter conflict and maternal supportive parenting) factors in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms. For both early and middle adolescents, maternal support was negatively associated with mother-daughter conflict and depressive symptoms. Mother-daughter autonomy expectation discrepancies were positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but this association was found only among early adolescents. Further, mother-daughter acculturation dissonance was positively associated with mother-daughter conflict but only among middle adolescents. Findings call for concurrently examining the interface of developmental, relational, and cultural factors in predicting female adolescents' depressive symptomatology and the potential differences by developmental stage (e.g., early vs. middle adolescence).
Stevens, Linda Marie Pettis
The development of a sense of self in adolescence has been shown to be influenced by the perceived level of warmth of the mother. Additionally, the nature of the home environment has been found to relate to an adolescent's level of self-esteem (Buri, 1990; Field, Lang, Yando, and Bendell, 1993). Hispanic adolescent females and their mothers in…
Proctor, Susan E.
Traditional pregnancy prevention strategies employed with older teens and adults do not recognize significant developmental differences between early adolescents and other age groups. Methods that compliment, reflect, and are consistent with the developmental needs of the young teen provide the best approaches to teen pregnancy prevention.…
Gold, Melanie A.; Chiappetta, Laurel; Young, Amanda J.; Zuckoff, Allan; DiClemente, Carlo C.
Purpose: To assess girls' reproductive educational choices, satisfaction with choice, and relationship between demographics, module choice, and satisfaction. Methods: We recruited 286 girls, aged 13 to 21 years, from a hospital-based adolescent clinic, from advertisements, and by word of mouth. At enrollment, participants completed a 60-minute…
Jacob, John; De Guzman, Rosalito G
Adolescent depression is a severe mental health problem. Philippines has the highest incidence of depression in South East Asia. Depressed female adolescents habitually seek and retain negative experiences. Aim of this research was to develop and to assess effectiveness of a Taking in the Good Based-Bibliotherapy Intervention Program for female adolescents. As an innovative type of psychotherapy treatment, program aimed to build up their inner strengths by experiencing, enriching and absorbing daily events with a positive attitude and installing them in brain. Program was conducted in two phases: 1. Development of taking in the good based-bibliotherapy intervention. 2. Implementation and assessment of pioneering treatment for alleviating depression and thereby increasing positive cognitive appraisal by employing true experimental research design particularly between subjects. Beck Depression Inventory-II, Asian Adolescent Depression Scale and Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale-11 were administered before and after implementation of the program. A total of 30 female adolescents, Filipino High School students, (mean age=13.9), were randomly assigned to experimental (n=15) and control (n=15) conditions. Data analysis was done by employing percentage and frequency distribution, mean scores, standard deviation, dependent t-test, independent t-test statistics and Cohen's d. The null hypothesis was tested at the 0.05 level of significance. Statistical analysis between the pre-test and post-test scores of the experimental group showed significant difference (p=0.000) and scores of control and experimental group showed significant difference (p=0.000) in all dependent variables in the post-test. These results revealed that "Taking in the Good based-Bibliotherapy Intervention" was effective in reducing depression in female adolescents.
Williams, Melinda; Jones, Sandra C.; Caputi, Peter; Iverson, Don
Objective: To determine differences in sun-protection behaviours, and incidence of sunburn, between Australian adolescent female fake tan users and non-users. Design: Cross sectional survey. Method: 398 adolescent females aged 12 to 18 years participated in a survey at public venues, schools, and online. The main outcome measures were…
Cope, Lora M.; Ermer, Elsa; Nyalakanti, Prashanth K.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.
Psychopathy-related paralimbic and limbic structural brain abnormalities have been implicated in incarcerated adult and adolescent male samples. However, there have been few neuroimaging studies of psychopathic traits in females in general and no studies from incarcerated female youth in particular. Here we present the first study to examine the relationship between brain gray matter volumes and psychopathic traits (assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version [PCL-YV]) in a sample of maximum-security incarcerated female adolescents (N = 39; mean age = 17.6 years). Consistent with male samples, regional gray matter volumes were negatively related to psychopathic traits in female youth offenders in limbic and paralimbic areas, including orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal cortex, temporal poles, and left hippocampus. These results provide evidence that psychopathic traits manifest similar neural abnormalities across sex and age. PMID:24682609
Patrice-Coy, Celestine; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; Boodram, Cheryl Ann Sarita
Abstract This article explores information relating to female adolescents knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Carriacou. The authors aimed at finding out whether adolescent females in Carriacou receive adequate information about HIV and other STDs. Where did students receive most of their information about HIV/STDs and whether the knowledge has influenced their sexual behaviors? Furthermore, this study focused on how female adolescents feel toward people living with HIV/STDs. Focus group method was employed with 2 age groups of female adolescent students. Content analysis was carried out by the researcher to analyze the data. Themes were developed using coding and thematic analysis. The findings revealed that female adolescents were highly aware of HIV/STDs-related facts. They were knowledgeable and have received adequate information about HIV/STDs. PMID:27603390
Patrice-Coy, Celestine; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; Boodram, Cheryl Ann Sarita
This article explores information relating to female adolescents knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Carriacou. The authors aimed at finding out whether adolescent females in Carriacou receive adequate information about HIV and other STDs. Where did students receive most of their information about HIV/STDs and whether the knowledge has influenced their sexual behaviors? Furthermore, this study focused on how female adolescents feel toward people living with HIV/STDs.Focus group method was employed with 2 age groups of female adolescent students. Content analysis was carried out by the researcher to analyze the data. Themes were developed using coding and thematic analysis.The findings revealed that female adolescents were highly aware of HIV/STDs-related facts. They were knowledgeable and have received adequate information about HIV/STDs.
Lima, Alaine Souza; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato; Gomes, Mayra Ruana de A.; de Almeida, Ludmila Remígio; de Souza, Gabriely Feitosa F.; Cunha, Samara Barreto; Pitangui, Ana Carolina R.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL) in female adolescent students. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001); interference in ADL (p<0.001); medication use (p<0.001); age (p=0.045) and seek for medical care (p<0.022). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance. PMID:25119759
Acevedo, María Belén; Fabio, Maria Carolina; Fernández, Macarena Soledad; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos
Anxiety disorders are more likely to occur in women than in men, usually emerge during adolescence and exhibit high comorbidity with alcohol use disorders (AUD). Adolescents with high levels of anxiety or heightened reactivity to stress may be at-risk for developing AUD. An approach to analyze if high levels of inborn anxiety predict greater ethanol drinking is to assess the latter variable in subjects classified as high- or low-anxiety responders. The present study assessed ethanol drinking in adolescent, female Wistar, rats classified as high-, low- or average-anxiety responders and exposed or not to restraint stress (RS, Exp. 1). Classification was made through a multivariate index derived from testing anxiety responses in an elevated plus maze and a light-dark box tests. RS was applied after animals had been initiated to ethanol drinking. Intake of sweetened ethanol was unaffected by level of anxiety response. Adolescents with high levels of inborn anxiety exhibited significantly higher intake of unsweetened ethanol than counterparts with standard levels of anxiety, yet this effect was inhibited by RS exposure. Experiment 2 assessed FOS immunoreactivity after RS. Stress induced a significant increase in FOS immunoreactivity at the paraventricular nucleus, yet this effect was unaffected by level of anxiety response. Female adolescents with high levels of basal anxiety may be at-risk for exhibiting increased predisposition for ethanol intake and preference. The study also indicates that stress may exert differential effects on adolescent ethanol intake as a function of the level of anxiety response.
Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Schneider, Margaret; Cooper, Dan M.
Objective: To determine whether individual factors influenced rates of physical activity change in response to a school-based intervention. Methods: Sedentary adolescent females (N = 63) participated in a 9-month physical activity program. Weekly levels of leisure-time physical activity were reported using an interactive website. Results: Change…
Grimley, Diane M.; Lee, Patricia A.
Examines the sexual practices of 235 females aged 15 to 19 years and their readiness to use specific contraceptive methods. Results indicate that, despite the availability of newer contraceptive methods, most sexually active adolescents were least resistant to using condoms, perceiving the male condom as an acceptable preventative both for…
Sanger, Dixie; Moore-Brown, Barbara J.; Montgomery, Judy; Rezac, Cynthia; Keller, Harold
Qualitative methodology was used to explore communication behaviors of 13 female adolescents with language problems residing in a correctional facility. Most participants expressed feeling dumb, disliked by friends, put down in school, and having trouble understanding jokes, and problems related to understanding the vocabulary in their texts used…
Edwards, Kemberly V.
The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge base about female adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS). The findings will be useful in providing educators with an insight into the social world of Asperger syndrome in order to give them a better understanding of the syndrome, and to assist them in teaching students more effectively. The…
DeSilva Mousseau, Angela M.; Lund, Terese J.; Liang, Belle; Spencer, Renée; Walsh, Jill
This study examined the relationship between stress and sleep duration for adolescent females from affluent backgrounds. Participants were 218 students attending two independent single-sex secondary schools. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression models (cross-sectional and longitudinal) were run to examine the association between stress and…
Brown, Sherlon P.
Career and life planning, while a complex task for people of all races and ages, is often compounded for black adolescent females. Social and economic traditions such as racism, poverty, and oppression have often retarded their employment perceptions, aspirations, expectations, and realities. This article explores the relationship between black…
Halliburton, Amy L.; Weiss, Maureen R.
Assessed whether sources of competence information varied by skill level among adolescent female gymnasts, whether perceptions of motivational climate varied by skill level, and whether sources of competence information and perceived motivational climate were related. Survey data indicated that gymnasts competing at lower levels relied on…
Stone, Judy A.; Sias, Shari M.
The topic of self-injurious behavior (SIB), particularly among female adolescents, has been gaining widespread attention in mainstream culture. However, limited research has been generated examining effective treatment modalities. Given the lack of information concerning treatment models, this article presents a bi-modal treatment approach with a…
Stachowitz, Annie L.
Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study sought to examine a commonly used social-emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition, Self-Report of Personality (BASC-2, SRP), for the emergence of a common profile of…
Tergerson, Jennifer L.; King, Keith A.
Surveyed adolescents at single-sex high schools to examine whether perceptions of physical activity differed by gender. The most helpful cue to physical activity for males and females was having a friend to exercise with. Parental encouragement and having a parent who exercised were also helpful. Wanting to do other things was a common barrier to…
Green, Julie; And Others
Female adolescents were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=29), which received nutrition instruction, and a no-treatment control group (n=20). In the experimental group, nutrition knowledge increased significantly, calcium and vitamin D intake increased, and mean intakes for calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus were closer to the…
Froeschle, Janet G.; Smith, Robert L.; Ricard, Richard
A school-based substance abuse prevention program based on the assumptions of the ASCA National Model[R] was designed to change adolescent females' drug-using behaviors. The program was designed to reduce substance abuse, increase negative attitudes toward drug use, and reduce negative behaviors while increasing positive behaviors, knowledge of…
Alley, Thomas R.; Hicks, Catherine M.
This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in…
In this case study focusing on a gifted adolescent female who took her life at the age of 18 using a firearm, the researcher investigated the personal, environmental, and cultural variables that may have contributed to her suicide. Data were collected from interviews, documents, and other artifacts, including a videotape that was a compilation of…
Ball, Joanna; Armistead, Lisa; Austin, Barbara-jeanne
Study provides a description of religiosity in a sample of African-American female teens and examines religion as a resource for these adolescents by focusing on the association between religiosity and sexual activity, self-esteem, and general psychological functioning. Results reveal that greater overall religiosity was associated with greater…
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…
Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.
The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.
Linville, Deanna; O'Neil, Maya; Huebner, Angela
This study examined linkages between depression symptoms (DEP) and positive adult support (PAS) in female adolescents and the partially mediating influence of eating disturbances (ED). Structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement models for each of the latent constructs, determine the relationships among the latent constructs,…
Beevers, Christopher G.; Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
This study examined the psychosocial consequences of experiencing major depressive disorder (MDD). In a 7-year longitudinal study of 496 female adolescents, the authors identified 49 girls who experienced their first episode of MDD and then recovered. They were compared with a randomly selected group of 98 never depressed participants on 13…
Bamaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Lara, Rebecca
This study used a person-centered approach to examine patterns of adjustment along psychological (i.e., depression, self-esteem, anxiety) and academic (i.e., academic motivation) domains in a sample (N = 338) of Mexican-origin female adolescents. Four adjustment profiles were identified. A "High Functioning" (n = 173) group, which…
Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex
A major factor attributed to the problem and consequences of underage alcohol use is binge drinking. The objective of this study was to examine binge drinking and other alcohol-related problem behaviour among high-risk male and female adolescents who were from alternative schools and programs because of learning and/or behaviour problems.…
Voisin, Dexter R.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.; Yarber, William L.
The authors used Bronfenbrenner's conceptual framework of an ecological systems model to examine factors that are independently associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors among 280 sexually active detained female adolescents. Using computer-assisted self-interviewing procedures, the authors assessed individual…
Examines whether feminine media stars idolized by adolescent girls provide a safe target of romantic love before girls start dating and become sexually active. Surveys of seventh and ninth grade Israeli girls indicate that idolizing feminine stars may be an intermediate step in a sequence that starts with idolizing females and continues to the…
Brown, Danice L.; Jewell, Jeremy D.; Stevens, Amy L.; Crawford, Jessica D.; Thompson, Ronald
We investigated the relationship between gender and clinician diagnosis of a depressive disorder at intake on variables reflecting depression among adolescents in residential treatment. It was hypothesized that females diagnosed with a depressive disorder would have the highest scores on measures of suicide risk, the number of symptoms of a major…
Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth
The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to…
Fox, Jeremy K; Halpern, Leslie F; Ryan, Julie L; Lowe, Kelly A
Although the tripartite model reliably distinguishes anxiety and depression in adolescents, it remains unclear how negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity (PA) influence developmental pathways to internalizing problems. Based on models which propose that affectivity shapes how youth react to stress, the present study attempted to investigate the relative roles of NA, PA, and stressful life events in characterizing and differentiating adolescent anxiety and depression. A sample of adolescent females (N=63), including a sub-sample of adolescent mothers, completed measures of NA, PA, negative life event (NLE) occurrence, anxiety, and depression. Findings supported the tripartite model as a "temperamental reactivity to stress" approach. Anxious and depressive symptoms were predicted by a combination of high NA and high NLE occurrence. However, a combination of low PA and high NLE occurrence was uniquely linked to greater depressive symptoms. Implications of these findings for early identification and prevention programs are discussed.
Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Koenig, Julian; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald
Research to elucidate early alterations of higher cognitive processes in adolescents with BPD is rare. This study investigated differences in dual-task performance in adolescents with BPD during stress and non-stress conditions. The study sample comprised 30 female adolescents with BPD and 34 healthy controls. The impact of stress on dual-task performance was measured using a standardized stressor. Self-reports of distress and measures of heart rate (HR) were obtained to measure stress reactivity. There were no group differences in task performance. Under stress conditions, the performance on the auditory task decreased in both groups but without significant group differences. Healthy controls showed an increase of mean HR after stress induction compared to no change in the BPD group. The finding of attenuated HR response to acute stress in adolescent patients with BPD may contradict current theories that the affective hyperresponsivity in BPD is based on a biologically determined mechanism.
Sung, Kyung Mi
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the coping strategies and self-concept of Korean female early adolescents. These adolescents (n = 351) were enrolled in a middle school in Seoul. The subjects completed the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale and Coping Responses Inventory questionnaires. The subjects exhibited the greatest positivity with regard to family self-concept and the greatest negativity with regard to academic self-concept. The subjects most frequently used the seeking guidance strategy of approach coping and the seeking alternative rewards strategy of avoidance coping. Self-concept was positively or negatively related with various coping skills. Using content analysis, seven categories including discord in family relationships were identified. The results of this study provide information that will aid school nurses working with adolescents with regard to helping the adolescents develop a positive self-concept and more effective coping strategies.
Majcher-Maślanka, Iwona; Solarz, Anna; Wędzony, Krzysztof; Chocyk, Agnieszka
During adolescence, many neural systems, including the dopamine system, undergo essential remodeling and maturation. It is well known that early-life stress (ELS) increases the risk for many psychopathologies during adolescence and adulthood. It is hypothesized that ELS interferes with the maturation of the dopamine system. There is a sex bias in the prevalence of stress-related mental disorders. Information regarding the effects of ELS on brain functioning in females is very limited. In the current study, maternal separation (MS) procedures were carried out to study the effects of ELS on dopamine system functioning in adolescent female rats. Our study showed that MS increased the density of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive fibers in the prelimbic cortex (PLC) and nucleus accumbens (Acb). These changes were accompanied by a decrease in the level of D5 receptor mRNA and an increase in D2 receptor mRNA expression in the PLC of MS females. Conversely, D1 and D5 receptor mRNA levels were augmented in the caudate putamen (CPu), while the expression of the D3 dopamine receptor transcript was reduced in MS females. Additionally, in the Acb, MS elicited a decrease in D2 receptor mRNA expression. At the behavioral level, MS increased apomorphine-induced locomotion; however, it did not change locomotor responses to selective D1/D5 receptor agonist and attenuated D2/D3 receptor agonist-triggered locomotion. Moreover, MS decreased D1/D5 receptor agonist-induced grooming behavior. These results indicate that ELS disrupts dopamine receptor function in the PLC and basal ganglia during adolescence in females and may predispose them to psychopathologies during adolescence and adulthood.
German, Don-Nee E.; And Others
Forty female incest victims, ages 12-18, were administered personality and self-concept assessments. Subjects were found to be shy, expedient, guilt-prone, aggressive, realistic, and withdrawn and to have low overall self-concept. Subjects showed more confidence about physical appearance and intellectual and school status than other aspects of…
Cernkovich, Stephen A.; Lanctot, Nadine; Giordano, Peggy C.
Studies identifying the mechanisms underlying the causes and consequences of antisocial behavior among female delinquents as they transit to adulthood are scarce and have important limitations: Most are based on official statistics, they typically are restricted to normative samples, and rarely do they gather prospective data from samples of…
Johnson, Sharon A.; Green, Vicki
Findings from 60 sexually active, unmarried females, ages 14 through 18, revealed that cognitive capacity and cognitive egocentrism variables as well as age, grade, and ethnic status significantly predicted 6 of 7 decision-making variables in contraceptive use model. One cognitive capacity variable and one sexual contraceptive behavior variable…
Chapman, Patricia; Toma, Ramses B.; Tuveson, Richard V.; Jacob, Mary
Evaluates the effectiveness of a sports nutrition education program in changing the nutrition behavior of females (N=72) on high school varsity softball teams. Pretests indicated no significant difference in nutrition knowledge between experimental and control groups. However, following nutrition education, significant differences in nutrition…
Ariga, Michio; Uehara, Toru; Takeuchi, Kazuo; Ishige, Yoko; Nakano, Reiko; Mikuni, Masahiko
Background: Although juveniles within the justice system have high psychiatric morbidity, few comprehensive investigations have shown posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female delinquents. Here, we aim to describe the nature and extent of PTSD and trauma exposure and to clarify the relationships among comorbidity and psychosocial factors in…
Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.
Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African…
D'Souza, Deepthi; Sadananda, Monika
Approaches for the development of preclinical models of depression extensively use adult and male animals owing to the discrepancies arising out of the hormonal flux in adult females and adolescents during attainment of puberty. Thus the increased vulnerability of females towards clinical depression and anxiety-related disorders remains incompletely understood. Development of clinical models of depression in adolescent females is essential in order to evolve effective treatment strategies for adolescent depression. In the present study, we have examined the anxiety and depressive-like profiles in a putative animal model of childhood depression, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat, during early adolescence (∼postnatal day 30) and mid-adolescence (∼postnatal day 40). Female adolescent WKY rats, tested on a series of behavioural tests modelling anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours with age-matched Wistars as controls, demonstrated marked differences during early adolescence in a strain- and age-specific manner. Anxiety indices were obtained from exposure to the elevated plus maze, where social communication vide 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations was also assessed, while immobility and other parameters in the forced swim test were screened for depressive-like profiles. Sucrose preference, used as a measure of anhedonia in animals, was lower in WKYs at both ages tested and decreased with age. Anxiety-related behaviours were prominent in WKY rats only during early adolescence. WKY female rats are anxious during early adolescence and exhibit anhedonia as a core symptom of depression during early- and mid-adolescence, thus indicating that inclusion of female animals in preclinical trials is essential and will contribute to gender-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment of adolescent depression in females.
Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gayles, Jochebed G.
The current study tested a developmental-contextual model of depressive symptomatology among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin females and their mothers. The final sample was comprised of 271 dyads. We examined the interrelations among cultural (i.e., acculturation dissonance), developmental (i.e., pubertal development and autonomy expectation discrepancies), and interpersonal (i.e., mother-daughter conflict and maternal supportive parenting) factors in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms. For both early and middle adolescents, maternal support was negatively associated with mother-daughter conflict and depressive symptoms. Importantly, mother-daughter autonomy expectation discrepancies were positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but this association was found only among early adolescents. Further, mother-daughter acculturation dissonance was positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but only among middle adolescents. Findings call for concurrently examining the interface of developmental, relational, and cultural factors in predicting female adolescents’ depressive symptomatology and the potential differences by developmental stage (e.g., early vs. middle adolescence) PMID:21967564
Dey, Anindita; Ghosh, Paromita
The investigation probed relationships among human-figure drawing, field-dependent-independent cognitive style and self-esteem of 10-15 year olds. It also attempted to predict human-figure drawing scores of participants based on their field-dependence-independence and self-esteem. Area, stratified and multi-stage random sampling were used to…
Khuwaja, Salma A; Selwyn, Beatrice J; Mgbere, Osaro; Khuwaja, Alam; Kapadia, Asha; McCurdy, Sheryl; Hsu, Chiehwen E
This study explored post-migration experiences of recently migrated Pakistani Muslim adolescent females residing in the United States. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirty Pakistani Muslim adolescent females between the ages of 15 and 18 years living with their families in Houston, Texas. Data obtained from the interviews were evaluated using discourse analysis to identify major reoccurring themes. Participants discussed factors associated with the process of adaptation to the American culture. The results revealed that the main factors associated with adaptation process included positive motivation for migration, family bonding, social support networks, inter-familial communication, aspiration of adolescents to learn other cultures, availability of English-as-second-language programs, participation in community rebuilding activities, and faith practices, English proficiency, peer pressure, and inter-generational conflicts. This study provided much needed information on factors associated with adaptation process of Pakistani Muslim adolescent females in the United States. The results have important implications for improving the adaptation process of this group and offer potential directions for intervention and counseling services.
Objectives Physical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework. Methods This cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support, perceived barriers, and perceived affect. Interactions among the variables were examined using path analysis within a covariance modeling framework. Results The final model accounted for an R2 value of 0.52 for physical activity and offered a good model-data fit. The results indicated that physical activity was predicted by self-esteem (β=0.46, p<0.001), perceived self-efficacy (β=0.40, p<0.001), social support (β=0.24, p<0.001), perceived barriers (β=-0.19, p<0.001), and perceived affect (β=0.17, p<0.001). Conclusions The findings of this study showed that the health promotion model was useful to predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian female adolescents. Information related to the predictors of physical activity behavior will help researchers plan more tailored culturally relevant health promotion interventions for this population. PMID:24570808
Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita
To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males.
Kosson, David S; Neumann, Craig S; Forth, Adelle E; Salekin, Randall T; Hare, Robert D; Krischer, Maya K; Sevecke, Kathrin
Despite substantial evidence for the fit of the 3- and 4-factor models of Psychopathy Checklist-based ratings of psychopathy in adult males and adolescents, evidence is less consistent in adolescent females. However, prior studies used samples much smaller than recommended for examining model fit. To address this issue, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of 646 adolescent females to test the fit of the 3- and 4-factor models. We also investigated the fit of these models in more homogeneous subsets of the full sample to examine whether fit was invariant across geographical region and setting. Analyses indicated adequate fit for both models in the full sample and was generally acceptable for both models in North American and European subsamples and for participants in less restrictive (probation/detention/clinic) settings. However, in the incarcerated subsample, the 4-factor model achieved acceptable fit on only two of four indices. Although model fit was not invariant across continent or setting, invariance could be achieved in most cases by simply allowing factor loadings on a single Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003) item to vary across groups. In summary, in contrast to prior studies with small samples, current findings show that both the 3- and 4-factor models fit adequately in a large sample of adolescent females, and the factor loadings are largely similar for North American and European samples and for long-term incarcerated and shorter-term incarcerated/probation/clinic samples.
Kosson, David S.; Neumann, Craig S.; Forth, Adelle E.; Salekin, Randall T.; Hare, Robert D.; Krischer, Maya K.; Sevecke, Kathrin
Despite substantial evidence for the fit of the three- and four-factor models of Psychopathy Checklist-based ratings of psychopathy in adult males and adolescents, evidence is less consistent in adolescent females. However, prior studies used samples much smaller than recommended for examining model fit. To address this issue, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of 646 adolescent females to test the fit of the three- and four-factor models. We also investigated the fit of these models in more homogeneous subsets of the full sample to examine whether fit was invariant across geographical region and setting. Analyses indicated adequate fit for both models in the full sample and was generally acceptable for both models in North American and European subsamples and for participants in less restrictive (probation/detention/clinic) settings. However, in the incarcerated subsample, the four-factor model achieved acceptable fit on only two of four indices. Although model fit was not invariant across continent or setting, invariance could be achieved in most cases by simply allowing factor loadings on one PCL: YV item to vary across groups. In summary, in contrast to prior studies with small samples, current findings show that both the three- and four-factor models fit adequately in a large sample of adolescent females, and the factor loadings are largely similar for North American and European samples and for long-term incarcerated and shorter-term incarcerated/probation/clinic samples. PMID:22731675
Proctor, S E
Traditional pregnancy prevention strategies employed with adults and older teens do not recognize significant developmental differences between early adolescents and other age groups. Methods that compliment, reflect, and are consistent with developmental needs of the young teen provide cogent approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. Particular emphasis should be placed on interpersonal relationships and their importance in the young woman's life, especially the relationship between the young teen and her parents. Developing and improving all relationships instrumental in positively affecting teen decision-making represent potent approaches to pregnancy prevention. The axioms of Piaget, Erikson, and Mercer are examined in regard to cognitive, social, emotional, and psychosexual development in the 12-14 year old. Young teens' responses to sex education as well as their use of contraception are reviewed in relation to developmental theory.
Swanson, Jonathan; Ong, Thida
Endobronchial carcinoid tumors are the most common intrabronchial tumors in children and adolescents. Common signs and symptoms include persistent cough and wheezing not responsive to bronchodilators, hemoptysis, and recurrent fever. Diagnosis is frequently made by imaging and direct visualization with flexible bronchoscopy; surgery remains the gold standard treatment, and lung-sparing resections should be performed whenever possible. Though carcinoid syndrome—characterized by flushing, palpitations, wheezing, shortness of breath, and diarrhea—has been found in association with adult bronchial carcinoid tumors, to our knowledge only one previous study has reported the presence of carcinoid syndrome in a pediatric patient with an endobronchial carcinoid. Here, we report a case of a 14-year-old girl with chronic cough found to have an endobronchial carcinoid tumor and signs and symptoms consistent with carcinoid syndrome. PMID:27895950
Kunz, Jennifer H; Greenley, Rachel N; Mussatto, Kathleen A; Roth-Wojcicki, Betsy; Miller, Tami; Freeman, Mary E; Lerand, Sarah
To examine whether perceived peer/parent norms or personal beliefs about adolescent substance use influence substance use among female adolescents with chronic medical conditions. Sixty-eight females reported on substance use, personal beliefs, and perceived peer/parent norms. Personal beliefs and perceived peer/parent norms were associated with adolescent's current and future substance use. Although perceived peer norms accounted for variance in current substance use, only personal beliefs accounted for variance in future alcohol use. Targeting perceived peer norms may be effective for intervention efforts among adolescents endorsing current substance use, whereas alcohol use prevention efforts should target personal beliefs.
Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Javadnoori, Mojgan; Hasanpour, Marzieh; Hazavehei, Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi; Taghipour, Ali
Background: Despite clear reasons for necessity of sexual health education for adolescents, it is a contested issue and has faced challenges in most cultures. Providing sexual education for non-married adolescents is culturally unacceptable in most Muslim societies. Objective: This qualitative study addressed socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for female adolescents in Iran. Materials and Methods: Qualitative data from female adolescents (14-18 yr), mothers, teachers, authorities in health and education organizations, health care providers and clergies were collected in two large cities of Iran including Mashhad and Ahvaz through focus group discussions and individual in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional qualitative content analysis with MAXqda software. Results: Our results revealed that the main socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for adolescents in Iran are affected by taboos surrounding sexuality. The emergent categories were: denial of premarital sex, social concern about negative impacts of sexual education, perceived stigma and embarrassment, reluctance to discuss sexual issues in public, sexual discussion as a socio-cultural taboo, lack of advocacy and legal support, intergenerational gap, religious uncertainties, and imitating non-Islamic patterns of education. Conclusion: It seems that cultural resistances are more important than religious prohibitions, and affect more the nature and content of sexual health education. However, despite existence of salient socio-cultural doubtful issues about sexual health education for adolescents, the emerging challenges are manageable to some extent. It is hoped that the acceptability of sexual health education for adolescents could be promoted through overcoming the cultural taboos and barriers as major obstacles. PMID:24639734
Litalien, David; Morin, Alexandre J S; McInerney, Dennis M
Achievement goal theory has long been a dominant model in the study of student motivation. However, a relatively small number of researchers have investigated gender differences in achievement goals or have considered the possible role that social and extrinsic goals may play in student academic motivation. Adopting a person-centered multiple goals perspective based on personal investment theory, this longitudinal study investigated whether males and females shared similar goal profiles, and whether the predictors (facilitating conditions) and outcomes (learning processes, task perseverance, and future aspirations) of these profiles were equivalent across genders. Profiles were extracted from 8 types of academic goals, based on a large sample of Hong Kong high school students (N = 7,848). Findings revealed 5 distinctive profiles for both males and females. Although the relative size of these profiles differed across samples of male and female students, the results show that 4 of these profiles were mostly equivalent across genders. Predictors of membership into these profiles were also equivalent across genders, whereas their relative outcomes were specific to gender. (PsycINFO Database Record
Spriggs, Merle; Gillam, Lynn
Is Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder ever ethically justified? Cosmetic genital surgery (specifically labioplasty) for adolescent girls is one of the most ethically controversial forms of cosmetic surgery and Body Dysmorphic Disorder is typically seen as a contraindication for cosmetic surgery. Two key ethical concerns are (1) that Body Dysmorphic Disorder undermines whatever capacity for autonomy the adolescent has; and (2) even if there is valid parental consent, the presence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder means that cosmetic surgery will fail in its aims. In this article, we challenge, in an evidence-based way, the standard view that Body Dysmorphic Disorder is a contraindication for genital cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Our argument gathers together and unifies a substantial amount of disparate research in the context of an ethical argument. We focus on empirical questions about benefit and harm, because these are ethically significant. Answers to these questions affect the answer to the ethical question. We question the claim that there would be no benefit from surgery in this situation, and we consider possible harms that might be done if treatment is refused. For an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, the most important thing may be to avoid harm. We find ourselves arguing for the ethical justifiability of cosmetic labioplasty for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, even though we recognize that it is a counter intuitive position. We explain how we reached our conclusion.
Teitelman, Anne; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; McDonald, Catherine C.; Brawner, Bridgette M.; Sullivan, Cris M.
Background Little is known about intimate partner violence (IPV) and depression among low income, urban African American and Hispanic adolescent females. Method Interviews with 102 urban African American and Hispanic adolescent females examined physical abuse, emotional/verbal abuse, and threats, and their unique and combined associations with depression. Results One-quarter of the sample experienced all three types of abuse. Non-physical forms of IPV were significantly associated with depression. Conclusions Some urban adolescent females from lower income households experience high rates of IPV. Physical and non-physical forms of IPV are important in understanding and responding to depression in this population. PMID:21617762
Foy, David W.; Ritchie, Iya K.; Conway, Alison H.
Background While males constitute the majority, female adolescent offenders are a sizeable minority of the overall delinquent population. Further, those females who become involved in delinquent activities appear to be doing so at a younger age, and they are involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including violent offenses. Objective The goal of this article is to consolidate an empirical base for our current knowledge about female juvenile offenders’ trauma-related mental health and rehabilitation issues. Method We searched for studies using PILOTS, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost electronic databases. Results Accordingly, we present a review of findings from 33 recent studies showing consistently high rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, and common comorbidities among female adolescent offenders. We also examined recent literature on risk and protective factors for female delinquency, as well as treatments for offenders, and found that there was some early representation of trauma and PTSD as important variables to be considered in etiology and treatment. Conclusion Future plans for addressing the mental health needs of female offenders should be better informed by these recent findings about widespread trauma exposure and related psychological consequences. PMID:22893830
Sevecke, Kathrin; Pukrop, Ralf; Kosson, David S; Krischer, Maya K
Substantial evidence exists for 3- and 4-factor models of psychopathy underlying patterns of covariation among the items of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in diverse adult samples. Although initial studies conducted with the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) indicated reasonable fit for these models in incarcerated male adolescents in the United States and the United Kingdom, only one published study has addressed the factor structure of PCL:YV psychopathy in female adolescents, and no prior studies have addressed it outside of these countries. We used confirmatory factor analysis to investigate the factor structure underlying PCL:YV scores in 314 incarcerated (143 male, 171 female) and 193 in-school (99 male, 94 female) adolescents, ages 14 to 19 years. The 2-factor model provided adequate fit only for incarcerated male adolescents and the 4-factor model was problematic in all samples, but the 3-factor solution provided an adequate model in incarcerated and community male adolescents. None of the models provided consistently acceptable fit among female adolescents. Current findings provide evidence for the robustness of the 3-factor model of psychopathy in incarcerated and community male adolescent samples but raise doubts about the applicability of this model to female adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.; MYER, GREGORY D.; KIEFER, ADAM W.; FORD, KEVIN R.
ABSTRACT Purpose Knee abduction moment (KAM) is an injury risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury that shows divergent incidence between males and females during adolescence. The objective of this study was to determine the relation between skeletal growth and increased KAM. The hypotheses tested were that females would demonstrate peak KAM during landing at peak height velocity (PHV) and that they would diverge from males at PHV. Methods The subject pool consisted of 674 females and 218 males (1387 female and 376 male assessments) who participated in a preseason testing session before their basketball or soccer seasons. They were tested longitudinally for multiple years (2 ± 1 yr) to capture maturation via estimates of percent (%) adult stature and biomechanical analysis during a drop vertical jump maneuver. Data were analyzed using three-dimensional motion analysis that used a 37 retroreflective marker body model and inverse dynamics to calculate segment joint centers and peak KAM. Results Mature females, as defined as 92% adult stature or greater, displayed increased peak KAM and knee abduction angles relative to growing (≤91% adult stature) adolescent females (P < 0.001). A significant sex–maturation (% adult stature) interaction (P < 0.001) in peak KAM was observed. Post hoc analyses showed consistent sex differences in groups greater than or equal to, but not less than, 92% adult stature, which is approximately at PHV. Hence, sex differences in peak KAM and PHV coincide. Conclusions Increases in peak KAM during and after PHV seem to coincide with increased risk of ACL injury in females. KAM peaked in females at PHV. Tracking longitudinal increases in peak KAM may be useful for the identification of females at increased risk of ACL injury. PMID:25970663
El Awa, F; Fouad, H; El Naga, R A; Emam, A H; Labib, S
Egypt assessed tobacco use among young people and adults through implementation in 2009 of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) among school students aged 13-15 years and the nationally representative Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) among adults aged 15+ years. Both surveys employed cluster sampling to produce nationally representative samples and used standard core questionnaires with optional, country-specific questions. The results indicated that a higher percentage of adolescent girls in Egypt used tobacco than did adult females. Overall, 3.8% of girls aged 13-15 years used some form of tobacco compared with 0.6% of women aged 15+ years. Adolescents were over 14 times more likely than adult women to currently smoke cigarettes and 11 times more likely to smoke waterpipes. Moreover, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescent girls had increased from 1.4% in the 2005 GYTS to 2.8% in 2009, indicating that social and cultural norms may be changing.
Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Coelho, Fernanda Dias; Paes, Santiago Tavares; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo
Objective: To evaluate the influence of self-esteem on levels of body dissatisfaction among adolescent females. Methods: A group of 397 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were enrolled in the study. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was applied to assess body dissatisfaction. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to assess self-esteem. Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were also measured. These anthropometric data were controlled in the statistical analyses. Results: The multiple regression model indicated influence of "positive self-esteem" (R2=0.16; p=0.001) and "negative self-esteem" (R2=0.23; p=0.001) subscales on the BSQ scores. Univariate analysis of covariance demonstrated differences in BSQ scores (p=0.001) according to groups of self-esteem. Conclusion: It was concluded that self-esteem influenced body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls from Juiz de Fora, MG. PMID:25479855
Schnall, Rebecca; Stockwell, Melissa S; Castaño, Paula M; Higgins, Tracy; Westhoff, Carolyn; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S
Background Over 15 million adolescents use the emergency department (ED) each year in the United States. Adolescent females who use the ED for medical care have been found to be at high risk for unintended pregnancy. Given that adolescents represent the largest users of text messaging and are receptive to receiving text messages related to their sexual health, the ED visit represents an opportunity for intervention. Objective The aim of this qualitative study was to explore interest in and preferences for the content, frequency, and timing of an ED-based text message intervention to prevent pregnancy for adolescent females. Methods We conducted semistructured, open-ended interviews in one urban ED in the United States with adolescent females aged 14-19 years. Eligible subjects were adolescents who were sexually active in the past 3 months, presented to the ED for a reproductive health complaint, owned a mobile phone, and did not use effective contraception. Using an interview guide, enrollment continued until saturation of key themes. The investigators designed sample text messages using the Health Beliefs Model and participants viewed these on a mobile phone. The team recorded, transcribed, and coded interviews based on thematic analysis using the qualitative analysis software NVivo and Excel. Results Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (13/14; 93%), insured (13/14; 93%), ED users in the past year (12/14; 86%), and frequent text users (10/14; 71% had sent or received >30 texts per day). All were interested in receiving text messages from the ED about pregnancy prevention, favoring messages that were “brief,” “professional,” and “nonaccusatory.” Respondents favored texts with links to websites, repeated information regarding places to receive “confidential” care, and focused information on contraception options and misconceptions. Preferences for text message frequency varied from daily to monthly, with random hours of delivery to
Del Río-Ospina, Luisa; Soto-De León, Sara Cecilia; Camargo, Milena; Sánchez, Ricardo; Mancilla, Cindy Lizeth; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin
This study reports six HR-HPV types’ infection prevalence discriminated by species and multiple infection in unvaccinated Colombian female adolescents, as well as some factors modulating the risk of infection. HPV DNA for six high-risk viral types was identified in cervical samples taken from 2,134 12–19 year-old females using conventional generic and type-specific PCR. Binomial logistical regression analysis was used for modelling HR-HPV infection and multiple infection risk. The interaction between variables in a stepwise model was also included in such analysis. Viral DNA was detected in 48.97% of the females; 28.52% of them had multiple infections, HPV-16 being the most frequently occurring type (37.44%). Cytological abnormality prevalence was 15.61%. Being over 16 years-old (1.66: 1.01–2.71 95%CI), white ethnicity (4.40: 1.16–16.73 95%CI), having had 3 or more sexual partners (1.77: 1.11–2.81 95%CI) and prior sexually-transmitted infections (STI) (1.65: 1.17–2.32 95%CI) were associated with a greater risk of HPV infection. Having given birth was related to a higher risk of infection by A7 species and antecedent of abortion to less risk of coinfection. Where the females in this study came from also influenced the risk of infection by A7 species as female adolescents from the Andean region had a lower risk of infection (0.42: 0.18–0.99 95%CI). The presence of factors related to risky sexual behaviour in the study population indicated that public health services should pay special attention to female adolescents to modify the risk of infection by high-risk HPV types and decrease their impact on this age group. PMID:27846258
Gensheimer, William G; Reddy, Sireesha Y; Mulconry, Marcy; Greves, Christine
Tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) is a common acute complication of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). It can also develop as a complication of pelvic or abdominal surgery, malignancy, and intra-abdominal processes such as appendicitis. In premenopausal women, PID is the most common cause of tubo-ovarian abscess. We report a case of tubo-ovarian abscess in a virginal adolescent female with no past surgical history and no known history of appendicitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or cancer. Cultures of the tubo-ovarian abscess drainage grew Abiotrophia/Granulicatella species. This case supports including TOA in the broad differential diagnosis for abdominal pain with fever in adolescent females regardless of sexual history.
Reichelt, Amy C; Abbott, Kirsten N; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J
Adolescents are the highest consumers of sugar sweetened drinks. Excessive consumption of such drinks is a likely contributor to the development of obesity and may be associated with enduring changes in the systems involved in reward and motivation. We examined the impact of daily sucrose consumption in young male and female rats (N=12 per group) across the adolescent period on the motivation to perform instrumental responses to gain food rewards as adults. Rats were or were not exposed to a sucrose solution for 2 h each day for 28 days across adolescence [postnatal days (P) 28-56]. They were then trained as adults (P70 onward) to lever press for a palatable 15% cherry flavored sucrose reward and tested on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule to assess motivation to respond for reinforcement. Female rats exposed to sucrose had higher breakpoints on the PR schedule than controls, whereas male rats exposed to sucrose had lower breakpoints than controls. These results show that consumption of sucrose during adolescence produced sex-specific behavioral changes in responding for sucrose as adults.
Although adolescents with delinquency are known to have higher-than-average rates of depression or substance use disorder (SUD), research on the topic is inconsistent. It remains unclear weather depression or SUD leads to delinquency, whether delinquency leads to depression or SUD, or whether there is bi-directionality. Utilizing the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (Wave I: 2008–2009; Wave II: 18 months later: N = 5872), we used logistic regression to predict depression from delinquency (and vice versa), and SUD from delinquency (and vice versa). After inclusion of control variables, we found that females with minor theft in Wave I were more than 4 times as likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.34; 95% CI: 1.10–17.16) as females without minor theft to be depressed in Wave II, and those with public disorder in Wave I were almost 3 times as likely (aOR = 2.74; 95% CI: 1.03–7.30) as those without public disorder to have SUD in Wave II. Overall delinquency also predicted depression or SUD, and SUD predicted delinquency. Practitioners could address risk for depression or SUD among child welfare-involved adolescent females by focusing on overall delinquency or on specific types of delinquency (minor theft for depression and public disorder for SUD) and by offering interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) that have been shown to be effective in preventing depression or SUD. In addition, with respect to our finding that SUD predicts delinquency among adolescent females, practitioners can help prevent delinquency by offering interventions (e.g., intensive outpatient treatments) that have well documented effectiveness in addressing SUD. PMID:24060474
Lalayants, Marina; Prince, Jonathan D
Although adolescents with delinquency are known to have higher-than-average rates of depression or substance use disorder (SUD), research on the topic is inconsistent. It remains unclear weather depression or SUD leads to delinquency, whether delinquency leads to depression or SUD, or whether there is bi-directionality. Utilizing the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (Wave I: 2008-2009; Wave II: 18 months later: N=5872), we used logistic regression to predict depression from delinquency (and vice versa), and SUD from delinquency (and vice versa). After inclusion of control variables, we found that females with minor theft in Wave I were more than 4 times as likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=4.34; 95% CI: 1.10-17.16) as females without minor theft to be depressed in Wave II, and those with public disorder in Wave I were almost 3 times as likely (aOR=2.74; 95% CI: 1.03-7.30) as those without public disorder to have SUD in Wave II. Overall delinquency also predicted depression or SUD, and SUD predicted delinquency. Practitioners could address risk for depression or SUD among child welfare-involved adolescent females by focusing on overall delinquency or on specific types of delinquency (minor theft for depression and public disorder for SUD) and by offering interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) that have been shown to be effective in preventing depression or SUD. In addition, with respect to our finding that SUD predicts delinquency among adolescent females, practitioners can help prevent delinquency by offering interventions (e.g., intensive outpatient treatments) that have well documented effectiveness in addressing SUD.
Steglich, Raquel Bisacotti; Tonoli, Renata Elise; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Pinto, Giselle Martins; Riesgo, Rudimar dos Santos
Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated infective dermatitis (ID) is a chronic, severe and recurrent eczema occurring during childhood in patients vertically infected with HTLV-1. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesia (HAM/ TSP) is slow and progressive. We report the case of an adolescent female from a non-endemic area for HTLV-1 who presents ID and, most likely, associated HAM/TSP. PMID:26312674
van der Put, Claudia E
To our knowledge, there are no former studies in which subgroups of female adolescent sexual offenders are studied. Therefore, we examined differences in risk factors for general recidivism between female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense against a younger child (CSO, n=25), female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense with a peer victim (PSO, n=15) and female adolescents who have committed a misdemeanor sexual offenses (MSO, n=31). Results showed that CSOs had considerably fewer problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school), family (e.g., parental alcohol problems, parental mental health problems, poor authority and control, out of home placements and run away from home) and friends (antisocial friends) than MSOs and/or PSOs. No differences were found in the prevalence of mental health problems, physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Tabatabaei, Mansooreh; Alavi, Mousa; Zolaktaf, Vahid
Introduction. Deprivation of parents might decrease self-esteem (SE) and result in affective and social incompatibility. In this randomized control trial, we examined the effect of aerobics exercise on SE among female adolescents living with no natural family. Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of all female adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (n: 72) who were covered by Isfahan Welfare organization. Participants were assigned into intervention and control groups by matched random sampling. Intervention included 8 weeks of aerobics exercise. Coppersmith SE inventory was administered before and after intervention as well as after one month follow-up. Results. No significant difference was seen between pre-SE scores of intervention (32.7 ± 8.4) and control (33.0 ± 6.7) groups (t = .16, P = .87). A significant difference was obtained in post-SE scores (40.2 ± 5.7 versus 34.7 ± 6.8, t = 3.58, P = .001) and in one month follow-up scores (36.4 ± 5.2 versus 33.0 ± 5.2, t = 2.25, P = .03). Discussion. The results demonstrated a low level of pre-SE in both groups. However, a significant improvement was seen in posttest of intervention group which persisted even one month after intervention. It supports the use of aerobics for female adolescents deprived from family life. PMID:25610905
Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) literature of male/female brain differences with emphasis on studies encompassing adolescence – a time of divergence in physical and behavioral characteristics. Across all ages total brain size is consistently reported to be about 10% larger in males. Structures commonly reported to be different between sexes include the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum – all noted to have a relatively high density of sex steroid receptors. The direction and magnitude of reported brain differences depends on the methodology of data acquisition and analysis, whether and how the subcomponents are adjusted for the total brain volume difference, and the age of the participants in the studies. Longitudinal studies indicate regional cortical gray matter volumes follow inverted U shaped developmental trajectories with peak size occurring one to three years earlier in females. Cortical gray matter differences are modulated by androgen receptor genotyope and by circulating levels of hormones. White matter volumes increase throughout childhood and adolescence in both sexes but more rapidly in adolescent males resulting in an expanding magnitude of sex differences from childhood to adulthood. PMID:22908911
Giedd, Jay N; Raznahan, Armin; Mills, Kathryn L; Lenroot, Rhoshel K
Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) literature of male/female brain differences with emphasis on studies encompassing adolescence - a time of divergence in physical and behavioral characteristics. Across all ages total brain size is consistently reported to be about 10% larger in males. Structures commonly reported to be different between sexes include the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum - all noted to have a relatively high density of sex steroid receptors. The direction and magnitude of reported brain differences depends on the methodology of data acquisition and analysis, whether and how the subcomponents are adjusted for the total brain volume difference, and the age of the participants in the studies. Longitudinal studies indicate regional cortical gray matter volumes follow inverted U shaped developmental trajectories with peak size occurring one to three years earlier in females. Cortical gray matter differences are modulated by androgen receptor genotyope and by circulating levels of hormones. White matter volumes increase throughout childhood and adolescence in both sexes but more rapidly in adolescent males resulting in an expanding magnitude of sex differences from childhood to adulthood.
Henje Blom, E; Olsson, EM; Serlachius, E; Ericson, M; Ingvar, M
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate heart rate variability (HRV) in a clinical sample of female adolescents with anxiety disorders (AD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD) compared with healthy controls and to assess the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) on HRV. Methods: Heart rate variability was measured in adolescent female psychiatric patients with AD and/or MDD (n = 69), mean age 16.8 years (range: 14.5–18.4), from 13 out-patient clinics and in healthy controls (n = 65), mean age 16.5 years (range: 15.9–17.7). HRV was registered in the sitting position during 4 min with no interventions. Results: Logarithmically transformed high frequency HRV (HF), low frequency HRV (LF) and standard deviation of inter beat intervals (SDNN) were lower in the clinical sample compared with the controls (Cohen’s d for HF = 0.57, LF = 0.55, SDNN = 0.60). This was not explained by body mass index, blood pressure or physical activity. Medication with SSRI explained 15.5% of the total variance of HF, 3.0% of LF and 6.5% of SDNN. Conclusions: Adolescent female psychiatric patients with AD and/or MDD show reduced HRV compared with healthy controls. Medication with SSRI explained a part of this difference. PMID:20121706
Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.
The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…
Dentith, Audrey M.
In this article, data collected from an ethnographic study of adolescent girls growing up in the city of Las Vegas in the US is used to further our understanding of the role of mediated sex and consumer culture and in relationship to emerging adolescent female identities. Girls in this study articulated a clear sense of their abilities to make…
Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Spear, Linda P
Age-specific behavioral and neural characteristics may predispose adolescents to initiate and escalate use of alcohol and drugs. Adolescents may avidly seek novel experiences, including drugs of abuse, because of enhanced incentive motivation for drugs and natural rewards, perhaps especially when that incentive motivation is sensitized by prior drug exposure. Using a Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) procedure, sign-tracking (ST) and goal-tracking (GT) behavior was examined in amphetamine-sensitized and control adolescent and adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, with expression of elevated ST behavior used to index enhanced incentive motivation for reward-associated cues. Rats were first exposed to a sensitizing regimen of amphetamine injections (3.0 mg/kg/ml d-amphetamine per day) or given saline (0.9% wt/vol) once daily for 4 days. Expression of ST and GT was then examined over 8 days of PCA training consisting of 25 pairings of an 8-s presentation of an illuminated lever immediately followed by response-independent delivery of a banana-flavored food pellet. Results showed that adults clearly displayed more ST behavior than adolescents, reflected via both more contacts with, and shorter latencies to approach, the lever. Prior amphetamine sensitization increased ST (but not GT) behaviors regardless of age. Thus, when indexed via ST, incentive motivation was found to be greater in adults than adolescents, with a prior history of amphetamine exposure generally sensitizing incentive motivation for cues predicting a food reward regardless of age.
Petrizzo, John; DiMenna, Frederick J; Martins, Kimberly; Wygand, John; Otto, Robert M
To achieve the criterion appearance prior to competing in a physique competition, athletes undergo preparatory regimens involving high-volume intense resistance and aerobic exercise with hypocaloric energy intake. As the popularity of "drug-free" competition increases, more athletes are facing this challenge without the recuperative advantage provided by performance-enhancing drugs. Consequently, the likelihood of loss of lean body and/or bone mass is increased. The purpose of this investigation was to monitor changes in body composition for a 29-year-old self-proclaimed drug-free female figure competitor during a 32-week preparatory regimen comprising high-volume resistance and aerobic exercise with hypocaloric energy intake. We used dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to evaluate regional fat and bone mineral density. During the initial 22 weeks, the subject reduced energy intake and engaged in resistance (4-5 sessions/week) and aerobic (3 sessions/week) training. During the final 10 weeks, the subject increased exercise frequency to 6 (resistance) and 4 (aerobic) sessions/week while ingesting 1130-1380 kcal/day. During this 10-week period, she consumed a high quantity of protein (~55% of energy intake) and nutritional supplements. During the 32 weeks, body mass and fat mass decreased by 12% and 55%, respectively. Conversely, lean body mass increased by 1.5%, an amount that exceeded the coefficient of variation associated with DXA-derived measurement. Total bone mineral density was unchanged throughout. In summary, in preparation for a figure competition, a self-proclaimed drug-free female achieved the low body-fat percentage required for success in competition without losing lean mass or bone density by following a 32-week preparatory exercise and nutritional regimen.
Rashid, S F; Michaud, S
This paper explores the experiences of female adolescents during the 1998 floods in Bangladesh, focusing on the implications of socio-cultural norms related to notions of honour, shame, purity and pollution. These cultural notions are reinforced with greater emphasis as girls enter their adolescence, regulating their sexuality and gender relationships. In Bangladeshi society, adolescent girls are expected to maintain their virginity until marriage. Contact is limited to one's family and extended relations. Particularly among poorer families, adolescent girls tend to have limited mobility to safeguard their 'purity'. This is to ensure that the girl's reputation does not suffer, thus making it difficult for the girl to get married. For female adolescents in Bangladesh, a disaster situation is a uniquely vulnerable time. Exposure to the unfamiliar environment of flood shelters and relief camps, and unable to maintain their 'space' and privacy from male strangers, a number of the girls were vulnerable to sexual and mental harassment. With the floods, it became difficult for most of the girls to be appropriately 'secluded'. Many were unable to sleep, bathe or get access to latrines in privacy because so many houses and latrines were under the water. Some of the girls who had begun menstruation were distressed at not being able to keep themselves clean. Strong social taboos associated with menstruation and the dirty water that surrounded them made it difficult for the girls to wash their menstrual cloths or change them frequently enough. Many of them became separated from their social network of relations, which caused them a great deal of anxiety and stress. Their difficulty in trying to follow social norms have had far-reaching implications on their health, identity, family and community relations.
Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.
This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal (< = Tanner stage 2), and mid to post pubertal (Tanner stage > 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5%) of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001). There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be “unhappy” and “weak” and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the “best”. These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420
Beerendonk, C C M; Braat, D D M
Fertility and sexuality are important aspects in the quality of life of long-term survivors of cancer. Adolescents in particular are in a very vulnerable period of their lives with respect to future fertility and sexuality. Special attention should be paid to preserve their fertility whenever possible. The gonadotoxic effect of chemotherapy is largely drug- and dosedependent and is related to age. The effect of radiotherapy is also dependent on dose and age and on the radiation therapy field. The prepubertal ovary is the least susceptible to gonadotoxicity. Ablative regimens for stem cell transplantation have an extremely high risk of ovarian failure. Alternative chemotherapy protocols can reduce long-term gonadotoxicity. Alkylating agents impose the highest risk in causing ovarian failure and should be avoided whenever possible. Up to now, the results of gonadoprotective hormonal therapy have been disappointing and contradictory. Transposition of the ovaries should be considered in each case of planned pelvic or whole body irradiation, where ovarian involvement is unlikely and chemotherapy not necessary. Cryopreservation of preimplantation embryos will seldom be possible in female adolescents due to the lack of a stable relationship with a male partner. Cryopreservation of mature and immature oocytes (necessitating in vitro maturation) is still assumed not to be safe for the offspring. Cryopreservation and transplantation of ovarian tissue seems to be the most promising way of future fertility preservation in female adolescents. At present, it is in its early experimental stage. Its safety and possibilities for fertility preservation in humans are not proven as yet. Additionally, technical and ethical issues need to be addressed. The counseling of female adolescents who are facing the threat of cancer needs careful consideration with regards to the psychosocial impact of the treatment and its consequences. Special attention should be paid to aspects of future
Obeid, Nicole; Buchholz, Annick; Boerner, Katelynn E; Henderson, Katherine A; Norris, Mark
This study explored symptoms of social anxiety and multidimensional self-esteem in a clinical, adolescent female eating disorder population. Using self-report measures, data from 344 females revealed significant negative relationships between dimensions of self-esteem and social anxiety. A diagnostic difference emerged, with the restricting subgroup reporting significantly higher perceived physical appearance and global self-worth than those with binge/purge symptoms or bulimia nervosa. No significant age differences or age by diagnosis interaction effects emerged. These findings suggest that in clinical samples of adolescent eating disorders, self-esteem and social anxiety share a significant inverse relationship and seem to remain fairly constant across adolescence.
Ioannides, Kimon L H; Chapman, Jennifer; Marukutira, Tafireyi; Tshume, Ontibile; Anabwani, Gabriel; Gross, Robert; Lowenthal, Elizabeth D
We hypothesized that longer and more frequent dosing gaps among boys in Botswana taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared to girls could account for previously seen gender-specific differences in outcomes. We monitored 154 male and 134 female adolescents for 2 years with medication event monitoring systems (MEMS). Median adherence was 95.6 % for males and 95.7 % for females (p = 0.40). There were no significant gender differences in the number of ≥7 day (p = 0.55) and ≥14 day (p = 0.48) dosing gaps. The median maximal gap was 7.7 days for males and 8.0 days for females (p = 0.47). These findings are not consistent with clinically meaningful gender differences in adherence.
Wulsin, Aynara C.; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A.; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P.
Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45–58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood. PMID:26751968
Wulsin, Aynara C; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P
Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45-58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood.
Odeyemi, Kofoworola; Onajole, Adebayo; Ogunowo, Babatunde
High rates of adolescent pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and unsafe abortions in Nigeria indicate the need for a greater understanding of factors that affect adolescent sexuality. The sexual health needs of adolescents remain poorly known and addressed particularly among vulnerable subpopulations like out-of-school adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the sexual behavior of female out-of-school adolescents and to identify factors that influence their sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of unmarried, out-of-school female adolescents (n = 332, mean age 17 y), selected using cluster sampling, who were working in a major market (Mushin) in Lagos, Nigeria. Data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaires. Many girls (43.7%) have had sexual intercourse. The mean age at initiation was 16 years. The main reason for initiation was curiosity. Risky sexual behavior and transactional sex was common. Nonconsensual sex was also reported. Sexual health knowledge was poor, and friends served as their main source of information on sexual health issues. Factors associated with the initiation of sexual activity were friends sexual behavior, the person adolescents reside with, parents marital status, availability of funds to meet basic needs, and watching pornography (p < .05). Out-of-school female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior are exposed to sexual abuse, lack skills to resist pressure, and have limited access to credible reproductive health information. Appropriate interventions including provision of sexuality education and a supportive environment must be instituted to address their needs.
Spitalnick, Joshua S; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Crosby, Richard A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sales, Jessica M; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N
The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a clinic-based sample of African-American adolescent females (N=715) enrolled in an STD/HIV prevention intervention. Participants (ages 15-21) endorsing higher levels of sexual sensation seeking reported higher levels of sexual risk-taking behaviours (e.g. frequency of vaginal intercourse, number of sexual partners, and poorer condom use). Results remained significant after controlling for known covariates associated with sexual risk-taking behaviours. Results are consistent with the adult literature and highlight the need for future investigations examining sexual sensation seeking among adolescents. These results, though preliminary, could be used to better inform prevention interventions and clinicians/health educators who provide direct services to adolescents.
Doré, E; Bedu, M; França, N M; Van Praagh, E
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the relationships between short-term power and body dimensions in young females were similar whatever the age of the individuals. A cohort of 189 prepubescent (mean age 9.5 years), adolescent (mean age 14.4 years) and young adult (mean age 18.2 years) females performed three all-out sprints on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer against three braking forces corresponding to applied loads of 25, 50 and 75 g.kg-1 body mass (BM). For each sprint, peak power including flywheel inertia was calculated. Results showed that a braking load of 75 g.kg-1 BM was too high for prepubescent and adolescent girls. Therefore, when measuring short-term cycling performance in heterogeneous female populations, a braking load of 50 g.kg-1 BM (0.495 N.kg-1 BM) is recommended. During growth, cycling peak power (CPP; defined as the highest peak power obtained during the three sprints) increased, as did total BM, fat-free mass (FFM) and lean leg volume (LLV) (P < 0.001). Analysis of covariance revealed that the slopes of the linear relationships between CPP and biometric characteristics were similar in the three groups (P > 0.7 for the CPP/BM and CPP/FFM relationships, and P > 0.2 for the CPP/LLV relationship). However, the adjusted means were always significantly higher in young women (P < 0.001) compared with both of the other groups. Although differences in performance during anaerobic cycling in growing females are primarily dependent upon body dimensions, other as yet undetermined factors may be involved during late adolescence.
Nindl, B C; Mahar, M T; Harman, E A; Patton, J F
Little data exist for upper and lower body mechanical power capability of adolescent athletes. This study compared arm (A) and leg (L) anaerobic peak and mean power (PP and MP) of 20 male and 20 female adolescent athletes after normalization for body mass (BM), fat-free mass (FFM), and lean A and L cross-sectional area (CSA). Power outputs were assessed by the Wingate anaerobic test. FFM and CSA were estimated via anthropometry. No significant (P > 0.05) differences existed between the sexes in Tanner sexual maturity, chronological age, or overall training activity. Males had higher (P < 0.001) absolute PP (W) (L 694 vs 442; A 494 vs 309) and MP (L 548 vs 307; A 337 vs 214). Ratio normalization and ANCOVA were used to remove the influence of body size differences. Ratio normalization showed that males had greater leg PP/BM, MP/BM, MP/FFM, MP/CSA, as well as arm PP/BM and MP/BM, whereas all leg and arm PP and MP ANCOVA adjusted means for BM, FFM, and CSA, except arm MP adjusted for FFM, were significantly (P < 0.01) higher for males than females. We conclude that factors other than muscle mass, possibly qualitative in nature, are responsible for the sex difference in anaerobic performance of adolescent athletes.
Zayed, Mouchira; Ahmed, Dalia; Halawa, Eman Fawzy
Violence among female adolescents is a major public health problem. The objective of this study is to detect the pattern and predicting factors of interpersonal violence among adolescent female students in a nursing high school in Cairo. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the academic year 2011-2012 and included a total of 220 students using a self-administered questionnaire. Physical violence exposure at home, school and community among studied adolescents were 65.5, 30.4 and 25.9% respectively. Verbal violence was found in 55, 69 and 60% at home, school and community respectively. Finally 5 and 41.3% of studied students were exposed to sexual violence at home and community respectively. The highest violence exposure score was at school from teachers while the highest score of being violent was mainly towards the community. Multivariate regression analysis for violence scores revealed that younger students, students from urban residence and higher crowding index were significant predictors for total violence exposure and being violent scores. Prevention programmes should be given for all students especially high risk ones (young age, urban residence and high crowdness index families) and their families to address and overcome this problem.
Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Zohar, Gali
The study aimed to examine the role of dissociation (persistent versus peritraumatic) in self-injurious behavior among at-risk Israeli female adolescents. In addition, the relationship between childhood sexual abuse, depression, dissociation, and potency was investigated. A convenience sample of 93 female adolescents aged 12 years to 18 years were recruited from institutions for at-risk adolescent girls in Israel. Participants were administered an anonymous self-report questionnaire that included six measures: Demographics, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire, the Traumatic Events Questionnaire, and the Potency Scale. Results indicated that childhood sexual abuse increases the risk for self-injurious behavior more than threefold. Higher levels of persistent dissociation were found among girls who reported child sexual abuse compared to those who did not. Self-injurious behavior was predicted by persistent dissociation. Girls who engaged in self-injurious behavior had lower potency and higher depression levels, regardless of childhood sexual abuse history.
Tschann, J M; Adler, N E
A longitudinal study examined the emotional and interpersonal processes involved in contraceptive behavior among 201 sexually active female adolescents 14-19 years of age recruited from adolescent medicine clinics in San Francisco, California (US). At study entry, adolescents completed questionnaires regarding sociodemographics, sexual and reproductive history, sexual self-acceptance, sexual communication with partners, and current contraceptive use. At a 6-month follow-up interview, participants reported on all sexual activity and contraceptive use since study enrollment. Path analysis indicated greater sexual self-acceptance was significantly related to more sexual communication and more contraceptive communication. Contraceptive communication, in turn, was associated with more frequent and more effective contraceptive use. Higher levels of contraceptive communication predicted both more frequent and more effective contraceptive use at the 6-month follow-up even when the effects of baseline contraceptive use were controlled. When the association between sexual self-acceptance and subsequent contraceptive behavior was examined apart from communication about sexuality and contraception, sexual self-acceptance directly predicted contraceptive effectiveness but not frequency. These findings underscore the importance of interpersonal processes in sexual and contraceptive behavior and suggest the utility of interventions that provide adolescents with skills for discussing contraception.
Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert
Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…
Connolly, Mary Kate; Quin, Edel; Redding, Emma
The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological and psychological impact of contemporary dance classes on adolescent females. Fifty-five females, aged 14 were recruited from secondary schools in the UK. The intervention constituted a program of contemporary dance classes with an emphasis on building muscular strength. Full ethics…
Cumming, Sean P.; Standage, Martyn; Loney, Tom; Gammon, Catherine; Neville, Helen; Sherar, Lauren B.; Malina, Robert M.
The current study examined the mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and self-reported physical activity in adolescent British females. Biological maturity status, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 407 female British year 7-9 pupils (M age = 13.2 years, SD = 1.0).…
Grimes, Lee Edmondson; Haizlip, Breyan; Rogers, Tiffany; Brown, Kimberly D.
Adolescent African American females face multiple obstacles that hinder their educational success. High school completion and college attendance rates remain lower for African American females than those for other racial and gender groups, while pregnancy rates for African American teens are higher. Group work holds promise for meeting the…
Pace, Ugo; Cacioppo, Marco; Schimmenti, Adriano
The present study examined the association between quality of attachment, perception of the father's bond, and binge eating symptoms in a sample of female late adolescents. In total, 233 female students aged between 18 and 20 years completed measures on binge eating, quality of attachment and parent-child relationship. Data showed that respondents…
Toscano, Sharyl E
Background This paper describes the nature and characteristics of the dating relationships of adolescent females, including any of their experiences of abuse. Methods A grounded theory approach was used with 22 theoretically sampled female adolescents ages 15–18. Results Several important themes emerged: Seven stages of dating consistently described the relationships of female adolescents. A circle consisting of two interacting same sex peer groups provided structure for each teen as they navigated the dating course. The circle was the central factor affecting a female adolescent's potential for risk or harm in dating relationships. Teens defined abuse as an act where the intention is to hurt. Having once succumbed to sexual pressure, teens felt unable to refuse sex in subsequent situations. Conclusion An awareness of both the stages of dating and the dynamics of the circle will assist health care providers to plan and implement interventions in the female adolescent population. Study findings on factors and influences that support non-abusive versus abusive relationship might help identify female teens at risk and/or support interventions aimed at preventing dating violence. PMID:17883833
Uzturk, Belkis Gizem; Jin, Shan-xue; Rubin, Beverly; Bartolome, Christopher; Feig, Larry A.
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated in the induction and prolongation of a variety of psychiatric disorders. As such, much effort has been made to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in its control. However, the vast majority of the studies on the HPA axis have used adult animals, and among these the majority has used males. Here we show that in knockout mice lacking the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, RasGRF1, habituation to 30 minutes a day of restraint stress is markedly accelerated, such that these mice do not display elevated corticosterone levels or enhanced locomotion after 7 days of stress exposure, like WT mice do. Strikingly, this phenotype is present in early-adolescent female RasGRF1 knockout mice, but not in their early-adolescent male, mid-adolescent female, adult female or adult male counterparts. Moreover, not only is there a clear response to restraint stress in early-adolescent female RasGRF1 knockout mice, their response after 1, 3, and 5 exposures is magnified ~3-fold compared to WT mice. These findings imply that distinct mechanisms exist to regulate the HPA axis in early-adolescent females that involves RasGRF1. A full understanding of how RasGRF1 controls the HPA axis response to stress may be required to design effective strategies to combat stress-associated psychiatric disorders initiated in young females. PMID:26246084
Bluth, Karen; Blanton, Priscilla W.
Self-compassion has been associated with well-being in adult samples, but has rarely been assessed in adolescents. In this study, 90 students ages 11–18 completed an online survey assessing self-compassion, life satisfaction, perceived stress and positive and negative affect. Findings indicated that older female adolescents had lower self-compassion than either older male adolescents or early adolescents of either gender, and self-compassion was associated significantly with all dimensions of emotional well-being with the exception of positive affect. Additionally, phase of adolescence, but not gender, was found to moderate the relationship between self-compassion and dimensions of well-being; for older adolescents, the inverse relationship between self-compassion and negative affect was stronger. Lastly, the influence of the various components of self-compassion was investigated and discussed. PMID:25750655
Johnson, Nicole L.; Carini, Lindsay; Schenk, Marian E.; Stewart, Michelle; Byrnes, Elizabeth M.
The non-medical use of prescription opiates, such as Vicodin® and MSContin®, has increased dramatically over the past decade. Of particular concern is the rising popularity of these drugs in adolescent female populations. Use during this critical developmental period could have significant long-term consequences for both the female user as well as potential effects on her future offspring. To address this issue, we have begun modeling adolescent opiate exposure in female rats and have observed significant transgenerational effects despite the fact that all drugs are withdrawn several weeks prior to pregnancy. The purpose of the current set of studies was to determine whether adolescent morphine exposure modifies postpartum care. In addition, we also examined juvenile play behavior in both male and female offspring. The choice of the social play paradigm was based on previous findings demonstrating effects of both postpartum care and opioid activity on play behavior. The findings revealed subtle modifications in the maternal behavior of adolescent morphine-exposed females, primarily related to the amount of time females’ spend nursing and in non-nursing contact with their young. In addition, male offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed mothers (MOR-F1) demonstrate decreased rough and tumble play behaviors, with no significant differences in general social behaviors (i.e., social grooming and social exploration). Moreover, there was a tendency toward increased rough and tumble play in MOR-F1 females, demonstrating the sex-specific nature of these effects. Given the importance of the postpartum environment on neurodevelopment, it is possible that modifications in maternal–offspring interactions, related to a history of adolescent opiate exposure, plays a role in the observed transgenerational effects. Overall, these studies indicate that the long-term consequences of adolescent opiate exposure can impact both the female and her future offspring. PMID:21713113
Amaral, Marta Araújo; da Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa
This article discusses one of the emergent themes of a qualitative research carried out with female adolescents in the neighborhood of Acaba Mundo, in the city of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, and aims at understanding their social representations on sexual initiation concerning gender. The data was collected in four workshops and analyzed on the basis of the social representation theory by means of the discourse analysis technique. Two empirical categories and their consequences emerged from the discourse: leaving childhood behind and fear of pregnancy. The understanding of the social representations and of the gender relationships made the values, ideas and practices of the adolescents and their family clear. It also made clear that those values, ideas and practices were in frequent transformation in the social field.
Ramanathan, Subha; Crocker, Peter R E
In this study we explored the role of personal, familial, and cultural attitudes and social norms for physical activity (PA) on actual PA behavior among female adolescents of the Indian diaspora. Six girls, 15 to 19 years of age, from a spiritual center participated in interviews and a focus group. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Participants were high in familism, and felt that PA was important for physical and mental health, and to strengthen relationships with family. Fathers and brothers were considered most influential on PA patterns. Differentiated gender roles in PA emerged: boys were deemed more aggressive and competitive, and girls were perceived to promote fun-based learning environments. The importance of religion and spirituality as influences on PA emerged among participants with strong affinities for Indian cultures. Results show that cultural heritage impacts PA norms, attitudes, and patterns, and must be considered when evaluating adolescent PA participation in multicultural societies.
Lee, Min J; Yang, Pamela B; Wilcox, Victor T; Burau, Keith D; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum
Methylphenidate (MPD), or Ritalin, is a psychostimulant that is prescribed for an extended period of time to children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Adolescence is a time of critical brain maturation and development, and the drug exposure during this time could lead to lasting changes in the brain that endure into the adulthood. Circadian rhythms are 24 h rhythms of physiological processes that are synchronized by the master-clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, to keep the body stable in a changing environment. The aim of present study is to observe the effect of repeated MPD exposure on the locomotor diurnal rhythm activity patterns of female adolescent Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats using the open field assay. 31 female adolescent SD rats were divided into four groups: control, 0.6 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg MPD group. On experimental day 1, all groups were given an injection of saline. On experimental days 2-7, animals were injected once a day with either saline, 0.6 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, or 10 mg/kg MPD, and experimental days 8-10 were the washout period. A re-challenge injection was given to each animal on experimental day 11 with the similar dose as the experimental days 2-7. The locomotor movements were counted by the computerized animal activity monitoring system. The data were analyzed statistically to find out whether the diurnal rhythm activity patterns were altered. The obtained data showed that repeated administrations of 2.5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg MPD were able to change the locomotor diurnal rhythm patterns, which suggests that these MPD doses exerts long-term effects.
Schreiber, Deborah A.
This paper: (1) briefly reviews the existing literature which supports that female adolescents possess significantly more negative attitudes toward middle school science than do males; (2) examines the process of gender socialization in the United States to establish the socio-cultural and social psychological framework within which an attitudinal…
Buković, D; Lakusić, N; Kopjar, M; Maricić, I; Fures, R; Mahović, D; Marjan, D; Juresa, V; Zadro, M; Grah, J J; Simić, M
The aim of this study was to estimate the level of knowledge about sexuality, attitudes and sexual behaviour of female adolescents. The study included 194 female students, 117 from Medical High School (MHS) and 77 from General High School (GHS) in Zagreb. Data was collected using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. In addition to items on personal data (age, parental education etc.), the participants were asked to define terms about sexuality (e.g. menstruation, puberty) the definitions of which are found in biology textbooks for the fifth and eighth grade of primary school. The aim of the third part of the survey was to collect information about attitudes and behaviour of female adolescents. The results showed a low level of knowledge in students of both schools. General High School students showed a higher level of knowledge than their Medical High School peers. One fifth of General High School students and 1/3 of Medical High School students were unable to define the term "menstruation". The majority of adolescents talk about sexuality with their friends, 92.1% of General High School and 81.2% of Medical High School students. Almost 50% of students of both schools would like to talk about sexuality with their school doctor. 6.9% of Medical High School students had at least one sexual intercourse while none of the General High School students had been sexually active at the time of the survey. As the majority of students were not sexually active and results showed a rather low level of knowledge, this seems to be the ideal period for the implementation of educational programs aimed at increasing the level of knowledge, and thus preventing unwanted consequences (STD, pregnancy, abortion, infertility).
Sales, Jessica M.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Swartzendruber, Andrea L.; Smearman, Erica L.; Brody, Gene H.; DiClemente, Ralph
Psychosocial stress, including stress resulting from racial discrimination (RD), has been associated with elevated depressive symptoms. However, individuals vary in their reactivity to stress, with some variability resulting from genetic differences. Specifically, genetic variation within the linked promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) is related to heightened reactivity to emotional environmental cues. Likewise, variations within this region may interact with stressful life events (e.g., discrimination) to influence depressive symptoms, but this has not been empirically examined in prior studies. The objective of this study was to examine whether variation in the 5-HTTLPR gene interacts with RD to predict depressive symptoms among a sample of African–American adolescent females. Participants were 304 African–American adolescent females enrolled in a sexually transmitted disease prevention trial. Participants completed a baseline survey assessing psychosocial factors including RD (low vs. high) and depressive symptomatology (low vs. high) and provided a saliva sample for genotyping the risk polymorphism 5-HTTLPR (s allele present vs. not present). In a logistic regression model adjusting for psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms, an interaction between RD and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with depressive symptomatology (AOR = 3.79, 95% CI: 1.20–11.98, p = 0.02). Follow-up tests found that high RD was significantly associated with greater odds of high depressive symptoms only for participants with the s allele. RD and 5-HTTLPR status interact to differentially impact depressive symptoms among African–American adolescent females. Efforts to decrease depression among minority youth should include interventions which address RD and strengthen factors (e.g., coping, emotion regulation, building support systems) which protect youth from the psychological costs of discrimination. PMID:26157407
Unlu, Gulsen; Cakaloz, Burcu
Purpose Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in these cases. Patients and methods Data of 254 sexually abused female adolescents between the ages of 12–18 years were evaluated. The cases were classified into three groups, namely “sexual dating violence”, “incest”, and “other child sexual abuse”, according to the identity of the perpetrator. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features. Results Major depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, which was present in 44.9% of the cases. Among all victims, 25.6% had attempted suicide, 52.0% had suicidal ideation, and 23.6% had NSSI during the postabuse period. A logistic regression analysis revealed that attempted suicide was predicted by dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.053; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.473, 6.330) and depression (AOR =2.238; 95% CI =1.226, 4.086). Dating violence victimization was also the strongest predictor of subsequent suicidal ideation (AOR =3.500; 95% CI =1.817, 6.741). In addition, revictimization was determined to be an important risk factor for both suicidal ideation (AOR =2.897; 95% CI =1.276, 6.574) and NSSI (AOR =3.847; 95% CI =1.899, 7.794). Conclusion Perpetrator identity and revictimization are associated with negative mental health outcomes in sexually victimized female adolescents. Increased risk of suicidality and NSSI should be borne in mind while assessing cases with dating violence and revictimization histories, in particular. PMID:27382291
Thralls, Katie J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T; Kern, Mark; Rauh, Mitchell J
Early detection of the female athlete triad is essential for the long-term health of adolescent female athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between common anthropometric markers (ideal body weight [IBW] via the Hamwi formula, youth-percentile body mass index [BMI], adult BMI categories, and body fat percentage [BF%]) and triad components, (low energy availability [EA], measured by dietary restraint [DR], menstrual dysfunction [MD], low bone mineral density [BMD]). In the sample (n = 320) of adolescent female athletes (age 15.9± 1.2 y), Spearman's rho correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations between anthropometric clinical cutoffs and triad components. All underweight categories for the anthropometric measures predicted greater likelihood of MD and low BMD. Athletes with an IBW >85% were nearly 4 times more likely to report MD (OR = 3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.9]) and had low BMD (OR = 4.1, 95% CI [1.2, 14.2]). Those in <5th percentile for their age-specific BMI were 9 times more likely to report MD (OR 9.1, 95% CI [1.8, 46.9]) and had low BMD than those in the 50th to 85th percentile. Athletes with a high BF% were almost 3 times more likely to report DR (OR = 2.8, 95% CI [1.4, 6.1]). Our study indicates that low age-adjusted BMI and low IBW may serve as evidence-based clinical indicators that may be practically evaluated in the field, predicting MD and low BMD in adolescents. These measures should be tested for their ability as tools to minimize the risk for the triad.
Myrick, Jessica Gall; Noar, Seth M; Kelley, Dannielle; Zeitany, Alexandra E
Background Unlike other types of cancer, skin cancer incidence rates are on the rise and adolescent females are particularly likely to tan indoors, a major risk factor. However, little research has examined the role of media use in encouraging or discouraging this dangerous behavior in this population. Aims To empirically assess the links between media use, indoor tanning-related outcome expectations, and behavioral intentions. Method A survey of adolescent females (N = 510) ages 15 to 18 in the Southeastern United States assessed demographics, types of media use, and indoor tanning intentions. Results Significant correlations between media use and indoor tanning outcome expectations were found. Use of interpersonal and social media (i.e., talking on the phone, texting, and online social media) were positively associated with positive outcome expectations about indoor tanning and negatively associated with negative outcome expectations. A path analysis revealed that interpersonal/social media use had indirect associations with indoor tanning intentions via tanning outcome expectations. Mass media use (e.g., news media, entertainment media, and magazines) was not significantly associated with most indoor tanning outcome expectations but did have a direct negative association with behavioral intentions. Discussion There are important relationships between media use, indoor tanning outcome expectations, and behavioral intentions. Interpersonal and social media use may help cultivate outcome expectations that encourage indoor tanning, which in turn may increase intentions to tan, while news media consumption in particular may reduce intentions to tan. Conclusion These findings highlight the social nature of adolescent females and point to specific intervention channels for reducing indoor tanning among this population.
Ebrahiminejad, Shima; Poursharifi, Hamid; Bakhshiour Roodsari, Abbas; Zeinodini, Zahra; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat
Background Social anxiety is one of the most common psychological disorders that exists among children and adolescents, and it has profound effects on their psychological states and academic achievements. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on diminishing social anxiety disorder symptoms and improving the self-esteem of female adolescents suffering from social anxiety. Patients and Methods Semi-experimental research was conducted on 30 female students diagnosed with social anxiety. From the population of female students who were studying in Tehran’s high schools in the academic year of 2013 - 2014, 30 students fulfilling the DSM-5 criteria were selected using the convenience sampling method and were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. The experimental group received eight sessions of MBCT treatment. The control group received no treatment. All participants completed the social phobia inventory (SPIN) and Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES) twice as pre- and post-treatment tests. Results The results from the experimental group indicated a statistically reliable difference between the mean scores from SPIN (t (11) = 5.246, P = 0.000) and RSES (t (11) = -2.326, P = 0.040) pre-treatment and post-treatment. On the other hand, the results of the control group failed to reveal a statistically reliable difference between the mean scores from SPIN (t (12) = 1.089, P = 0.297) and RSES pre-treatment and post-treatment (t (12) = 1.089, P = 0.000). Conclusions The results indicate that MBCT is effective on both the improvement of self-esteem and the decrease of social anxiety. The results are in accordance with prior studies performed on adolescents. PMID:28191335
Oyinlade, O.A.; Lagunju, I.A.; Adebayo, B.E.
Background: Nemaline rod disease is a congenital myopathy, presentation of which may mimic myasthenia gravis. Method: We report a suspected case of nemaline rod disease in a female adolescent who presented with features similar to myasthenia gravis but failed to respond effectively to its conventional management. She had features of respiratory failure and cardiomyopathy. Results: Patient had a turbulent clinical course and finally succumbed to illness on the fifth day of admission. Conclusion: This report is meant to sensitize child neurologists and general paediatricians on the need to have a broad spectrum of considerations in the management of suspected myasthenia gravis, especially when response to anticholinesterase is poor.
Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A
The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed.
Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.
The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011
Ng, Junice Y. S.; Wong, Mee-Lian
Objectives We assessed the proportion of and socio-ecological factors associated with ever having had sex with female sex workers (FSWs) among heterosexual adolescents. We also described the characteristics of the adolescents who reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs. Methods This is a cross-sectional study (response rate: 73%) of 300 heterosexually active male adolescents of 16 to 19 years attending a national STI clinic in Singapore between 2009 and 2014. We assessed the ecological factors (individual, parental, peer, school and medial influences) and sexual risk behaviors using a self-reported questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and confidence intervals (CI). Results The proportion of heterosexual male adolescents who had ever had sex with FSWs was 39%. Multivariate analysis showed that significant factors associated with ever having had sex with FSWs were sex initiation before 16 years old (aPR 1.79 CI: 1.30–2.46), never had a sexually active girlfriend (aPR 1.75 CI 1.28–2.38), reported lower self-esteem score (aPR 0.96 CI: 0.93–0.98), higher rebelliousness score (aPR 1.03 CI: 1.00–1.07) and more frequent viewing of pornography (aPR 1.47 CI: 1.04–2.09). Lifetime inconsistent condom use with FSWs was 30%. Conclusions A significant proportion of heterosexual male adolescents attending the public STI clinic had ever had sex with FSWs. A targeted intervention that addresses different levels of influence to this behavior is needed. This is even more so because a considerable proportion of adolescents reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs, who may serve as a bridge of STI transmission to the community. National surveys on adolescent health should include the assessment of frequency of commercial sex visits and condom use with FSWs for long-term monitoring and surveillance. PMID:26808561
Okamoto, Shinichi; Arai, Yuji; Hara, Kunio; Tsuzihara, Takashi; Kubo, Toshikazu
This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, calorie intake and menstrual cycles is most important to prevent such stress fractures. Athletes as well as their coaches or parents therefore need to understand female athlete triad.
Kuschner, Emily S.; Bodner, Kimberly E.; Minshew, Nancy J.
Individuals with autism have an atypical pattern of visual processing. Various studies have provided evidence that individuals with autism perceive the details of stimuli before the gestalt, the reverse of the typical pattern of visual processing. This study used the Rey Osterreith Complex Figure (ROCF) task and an objective scoring system to examine local/global processing approaches to its reproduction in 37 individuals diagnosed with high-functioning autism (HFA) compared to 49 age-, IQ-, and gender-matched typically developing controls (TD). The sample was divided into children (aged 8–14 years) and adolescents/adults (aged 15–47 years) to assess age effects. Results showed no difference in overall performance on the ROCF between HFA and TD children. TD participants displayed improved organizational and planning skills with age and a shift to global processing approaches, but there were no differences in erformance between children and adolescents/adults with HFA. There was no evidence of enhanced local processing in ither HFA group. These findings suggest that HFA individuals with average IQ scores do not have the clinically emonstrable evidence of the enhanced local processing thought to reflect increased local brain connectivity in more severely autistic individuals. The deficient global processing of the HFA adults reflects dependence of performance on impaired strategic problem-solving abilities, which has been demonstrated to result from under development of neural connectivity between visuo-spatial and frontal brain regions in HFA adults. PMID:19950303
Mills, David; Sharon, Bazak; Schneider, Kari
Tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) in non-sexually active female adolescents is a rare presentation to the pediatric emergency department. In the following case, bilateral TOA secondary to Streptococcus constellatus was diagnosed in a 13-year-old virginal female. The patient was seen 4 months before presentation for interventional radiology-guided drainage and antibiotic treatment for an intra-abdominal abscess due to suspected appendiceal rupture. Exploratory laparotomy on the most recent presentation demonstrated an appendix with inflammation and serositis on pathology report, a concern for chronic appendicitis with microperforation and subsequent bacterial translocation of the bilateral ovaries. This case report identifies a rare cause, pathogen, and the patient's demographics presenting with bilateral TOA. Most importantly, this case demonstrates the need for emergency medicine physicians to have a high index of suspicion for TOA in patients with a significant medical history of intra-abdominal pathology to promptly diagnose and treat high-morbidity pathology.
Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md
Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Results: Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. Conclusion: The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia. PMID:24762359
Correia, Divanise S; Cavalcante, Jairo C; Maia, Eulália M C
The purpose of this study was to analyze risk factors for abortion among female teenagers from 12 to 19 years of age in the city of Maceió, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in ten schools. The sample was calculated by considering the number of admissions for postabortion curettage, obtained from the Information System of Hospitalization. Data were obtained through a semi-structured questionnaire divided into three basic blocks of data: sociodemographic, sexual life, and pregnancy/abortion. To analyze the data, the logistic regression model was used. The Forward Method was chosen to set the final model that minimizes the number of variables and maximizes the accuracy of the model. The significant analysis between the dichotomous variables provided eight significant variables. Two of them are protective for abortion: the ages 12-14 years and talking with parents about sex. After the logistic regression, the receipt of support for abortion was the most significant variable of all. The adolescent with an active sexual life, a previous pregnancy, who is married, and has received support for an abortion has a 99.74% probability for an abortion. The results of this study, demonstrating the importance of the group in adolescence, and the statistical significance of having a partner to support and approve the pregnancy appears as a preventive factor for abortion. It shows the importance of support and companionship for adolescent women.
Rubley, Mack D; Haase, Amaris C; Holcomb, William R; Girouard, Tedd J; Tandy, Richard D
The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of low-frequency, low-impact plyometric training on vertical jump (VJ) and kicking distance in female adolescent soccer players. Sixteen adolescent soccer players were studied (age 13.4 ± 0.5 years) across 14 weeks. The control group (general soccer training only) had 6 subjects, and the plyometric training (general soccer training plus plyometric exercise) group had 10 subjects. All subjects were tested for VJ and kicking distance on 3 occasions: pre-test, 7 weeks, and 14 weeks. Data were analyzed using a 2 (Training) × 3 (Test) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on the factor test. No significant difference in kicking distance was found between groups at pre-test (p = 0.688) or 7 weeks (p = 0.117). The plyometric group had significantly greater kicking distance after 14 weeks (p < 0.001). No significant difference in VJ height was found between groups at pre-test (p = 0.837) or 7 weeks (p = 0.108). The plyometric group had a significantly higher VJ after 14 weeks (p = 0.014). These results provide strength coaches with a safe and effective alternative to high-intensity plyometric training. Based on these findings, to increase lower-body power resulting in increased VJ and kicking distance, strength coaches should implement once-weekly, low-impact plyometric training programs with their adolescent athletes.
Abate, Anna; Marshall, Kaisa; Sharp, Carla; Venta, Amanda
High rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and elevated levels of aggression are common among youth in inpatient psychiatric settings. Several models link trauma exposure to aggression through anomalous mental state reasoning. Some theoretical frameworks linking trauma to aggression specify that the over-attribution of hostile mental states contributes to the development of aggressive behavior whereas other theories suggest that an inhibition of mental state reasoning leads to aggressive behavior. Using a sample of inpatient adolescents, the current study examined relations between PTSD symptoms and four forms of aggression, exploring the role of both over- and under-mentalizing (i.e., hypo- and hypermentalizing) as mediators and gender as a moderator. The results suggest that hypermentalizing, but not hypomentalizing, mediates the relation between trauma and aggression, extending prior research related to inpatient adolescents for the first time. Evidence of moderated mediation was noted, such that this mediational relation was evident for females but not males. The current study offers support for differential underlying causes of aggression among males and females with PTSD symptoms.
Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Jeong-Il; Song, MiKyung; Lee, Donghun; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Soo Young; Park, Juyeon; Choi, Ho-Young; Kim, Hocheol
Eucommia ulmoides is one of the popular tonic herbs for the treatment of low back pain and bone fracture and is used in Korean medicine to reinforce muscles and bones. This study was performed to investigate the effects of E. ulmoides extract on longitudinal bone growth rate, growth plate height, and the expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in adolescent female rats. In two groups, we administered a twice-daily dosage of E. ulmoides extract (at 30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively) per os over 4 days, and in a control group, we administered vehicle only under the same conditions. Longitudinal bone growth rate in newly synthesized bone was observed using tetracycline labeling. Chondrocyte proliferation in the growth plate was observed using cresyl violet dye. In addition, we analyzed the expressions of BMP-2 and IGF-1 using immunohistochemistry. Eucommia ulmoides extract significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate and growth plate height in adolescent female rats. In the immunohistochemical study, E. ulmoides markedly increased BMP-2 and IGF-1 expressions in the proliferative and hypertrophic zones. In conclusion, E. ulmoides increased longitudinal bone growth rate by promoting chondrogenesis in the growth plate and the levels of BMP-2 and IGF-1. Eucommia ulmoides could be helpful for increasing bone growth in children who have growth retardation.
This study was an investigation of female adolescents' perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and reading science-related texts. Three surveys were used to collect data from 253 middle school students in Grade 7 and Grade 8 and six interviews were conducted with students. The interviews allowed a deeper analysis of the value students placed on science and on reading science-related texts. The quantitative data were collected through the following surveys: Test of Science Related Attitudes, Motivation for Reading Informational Books in School adapted, and Metacognitive Awareness Reading Strategies Inventory adapted. The purpose of the surveys was to provide a comprehensive picture of students' self-reported perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and the motivation to engage. Literacy processes and practices make engagement and learning in science possible; however, intrinsic motivation and cognitive strategies are critical influential components that educators cannot overlook. The female adolescents in this study expressed greater competence when involved in learning science through inquiry experimentation integrated with literacy presented in different formats.
Dhaher, Ronnie; McConnell, Kathleen K; Rodd, Zachary A; McBride, William J; Bell, Richard L
The rationale for our study was to determine the pattern of ethanol drinking by the high alcohol-drinking (HAD) replicate lines of rats during adolescence and adulthood in both male and female rats. Rats were given 30 days of 24 h free-choice access to ethanol (15%, v/v) and water, with ad lib access to food, starting at the beginning of adolescence (PND 30) or adulthood (PND 90). Water and alcohol drinking patterns were monitored 22 h/day with a "lickometer" set-up. The results indicated that adolescent HAD-1 and HAD-2 males consumed the greatest levels of ethanol and had the most well defined ethanol licking binges among the age and sex groups with increasing levels of ethanol consumption throughout adolescence. In addition, following the first week of adolescence, male and female HAD-1 and HAD-2 rats differed in both ethanol consumption levels and ethanol licking behavior. Adult HAD-1 male and female rats did not differ from one another and their ethanol intake or licking behaviors did not change significantly over weeks. Adult HAD-2 male rats maintained a relatively constant level of ethanol consumption across weeks, whereas adult HAD-2 female rats increased ethanol consumption levels over weeks, peaking during the third week when they consumed more than their adult male counterparts. The results indicate that the HAD rat lines could be used as an effective animal model to examine the development of ethanol consumption and binge drinking in adolescent male and female rats providing information on the long-range consequences of adolescent alcohol drinking.
Rizzo, Christie J; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Swenson, Lance; Hower, Heather M; Wolff, Jennifer; Spirito, Anthony
The objective of the current study was to characterize the association between dating violence victimization and dispositional aggression in predicting nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among psychiatrically hospitalized male and female adolescents. One hundred fifty-five adolescents (ages 13-17) and their parents completed the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children clinical interview to assess NSSI and child abuse; adolescents completed self-report measures of aggression and dating violence victimization (verbal, physical, and sexual). Dating violence victimization and NSSI were found to be highly prevalent among both males and females in this psychiatric inpatient sample. Two moderational models were supported, wherein dating violence was associated with NSSI in the context of elevated trait anger in males and indirect aggression in females. Findings suggest that helping victims of dating violence acquire skills to address certain forms of dispositional aggression may attenuate NSSI.
Chadi, Nicholas; McMahon, Audrey; Vadnais, Majorie; Malboeuf-Hurtubise, Catherine; Djemli, Anissa; Dobkin, Patricia L.; Lacroix, Jacques; Luu, Thuy Mai; Haley, Nancy
Objective To test the feasibility of a randomized-controlled trial measuring the impact of an adapted mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) in female adolescents with chronic pain. Methods This was a single center, single-blind, prospective, experimental, longitudinal trial conducted in a pediatric tertiary care center. Participants had a history of chronic pain during at least three months. They were randomized into an intervention group or a wait-list control group. Both groups successively followed an adapted eight-week MBI designed specifically for adolescents with chronic pain. Pre-determined criteria were established to assess the feasibility, validity and acceptability of the study model. Data evaluating changes in quality of life, depression, anxiety, pain perception, psychological distress and salivary cortisol were collected throughout the 4-month study period. Results Nineteen female participants completed the study and had a mean age of 15.8 years (range 13.9 -17.8). Attrition rate was low (17%). Attendance to mindfulness sessions (84%) and compliance to study protocol (100%) were high. All participants reported a positive change in the way they coped with pain. No changes in quality of life, depression, anxiety, pain perception, and psychological distress were detected. Significant reductions in pre-and post-mindfulness session salivary cortisol levels were observed (p<0.001). Conclusions Mindfulness is a promising therapeutic approach for which limited data exist in adolescents with chronic pain. Our study indicates the feasibility of conducting such interventions in teenage girls. A large trial is needed to demonstrate the efficacy and bio-physiological impacts of MBIs in teenagers with chronic pain. PMID:27924146
Jones, Cathleen G; Yang, Pamela B; Wilcox, Victor T; Burau, Keith D; Dafny, Nachum
The psychostimulants considered the gold standard in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, one of the most common childhood disorders, are also finding their way into the hands of healthy young adults as brain augmentation to improve cognitive performance. The possible long-term effects of psychostimulant exposure in adolescence are considered controversial, and thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the chronic exposure to the psychostimulant amphetamine affects the behavioral diurnal rhythm activity patterns of female adolescent Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. The hypothesis of this study is that change in diurnal rhythm activity pattern is an indicator for the long-term effect of the treatment. Twenty-four rats were divided into two groups, control (N = 12) and experimental (N = 12), and kept in a 12:12-h light/dark cycle in an open-field cage. After 5-7 days of acclimation, 11 days of consecutive non-stop behavioral recordings began. On experimental day 1 (ED1), all groups were given an injection of saline. On ED2 to ED7, the experimental group was injected with 0.6 mg/kg amphetamine followed by 3 days of washout from ED8 to ED10, and amphetamine re-challenge on ED11 similar to ED2. The locomotor movements were counted by the computerized animal activity monitoring system, and the cosinor statistical test analysis was used to fit a 24-h curve of the control recording to the activity pattern after treatment. The horizontal activity, total distance, number of stereotypy, vertical activity, and stereotypical movements were analyzed to find out whether the diurnal rhythm activity patterns were altered. Data obtained using these locomotor indices of diurnal rhythm activity pattern suggest that amphetamine treatment significantly modulates the locomotor diurnal rhythm activity pattern of female WKY adolescent rats.
Stevens, Victor J.; Perrin, Nancy; Wu, Philip; Pearson, John; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; Dickerson, John; Lynch, Frances
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Most clinic-based weight control treatments for youth have been designed for preadolescent children by using family-based care. However, as adolescents become more autonomous and less motivated by parental influence, this strategy may be less appropriate. This study evaluated a primary care–based, multicomponent lifestyle intervention specifically tailored for overweight adolescent females. METHODS: Adolescent girls (N = 208) 12 to 17 years of age (mean ± SD: 14.1 ± 1.4 years), with a mean ± SD BMI percentile of 97.09 ± 2.27, were assigned randomly to the intervention or usual care control group. The gender and developmentally tailored intervention included a focus on adoptable healthy lifestyle behaviors and was reinforced by ongoing feedback from the teen’s primary care physician. Of those randomized, 195 (94%) completed the 6-month posttreatment assessment, and 173 (83%) completed the 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome was reduction in BMI z score. RESULTS: The decrease in BMI z score over time was significantly greater for intervention participants compared with usual care participants (−0.15 in BMI z score among intervention participants compared with −0.08 among usual care participants; P = .012). The 2 groups did not differ in secondary metabolic or psychosocial outcomes. Compared with usual care, intervention participants reported less reduction in frequency of family meals and less fast-food intake. CONCLUSIONS: A 5-month, medium-intensity, primary care–based, multicomponent behavioral intervention was associated with significant and sustained decreases in BMI z scores among obese adolescent girls compared with those receiving usual care. PMID:22331335
Gold, Melanie A.; Bost, James E.; Adimora, Ada A.; Orr, Donald P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis
Purpose Little is known about how adolescent sexual behaviors develop and the influence of personal or perceived social attitudes. We sought to describe how personal, perceived peer and perceived family attitudes towards adolescent sexual activity influences adolescent females’ sexual behaviors over time. Methods Between 1999–2006, 358 English-speaking females, aged 14–17 were recruited from three urban adolescent clinics. Participants completed quarterly and annual questionnaires over 4 years. Primary outcomes were engagement in eight sexual behaviors: kissing, having breasts or genitals touched, touching partners’ genitals, and oral (giving or receiving), anal, or vaginal sex. Three attitudinal scales assessed personal importance of abstinence, perceived peer beliefs about when to have sex and perceived family beliefs that adolescent sex is negative.. We used generalized estimating equations to identify predictors of each sexual behavior and compared whether personal, perceived peer or perceived family attitudes predicted sexual behaviors over time. Results The odds of reporting each sexual behavior increased with age but were lower among those whose personal or perceived family attitudes were less positive. Participants’ personal attitudes towards adolescent sex were the strongest predictor of engagement in all eight sexual behaviors even after controlling for perceived peer and perceived family attitudes. Conclusions Female adolescent’s personal attitudes towards abstinence appear to be the strongest predictor of engagement in a variety of sexual behaviors. Efforts to influence adolescent attitudes towards abstinence may be an important approach to reducing sexual behaviors that increase the risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:21185529
Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan
Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (p<0.05). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers and cues to action were predictors of physical puberty health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health. PMID:28210597
Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan
Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (p<0.05). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers and cues to action were predictors of physical puberty health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health.
Vassoler, Fair M; Johnson-Collins, Nicole L; Carini, Lindsay M; Byrnes, Elizabeth M
Prescription opiate use by adolescent girls has increased significantly in the past decade. Preclinical studies using rats report alterations in morphine sensitivity in the adult offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed females (MOR-F1) when compared with the offspring of adolescent saline-exposed females (SAL-F1). To begin to elucidate the development of these next generation modifications, the present study examined the effects of acute morphine administration on sedation and corticosterone secretion in prepubescent SAL-F1 and MOR-F1 male and female rats. In addition, alterations in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression in the arcuate nucleus, as well as in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene expressions in the ventral tegmental area, were analyzed using quantitative PCR, to determine whether differential regulation of these genes was correlated with the observed behavioral and/or endocrine effects. Increased morphine-induced sedation, coupled with an attenuation of morphine-induced corticosterone secretion, was observed in MOR-F1 males. Significant alterations in both POMC and OPRM1 gene expressions were also observed in MOR-F1 males, with no change in TH mRNA expression. Overall, these data suggest that the transgenerational effects of adolescent morphine exposure can be discerned before pubertal development and are more pronounced in males, and suggest dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed females.
Cheong, Ji In; Lee, Chang Hun; Park, Jae Hong; Ye, Byeong Jin; Kwon, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Young Seok
Purpose This study examined the relationships between early menarche and sexual behaviors among Korean female adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based survey that was conducted on female high school students in grades 10-12. The survey included 17,867 students, and 974 students were assigned to the early menarche group because they had experienced menarche when they were in grade four or below, and 16,893 students were assigned to the normal menarche group because they had experienced menarche during or after grade five. The characteristics of the sexual behaviors in the early menarche and normal menarche group were analyzed. Results The early menarche group was at a higher risk of intersexual kissing or petting (odds ratio [OR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.87), intersexual intercourse (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.65-3.36), homosexual kissing or petting (OR, 3.53; 95% CI, 2.22-5.59), homosexual intercourse (OR, 7.70; 95% CI, 4.04-14.66), being the victim (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.98-4.22) or the assailant (OR, 13.55; 95% CI, 6.61-27.78) of sexual assaults, intercourse without any contraception (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.06-3.46), and pregnancy (OR, 5.72; 95% CI, 2.31-14.15) than the normal menarche group. Conclusion Early menarche is associated with risky sexual behaviors among adolescent females; therefore, developing comprehensive sexual health education programs and tools for early intervention are required for children who are expected to experience early menarche. PMID:26512348
Bodiba, P; Madu, S N; Ezeokana, J O; Nnedum, O A U
The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods). Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised. First year female students from three different Schools and Faculties at the University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus, South Africa, participated in the study. Using the availability and convenient sampling method, 75 students were selected for this study. For the quantitative aspect of the study, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Measure was used to measure self-esteem. For the qualitative part, a topic guide was used for the focus group discussions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Pearson's Product Moment Correlation were used to analyse the quantitative data, while the phenomenological principle of open coding used for the thematic analysis. Results showed that there is a relationship between body mass and self-concept and that overweight participants tend to have a low self-esteem. Low self-esteem was perceived to be aggravated by a number of factors, like the attitude of the media and the society. Participants who are overweight also indicated that they are limited in certain activities of daily living (e.g., sports) as a result of their body mass. They expressed mixed feelings and frustration when it comes to such activities. The above results did not differ from those reported from western cultures. Support groups, life-skills programmes and psychotherapy should be
Faje, Alexander T.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Katzman, Debra K.; Ebrahimi, Seda; Lee, Hang; Mendes, Nara; Snelgrove, Deirdre; Meenaghan, Erinne; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne
Objective To (i) compare fracture prevalence in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa (AN) vs. normal-weight controls and (ii) examine whether reductions in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) predict fracture risk in females with AN. Methods 418 females (310 with active AN and 108 normal-weight controls) 12–22 years old were studied cross-sectionally. Lifetime fracture history was recorded by a physician during participant interviews. Body composition and aBMD measurements of the whole body, whole body less head, lumbar spine, and hip were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated for the lumbar spine. Results Participants with AN and normal-weight controls did not differ for chronological age, sexual maturity, or height. The lifetime prevalence of prior fracture was 59.8% higher in those with AN compared to controls (31.0 % versus 19.4 %, p = 0.02), and the fracture incidence rate peaked in our cohort after the diagnosis of AN. Lower aBMD and lumbar BMAD were not associated with a higher prevalence of fracture in the AN or control group on univariate or multivariate analyses. Compared to controls, fracture prevalence was significantly higher in the subgroup of girls with AN who had normal aBMD or only modest reductions of aBMD (Z-scores > −1 or −1.5). Discussion This is the first study to show that the risk of fracture during childhood and adolescence is significantly higher in patients with AN than in normal-weight controls. Fracture prevalence is increased in this cohort of subjects with AN even without significant reductions in aBMD. PMID:24430890
Pollock, Norman K; Laing, Emma M; Taylor, Ruth G; Baile, Clifton A; Hamrick, Mark W; Hall, Daniel B; Lewis, Richard D
Few childhood studies have investigated racial differences in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone geometry, and bone strength indices measured by three-dimensional bone imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare trabecular and cortical bone parameters at the radius and tibia between late adolescent white and black females using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (QCT). White (n = 25) and black females (n = 25), 18-19 years of age, were pair-matched for age, height, and fat-free soft tissue mass. Peripheral QCT scans were obtained at the 4% (trabecular bone), 20% (cortical bone), and 66% [muscle cross-sectional area (CSA)] sites from the distal metaphyses. Bone strength was determined from vBMD and bone geometry to calculate bone strength index (BSI; trabecular site) and polar strength-strain index (SSI; cortical site). Radial SSI was not different between groups; however, blacks had greater radial BSI (P = 0.02) than whites. After adjustment for the longer forearm in blacks, the greater radial BSI in blacks no longer remained. At the tibia, blacks versus whites had greater bone strength at the trabecular and cortical bone sites (BSI, P = 0.03; SSI, P = 0.04, respectively). When controlling for differences in tibial length and muscle CSA, the higher estimates of bone strength persisted in blacks versus whites (BSI, P = 0.01; SSI, P = 0.02). Our data suggest that when differences in body size are considered, late adolescent black versus white females have a stronger bone profile, due to greater bone geometry and vBMD, at the trabecular and cortical regions of the tibia but not at the radius.
Boulos, Peter K.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Tanabe, Jody; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Banich, Marie T.; Crowley, Thomas J.; Sakai, Joseph T.
Some youths develop multiple substance use disorders early in adolescence and have severe, persistent courses. Such youths often exhibit impulsivity, risk-taking, and problems of inhibition. However, relatively little is known about the possible brain bases of these behavioral traits, especially among females. Methods We recruited right-handed female patients, 14–19 years of age, from a university-based treatment program for youths with substance use disorders and community controls similar for age, race and zip code of residence. We obtained 43 T1-weighted structural brain images (22 patients and 21 controls) to examine group differences in cortical thickness across the entire brain as well as six a priori regions-of-interest: 1) medial orbitofrontal cortex; 2) rostral anterior cingulate cortex; and 3) middle frontal cortex, in each hemisphere. Age and IQ were entered as nuisance factors for all analyses. Results A priori region-of-interest analyses yielded no significant differences. However, whole-brain group comparisons revealed that the left pregenual rostral anterior cingulate cortex extending into the left medial orbitofrontal region (355.84 mm2 in size), a subset of two of our a priori regions-of-interest, was significantly thinner in patients compared to controls (vertex-level threshold p = 0.005 and cluster-level family wise error corrected threshold p = 0.05). The whole-brain group differences did not survive after adjusting for depression or externalizing scores. Whole-brain within-patient analyses demonstrated a positive association between cortical thickness in the left precuneus and behavioral disinhibition scores (458.23 mm2 in size). Conclusions Adolescent females with substance use disorders have significant differences in brain cortical thickness in regions engaged by the default mode network and that have been associated with problems of emotional dysregulation, inhibition, and behavioral control in past studies. PMID:27049765
Collins, Stephanie L; Izenwasser, Sari
Tobacco use is prevalent in the adolescent population. It is a major concern because tobacco is highly addictive and has also been linked to illicit drug use. There is not much research, however, on the interaction between nicotine and other stimulant drugs in animal models of early adolescence. This study examined the effects of chronic nicotine alone and on cocaine-stimulated activity in male and female periadolescent rats compared to male and female adult rats. During the seven-day nicotine pretreatment period, nicotine increased locomotor activity in all groups compared to vehicle controls. Male and female adult rats and female periadolescent rats developed sensitization to the locomotor-activating effects of nicotine over the 7-day treatment period, while male periadolescent rats did not. All groups treated with nicotine, however, exhibited sensitization to nicotine-induced repetitive motion over the 7-day nicotine treatment period. On day 8, male periadolescent rats pretreated with nicotine were more markedly sensitized to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine than male adult rats, while female rats pretreated with nicotine were not sensitized to cocaine. In contrast, male and female periadolescent rats, but not adult rats, had increased amounts of repetitive beam breaks induced by cocaine after nicotine pretreatment. Overall, it appears that cross-sensitization to cocaine is greater in periadolescent than in adult rats, and that males are more sensitized than females. Thus, it may be that nicotine use during adolescence carries a greater risk than during adulthood and that male adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the risk of cocaine abuse after nicotine use. This information should be taken into account so as to help us better understand the development of drug addiction in adolescents compared to adults.
Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H
The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16-19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors.
Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H
The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. PMID:26635492
Harper, Gary W.; Bangi, Audrey K.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Doll, Mimi; Pedraza, Ana
This article describes a quasi-experimental evaluation of a community-based, culturally and ecologically tailored HIV prevention intervention for Mexican American female adolescents grounded in the AIDS risk reduction model. A total of 378 Mexican American female adolescents (mean age = 15.2) participated in either the nine-session SHERO's (a…
Mhaidat, Fatin; ALharbi, Bassam H. M.
This study aimed at identifying the level of depression and sense of insecurity among a sample of female refugee adolescents, and the impact of an indicative program for reducing cognitive distortions in reducing depression and their sense of insecurity. The study sample consisted of 220 female refugee adolescents, 7th to 1st secondary stage, at…
The author holds that the crisis of adolescence is in fact one of psychic reality, its elements being loss of boundaries, externalisation and the involvement of a third party. In this view, it is essential to conceive of adolescence differently from adulthood, in that, for example, an adolescent's acting out may not be solely a matter of regression but to a considerable extent a consequence of his or her physical development. It is noted that the boundaries between psychic and material reality are fluid throughout life and that adolescents crave identificatory models. The author stresses the importance of the psychic reality of the other in the adolescent's crisis. After considering various views, including those of Freud, on psychic reality and the crises of adolescence, he illustrates his thesis by the clinical example of two adolescent episodes of perversion forming part of an adult female patient's material. In the author's view, these instances of acting out had helped the patient to regain her auto-erotic capacity in the pleasure of fantasy life. He considers that a mutative interpretation must touch upon the primal fantasy and therefore involve the entire person of the analyst in the transference.
Svaldi, Jennifer; Bender, Caroline; Caffier, Detlef; Ivanova, Viliana; Mies, Nina; Fleischhaker, Christian; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
Objective Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation. Method In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12) and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12) were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded. Results After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants’ attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive) mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG. Discussion The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients’ body image disturbance. PMID:27123587
Ito, Kristin E; Kalyanaraman, Sri; Ford, Carol A; Brown, Jane D; Miller, William C
The purpose of this study was to develop and pilot-test an interactive CD-ROM aimed at the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in female adolescents. The CD-ROM includes prevention information, models skills for negotiating abstinence and consistent condom use, teaches media literacy, and allows the user to choose a culturally appropriate host to guide them through the CD-ROM. Forty-seven female adolescents attending a health department clinic were randomized to receive the CD-ROM plus an educator-led didactic session versus the didactic session alone. The CD-ROM was highly acceptable and feasible for use among female adolescents in the clinic setting. Hispanic and African American adolescents were more likely to choose hosts of the same race/ethnicity to guide them through the CD-ROM. HIV/STI knowledge increased significantly and nearly all adolescents intended to use condoms at next intercourse after viewing the CD-ROM. However, there were no significant differences measured between CD-ROM and comparison groups.
Seth, Puja; Patel, Shilpa N; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Rose, Eve S
Adolescents, particularly African American adolescents, are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association between psychosocial factors and risky sexual behavior has been well established. However, only a small number of studies have examined the relationship between depressive symptomatology among African American female adolescents, specifically over time. The present study examined depressive symptoms as a predictor of risky sexual behavior, sexual communication, and STIs longitudinally among African American female adolescents between the ages 15 and 21. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of depressive symptoms at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STIs over six- and 12-months follow-up. Age, intervention group, and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that high levels of depressive symptoms predicted no condom use during last sexual encounter and multiple sexual partners over six-months follow-up. Depressive symptoms also predicted having a main partner with concurrent partners, high fear of communication about condoms, and sex while high on alcohol or drugs over six- and 12-months follow-up. These findings could be used to inform HIV/STI prevention intervention programs and clinicians providing regular health care maintenance to African American female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior.
Describes the first assignment for an intermediate oil painting class in which the students painted the human figure. Explains that the assignment involved three techniques: (1) abstract application of acrylic paint; (2) oil "Paintstiks" from Shiva; and (3) a final layer of actual oil paint. (CMK)
Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and the media. Both girls and boys displaying high levels of depressive symptoms perceived stronger media and peer influences on appearance. Among girls, eating disorder symptoms were directly affected by sociocultural influences, in particular media influences, as well as by depression. However, depression played only a limited role as a moderator of these relationships. Among boys, sociocultural influences and depression revealed fewer direct effects on eating disorder symptoms. However, depression had a greater moderating effect on these relationships. Future research into the role of depression may increase the understanding of gender differences in body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms.
Keith, J B; McCreary, C; Collins, K; Smith, C P; Bernstein, I
A modified form of Nathanson and Becker's (1983) Health Belief Model Questionnaire and other measures designed to assess cognitive processing were administered to low-income black adolescent female clients of an inner-city comprehensive health care clinic. The purpose of the study was to explore determinants of sexual activity and contraceptive use. Subjects were classified as not sexually active (n = 50), sexually active/noncontracepting (n = 20), or sexually active/contracepting (n = 72). Not sexually active subjects tended to be younger, more career motivated, to have a father at home, to be more influenced by family values, and to have more conservative attitudes regarding adolescent sexuality than did sexually active subjects. Sexually active/noncontracepting subjects tended to report fewer benefits and more barriers to the use of contraception. Level of cognitive processing did not differ among the three groups, but was at a lower-than-expected level for age. Finally, inconsistent contraceptive use was common to both sexually active groups.
Barlow, Christopher; Lovetri, Jeannette
Although quantifiable assessment of the singing voice is now commonplace, research on young (child and adolescent) voices is still in its infancy. There is still insufficient data on young people's voices based on which, "norms" in behavior could be modeled, particularly for contemporary commercial music (CCM), such as musical theater (MT). The objective of this study was to assess if quantifiable differences in vocal production and acoustic output of young singers exist between "classical" and "MT" styles. The study was a prospective cohort study of 20 adolescent female singers aged 12-17 years training their voices using a system, which includes both "classical" and "MT" styles. The study examined laryngographically derived closed quotient (CQ), average vowel spectra (AVS) and long-term average spectra (LTAS) measures of the sung voices of singers in "classical" and "MT" styles. The spectral slope was shallower for the MT voice, and the mean CQ was significantly higher across the pitch range when singing in an MT style than in a "classical" style. The second to fifth harmonics were stronger in the MT style than in classical, with a significant difference between the two styles. The increase in relative intensity in the first five harmonics was disproportionately higher than the increase in CQ. Results, therefore, suggested that MT singing primarily uses change in resonance strategy rather than raised vocal tension to achieve the tonal changes associated with the genre.
Johnson, Carolyn; Lunney, Margaret
PURPOSE. This case study was written to demonstrate the usefulness of standardized nursing diagnoses, outcomes, and interventions in nurse anesthetist care of an adolescent trauma patient. DATA SOURCES. Literature reviews using Academic Premier, Google Scholar, and CINAHL databases were done to find current, relevant articles concerning evaluation and support of female African-American adolescents living in socially vulnerable and economically exploited environments. DATA SYNTHESIS. A case is presented and evidence from current publications is analyzed to support the diagnosis, outcomes, and interventions. CONCLUSION. The investment in extra time, care, and effort sometimes required for the full development of a treatment plan for teenagers who live where they are at high risk for violence and other consequences of stressful environments is a worthwhile one, even if results may require contact over an extended time period. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. Nurses of all specialty backgrounds need to be concerned with the progress of their patients. Sometimes nurses can best serve their patients by stepping away from the physiological event and focusing instead on responses in the domain of coping and stress tolerance as the root of difficulties.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine associations among lactose maldigestion status, perceived milk intolerance (PMI), dietary calcium intake and bone mineral content in early adolescent females. Methodology: Subjects were 291 girls who participated in a sub-study of the multiple-...
Bartlett, Jacqueline A.; Peterson, Jane Anthony
A comprehensive review of literature was conducted to identify the barriers and facilitators, from the parents'/guardians' and primary care providers' (PCPs) perspective, that are associated with the uptake of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among adolescent females. Findings from 14 peer-reviewed articles indicate that 37% of adolescent…
Woodson, Kamilah M.; Hives, Courtney C.; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy
Juvenile crime and violent victimization continue to be significant social problems, in that adolescents, females in particular, are likely to participate in health-related risk behaviors as a result of having been victimized or exposed to a violent environment. Specifically, abuse, neglect, sexual molestation, poverty, and witnessing violence are…
Bhalla, Jennifer A.; Weiss, Maureen R.
Little is known about parental socialization processes for youth participants from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine parental influence on self-perceptions, task values, and achievement behaviors among female adolescents from two cultures using Eccles' expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983). Twelve…
Mayer, Birgit; Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Zimmermann-van Beuningen, Ritine
This study explored correlations between risk factors and eating behavior problems in late adolescent, non-clinical females (N = 301). Participants completed questionnaires for assessing eating problems, the closely associated factors of Body Mass Index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction, and a number of other risk variables that are thought to be…
Perkins, Daniel F.; Luster, Tom
Reviews of the pertinent literature reveal a lack of consensus as to whether there is an association between sexual abuse history and eating disorders. Therefore, an examination of the relationship between sexual abuse and a bulimic behavior (purging) in a large sample of female adolescents was undertaken. Answers taken from a sample of 8,680…
Stachowitz, Annie L.; Choi, Hee-Sook; Schweinle, Amy
Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study examined the potential use of a commonly used social--emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2), for detecting the presence of possible eating disorders in…
Ito, Kristin E.; Kalyanaraman, Sri; Ford, Carol A.; Brown, Jane D.; Miller, William C.
The purpose of this study was to develop and pilot-test an interactive CD-ROM aimed at the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in female adolescents. The CD-ROM includes prevention information, models skills for negotiating abstinence and consistent condom use, teaches media literacy, and allows the user to choose a culturally…
Hovsepian, S. Lory; Blais, Martin; Manseau, Helene; Otis, Joanne; Girard, Marie-Eve
Adolescent females under Child Protective Services care in Quebec, Canada (n = 328) completed a questionnaire designed to explore associations between prior victimization (childhood sexual abuse and four forms of dating violence) and four dimensions of sexual and contraceptive self-efficacy. Five MANCOVAs were performed. In each model, a…
Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Armstrong, Kay; Rossi, Joseph S.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Sun, Xiaowu; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Yin, Hui-Qing; Coviello, Donna; Evers, Kerry; Velicer, Wayne F.
Smoking and sexual risk behaviors in urban adolescent females are prevalent and problematic. Family planning clinics reach those who are at most risk. This randomized effectiveness trial evaluated a transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored intervention to increase condom use and decrease smoking. At baseline, a total of 828 14- to 17-year-old females…
Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Lescano, Celia M.; Brown, Larry K.; Harrington, Kathy; Davies, Susan
Theories of health behavior posit that change is accomplished by modifying factors deemed as mediators. A set of mediators from several theoretical models used in sexual risk reduction programs was assessed among a sample of 522 African American female adolescents. The goal was to determine whether self-esteem was associated with sexually…
Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Fang, Hong-Ning
This study found that lack of involvement in prosocial institutions, affiliation with other troubled youth, and indifference regarding personal safety partially mediate the relationship between depression and delinquency among justice-involved female adolescents. The results suggest that depression may not be the primary conduit to delinquency.…
Staller, Karen M.; Nelson-Gardell, Debra
Objectives: To enhance understanding of the sexual abuse disclosure process from the perspective of preteen and teenage survivors. To reconsider prominent models of the disclosure process in light of our findings. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from four focus groups in which 34 preadolescent and adolescent female survivors of…
Dixon, Angela Coleman; Schoonmaker, Christopher T.; Philliber, William W.
Compares past participants (n=33) in an Afrocentric pregnancy prevention program for adolescent females with nonparticipants (n=32). Results suggest that A Journey Toward Womanhood had a positive impact, delaying the initiation of sexual intercourse, increasing contraceptive use among those who were having intercourse, and reducing the incidence…
Liao, Zhaohui; Smith, Peter G.
ABSTRACT Provoked vestibulodynia, a female pelvic pain syndrome affecting substantial numbers of women, is characterized by genital hypersensitivity and sensory hyperinnervation. Previous studies have shown that the risk of developing provoked vestibulodynia is markedly elevated following adolescent use of oral contraceptives with high progesterone content. We hypothesized that progesterone, a steroid hormone with known neurotropic properties, may alter genital innervation through direct or indirect actions. Female Sprague Dawley rats received progesterone (20 mg/kg subcutaneously) from Days 20–27; tissue was removed for analysis in some rats on Day 28, while others were ovariectomized on Day 43 and infused for 7 days with vehicle or 17beta estradiol. Progesterone resulted in overall increases in vaginal innervation at both Day 28 and 50 due to proliferation of peptidergic sensory and sympathetic (but not parasympathetic) axons. Estradiol reduced innervation in progesterone-treated and untreated groups. To assess the mechanisms of sensory hyperinnervation, we cultured dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons and found that progesterone increases neurite outgrowth by small unmyelinated (but not myelinated) sensory neurons, it was receptor mediated, and it was nonadditive with NGF. Pretreatment of ganglion with progesterone also increased neurite outgrowth in response to vaginal target explants. However, pretreatment of vaginal target with progesterone did not improve outgrowth. We conclude that adolescent progesterone exposure may contribute to provoked vestibulodynia by eliciting persistent genital hyperinnervation via a direct effect on unmyelinated sensory nociceptor neurons and that estradiol, a well-documented therapeutic, may alleviate symptoms in part by reducing progesterone-induced sensory hyperinnervation. PMID:25359899
Stanford, Jevetta; Webb, Fern J.; Lee, Jenny; Doldren, Michelle; Rathore, Mobeen
The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect ecological influences of teacher and friend social support on body weight and diet behaviors in African-American adolescent females. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional research design, a convenience sample of 182 urban African-American adolescent females (12–17 years old) completed a 39-item questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed perceived teacher social support, friend social support, nutrition self-efficacy, and diet behaviors (with internal reliability values of scale items: alpha=0.74, 0.81, 0.77, and 0.69 respectively). Anthropometric assessments were conducted to measure height and weight to compute BMI. Majority of the participants were in middle or early high school (65 %) and were overweight or obese (57.7 %). Both teacher social support and friend social support demonstrated a positive, indirect influence on child weight status through nutrition self-efficacy and diet behaviors following two different and specific paths of influence. Diet behaviors, in turn, demonstrated a positive, direct effect on child weight status. In the structural model, teacher social support had the greatest effect on diet behaviors, demonstrating a direct, positive influence on diet behaviors (B=0.421, p<0.05), but its direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy was not significant. Friend social support demonstrated a positive, direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy (B=0.227, p<0.05), but its direct effect on diet behaviors was not statistically significant. The study’s findings call for actively addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the school environment by implementing health behavior change strategies at various social and ecological environmental levels. PMID:26863465
Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B
Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336
Parsons, Joanne L; Alexander, Marion J L
Landing awkwardly from a jump is a common mechanism of injury for the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee. Augmented feedback, such as verbal or visual instruction, has been shown to cause an immediate, positive change in landing biomechanics in a laboratory setting. No data exist on the longer term effects of feedback on jump landing biomechanics in a sports-specific setting. The purpose of this study was to explore whether providing video and verbal feedback to adolescent (12-14 years old) female volleyball athletes would improve their landing technique. Trunk and lower extremity kinematic variables were measured in 19 participants before a feedback session was provided to the intervention group (IG). Follow-up kinematic measurements of the IG were taken immediately postintervention, and again after 2 and 4 weeks. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the IG with a control group (CG), who received no feedback. The IG (n = 10) demonstrated increased maximal hip and trunk flexion compared with the CG (n = 9) at week 4 (p ≤ 0.05). One-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine if changes were evident within the IG over time. Ankle dorsiflexion, right knee and hip flexion, and trunk flexion changed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) over the 4-week period. Augmented feedback appeared to produce a positive change in landing biomechanics in adolescent female volleyball athletes performing a sports-specific skill. Courtside video and verbal feedback may present a relatively simple, cost-effective method of introducing one component of a comprehensive ACL injury prevention program at a young age.
Stanford, Jevetta; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Webb, Fern J; Lee, Jenny; Doldren, Michelle; Rathore, Mobeen
The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect ecological influences of teacher and friend social support on body weight and diet behaviors in African-American adolescent females. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional research design, a convenience sample of 182 urban African-American adolescent females (12-17 years old) completed a 39-item questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed perceived teacher social support, friend social support, nutrition self-efficacy, and diet behaviors (with internal reliability values of scale items: alpha = 0.74, 0.81, 0.77, and 0.69 respectively). Anthropometric assessments were conducted to measure height and weight to compute BMI. Majority of the participants were in middle or early high school (65 %) and were overweight or obese (57.7 %). Both teacher social support and friend social support demonstrated a positive, indirect influence on child weight status through nutrition self-efficacy and diet behaviors following two different and specific paths of influence. Diet behaviors, in turn, demonstrated a positive, direct effect on child weight status. In the structural model, teacher social support had the greatest effect on diet behaviors, demonstrating a direct, positive influence on diet behaviors (B = 0.421, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy was not significant. Friend social support demonstrated a positive, direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy (B = 0.227, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on diet behaviors was not statistically significant. The study's findings call for actively addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the school environment by implementing health behavior change strategies at various social and ecological environmental levels.
Tahmasebi, Kobra; Amani, Reza; Nazari, Zahra; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Moazzen, Sara; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali
Among various factors influencing mood disorders, the impact of micronutrient deficiencies has attracted a great attention. Zinc deficiency is considered to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of mood disorders in different stages of life. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc levels and mood disorders in high school female students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 100 representative high school female students. The participants completed 24-h food recall questionnaires to assess the daily zinc intakes. Serum zinc status was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and zinc deficiency was defined accordingly. Mood disorders were estimated by calculating the sum of two test scores including Beck's depression inventory (BDI) and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS) tests. General linear model (GLM) and Pearson's regression test were applied to show the correlation of serum zinc levels and mood disorder scores and the correlation between zinc serum levels and BDI scores, respectively. Dietary zinc intake was higher in subjects with normal zinc concentrations than that of zinc-deficient group (p = 0.001). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with BDI and HADS scores (p < 0.05). Each 10 μg/dL increment in serum zinc levels led to 0.3 and 0.01 decrease in depression and anxiety scores, respectively (p < 0.05). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with mood disorders including depression and anxiety in adolescent female students. Increasing serum levels of zinc in female students could improve their mood disorders.
Mathews, Iva Z; Wilton, Aleena; Styles, Amy; McCormick, Cheryl M
We previously reported that males undergoing chronic social stress (SS) (daily 1h isolation and new cage partner on days 30-45 of age) in adolescence habituated (decreased corticosterone release) to the homotypic stressor, but females did not. Here, we report that adolescent males exposed to chronic social stress had potentiated corticosterone release to a heterotypic stressor (15 min of swim stress) compared to acutely stressed and control males. The three groups of males did not differ in depressive-like behaviour (time spent immobile) during the swim stress. Corticosterone release in socially stressed females was elevated 45 min after the swim stress compared to acutely stressed and control females, and socially stressed females exhibited more depressive behaviour (longer durations of immobility and shorter durations of climbing) than the other females during the swim stress. Separate groups of rats were tested as adults several weeks after the social stress, and there were no group differences in corticosterone release after the swim stress. The only group difference in behaviour among the adults was more time spent climbing in socially stressed males than in controls. Thus, there are sex-specific effects of social stress in adolescence on endocrine responses and depressive behaviour to a heterotypic stressor, but, unlike for anxiety, substantial recovery is evident in adulthood in the absence of intervening stress exposures.
Bojorquez, Ietza; Saucedo-Molina, Teresita de Jesús; Juárez-García, Francisco; Unikel-Santoncini, Claudia
The objectives of the current study were to explore: (1) the association between the social environment at the city and family levels and risky eating behaviors in adolescent females and (2) the interaction between the social and cultural environment and body mass index (BMI). The data were obtained from a representative survey of female high school students in Mexico State, Mexico (15-19 years). A questionnaire was applied on risky eating behaviors and socio-demographic data. The municipal social and cultural environment was evaluated using the municipal marginalization index. Data analysis used multivariate regression. Prevalence of risky eating behaviors was 4.23%. BMI and family socioeconomic status were directly associated with risky eating behaviors. The municipal marginalization index was not associated with risky eating behaviors. Possible explanations for the latter are that the relevant components of the social and cultural environment were not measured, or that the municipal level does not exert a contextual effect on risky eating behaviors. The effect of BMI on risky eating behaviors was greater in more marginalized municipalities.
Robertson, Angela A; Morse, David T; Baird-Thomas, Connie
Exposure to multiple traumatic events and high rates of mental health problems are common among juvenile offenders. This study draws on Conservation of Resources (COR) stress theory to examine the impact of a specific trauma, Hurricane Katrina, relative to other adverse life events, on the mental health of female adolescent offenders in Mississippi. Teenage girls (N=258, 69% African American) were recruited from four juvenile detention centers and the state training school. Participants were interviewed about the occurrence and timing of adverse life events and hurricane-related experiences and completed a self-administered mental health assessment. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to identify predictors of anxiety and depression. Pre-hurricane family stressors, pre-hurricane traumatic events, hurricane-related property damage, and receipt of hurricane-related financial assistance significantly predicted symptoms of anxiety and depression. Findings support COR theory. Family stressors had the greatest influence on symptoms of anxiety and depression, highlighting the need for family based services that address the multiple, inter-related problems and challenges in the lives of female juvenile offenders.
Mandal, Soumendra Nath; Kamal, Mir Reza; Mukherjee, Satyadip; Das, Ranjit Kumar; Karmakar, Dilip
A 16-year-old female presented with dribbling of urine along with voluntary voiding since birth. Renal imaging revealed hydroureteronephrosis on the right side; the uterus and ovary were normal. A radionuclide scan showed a left nonfunctional kidney. On cystovaginoscopy, the urethra was shown to be normal and the urinary bladder was tubular with small capacity and an absent trigone. Although the vagina was capacious, no ureteric orifices were found. Computed tomography corroborated the diagnosis of bilateral, single ectopic ureters draining into a grossly dilated vagina. This case is unique because it is a bilateral single-system ureteral ectopia in a completely differentiated female genital tract that presented late in adolescence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second such ureteral abnormality reported in the literature so far. The patient underwent ileocystoplasty with right ureteric reimplantation and nephroureterectomy for the left nonfunctional kidney, which histopathology showed to be tuberculosis. The patient is continent with cystometric capacity of more than 300 mL. PMID:23878693
Javdani, Shabnam; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn
Women and girls' engagement in antisocial behavior represents a psychological issue of great concern given the radiating impact that women's antisociality can have on individuals, families, and communities. Despite its importance and relevance for psychological science, this topic has received limited attention to date and no systematic review of risk factors exists. The present paper aims to systematically review the empirical literature informing risk factors relevant to women's antisocial behavior, with a focus on adolescence and adulthood. Primary aims are to 1) review empirical literatures on risk factors for female antisocial behavior across multiple levels of influence (e.g., person-level characteristics, risky family factors, and gender-salient contexts) and fields of study (e.g., psychology, sociology); 2) evaluate the relevance of each factor for female antisocial behavior; and 3) incorporate an analysis of how gender at both the individual and ecological levels shapes pathways to antisocial behavior in women and girls. We conclude that women's antisocial behavior is best-understood as being influenced by person-level or individual vulnerabilities, risky family factors, and exposure to gender-salient interpersonal contexts, and underscore the importance of examining women's antisocial behavior through an expanded lens that views gender as an individual level attribute as well as a social category that organizes the social context in ways that may promote engagement in antisocial behavior. Based on the present systematic review, an integrative pathway model is proposed toward the goal of synthesizing current knowledge and generating testable hypotheses for future research.
Hong, Suzie; Flashner, Bess; Chiu, Melissa; Hoeve, Elizabeth ver; Luz, Sandra; Bhatnagar, Seema
Social interactions in rodents are rewarding and motivating and social isolation is aversive. Accumulating evidence suggests that disruption of the social environment in adolescence has long-term effects on social interactions, on anxiety-like behavior and on stress reactivity. In previous work we showed that adolescent isolation produced increased reactivity to acute and to repeated stress in female rats, whereas lower corticosterone responses to acute stress and decreased anxiety-related behavior were noted in isolated males. These results indicate a sex specific impact on the effects of social stress in adolescence. However, little is known about whether social isolation impacts behaviors related to affect and whether it does so differently in male and female rats. The present study investigated the impact of adolescent social isolation from day 30-50 of age in male and female Sprague Dawley rats on behavior in the forced swim test at the end of adolescence and in adulthood and on behavior in the sucrose preference test in adulthood. Adult female rats that were isolated in adolescence exhibited increased climbing on the first and second day of the forced swim test and showed an increased preference for sucrose compared to adult females that were group-housed in adolescence. There were no effects in male rats. The results indicate that social isolation in adolescence produces a stable and active behavioral phenotype in adult female rats. PMID:21907226
Purpose The reproductive health needs of unmarried adolescents in Bangladesh are largely unmet. This study aimed to explore treatment-seeking behaviour of unmarried female adolescents for selected reproductive health (RH) concerns in two low-performing areas of Bangladesh. Methods As part of a large community based-project, a cross-sectional survey was conducted from November 2006 to March 2007. From each of two select study areas, 800 unmarried female adolescents aged 12–19 years were selected for participation by simple random sampling through household listing and were recruited into the study. Trained interviewers administered a structured questionnaire to participating female adolescents. Descriptive and bivariate analytic methods were used compare RH conditions and healthcare seeking behaviour of adolescents across urban and rural settings. Results Approximately 50% of the sample reported experiencing menstrual problems in the last year. The predominant problems reported by participants included: lower abdominal pain, back pain, irregular menstruation, and excessive bleeding during menstruation. Irrespective of study area, only 40% of the female adolescents with menstrual problems sought treatment from qualified physicians. Otherwise, utilization of healthcare facilities and care providers for reported problems varied significantly by rural and urban areas. Higher proportions of adolescents in the urban setting (15%) also reported recent symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), compared to those in the rural setting (9%; p < 0.001). Across sites, however, self-treatment was the most commonly reported method of care for those who experienced any symptoms of STI. Conclusions In general, treatment-seeking behaviours by unmarried female adolescents was low for menstrual problems. A vast majority of unmarried female adolescents practiced self-care for symptoms of STIs while only small proportions sought treatment from qualified physicians. These
Dalaveri, Fatemeh; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Esmaeilpour, Khadijeh; Mahani, Saeed Esmaeili; Sheibani, Vahid
Adverse early life experiences can potentially increase risk for drug abuse later in life. However, little research has been conducted studying the effects of maternal separation (MS), an experimental model for early life stress, on the rewarding effects of nicotine. Cognitive function may be affected by MS. So, we also investigated whether nicotine administration affect spatial learning and memory in MS adolescent female rats. Rat pups were subjected to daily MS for 15min (MS15) or 180min (MS180) during the first 2 weeks of life or reared under normal animal facility rearing (AFR) conditions. The place preference test was performed with nicotine (0.6mg/kg,s.c.) or vehicle over a period of 6 conditioning trials during adolescence. Spatial learning and memory performance was evaluated by using Morris water maze (MWM). In our study, adolescent female rats exposed to MS180 shown a significantly greater preference for a nicotine-paired compartment during the testing phase than the MS15 group. Nicotine altered the MS-induced spatial learning defects in the MS180 group. These findings suggest that MS may increase sensitivity to the rewarding effects of nicotine and also it is possible to suggest that nicotine administration may influence learning dysfunction induced by MS in adolescent female rats.
Beals, Katherine A
Nutritional status, eating behaviors and menstrual function was examined in 23 nationally ranked female adolescent volleyball players using a health/weight/ dieting/menstrual history questionnaire, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Nutrient and energy intakes (El) and energy expenditure (EE) were determined by 3-d weighed food records and activity logs. Iron (Fe), vitamins C, B12, and Folate status were assessed using serum and whole blood. Mean El (2248 +/- 414 kcal/d) was less than EE (2815 +/- 306 kcal/d). Mean carbohydrate (5.4 +/-1.0g/kg/d) and protein (1.1+/-0.3g/kg/d) intakes were below recommended levels for highly active women. Mean intakes for folate, Fe, Ca, Mg, and Zn were less than the respective RDAs/DRIs and almost 50% of the athletes were consuming less than the RDAs/DRIs for the B-complex vitamins and vitamin C. Three athletes presented with Fe deficiency anemia (Hb <12 mg/dL), while marginal vitamin B12 status (<200 pg/ml) and vitamin C status (<28 mmol/L) were found in 1 and 4 athletes, respectively. Approximately 1/2 of the athletes reported actively "dieting". Mean BSQ and EDI subscales scores were within the normal ranges; yet, elevated scores on these scales were reported by 26% and 35% of athletes, respectively. Past or present amenorrhea was reported by 17% of the athletes and 13% and 48%, reported past or present oligomenorrhea and "irregular" menstrual cycles, respectively. These results indicate that elite adolescent volleyball players are at risk for menstrual dysfunction and have energy and nutrient intakes that place them at risk for nutritional deficiencies and compromised performance.
Andon, M B; Ilich, J Z; Tzagournis, M A; Matkovic, V
Increasing emphasis is being placed on optimizing calcium intake during growth as a way to enhance peak bone mass. Although some studies in adults have shown that high calcium intake may negatively affect magnesium utilization, few data are available regarding the interaction of calcium and magnesium in healthy children. The purpose of our study was to measure the effect of calcium intake on magnesium balance in 26 adolescent girls (mean age 11.3 y) during a 14-d period. Subjects ate a controlled basal diet containing 667 mg Ca and 176 mg Mg. In addition to the basal diet, subjects were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to consume 1000 mg elemental Ca/d as calcium citrate malate or a placebo. Magnesium use did not differ between the low-calcium and high-calcium groups as measured by absorption (50% compared with 55%), urinary excretion (70 compared with 74 mg/d), and fecal excretion (88 compared with 79 mg/d). Accordingly, magnesium balance was not different in subjects consuming 667 or 1667 mg Ca/d and averaged 21 mg Mg/d for the whole study group. Magnesium balance was significantly correlated with magnesium intake (r = 0.511, P = 0.008) and magnesium absorption (r = 0.723, P < 0.001). Prediction intervals from the regression of magnesium balance on intake indicated that the current recommended dietary allowance of magnesium would result in magnesium balance > or = 8.5 mg/d in 95% of the girls. This value appears consistent with long-term accretion rates needed to account for the expansion of the total-body magnesium pool during growth. In summary, our observations support the adequacy of the current recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and indicate that alterations in magnesium utilization should not be anticipated in adolescent females consuming a high-calcium diet.
Shaban, Lemia H; Vaccaro, Joan A; Sukhram, Shiryn D; Huffman, Fatma G
Background. The State of Kuwait has a growing obesity epidemic in both genders and all age groups; however, obesity rates in the young seem to be rising. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 169 Kuwaiti female adolescents attending both private and public schools spanning the six governorates in the State of Kuwait in order to explore female adolescents' self-image, body dissatisfaction, type of school (private versus public), TV viewing, and computer games and their relationship to body mass index. Results. Approximately half the students classified as obese perceived their body image to lie in the normal range. Females in the obese category were the most dissatisfied with their body image, followed by those in the overweight category. Eating behavior, level of physical activity, school type, television viewing, computer/video usage, and desired BMI were not significantly associated with level of obesity. Conclusion. This study was one of the few studies to assess adolescent females' body image dissatisfaction in relation to obesity in the State of Kuwait. The results suggest that including body image dissatisfaction awareness into obesity prevention programs would be of value.
Shaban, Lemia H.; Sukhram, Shiryn D.
Background. The State of Kuwait has a growing obesity epidemic in both genders and all age groups; however, obesity rates in the young seem to be rising. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 169 Kuwaiti female adolescents attending both private and public schools spanning the six governorates in the State of Kuwait in order to explore female adolescents' self-image, body dissatisfaction, type of school (private versus public), TV viewing, and computer games and their relationship to body mass index. Results. Approximately half the students classified as obese perceived their body image to lie in the normal range. Females in the obese category were the most dissatisfied with their body image, followed by those in the overweight category. Eating behavior, level of physical activity, school type, television viewing, computer/video usage, and desired BMI were not significantly associated with level of obesity. Conclusion. This study was one of the few studies to assess adolescent females' body image dissatisfaction in relation to obesity in the State of Kuwait. The results suggest that including body image dissatisfaction awareness into obesity prevention programs would be of value. PMID:28042301
Chiou, Miin-Huey; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Yang, Yi-Hsin
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of systematic health education on female adolescents' knowledge of dysmenorrhea, menstrual attitudes, and dysmenorrhea-related self-care behaviors. Through the research process, a dysmenorrheal self-care pamphlet for female adolescents was developed. The study used a quasi-experimental intervention with a nonequivalent-control group design. Three vocational nursing schools were requested to participate in this study: one was assigned to the experimental group and two were assigned to the control group. Female students who had experienced dysmenorrheic cramps two or more times during the last 6 months since the interview were recruited for the study. There were 218 subjects randomly assigned to an experimental group, and 237 subjects to a control group. Intervention consisted of a three-session health education program in which the experimental group was split up into six smaller groups. Data were collected before, 2 weeks after, and 4 months after the intervention. Results revealed a significant increase in the experimental group members' dysmenorrhea-related knowledge and self-care behavior, but not in their attitudes. The findings of this study can serve as a guide to healthcare providers who want to design an effective systematic menstrual health education program for female adolescents.
Li, Yongming; Niessen, Margot; Chen, Xiaoping; Hartmann, Ulrich
Purpose Different relative aerobic energy contribution (WAER%) has been reported for the two female Olympic kayaking disciplines (i.e. 200 and 500m). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the adopted method of energy calculation influenced the value of WAER% during the kayaking time trials. Methods Eleven adolescent female kayakers (age 14±1 yrs, height 172±4 cm, body mass 65.4±4.2 kg, VO2peak 42.6±4.9 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1), training experience 1.5±0.3 yrs) volunteered to participate in one incremental exercise test and two time trials (40s and 120s) on the kayak ergometer. A portable spirometric system was used to measure gas metabolism. Capillary blood was taken from the ear lobe during and after the tests, and analyzed for lactate afterwards. The method of modified maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (m-MAOD) and the method based on the fast component of oxygen uptake off-kinetics (PCr-La-O2) were utilized to calculate the energy contributions. Results The anaerobic energy portions from m-MAOD were lower than those from PCr-La-O2 in the 40s (41.9±8.8 vs. 52.8±4.0 kJ, p<0.05) and 120s (64.1±27.9 vs. 68.2±10.0 kJ, p>0.05) time trials, which induced differences of WAER% between m-MAOD and PCr-La-O2 (36.0 vs. 30.0% in 40s, p<0.05; 60.9 vs. 57.5% in 120s, p>0.05). Conclusions The reported different WAER% in the female Olympic kayaking could be partly attributed to the adopted method of energy calculation (i.e. m-MAOD vs. PCr-La-O2). A fixed method of energy calculation is recommended during the longitudinal assessment on the relative energy contribution in female Olympic kayaking.
Infurna, Maria Rita; Brunner, Romuald; Holz, Birger; Parzer, Peter; Giannone, Francesca; Reichl, Corinna; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael
This study examined a broad variety of adverse childhood experiences in a consecutive sample of female adolescent inpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 44) compared with a clinical control (CC; n = 47) group with mixed psychiatric diagnoses. BPD was diagnosed using a structured clinical interview; different dimensions of childhood adversity were assessed using the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Family Assessment Device. A history of childhood adversity was significantly more common in patients with BPD than in the CC group. Using a multivariate model, sexual abuse (OR = 13.8), general family functioning (OR = 8.9), and low maternal care (OR = 7.6) were specific and independent predictors of adolescent BPD. The results increase our knowledge of the specific role of different dimensions of childhood adversity in adolescent BPD. They have important implications for prevention and early intervention as they highlight the need for specific strategies for involving the family.
Javdani, Shabnam; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn
Women and girls’ engagement in antisocial behavior represents a psychological issue of great concern given the radiating impact that women’s antisociality can have on individuals, families, and communities. Despite its importance and relevance for psychological science, this topic has received limited attention to date and no systematic review of risk factors exists. The present paper aims to systematically review the empirical literature informing risk factors relevant to women’s antisocial behavior, with a focus on adolescence and adulthood. Primary aims are to 1) review empirical literatures on risk factors for female antisocial behavior across multiple levels of influence (e.g., person-level characteristics, risky family factors, and gender-salient contexts) and fields of study (e.g., psychology, sociology); 2) evaluate the relevance of each factor for female antisocial behavior; and 3) incorporate an analysis of how gender at both the individual and ecological level shapes pathways to antisocial behavior in women and girls. We conclude that women’s antisocial behavior is best-understood as being influenced by person-level or individual vulnerabilities, risky family factors, and exposure to gender-salient interpersonal contexts, and underscore the importance of examining women’s antisocial behavior through an expanded lens that views gender as an individual level attribute as well as a social category that organizes the social context in ways that may promote engagement in antisocial behavior. Based on the present systematic review, an integrative pathway model is proposed toward the goal of synthesizing current knowledge and generating testable hypotheses for future research. PMID:22001339
Ziemann, Ewa; Sledziewska, Ewelina; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Gibson, Ann L; Wierzba, Tomasz H
The study was performed to evaluate relationships among the major anthropological parameters: (body mass - BM, height, body mass index - BMI, lean body mass - FFM, proportion of fat mass -Fat%), physical capacity, and the tennis federations ranking position as an index of the temporal sport success. Seventeen elite female tennis players, divided into three age-matched groups (15, 16, and 17 yr) participated in this study. All the players had a national singles ranking (positions between 1st-80th) and in International Tennis Federation's Junior Circuit ranking (ITFJC; 21st to 990th position of ITF). Body composition was assessed via bioelectrical impedance. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was calculated from the distance covered in 12-min run test via Cooper's formula. Wingate test with lactate assay was used as an index of anaerobic capacity. There was a significant age-related trend for an increase in BM, height, FFT, and Fat%, associated with impressive shift of the anthropological indexes of body weight and height, assessed by the percentile chart analysis. The unexpected body growth spurt evidently observed between aged 15 and 17 is supposed to reflect a delay in somatic development, related to extensive exercise load. Body composition did not correlate to the ranking positions. All tested tennis players revealed excellent aerobic capacity associated with poor indices of anaerobic fitness. The position in the tennis federations rankings correlated to VO2max but not with maximal power or maximal work output assessed by Wingate test. In the whole group the maximal power and work output were proportional to BMI and FFM, but not to Fat%. In conclusion, in light of the contradictory reports concerning a possible link between strenuous regular exercise performed by young children and adolescent elite sportsmen our data indicate a delayed growth spurt in the elite female tennis players to occur between ages 15 and 17. The other important finding in terms of
Nichols, Jeanne F; Aralis, Hilary; Merino, Sonia Garcia; Barrack, Michelle T; Stalker-Fader, Lindsay; Rauh, Mitchell J
There is a growing need to accurately assess exercise energy expenditure (EEE) in athletic populations that may be at risk for health disorders because of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. The Actiheart combines heart rate and uniaxial accelerometry to estimate energy expenditure above rest. The authors' purpose was to determine the utility of the Actiheart for predicting EEE in female adolescent runners (N = 39, age 15.7 ± 1.1 yr). EEE was measured by indirect calorimetry and predicted by the Actiheart during three 8-min stages of treadmill running at individualized velocities corresponding to each runner's training, including recovery, tempo, and 5-km-race pace. Repeated-measures ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons across the 3 running stages indicated that the Actiheart was sensitive to changes in intensity (p < .01), but accelerometer output tended to plateau at race pace. Pairwise comparisons of the mean difference between Actiheart- and criterion-measured EEE yielded values of 0.0436, 0.0539, and 0.0753 kcal × kg-1 × min-1 during recovery, tempo, and race pace, respectively (p < .0001). Bland-Altman plots indicated that the Actiheart consistently underestimated EEE except in 1 runner's recovery bout. A linear mixed-model regression analysis with height as a covariate provided an improved EEE prediction model, with the overall standard error of the estimate for the 3 speeds reduced to 0.0101 kcal × kg-1 × min-1. Using the manufacturer's equation that combines heart rate and uniaxial motion, the Actiheart may have limited use in accurately assessing EEE, and therefore energy availability, in young, female competitive runners.
Zamberletti, Erica; Gabaglio, Marina; Prini, Pamela; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela
Over 180 million people consume cannabis globally. Cannabis use peaks during adolescence with a trend for continued consumption by adults. Notably, several studies have shown that long-term and heavy cannabis use during adolescence can impair brain maturation and predispose to neurodevelopmental disorders, although the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated whether, in female rats, chronic administration of increasing doses of the psychotropic plant-derived cannabis constituent, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), during adolescence (PND 35-45) could affect microglia function in the long-term. Furthermore, we explored a possible contribution of microglia to the development of THC-induced alterations in mood and cognition in adult female rats. Present data indicate that adolescent THC administration induces a persistent neuroinflammatory state specifically localized within the adult prefrontal cortex (PFC), characterized by increased expression of the pro-inflammatory markers, TNF-α, iNOS and COX-2, and reduction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. This neuroinflammatory phenotype is associated with down-regulation of CB1 receptor on neuronal cells and up-regulation of CB2 on microglia cells, conversely. Interestingly, blocking microglia activation with ibudilast during THC treatment significantly attenuates short-term memory impairments in adulthood, simultaneously preventing the increases in TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2 levels as well as the up-regulation of CB2 receptors on microglia cells. In contrast, THC-induced depressive-like behaviors were unaffected by ibudilast treatment. Our findings demonstrate that adolescent THC administration is associated with persistent neuroinflammation within the PFC and provide evidence for a causal association between microglial activation and the development long-term cognitive deficits induced by adolescent THC treatment.
Background: Adolescents who suffer from depression early in life, have an increase in suicidal tendency, anxiety, conduct disorders, substance abuse, and continue to be depressed, later on in life. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescent girls in Riyadh city in order to carry out early intervention. Methods: A cross-sectional, school-based survey was conducted among 1028 adolescent girls aged 15–19 years in secondary schools of Riyadh city. Riyadh was divided into clusters and within each cluster, both public and private schools were enrolled. From the selected schools students from grade 10–12 were surveyed. Survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire including the beck depression inventory-II, and questions exploring the correlates of depression. Results: About 30% of participants were found to be depressed. Depression was more prevalent among female adolescents whose household income was <12,000 Saudi Riyal/month (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, confidence interval [CI] 0.97–6.84), did not have a good relationship with peers and family members (OR 4.63, CI 2.56–8.41), lived with single parent or alone (OR 1.77, CI 0.97–3.23), been emotionally abused (OR 3.45, CI 2.56–8.41), and those who had been subjected to physical violence, at least once (OR 3.34, CI 1.89–5.91). Conclusions: Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better-coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents. PMID:26445637
Cecil, Heather; Matson, Steven C
Adolescent females are disproportionately represented among reported cases of sexual victimization. Because sexual victimization is associated with an array of negative sequelae (e.g., depression, alcohol abuse), psychometrically sound instruments are urgently needed to assess sexual victimization or coercion. The investigation conducts a preliminary analysis of the reliability and validity of the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES) for a sample drawn from a high-risk population-African American adolescent females. Our analyses indicate good internal consistency for the SES with this sample. Convergent validity is demonstrated. Specifically, scores on the SES are associated with significantly lower levels of self-esteem and mastery, higher levels of depression, lower levels of family cohesion, higher levels of family conflict, and higher levels of using alcohol and being a smoker. Preliminary support for discriminant validity is also obtained. This study is a stepping stone for future investigations into the psychometric evaluation of the SES.
Maldonado-Devincci, Antoniette M.; Alipour, Kent K.; Michael, Laura A.; Kirstein, Cheryl L.
Binge alcohol consumption is a rising concern in the United States, especially among adolescents. During this developmental period alcohol use is usually initiated and has been shown to cause detrimental effects on brain structure and function as well as cognitive/behavioral impairments in rats. Binge models, where animals are repeatedly administered high doses of ethanol typically over a period of three or four days cause these effects. There has been little work conducted aimed at investigating the long-term behavioral consequences of repeated binge administration during adolescence on later ethanol-induced behavior in young adulthood and adulthood. The repeated four-day binge model may serve as a good approximate for patterns of human adolescent alcohol consumption as this is similar to a “bender” in human alcoholics. The present set of experiments examined the dose-response and sex-related differences induced by repeated binge ethanol administration during adolescence on sweetened ethanol (Experiment 1) or saccharin (Experiment 2) intake in young adulthood. In both experiments, on postnatal days (PND) 28–31, PND 35–38 and PND 42–45, ethanol (1.5, 3.0 or 5.0 g/kg) or water was administered intragastrically to adolescent rats. Rats underwent abstinence from PND 46–59. Subsequently, in young adulthood, ethanol and saccharin intake were assessed. Exposure to any dose of ethanol during adolescence significantly enhanced ethanol intake in adulthood. However, while female rats had higher overall g/kg intake, males appear to be more vulnerable to the impact of adolescent ethanol exposure on subsequently increased ethanol intake in young adulthood. Exposure to ethanol during adolescence did not alter saccharin consumption in young adulthood in male or female rats. Considering that adolescence is the developmental period in which ethanol experimentation and consumption is usually initiated, the present set of experiments demonstrate the importance of
Lee, Donghun; Kim, Young-Sik; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Guo, Hailing; Kim, Hocheol
This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone growth and growth mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8-10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in response to P. umbrosa administration in either growth plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial growth plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in growth plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the growth plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway.
Gutierrez, Gregory M; Conte, Catherine; Lightbourne, Kristian
Head impacts are common in contact sports, but only recently has there been a rising awareness of the effects of subconcussive impacts in adolescent athletes. A better understanding of how to attenuate head impacts is needed and therefore, this study investigated the relationship between neck strength, impact, and neurocognitive function in an acute bout of soccer heading in a sample of female high school varsity soccer players. Seventeen participants completed the ImPACT neurocognitive test and had their isometric neck strength tested (flexion, extension, and bilateral flexion) before heading drills. Each participant was outfitted with custom headgear with timing switches and a three-dimensional accelerometer affixed to the back of the head, which allowed for measurement of impact during heading. Participants performed a series of 15 directional headers, including 5 forward, 5 left and 5 right headers in a random order, then completed the ImPACT test again. Neurocognitive tests revealed no significant changes following heading. However, there were statistically significant, moderate, negative correlations (r = -0.500:-0.757, p < .05) between neck strength and resultant header acceleration, indicating that those with weaker necks sustained greater impacts. This suggests neck strengthening may be an important component of any head injury prevention/reduction program.
Hartinger-Saunders, Robin M; Trouteaud, Alex R; Matos Johnson, Jodien
This is the first study to explore whether mandated reporters who work with adolescent females, ages 10 to 17, recognize domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) and associated risk factors. Because mandated reporters are required by law to report child abuse, neglect, and child exploitation, lack of specific DMST training or not believing DMST exists in communities continues to place young females at risk for revictimization. Results indicate that 60% of mandated reporters in the sample (N = 577) had no specific training on DMST. Furthermore, almost 25% of respondents did not believe DMST existed in their communities. Implications for practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Guarraci, Fay A; Holifield, Caroline; Morales-Valenzuela, Jessica; Greene, Kasera; Brown, Jeanette; Lopez, Rebecca; Crandall, Christina; Gibbs, Nicole; Vela, Rebekah; Delgado, Melissa Y; Frohardt, Russell J
The present study was designed to test the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) exposure on the maturation of endocrine functioning and sexual behavior. Female rat pups received either MPH (2.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline twice daily between postnatal days 20-35. This period of exposure represents the time just prior to puberty as well as puberty onset. Approximately five weeks after the last injection of MPH or saline, female subjects were hormone-primed and tested during their first sexual experience. Subjects were given the choice to interact with a sexually active male or a sexually receptive female rat (i.e., the partner-preference test). The partner-preference paradigm allows us to assess multiple aspects of female sexual behavior. MPH exposure during peri-adolescence delayed puberty and, when mated for the first time, affected sexual behavior (e.g., increased time spent with the male stimulus and decreased the likelihood of leaving after mounts) during the test of partner preference. When monitoring estrous cyclicity, female subjects treated with MPH during peri-adolescence frequently experienced irregular estrous cycles. The results of the present study suggest that chronic exposure to a therapeutic dose of MPH around the onset of puberty alters long-term endocrine functioning, but with hormone priming, increases sensitivity to sexual stimuli.
McCormick, Cheryl M; Cameron, Nicole M; Thompson, Madison A; Cumming, Mark J; Hodges, Travis E; Langett, Marissa
Ongoing development of brain systems for social behaviour renders these systems susceptible to the influence of stressors in adolescence. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in mid-adolescence had decreased sexual performance compared with control males (CTL). Here, we test the hypotheses that SS in adolescence decreases the "attractiveness" of male rats as sexual partners compared with CTL rats and that dominance status is a protective factor against the effects of SS. The main prediction was that females would spend more time with CTL males than SS males, and that this bias would be greater for submissive than for dominant rats. Among dominant pairs (n=16), females preferred SS males, spending more time with and visiting more often SS than CTL males (each pair tested 5×), and SS males had shorter latencies to ejaculation, shorter inter-ejaculation intervals, and made more ejaculations compared with CTL males. Among submissive pairs (n=16), females spent more time with, visited more often, and displayed more paracopulatory behaviour with CTL than with SS males, and differences in sexual performance between SS and CTL males were modest and in the opposite direction from that in dominant pairs. The heightened motivation of SS males relative to CTL males for natural rewards may have attenuated differences in sexual performance in a paced mating context. In sum, the experience of stress in adolescence leads to long-lasting changes in males that are perceptible to females, are moderated by social status, and influence sexual behaviour.
Background Sex trafficking has been a long-standing concern in Nepal. Very little has been achieved, however, in terms of actual reduction in the number of victims despite numerous anti-sex trafficking programs. This situation may be attributable to a lack of empirical evidence upon which to formulate anti-sexual trafficking interventions. This study aimed to assess sex trafficking-related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns among adolescent female students in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between August–September 2013 among 292 adolescent female students (>10 years old) using systematic random sampling from three high schools in Sindhupalchowk district, Nepal. As an initial step, descriptive analyses were employed to characterize the data and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and related attitudes. Results Seventy-six percent of sampled students reported that they were aware of sex trafficking and 94.6% indicated media (i.e., radio or television) as the primary sources of their knowledge. Fifty-one percent mentioned relatives/friends as mediators of sex trafficking, 60.4% reported promise for better jobs as the primary attraction behind sex trafficking, and 48.6% mentioned adolescent females as the most vulnerable group for sex trafficking. Over half (56.8%) of the respondents had positive attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns. Age (OR = 3.38, 95% CI:2.51–4.55), parents’ occupation (OR = 3.89, 95% CI:1.58–9.58), and having a radio/TV at home (OR = 6.67, 95% CI:3.99–9.54) were significantly associated with awareness, whereas being younger (OR = 0.67, 95% CI:0.55–0.79) and having joint-family (OR = 2.67, 95% CI:1.49–4.80) were significantly associated with
Woodson, Kamilah M; Hives, Courtney; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy
Juvenile crime and violent victimization continue to be significant social problems (Fitzpatrick, Piko, Wright, & LaGory, 2005); in that, adolescents, females in particular, are likely to participate in health related risk behaviors as result of having been victimized or exposed to a violent environment. Specifically, abuse, neglect, sexual molestation, poverty, and witnessing violence are well known risk factors for the development of trauma-related psychopathology and poor outcomes relative to delinquency, drug and alcohol abuse, and HIV risk behaviors (Steiner, Garcia, & Matthews, 1997). HIV infection is a common public health concern disproportionally affecting adolescent African American female detainees. This unique population has a serious history of violence exposure, which subsequently tends to lead to engaging in risky sexual behaviors, mental health problems, and abusing substances. Also, as a result of little to no intervention, this population is recidivating at an alarming rate, a problem that may further exacerbate the expression of health-related risk behaviors among African American adolescent female detainees. The authors briefly describe a pilot program to be implemented in the juvenile justice system that is based on the Model of Accumulated Risk (Garbarino, 1996), Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model (1994), and the Positive Youth Justice Model (Butts, Bazemore, & Meroe, 2009). The program proposes to reduce risky sexual behaviors, teach alternatives to abusing substances, treat mental health concerns, and reduce the rate of recidivism through "positive youth development", PYD (Butts, Bazemore, & Meroe, 2009). Tying elements of wraparound services and reeducation together, this program addresses salient concerns that may have an impact on an adolescent detainees' success following their release from prison in a holistic manner.
Berger, David F; Lombardo, John P; Peck, Joshua A; Faraone, Stephen V; Middleton, Frank A; Youngetob, Steven L
Two studies of variables affecting voluntary ethanol consumption by adolescent male and female rats are reported. Sprague-Dawley (SD) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were compared in Experiment 1. Starting on postnatal day 30 all had 24-h access to 2%, then 4%, and then 6% ethanol, followed by 1-h access to the 6% until intake stabilized. During the 1-h access SHR females consumed more ethanol than all other groups. In Experiment 2, the same procedure was used to compare SD groups prenatally exposed to nicotine, with controls. Nicotine-exposed females consumed more ethanol during 1-h access than both nicotine-exposed and control males; but after using water intake as a covariate, the differences were not significant. These data show that deprivation conditions need to be considered when generalizing the results of voluntary consumption studies, and that estrogens may be a modulator of addictive behavior.
Choi, Eunsoo; Choi, Injae
The perception of one's body image becomes particularly important in adolescence. Body dissatisfaction has been associated with negative psychological functioning, such as self-esteem and depression. Previous findings showed that the decreased self-esteem due to body dissatisfaction explained the association between negative attitude toward body and psychological well-being in different cultural contexts. The present study examined adolescents from the US (N = 1002) and Korea (N = 3993) and replicated and extended the previous findings regarding body dissatisfaction and associated psychological outcomes. The results showed that body dissatisfaction predicted higher depressed mood and that self-esteem mediated this association for both American and Korean adolescents. Notably, the indirect effect of body dissatisfaction and perceived body image on depressed mood via self-esteem was greater for American adolescents than for Korean adolescents. The implications of the cultural difference in the significance of self-esteem in mediating the body dissatisfaction and depressed mood are discussed.
Oliveira, Ana Ca; Pereira, Maria Cs; Santana, Luana N da Silva; Fernandes, Rafael M; Teixeira, Francisco B; Oliveira, Gedeão B; Fernandes, Luanna Mp; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas A; Prediger, Rui D; Crespo-López, Maria E; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Lima, Rafael R; Maia, Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz
There is increasing evidence that heavy ethanol exposure in early life may produce long-lasting neurobehavioral consequences, since brain structural maturation continues until adolescence. It is well established that females are more susceptible to alcohol-induced neurotoxicity and that ethanol consumption is increasing among women, especially during adolescence. In the present study, we investigated whether chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats may induce hippocampal histological damage and neurobehavioral impairments. Female rats were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) by gavage from the 35(th)-90(th) day of life. Ethanol-exposed animals displayed reduced exploration of the central area and increased number of fecal boluses in the open field test indicative of anxiogenic responses. Moreover, chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence induced marked impairments on short-term memory of female rats addressed on social recognition and step-down inhibitory avoidance tasks. These neurobehavioral deficits induced by ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood were accompanied by the reduction of hippocampal formation volume as well as the loss of neurons, astrocytes and microglia cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces long-lasting emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in the hippocampus.
Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Choo, Tse-Hwei J.; Larson, Nicole I.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Depression may be a risk factor for overweight status, but mechanisms involved in this relationship are unclear. This study explored behavioral factors involved in the relationship between adolescent depression symptoms and adult overweight status. A population-based cohort of female participants in Project EAT (n=1,035) was followed over 10 years and reported on psychological functioning, weight status, and eating and activity patterns in early/middle adolescence (1999=Time 1; T1), middle adolescence/early young adulthood (2004=Time 2; T2), and early/middle young adulthood (2009=Time 3; T3). Structural equation models were fit which included T1 depression scores predicting overweight status at T3, with T2 fruit and vegetable consumption, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and binge eating examined as mediators. There were small but significant effects of T1 depression scores predicting an increased likelihood of T3 overweight status (standardized estimate=0.038; p=.007), and of T2 binge eating mediating the relation between T1 depression and T3 overweight status (standardized indirect effect estimate=.036; p=.009). Binge eating may be one pathway to overweight among depressed females, suggesting that recognition and treatment of eating pathology in individuals with depression may help prevent overweight. Examination of other behavioral (and non-behavioral) factors explaining the relationship between depression and overweight is warranted. PMID:25640769
Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.; McArthur, Sherell A.
Identity formation is a critical process shaping the lives of adolescents and can present distinct challenges for Black adolescent girls who are positioned in society to negotiate ideals of self when presented with false and incomplete images representing Black girlhood. Researchers have found distorted images of Black femininity derived from…
Hays, Danica G.; Forman, Julia; Sikes, April
Approximately 75% of young people report being involved in dating relationships by the eighth grade (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], 2005). This indicates a significant need to understand how adolescents conceptualize dating relationships. More specifically, there is minimal literature on how adolescents define healthy and unhealthy…
Wherry, Jeffrey N.; And Others
Differences in family trauma, stressors, and dysfunction among adolescent psychiatric inpatients grouped by sexual abuse self-reports were investigated. Family trauma/dysfunction was determined from a composite score derived from the Traumatic Antecedents Scale. The results indicated that sexually abused adolescents reported more family…
Smith, Chad E.; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Lieberth, Ann
Adolescent health and health literacy are critical health topics recognized in Healthy People 2020. Evidence indicates that adolescents who are d/Deaf have unique health-related needs, yet health communication efforts have not reached them. Despite the Internet's exponential growth and the growth of online health information-seeking behavior among…
Dubb, Christina Rose
This article compares the first-person narratives of two adolescent girls in the novels "The Rain Catchers" and "The House on Mango Street". I propose that adolescent girls can use literacy to read the world around them as a text and therefore help them to form their own identities enough to ultimately find authority in telling their own stories.…
Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri
Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using…
Jamison, T. Rene; Schuttler, Jessica Oeth
A majority of social skills research in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and interventions target school age males and no published studies target adolescent females with ASD or related disabilities. Females with ASD are at risk for internalizing symptoms, and experience greater challenges in socialization and communication as social demands become…
Chen-Yu, Jessie H.; Seock, Yoo-Kyoung
Male (n=69) and female (n=68) adolescents spent similar amounts on clothing with similar conformity, sexual attractiveness, and recognition motivations. Females shopped significantly more often and were more influenced by friends and magazines. There were significant differences between impulse buyers and others in shopping frequency, expenditure,…
Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Armstrong, Kay; Rossi, Joseph S.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Sun, Xiaowu; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Yin, Hui-Qing; Coviello, Donna; Evers, Kerry; Velicer, Wayne F.
Smoking and sexual risk behaviors in urban adolescent females are prevalent and problematic. Family planning clinics reach those who are at most risk. This randomized effectiveness trial evaluated a transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored intervention to increase condom use and decrease smoking. At baseline, a total of 828 14- to 17-year-old females were recruited and randomized within four urban family planning clinics. Participants received TTM or standard care (SC) computerized feedback and stage-targeted or SC counseling at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. Blinded follow-up telephone surveys were conducted at 12 and 18 months. Analyses revealed significantly more consistent condom use in the TTM compared with the SC group at 6 and 12, but not at 18 months. In baseline consistent condom users (40%), significantly less relapse was found in the TTM compared with the SC group at 6 and 12, but not at 18 months. No significant effects for smoking prevention or cessation were found, although cessation rates matched those found previously. This TTM-tailored intervention demonstrated effectiveness for increasing consistent condom use at 6 and 12 months, but not at 18 months, in urban adolescent females. This intervention, if replicated, could be disseminated to promote consistent condom use and additional health behaviors in youth at risk. PMID:24794584
Notter, Kathryn Betz
The decreasing number of women who are graduating in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields continues to be a major concern. Despite national support in the form of grants provided by National Science Foundation, National Center for Information and Technology and legislation passed such as the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 that encourages women to enter the STEM fields, the number of women actually graduating in these fields is surprisingly low. This research study focuses on a robotics competition and its ability to engage female adolescents in STEM curricula. Data have been collected to help explain why young women are reticent to take technology or engineering type courses in high school and college. Factors that have been described include attitudes, parental support, social aspects, peer pressure, and lack of role models. Often these courses were thought to have masculine and "nerdy" overtones. The courses were usually majority male enrollments and appeared to be very competitive. With more female adolescents engaging in this type of competitive atmosphere, this study gathered information to discover what about the competition appealed to these young women. Focus groups were used to gather information from adolescent females who were participating in the First Lego League (FLL) and CEENBoT competitions. What enticed them to participate in a curriculum that data demonstrated many of their peers avoided? FLL and CEENBoT are robotics programs based on curricula that are taught in afterschool programs in non-formal environments. These programs culminate in a very large robotics competition. My research questions included: What are the factors that encouraged participants to participate in the robotics competition? What was the original enticement to the FLL and CEENBoT programs? What will make participants want to come back and what are the participants' plans for the future? My research mirrored data of previous findings such as lack
Chan, Kara; Ng, Yu-Leung; Prendergast, Gerard
A study was conducted to examine how interpersonal norms, media norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy had an influence on healthy eating intention among adolescents. A probability sample of 544 adolescents aged 12 to 18 was conducted. Results indicated that girls had a more favorable attitude and intention toward healthy eating than boys. Healthy eating intention among boys was predicted by attitude, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy, and among girls was predicted by perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Different marketing strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescent boys and girls should be adopted.
Doi, Suhail; Clavarino, Alexandra
Adolescent obesity and depression are increasingly prevalent and are currently recognised as major public health concerns worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the bi-directional associations between obesity and depression in adolescents using longitudinal studies. A systematic literature search was conducted using Pubmed (including Medline), PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL, BIOSIS Preview and the Cochrane Library databases. According to the inclusion criteria, 13 studies were found where seven studies evaluated depression leading to obesity and six other studies examined obesity leading to depression. Using a bias-adjusted quality effects model for the meta-analysis, we found that adolescents who were depressed had a 70% (RR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.40, 2.07) increased risk of being obese, conversely obese adolescents had an increased risk of 40% (RR 1.40, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.70) of being depressed. The risk difference (RD) of early adolescent depression leading to obesity is 3% higher risk than it is for obesity leading to depression. In sensitivity analysis, the association between depression leading to obesity was greater than that of obesity leading to depression for females in early adulthood compared with females in late adolescence. Overall, the findings of this study suggest a bi-directional association between depression and obesity that was stronger for female adolescents. However, this finding also underscores the importance of early detection and treatment strategies to inhibit the development of reciprocal disorders. PMID:27285386
Pinto, Karina Alves de Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of abdominal obesity and investigate their association with parameters markers of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its risk factors in female adolescents. It is a cross-sectional study with 150 adolescents from 10 public schools in the Federal District, Brazil. The presence of abdominal obesity was considered by measuring waist circumference above the 80th percentile, according to Taylor et al. (2000). The associated factors included sociodemographic characteristics, health status of adolescents and their parents, physical activity, eating habits, blood pressure and biochemical profile. The abdominal obesity prevalence ratio (PR) was estimated by Poisson regression model, with 95% CI. Among the adolescents studied (age= 15.6 +/- 0.8 years; BMI = 21.0 +/- 3.0 kg/m2), prevalence of abdominal obesity was 20%, and this condition was not associated with sociodemographic variables, physical activity and diet. However, abdominal obesity was significantly associated with intake of less than 4 meals a day (PR = 2.27; IC95% 1.27-4.10), previous obesity (PR = 2.36; IC95% 1.31-4.01), history of parental chronic disease (PR = 3.55; IC 95% 1.63-7.75), fasting insulin = 15 uUi/mL (PR = 3.05; IC 95% 1.36-6.82) e HDL-c > 40 mg/dL (PR = 0.39; IC95% 0.23-0.67). In this population, modifiable factors, family history and determinants of MS, such as insulin and HDL-c were associated with abdominal obesity, which points to the need for effective health promotion among adolescents.
Barha, Cindy K; Brummelte, Susanne; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M
Previous studies have shown a relationship between adversity in adolescence and health outcomes in adulthood in a sex-specific manner. Adolescence is characterized by major changes in stress-responsive regions of the brain, including the hippocampus, the site of ongoing neurogenesis throughout the lifespan. Prepubertal male and female rats exhibit different acute reactions to chronic stress compared to adults, but less is known about whether these stress-induced changes persist into adulthood. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of chronic, intermittent stress during adolescence on basal corticosterone levels, dentate gyrus (DG) volume, and neurogenesis in the hippocampus of adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Adolescent male and female rats were either restrained for 1 h every other day for 3 weeks from postnatal days (PDs) 30-52 at unpredictable times or left undisturbed. All rats received a single injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; 200 mg/kg) in adulthood on PD70 and were perfused 3 weeks later. Brains were processed for Ki67 (endogenous marker of cell proliferation) and BrdU (to estimate effects on cell survival). In addition, blood samples were taken during the restraint stress period and in adulthood. Results show that males and females exhibit different corticosterone responses to chronic stress during adolescence and that only adult female rats exposed to stress during adolescence show higher basal corticosterone levels compared to nonstressed controls. Furthermore, stressed females showed a reduced number of proliferating and surviving cells in the DG in adulthood compared to nonstressed same-sex controls. The majority of BrdU-labeled cells were co-labeled with NeuN, an endogenous marker of mature neurons, indicating that neurogenesis was decreased in the DG of adult female rats that had undergone chronic restraint stress in adolescence. Although male rats were more responsive to the chronic stress as adolescents showing higher
Pace, Ugo; Cacioppo, Marco; Schimmenti, Adriano
The present study examined the association between quality of attachment, perception of the father's bond, and binge eating symptoms in a sample of female late adolescents. In total, 233 female students aged between 18 and 20 years completed measures on binge eating, quality of attachment and parent-child relationship. Data showed that respondents with binge symptoms reported lower scores on secure attachment and father's care, and higher scores on preoccupied and fearful attachment. Binge eating symptoms were associated with father's care, but not with father's overprotection. Also, binge symptoms were negatively associated with secure attachment styles, and positively with preoccupied and fearful attachment. The data, finally, provided evidence that at higher levels of preoccupied attachment, the impact of binge symptoms tended to be lower when father's care was high.
Ehrlich, David E.; Neigh, Gretchen N.; Bourke, Chase H.; Nemeth, Christina L.; Hazra, Rimi; Ryan, Steven J.; Rowson, Sydney; Jairam, Nesha; Sholar, Courtney; Rainnie, Donald G.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Owens, Michael J.
Depression during pregnancy has been linked to in utero stress and is associated with long-lasting symptoms in offspring, including anxiety, helplessness, attentional deficits, and social withdrawal. Depression is diagnosed in 10-20% of expectant mothers, but the impact of antidepressant treatment on offspring development is not well documented, particularly for females. Here, we used a prenatal stress model of maternal depression to test the hypothesis that in utero antidepressant treatment could mitigate the effects of prenatal stress. We also investigated the effects of prenatal stress and antidepressant treatment on gene expression related to GABAergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the amygdala, which may underlie behavioral effects of prenatal stress. Nulliparous female rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps delivering clinically-relevant concentrations of escitalopram and mated. Pregnant dams were exposed to 12 days of mixed-modality stressors, and offspring were behaviorally assessed in adolescence (postnatal day 28) and adulthood (beyond day 90) to determine the extent of behavioral change. We found that in utero stress exposure, regardless of escitalopram treatment, increased anxiety-like behavior in adolescent females and profoundly influenced amygdala expression of the chloride transporters KCC2 and NKCC1, which regulate GABAergic function. In contrast, prenatal escitalopram exposure alone elevated amygdala expression of 5-HT1A receptors. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior returned to baseline and gene expression effects in the amygdala abated, whereas deficits emerged in novel object recognition for rats exposed to stress during gestation. These findings suggest prenatal stress causes age-dependent deficits in anxiety-like behavior and amygdala function in female offspring, regardless of antidepressant exposure. PMID:26032436
Bodson, Julia; Ding, Qian; Warner, Echo L; Hawkins, Amy J; Henry, Kevin A; Kepka, Deanna
Objectives We investigated the similarities and differences in the factors related to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of female adolescents in three sub-regions of the Intermountain West (IW). Methods We analyzed 2011-2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen data. Respondents (parents) who were living in the IW and who had daughters aged 13-17 years old with provider-verified immunization records were included in our analyses. East, Central, and West sub-regions were defined based on geographic contiguity and similarity in HPV vaccination rates and sociodemographic characteristics. Survey-weighted Chi square tests and multivariable Poisson regressions were performed. Results In all three sub-regions, older teen age and receipt of other recommended adolescent vaccinations were significantly associated with HPV vaccination. In the East sub-region, providers' facility type and source of vaccines were significantly related to HPV vaccination. In the Central sub-region, teens with married parents were significantly less likely to be vaccinated than were those with unmarried parents. In the West sub-region, non-Hispanic teens were significantly less likely to be vaccinated than were Hispanic teens. Conclusions for Practice In order to improve HPV vaccine coverage in the IW, region-wide efforts to target younger teens and to promote the HPV vaccine with other recommended adolescent vaccinations should be supplemented with sub-regional attention to the health care system (East sub-region), to married parents (Central sub-region), and to non-Hispanic teens (West sub-region).
Brawner, Bridgette M.; Volpe, Ellen M.; Stewart, Jennifer M.; Gomes, Melissa M.
Background Biobehavioural research methodology can be invasive and burdensome for participants—particularly adolescents with mental illnesses. Human biological researchers should consider how methodological impositions may hinder adolescent research participation. However, literature on adolescent’s voices and concerns toward biobehavioural research participation is virtually non-existent. Aim This study was designed to determine adolescents’ perceptions of participation in research involving the collection of biomarkers via blood, saliva and/or urine samples. Subjects and methods Urban adolescent females (aged 12–19) receiving outpatient mental health treatment (n = 37) participated in focus groups with concurrent survey administration to explore attitudes, beliefs and willingness/intentions toward biobehavioural research participation. Results Participants had favourable attitudes toward biobehavioural research and were amenable to provide each specimen type. Mistrust for research emerged, however, and concerns related to privacy and confidentiality were expressed. Conclusion Participant recruitment is a critical component in study design and implementation; this includes knowledge of population-specific recruitment barriers and facilitators. This innovative paper provides a context for the research participants’ decision-making process, strategies to allay fears and concerns and concrete areas to target in research-related interventions. Although the findings are from a specific, US-based sample, the implications warrant replication of the research in other geosocial settings. PMID:23822716
Faisal-Cury, Alexandre; Tabb, Karen M; Niciunovas, Guilherme; Cunningham, Carrie; Menezes, Paulo R; Huang, Hsiang
Adolescent pregnancy has social, economic, and educational consequences and is also linked to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, studies show a positive relationship between pregnancy and increased social status among low-income adolescents. This study aims to assess the association between planned pregnancy and years of schooling among low-income Brazilian adolescents. This is a secondary analysis of a cohort study conducted from May 2005 to March 2007 in public primary care clinics in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants (n=168) completed a detailed structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between years of schooling and planned pregnancy. After adjusting for the covariates income, wealth score, crowding, age, marital status, and race, planned pregnancy was independently associated with lower years of education (odds ratio: 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.02–3.23). Although this finding may be related to these adolescents having less access to information and health services, another possible explanation is that they have a greater desire to have children during adolescence. PMID:28176946
Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C.
Background: Exposure to environmental phenols (e.g., bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, and triclosan) and parabens is widespread in the population. Many of these chemicals have been shown to have anti-androgenic effects both in vitro and in vivo. Objective: We examined the association of bisphenol A (BPA), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), triclosan (TCS), and parabens with serum total testosterone (TT) levels in child and adolescent participants (ages 6–19 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2012. Methods: We performed multivariable linear regression to estimate associations between natural log–transformed serum TT and quartiles of urinary BPA, BP-3, TCS, and parabens in male and female children (ages 6–11 years) and adolescents (ages 12–19 years). Results: BP-3 and BPA were associated with significantly lower TT in male adolescents, and BPA was associated with significantly higher TT in female adolescents. TT was not consistently associated with TCS or total parabens in children or adolescents of either sex. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association of both BP-3 and BPA with serum TT in adolescents. Associations between BPA and TT differed according to sex in adolescents, with inverse associations in boys and positive associations in girls. BP-3 was associated with significantly lower TT in adolescent boys only. However, because of the limitations inherent to the cross-sectional study design, further studies are needed to confirm and elucidate on our findings. Citation: Scinicariello F, Buser MC. 2016. Serum testosterone concentrations and urinary bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, triclosan, and paraben levels in male and female children and adolescents: NHANES 2011–2012. Environ Health Perspect 124:1898–1904; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP150 PMID:27383665
Rhea, Deborah J; Thatcher, W Gregory
The purpose of this study was two-fold: to determine the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem as dimensions of one's self-concept; and to determine if differences exist among one's ethnicity, ethnic identity, and/or self-esteem when examining at-risk eating disordered behaviors. A total of 893 urban adolescent females completed three behavioral subscales: the Eating Disorder Inventory, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and Phinney's Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. As hypothesized, ethnic identity was significantly associated with self-esteem to form one's self-concept. When compared to Mexican American and White females, only Black females who were in the higher ethnic identity and self-esteem categories had significantly lower at-risk eating disordered scores. Our findings suggest eating disorder status in Mexican American and White females may not be associated as much with ethnic identity as with other acculturation and self-concept factors. Further, this study demonstrated ethnicity, self-esteem, and ethnic identity play significant roles in eating disorder risks.
Crosby, Richard A; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Cobb, Brenda K; Harrington, Kathy; Davies, Susan L; Hook, Edward W; Oh, M Kim
This study of 522 African American female adolescents, ages 14 to 18, investigated associations between condom use and infrequently communicating with sex partners about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy prevention. Correlates of infrequent communication were identified. Sexually active adolescents were recruited from schools and adolescent medicine clinics in low-income neighborhoods of Birmingham, Alabama. Adolescents completed a self-administered survey and face-to-face interview. Communication frequency was assessed using a five-item scale. Infrequent communication was significantly associated with lower odds of condom use. Multivariate correlates of infrequent communication were less frequent communication with parents about STD/pregnancy prevention, recent sex with a nonsteady partner, low perceived ability to negotiate condom use and fear of this negotiation, and low motivation to use condoms. Given the importance of partner communication in promoting safer sex behaviors, STD and pregnancy prevention programs may benefit adolescents by addressing the identified psychosocial correlates of infrequent communication with their partners.
White, James; Halliwell, Emma
There is substantial evidence that sociocultural pressures and body image disturbances can lead to disordered eating, yet few studies have examined their impact on excessive exercise. The study adapted a sociocultural model for disordered eating to predict excessive exercise using data from boys and girls in early adolescence (N=421). Perceived sociocultural pressures to lose weight and build muscle, body image disturbance and appearance investment were associated with a compulsive need to exercise. Adolescents' investment in appearance and body image disturbance fully mediated the relationship between sociocultural pressures and a compulsive need for exercise. There was no support for the meditational model in predicting adolescents' frequency or duration of exercise. Results support the sociocultural model as an explanatory model for excessive exercise, but suggest appearance investment and body image disturbance are important mediators of sociocultural pressures.
Sweeting, Helen N; West, Patrick B; Der, Geoff J
Background By mid adolescence there is an excess in female physical and/or psychosomatic, as well as psychological morbidity. This paper examines the contribution of a range of factors (self-esteem, body image, gender-role orientation, body mass index, smoking and physical activity) to explaining the female excess in three psychosomatic symptoms (headaches, stomach ache/sickness, and dizziness) and depressive mood at age 15. Methods A cohort of 2,196 school pupils (analyses restricted to 2,005 with complete data) surveyed at age 15. All measures were obtained via self-completion questionnaires, apart from body mass index, derived from measured height and weight. Analyses examined (a) sex differences in each potential explanatory factor; (b) their associations with the health measures; (c) the effect of adjustment for these factors on sex differences in the health measures; and (d) the existence of interactive effects between sex and the explanatory factors on the health measures Results Each potential explanatory factor was significantly differentiated by sex. Self-esteem, body image (represented by weight-related worries), smoking and physical activity were related to the health measures. These factors accounted for one third of the female excess in headaches and stomach problems, half the excess in dizziness and almost all that in respect of depressive mood. Self-esteem and body image were the factors most consistently related to health, and adjustment for these resulted in the largest reductions in the odds of a female excess in both the psychosomatic symptoms and depressive mood. Conclusion Adjustment for a range of potential psychosocial and behavioural factors largely explains (statistically) excess female depressive mood. These factors also partially explain the female excess in certain psychosomatic symptoms. PMID:17953744
Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo
Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF) and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year) and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min-1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test (SAR), handgrip strength test (HST) and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ). Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28) of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7) of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027). BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women). Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively). Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women). Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs. PMID:23900100
Hirth, Jacqueline M; Rahman, Mahbubur; Smith, Jennifer S; Berenson, Abbey B
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake among 18–26 y old women varies by geographic region in the US. However, little is known about regional variations in vaccination among girls who are in the vaccine's targeted age groups. Regional variation in HPV vaccination among female adolescents (9–17 y old) was examined using cross-sectional data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) between 2008 and 2010. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the association of region of residence (10 states included questions about adolescent HPV vaccination) with uptake and completion of the 3-shot HPV vaccine series. Among 7,849 adolescents, 26.9% initiated, and 55.2% of initiators completed the series. Adolescents from Northeast/Midwest/West states were 1.74 (95% CI: 1.45-2.10) times more likely to have initiated HPV vaccination compared to the South/Southwestern states. Among initiators, vaccine series completion did not vary significantly between the South/Southwestern and Northeast/Midwest/West states. Flu vaccination was associated with increased odds of initiation in both regions and completion of the HPV vaccine series in the South/Southwestern states only. Girls 9–10 and 11–12 y old were less likely to have initiated and 11–12 y olds were less likely to have completed the HPV vaccine series compared to 13–17 y olds. The observed regional variations in vaccination could cause rates of cervical cancer to remain higher in the South/Southwest and widen currently observed regional disparities in cervical cancer rates. PMID:25668660
Fraser, J J; Rettig, P J; Kaplan, D W
The prevalence of cervical infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae was examined in 125 girls receiving primary gynecologic care in a general adolescent clinic. C trachomatis was isolated in 8% of the patients using a microtiter tissue-culture method, and N gonorrhoeae was found in 12%. A significant association was found between the use of oral contraceptives and positive chlamydial cultures. Patients with Chlamydia-positive cultures were frequently asymptomatic and exhibited no positive findings on physical examination. Three of ten women with cervical chlamydial infection developed pelvic inflammatory disease. These results support the use of cervical screening for both of these pathogens in sexually active adolescents.
Eastabrook, Suzette; Chang, Paul; Taylor, Myra F
Suntanning increases skin cancer risk and prematurely ages skin. Photoageing photography is an effective means of increasing adult ultraviolet radiation (UVR) awareness and skin-protection practices. While adults' largely positive suntanning-deterrence responses to photoageing photography are well-documented, comparatively little is known about the deterrence effectiveness of photoageing photography with adolescents. To help fill this knowledge gap, in-depth interviews were collected from 10 adolescent females and were subsequently subjected to interpretive phenomenological analysis. The emergent central theme - Having a tan and looking good in the short-term is okay, however, in the longer-term you can end up looking far worse… but still a tan is worth it - and its component subthemes reveal that the adolescent female's desire for a suntan is largely appearance driven. While photoaged photography is effective in increasing their awareness of the skin damage that UVR exposure causes, it does not alter their suntanning intentions. The analysis also revealed that one of the major barriers to adolescent females' adoption of skin-protective behaviours is their belief in their own invincibility. Hence, skin-protection interventions that lessen the aura of invincibility around adolescent females' understanding of their risk for developing skin cancers are vital to reducing the incidence of malignant melanoma.
Alexander, Gerianne M; Hawkins, Laura B; Wilcox, Teresa; Hirshkowitz, Amy
Adolescents and adults show preferences for male and female body shapes consistent with evolutionary theories of reproductive fitness and mate selection. However, when these preferences for females with narrow waists (i.e., 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio) and men with broad shoulders (i.e., mesomorphic body shape) emerge during the lifespan is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, eye-movements were tracked in 146 infants (3-18 months of age) during computer presentation of three-dimensional human figures varying in body features thought relevant for reproductive success (e.g., secondary sex characteristics, waist-to-hip ratio). When presented with pairs of figures differing in apparent sex, male and female infants looked significantly longer at the female figure compared to the male figure, a new finding that extends previous research showing preferences for female faces in infancy. When presented with same-sex figures differing in characteristics associated with mate value, male and female infants looked longer at a low mate value male (i.e., an endomorphic body type) compared to a high mate value male (i.e., a mesomorphic body type), a finding that replicates the results of previous research. In addition, the novel use of high and low mate value female figures showed a sex difference in visual attention, such that female infants looked longer at the high mate value female figure compared to the low mate female figure whereas male infants showed the opposite pattern of results. In sum, these findings suggest that infants generally do not possess preferences for adult-defined attractive male body shapes. However, infant girls' greater attention to a female figure with an adult-preferred waist-to-hip ratio raises the possibility that evolved preferences for 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio influence girls' later preference for toys representing females with an hourglass shape, perhaps supporting elaboration of adult social behaviors that enhance reproductive success (e
Fox, Jeremy K.; Halpern, Leslie F.; Ryan, Julie L.; Lowe, Kelly A.
Although the tripartite model reliably distinguishes anxiety and depression in adolescents, it remains unclear how negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity (PA) influence developmental pathways to internalizing problems. Based on models which propose that affectivity shapes how youth react to stress, the present study attempted to…
Hopwood, Christopher J.; Ansell, Emily B.; Fehon, Dwain C.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Objective This study examined evidence for personality variability in adolescents with eating disorder features based in light of previous evidence that personality variability in adult women with eating pathology carries important clinical implications. Method Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory personality data from adolescent girls with disturbed eating who were psychiatrically hospitalized were cluster analyzed and resulting groups were compared in terms of eating and comorbid pathology. Results Three sub-groups were identified among the 153 patients with eating disorder features: high-functioning, internalizing, and externalizing. The internalizing group was marked by eating-related and mood dysfunction, the externalizing group by elevated eating and mood pathology as well as impulsivity, aggression, and substance use, and the high-functioning group by lower levels of psychopathology and relatively high self-esteem. Conclusions These findings converge with previous research using different personality models in adult samples and highlight the clinical utility of considering personality heterogeneity among adolescent and adult women with disturbed eating. PMID:20965304
Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John
The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge of dating violence behaviors among adolescent victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), first, by determining the prevalence of psychological and physical dating violence and the reciprocity of violence, and second, by investigating the influence of certain CSA characteristics to dating violence.…
Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, J. Don
Indoor tanning continues to grow in popularity even though empirical investigations denounce the behavior. Various reports have illustrated the detrimental health effects of ultraviolet (UV) exposure including increased risk for skin cancer. According to some physicians, the risk may be especially high for adolescents whose skin cells are dividing…
Gifted individuals face many concerns when contemplating their futures. Often hindered by career indecision; perfectionism; and multiple personal, familial, and societal pressures, some gifted young people flounder when they have the ability to flourish. Many counselors and educators trust that a wealth of talents will propel these adolescents to…
Ledoux, Sylvie; And Others
Adolescents (n=3,287) completed questionnaire concerning eating behaviors. Found that binge eaters had disorderly eating habits (skipping meals, snacking, eating sweets, unbalanced diets), concern with body shape (feeling too fat), and depressive symptoms more often than nonbinge eaters did. Relationship between binging episodes and eating habits,…
Huebner, Angela J.; Shettler, Lauren; Matheson, Jennifer L.; Meszaros, Peggy S.; Piercy, Fred P.; Davis, Sean D.
We examined the salience of multiple ecological factors (individual, family, peer, school, and community) as differential predictors of smoking for adolescent African-Americans and Whites in a sample of 2,029 7th-12th grade girls from a Mid-Atlantic southeastern state. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that significant predictors of…
Inyang, Mfrekemfon P.
Most adolescents engage in indiscriminate sexual experimentations. This practice exposes them to the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndromes (AIDS) are among the deadly diseases that exist globally. Twice as many girls, compared to boys…
Stenzel, Lucia Marques; Saha, Lawrence J.; Guareschi, Pedrinho
The aims of this paper are (a) to investigate how adolescents perceive and represent the body form with respect to being fat or thin, and (b) to describe the process of how they constructed the social representations for these latter two body conditions. The data were collected by means of individual and focus group interviews with adolescent…
Miller, Brent C.; Bingham, C. Raymond
This study, based on a national probability sample of 15- to 19-year-old women, showed that adolescent women raised by a single parent were more likely to have nonmarital sexual intercourse than were young women from intact marriages. However, this effect was diminished by controlling for age and race, social class, and religion. (TE)
Smith-Jobski, Wendy M.
If counselors are to meet the needs of adolescent girls, they must understand the unique perspective and experiences of this population. Much research that claims to report on "young women," has, in fact, used only college women as subjects. Research that studies teen-age women, specifically, needs to be examined and understood by counseling…
Jerstad, Sarah J.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stice, Eric
Objective: Although an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents has been found in research, this relation has seldom been examined prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical…
Kaczmarek, Maria; Trambacz-Oleszak, Sylwia
The increasing prevalence of negative body perceptions among adolescent girls and the tendency towards wishing to be thinner have become a cultural norm in Western culture. Adolescent girls are particularly vulnerable to developing a negative body image due to physical and sexual changes occurring during puberty. This study aimed to evaluate the association between different measures of body image perceptions and different phases of the menstrual cycle after controlling for weight status and other potential confounders in Polish adolescent girls aged 12-18 years. Three-hundred and thirty participants of a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2009, normally cycling and with no eating disorders, completed a background questionnaire and the Stunkard Figure Rating Scale, and their anthropometric measurements were collected. The dependent outcome variables were measures of body image (actual body image, ideal body image and ideal-self discrepancy) and dichotomous body image perception (satisfied versus dissatisfied) adjusted for other predictor factors: socio-demographic variables, menstrual history and cycle phases, and weight status. One-way ANOVA indicated that weight status, age at menarche and menstrual cycle phase were associated with actual body image and rate of ideal-self discrepancy. Ideal body image was associated with weight status and menstrual cycle phase. General logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate associations of body dissatisfaction and all potential predictor variables. The final selected model of the multiple logistic regression analysis using the backward elimination procedure revealed that adjusted for other factors, negative body image was significantly associated with different phases of the menstrual cycle (p trend=0.033) and increasing body weight status (p trend=0.0007). The likelihood of body dissatisfaction was greatest during the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle (OR=2.38; 95% CI 1.06, 5.32) and among girls in
Cornick, Shayla L.
Experiences that females have during middle and high school have been found to influence the perceptions that they have of their ability to be successful as an engineer and the value that they place on participating in engineering education. Engineering education continues to suffer from a lack of female participation. Several efforts have been…
Latha, K. S.; Hegde, Supriya; Bhat, S. M.; Sharma, P. S. V. N.; Rai, Pooja
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine whether Body Mass Index (BMI) and the subjective perception of body weight, and body shape satisfaction predict level of self-esteem and depression among female college students. Method: The sample comprised of 124 female college students ranging in age from 16-21 years. Self perception of…
Oskis, Andrea; Loveday, Catherine; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Clow, Angela
Background: Attachment style has been linked with basal cortisol secretion in healthy adult women. We investigated whether dysregulation in basal cortisol secretion may be evident in younger healthy females. Methods: Sixty healthy females aged 9-18 years (mean 14.16, SD [plus or minus] 2.63 years) participated in the Attachment Style Interview…
Wekerle, Christine; Goldstein, Abby L; Tanaka, Masako; Tonmyr, Lil
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with multiple negative outcomes, including increased risky sexual behavior. To date, the majority of research on the relationship between CSA and risky sex in adolescence has been limited, with a lack of focus on males and youth receiving child welfare services. Participants in the current study were 297 youth (mean age=15.98; SD=1.01, 57.6% female) from the child welfare system who reported being sexually active at the time of the survey. CSA was associated with severity of other types of maltreatment for both genders, and exposure to intimate partner violence for females only. In general, males engaged in more sexual risk behaviors than females. Males with CSA had stronger motives to have sex for: (1) coping, (2) peer approval and (3) partner approval, as compared to non-CSA males; as well as (4) greater motives for partner and peer approval compared to females with CSA. Males with no CSA had stronger sexual motives for enhancement (e.g., feeling pleasure) compared to females with no CSA. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect effect for coping motives for males: CSA was associated with increased motives to use sex for coping which was associated with increased sexual risk-taking. These findings provide important information regarding the relationship between CSA and sexual risk-taking for child welfare sample and highlight coping with negative affect as a potential mechanism that underlies the CSA-risky sex relationship. It also encourages further consideration of motives for risk and resilience behaviors among youth.
Hung, Chao-Chia; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Luh, Dih-Ling; Wu, Chi-Chen; Yen, Lee-Lan
Objective Gender differences in the associations between adolescent drinking behaviour, and perceived parental drinking behaviours and attitudes towards underage drinking, were investigated. Methods Data were drawn from two cohorts in the Child and Adolescent Behaviours in Long-term Evolution project. We used data from 2009 to 2006, when cohorts 1 and 2, respectively, were in grade 9. No cohort effect was found, so the two cohorts were pooled; 3972 students (1999 boys and 1973 girls) participated in the study. The major variables included adolescent drinking behaviours over the last month, and perceived parental drinking behaviours and parental attitudes towards underage drinking. The effects of the combination of parental drinking behaviours, and attitudes on the drinking behaviours of male and female adolescents, were analysed by logistic regression. Results The drinking behaviour of boys was correlated with the drinking behaviours and attitudes of their fathers but not with those of their mothers. Among boys, having a non-drinking father who was against underage drinking (OR=0.27, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.46), a non-drinking father who was favourable towards underage drinking (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.94), or a drinking father who was against underage drinking (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.85) significantly decreased the likelihood of alcohol consumption, whereas maternal behaviour and attitude were not significant influences. Among girls, having a non-drinking father who was against underage drinking (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.91) or a non-drinking father who was favourable towards underage drinking (OR=0.51, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.83) significantly decreased the likelihood of alcohol consumption, as did having a non-drinking mother who was against underage drinking (OR=0.23, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.60). Conclusions The influences of fathers and mothers on the drinking behaviour of their adolescent children differed by offspring gender. PMID:25877273
Greenslade, Thomas B.
Uses diagrams and text to illustrate the use of Lissajous figures (the figures that are traced out when two simple harmonic motions are combined at right angles to each other) in teaching basic physics concepts. Covers the mathematics of the Lissajous Figure; demonstrating Lissajous Figures; and a typical class. (ZWH)
Aalsma, Matthew C; Woodrome, Stacy E; Downs, Sarah M; Hensel, Devon J; Zimet, Gregory D; Orr, Don P; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity.
Murphy, Michael L M; Miller, Gregory E; Wrosch, Carsten
Conscientiousness is associated with health, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. To explore the role that stress might play, this study examined whether conscientiousness was associated with exposure and reactivity to life stress. This study followed 133 adolescent women every 6 months for 2.5 years. Participants completed a baseline measure of conscientiousness, and at each visit underwent a structured interview to catalogue episodic and chronic stress and had blood drawn to assess inflammatory processes. Participants higher in conscientiousness experienced fewer self-dependent episodic stressors and less academic and interpersonal chronic stress throughout the study. However, at times when they experienced higher levels of chronic interpersonal stress, they became more resistant to glucocorticoids. Higher levels of conscientiousness may protect adolescent women from exposure to certain stressors. However, when stress occurs, highly conscientious individuals may become more resistant to glucocorticoids, increasing their risk for processes that influence inflammatory conditions.
Zavras, Nikolaos; Siristatidis, Charalampos; Siatelis, Argyris; Koumarianou, Anna
Cancer represents the second cause of death in prepubertal children and adolescents, although it is currently associated with an overall survival rate of 80%–85%. The annual incidence rate is 186.6 per 1 million children and adolescents aged up to 19 years. Both disease and treatment options are associated with life-altering, long-term effects that require monitoring. Infertility is a common issue, and as such, fertility preservation represents an essential part in the management of young patients with cancer who are at risk of premature gonadal failure. This review deals with the up-to-date available data on fertility risk assessment and preservation strategies that should be addressed prior to antineoplastic therapy in this vulnerable subgroup of cancer patients. PMID:27398041
Jerstad, Sarah J.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stice, Eric
Objective Although research has found an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents, few studies have examined this relation prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical activity. Method Data from a longitudinal study involving annual assessments of 496 adolescent girls (M age = 13, SD 0.7) followed over a 6-year period were analyzed to address these questions. Results Physical activity significantly reduced risk for future increases in depressive symptoms and risk for onset of major/minor depression and depressive symptoms and major/minor depression significantly reduced future physical activity, controlling for several covariates, though predictive effects were modest. Conclusions Results support a bidirectional relation between exercise and depression and imply that interventions that increase physical activity may reduce risk for depression among this high-risk population. PMID:20350037
Méndez, Rosa O.; Santiago, Alejandra; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B.; de la Barca, Ana M. Calderón; García, Hugo S.
Zinc homeostasis is achieved after intake variation by changes in the expression levels of zinc transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary intake (by 24-h recall), absorption, plasma zinc (by absorption spectrophotometry) and the expression levels (by quantitative PCR), of the transporters ZIP1 (zinc importer) and ZnT1 (zinc exporter) in peripheral white blood cells from 24 adolescent girls before and after drinking zinc-fortified milk for 27 day. Zinc intake increased (p < 0.001) from 10.5 ± 3.9 mg/day to 17.6 ± 4.4 mg/day, and its estimated absorption from 3.1 ± 1.2 to 5.3 ± 1.3 mg/day. Mean plasma zinc concentration remained unchanged (p > 0.05) near 150 µg/dL, but increased by 31 µg/dL (p < 0.05) for 6/24 adolescents (group A) and decreased by 25 µg/dL (p < 0.05) for other 6/24 adolescents (group B). Expression of ZIP1 in blood leukocytes was reduced 1.4-fold (p < 0.006) in group A, while for the expression of ZnT1 there was no difference after intervention (p = 0.39). An increase of dietary zinc after 27-days consumption of fortified-milk did not increase (p > 0.05) the plasma level of adolescent girls but for 6/24 participants from group A in spite of the formerly appropriation, which cellular zinc uptake decreased as assessed by reduction of the expression of ZIP1. PMID:24922175
Freedman, R J
Because an attractive appearance is so essential to the feminine gender role, the search for beauty causes special adjustment problems for adolescent girls. Psychologically they suffer from negative body image, lowered self-esteem, and achievement conflicts. Physically their health is undermined by current beauty norms which foster eating disorders, cosmetic acne, and breast surgery. The effects of physical fitness programs, the role of the media, and the influence of changing gender roles are also discussed.
Obunge, O. K.; Brabin, L.; Dollimore, N.; Kemp, J.; Ikokwu-Wonodi, C.; Babatunde, S.; White, S.; Briggs, N. D.; Hart, C. A.
OBJECTIVE: To devise a flowchart suitable for assessing risk of trichomoniasis, chlamydia and gonorrhoea in an adolescent population, not all of whom will be sexually experienced or currently in a relationship. METHODS: The data used to derive the flowchart were generated from cross-sectional microbiological surveys of girls aged 14-19 years in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The flowchart screened on the basis of: (i) sexual experience; (ii) recent sexual activity; (iii) a positive urine leukocyte esterase (LE) test; and (iv) among LE negatives, a history of malodorous/pruritic discharge. FINDINGS: Using this flowchart, we found that 26.2% of all adolescents screened would receive treatment for cervicitis and vaginitis. Chlamydial, gonococcal, and trichomonal infections were correctly diagnosed in 37.5%, 66.7%, and 50% of the cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: Although the flowchart is more suitable for an adolescent population than the vaginal discharge algorithm used in syndromic management protocols, it still lacks precision and needs adapting to local settings. PMID:11357208
Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza
OBJECTIVE : To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and height, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. METHODS : A controlled cross-sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 with normal weight, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 with normal weight and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central (CS) and peripheral skinfolds (PS). The BF% was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. RESULTS : The increase in central fat, represented by WC, UC, WHtR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase in peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh circumference were proportional to the increase in BMI and BF%. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The height showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being fair or weak with waist measurements. CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, as it showed the highest capacity to predict adiposity in each group, and also showed fair or weak correlation with height. PMID:25623729
Blattner, Meghan C C; Liang, Belle; Lund, Terese; Spencer, Renee
Achieving a sense of purpose during adolescence is a developmental asset; however, searching for that purpose may be a developmental stressor. Supportive parent-child relationships may help youth during this stressful experience. The present study included 207 female students in the sixth, eighth, and tenth grades from two competitive private schools. Searching for purpose negatively predicted self-esteem. Hierarchical linear regression examined moderating effects of parental trust and alienation on searching for purpose as a predictor of self-esteem. Parental alienation significantly moderated the association between search for purpose and girls' self-esteem; conversely, parental trust did not moderate the association. Results suggest that parent-child relationships characterized by high levels of parental alienation may exacerbate the pernicious effects of search for purpose. Person-based analyses found four clusters corresponding to Foreclosed Purpose, Diffused Purpose, Uncommitted Purpose/Moratorium, and Achieved Purpose. We discuss implications for practice and research based on these results.
Thomsen, Steven R; Weber, Michelle M; Brown, Lora Beth
This study examined the relationship between reading women's beauty and fashion magazines and the use of pathogenic dieting methods (laxatives, appetite suppressants/diet pills, skipping two meals a day, intentional vomiting, and restricting calories to 1,200 or less each day) among 502 high school females. Weak to moderate positive associations were found between reading frequency and each of these unhealthful practices except the use of laxatives. When controlling for anxiety about weight and frequency of regular exercise, however, the original bivariate relations between reading frequency and skipping two meals a day, and reading and intentional vomiting, disappeared. Replication and weak specification effects were found when examining the relationships between reading and taking appetite suppressant/weight control pills, and reading and restricting calories, under the control conditions. These findings suggest that two of the most common adolescent dieting methods--restricting calories and taking diet pills--appear to be influenced by the reading of women's beauty and fashion magazines.
Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Paraense, Ricardo Sousa de Oliveira; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Crespo-López, Maria Elena
This study investigates morphological and biochemistry effects of binge ethanol consumption in parotid (PG) and submandibular (SG) salivary glands of rats from adolescence to adulthood. Female Wistar rats (n = 26) received ethanol at 3 g/kg/day (20% w/v) for 3 consecutive days/week from the 35th until the 62nd day of life. Animals were treated in two periods: 1 week (G1) and 4 weeks (G2), with a control (treated with distilled water) and an ethanol group to each period. In morphological analysis, morphometric and immunohistochemistry evaluation for smooth muscle actin (αSMA), cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and vimentin (VIM) were made. Biochemical changes were analyzed by concentration of nitrites and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). The difference between groups in each analysis was evaluated by Mann-Whitney U test or Student's t-test (p ≤ 0.05). PG showed, at one week of ethanol exposure, lower CK-18 and α-SMA expression, as well as MDA levels. After four weeks, lower CK-18 and higher MDA levels were observed in PG exposed to ethanol, in comparison to control group. SG showed lower α-SMA expression after 1 and 4 weeks of ethanol exposure as well as higher MDA levels after 1 week. Ethanol binge consumption during adolescence promotes tissue and biochemical changes with only one-week binge in acinar and myoepithelial PG cells. PMID:27579155
Samkange-Zeeb, F; Spallek, L; Klug, S J; Zeeb, H
Low levels of human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness and knowledge have been observed in the few studies conducted among school-going adolescents. Such data are lacking in Germany. To assess awareness of HPV and of vaccination status among girls attending grades 8-13 in Bremen and Bremerhaven, two German cities. Participants completed a questionnaire in school including questions on demographic characteristics, about HPV awareness and on vaccination status. We analysed the relationship between awareness of HPV, of vaccination status and vaccine uptake and several variables including age and migrant background using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Six hundred and thirty-two girls aged 12-20 years completed the questionnaire. 50 % had no awareness of HPV, 12 % reported being vaccinated against HPV and 57 % did not know whether or not they were vaccinated against HPV. In multivariate analyses, ever had sex was associated with awareness of HPV, and ever been to a gynaecologist with awareness of vaccination status. Our results may be an indication that female adolescents in Germany are not adequately informed and counselled about HPV and associated issues.
Grauvogl, Andrea; Peters, Madelon L; Evers, Silvia M A A; van Lankveld, Jacques J D M
The Sexual Competence and Interaction Competence in Youth is a self-report questionnaire that aims to measure sexual competence and interaction competence in adolescents. The study sample consisted of 276 female undergraduate students (M = 20.95 years, SD = 2.00 years). The factor structure of the questionnaire was calculated on full sample data. A subsample was used to calculate the validity and internal consistency (N = 236; M = 20.88 years, SD = 1.96). The test-retest reliability was also calculated in a subsample (N = 82; M = 21.45 years, SD = 1.74 years). On the basis of an exploratory factor analysis, 8 factors were extracted: (a) communication about sex, (b) refusing sex, (c) positive sexual attitudes, (d) male role in sexual interaction, (e) contraceptive use, (f) not suppressing problems and desires regarding sex, (g) sexual assertiveness, and (h) sexual hedonism. The subscales possess adequate internal consistency and moderate to excellent test-retest reliability. A higher order principal component analysis revealed a 2-factor structure that appears to adequately represent the sexual competence and interaction competence constructs. Furthermore, convergent and discriminant validity were considered to be good. The results indicate that the Sexual Competence and Interaction Competence in Youth may be a useful instrument to measure sexual and interaction competence among adolescents.
Perez-Felkner, Lara; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn; Schneider, Barbara; Grogan, Erin
Although important strides toward gender parity have been made in several scientific fields, women remain underrepresented in the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences (PEMCs). This study examines the effects of adolescents' subjective orientations, course taking, and academic performance on the likelihood of majoring in PEMC in college. Results indicate that racial-ethnic and gender underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are interrelated and should be examined with attention to the intersecting factors influencing female and racial-ethnic minority adolescents' pathways toward careers in these fields. Among those who major in PEMC fields, women closely resemble men with respect to their subjective orientations. The effects of subjective orientations on women's chances of majoring in PEMC vary by their secondary school mathematics course completion levels. Women who take more mathematics courses are more likely to major in PEMC; however, course taking alone does not attenuate gender disparities in declaring these majors. High mathematics ability (as measured by standardized test scores in the 10th grade) appears to be positively associated with women's selection of social, behavioral, clinical, and health science majors. This association is less robust (and slightly negative) for women in PEMC. While advanced course taking appears to assist women in selecting PEMC majors, women who enter these fields may not be as strong as those who select other, less male-dominated scientific fields.
Landsheer, Johannes A.; Oud, Johan H. L.; van Dijkum, Cor
Although it is well known that during adolescence the delinquent involvement of females is consistently less when compared to male involvement, it remains an important question whether the development of delinquency has a similar trajectory for both sexes. The main hypothesis tested is whether sex differences in delinquency, specifically growth,…
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Henry, David B.
The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven…
Lungo, Diane; And Others
The effect of aerobic exercise on total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), apolioprotein A-I (Apo A-I), and percent body fat in adolescent females was studied. The control subjects (n=86) were volunteers who had completed a physical education class at least six months prior to the commencement of the study,…
Lai, Ching-Yi; Wu, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Shao-Yu; Cheng, Su-Fen; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Liang, Shu-Yuan
Background: Lack of education is a known barrier to vaccination, but data on the design and effectiveness of interventions remain limited. Objective: This study aims to identify the effectiveness of a Facebook-assisted teaching method on female adolescents' knowledge and attitudes about cervical cancer prevention and on their human papillomavirus…
Kershaw, Trace S.; Ethier, Kathleen A.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Meade, Christina; Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Risky sexual behavior can lead to pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our study of 300 adolescent females takes an integrative approach by incorporating these multiple outcomes to assess the influence of risk perceptions on sexual behavior by (1) identifying subgroups of perceived susceptibility…
Family Rejection, Social Isolation, and Loneliness as Predictors of Negative Health Outcomes (Depression, Suicidal Ideation, and Sexual Risk Behavior) among Thai Male-to-Female Transgender Adolescents
Yadegarfard, Mohammadrasool; Meinhold-Bergmann, Mallika E.; Ho, Robert
This study examined the influence of family rejection, social isolation, and loneliness on negative health outcomes among Thai male-to-female transgender adolescents. The sample consisted of 260 male respondents, of whom 129 (49.6%) were self-identified as transgender and 131 (50.4%) were self-identified as cisgender (nontransgender). Initial…
Moadab, Gilda; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Bauman, Melissa D; Amaral, David G
This study continues a longitudinal analysis of rhesus macaque social behavior following bilateral neonatal ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala or hippocampus, or sham operations. The social behavior of female subjects was evaluated at a critical developmental time point-the transition to adulthood. At approximately 4 years of age, female subjects were housed in small groups with other female subjects and reproductively viable adult males. As compared with neurologically intact control animals and animals with early amygdala damage, animals with early hippocampal damage were more social with their female peers. In contrast, as compared with control animals, animals with early amygdala damage spent less time with the males, engaged less frequently in behaviors typical of reproductive consortships, had higher frequencies of self-directed stereotypies, and became pregnant later. Males also generated fewer communicative signals toward animals with early amygdala damage than to control animals and animals with early hippocampus damage. Rates of sexual behavior were generally low for all animals, and there were no lesion-based differences in their frequencies. Discriminant function analyses demonstrated that patterns of affiliative social behaviors differed across the 3 experimental groups, both in terms of the social behaviors directed to the males, and the social behaviors generated by the males toward the females. In 4 of the 5 social groups, amygdala-lesioned animals were lowest ranked, potentially contributing to reduced sociability interactions with males. Other potential mechanisms and the experiments needed to elucidate them are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Renaud, Samantha M; Pickens, Laura R G; Fountain, Stephen B
Nicotine exposure in adolescent rats has been shown to cause learning impairments that persist into adulthood long after nicotine exposure has ended. This study was designed to assess the extent to which the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on learning in adulthood can be accounted for by adolescent injection stress experienced concurrently with adolescent nicotine exposure. Female rats received either 0.033 mg/h nicotine (expressed as the weight of the free base) or bacteriostatic water vehicle by osmotic pump infusion on postnatal days 25-53 (P25-53). Half of the nicotine-exposed rats and half of the vehicle rats also received twice-daily injection stress consisting of intraperitoneal saline injections on P26-53. Together these procedures produced 4 groups: No Nicotine/No Stress, Nicotine/No Stress, No Nicotine/Stress, and Nicotine/Stress. On P65-99, rats were trained to perform a structurally complex 24-element serial pattern of responses in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task. Four general results were obtained in the current study. First, learning for within-chunk elements was not affected by either adolescent nicotine exposure, consistent with past work (Pickens, Rowan, Bevins, and Fountain, 2013), or adolescent injection stress. Thus, there were no effects of adolescent nicotine exposure or injection stress on adult within-chunk learning typically attributed to rule learning in the SMC task. Second, adolescent injection stress alone (i.e., without concurrent nicotine exposure) caused transient but significant facilitation of adult learning restricted to a single element of the 24-element pattern, namely, the "violation element," that was the only element of the pattern that was inconsistent with pattern structure. Thus, adolescent injection stress alone facilitated violation element acquisition in adulthood. Third, also consistent with past work (Pickens et al., 2013), adolescent nicotine exposure, in this case both with and without adolescent
Beck, Kathryn L; Mitchell, Sarah; Foskett, Andrew; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R
Ballet dancing is a multifaceted activity requiring muscular power, strength, endurance, flexibility, and agility; necessitating demanding training schedules. Furthermore dancers may be under aesthetic pressure to maintain a lean physique, and adolescent dancers require extra nutrients for growth and development. This cross-sectional study investigated the nutritional status of 47 female adolescent ballet dancers (13-18 years) living in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants who danced at least 1 hr per day 5 days per week completed a 4-day estimated food record, anthropometric measurements (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and hematological analysis (iron and vitamin D). Mean BMI was 19.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 and percentage body fat, 23.5 ± 4.1%. The majority (89.4%) of dancers had a healthy weight (5th-85th percentile) using BMI-for-age growth charts. Food records showed a mean energy intake of 8097.3 ± 2155.6 kJ/day (48.9% carbohydrate, 16.9% protein, 33.8% fat, 14.0% saturated fat). Mean carbohydrate and protein intakes were 4.8 ± 1.4 and 1.6 ± 0.5 g/kg/day respectively. Over half (54.8%) of dancers consumed less than 5 g carbohydrate/kg/day, and 10 (23.8%) less than 1.2 g protein/kg/day. Over 60% consumed less than the estimated average requirement for calcium, folate, magnesium and selenium. Thirteen (28.3%) dancers had suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin (SF) < 20 μg/L). Of these, four had iron deficiency (SF < 12 μg/L, hemoglobin (Hb) ≥ 120 g/L) and one iron deficiency anemia (SF < 12 μg/L, Hb < 120 g/L). Mean serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D was 75.1 ± 18.6 nmol/L, 41 (91.1%) had concentrations above 50 nmol/L. Female adolescent ballet dancers are at risk for iron deficiency, and possibly inadequate nutrient intakes.
Schwieger, Traci; Campo, Shelly; Weinstein, Stuart L.; Dolan, Lori A.; Ashida, Sato; Steuber, Keli R.
Study Design. The Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial (BrAIST) included skeletally immature high-risk patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with moderate curve sizes (20°– 40°). BrAIST was a multicenter, controlled trial using both randomized and preference treatment arms into either an observation group or a brace treatment group. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare body image and quality-of-life (QOL) in female AIS patients who were observed or treated with a brace. Summary of Background Data. Brace treatment is an effective means for controlling progressive scoliosis and preventing the need for surgery, but there is no consensus regarding the effect of brace treatment on body image or on QOL in adolescents with AIS. Methods. Data from female BrAIST patients in the randomized (n = 132) or preference (n = 187) arms and were observed (n = 120) or brace treated (n = 199) were analyzed. Patients completed the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQOL) 4.0 Generic Scales at baseline and 6 month follow-up visits up to 2 years. Items on the SAQ measured three body image constructs (self, ideal, and overall). The PedsQOL measured health, activities, feelings, social factors, and school. Results. . In general, there were no significant differences within or between study arms or treatments regarding body image or QOL through 2 years of follow-up. Poorer body image was significantly correlated with poorer QOL during the first 2 years of follow-up regardless of study arm or treatment. Patients who crossed-over to a different treatment and patients with largest Cobb angles ≥ 40 degrees had significantly poorer body image, in particular self-body image, compared with those that did not. Conclusion. This study does not support findings from previous research indicating that wearing a brace has a negative impact on or is negatively impacted by body image or
Kuiper, H; Miller, S; Martinez, E; Loeb, L; Darney, P
Focus groups and in-depth interviews were used to explore the decline in popularity of the contraceptive implant in a clinic-based sample of 41 ethnically diverse, urban, sexually active adolescents. While these teenagers' socioeconomic status and patterns of inconsistent contraceptive use made them potentially ideal implant recipients, they were unlikely to select this method. Negative media reports about the method were less influential than social conditions such as peer perspectives and gender relations. Oral networks that propagated misinformation went unchallenged because of the silence of satisfied users. Personal factors such as future orientation, autonomous decision-making and value of control also influenced contraceptive decision-making.
Miranda, Valter Paulo Neves; Conti, Maria Aparecida; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Laus, Maria Fernanda; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo
The scope of this article is to evaluate the body image of adolescents from rural cities and its relationship with nutritional status, sex and the adolescent phase. Adolescents of both sexes participated in the cross-sectional study. Body image was evaluated through the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Figure Rating Scale (FRS) for adolescents. Weight and height were measured for the evaluation of body mass index (BMI). Stages of adolescence were classified by age. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted. Four hundred and forty-five adolescents (190 boys and 255 girls), with a mean age of 16.44 comprised the sample. Higher risk of body dissatisfaction was found among overweight and obese participants (BSQ: OR = 3.359 p < 0.001; ESA: OR = 1.572 p = 0.387) and the female sex (BSQ: OR = 3.694 p < 0.001; ESA: OR = 0.922, p = 0.840). Participants from the intermediary and final stages of adolescence revealed a lesser risk of dissatisfaction compared to those from the initial phase. Body dissatisfaction was related to overweight and obesity, to the female sex and to the initial period of adolescence. Intervention research is required to control the factors that influence excessive adolescent body dissatisfaction.
Miskovic, Vladimir; Schmidt, Louis A; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael; MacMillan, Harriet L
The experience of child maltreatment is a known risk factor for the development of psychopathology. Structural and functional modifications of neural systems implicated in stress and emotion regulation may provide one mechanism linking early adversity with later outcome. The authors examined two well-documented biological markers of stress vulnerability [resting frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry and cardiac vagal tone] in a group of adolescent females exposed to child maltreatment (n = 38; M age = 14.47) and their age-matched non-maltreated (n = 25; M age = 14.00) peers. Maltreated females exhibited greater relative right frontal EEG activity and lower cardiac vagal tone than controls over a 6-month period. In addition, frontal EEG asymmetry and cardiac vagal tone remained stable in the maltreated group across the 6 months, suggesting that the neurobiological correlates of maltreatment may not simply reflect dynamic, short-term changes but more long lasting alterations. The present findings appear to be the first to demonstrate stability of two biologically based stress-vulnerability measures in a maltreated population. Findings are discussed in terms of plasticity within the neural circuits of emotion regulation during the early childhood period and alternative causal models of developmental psychopathology.
Haff, Darlene R.
Using data from the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, this study examined select sociodemographic and psychosocial correlates of weight perceptions and weight control behaviors among Black, Hispanic and White females (n = 6,089). Results showed little difference across ethnic groups for perceptions of body weight with slightly over…
This study examined the cognitive representations of culture contact situations for second-generation immigrant and non-immigrant youth to identify differences between socially and individually oriented cultures. Subjects were 8 immigrant and 8 non-immigrant female secondary students with an average age of 17.44 years selected from 156 students of…
Perkins, Daniel F.; Luster, Tom; Jank, Wolfgang
Examined relationship between physical abuse and purging through a survey of 100,236 females ages 12 to 18. Investigated other influences on resiliency such as age, ethnicity, family structure and support, parental education, school climate, sexual abuse, religiosity, and other adult support. Found statistical correlations between bulimia and…
Hughes, Carolyn; Manns, Nicole N.; Ford, Donna Y.
Racial identity attitudes, a construct proposed as a measure of the world view of Blacks (Cross & Vandiver, 2001), and academic performance of a group of Black females attending a high-poverty, failing high school with a 42% graduation rate were examined. These young women were either pregnant or parenting and attended a parenting support group at…
King, Alissa R.
The goals of this study were to highlight the often stigmatized and invisible identities of six female participants who identify as multiracial/biracial-bisexual/pansexual, focusing on the pre-college context. Findings, using in-depth interviews, indicated that the primary socializing agents within the pre-college context strongly influenced…
Howard, Donna E.; Debnam, Katrina J.; Wang, Min Q.
Background: The study provides 10-year trend data on the psychosocial correlates of physical dating violence (PDV) victimization among females who participated in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys of US high school students between 1999 and 2009. Methods: The dependent variable was PDV. Independent variables included 4 dimensions: violence,…
Any girl who watches TV or listens to the radio is bombarded not only with negative stereotypes of females, but also with the message that the most important qualities to possess are physical and aesthetic. From where, then, are girls supposed to derive positive role models? The author began asking herself this question two years ago as an eighth…
McArthur, Laura H; Holbert, Donald; Peña, Manuel
Using survey methodology, this exploratory study examined the attitudinal and perceptual dimensions of body image among 1,272 eighth- and ninth-grade males and females from higher and lower socioeconomic backgrounds in Buenos Aires, Argentina (n = 195), Guatemala City, Guatemala (n = 212), Havana, Cuba (n = 213), Lima, Peru (n = 218), Panama City, Panama (n = 195), and Santiago, Chile (n = 239). The two dimensions of body image were assessed by showing the participants nine male and nine female silhouettes depicting body sizes ranging from extremely thin (#1) to extremely obese (#9). Approximately 50% of the male and female adolescents chose silhouette #3 as best depicting the attractive male body. Silhouette #2 was chosen by 45% of the females as best depicting feminine attractiveness, while 45% of the males chose silhouette #3. When identifying the silhouette that best depicted the healthy male body, 26% of the participants chose silhouette #2, 41% chose #3, and 19% chose #4. Silhouette #2 was selected by 33% of the adolescents as best depicting the healthy female body, 38% chose #3, and 14% chose #4. In all cities, the effect of body mass index (BMI) on body satisfaction was highly significant (p < 0.001). Almost 40% of the middle weight adolescents indicated a preference to be thinner, even though 72% of the males and 84% of the females in this subgroup already perceived themselves as thin. Similarly, 89% of the heavier weight participants indicated a preference to be thinner, even though only 10% of the males and 2% of the females in this subgroup perceived themselves as heavy. In five of the six cities, a significantly higher (p < 0.05) percentage of females than males desired to be thinner, the exception being Havana, where the distribution of desired change in body size was almost identical for males and females. Findings suggest a need for culturally sensitive, age- and gender-specific preventive interventions focusing on the importance of achieving a
Rudd, Lynn L.
Adolescents use literacies in order to build identities in a variety of figured worlds. Some identities become more powerful than others as adolescents attempt to understand and successfully utilize the valuations and literacies of the diverse figured worlds in which they participate. The goals of this study were to describe the figured worlds of…
Hammerslag, Lindsey R.; Waldman, Alex J.; Gulley, Joshua M.
Heightened impulsivity is a feature of some psychiatric disorders, including addiction, that also have sex-specific patterns of expression. The relationship between addiction and impulsivity may be driven by drug-induced changes in behavior caused by long term adaptations in signaling within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here, we used a response inhibition task that is sensitive to changes in mPFC function to examine the effects of sex and exposure to amphetamine (AMPH) on impulsive action and vigilance. We also examined drug-induced alterations in glutamatergic and dopaminergic signaling through challenge injections with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine) and AMPH. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were injected (i.p.) with saline or 3 mg/kg AMPH every other day during adolescence (postnatal day (P) 27–45) or adulthood (P85–103). Starting on P125–135, rats were tested for their ability to lever press for a food reward during periods of signaled availability and withhold responding during a “premature response” phase. In experiment 1, rats received challenge injections (i.p.) of MK-801 and AMPH followed by tests of task performance and locomotor activity. In experiment 2, rats received intra-mPFC infusion of MK-801. We found that females had better inhibitory control and poorer vigilance than males and that AMPH exposure had both sex- and age-of-exposure dependent effects on impulsivity. Systemic drug challenges disrupted task performance, particularly in females, and increased impulsivity while intra-mPFC infusions had modest effects. AMPH exposure did not affect responses to drug challenges. Together, these results suggest that sex mediates both trait and drug-induced impulsivity. PMID:24462963
Glowinski, Anne L.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Heath, Andrew C.
Background: In adults, about 40% of the variance in risk of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is due to genetic factors, but little data exist on the heritability of youth MDD. The goal of this study was the genetic analysis of MDD in an epidemiologically and genetically representative sample of adolescent female twins. Methods: A sample of 3416 female adolescent twins systematically ascertained from birth records was assessed using a structured telephone interview that included a comprehensive DSM-IV-based section for the diagnostic assessment of MDD. Mean subject age at time of assessment was 15.5 and participation rate exceeded 85%. Genetic modeling was conducted taking into consideration the problem of censoring, i.e., that younger adolescents were not through their period of risk for adolescent onset of MDD. Results: Lifetime self-reported MDD prevalence ranged from 1% under age 12 to 17.4% at age 19 and older. The genetic variance in risk of MDD was 40.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 23.9–55.1), with the remaining variance explained by non-shared environmental effects 59.6% (95%CI: 44.9–76.1). Shared environmental effects were not significant. A significant recall bias was observed with older respondents on average reporting later onsets for their first episode of MDD. Conclusions: The genetic and environmental contributions to risk of MDD in this representative sample of female adolescent twins are remarkably analogous to findings from adult samples. These results are congruent with a conceptualization of adolescent MDD and adult MDD as having very similar etiologic determinants. PMID:14531581
Koss, W.A.; Sadowski, R.N.; Sherrill, L.K.; Gulley, J.M.; Juraska, J.M.
Human adolescents often consume alcohol in a binge-like manner at a time when changes are occurring within specific brain structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLN). In particular, neuron and glia number are changing in both of these areas in the rat between adolescence and adulthood (Markham et al., 2007; Rubinow and Juraska, 2009). The current study investigated the effects of ethanol exposure during adolescence on the number of neurons and glia in the adult mPFC and BLN in Long-Evans male and female rats. Saline or 3 g/kg ethanol was administered between postnatal days (P) 35–45 in a binge-like pattern, with 2 days of injections followed by 1 day without an injection. Stereological analyses of the ventral mPFC (prelimbic and infralimbic areas) and the BLN were performed on brains from rats at 100 days of age. Neuron and glia densities were assessed with the optical disector and then multiplied by the volume to calculate the total number of neurons and glia. In the adult mPFC, ethanol administration during adolescence resulted in a decreased number of glia in males, but not females, and had no effect on the number of neurons. Adolescent ethanol exposure had no effects on glia or neuron number in the BLN. These results suggest that glia cells in the prefrontal cortex are particularly sensitive to binge-like exposure to ethanol during adolescence in male rats only, potentially due to a decrease in proliferation in males or protective mechanisms in females. PMID:22627163
Bowman, Rachel E; Luine, Victoria; Diaz Weinstein, Samantha; Khandaker, Hameda; DeWolf, Sarah; Frankfurt, Maya
We have previously demonstrated that adolescent exposure of rats to bisphenol-A (BPA), an environmental endocrine disrupter, increases anxiety, impairs spatial memory, and decreases dendritic spine density in the CA1 region of the hippocampus (CA1) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) when measured in adolescents in both sexes. The present study examined whether the behavioral and morphological alterations following BPA exposure during adolescent development are maintained into adulthood. Male and female, adolescent rats received BPA, 40μg/kg/bodyweight, or control treatments for one week. In adulthood, subjects were tested for anxiety and locomotor activity, spatial memory, non-spatial visual memory, and sucrose preference. Additionally, stress-induced serum corticosterone levels and dendritic spine density in the mPFC and CA1 were measured. BPA-treated males, but not females, had decreased arm visits on the elevated plus maze, but there was no effect on anxiety. Non-spatial memory, object recognition, was also decreased in BPA treated males, but not in females. BPA exposure did not alter spatial memory, object placement, but decreased exploration during the tasks in both sexes. No significant group differences in sucrose preference or serum corticosterone levels in response to a stress challenge were found. However, BPA exposure, regardless of sex, significantly decreased spine density of both apical and basal dendrites on pyramidal cells in CA1 but had no effect in the mPFC. Current data are discussed in relation to BPA dependent changes, which were present during adolescence and did, or did not, endure into adulthood. Overall, adolescent BPA exposure, below the current reference safe daily limit set by the U.S.E.P.A., leads to alterations in some behaviors and neuronal morphology that endure into adulthood.
Rabbani, Ali; Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Mohammad, Kazem; Ardalan, Gelayol; Maftoon, Farzaneh; Shahryari, Safiyeh; Khodaei, Shahnaz; Sotoudeh, Aria; Ziaaldini, Hassan; Kamali, Kobra; Motaghian, Molouk
Mental health problems including emotional and behavioral problems during puberty may be under influence of different risk factors including cultures, living in urban or rural areas and ethnic factors which may vary between different countries. The main aim of this study is to investigate the profile of emotional and behavioral problems and the role of factors such as age, stage of puberty, ethnicity, rurality and living in urban area, as risk factors in Iranian girls. As a part of a large national study we evaluated the emotional and behavioral problems in different stages of puberty in a community sample of Iranian adolescent girls from public schools that were selected by clustered random sampling method. In all subjects, demographic characteristics, and pubertal stages were measured. Emotional and behavioral problems were evaluated using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The associations of age, pubertal development indices, socioeconomic and demographic factors with the behavioral problems were assessed. A total number of 4576 students enrolled the study and responded to the questions. The mean age of participants was 13.83 ± 2.19 years. The mean total score of difficulties in participants was 14.34 ± 5.81. According to these results 813 (17.8%) adolescents had total problem scores higher than Goodman's cutoff points and the most frequent problem domain was conduct problems (20.5%). According to the results the most related variable with the total difficulty score of SDQ were ethnicity, residency in urban areas and development of menstrual cycle respectively. The results of this study showed that the most correlated factors with mental health problems in Iranian girls during puberty are ethnicity, urbanity and development of menstrual cycle.
Bonnet, U; Khalil-Boutros, Y
Parotitis is a fairly uncommon adverse drug reaction of psychopharmacological treatment. Here, we report on an acute bilateral parotitis, which was associated with titration of venlafaxine in a 20-year-old female suffering from a severe depressive episode. The parotitis recovered quickly with oral penicillin and was most likely caused by bacteria assumed to spread from oral flora into Stensen's duct as a complication of pronounced venlafaxine-induced xerostomia.
Montalvo, Alicia; Latinjak, Alexander; Unnithan, Viswanath
Abstract There were two aims of this study: first, to investigate physical fitness and match performance differences between under-16 (U16) and under-18 (U18) female basketball players, and second, to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and game-related performances. Twenty-three young, female, elite Spanish basketball players (16.2 1.2 years) participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: U16 and U18 players. The average scores from pre- and post-season physical fitness measurements were used for subsequent analyses. Anthropometric variables were also measured. To evaluate game performance, game-related statistics, including the number of games and minutes played, points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks per game, were recorded for every competitive match in one season. When anthropometric and physical performance variables were compared between groups, the U18 group demonstrated significantly (p<0.05) higher values in upper (+21.2%) and lower (+27.11%) limb strength compared to the U16 group. Furthermore, no significant differences between groups were observed in match performance outcomes. Only two performance variables, steals and assists per game, correlated significantly with jump capacity, speed, agility, anaerobic power, repeated sprint ability and aerobic power (p ≤ 0.005). These findings can help optimize training programs for young, elite female basketball players. PMID:28149421
Honoré, L H
Thirty-one adolescent females, aged 14 to 20 years, underwent cholecystectomy for pathologically documented cholesterol gallstones. A retrospective study, using the Mantel-Haenzel method of statistical analysis, showed a strong association between cholesterol cholelithiasis and obesity and parity. The patients with gallstones had a higher rate of oral contraceptive use, which just failed to attain statistical significance. These findings indicate that adolescent cholelithiasis is largely preventable. Dietary obesity can be controlled by balanced diets and physical exercise. Early pregnancy should be discourgaed, espeically if there is a strong family history of cholelithiasis and if weight control is unsuccessful. Oral contraceptives should be used cautiously in the presence of other predisposing factors.
Barber Foss, Kim D.; Hornsby, Myles; Edwards, Nicholas M.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.
Objective To determine the relationship between relative body composition and body mass to height, anterior knee pain, or patellofemoral pain (PFP) in adolescent female athletes. Background Patellofemoral pain is common in female athletes and has an undefined etiology. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there was an association among higher body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, and relative body fat percentage in the development of PFP in an adolescent female athlete population. We hypothesized that female athletes who developed PFP over the course of a competitive basketball season had higher relative body mass or body fat percentage compared with those who did not develop PFP. Methods Fifteen middle school basketball teams that consisted of 248 basketball players (mean age, 12.76 ± 1.13 years; height, 158.43 ± 7.78 cm; body mass, 52.35 ± 12.31 kg; BMI, 20.73 ± 3.88 kg/m2) agreed to participate in this study over the course of 2 basketball seasons, resulting in 262 athlete-seasons. Testing included the completion of the Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) form, standardized history, physician-administered physical examination, maturational estimates, and anthropometrics. Results Of the 262 athlete-seasons monitored, 39 athletes developed PFP over the course of the study. The incidence rate of new PFP was 1.57 per 1000 athlete-exposures. The cumulative incidence of PFP was 14.9%. There was no difference in BMI between those who developed PFP (mean body mass, 20.2 kg/m2; 95% CI, 18.9–21.4) and those who did not develop PFP (mean body mass, 20.8 kg/m2; 95% CI, 20.3–21.3; P > 0.05). Body mass index z-scores were not different between those who developed PFP (mean, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.7–0.6) and those who did not develop PFP (mean, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3–0.6; P > 0.05). A similar trend was noted in relative body fat percentage, with mean scores of similar ranges in those who developed PFP (mean body fat
Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Booth, Jaime; Nuño-Gutiérrez, Bertha L.
Objective: Research is limited on the strategies that Mexican adolescents use to resist use of alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs. Cultural norms and gender socialization patterns concerning the acceptability of use of various substances by women and men influence Mexican youths in their responses to offers of substances. This study explored the drug-resistance strategies used by youth in the central Mexican state of Guanajuato, how their use predicted patterns of substance use, and how these associations differed by gender. Method: The analysis used cross-sectional survey data from 702 (60% male) students enrolled in eight alternative secondary education school sites in 2007. Participants reported the drug-resistance behaviors they used to deal with offers of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Past-12-month use of the four drug-resistance strategies employed most often by U.S. youth—refuse, explain, avoid, and leave (R.E.A.L.)—and any other strategies were measured. Composite measures of lifetime and recent use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana were predicted in multivariate ordinary least squares regression analyses. Models were tested with and without controls for the frequency that respondents were offered substances and introduced gender interaction effects. Results: Controlling for substance use offers, more frequent use of a wide repertoire of R.E.A.L. strategies predicted less consumption of alcohol and cigarettes, and using non-R.E.A.L. strategies predicted less marijuana consumption. All of these relationships were either stronger for males than for females or significant for males only. Conclusions: Gender differences exist in the impact of R.E.A.L. strategies on substance use among youth in Mexico. Despite a narrowing gender gap in substance use in Mexico, large exposure to and susceptibility of substance use remains. Developing effective prevention programs in Mexico based on teaching appropriate drug-resistance strategies and enhancing
Lim, Megan S. C.; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Kennedy, Elissa; Li, Yan; Yang, Yin; Li, Lin; Li, Yun-Xia; Temmerman, Marleen; Luchters, Stanley
Objective In China, policy and social taboo prevent unmarried adolescents from accessing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. Research is needed to determine the SRH needs of highly disadvantaged groups, such as adolescent female sex workers (FSWs). This study describes SRH knowledge, contraception use, pregnancy, and factors associated with unmet need for modern contraception among adolescent FSWs in Kunming, China. Methods A cross-sectional study using a one-stage cluster sampling method was employed to recruit adolescents aged 15 to 20 years, and who self-reported having received money or gifts in exchange for sex in the past 6 months. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered by trained peer educators or health workers. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine correlates of low knowledge and unmet need for modern contraception. Results SRH knowledge was poor among the 310 adolescents surveyed; only 39% had heard of any long-acting reversible contraception (implant, injection or IUD). Despite 98% reporting not wanting to get pregnant, just 43% reported consistent condom use and 28% currently used another form of modern contraception. Unmet need for modern contraception was found in 35% of adolescents, and was associated with having a current non-paying partner, regular alcohol use, and having poorer SRH knowledge. Past abortion was common (136, 44%). In the past year, 76% had reported a contraception consultation but only 27% reported ever receiving SRH information from a health service. Conclusions This study demonstrated a low level of SRH knowledge, a high unmet need for modern contraception and a high prevalence of unintended pregnancy among adolescent FSWs in Kunming. Most girls relied on condoms, emergency contraception, or traditional methods, putting them at risk of unwanted pregnancy. This study identifies an urgent need for Chinese adolescent FSWs to be able to access quality SRH information and effective modern
Downs, Julie S; Murray, Pamela J; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Penrose, Joyce; Palmgren, Claire; Fischhoff, Baruch
A longitudinal randomized design was used to evaluate the impact of a theoretically based, stand-alone interactive video intervention on 300 urban adolescent girls' (a) knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), (b) self-reported sexual risk behavior, and (c) STD acquisition. It was compared to two controls, representing high-quality informational interventions. One used the same content in book form; the other used commercially available brochures. Following randomization, the interventions were administered at baseline, with booster sessions at 1, 3, and 6 months. Self-reports revealed that those assigned to the interactive video were significantly more likely to be abstinent in the first 3 months following initial exposure to the intervention, and experienced fewer condom failures in the following 3 months, compared to controls. Six months after enrollment, participants in the video condition were significantly less likely to report having been diagnosed with an STD. A non-significant trend in data from a clinical PCR assay of Chlamydia trachomatis was consistent with that finding.
Yoo, Sang Bae; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Kim, Jin Young; Ryu, Vitaly; Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jahng, Jeong Won
This study was conducted to examine if fluoxetine, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, would reverse adverse behavioral effects of neonatal maternal separation in female rats. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam daily for 3h during postnatal day (PND) 1-14 (maternal separation; MS) or left undisturbed (non-handled; NH). Female NH and MS pups received intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine (10mg/kg) or vehicle daily from PND 35 until the end of the whole experimental period. Rats were either subjected to behavioral tests during PND 44-54, or sacrificed for neurochemical analyses during PND 43-45. Daily food intake and weight gain of both NH and MS pups were suppressed by fluoxetine, with greater effects in MS pups. MS experience increased immobility and decrease swimming in forced swim test. Swimming was increased, although immobility was not significantly decreased, in MS females by adolescence fluoxetine. However, adolescence fluoxetine increased immobility during forced swim test and decreased time spent in open arms during elevated plus maze test in NH females. Fluoxetine normalized MS-induced decrease of the raphe 5-HT levels and increased 5-HT metabolism in the hippocampus in MS females, and increased the hypothalamic 5-HT both in NH and MS. Fluoxetine decreased the raphe 5-HT and increased the plasma corticosterone in NH females. Results suggest that decreased 5-HTergic activity in the raphe nucleus is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression-like behaviors, and increased 5-HTergic activities in the raphe-hippocampus axis may be a part of anti-depressant efficacy of fluoxetine, in MS females. Also, an extra-hypothalamic 5-HTergic activity may contribute to the increased anorectic efficacy of fluoxetine in MS females. Additionally, decreased 5-HT in the raphe and elevated plasma corticosterone may be related with fluoxetine-induced depression- and/or anxiety-like behaviors in NH females.
Kirisci, Levent; Reynolds, Maureen; Tarter, Ralph
Background Prevention of substance use disorder (SUD) is impeded by the large number, complexity and idiosyncratic configuration of etiological factors. Effective prevention of SUD is feasible however when intervention resources are prioritized to individuals who are objectively determined as high risk and tailored to their specific characteristics and circumstances. Objective This study had the aim of developing a rapid accurate screening instrument for determining current presence of and future risk for SUD. Methods The sample consisted of 182 girls recruited when they were 10–12 years of age and tracked to 22 years of age. From a large item pool the Drug Use Screening Inventory Quick Screen for Females (DQS-F) was derived consisting of the Substance Involvement Index and the Problem Severity Index. Results The DQS for Females (DQS-F) has high sensitivity for identifying girls who currently qualify for SUD diagnosis. Furthermore, accuracy of predicting future SUD with the DQS-F is in the good range at age 16 and in the very good range at age 19. Conclusions Requiring only three minutes for administration on the Web the DQS-F is an efficient method for identifying girls requiring thorough assessment prior to implementing individualized intervention PMID:25089182
Chowdhury, Tara G; Ríos, Mariel B; Chan, Thomas E; Cassataro, Daniela S; Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C; Aoki, Chiye
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness characterized by restricted eating and irrational fears of gaining weight. There is no accepted pharmacological treatment for AN, and AN has the highest mortality rate among psychiatric illnesses. Anorexia nervosa most commonly affects females during adolescence, suggesting an effect of sex and hormones on vulnerability to the disease. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a rodent model of AN that shares symptoms with AN, including over-exercise, elevation of stress hormones, and genetic links to anxiety traits. We previously reported that ABA in adolescent female rats results in increased apical dendritic branching in CA1 pyramidal cells of the ventral hippocampus at postnatal day 44 (P44). To examine the long-term effects of adolescent ABA (P44) in female rats, we compared the apical branching in the ventral hippocampal CA1 after recovery from ABA (P51) and after a relapse of ABA (P55) with age-matched controls. To examine the age-dependence of the hippocampal plasticity, we examined the effect of ABA during adulthood (P67). We found that while ABA at P44 resulted in increased branching of ventral hippocampal pyramidal cells, relapse of ABA at P55 resulted in decreased branching. ABA induced during adulthood did not have an effect on dendritic branching, suggesting an age-dependence of the vulnerability to structural plasticity. Cells from control animals were found to exhibit a dramatic increase in branching, more than doubling from P44 to P51, followed by pruning from P51 to P55. The proportion of mature spines on dendrites from the P44-ABA animals is similar to that on dendrites from P55-CON animals. These results suggest that the experience of ABA may cause precocious anatomical development of the ventral hippocampus. Importantly, we found that adolescence is a period of continued development of the hippocampus, and increased vulnerability to mental disorders during adolescence may be due to insults during this
Gacaferri Lumezi, Besa; Goci, Aferdita; Lokaj, Violeta; Latifi, Hatixhe; Karahoda, Natyra; Minci, Ganimete; Telaku, Drita; Gercari, Antigona; Kocinaj, Allma
Introduction: Hirsutism is a common disorder of excess growth of terminal hair in an androgen-dependent male distribution in women, including the chin, upper lip, breasts, back, and abdomen. It is very important to identify the etiology of hirsutism and adequate treat is prior to any cosmetic therapy. Case Presentation: The case was a 17-year-old female with severe hirsutism, oligomenorrhea, and obesity. She was evaluated to identify the etiology and diagnosed as a case of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NC-CAH), and hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans (HAIR-AN) syndrome, which is a rare combination of hirsutism etiology. She was successfully treated according to the underlying pathology, and laser photoepilation was used as the preferred hair removal method. Discussion: Establishing the etiology, using the evidence–based strategies to improve hirsutism, and treating the underlying disorder, are essential for proper management of women with hirsutism. PMID:25068069
da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; Soares-Caldeira, Lúcio Flávio; Dos Santos Oliveira, Ricardo; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo
This study aimed to examine the alterations in physiological and biochemical markers, after 17 weeks of ballet training in high level ballet dancers. Twenty four female ballet dancers from 12 to 15 years old took part in the study. The study followed 17 weeks of ballet training and analyzed changes in body composition, the autonomic nervous system and biochemical variables before and after (post) training. The internal training load was obtained using the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) method, calculated as the mean weekly session-RPE, monotony and strain. After 17 weeks of training there were significant increases in body mass, height, lean body mass, total protein, urea, hemoglobin concentration, testosterone and thyroxine. During this period, decreases in relative body fat, uric acid, red blood cells, C-reactive protein, and ferritin were also found. After the training period, the autonomic modulation demonstrated significant positive alterations, such as increases in parasympathetic related indices. Based on the results obtained we concluded that ballet training led to improvements in body composition and autonomic modulation. In general hematological and biochemical variables demonstrated that the training did not have adverse effects on the health state of the adolescents.
Richards, Tara N; Branch, Kathryn A; Ray, Katherine
Little is known about the role social support may play in reducing the risk of adolescent dating violence perpetration and victimization. This study is a longitudinal analysis of the independent impact of social support from friends and parents on the risk of emotional and physical dating violence perpetration and victimization among a large sample of female youth (n = 346). Findings indicate that 22% of the sample indicated perpetrating physical dating violence against a partner, whereas almost 16% revealed being the victim of physical dating violence; 34% of the sample indicated perpetrating emotional dating violence against a partner, whereas almost 39% revealed being the victim of emotional dating violence. Negative binomial regression models indicated that increased levels of support from friends at Time 1 was associated with significantly less physical and emotional dating violence perpetration and emotional (but not physical) dating violence victimization at Time 2. Parental support was not significantly related to dating violence in any model. Implications for dating violence curriculum and future research are addressed.
da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; Soares-Caldeira, Lúcio Flávio; dos Santos Oliveira, Ricardo; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo
This study aimed to examine the alterations in physiological and biochemical markers, after 17 weeks of ballet training in high level ballet dancers. Twenty four female ballet dancers from 12 to 15 years old took part in the study. The study followed 17 weeks of ballet training and analyzed changes in body composition, the autonomic nervous system and biochemical variables before and after (post) training. The internal training load was obtained using the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) method, calculated as the mean weekly session-RPE, monotony and strain. After 17 weeks of training there were significant increases in body mass, height, lean body mass, total protein, urea, hemoglobin concentration, testosterone and thyroxine. During this period, decreases in relative body fat, uric acid, red blood cells, C-reactive protein, and ferritin were also found. After the training period, the autonomic modulation demonstrated significant positive alterations, such as increases in parasympathetic related indices. Based on the results obtained we concluded that ballet training led to improvements in body composition and autonomic modulation. In general hematological and biochemical variables demonstrated that the training did not have adverse effects on the health state of the adolescents. PMID:26555850
Matkovic, Velimir; Landoll, John D; Badenhop-Stevens, Nancy E; Ha, Eun-Yeong; Crncevic-Orlic, Zeljka; Li, Bin; Goel, Prem
This study evaluated the long-term efficacy of supplemental calcium and dairy products on bone mineral areal density of the hip and spine and on the bone geometry and volumetric bone mineral density of the forearm in young females during late adolescence. The study was conducted among participants of a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial with calcium supplements and among participants of an observational study with higher consumption of dairy products. Hip and spine measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were done every 6 mo (dairy group every 12 mo) during last 3 y of the follow-up while peripheral quantitative computerized tomography of the forearm was done at the last visit. The results of the study show a positive influence of calcium supplementation and dairy products on bone mineral density of the hip and the forearm. Dairy products were also associated with a higher bone mineral density of the spine while calcium supplementation did not have an effect. Calcium exerts its action on bone accretion during growth primarily by influencing volumetric bone mineral density while milk may have an additional impact on bone growth and periosteal bone expansion.
Sales, Jessica M.; Spitalnick, Josh; Milhausen, Robin R.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.
This study examined the psychometric properties of a new scale to measure adolescents’ worry regarding outcomes of risky sexual behavior (i.e. sexually transmitted infections, including HIV [STI/HIV], and unintended pregnancy). The 10-item worry about sexual outcomes (WASO) scale, resulting in two subscales STI/HIV worry and pregnancy worry, was administered to a sample of 522 African-American female adolescents ranging in age from 14 to 18, residing in the southeast United States and participating in a sexual risk reduction intervention. The WASO demonstrated internal consistency across multiple administrations and yielded satisfactory construct validity. Worry was found to negatively correlate with sexual communication self-efficacy (with a new male partner and a steady male partner), frequency of sexual communication with male partner, attitudes about condom use and social support; worry was positively correlated with perceived barriers to condom use, condom negotiation, locus of control and depression. Overall, the results indicate that the WASO is a reliable and valid measure of assessing adolescents’ worry about STIs, HIV and pregnancy. The WASO represents a brief self-administered instrument that can be easily integrated into sexual risk reduction assessments and interventions. Future studies employing the WASO might consider testing it with more diverse samples in terms of gender, race/ethnicity, age and sexual orientation. PMID:18353760
Reardon, J P; Tosi, D J
This study examined the effect of four treatment conditions on self-concept and reduction of psychological stress in adolescent delinquent females. The treatments were Rational State Directed Imagery, a cognitive behavioral approach that utilized intensive muscle relaxation and vivid-emotive-imagery, a rational (cognitive) restructuring treatment, a placebo condition, and a no treatment control. Ss were assigned randomly to one of these treatment groups, which met 1 hour per week for 6 consecutive weeks, with in-vivo homework assignments also utilized. Statistically scale were noted for the RSDI group at the posttest and at a 2-month follow-up, which supports the therapeutic efficacy of this treatment. Support was found for the effectiveness of the rational (cognitive) restructuring approach immediately posttreatment; however these effects disappeared at the 2-month follow-up. The placebo and control groups showed no significant effects at either posttreatment or the follow-up. These results suggest that RSDI has potential for use as a short-term psychotherapeutic approach when self-concept modification is a primary goal.
Hulland, Erin N; Brown, Jennifer L; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; DiClemente, Ralph J
Heightened psychosocial stress coupled with maladaptive coping may be associated with greater sexual risk engagement. This study examined the association between stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of sexual risk behavior engagement over 24 months among African-American adolescent females (N = 701; M = 17.6 years) enrolled in an STI/HIV risk-reduction intervention program. Participants completed audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) measures of global stress, interpersonal stress, coping strategy use, and sexual behaviors prior to intervention participation. Follow-up ACASI assessments were conducted at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-intervention. Generalized estimated equation models examined associations between baseline stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of condom use (past 90 days, last sex) and multiple partners during follow-up. Global stress and individual coping strategy usage were not associated with differences in condom use. Higher interpersonal stress was associated with lower proportion condom use (p = .018), inconsistent condom use (p = .011), and not using a condom at last sex (p = .002). There were no significant associations between stress levels, coping strategy use, and multiple partners. Future research should explore mechanisms that may underlie the association between elevated interpersonal stress and decreased condom use among this population.
Jones, Andrew D; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Cantoral, Alejandra; Levy, Teresa Shamah
We aimed to determine the association between household food insecurity (HFI) and the co-occurrence of overweight and anemia among women of reproductive age in the Mexican population. We analyzed data on 4,039 nonpregnant female adolescents (15-19 years) and 10,760 nonpregnant adult women of reproductive age (20-49 years) from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey of Mexico. The survey uses a two-stage sampling design, stratified by rural and urban regions. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to assess HFI. We assessed overweight and obesity in women based on World Health Organization classifications for body mass index, and BMI-for-age Z-scores for female adolescents, and defined anemia as an altitude-adjusted hemoglobin (Hb) concentration < 120 g/L based on measurement of capillary Hb concentrations. In multiple logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounding covariates, HFI was not associated with the co-occurrence of anemia and overweight among female adolescents. The adjusted odds of women of reproductive age from mildly and moderately food-insecure households, respectively, experiencing concurrent anemia and overweight were 48% (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.91) and 49% (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.06) higher than among women from food-secure households. Severe HFI was not associated with concurrent overweight and anemia among female adolescents or women. HFI may be a shared mechanism for dual forms of malnutrition within the same individual, simultaneously contributing to overconsumption and dietary inadequacy.
Vassoler, Fair M.; Wright, Siobhan J.; Byrnes, Elizabeth M.
Prescription opiate use and abuse has increased dramatically over the past two decades, including increased use in adolescent populations. Recently, it has been proposed that use during this critical period may affect future offspring even when use is discontinued prior to conception. Here, we utilize a rodent model to examine the effects of adolescent morphine exposure on the reward functioning of the offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were administered morphine for 10 days during early adolescence (post-natal day 30–39) using an escalating dosing regimen. Animals then remained drug free until adulthood at which point they were mated with naïve males. Adult offspring (F1 animals) were tested for their response to morphine-induced (0, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, s.c.) conditioned place preference (CPP) and context-independent morphine-induced sensitization. Naïve littermates were used to examine mu opiate receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. Results indicate that F1 females whose mothers were exposed to morphine during adolescence (Mor-F1) demonstrate significantly enhanced CPP to the lowest doses of morphine compared with Sal-F1 females. There were no differences in context-independent sensitization between maternal treatment groups. Protein expression analysis showed significantly increased levels of accumbal mu opiate receptor in Mor-F1 offspring and decreased levels in the VTA. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a shift in the dose response curve with regard to the rewarding effects of morphine in Mor-F1 females which may in part be due to altered mu opiate receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens and VTA. PMID:26700246
Vassoler, Fair M; Wright, Siobhan J; Byrnes, Elizabeth M
Prescription opiate use and abuse has increased dramatically over the past two decades, including increased use in adolescent populations. Recently, it has been proposed that use during this critical period may affect future offspring even when use is discontinued prior to conception. Here, we utilize a rodent model to examine the effects of adolescent morphine exposure on the reward functioning of the offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were administered morphine for 10 days during early adolescence (post-natal day 30-39) using an escalating dosing regimen. Animals then remained drug free until adulthood at which point they were mated with naïve males. Adult offspring (F1 animals) were tested for their response to morphine-induced (0, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, s.c.) conditioned place preference (CPP) and context-independent morphine-induced sensitization. Naïve littermates were used to examine mu opiate receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. Results indicate that F1 females whose mothers were exposed to morphine during adolescence (Mor-F1) demonstrate significantly enhanced CPP to the lowest doses of morphine compared with Sal-F1 females. There were no differences in context-independent sensitization between maternal treatment groups. Protein expression analysis showed significantly increased levels of accumbal mu opiate receptor in Mor-F1 offspring and decreased levels in the VTA. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a shift in the dose response curve with regard to the rewarding effects of morphine in Mor-F1 females which may in part be due to altered mu opiate receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens and VTA.
Koşar, Şükran Nazan
Body composition and sport participation have been associated with bone mass. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of lean and fat mass measures with whole body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in female adolescent weightlifters, swimmers and non-athletic counterparts. This study included a total of 25 female adolescents (mean age: 15.3±1.1 years). Body composition and bone mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In most of the studied variables weight lifters had higher values compared to swimmers and non-athletes (p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between swimmers and non-athletes (p > 0.05). Lean and fat mass measures were positively associated with BMC and BMD for the total participants (p < 0.05) while the associations differed when the study groups were analysed separately. In conclusion, both lean and fat mass measures were strongly related to BMC and BMD in female adolescents while these associations differed in swimmers, weightlifters and non-athletes.
Rakhmanina, Natella; Wong, Edward CC; Davis, Jeremiah C; Ray, Patricio E
HIV-1 infection can trigger acute episodes of Idiopathic Thrombocytoponic Purpura (ITP), and Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP), particularly in populations with advanced disease and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). These diseases should be distinguished because they respond to different treatments. Previous studies done in adults with HIV-TTP have recommended the prompt initiation or re-initiation of ART in parallel with plasma exchange therapy to improve the clinical outcome of these patients. Here, we describe a case of HIV-TTP resulting in an acute hemorrhagic stroke in a 16 year old female with perinatally acquired HIV infection and non-adherence to ART, who presented with severe thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and a past medical history of HIV-ITP. Both differential diagnosis and treatments for HIV-ITP and HIV-TTP were considered simultaneously. A decrease in plasma ADAMTS13 activity (<5%) without detectable inhibitory antibodies confirmed the diagnosis of HIV-TTP. Re-initiation of ART and plasma exchange resulted in a marked decrease in the HIV-RNA viral load, recovery of the platelet count, and complete recovery was achieved with sustained virologic suppression. PMID:25429351
Foley, Yuehong Chen; Mullis, Fran
The literature was reviewed and summarized to provide common interpretations of human figure drawings. Basic guidelines for interpreting human figure drawings (i.e., face and head, body, arms and hands, and legs and feet) are presented. Expectations for students at different developmental levels (ages 1 1/2 through adolescence) are identified, and…
Giletta, Matteo; Calhoun, Casey D; Hastings, Paul D; Rudolph, Karen D; Nock, Matthew K; Prinstein, Mitchell J
Adopting a multi-level approach, this study examined risk factors for adolescent suicidal ideation, with specific attention to (a) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress responses and (b) the interplay between HPA-axis and other risk factors from multiple domains (i.e., psychological, interpersonal and biological). Participants were 138 adolescent females (M(age) = 14.13 years, SD = 1.40) at risk for suicidal behaviors. At baseline, lifetime suicidal ideation and a number of risk factors were assessed (i.e., depressive symptoms, impulsiveness, pubertal status and peer stress). Participants were exposed to a psychosocial stress task and HPA-axis responses were assessed by measuring cortisol levels pre- and post-stressor. At 3 months post-baseline, suicidal ideation again was assessed. Using group-based trajectory modeling, three groups of cortisol stress-response patterns were identified (i.e., hyporesponsive, normative, and hyperresponsive). As compared to females in the normative and hyporesponsive group, females in the hyperresponsive group were more likely to report a lifetime history of suicidal ideation at baseline, above and beyond the effects of the other predictors. Moreover, as compared to females in the normative group, females in the hyperresponsive group were at increased risk for reporting suicidal ideation 3 months later, after controlling for prior ideation. No interactions between cortisol group and the other risk factors were significant, with the exception of a non-significant trend between impulsiveness and cortisol group on lifetime suicidal ideation. Findings highlight the importance of HPA-axis responses to acute stressors as a risk factor for suicidal ideation among adolescents.
Calhoun, Casey D.; Hastings, Paul D.; Rudolph, Karen D.; Nock, Matthew K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Adopting a multi-level approach, this study examined risk factors for adolescent suicidal ideation, with specific attention to (a) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress responses and (b) the interplay between HPA-axis and other risk factors from multiple domains (i.e., psychological, interpersonal and biological). Participants were 138 adolescent females (Mage=14.13 years, SD=1.40) at risk for suicidal behaviors. At baseline, lifetime suicidal ideation and a number of risk factors were assessed (i.e., depressive symptoms, impulsiveness, pubertal status and peer stress). Participants were exposed to a psychosocial stress task and HPA-axis responses were assessed by measuring cortisol levels pre- and post-stressor. At 3 months post-baseline, suicidal ideation again was assessed. Using group-based trajectory modeling, three groups of cortisol stress-response patterns were identified (i.e., hyporesponsive, normative, and hyperresponsive). As compared to females in the normative and hyporesponsive group, females in the hyperresponsive group were more likely to report a lifetime history of suicidal ideation at baseline, above and beyond the effects of the other predictors. Moreover, as compared to females in the normative group, females in the hyperresponsive group were at increased risk for reporting suicidal ideation 3 months later, after controlling for prior ideation. No interactions between cortisol group and the other risk factors were significant, with the exception of a non-significant trend between impulsiveness and cortisol group on lifetime suicidal ideation. Findings highlight the importance of HPA-axis responses to acute stressors as a risk factor for suicidal ideation among adolescents. PMID:24958308
Gillihan, Seth J.; Aderka, Idan M.; Conklin, Phoebe H.; Capaldi, Sandra; Foa, Edna B.
Traumatic experiences are common among youths and can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In order to identify traumatized children who need PTSD treatment, instruments that can accurately and efficiently evaluate pediatric PTSD are needed. One such measure is the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS), which has been found to be a reliable and valid measure of PTSD symptom severity in school-age children exposed to natural disasters (Foa, Johnson, Feeny & Treadwell, 2001). However, the psychometric properties of the CPSS are not known in youths who have experienced other types of trauma. The current study aims to fill this gap by examining the psychometric properties of the interview (CPSS-I) and self-report (CPSS-SR) administrations of the CPSS in a sample of 91 female youths with sexual abuse-related PTSD, a population that is targeted in many treatment studies. Scores on both the CPSS-I and CPSS-SR demonstrated good to excellent internal consistency. One week test-retest reliability assessed for CPSS-SR scores was excellent (r = .86); inter-rater reliability of CPSS-I scores was also excellent (r = .87). Symptom-based diagnostic agreement between the CPSS-SR and CPSS-I was excellent at 85.5%; scores on both the CPSS-SR and CPSS-I also demonstrated good convergent validity (74.5–76.5% agreement) with the PTSD module of The Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children–Revised for DSM-IV (K-SADS; Kaufman, Birmaher, Brent, & Rao, 1997). The strong psychometric properties of the CPSS render it a valuable instrument for PTSD screening as well as for assessing symptom severity. PMID:22867010
Wilson, M E
Developmental increases in serum LH were assessed in female rhesus monkeys to test the hypotheses that (1) the final stages of puberty are characterized by a decrease in hypersensitivity to oestradiol negative feedback of LH and (2) that increases in IGF-I secretion accelerate this decrease in hypersensitivity. In order to test the first hypothesis, serum LH in the absence of oestradiol and in response to three doses of oestradiol were compared between ovariectomized adult (n = 6) and adolescent female monkeys (control group; n = 6). The control females were not treated with oestradiol until serum LH had risen to within the 95% confidence interval of serum LH observed in ovariectomized adults. Doses of oestradiol achieved serum levels of approximately 80 ('low'), 160 ('intermediate'), and 250 ('high') pmol/l. For control group females, treatment with the next higher dose of oestradiol was not initiated until serum LH was no longer suppressed by the lower dose. Treatment with oestradiol produced a dose-dependent suppression in serum LH in adults. In contrast, low-dose oestradiol maximally suppressed serum LH throughout the initial treatment period in the control group compared with the adult females. The low oestradiol dose effectively suppressed serum LH throughout the study period in 4/6 of the control group and became ineffective at suppressing LH after 8 months of treatment in 2/6 control group females. Initiation of the intermediate dose of oestradiol to these females again maximally suppressed LH compared with adult females. In order to determine whether IGF-I regulates this change in hypersensitivity to oestradiol negative feedback, a second group of ovariectomized, adolescent monkeys (n = 6) were treated chronically with IGF-I to elevate serum IGF-I levels above those of control group females. Using the same protocol described for the control females, developmental changes in serum LH in the absence of oestradiol and in response to oestradiol negative
Wilson, M E; Lackey, S; Chikazawa, K; Gordon, T P
Nocturnal concentrations of melatonin in serum decline significantly with advancing pubertal development in both children and non-human primates and elevated levels may be associated with anovulation in adults. Three studies, using female rhesus monkeys, were performed to determine whether (1) the decline in nocturnal melatonin concentrations in adolescents was due to maturational increases in serum oestradiol, (2) the experimental elevation in nocturnal melatonin would delay the normal progression of puberty in post-menarchial monkeys, and (3) the experimental elevation in nocturnal melatonin would disrupt normal ovulatory function in adults. In experiment 1, juvenile female rhesus monkeys, housed indoors in a fixed photoperiod (12 h light:12 h darkness), were assigned randomly to one of two treatment groups: ovariectomized with no replacement therapy (control; n = 4) or ovariectomized with oestradiol replacement therapy maintaining oestradiol at approximately 90 pmol/l (treated; n = 8). Twenty-four hour as well as daytime serum samples were collected from 19 to 35 months of age. Nocturnal melatonin concentrations declined significantly in all females with advancing chronological age and this change was unaffected by oestradiol treatment. The decline in nocturnal melatonin concentrations occurred, on average, 2.0 +/- 0.2 months after the initial rise in serum LH in control females and 6.0 +/- 0.8 months in treated females. Furthermore, this decline in night-time melatonin was not related to significant developmental changes in body weight. In experiment 2, control (n = 6) and melatonin-treated (treated; n = 6) adolescent female monkeys were studied from -30 to +105 days from menarche. Beginning at 45 days following menarche, treated females received 30 days of nocturnal melatonin infusion to elevate levels to prepubertal values. Developmental changes in perineal swelling and coloration as well as serum oestradiol and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were
Birdthistle, Isolde; Floyd, Sian; Nyagadza, Auxillia; Mudziwapasi, Netsai; Gregson, Simon; Glynn, Judith R
As the population of orphans grows in AIDS-affected settings, recent studies describe a heightened risk of HIV and sexual risk behaviours among adolescent orphans compared to their non-orphaned peers. This study explores the role of education in explaining the excess sexual risk previously documented among unmarried female orphans in urban Zimbabwe. School attendance and attainment were assessed by type of orphanhood, and for their association with markers of sexual risk (HIV and/or HSV-2 infection) among 743 participants drawn from a random sample of 15-19-year-old girls identified in a cross-sectional survey in Highfield, Harare, in 2004. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the role of educational status in explaining the higher prevalence of adverse sexual outcomes among unmarried orphans compared to non-orphans, adjusting for possible confounders. Double orphans had significantly lower educational attendance and attainment than non-orphans. Maternal orphans had higher odds of school drop-out, although this association disappeared when adjusted for recent mobility. Educational status was strongly associated with HIV/HSV-2 risk, but explained only a small part of double orphans' sexual risk and did not explain the HIV/HSV-2 risk of maternal and paternal orphans. High overall levels of secondary school participation and school fee assistance provided to vulnerable families may have reduced the schooling disparities between orphans and non-orphans in Highfield. However, further efforts are needed to rectify the schooling inequities that persist, while additional research is needed to identify other socio-economic and emotional factors driving orphans' sexual risk so that prevention and support programmes can meet the needs of this growing population.
Linares, Lourdes Oriana; Shankar, Viswanathan; Diaz, Angela; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Strickler, Howard D.; Peake, Ken; Weiss, Jocelyn; Burk, Robert D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.
Objective This study investigated the association of cervical Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection with cumulative psychosocial risk reflecting family disadvantage, psychological distress, and unhealthy life style. Methods The sample (N=745) was comprised of sexually-active female adolescent patients (12-19 years), primarily ethnic minorities, enrolled in a free HPV vaccination program. Subjects completed questionnaires and provided cervical swabs for HPV DNA testing. Unweighted and weighted Principal Component Analyses (PCA) for categorical data were used to derive multi-systemic psychosocial risk indices using nine indicators: low socioeconomic status, lack of adult involvement, not attending high-school/college, history of treatment for depression/anxiety, antisocial/delinquent behavior, number of recent sexual partners, use of alcohol, use of drugs, and dependency risk for alcohol/drugs. The association between cervical HPV (any-type, high risk-types, vaccine-types) assayed by polymerase chain reaction and self-reported number of psychosocial risk indicators was estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results Subjects had a median of three psychosocial risk indicators. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed associations with unweighted and weighted number of psychosocial indicators for HPV any-type (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.2 ); with the strongest associations between weighted drug/alcohol use, drug/alcohol dependency risk, and antisocial/delinquent behavior and detection of HPV vaccine-types (aOR=1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.0) independent of number of recent sexual partners and vaccine dose (0-3). Conclusion Increased HPV infections including HPV vaccine-types were associated with greater number of psychosocial risk indicators even after controlling for demographics, sexual behavior, history of chlamydia, and vaccine dose. PMID:25985216
Arikawa, Shino; Eboua, Tanoh; Kouakou, Kouadio; N'Gbeche, Marie-Sylvie; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Moh, Corinne; Amoussou-Bouah, Ursula Belinda; Coffie, Patrick Ahuatchi; Becquet, Renaud; Leroy, Valériane
Objective Adolescents living with HIV are sexually active and engaged in risky sexual behaviors. Knowledge on how and to what extent adolescents in HIV care are affected by pregnancy is needed so as to adopt better preventive services. We estimated 4-year pregnancy incidence and correlates among HIV-infected female adolescents in HIV care in urban Côte d'Ivoire. Design We conducted retrospective analysis of a pediatric prospective cohort of the International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) West Africa Collaboration. Female patients with confirmed HIV infection aged 10–19 years, having at least one clinical visit in 2009 to health facilities participating in the pediatric IeDEA West African cohort in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, were included. Data on incident pregnancies were obtained through medical records and interviews with health professionals. Pregnancy incidence rate was estimated per 100 person-years (PY). Poisson regression models were used to identify factors associated with the first pregnancy and provided incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results In 2009, 266 female adolescents were included, with a median age of 12.8 years (interquartile range, IQR: 10.0–15.0), CD4 cell counts of 506 cells/mm3 (IQR: 302–737), and 80% on antiretroviral treatment. At the 48th month, 17 new pregnancies were reported after 938 PY of follow-up: 13 girls had one pregnancy while 2 had two pregnancies. Overall incidence rate of pregnancy was 1.8/100 PY (95% CI: 1.1–2.9). High incidence was observed among those aged 15–19 years: 3.6/100 PY (95% CI: 2.2–5.9). Role of maternal death in the risk of pregnancy was at the limit of statistical significance (adjusted IRR: 3.1, 95% CI: 0.9–11.0; ref. non-maternal orphans). Conclusions Incidence of pregnancy among HIV-infected adolescents in care aged 15–19 years reached a level observed in adult cohorts in Sub-Saharan Africa. Health personnel in pediatric care have to
Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina
This study aimed at testing a model in which cognitive, dispositional, and social factors were integrated into a single perspective as predictors of gambling behavior. We also aimed at providing further evidence of gender differences related to adolescent gambling. Participants were 994 Italian adolescents (64% Males; Mean age = 16.57).…
Young, Janet A.; Symons, Caroline M.; Pain, Michelle D.; Harvey, Jack T.; Eime, Rochelle M.; Craike, Melinda J.; Payne, Warren R.
In light of the importance attributed to the presence of positive role models in promoting physical activity during adolescence, this study examined role models of adolescent girls and their influence on physical activity. Seven hundred and thirty two girls in Years 7 and 11 from metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions of Victoria, Australia,…
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Wilk, Kevin E.; Arrigo, Christopher; Andrews, James R.; Clancy, William G.
Objective: To discuss the rehabilitation program after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the female athlete. In addition, we will discuss 8 unique characteristics identified in the female athlete and specific training drills to address and correct the potentially deleterious effects of these unique characteristics. Background: The female athlete appears to be more susceptible to noncontact ACL injuries than the male athlete. There seem to be many differences between the female and male athlete that may contribute to the increased injury rate in the female athlete. These variations include anatomical and neuromuscular considerations and differences. Description: Based on the unique characteristics of the female athlete and the anatomical and neuromuscular dissimilarities, a specially designed rehabilitation program has been established for the female athlete after ACL surgery. Clinical Advantages: The rehabilitation drills discussed in this article challenge the neuromuscular system through proprioception, kinesthesia, dynamic joint stability, neuromuscular control, and perturbation training activities. Improving the female athlete's neuromuscular system will, we believe, expedite the injured athlete's recovery after ACL injury or surgery. Although the concepts discussed are part of a postoperative rehabilitation program after ACL surgery, these concepts may also be implemented as a preventive program to assist in reducing the incidence of ACL injuries in the female athlete. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13.Figure 14.Figure 15.Figure 16.Figure 17.Figure 18.Figure 19.Figure 20.Figure 21.Figure 22.Figure 23. PMID:16558561
Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Brody, Gene H; Philibert, Robert A; Rose, Eve
Not everyone exposed to an efficacious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intervention will reduce sexual risk behaviors, yet little is known about factors associated with "failure to change" high-risk sexual behaviors post-intervention. History of abuse and polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) may be associated with non-change. The current study sought to identify genetic, life history, and psychosocial factors associated with adolescents' failure to change condom use behaviors post-participation in an HIV prevention intervention. A sub-set of participants from a clinic-based sample of adolescent African-American females (N = 254) enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention was utilized for the current study. Forty-four percent did not increase their condom use from baseline levels 6 months after participating in the sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention intervention. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, an interaction between abuse and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with non-change status, along with partner communication frequency scores at follow-up. Follow-up tests found that having a history of abuse was significantly associated with greater odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention for only those with the s allele. For those with ll allele, participants with higher partner communication frequency scores were at decreased odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention. Thus, STI/HIV interventions for adolescent females may consider providing a more in-depth discussion and instruction on how to manage and overcome fear or anxiety related to being assertive in sexual decisions or sexual situations. Doing so may improve the efficacy of STI/HIV prevention programs for adolescent women who have experienced abuse in their lifetime.
Investigation of the role of adolescents' patterns of close relationships with significant adults may be of particular interest in populations with learning disabilities ("LD") during adolescence, because attachment relationship variables may act as risk or protective factors during this developmental period when trajectories are set that can lead to difficulties in adulthood. Specifically, this study examined a model of protective factors comprising patterns of close relationships between adolescents (n=369; 53 % female; aged 15-17) and significant adults (mother, father, homeroom teacher) for explaining adolescents' socioemotional and behavioral adjustment, comparing adolescents with and without LD. The current assessment of adolescents' socioemotional adjustment included both internalizing aspects (loneliness, affect, and internalizing behavior syndrome) and externalizing aspects (externalizing behavior syndrome). On most measures, significant group differences emerged between adolescents with LD (n=181) and adolescents with typical development (n=188). SEM analysis found high fit between the theoretical model and empirical findings. Both groups showed similar paths between adolescent-mother attachment and adolescent adjustment, whereas significant group differences emerged for the contribution of adolescents' close relationships with fathers and teachers to adolescents' adjustment. The discussion focuses on the possible unique value of close relationships with each attachment figure at home and at school for adolescents with LD versus typical development.
Musaiger, A O; bin Zaal, A A; D'Souza, R
This study investigated the body image perceptions among adolescents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 661 adolescents (324 males; 337 females) aged 12-17 years selected from government schools using a multistage stratified random sampling technique. A pretested validated questionnaire was employed to determine the perception of adolescents toward their weight status. A nine figure silhouette illustration was used to measure perceptions of their ideal body image and how it compares with their current body weight. The results revealed that overweight (18.5%) and obesity (27.2%) were higher among males than in females (13.1% and 20.5% respectively). A high proportion of overweight males and females considered themselves as average (45.0% and 52.3%, respectively). Similarly, 56.9% of obese male and 46.4% of females considered themselves as average weight. Of non-overweight/obese males and females, 27.6% and 39.3% respectively, were pressured by parents to gain weight (p > 0.000). In general overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to face pressure from their parents and teased by friends than non-overweight/obese adolescents. Compared to their current body image, overweight and obese adolescents chose a significantly lighter figure as their ideal (p < 0.000). It is suggested that the current health education curriculum should include information related to healthy body weight and appropriate diet and lifestyle so as to minimize risk of developing distorted body image concerns in adolescence and beyond.
Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Park, Young-Min; Nyhoff, Lauryn M; Winn, Nathan C; Kanaley, Jill A
Background: Adolescents consume more sugar-sweetened beverages than do individuals in any other age group, but it is unknown how the type of sugar-sweetened beverage affects metabolic health in this population. Objective: The objective was to compare the metabolic health effects of short-term (2-wk) consumption of high-fructose (HF) and high-glucose (HG)–sweetened beverages in adolescents (15–20 y of age). Design: In a counterbalanced, single-blind fashion, 40 male and female adolescents completed two 2-wk trials that included 1) an HF trial in which they consumed 710 mL of a sugar-sweetened beverage/d (equivalent to 50 g fructose/d and 15 g glucose/d) for 2 wk and 2) an HG trial in which they consumed 710 mL of a sugar-sweetened beverage/d (equivalent to 50 g glucose/d and 15 g fructose/d) for 2 wk in addition to their normal ad libitum diet. In addition, the participants maintained similar physical activity levels during each trial. The day after each trial, insulin sensitivity and resistance [assessed via Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index] and fasting and postprandial glucose, lactate, lipid, cholesterol, insulin, C-peptide, insulin secretion, and clearance responses to HF or HG mixed meals were assessed. Results: Body weight, QUICKI (whole-body insulin sensitivity), HOMA-IR (hepatic insulin resistance), and fasting lipids, cholesterol, glucose, lactate, and insulin secretion or clearance were not different between trials. Fasting HDL- and HDL3-cholesterol concentrations were ∼10–31% greater (P < 0.05) in female adolescents than in male adolescents. Postprandial triacylglycerol, HDL-cholesterol, HDL3-cholesterol, and glucose concentrations were not different between HF and HG trials. The lactate incremental area under the curve was ∼3.7-fold greater during the HF trial (P < 0.05), whereas insulin secretion was 19% greater during the HG trial (P < 0
Seth, Puja; Raiji, Paulomi T; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Rose, Eve
Previous research has established the association between psychosocial factors and risky sexual behaviour. However, few studies have examined the relationship between psychological distress and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV-associated behaviours in African-American youth. The present study examined the association of psychological distress with STI/HIV-risk behaviour and psycho-social mediators of HIV-preventive behaviours. A sample of 715 African-American female adolescents, 15-21 years old, completed an audio computer assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) assessing sociodemographics, psychological distress, self-efficacy, communication and STI/HIV-associated sexual behaviours. Participants also provided self-collected vaginal swab specimens, which were assayed for STIs. High levels of psychological distress were defined as having a score of > or =7 on the eight-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. The overall prevalence of high levels of psychological distress was 44.5%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescents with high psychological distress, relative to those with low psychological distress, were more likely to have a biologically confirmed STI (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) = 1.40), use condoms inconsistently (AOR = 1.50), not use condoms during their last casual sexual encounter (AOR = 1.89), have sex while high on alcohol or drugs (AOR = 1.47), have male sexual partners with concurrent female sexual partners (AOR = 1.98), have low condom use self-efficacy (AOR = 1.54), partner sexual communication self-efficacy (AOR = 1.77), refusal self-efficacy (AOR = 2.05) and be more fearful of communicating with their partners (AOR = 1.98). These findings, although preliminary, could be used to inform HIV intervention programs and physicians/clinicians providing regular health care maintenance to African-American female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behaviour.
Winsauer, Peter J; Filipeanu, Catalin M; Bailey, Evangeline M; Hulst, Jerielle L; Sutton, Jessie L
Marijuana abuse during adolescence may alter its abuse liability during adulthood by modifying the interoceptive (discriminative) stimuli produced, especially in females due to an interaction with ovarian hormones. To examine this possibility, either gonadally intact or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats received 40 intraperitoneal injections of saline or 5.6 mg/kg of Δ⁹-THC daily during adolescence, yielding 4 experimental groups (intact/saline, intact/Δ⁹-THC, OVX/saline, and OVX/Δ⁹-THC). These groups were then trained to discriminate Δ⁹-THC (0.32-3.2 mg/kg) from saline under a fixed-ratio (FR) 20 schedule of food presentation. After a training dose was established for the subjects in each group, varying doses of Δ⁹-THC were substituted for the training dose to obtain dose-effect (generalization) curves for drug-lever responding and response rate. The results showed that: 1) the OVX/saline group had a substantially higher mean response rate under control conditions than the other three groups, 2) both OVX groups had higher percentages of THC-lever responding than the intact groups at doses of Δ⁹-THC lower than the training dose, and 3) the OVX/Δ⁹-THC group was significantly less sensitive to the rate-decreasing effects of Δ⁹-THC compared to other groups. Furthermore, at sacrifice, western blot analyses indicated that chronic Δ⁹-THC in OVX and intact females decreased cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) levels in the striatum, and decreased phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (p-CREB) in the hippocampus. In contrast to the hippocampus, chronic Δ⁹-THC selectively increased p-CREB in the OVX/saline group in the striatum. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was not significantly affected by either hormone status or chronic Δ⁹-THC. In summary, these data in female rats suggest that cannabinoid abuse by adolescent human females could alter their subsequent responsiveness to cannabinoids
Figurative language enlivens a text, providing visuals in the minds of readers. This lesson will have students listening to and reading selected texts as they seek out their favorite literary devices. During the five to seven 50-minute sessions, grade three through five students will: acquire a clear understanding of the concept of figurative…
OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2008
"OECD in Figures" is a primary statistical source for key data on OECD countries, ranging from economic growth and employment to inflation, trade and environment. Information is presented in tabular form for: (1) Demography and Health; (2) Economy; (3) Energy; (4) Labour; (5) Science and Technology; (6) Environment; (7) Education; (8)…
Symptoms of psychological distress may be one pathway through which child maltreatment and witnessing violence in the home relate to dating violence victimization. This study examined whether psychological distress in mid-adolescence mediated the link between child maltreatment and witnessing violence in early adolescence and dating violence victimization in young adulthood. The sample included female participants (N = 532) from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well Being who were 18 years or older in the fifth and final wave of data collection. At the time of entry into the study, participants were 12.81 (SD = 1.23) years old. Sixteen percent of participants identified as Hispanic; 53 % identified their race as White, 33 % as Black, and 11 % as American Indian. Results showed that psychological distress may play a causal role in the relationship of violence in the home to dating violence victimization. Interventions targeting psychological distress, particularly in samples at risk for child maltreatment, may reduce the risk of dating violence victimization.
Plener, Paul L; Bubalo, Nikola; Fladung, Anne K; Ludolph, Andrea G; Lulé, Dorothée
Emotion-regulation difficulties have been identified as one of the core components in Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), a behaviour often beginning in adolescence. This pilot study evaluated differences in emotion processing between 18 female adolescents with and without NSSI by using verbal responses and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Responses to pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System and slides with reference to NSSI were recorded both by verbal rating of valence and arousal and by fMRI. The NSSI group rated pictures with self-injurious reference as significantly more arousing than controls. For emotional pictures, the NSSI group showed a significantly stronger brain response in the amygdala, hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally. Depression explained differences between groups in the limbic area. Furthermore, the NSSI group also showed increased activity in the middle orbitofrontal cortex, and inferior and middle frontal cortex when viewing NSSI picture material. Participants with NSSI showed decreased activity in correlation to arousal in the occipital cortex and to valence in inferior frontal cortex when watching emotional pictures. The fMRI data support the notion that individuals with NSSI show an altered neural pattern for emotional and NSSI pictures. Behavioural data highlight proneness to excitement regarding NSSI topics. This fMRI study provides evidence for emotion-regulation deficits in the developing brain of adolescents with NSSI.
Gitau, Tabither M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A
This cross-sectional study of urban high schools in Johannesburg, South Africa, sought to examine eating attitudes, body image and self-esteem among male adolescents (n = 391). Anthropometric measurements, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Rosenberg self-esteem, body image satisfaction and perception of females were collected at age 13, 15 and 17 years. Descriptive analysis was done to describe the sample, and non-parametric Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test was used to test for significant differences between data that were not normally distributed (EAT-26). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analyses were conducted to test for associations between self-esteem scores and eating attitudes, body mass indices and body image satisfaction scores. To assess the differences between groups that were normally distributed chi-square tests were carried out. Ethnic differences significantly affected adolescent boys' body mass index (BMI), eating attitudes and self-esteem; White boys had higher self-esteem, BMI and normal eating attitudes than the Black boys did. BMI was positively associated with self-esteem (p = 0.01, r = 0.134) and negatively with dieting behaviour in White boys (p = 0.004, r = -0.257), and with lower EAT-26 bulimic and oral control scores in Black boys. In conclusion, the findings highlight ethnic differences and a need to better understand cultural differences that influence adolescent attitudes and behaviour.
Hamel, Andrea E; Zaitsoff, Shannon L; Taylor, Andrew; Menna, Rosanne; Le Grange, Daniel
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC) and eating disorders (EDs) by: (a) comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD), and no psychiatric history; and (b) investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12-18 (25 per diagnostic group). To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others'. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001). Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01), and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC.
Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Salazar, Laura F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Brown, Larry K; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert F; Stanton, Bonita
This study examined correlates of the discordance between sexual behavior self-reports and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections. African American adolescent females (N = 964) from four U.S. cities were recruited for an HIV/STI prevention trial. Self-reported sexual behaviors, demographics, and hypothesized psychosocial antecedents of sexual risk behavior were collected at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up assessments. Urine specimens were collected and tested for three prevalent STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas) at each assessment. Seventeen percent of participants with a laboratory-confirmed STI reported either lifetime abstinence or recent abstinence from vaginal sex (discordant self-report). Lower STI knowledge, belief that fewer peers were engaging in sex, and belief that more peers will wait until marriage to have sex were associated with discordant reports. Discordance between self-reported abstinence and incident STIs was marked among African American female adolescents. Lack of STI knowledge and sexual behavior peer norms may result in underreporting of sexual behaviors.
Barral, Romina; Desai, Ruchi; Zheng, Xiaojing; Frazer, Lauren C; Sucato, Gina S; Haggerty, Catherine L; O'Connell, Catherine M; Zurenski, Matthew A; Darville, Toni
An evaluation of CD4 T cell responses to candidate Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine antigens was conducted in an adolescent female cohort exposed through natural infection to explore antigen immunogenicity and correlation with protection from reinfection. The frequency of peripheral blood CD4 T cell IFN-γ and IL-17 responses to three candidate vaccine antigens, polymorphic membrane protein G (PmpG), F (PmpF), and major outer membrane protein (MOMP), were determined by ELISPOT; responses to chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and to elementary bodies (EB) were included for comparison. Responses of Infected (n=8), Seropositive/Uninfected (n=13), and Seronegative/Uninfected (n=18) participants were compared. The median CD4 IFN-γ response to EB was significantly increased in Infected (P=0.003) and Seropositive/Uninfected (P=0.002) versus Seronegative/Uninfected female subjects. Higher rates of positive IFN-γ responders to EB, PmpF, and MOMP were detected in Seropositive/Uninfected versus Seronegative/Uninfected participants (P=0.021). IL-17 responses were generally low. A positive IFN-γ response to any of the antigens tested was associated with a trend toward a reduced risk of reinfection, although not statistically significant. Among this adolescent cohort, chlamydial-specific CD4 IFN-γ but not IL-17 responses were detected in acutely and previously infected participants and a positive CD4 IFN-γ response was associated with a non-significant reduced risk of reinfection.
Penelo, Eva; Raich, Rosa M.
Aims To contribute new evidence to the controversy about the factor structure of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and to provide, for the first time, norms based on a large adolescent Mexican community sample, regarding sex and area of residence (urban/rural). Methods A total of 2928 schoolchildren (1544 females and 1384 males) aged 11-18 were assessed with the EDE-Q and other disordered eating questionnaire measures. Results Confirmatory factor analysis of the attitudinal items of the EDE-Q did not support the four theorized subscales, and a two-factor solution, Restraint and Eating-Shape-Weight concern, showed better fit than the other models examined (RMSEA = .054); measurement invariance for this two-factor model across sex and area of residence was found. Satisfactory internal consistency (ω ≥ .80) and two-week test-retest reliability (ICCa ≥ .84; κ ≥ .56), and evidence for convergent validity with external measures was obtained. The highest attitudinal EDE-Q scores were found for urban females and the lowest scores were found for rural males, whereas the occurrence of key eating disorder behavioural features and compensatory behaviours was similar in both areas of residence. Conclusions This study reveals satisfactory psychometric properties and provides population norms of the EDE-Q, which may help clinicians and researchers to interpret the EDE-Q scores of adolescents from urban and rural areas in Mexico. PMID:24367587
Powell-Young, Yolanda M; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Velasco-Gonzalez, Cruz; Sothern, Melinda S
The link between obesity and self-esteem among minority youth has received minimal empirical evaluation. This study aims to describe the magnitude of risk that body mass index, household income, and transitional age have on global self-esteem levels among African-American adolescents. These analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data obtained from 264 urban-dwelling African-American females between 14 and 18 years of age. Survey data on global self-esteem levels, transitory age, and socioeconomic levels were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Measured height and weight values were used to calculate and categorize weight status according to body mass index. Logistic regression models examined the probability of reporting less than average levels of global self-esteem. Adolescent African-American females residing in low-income households were 10 times more likely to report lower global self-esteem scores than those individuals from more affluent households (95% CI: 1.94, 60.19, p < .001). Neither weight status (95% CI: 0.81, 2.55; p = .26) nor age (95% CI: 0.05, 1.87; p = .82) were significant risk indicators for lower than average levels of global self-esteem among participants in this study. Household income appears to be the greatest predictor of global self-esteem levels. Further research in this area is needed to fully elucidate precursors for psychological health vulnerability and facilitate intervention development.
Alexander, Gerianne M.; Hawkins, Laura B.; Wilcox, Teresa; Hirshkowitz, Amy
Adolescents and adults show preferences for male and female body shapes consistent with evolutionary theories of reproductive fitness and mate selection. However, when these preferences for females with narrow waists (i.e., 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio) and men with broad shoulders (i.e., mesomorphic body shape) emerge during the lifespan is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, eye-movements were tracked in 146 infants (3–18 months of age) during computer presentation of three-dimensional human figures varying in body features thought relevant for reproductive success (e.g., secondary sex characteristics, waist-to-hip ratio). When presented with pairs of figures differing in apparent sex, male and female infants looked significantly longer at the female figure compared to the male figure, a new finding that extends previous research showing preferences for female faces in infancy. When presented with same-sex figures differing in characteristics associated with mate value, male and female infants looked longer at a low mate value male (i.e., an endomorphic body type) compared to a high mate value male (i.e., a mesomorphic body type), a finding that replicates the results of previous research. In addition, the novel use of high and low mate value female figures showed a sex difference in visual attention, such that female infants looked longer at the high mate value female figure compared to the low mate female figure whereas male infants showed the opposite pattern of results. In sum, these findings suggest that infants generally do not possess preferences for adult-defined attractive male body shapes. However, infant girls’ greater attention to a female figure with an adult-preferred waist-to-hip ratio raises the possibility that evolved preferences for 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio influence girls’ later preference for toys representing females with an hourglass shape, perhaps supporting elaboration of adult social behaviors that enhance reproductive success
Van Waes, V; Darnaudéry, M; Marrocco, J; Gruber, S H; Talavera, E; Mairesse, J; Van Camp, G; Casolla, B; Nicoletti, F; Mathé, A A; Maccari, S; Morley-Fletcher, S
We examined the interaction between early life stress and vulnerability to alcohol in female rats exposed to prenatal restraint stress (PRS rats). First we studied the impact of PRS on ethanol preference during adolescence. PRS slightly increased ethanol preference per se, but abolished the effect of social isolation on ethanol preference. We then studied the impact of PRS on short- and long-term responses to ethanol focusing on behavioral and neurochemical parameters related to depression/anxiety. PRS or unstressed adolescent female rats received 10% ethanol in the drinking water for 4 weeks from PND30 to PND60. At PND60, the immobility time in the forced-swim test did not differ between PRS and unstressed rats receiving water alone. Ethanol consumption had no effect in unstressed rats, but significantly reduced the immobility time in PRS rats. In contrast, a marked increase in the immobility time was seen after 5 weeks of ethanol withdrawal only in unstressed rats. Hippocampal levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and mGlu1a metabotropic glutamate receptors were increased at the end of ethanol treatment only in unstressed rats. Ethanol treatment had no effect on levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the hippocampus, striatum, and prefrontal cortex of both groups of rats. After ethanol withdrawal, hippocampal levels of mGlu1 receptors were higher in unstressed rats, but lower in PRS rats, whereas NPY and CRH levels were similar in the two groups of rats. These data indicate that early life stress has a strong impact on the vulnerability and responsiveness to ethanol consumption during adolescence.
Prisco, D; Fedi, S; Brunelli, T; Chiarugi, L; Lombardi, A; Gianni, R; Santoro, E; Cappelletti, C; Pepe, G; Gensini, G F; Abbate, R
The early onset of atherosclerosis and the involvement of physiological biochemical, and environmental factors in its pathogenesis is well documented. Few data are available on the role of risk factors related to hemostasis in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the young and, in particular, little information is available on adolescent populations. In the Study of Preventive Medicine and Education Program (Floren-teen Study), von Willebrand factor, a risk factor for cardiovascular disorder, was studied, together with classical cardiovascular risk factors, in apparently healthy students from two high schools in Florence. Familial and personal history, physical examination, and cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated in 144 students (aged 17-19 years). Blood was withdrawn to assess von Willebrand factor (ELISA) and lipid parameters. Levels of von Willebrand factor were significantly higher (P<0.044) in smokers than in nonsmokers and were correlated with the number of cigarettes per day in the whole group (P=0.01) and in females (P=0.006). In females a positive correlation was observed between von Willebrand factor and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.0365). There was no significant correlation between von Willebrand factor and blood pressure or between von Willebrand factor and physical activity. In conclusion, this study shows an association between levels of von Willebrand factor and smoking habits and is the first show that even a brief period of smoking affects levels of von Willebrand factor in healthy adolescent females independently of other risk factors. These results stress the relevance of extending prevention programs to reduce smoking in high school students.
Sanger, Dixie; Ritzman, Mitzi; LaCost, Barbara; Stofer, Keri; Long, Amie; Grady, Marilyn
This qualitative study explored the meanings of chat room conversations through observations of teenagers using the Internet. Adolescent girls were a focus because of their shaky sense of self. Participants in ten chat rooms included 534 individuals. Six themes, emerging from analyzing 2526 utterances [descriptive statements], included (a)…
Cannon, Kristi B.; Hammer, Tonya R.; Reicherzer, Stacee; Gilliam, Billie J.
Relational-cultural theory (RCT) is an evolving feminist model of human development that places emphasis on growth-fostering relationships as building blocks for wellness. This article demonstrates the use of RCT in addressing relational aggression, including cyberbullying, in counseling a group of adolescent girls. The group counselor's…
Robertson, Angela R.; St. Lawrence, Janet; Morse, David T.; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Liew, Hui; Gresham, Kathleen
Adolescent girls incarcerated in a state reformatory (N = 246) were recruited and assigned to an 18-session health education program or a time-equivalent HIV prevention program. Cohorts were assigned to conditions using a randomized block design separated by a washout period to reduce contamination. Post intervention, girls in the HIV risk…
Smith, Sara K; Rosenthal, Philip
Currently the only Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for children with chronic hepatitis C virus is pegylated interferon with ribavirin, which is associated with significant adverse effects and low sustained virologic response rates. In this report, we discuss the use of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir to treat an adolescent with cirrhosis secondary to chronic hepatitis C virus.
Murphy, Erin K.
At present, school administrators do not have necessary information to create a school environment where teenage girls unhappy with their bodies can experience success at school. This research surrounds three research questions: (1) How do adolescent girls' definitions of their bodies relate to their perception of their high school's climate? (2)…
Prior research has identified reduced reward-related brain activation as a promising endophenotype for the early identification of adolescents with major depressive disorder. However, it is unclear whether reduced reward-related brain activation constitutes a true vulnerability for major depressive ...
Perez-Felkner, Lara; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn; Schneider, Barbara; Grogan, Erin
Although important strides toward gender parity have been made in several scientific fields, women remain underrepresented in the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences (PEMCs). This study examines the effects of adolescents' subjective orientations, course taking, and academic performance on the likelihood of majoring…
Wicksell, Rikard K.; Dahl, JoAnne; Magnusson, Bo; Olsson, Gunnar L.
This case example illustrates how Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) within a behavior medicine approach was used in the rehabilitation of an adolescent with debilitating chronic pain. For chronic pain with unclear etiology (idiopathic pain), pharmacological therapy alone is often insufficient. Psychological treatment strategies have been…
Thomsen, Steven R.; Weber, Michelle M.; Brown, Lora Beth
This study examined the relationship between reading women's fashion magazines and the use of pathogenic dieting methods among 502 high school females. Reading these magazines does influence a female's decision to restrict calories or take diet pills. Further research is needed to examine factors that are antecedent to reading the magazines to…
Horne, Sharon; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.
Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a theoretically derived multidimensional inventory of females' sexual self-conceptions ("sexual subjectivity"). Study 1 revealed five factors on the Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory (FSSI): sexual body-esteem, three factors of conceptions and expectations of sexual desire and pleasure (self,…
Fetter, William A.
A study of improved computer graphic representation of the human figure is being conducted under a National Science Foundation grant. Special emphasis is given biostereometrics as a primary data base from which applications requiring a variety of levels of detail may be prepared. For example, a human figure represented by a single point can be very useful in overview plots of a population. A crude ten point figure can be adequate for queuing theory studies and simulated movement of groups. A one hundred point figure can usefully be animated to achieve different overall body activities including male and female figures. A one thousand point figure si-milarly animated, begins to be useful in anthropometrics and kinesiology gross body movements. Extrapolations of this order-of-magnitude approach ultimately should achieve very complex data bases and a program which automatically selects the correct level of detail for the task at hand. See Summary Figure 1.
Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie
Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
More, Sarika; Shivkumar, V. B.; Gangane, Nitin; Shende, Sumeet
Iron deficiency anemia is most common nutritional deficiency disorder in India and remains a formidable health challenge. Girls in the period of later school age and early adolescence are prone to develop iron deficiency. Iron deficiency leads to many non-hematological disturbances which include growth and development, depressed immune function in infants; reduces physical work capacity; decreases the cognitive function in both infants and adolescents. Present study was done to know the prevalence of iron deficiency in both the anemic and non anemic school going adolescent girls, to assess the effect of iron deficiency on cognitive functions in anemic iron deficient and non-anemic iron deficient school girls in a village school situated in central India. Methods. A secondary school having girl students in the age group of 12–15 years studying in sixth to ninth standard was selected. Serum ferritin concentration was estimated by ELISA. For assessing the cognitive function mathematics score, one multi-component test for memory, attention and verbal learning and Intelligent Quotient scores of the students were used. Results. Scholastic Performance, IQ and Scores of Mental balance, Attention & Concentration, Verbal Memory and Recognition were decreased in iron deficient girls, both anemic and non anemic as compared to the non iron deficient girls. PMID:24386560
More, Sarika; Shivkumar, V B; Gangane, Nitin; Shende, Sumeet
Iron deficiency anemia is most common nutritional deficiency disorder in India and remains a formidable health challenge. Girls in the period of later school age and early adolescence are prone to develop iron deficiency. Iron deficiency leads to many non-hematological disturbances which include growth and development, depressed immune function in infants; reduces physical work capacity; decreases the cognitive function in both infants and adolescents. Present study was done to know the prevalence of iron deficiency in both the anemic and non anemic school going adolescent girls, to assess the effect of iron deficiency on cognitive functions in anemic iron deficient and non-anemic iron deficient school girls in a village school situated in central India. Methods. A secondary school having girl students in the age group of 12-15 years studying in sixth to ninth standard was selected. Serum ferritin concentration was estimated by ELISA. For assessing the cognitive function mathematics score, one multi-component test for memory, attention and verbal learning and Intelligent Quotient scores of the students were used. Results. Scholastic Performance, IQ and Scores of Mental balance, Attention & Concentration, Verbal Memory and Recognition were decreased in iron deficient girls, both anemic and non anemic as compared to the non iron deficient girls.
Adam, Emma K; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay
Associations between histories of family disruption (residential moves and separations from parent figures) and adolescent adjustment (including educational, internalizing, externalizing, and sexual behavior outcomes) were examined in a random sample of 267 African American girls from 3 urban poverty neighborhoods. Higher numbers of residential moves and parental separations significantly predicted greater adolescent adjustment problems after household demographic characteristics were controlled. Adolescents' perceptions of their current relationships and neighborhoods were significantly associated with adolescent adjustment but did not mediate the effects of family disruption. Associations between parental separations and adolescent outcomes were strongest for externalizing problems and were found for both male and female caregivers, for long-standing and more temporary caregivers, and for separations in early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence.
Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Amini, Parvaneh; Pahlavanzadeh, Saied; Shokouh, Pedram
Background: An association of eating disorder with diabetes mellitus may lead to a serious lack of metabolic control, higher mortality and morbidity. There is no recent study conducted in the Iranian population about eating disorder and its variants. The aim of the present study is investigation of frequency of disturbed eating behaviors in adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) compared to non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, disturbed eating behavior were evaluated and compared in two groups of 12–22 year old adolescent and young females (126 with diabetes and 325 without diabetes). A self-report questionnaire including demographic data, Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used for data gathering. Independent t-test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression [odds ratio (OR)] were used for data analyses in SPSS 15. Results: Findings revealed that higher percentage of diabetic girls are likely to have eating disturbances (67.9% vs. 53.8%, P = 0.01). Diabetic group obtained higher scores in both dieting (14.95 ± 6.28 vs. 11.79 ± 5.62, P < 0.001) and bulimia scales (4.9 ± 3.13 vs. 4.12 ± 2.89, P = 0.017), which supports a role for T1DM in inducing the symptoms. Diabetic girls were at more than double the risk of developing eating disturbance. Conclusions: The results indicate that a significantly higher percentage of diabetic girls are likely to have eating disturbances. Also, diabetic subjects had an increased probability of getting higher scores in all three EAT-26 subscales. Therefore, healthcare professionals, especially diabetic nurses, should be aware of the potential effects of the subclinical and clinical eating behaviors on adolescents with T1DM and evaluate them for these disturbances. PMID:27904642
Ansari, Hourieh; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Hajigholami, Ali; Paknahad, Zamzam
Background: Osteoporosis is a serious public health. Since the majority of bone mass occurs during adolescence, primary prevention is important. Probably mother's participation in health education interventions leads to promote health behaviors in children. Aims: To assess a lifestyle modification intervention focused on mothers and students has an impact on osteoporosis preventive behaviors in adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: It is a randomized field trial in female high schools. 210 girls aged between 11 and 15 were randomly selected. Students in groups A and C and mothers in group B were selected Through the sampling frame. Our lifestyle modification was based on group based education in the public girls’ high schools. Subjects in the intervention groups participated in three educational sessions. Students’ osteoporosis preventive behaviors were measured by using a lifestyle questionnaire consisting of items assessing nutrition, physical activity and sun exposure. Repeated measure ANOVA at baseline, 4 week, 2 months and 6 months and were used to analyze the data. Results: After 1 month, diet and sun exposure scores increased significantly (P < 0.001) but it was higher in group B compared with group A. (About diet P < 0.001 and sun exposure = 0. 001). After 6 months, diet and sun exposure status in the group A approximately decreased to baseline, while in group B, diet components were significantly different compared to baseline (P < 0.001). There was no change in physical activity. Conclusion: Osteoporosis prevention intervention of adolescent can be effective when parents or girls participate in training sessions, but education is associated with better outcomes when focused on mothers. PMID:25422660
Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Jones, Andrea M.; Barr, Simone C.; Borkman, April L.; Bryant, Brittany G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.
African-American adolescent girls are at disproportionate risk for HIV infection. Although numerous evidence-based risk-reduction interventions exist, dissemination and implementation resources remain limited, and prevention services remain notably inaccessible to the very populations at highest risk for HIV infection. Internet delivery of HIV risk-reduction programming has promise as a mechanism for extending the reach of existing prevention efforts and overcoming barriers associated with traditional service delivery. This article: (1) details the development process for the creation of SiHLEWeb, a web-adapted version of an evidence-based, culturally-informed HIV prevention program traditionally delivered to female African-American adolescents via an in-person group format; and (2) presents findings from quantitative and qualitative usability testing conducted among 18 African-American girls (13–18). Results suggest that users found the website improved knowledge and learning, was helpful, efficient to use, and generally attractive. Users reported some concerns about website navigation. Implications for internet delivery of health prevention programming are discussed. PMID:25167865
Davies, Bronwyn; Harre, Rom
Rejects sociobiological theories on female academic achievement and bases findings on social structure to explain why undergraduate women at Oxford University (England) achieve fewer first places and more second places in class honors. Bases theory on bipolarity of gender as an organizing principle of society. Claims that the double bind of social…
The Scope of Sexual, Physical, and Psychological Abuse in a Bedouin-Arab Community of Female Adolescents: The Interplay of Racism, Urbanization, Polygamy, Family Honor, and the Social Marginalization of Women
Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman
Objectives: This is an exploratory study of the abuse--especially sexual--of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these…
Ntumba, Alexis; Igumbor, Ehimario
Abstract Background Namibia bears a large burden of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and the youth are disproportionately affected. Objectives To explore the current knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of female adolescents attending family planning to HIV prevention. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used on a sample 251 unmarried female adolescents aged from 13 years to 19 years accessing primary care services for contraception using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using Epi Info 2002. Crude associations were assessed using cross-tabulations of knowledge, attitude and behaviour scores against demographic variables. Chi-square tests and odds ratios were used to assess associations from the cross-tabulations. All p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results A quarter of sexually active teenagers attending the family-planning services did not have adequate knowledge of HIV prevention strategies. Less than a quarter (23.9%) always used a condom. Most respondents (83.3%) started sexual intercourse when older than 16 years, but only 38.6% used a condom at their sexual debut. The older the girls were at sexual debut, the more likely they were to use a condom for the event (8% did so at age 13 years and 100% at age 19 years). Conclusions Knowledge of condom use as an HIV prevention strategy did not translate into consistent condom use. One alternate approach in family-planning facilities may be to encourage condom use as a dual protection method. Delayed onset of sexual activity and consistent use of condoms should be encouraged amongst schoolchildren, in the school setting.
Barral, Romina; Desai, Ruchi; Zheng, Xiaojing; Frazer, Lauren C.; Sucato, Gina S.; Haggerty, Catherine L.; O’Connell, Catherine M.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Darville, Toni
An evaluation of CD4 T cell responses to candidate Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine antigens was conducted in an adolescent female cohort exposed through natural infection to explore antigen immunogenicity and correlation with protection from reinfection. The frequency of peripheral blood CD4 T cell IFN-γ and IL-17 responses to three candidate vaccine antigens, polymorphic membrane protein G (PmpG), F (PmpF), and major outer membrane protein (MOMP), were determined by ELISPOT; responses to chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and to elementary bodies (EB) were included for comparison. Responses of Infected (n = 8), Seropositive/Uninfected (n = 13), and Seronegative/Uninfected (n = 18) participants were compared. The median CD4 IFN-γ response to EB was significantly increased in Infected (P = 0.003) and Seropositive/Uninfected (P = 0.002) versus Seronegative/Uninfected female subjects. Higher rates of positive IFN-γ responders to EB, PmpF, and MOMP were detected in Seropositive/Uninfected versus Seronegative/Uninfected participants (P = 0.021). IL-17 responses were generally low. A positive IFN-γ response to any of the antigens tested was associated with a trend toward a reduced risk of reinfection, although not statistically significant. Among this adolescent cohort, chlamydial-specific CD4 IFN-γ but not IL-17 responses were detected in acutely and previously infected participants and a positive CD4 IFN-γ response was associated with a non-significant reduced risk of reinfection. PMID:24582738
Rickman, Doug; Scjrader. Cjrostoam; Jpe (zer. Jams); Fourroux, Kathy
This viewgraph presentation reviews the lunar regolith figures of merit. The contents include: 1) A quick review of Figures-of-Merit (FoM); 2) Software Implementation of FoM Algorithms; and 3) Demonstration of the Software.
Hawkins, Ed; McNeall, Doug
In the words of the UK government chief scientific adviser "Science is not finished until it's communicated" (Walport 2013). The tools to produce good visual communication have never been so easily accessible to scientists as at the present. Correspondingly, it has never been easier to produce and disseminate poor graphics. In this presentation, we highlight some good practice and offer some practical advice in preparing scientific figures for presentation to peers or to the public. We identify common mistakes in visualisation, including some made by the authors, and offer some good reasons not to trust defaults in graphics software. In particular, we discuss the use of colour scales and share our experiences in running a social media campaign (http://tiny.cc/endrainbow) to replace the "rainbow" (also "jet", or "spectral") colour scale as the default in (climate) scientific visualisation.
The main thesis of the paper is that geometry deals with mental entities (the so-called geometrical figures) which possess simultaneously conceptual and figural characters. The paper analyzes the internal tensions which may arise in figural concepts because of their double nature, developmental aspects, and didactical implications. (Author/MDH)
Webster, Raymond E.
This paper presents a summary of the research literature concerning the psychological and behavioral impact of sexual abuse of children and adolescents. It examines the dynamics involved in the process of making such determinations and examines the utility of using Human Figure Drawings as part of an assessment battery to determine the probability…
Robertson, Angela A; Robertson, Angela R; St Lawrence, Janet; Morse, David T; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Liew, Hui; Gresham, Kathleen
Adolescent girls incarcerated in a state reformatory (N = 246) were recruited and assigned to an 18-session health education program or a time-equivalent HIV prevention program. Cohorts were assigned to conditions using a randomized block design separated by a washout period to reduce contamination. Post intervention, girls in the HIV risk reduction program demonstrated the acquisition of risk-reduction behavioral skills and improved condom application skill. At a follow-up assessment approximately 9 months after release from the correctional facility, girls in both conditions reported fewer unprotected sexual intercourse occasions and less sex while under the influence of alcohol or other drugs.
Sales, Jessica McDermott; Monahan, Jennifer L.; Brooks, Carolyn; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rose, Eve; Samp, Jennifer A.
Background To examine differences between lower and higher frequency alcohol users in sexual behaviors and psychosocial correlates of risk for HIV among young African-American females. Methods Data were collected from sexually active African-American females aged 15–20 years, seeking services at a STD clinic in Atlanta, GA, to assess sexual behavior, correlates of risk, and a non-disease biological marker of unprotected vaginal sex. Results Number of drinking occasions was significantly related to three of four psychosocial correlates and with all self-reporting sexual behavior measures. Also, heavier drinking per occasion was associated with the presence of semen in vaginal fluid. Conclusion Non-abuse levels of drinking were related to increased sexual risk-taking in this sample of young African-American females. Incorporating messages about the intersection of alcohol use and sexual decision making into HIV/STD prevention programs would strengthen STD prevention messaging in this vulnerable population. PMID:25053364
Ma, Mindy; Malcolm, Lydia R; Diaz-Albertini, Kristine; Klinoff, Vera A; Leeder, Elisa; Barrientos, Sohani; Kibler, Jeffrey L
The study objective was to examine the associations between cultural values and sexual risk factors among Latino youth. A sample of 226 Latino adolescents ages 13-16 completed a survey on cultural and sexual variables. Results indicate higher levels of Latino cultural orientation were related to greater sexual self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners for female adolescents and greater condom use self-efficacy for both males and females. Greater endorsement of simpatia (belief in interpersonal relationship harmony) was associated with sexual abstinence and greater sexual self-efficacy for all adolescents, and with being older at sexual debut for females. Stronger endorsement of respeto (respect towards parents and other authority figures) was correlated with a lower intention to have sex during secondary school and greater condom use self-efficacy. American cultural orientation was associated with less condom use. Our findings indicate Latino cultural values may serve as protective factors against sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth.
Brabant, Marie-Eve; Hebert, Martine; Chagnon, Francois
This study explored the clinical profiles of 77 female teenager survivors of sexual abuse and examined the association of abuse-related and personal variables with suicidal ideations. Analyses revealed that 64% of participants experienced suicidal ideations. Findings from classification and regression tree analysis indicated that depression,…