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Sample records for adolescent female tennis

  1. The prevalence of disordered eating and possible health consequences in adolescent female tennis players from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; de Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; de Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho; de Mello, Danielli Braga; Lanzillotti, Haydée Serrão; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of disordered eating and possible health consequences in adolescent female tennis players. This cross-sectional controlled study investigated the pubertal development (Tanner stages); body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry-DXA); dietary intake (food record); presence of disordered eating (EAT-26, BITE and BSQ); menstrual status (questionnaire) and bone mineral density (DXA). The Female Athlete Triad (FAT) was divided into two severity stages. The study included 45 adolescents (24 athletes and 21 controls) at some pubertal developmental stage. The athletes exhibited better body composition profiles. We found that 91.7%, 33.3% and 25% of athletes and 71.4%, 9.5% and 33.3% of controls met criteria for disordered eating and/or low energy availability, menstrual irregularities and low bone mass, respectively. A greater percentage of athletes than controls presented with 1 and 2 FAT components (stage I), and 4.2% presented with the full syndrome. In conclusion, tennis players appear to present with more severe disorders than controls and should be monitored to avoid damage to their performance and health. PMID:23318655

  2. Diurnal patterns of salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol secretion in female adolescent tennis players after 16 weeks of training.

    PubMed

    Filaire, Edith; Ferreira, Jose Pedro; Oliveira, Miguel; Massart, Alain

    2013-07-01

    We examined the effects of 16 weeks of training on diurnal pattern of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), cortisol, and the ratio of sAA over cortisol (AOC) in 12 national adolescent female tennis players. Stress and recovery were also evaluated using the Recovery-Stress-Questionnaire for Athletes-RESTQ-Sport. Data were collected after a 2-week rest (January, W0), and 4 months after W0 (W16). Subjects collected five saliva samples throughout a day. While all participants displayed the previously shown decrease after awakening in adolescents at W0, they showed a rise in the alpha-amylase awakening response and a higher alpha-amylase activity output (p<0.01) at W16 compared to W0. For the daily rhythm of cortisol we found subjects having a low overall output of salivary cortisol (p<0.01) and a blunted response to awakening at W16. Furthermore, an increase in the ratio AOC at W16, and a negative correlation between this ratio and Sport-specific recovery score. Our findings offer support for the hypothesis that increase of training load during the study period induced asymmetry activation between the two stress systems, in relation to psychological alterations and performance decrease. These results provide encouragement to continue exploring the impact of training program using a psychobiological approach among young athletes in order to prevent fatigue and preserve the health of these athletes. PMID:23200107

  3. Sagittal Spinal Morphology in Highly Trained Adolescent Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Muyor, José M.; Sánchez-Sánchez, Estefanía; Sanz-Rivas, David; López-Miñarro, Pedro A.

    2013-01-01

    Sports with a predominance of forward-bending and extension postures have been associated with alterations in the sagittal spinal curvatures and greater risk of spinal injury. Because, the tennis players adopt these postures, the aims of this study were: 1) to describe spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt in male and female highly trained adolescent tennis players during relaxed standing posture and with thoracic spine corrected (in prone lying on the floor); and 2) to determine the frequency of thoracic hyperkyphosis and lumbar hypo/hyper lordosis in these postures. Forty adolescent tennis players (24 male and 16 female) aged 13-18 years, participated voluntarily in this study. The Spinal Mouse system was used to measure sagittal spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt. The mean values in the relaxed standing posture were 43.83° ± 7.87° (thoracic kyphosis), - 27.58° ± 7.01° (lumbar lordosis), and 13.38° ± 5.57° (pelvic tilt) for male tennis players, respectively; and 36.13° ± 6.69° (thoracic kyphosis), - 32.69° ± 5.06° (lumbar lordosis), 20.94° ± 5.36° (pelvic tilt) for female tennis players (p < 0.05 between genders in all spinal parameters). The male and female tennis players showed a frequency of 62.5% and 93.8% (p = 0.032) for neutral thoracic kyphosis, and 83.3% and 93.8% (p = 0.062) in neutral lumbar lordosis, respectively. In conclusion, due to the high percentage of neutral spinal curvatures in both male and female tennis players, to practice tennis in these levels does not alter sagittal spinal morphology in the relaxed standing posture in adolescent highly trained tennis players. Key Points This study evaluated thoracic and lumbar spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt during several postures in young highly trained tennis players. Female tennis players showed statistically significant greater anterior pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis and lower thoracic kyphosis than male tennis players. The high percentage of neutral thoracic kyphosis and lumbar

  4. Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery in Female Professional Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Young, Simon W.; Safran, Marc R.; Dakic, Jodie; Nguyen, Michael L.; Stroia, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Recent publications have highlighted the relatively poor outcome of other overhead athletes, particularly baseball players, with regard to return to sports at the same or higher level after shoulder surgery. However, true assessment of their ability when returning to sport is not as clear. Further, ability to return to other overhead sports has not been reported. Our objective was to assess outcome and time to return to previous level of function following shoulder surgery in professional tennis players. Methods: The records of all female tennis players on the Women’s Tennis Association (WTA) professional circuit between January 2008 and June 2010 were reviewed to identify players who underwent shoulder surgery on their dominant (serving) shoulder. Details of the surgery including date, procedures performed, and complications were recorded. The primary outcomes were ability and time to return to professional play, and if they were able to return to their previous level of function, as determined by singles ranking. Pre and post-operative singles rankings were used to determine rate and completeness of return to preoperative function. Their highest ranking pre-injury, post operatively, and the time to return to pre-injury ranking were evaluated. Results: During the study period eight professional women tennis players from the WTA underwent shoulder surgery on their dominant arm. All surgery was performed arthroscopically, 7 out of 8 players had more than one procedure performed during the surgery. In total, 3 players underwent debridement of a partial rotator cuff tear and 2 players underwent repair of a complete supraspinatus tear. Three players had an anterior labral repair or reconstruction for anterior instability, and one player underwent repair of a SLAP lesion. Two players underwent neurolysis of a suprascapular nerve, and three players in total underwent a subacromial decompression. All players (100%) returned to professional play. The mean

  5. Running activity profile of adolescent tennis players during match play.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Matthias W; Baumgart, Christian; Bornefeld, Jutta; Sperlich, Billy; Freiwald, Jürgen; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to assess the running activities of adolescent tennis players during match play with respect to velocity, acceleration, and deceleration; (2) to characterize changes in these activities during the course of a match; and (3) to identify potential differences between winners and losers. Twenty well-trained adolescent male athletes (13 ± 1 y) played one simulated match each (giving a total of 10 matches), during which distances covered at different velocity categories (0 to < 1, 1 to < 2, 2 to < 3, 3 to < 4, and ≥ 4 m·s(-1)) and number of running activities involving high velocity (≥ 3 m·s(-1)), acceleration (≥ 2 m·s(-2)), and deceleration (≤ -2 m·s(-2)) were monitored using a global positioning system (10 Hz). Heart rate was also assessed. The total match time, total distance covered, peak velocity, and mean heart rate were 81.2 ± 14.6 min, 3362 ± 869 m, 4.4 ± 0.8 m·s(-1), and 159 ± 12 beats·min(-1), respectively. Running activities involving high acceleration (0.6 ± 0.2 n·min(-1)) or deceleration (0.6 ± 0.2 n·min(-1)) were three times as frequent as those involving high velocity (0.2 ± 0.1 n·min(-1)). No change in the pattern of running activities (P ≥ .13, d ≤ 0.39) and no differences between winners and losers (P ≥ .22, d ≤ 0.53) were evident during match play. We conclude that training of well-trained adolescent male tennis players need not focus on further development of their running abilities, since this physical component of multifactorial tennis performance does not change during the course of a match and does not differ between the winners and losers. PMID:25111161

  6. Wii Tennis Play for Low-Income African American Adolescents' Energy Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2011-07-01

    Exergames, which are video games that require gross motor activity, are popular activities that produce energy expenditure. Seventy-four low-income African American 12- to 18-year-old adolescents were randomly assigned to a 30-minute condition: 1) solitary Wii tennis exergame play against virtual peers; 2) social Wii tennis exergame play against a real peer; or 3) control group with sedentary computer activity. Adolescents were tested for caloric expenditure after exposure to treatment conditions as well as on a tennis court using Actical accelerometers. Adolescents who played the social exergame against a peer expended significantly more energy than those who played alone. Both exergame groups expended more energy than the control group. Adolescents who played the social exergame also expended comparable calories to actual tennis court play during a simulated lesson. Exergames, then, could promote physical activity, thereby becoming a tool to combat the obesity crisis that is affecting many youth. PMID:24058381

  7. Effects of Tennis Training on Personality Development in Children and Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Erdal; Sahin, Gülsah; Sentürk, Ugur; Aydin, Halide; Altinkök, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week basic tennis training program on the personality development of early adolescents aged between 9 and 11 years. The research methodology consisted of a single group pre-test/post-test design implemented with a total of eight volunteer children (three boys and five girls). The…

  8. ACUTE CHANGES IN PASSIVE GLENOHUMERAL ROTATION FOLLOWING TENNIS PLAY EXPOSURE IN ELITE FEMALE PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Kibler, W. Ben; Myers, Natalie L.; Smith, Belinda J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alterations in glenohumeral (GH) rotation especially internal rotation and total range of motion have been associated with altered GH kinematics and susceptibility to injury. Researchers have evaluated long-term change in baseball and tennis players, and short-term changes in baseball players. However, acute (short-term) changes in GH rotation have not been evaluated in tennis players. Hypotheses/Purpose The purpose of this study was to quantify short-term glenohumeral rotational changes within a group of professional women's tennis players following competitive play. It was hypothesized that there would be acute alterations in passive glenohumeral internal rotation and total range of motion following episodes of tennis play. Study Design Cohort Study Methods Passive glenohumeral external rotation (GER), glenohumeral internal rotation (GIR), and total range of motion (TROM) were evaluated in a cohort of 79 professional adult female tennis players. Measurements were taken at three different time points (TP): baseline before match play (TP1), immediately after match play (TP2), and 24-hours after baseline (TP3). Results There was a statistically significant decrease in the mean GIR from TP1 (43 ± 11 °) to TP2 (39 ± 9 °) (p=0.002) and from TP1 to TP3 (38 ± 10 °) (p=0.001). All measures were at the level of minimal detectable change (MDC) (4 °) indicating clinical significance. There was a decrease in mean TROM from TP1 (146 ± 11 °) to TP2 (142 ± 12 °) (p=0.04), which was not above MDC (7 °). Subgroup analysis showed that 47% of the players demonstrated a decrease in GIR beyond MDC, and 37% demonstrated a decrease in TROM beyond MDC. GER remained unchanged across all time points (p>0.05). Conclusion Both GIR and TROM were reduced after acute exposure to tennis play. In a large subgroup of the cohort, the changes were clinically significant and approached values previously demonstrated to be associated with

  9. Relationship of Speed, Agility, Neuromuscular Power, and Selected Anthropometrical Variables and Performance Results of Male and Female Junior Tennis Players.

    PubMed

    Munivrana, Goran; Filipčić, Aleš; Filipčić, Tjaša

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to analyses the relation between the selected speed, agility, and neuromuscular power test items. The sample of subjects consisted of 154 male and 152 female young tennis players. Using six motor and three anthropometrical tests we investigate differences between males and females and between two age categories. Finally, we analyzed the relation between motor and anthropometrical tests and a player's tennis performance. The correlation between the two agility test items and 5-m sprint is very large in male players, while only moderate with 20-m sprint in female category. Male tennis players have higher correlations between speed test items and neuromuscular test items. The speed test item (5-m sprint) has large correlation with a player's tennis performance. One-way analysis of variance results indicated that young male tennis players performed significantly better than females in all motor test items. Significant differences between genders have not been revealed only in the body mass index. Differences between the males aged 18& under and 16& under have been noted as significant in all test items, except the vertical jump, while differences between the females have been noted as significant in three anthropometrical tests, quarter jump, and the fan-drill test. Regression analyses have shown that the system of prediction variables explains a relatively small part of variance (46%--males and 40%--females). In both genders, it has been revealed that test items measuring speed significantly influence a player's tennis performance. PMID:26434018

  10. Lumbar Mechanics in Tennis Groundstrokes: Differences in Elite Adolescent Players With and Without Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Amity; Straker, Leon; Whiteside, David; O'Sullivan, Peter; Elliott, Bruce; Reid, Machar

    2016-02-01

    Adolescent tennis players are at risk for low back pain (LBP). Recent research has demonstrated a potential mechanical etiology during serves; however, groundstrokes have also been suggested to load this region. Therefore, this study compared lumbar mechanics between players with and without a history of LBP during open and square stance tennis forehands and backhands. Nineteen elite, adolescent, male tennis players participated, 7 with a history of recurrent disabling LBP and 12 without. Differences in three-dimensional lumbar kinetics and kinematics were compared between pain/no pain groups and groundstrokes using linear mixed models (P < .01). There were no significant differences between pain/no pain groups. Relative to a right-handed player, groundstroke comparisons revealed that forehands had greater racquet velocity, greater lumbar right lateral flexion force, as well as upper lumbar extension/rightward rotation and lower lumbar right rotation/lateral flexion movements that were closer to or further beyond end of range than backhands. Backhands required upper lumbar leftward rotation that was beyond end range, while forehands did not. Given that players typically rotated near to their end of range during the backswing of both forehands and backhands, independent of pain, groundstrokes may contribute to the cumulative strain linked to LBP in tennis players. PMID:26367081

  11. Age-Related, Sport-Specific Adaptions of the Shoulder Girdle in Elite Adolescent Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Ann M.; Palmans, Tanneke; Johansson, Fredrik R.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Tennis requires repetitive overhead movements that can lead to upper extremity injury. The scapula and the shoulder play a vital role in injury-free playing. Scapular dysfunction and glenohumeral changes in strength and range of motion (ROM) have been associated with shoulder injury in the overhead athlete. Objective: To compare scapular position and strength and shoulder ROM and strength between Swedish elite tennis players of 3 age categories (<14, 14–16, and >16 years). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Tennis training sports facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-nine adolescent Swedish elite tennis players (ages 10–20 years) selected based on their national ranking. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used a clinical screening protocol with a digital inclinometer and a handheld dynamometer to measure scapular upward rotation at several angles of arm elevation, isometric scapular muscle strength, glenohumeral ROM, and isometric rotator cuff strength. Results: Players older than 16 years showed less scapular upward rotation on the dominant side at 90° and 180° (P < .05). Although all absolute scapular muscle strength values increased with age, there was no change in the body-weight–normalized strength of the middle (P = .9) and lower (P = .81) trapezius or serratus anterior (P = .17). Glenohumeral internal-rotation ROM and total ROM tended to decrease, but this finding was not statistically significant (P = .052 and P = .06, respectively). Whereas normalized internal-rotator strength increased from 14 to 16 years to older than 16 years (P = .009), normalized external-rotator and supraspinatus strength remained unchanged. Conclusions: Age-related changes in shoulder and scapular strength and ROM were apparent in elite adolescent tennis players. Future authors should examine the association of these adaptations with performance data and injury incidence. PMID:25098662

  12. Concentric Internal and Eccentric External Fatigue Resistanc of the Shoulder Rotator Muscles in Female Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Niederbracht, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    Background Shoulder muscle imbalance is a potential shoulder injury risk factor in athletes performing overhead sports. While normative functional peak strength of concentric external to concentric internal shoulder muscle fatigue data is available, comparisons of functional eccentric external to concentric internal shoulder rotator muscle fatigue resistance, which impacts muscle imbalance throughout the duration of play, have not been studied in this population. Objectives To assess fatigue resistance of the internal and external shoulder rotator muscles in female tennis players. Methods Fifteen female collegiate tennis players were tested bilaterally for shoulder concentric internal and eccentric external peak torque production throughout 20 maximal repetitions on a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer. Twelve t - tests were conducted to evaluate for differences in peak torque, relative fatigue ratios, and functional peak torque ratios between extremities and mode of activation during the first, as well as, last five repetitions that were conducted. Results Non-dominant concentric internal and eccentric external peak torque production significantly decreased throughout the twenty repetitions. Neither dominant concentric internal peak torque decrements and eccentric peak torque decrements were not significantly different across the twenty contractions. These changes in peak torque upon subsequent repetitions resulted in relative fatigue ratios of dominant eccentric external rotation that were significantly greater than non-dominant eccentric external rotation. Relative fatigue ratios of dominant concentric internal rotation did not differ from non-dominant concentric internal rotation. Conclusions The data suggest that eccentrically activated external shoulder rotator muscles could possibly adapt to overhead activities by becoming more fatigue resistant. PMID:21509131

  13. Match activity and physiological responses during a junior female singles tennis tournament

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez‐Fernandez, Jaime; Mendez‐Villanueva, Alberto; Fernandez‐Garcia, Benjamin; Terrados, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess physiological load in conjunction with individual patterns of match‐play activity in junior female tennis players during actual singles tennis competition. Methods Eight elite junior female tennis players (n = 8; mean (SD) age, 17.3 (1.9) years) took part in a 2 day invitational tournament. Activity pattern analysis was performed during competitive matches. Heart rate and blood lactate concentrations were measured during selected changeovers breaks in play. Results The activity profile of junior female players were: rally duration, (mean (SD)) 8.2 (5.2) s; rest time between rallies, 17.7 (6.5) s; effective playing time, 21.9 (3.8)%; strokes per rally, 2.7 (1.7); changes of direction per rally, 2.3 (1.4). The mean (SD) heart rate and blood lactate concentration recorded during the matches were 161 (5) beats/min and 2.0 (0.8) mmol/litre. Heart rate and blood lactate concentration values were influenced by the characteristics of the match and mean (SD) heart rate was significantly higher (p = 0.004) during service games (166 (15.4) beats/min) than in return games (156 (19.6) beats/min), while blood lactate concentrations were not significantly different (p = 0.83) between service (2.3 (0.6) mmol/litre) and return games (2.3 (0.9) mmol/litre). We found a significant (p<0.05) positive relationship between rally duration, strokes per rally, changes of direction and blood lactate and heart rate responses, with stronger correlations when the players were serving. Conclusions The physiological (ie, blood lactate and heart rate) responses associated with match play were influenced by the characteristics of the match (rally duration, strokes per rally and changes of direction), with higher heart rate on service position. Training programs should reflect these demands placed on female players during competitive match play. PMID:17562743

  14. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  15. Masculine Female Adolescents at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma'ayan, Hadar Dubowsky

    2003-01-01

    The current literatures on girls, queer youth, and multicultural education have ignored a significant group of young people and their experiences in school. This research is a retrospective exploratory study of masculine female adolescent schooling experiences, focusing on the school experiences of adults aged 18-54 who were socially defined as…

  16. Stress fracture of the ulna in a female table tennis tournament player.

    PubMed

    Petschnig, R; Wurnig, C; Rosen, A; Baron, R

    1997-09-01

    A stress fracture of the diaphyseal ulna occurred in a 19-year-old female competitive table tennis player with a history of secondary amenorrhea. Stress fractures are one of more common problems occurring in vigorous sports. Stress fractures of the ulna can result from any repeated forearm flexor muscle activity. In our case stress was caused by increased athletic activity by additional training twice a day six times a week starting eighth weeks before first signs of pain and by rhythmic repeated submaximal work load in a new job additional to training. Physical training is often associated with menstrual irregularity. Hormonal factors were known for six months. Spontaneous onset of pain in women and previous history of amenorrhea should include stress fractures as differential diagnosis. PMID:9407755

  17. Impact of Fitness Characteristics on Tennis Performance in Elite Junior Tennis Players.

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, Alexander; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The impact of fitness characteristics on tennis performance in adolescent players is not clearly understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test whether physical characteristics are related to players' competitive level (i.e., national youth ranking). A secondary aim was to compare adolescent tennis players by performance level (i.e., regional selected players and the national team). A total of 902 male and female junior players (aged, 11-16 years) in Germany were evaluated using a physical testing battery: grip strength; countermovement jump; 10 and 20-m sprint; tennis-specific sprint; overhead, forehand, and backhand medicine ball throws (MBT); serve velocity and tennis-specific endurance test (hit and turn tennis test). Results showed that serve velocity (r = -0.43 to 0.64 for female subjects [♀]; r = -0.33 to 0.49 for male subjects [♂]) and upper-body power (e.g., MBT r = -0.26 to -0.49 ♀; r = -0.20 to -0.49 ♂) were the most correlated predictors of tennis performance (i.e., national youth ranking) in both female and male tennis players. Moreover, national selected players showed better performance levels than their regional counterparts, mainly in the most predictive physical characteristics (i.e., serve velocity: effect size [ES], 0.78-1.04 ♀; ES 0.92-1.02 ♂, MBT: ES, 0.66-0.88 ♀; ES, 0.67-1.04 ♂) and specific endurance (ES, 0.05-0.95 ♀; ES, 0.31-0.73 ♂). The present findings underline the importance of certain physical attributes, especially serve velocity and strength- and power-related variables (upper body), and suggest the need to include these parameters in the area of training, physical testing, and talent identification of young tennis players. PMID:26605803

  18. [Nutritional problems of female adolescents].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view. PMID:26267767

  19. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values. PMID:12158005

  20. Eating disorders throughout female adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dominé, F; Dadoumont, C; Bourguignon, J-P

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are conditions which are becoming more and more widespread among adolescents and they often lead them to seek the opinion of a professional health caregiver, including gynecologists and pediatricians. EDs, and particularly anorexia nervosa (AN), are usually classified as psychological or psychiatric disorders, but they may have major somatic implications and complications as osteoporosis, nutritional deficiencies, cerebral atrophy, cardiac and metabolic disorders. A key issue in the management is prevention or reduction of both the serious somatic consequences and the important mental health consequences (e.g. depression, psychosocial withdrawal, phobia and suicide), integrating different perspectives (psychological or psychiatric - individual and familial -, genetic, nutritional, pediatric, gynecological). Adolescence is a critical period for the onset of EDs though they may also involve younger children. In this case, the consequences on the development (height, weight, puberty) can also be significant. In this review, we will focus on eating disorders in adolescent girls with an emphasis on AN. We describe variations in ED characteristics and their management depending on age at occurrence. A possible ED should be considered by pediatricians consulted about delayed female growth and puberty as well as gynecologists in patients with primary or secondary amenorrhea or infertility. PMID:22846535

  1. Canadian Open Tennis. Puzzle Corner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Ian A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the du Maurier Open, a women's tennis tournament. Explains that tennis becomes an elite sport at the level of the du Maurier Open. Presents a crossword puzzle that focuses on many of the female tennis stars and provides the across and down clues, a word list, and the answer key. (CMK)

  2. Comparing sports vision among three groups of soft tennis adolescent athletes: Normal vision, refractive errors with and without correction

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih-Tsun; Liu, Yen-Hsiu; Lee, Jiahn-Shing; See, Lai-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of correcting static vision on sports vision is still not clear. Aim: To examine whether sports vision (depth perception [DP], dynamic visual acuity [DVA], eye movement [EM], peripheral vision [PV], and momentary vision [MV],) were different among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision (Group A), with refractive error and corrected with (Group B) and without eyeglasses (Group C). Setting and Design: A cross-section study was conducted. Soft tennis athletes aged 10–13 who played softball tennis for 2–5 years, and who were without any ocular diseases and without visual training for the past 3 months were recruited. Materials and Methods: DPs were measured in an absolute deviation (mm) between a moving rod and fixing rod (approaching at 25 mm/s, receding at 25 mm/s, approaching at 50 mm/s, receding at 50 mm/s) using electric DP tester. A smaller deviation represented better DP. DVA, EM, PV, and MV were measured on a scale from 1 (worse) to 10 (best) using ATHLEVISION software. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the data among the three study groups. Results: A total of 73 athletes (37 in Group A, 8 in Group B, 28 in Group C) were enrolled in this study. All four items of DP showed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0051, 0.0004, 0.0095, 0.0021). PV displayed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0044). There was no significant difference in DVA, EM, and MV among the three study groups. Conclusions: Significant better DP and PV were seen among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision than those with refractive error regardless whether they had eyeglasses corrected. On the other hand, DVA, EM, and MV were similar among the three study groups. PMID:26632127

  3. Thai female adolescents' perceptions of dating violence.

    PubMed

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2009-10-01

    We explored how Thai female adolescents describe the meaning and context of dating violence. Twenty-four students, aged 15-17, were purposively recruited from a secondary school in Bangkok for individually audio-taped interviews. The interviews lasted 45- 70 minutes. ATLAS ti 5.2 was selected for content analysis. Five themes emerged, including characteristics of adolescent romantic relationships, influences on adolescent romantic relationships, perceptions of dating violence, cycle of dating-violence experiences, and influences on adolescents' perceptions of dating violence. The findings indicate a foundation for developing culturally sensitive programs for dating-violence prevention among Thai adolescents. PMID:19742362

  4. Predictors of Depression in Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Lisa A.; Lancaster, Sandra

    2001-01-01

    Study examined factors associated with symptoms of depression in female adolescents. Specifically, the relationship between theoretically related measures-separation-individuation; interpersonal concerns; attachment style; parental representations-and symptoms of depression was investigated. The model developed explained interrelationships of…

  5. Female Adolescents of Alcohol Misusers: Sexual Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Impact of parent alcohol misuse on the sexual behavior of female adolescents was studied with 1,134 teenagers of alcohol-misusing parents. Index adolescents were more likely to report sexual intercourse and greater frequency of intercourse. Gender of the drinking parent was related to a number of factors related to sexuality. (SLD)

  6. Physical Activity and Adolescent Female Psychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covey, Linda A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between self-reported past and present physical activity levels and self-image, sense of mastery, gender role identity, self-perceived physical ability, and self-perceived attractiveness were studied for 149 female high school sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Results are discussed in terms of adolescent emotional health. (SLD)

  7. Cystosarcoma phylloides in an adolescent female.

    PubMed

    Senocak, M E; Göğüş, S; Hiçsönmez, A; Büyükpamukçu, N

    1989-08-01

    Cystosarcoma phylloides is an exceedingly rare breast lesion in adolescent females. The tumour contains both stromal and epithelial elements. Benign, malignant and intermediate forms have been described. Complete simple excision is adequate for therapy in all variants. An additional case treated by wide local excision is presented and treatment is discussed. PMID:2552699

  8. Cystosarcoma phylloides in the adolescent female.

    PubMed

    Stromberg, B V; Golladay, E S

    1978-08-01

    Two cases of cystosarcoma phylloides in the adolescent female are presented and the literature reviewed. This lesion is usually benign. Even when malignant, simple excision has been curative in 2 or 3 cases. Therapy recommended is local excision with a small margin of normal tissue. PMID:210269

  9. Cyberspace violence against girls and adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, June F

    2006-11-01

    Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed. PMID:17189499

  10. Cystosarcoma phylloides in adolescent female patients.

    PubMed

    Briggs, R M; Walters, M; Rosenthal, D

    1983-12-01

    Nine cases of cystosarcoma phylloides in adolescent female patients are reported along with an additional 35 cases collected from the literature. Analysis of these 44 cases revealed 37 (84.1 percent) benign lesions, 6 (13.6 percent) malignant tumors, and 1 borderline lesion. Excision was the most common operative procedure and was performed in 35 patients. Nine patients underwent mastectomy. There were three recurrent lesions (one benign and two malignant) for a recurrence rate of 6.8 percent. Wide excision was successful in the treatment of recurrent lesions. On the basis of these data, excision is the preferred initial therapy of cystosarcoma phylloides in the adolescent patient regardless of the histologic classification of the lesion. Malignant cystosarcoma is more likely to recur than a benign lesion but a recurrence can be managed with reexcision. Sacrifice of the adolescent breast at the initial procedure is strongly discouraged. PMID:6316797

  11. Adolescent female murderers: characteristics and treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique

    2007-07-01

    This study examines individual and family characteristics of a population of 29 adolescent females charged with homicide or attempted homicide in the juvenile justice system. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the limited knowledge about adolescent females charged with homicide. Data were collected including the MAYSI-2, a risk classification instrument, and social, educational and family histories. Findings include high rates of reported substance use, delinquent peers, early indicators of mental health problems, and limited control and supervision by parents. The most common weapon used was a car and the most common victim was a known person. A comparison was conducted on girls charged with homicide during the commission of another crime or committed during a conflict. The conflict group was found to victimize friends and family significantly more often than the crime group. The crime group showed higher use of alcohol and drugs, used a gun more and had co-offenders at a higher rate. A profile was developed to describe the typical adolescent female homicide offender found in this study. Treatment recommendations and future research were discussed. PMID:17696677

  12. Peer Relations among Adolescents with Female Same-Sex Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainright, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics …

  13. Cystosarcoma phylloides in the adolescent female.

    PubMed

    Mollitt, D L; Golladay, E S; Gloster, E S; Jimenez, J F

    1987-10-01

    Between 1979 and 1985, five adolescent females have undergone excision of cystosarcoma phylloides. Mean age at presentation was 15 years with a range of 13 to 18 years. Clinical characteristics unique to this diagnosis included a recent history of rapid growth and the large size of the breast mass (mean diameter 7 cm) at initial presentation. Each patient underwent "cosmetic" excisional biopsy utilizing either a circumareolar or inframammary approach. In four patients, the neoplasm was benign with no postoperative recurrence (mean follow-up 33.8 months). The remaining lesion was malignant (liposarcoma) and subsequent simple mastectomy was performed. There was no evidence of disease at 35 months. PMID:2824740

  14. Peer attitudes towards adolescent participants in male- and female-oriented sports.

    PubMed

    Alley, Thomas R; Hicks, Catherine M

    2005-01-01

    This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in one of three sports. A total of 12 different descriptive paragraphs were used in a 2 (race) x 2 (sex) x 3 (sport) design. Each of these paragraphs, although short, ascribed a variety of traits that could be seen by raters as the independent variables: name (initials only), age, race, gender, hours of practice per week, number of competitions/performances per year, sport, and self-confidence. For this reason, raters were highly unlikely to surmise that sex and sport were the primary independent variables in the study. As predicted, there was a consistent decrease in rated femininity and increase in masculinity for both male and female adolescent targets as they switched from participating in a "feminine" (ballet) to a neutral (tennis) to a "masculine" (karate) sport. These results suggest that sex stereotypes for certain sports may influence who elects to participate and how participants are viewed by others. PMID:16114591

  15. Patterns of Sedentary Behaviours in Irish Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Aine; Heary, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in excessive sedentary behaviour represents a health risk for adolescents. The current study aimed to investigate patterns of sedentary behaviour amongst Irish female adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years old. 314 adolescents completed a questionnaire on their sedentary behaviour habits, health behaviours (physical activity, smoking,…

  16. Substance Abuse among Adolescent Females. Prevention Research Update No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodinger-de Uriarte, Cristina; Austin, Gregory

    This document examines what is known about alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) among adolescent females. The first half of the document discusses the following topics: (1) prevalence and patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among female adolescents; (2) correlates and risk of substance abuse, including age of initiation,…

  17. Defining Sexuality among Female Black Inner-City Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershenson, Harold P.; Handler, Arden

    Adolescents are able to respond correctly to questions about pregnancy risk and contraceptive use, yet still engage in risk-taking behavior. One explanation for this phenomenon may be the existence of a personal fable. To explore the existence of the personal fable in inner-city female adolescents, 22 eighth grade black females in Chicago…

  18. Dating Violence: Counseling Adolescent Females from an Existential Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klem, John; Owens, Andrea; Ross, Angela; Edwards, Lawanda; Cobia, Debra C.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present an existential framework for conceptualizing and intervening with adolescent females who are in violent relationships. Interventions involve addressing the adolescent female's anxiety associated with I. D. Yalom's (1980) constructs of meaning, death, isolation, and freedom. The goal of therapy is to assist the abused adolescent…

  19. Teachers' Perceptions of Adolescent Females with Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharias, Stephanie R. C.; Kelchner, Lisa N.; Creaghead, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' attitudes toward, and perceptions of personality traits of, female adolescents who presented with voice disorders. Method: For this comparative study consisting of a 25-item web-based semantic differential survey, teachers rated voice recordings of 4 female adolescents (considered…

  20. Intrateam Communication and Performance in Doubles Tennis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lausic, Domagoj; Tennebaum, Gershon; Eccles, David; Jeong, Allan; Johnson, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    Verbal and nonverbal communication is a critical mediator of performance in team sports and yet there is little extant research in sports that involves direct measures of communication. Our study explored communication within NCAA Division I female tennis doubles teams. Video and audio recordings of players during doubles tennis matches captured…

  1. The Adolescent Female Changing Voice: A Phenomenological Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the experience of female voice change from the perspective of female middle and high school choral students. The study was guided by two questions: How do adolescent female choir students experience voice change? What is the essence of the experience of voice change for middle school…

  2. Nutrition Habits and Knowledge in Competitive Adolescent Female Gymnasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loosli, Alvin R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Diet quality and nutrition knowledge were evaluated in 97 female adolescent competitive gymnasts. Results showed their nutritional knowledge to be poor, with both their caloric intake and their vitamin and mineral intake below recommended levels. (Author/MT)

  3. Adolescent female acne: etiology and management.

    PubMed

    Olutunmbi, Yetunde; Paley, Kristina; English, Joseph C

    2008-08-01

    Acne vulgaris, a multifactorial condition often conferring significant psychosocial morbidity, affects an estimated 40 million people in the United States. The majority of these individuals are adolescents and young adults. The pathophysiology of the condition is still not fully known, but it is believed to be related in part to excess sebum production, follicular hyperkeratinization, microbial colonization by P acnes, and inflammation. Prior to initiating treatment in a female patient, a hyperandrogenic state must be considered and ruled out through history, physical exam, and laboratory evaluation if necessary. Treatment options are vast and include hormonal therapy among others. Hormonal therapies have long been noted to reduce acne lesions and offer a valuable adjuvant to standard therapy. Hormonal agents are thought to improve acne by blocking the androgen receptor and/or decreasing circulating androgens which leads to decreased sebum production. Hormonal treatment options include spironolactone, other antiandrogens, and oral contraceptives. The use of these agents to effectively treat acne has been demonstrated in several randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Optimal results are often achieved with combination therapy with the goal of targeting multiple pathogenic pathways in acne development. PMID:18656070

  4. Iron deficiency in adolescent female dancers.

    PubMed Central

    Mahlamäki, E; Mahlamäki, S

    1988-01-01

    The iron balance of 25 adolescent dancers and 23 control females of the same age were studied. The concentrations of fasting blood haemoglobin, serum iron, serum transferrin and serum ferritin were determined. Iron supplementation (ferrous sulphate corresponding to 100 mg of elemental iron per day) was instigated if body iron stores were low (serum ferritin less than 30 micrograms.l-1). Blood samples were drawn again after ten weeks. Low haemoglobin concentration (blood haemoglobin less than 125 g.l-1) was more prevalent among dancers than among control subjects. Reduced iron stores as well as completely absent iron stores (serum ferritin concentration less than 12 micrograms.l-1) were equally common in both groups (25% of the subjects). Iron supplementation reduced the number of anaemic girls from 16 to 4 and the highly significant difference in haemoglobin level between the treated and untreated groups disappeared. Ten weeks of iron therapy was not, however, long enough to increase iron stores. PMID:3167502

  5. Psychiatric Comorbidities among Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Simmendinger, Nicole; Klinkowski, Nora; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Pfeiffer, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated current comorbid Axis I diagnoses associated with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) in adolescents. The sample included 101 female adolescents treated at a psychiatric unit for primary DSM-IV diagnoses of AN. 73.3% of the AN patients were diagnosed as having a current comorbidity of at least one comorbid Axis I diagnosis, with no…

  6. Sexuality of Deviant Females: Adolescent and Adult Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaliano, Peter Paul; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Suggests an association between negative sexual experiences in adolescents, low self-image, and subsequent deviant adult life styles. Results of a survey of prostitutes and a corresponding sample of female offenders showed that the prostitutes reported significantly more negative sexual experiences in adolescence. (Author/JAC)

  7. Factors Related to Female Adolescent Initiation into Violent Street Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Ira; Baskin, Deborah R.

    1994-01-01

    Studied when and how adolescent girls become involved in violent street crime as well as the explanatory factors for this criminal behavior. Subjects were 85 incarcerated women in New York City. Results suggest a need to better understand the impact of neighborhood, peer, and addiction factors in female adolescent criminal violence. (GLR)

  8. Phenomenological Research and Adolescent Female Sexuality: Discoveries and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Gabrielle; Higgs, Joy

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents research in female first sexual intercourse in Australia. Previous research in adolescent sexual behavior, particularly issues around first sexual intercourse behavior, has mainly utilized quantitative methodology. Our research adopted a qualitative approach to provide unique insight into adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes,…

  9. Experienced Control in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Age Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Phyllis G.

    Adolescent determination of behavior can be viewed as the result of perceived locus of control. To investigate adolescent perceptions of control in terms of age, loci of control (internal or external), situations (community and home), and direction of control (from or over the environment), 909 adolescents (345 males, 564 females), aged 11-19,…

  10. Teaching Tennis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breag, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an approach to teaching the basic skills of tennis to students in grades 4 and 5. It relates a five-lesson unit suitable to a near-weekly class schedule. The author found it effective when seeing his students as infrequently as once every four days for fifty minutes.

  11. Tennis, Anyone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ted R.; Burke, Maurice J.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the variety of strategies that can be used to determine the probability that a player wins a tennis game, given a probability of 60 percent that he or she wins each point. The article suggests strategies for using the problem in 9-12 classrooms.

  12. Erotic transference in the male adolescent-female analyst dyad.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, S; Gabbard, G O

    1995-01-01

    Erotic transference involving female analysts and adult male patients has received increased attention in the past ten years. Absent from the literature, however, are any clinical reports concerning erotic transferences of adolescent male patients with female therapists. This paper presents a fragment of a treatment involving an adolescent male patient who developed an erotic transference. The vicissitudes of the transference, as well as his relationship to his mother and father, are discussed from the perspective of developmental conflicts and tasks of adolescence. The countertransference dimensions of this particular gender constellation are also examined from the standpoint of intrapsychic and cultural factors. PMID:7480402

  13. Adolescent Male-to-Female Transgender Voice and Communication Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…

  14. Factors Affecting Drug Abuse in Adolescent Females in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renes, Susan L.; Strange, Anthony T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing adolescent female substance use in rural communities. Self-reported data gathered from females 12 to 15 years of age in two northwestern communities in the United States showed an association among gender identity, peer and parental relationships, and substance use. Aggressive masculinity had the strongest…

  15. Coping strategies of female adolescents with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Carolyn L; Brown, Sandra C

    2002-01-01

    This descriptive study was designed to assess coping strategies of female adolescents infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) (N = 30). Results from the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Questionnaire (ACOPES) revealed that the most often utilized coping strategies identified by the adolescents were: listening to music, thinking about good things, making your own decisions, being close to someone you care about, sleeping, trying on your own to deal with problems, eating, watching television, daydreaming and praying. The adolescents also reported low utilization of certain maladaptive coping strategies such as alcohol and illicit drug usage. Chronic illnesses such as HIV, cancer and diabetes are difficult for adolescents because of the unique developmental tasks needed to understand the psychological and social impact caused by chronic illnesses. The research presented illustrates the complexities of stress and the effects of coping on psychological well-being, health behavior, and health. This research explores specific coping strategies used by HIV-infected adolescents. Findings provided baseline data of the various coping strategies of female adolescents infected with HIV in an outpatient setting. These findings may serve as a foundation for future studies on coping strategies among females infected with HIV. Furthermore, the findings may also be useful in developing an outpatient behavior-modification/coping effectiveness training program that is both gender-specific and culturally appropriate. PMID:12244842

  16. Simplifying Tennis Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasil, Jay

    2005-01-01

    How many physical education programs incorporate tennis into the curriculum? How many physical educators feel proficient enough to teach tennis? Equally important, do students truly make progress when tennis is taught? Tennis instruction in secondary physical education settings is often frustrating for students and teachers alike. Many physical…

  17. Disparities in access to reproductive health options for female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ely, Gretchen E; Dulmus, Catherine N

    2010-05-01

    Fifty percent of female adolescents in the United States have intercourse by age 17, yet they do not have the autonomy under the law to access reproductive healthcare services that can address and prevent the negative consequences often associated with adolescent involvement in sexual activity. This article discusses disparities in access to reproductive health services for adolescents in three areas: abortion, over-the-counter emergency contraception, and the provision of the human papillomavirus vaccine. Suggestions for advocacy efforts necessary to eliminate such health disparities are also presented in an effort to elevate female adolescents to a status where they have the same access to health services that are available to adult women. PMID:20446180

  18. Psychiatric Symptoms due to Thyroid Disease in a Female Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Capetillo-Ventura, Nelly; Baeza, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is involved in the production of thyroid hormone which is needed to maintain the normal functioning of various organs and systems, including the central nervous system. This study reports a case of hypothyroidism in a fifteen-year-old female adolescent who was attended for psychiatric symptoms. This case reveals the importance of evaluating thyroid function in children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:25436160

  19. Tennis Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Bullard, J. A. A.

    1982-01-01

    Certain types of activity, particularly the wielding of a tennis racquet, put undue stress on the muscles of the forearm. The result can be extremely incapacitating as well as resistant to treatment. The earlier specific measures are introduced, the greater the success of conservative treatment. To provide this approach the physician must be aware of the multiple factors involved in the game. The backhand stroke appears to cause more problems than the forehand. Inexperienced players use the power of their elbows far more than the power of their whole bodies. Changes of technique or equipment may therefore be necessary. PMID:21286104

  20. Female adolescent sexuality. Promoting healthy sexual development.

    PubMed

    Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L

    2000-03-01

    Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual

  1. Social influences on morphine sensitization in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Hofford, Rebecca S; Roberts, Kris W; Wellman, Paul J; Eitan, Shoshana

    2010-08-01

    We recently observed that social interactions influence morphine responsiveness in adolescent males. Given sex-related differences in both social interactions and responses to morphine, the present study examines social influences on morphine sensitization in adolescent female mice. Four experimental groups were examined: (1) morphine-treated mice (twice daily, 10-40 mg/kg, s.c.) housed physically and visually separated from saline-treated mice ('morphine only'), (2) morphine-treated mice housed together with saline-treated mice ('morphine cage-mates (of saline)'), (3) saline-treated mice housed together with morphine-treated mice ('saline cage-mates (of morphine)'), and (4) saline-treated mice housed physically and visually separated from morphine-treated mice ('saline only'). Following the treatment period, mice were tested individually for their locomotor response to 20 mg/kg morphine (s.c.). There were no significant differences in morphine-induced hyper-locomotion between saline only and saline cage-mates (of morphine) female adolescent mice. Notably, morphine only mice exhibited significantly greater morphine sensitization as compared to morphine cage-mates (of saline). Thus, this study demonstrates social influences on morphine sensitization in adolescent females. Drug use during early adolescence is a key predictor of later drug abuse and dependence during adulthood. Thus, understanding the specific vulnerabilities to drug use in this age group may represent a first step in helping develop more effective treatment programs. PMID:20456874

  2. Disordered Eating among Female Adolescents: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2003-01-01

    Disordered eating among American adolescent females represents a significant health issue in our current cultural climate. Disordered eating receives insufficient attention, however, due to the public's unfamiliarity with symptoms and consequences, absence of treatment options, and unreliable instrumentation to detect disordered eating. Disordered…

  3. Female Adolescent Sex Offenders--An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendriks, J.; Bijleveld, C. C. J. H.

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 10 female adolescent sex offenders, aged between 11 and 18 years, is studied. They constitute about one-sixth of all young women who were registered at the prosecutor's office in the Netherlands during the past 10 years. Information was gathered from psychological screenings carried out in relation to the sex offence. Most young women…

  4. A review of knee pain in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Lipman, Rachel; John, Rita Marie

    2015-07-15

    Primary care practitioners are in a position to educate patients and parents about the risk factors that may increase the incidence of knee pain in adolescent females. This article highlights patellofemoral pain syndrome, Sinding-Larsen-Johansson syndrome, Osgood-Schlatter disease, and meniscal tears. PMID:26016939

  5. Mathematically Gifted Adolescent Females' Mixed Sentiment toward Gender Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Chen-yao

    2015-01-01

    There has been a paucity of research on gifted individuals' perceptions of gender stereotypes. The purpose of this study was to explore mathematically gifted adolescent females' perceptions of gender stereotypes through a research design of the qualitative multiple case study involving the constant comparison and the Three C's analysis scheme.…

  6. Identity Status and Academic Achievements in Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Raymond; Roselli, Linda L.

    1983-01-01

    Studied the relationship between identity status and academic achievement in female adolescents (N=20), based on the theories of Erikson and Marcia. Scoring of interviews suggested that experience and working through crises in beliefs were more closely associated with academic achievement and identity than specific commitments to career or…

  7. Treasured Possessions and Their Meanings in Adolescent Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamptner, N. Laura

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes treasured possessions and their meanings in adolescence, including their relation to those treasured during early life and their relation to self-identity. Subjects were 14- to 18-year-old high school students (n=249). Results showed that males' most treasured possessions embodied enjoyment and instrumental meanings, whereas females'…

  8. Psychosexual Background of Female Adolescents Seeking Contraceptive Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichelt, Paul A.

    In order to better meet the needs of female adolescents coming to a Planned Parenthood League Teen Center for prescription contraceptives, a study was undertaken to understand their psychosexual history. The study focused on the past and present sexual and contraceptive behavior of 532 new clients under the age of 18. The data were collected…

  9. Meeting the Reproductive Needs of Female Adolescents With Neurodevelopmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Fouquier, Katherine Ferrell; Camune, Barbara D

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of caring for female adolescents with neurodisabilities often overshadows normal biological changes. These young women may require additional or individualized support as they adapt to normal puberty and sexual maturation. Many choices are available to assist in managing menstrual problems, hygiene issues, and contraception. Special considerations regarding contraceptive methods, sexual education, and improving service accessibility are explored for clinicians. PMID:26016680

  10. Moebius syndrome with baroreflex failure in an adolescent female

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Megan; Simson, Gabrielle Gold-von

    2012-01-01

    An adolescent female with Moebius syndrome developed paroxysmal hypertension, orthostatic hypotension and autonomic symptoms. Common causes of dysautonomia were excluded by the work-up, which supported a diagnosis of baroreflex failure. Neurological testing suggested dysfunction of the tenth cranial nerve as the etiology. This report suggests that baroreflex dysfunction should be considered in Moebius syndrome patients displaying autonomic symptoms.

  11. Attitudes about Male-Female Relations among Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…

  12. Adolescent Females with Communication Disorders Involved in Violence: Educators' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Judy K.; Sanger, Dixie; Moore-Brown, Barbara J.; Smith, Leslie; Scheffler, Marilyn

    2003-01-01

    This study focused on increasing the awareness of educational leaders about the relationship between students with communication disorders and violence. A review of selected research on adolescent females with language problems residing in a correctional facility served to support a survey study and extend discussions about the need for…

  13. A social psychologic model of female adolescents' compliance with contraceptives.

    PubMed

    DuRant, R H; Jay, M S

    1987-06-01

    A theoretical model is proposed to help the clinician organize the multiple interrelationships between factors that may influence a female adolescent's compliance with her birth control method. 1 variable that has been found to be predictive for compliance in adults that was not included in the model is the quality of the patient-physician relationship. This variable was excluded because the model is a social psychological model that focuses on the attitudes and behavior of the female adolescent. The female adolescent's perception of the quality of her relationship with her health care provider can be accounted for under the component of the model discussing costs of acquiring birth control. A table contains a checklist of information the clinician may want to obtain from a patient to help determine if she may be at risk for noncompliance. Factors that influence contraceptive compliance are reviewed: frequency of sexual intercourse, perceived probability of pregnancy, premarital sexual standards and experiences, intimacy of sexual relationship, physical and emotional development, cognitive assessment of pregnancy, parental and peer support, and personality development. Lindemann and DeLamater argue that frequency of intercourse is the "prime mover" in the process of acquiring and using birth control. As the frequency of coitus increases or decreases, awareness of the possibility will increase or decrease. DeLamater hypothesizes that before assessing that pregnancy may be undesirable and thus initiating contraceptive use to prevent pregnancy, a woman 1st must perceive that she is at significant risk for becoming pregnant. Russ proposes that a major reason that sexually active female adolescents fail to use effective birth control is that they do not fully accept sexual intercourse as morally acceptable for themselves and thus are unable to rationally prepare for it. Rains argues that when a female adolescent initiates sexual activity, she is in a state of moral

  14. Individuation of Female Adolescents: Relations with Adolescents' Perceptions of Maternal Behavior and with Adolescent-Mother Discrepancies in Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Oppenheim, David; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The study examined how individuality and connectedness of female adolescents relate to their perceptions of maternal behavior and to adolescent-mother discrepancies in perceptions of maternal behavior. Seventy 16.5-year-old daughters and their mothers participated in the study. Individuality and connectedness of the daughters were assessed from…

  15. Menarche: Responses of Early Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrory, Arlene

    1990-01-01

    Investigated responses of menarcheal age females to menarche. Results from 95 girls indicated that premenarcheal girls thought menses was more debilitating than did postmenarcheal girls. Subjects who had been menstruating longer considered menses natural event but denied its effects. Found no significant difference in overall self-esteem and…

  16. Initiation of Sexual Activity among Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forste, Renata T.; Heaton, Tim B.

    1988-01-01

    Examination of data from the National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle III, reveals that a stable, structured environment decreased the occurrence of first intercourse for females between the age of 12 and 19. Such an environment is characterized by family stability, Hispanic ethnicity, high parental education, religious affiliation, regular church…

  17. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed ...

  18. Tennis elbow surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Lateral epicondylitis - surgery; Lateral tendinosis - surgery; Lateral tennis elbow - surgery ... Surgery to repair tennis elbow is usually an outpatient surgery. This means you will not stay in the hospital overnight. You will be ...

  19. Physical Activity in Adolescent Females with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger, Bahareh; Klingensmith, Georgeanna; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. We sought to identify amount of physical activity and relationship of physical activity to glycemic control among adolescent females 11 to 19 years of age with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We also sought to evaluate associations of age and ethnicity with physical activity levels. Research Design and Methods. Adolescent females ages 11–19 years (n = 203) were recruited during their outpatient diabetes appointment. Physical activity was obtained by self-report and was categorized as the number of days subjects had accumulated 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during the past 7 days and for a typical week. Results. Girls reported being physically active for at least 60 minutes per day on 2.7 ± 2.3 days in the last week, and on 3.1 ± 2.2 days in a typical week. A greater number of physically active days in a typical week were associated with lower A1c (P = .049) in linear regression analysis. Conclusion. Adolescent females with T1DM report exercising for at least 60 minutes about 3 days per week, which does not meet the international recommendations of 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activity per day. It is particularly important that adolescent girls with T1DM be encouraged to exercise since a greater number of physically active days per week is associated with better glycemic control. PMID:20652080

  20. Physical activity in adolescent females with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Bahareh; Klingensmith, Georgeanna; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K

    2010-01-01

    Objective. We sought to identify amount of physical activity and relationship of physical activity to glycemic control among adolescent females 11 to 19 years of age with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We also sought to evaluate associations of age and ethnicity with physical activity levels. Research Design and Methods. Adolescent females ages 11-19 years (n = 203) were recruited during their outpatient diabetes appointment. Physical activity was obtained by self-report and was categorized as the number of days subjects had accumulated 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during the past 7 days and for a typical week. Results. Girls reported being physically active for at least 60 minutes per day on 2.7 +/- 2.3 days in the last week, and on 3.1 +/- 2.2 days in a typical week. A greater number of physically active days in a typical week were associated with lower A1c (P = .049) in linear regression analysis. Conclusion. Adolescent females with T1DM report exercising for at least 60 minutes about 3 days per week, which does not meet the international recommendations of 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activity per day. It is particularly important that adolescent girls with T1DM be encouraged to exercise since a greater number of physically active days per week is associated with better glycemic control. PMID:20652080

  1. The Female Condom: Effectiveness and Convenience, Not "Female Control," Valued by U.S. Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latka, Mary H.; Kapadia, Farzana; Fortin, Princess

    2008-01-01

    Data on adolescents' views regarding the female condom are limited. We conducted seven single-gender focus groups with 47 New York City boys and girls aged 15-20 years (72% African American; 43% ever on public assistance; 72% sexually active; 25% had either been pregnant or fathered a pregnancy). Conceptual mapping was performed by participants to…

  2. Psychiatric comorbidities among female adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Simmendinger, Nicole; Klinkowski, Nora; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Pfeiffer, Ernst

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated current comorbid Axis I diagnoses associated with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) in adolescents. The sample included 101 female adolescents treated at a psychiatric unit for primary DSM-IV diagnoses of AN. 73.3% of the AN patients were diagnosed as having a current comorbidity of at least one comorbid Axis I diagnosis, with no differences across AN subtypes. Mood disorders (60.4%) were most commonly identified, followed by the category anxiety disorders without obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) (25.7%), OCD (16.8%) and substance use disorders (7.9%). Two specific diagnoses differed across the two subtypes of AN. Substance use disorder was 18 times, and the category anxiety disorder without OCD was three times as likely to co-occur with AN binge-eating disorder and purging type than with AN restricting type. Clinicians should be alerted to the particularly high rate of psychiatric comorbidities in adolescents suffering from AN. PMID:17987378

  3. Gender Differences in Coping among Elite Table Tennis Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirimoglu, Huseyin

    2011-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the explanatory power of social support and coping in relation to a competitive sport event between male and female table tennis players. 246 university students table tennis players (120 men and 126 women) from different region and part of Turkey were invited to participate in a survey study included the…

  4. Oseltamivir (tamiflu) induced depressive episode in a female adolescent.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sungho; Joung, Yoo Sook

    2010-12-01

    Oseltamivir was developed for prophylactic and therapeutic use against influenza, specifically targeting the viral enzyme's highly-conserved active site. In recent years, there have been case reports of neuropsychiatric events during or after oseltamivir treatment, in Japan and other countries. However, a search of the literature revealed no such cases in South Korea. We present the case of a 15-year-old female adolescent diagnosed with depressive episode after taking oseltamivir. Oseltamivir is generally well tolerated. Its most frequent adverse effects include nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. In influenza patients taking oseltamivir, neuropsychiatric adverse events include delirium, behavioral disturbance, suicide, delusion, panic attack, convulsion, depressed mood, loss of consciousness, etc. Reportedly, such neuropsychiatric adverse events were more common in children than in adults and generally occurred within 48 hours of administration. Here, we report a retrospective review case of an oseltamivir-related neuropsychiatric event in a female adolescent in South Korea. PMID:21253416

  5. Body Image and the Female Adolescent Oncology Patient.

    PubMed

    Burg, Alison Joy

    2016-01-01

    Female adolescent oncology patients undergo many physical changes throughout treatment that have challenging psychological, emotional, and social implications. Body image for this population is a subject that tends to be overlooked in the midst of the cancer experience. This article will examine the complex concept of body image and discuss why female adolescent patients are at such high risk for negative body image. Assessment and care strategies are needed to foster a positive body image, resiliency, and overall well-being. Although survivorship studies may offer insightful information about the effects of the cancer journey on long-term body image, focus should be on prevention and holistic care as part of the treatment itself. The health care team, especially nursing professionals, should acknowledge, recognize, and address this vital issue as a critical part of oncology care. PMID:25643971

  6. Views of Adolescent Female Youth on Physical Activity During Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Yungblut, Hope E.; Schinke, Robert J.; McGannon, Kerry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004). This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes. Key points Please provide 3-5 bullet points of the study. Inductive qualitative methodologies can encourage the much-needed voice of female youth in sport and physical activity research. Vignettes serve, not only as a method to illustrate data, but also as a medium to teach contextually relevant information to participants and sport science service providers. The barriers and solutions to female youth engagement in physical activity are best understood through the perspectives of the intended participant. Female youth can serve as central informants in the development and analysis of research projects relating to female youth physical activity. PMID:24149121

  7. Abnormality of EEG alpha asymmetry in female adolescent suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Graae, F; Tenke, C; Bruder, G; Rotheram, M J; Piacentini, J; Castro-Blanco, D; Leite, P; Towey, J

    1996-10-15

    Abnormal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity has been associated with various psychiatric disorders and behaviors, including depression, suicide, and aggression. We examined quantitative resting EEG in Hispanic female adolescent suicide attempters and matched normal controls. Computerized EEG measures were recorded at 11 scalp sites during eyes open and eyes closed periods from 16 suicide attempters and 22 normal controls. Suicide attempters differed from normal controls in alpha asymmetry. Normal adolescents had greater alpha (less activation) over right than left hemisphere, whereas suicidal adolescents had a nonsignificant asymmetry in the opposite direction. Nondepressed attempters were distinguished from depressed attempters in that they accounted for the preponderance of abnormal asymmetry, particularly in posterior regions. Alpha asymmetry over posterior regions was related to ratings of suicidal intent, but not depression severity. The alpha asymmetry in suicidal adolescents resembled that seen for depressed adults in its abnormal direction, but not in its regional distribution. Findings for suicidal adolescents are discussed in terms of a hypothesis of reduced left posterior activation, which is not related to depression but to suicidal or aggressive behavior. PMID:8894062

  8. Body composition and risk for metabolic alterations in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C.; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study anthropometrical and body composition variables as predictors of risk for metabolic alterations and metabolic syndrome in female adolescents. METHODS: Biochemical, clinical and corporal composition data of 100 adolescents from 14 to 17 years old, who attended public schools in Viçosa, Southeastern Brazil, were collected. RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, 83, 11 and 6% showed eutrophia, overweight/obesity and low weight, respectively, and 61% presented high body fat percent. Total cholesterol presented the highest percentage of inadequacy (57%), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL - 50%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL - 47%) and triacylglycerol (22%). Inadequacy was observed in 11, 9, 3 and 4% in relation to insulin resistance, fasting insulin, blood pressure and glycemia, respectively. The highest values of the fasting insulin and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were verified at the highest quartiles of body mass index (BMI), waist perimeter, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percent. Body mass index, waist perimeter, and waist-to-height ratio were the better predictors for high levels of HOMA-IR, blood glucose and fasting insulin. Waist-to-hip ratio was associated to arterial hypertension diagnosis. All body composition variables were effective in metabolic syndrome diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Waist perimeter, BMI and waist-to-height ratio showed to be good predictors for metabolic alterations in female adolescents and then should be used together for the nutritional assessment in this age range. PMID:25119752

  9. Inappropriate eating behavior: a longitudinal study with female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB) of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months). The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001) and T3 (p=0.001). The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04). The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year. PMID:24676195

  10. The Eating Disorders Examination in Adolescent Males with Anorexia Nervosa: How Does It Compare to Adolescent Females?

    PubMed Central

    Darcy, Alison M.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Lock, James; Peebles, Rebecka; Doyle, Peter; Le Grange, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to explore the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) for adolescent males with eating disorders (EDs) compared with adolescent females with EDs. Method Data were collected from 48 males and matched on percent median body weight (MBW) and age to 48 females at two sites. Results Adolescent males with anorexia nervosa-type presentation scored significantly lower than matched females on Shape Concern, Weight Concern, and Global score. They also scored lower on a number of individual items. Discussion The EDE has clinical utility with adolescent males with anorexic-type presentation although males’ scoring ranges are consistently lower than those from adolescent females with similar clinical presentations. Males scored significantly lower on a number of items representing core symptoms such as desire to lose weight. More research is needed to gain a better understanding of the experience of adolescent males with EDs, particularly in relation to the nature of shape concern. PMID:22170022

  11. Dermpath quiz: An irregularly colored papule on the back of an adolescent female

    PubMed Central

    Price, Alexandra; Polley, Dennis C.; Sabol, Michael E.; Elston, Dirk M.

    2015-01-01

    This learning exercise challenges clinicians and dermatopathologists to consider the differential diagnosis of an unevenly colored solitary papule over the upper back of an adolescent female. PMID:26904453

  12. Psychiatric diagnoses in minority female adolescent suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Trautman, P D; Rotheram-Borus, M J; Dopkins, S; Lewin, N

    1991-07-01

    Psychiatric diagnoses were examined using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children semistructured interview among three groups of minority adolescent females aged 12 to 17:61 suicide attempters, 31 psychiatrically disturbed nonattempters, and 23 nonattempting, nondisturbed girls. Major or minor depressive disorder was found in 42% of the suicide attempters; conduct disorder in 46%; multiple diagnoses in 38%, no diagnosis in 13%. These rates were very similar to those found in disturbed nonattempters. Only one symptom, suicidal ideation, distinguished attempters from disturbed nonattempters, while many symptoms distinguished these two groups from nondisturbed nonattempters. PMID:1890096

  13. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Krabbendam, Anne A; Colins, Olivier F; Doreleijers, Theo A H; van der Molen, Elsa; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed for traumatic experiences and mental health problems (mean age = 15.5 years). Three to 6 years later (M = 4.5; SD = 0.6), ASPD and BPD were diagnosed with a semistructured interview. Forty percent of the women had a personality disorder (i.e., ASPD 15.8%, BPD 9.2%, or both ASPD and BPD 15.2%). Posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and dissociation during detention increased the risk for BPD in adulthood. Surprisingly, neither conduct problems nor substance dependence predicted ASPD; these findings require further study because they add to the controversy surrounding ASPD in females. The high prevalence rates of personality disorders indicate the need for intervention programs that target these unwanted outcomes. PMID:25420142

  14. Influence of sexual competition and social context on homosexual behavior in adolescent female Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Gunst, Noëlle; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-05-01

    We explored the role that sexual and social partners play in the expression of female homosexual behavior among adolescent female Japanese macaques at Arashiyama, Japan. Our data fully or partially supported all the predictions related to four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses, namely the "adult male disinterest in adolescent females" hypothesis, the "numerous homosexual adult females" hypothesis, the "safer homosexual interactions" hypothesis and the "same-sex sexual interactions" hypothesis. Our results show that both sexual context (e.g., lack of adolescent female attractivity toward adult males, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners), and social context (e.g., risk of aggression) help explain the high frequency and prevalence of homosexual behavior in adolescent females in the Arashiyama group of Japanese macaques. As with adult females, whose homosexual consortships do not reflect generalized patterns of social affiliation or kinship, we found that adolescent females' same-sex sexual partners were neither kin, nor were they non-kin individuals with whom adolescent females were closely affiliated outside of a consortship context. Our study furthers the growing database of female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques and provides additional evidence that homosexual behavior as expressed by adolescent female Japanese macaques is, like heterosexual behavior, sexual in nature. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a broader comparative approach that may shed light upon the development and evolution of human homosexuality. PMID:25597406

  15. The effect of a wellness program on adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Jenifer M; Haas, Barbara K; Gosselin, Kevin P

    2014-05-01

    Guided by Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a comprehensive wellness intervention on total wellness, physical fitness, and self-efficacy for health promoting behaviors in adolescent females, ages 14 to 19, enrolled in physical education (PE) classes in Grades 9 to 12. The intervention was administered in an experimental pre-test, post-test, two group design in rural east Texas. Participants (n = 153) were randomly assigned to a 12-week intervention or control group. Independent t-tests to determine differences between the intervention and control groups were nonsignificant for overall wellness and physical fitness. The Wellness Essential-Self subscale score was significantly higher in the intervention group, t(64, 36) = 2.67, p = .005, d = .84. Self-Efficacy Health Promotion subscale scores for the intervention group were also significantly higher, t(20,28) = 2.60, p = .006, d = .74. The intervention has potential to improve overall wellness in adolescent females. PMID:24178783

  16. Menstrual cycle influences on voice and speech in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Meurer, Elisea M; Garcez, Vera; von Eye Corleta, Helena; Capp, Edison

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize voice intensity and stability of fundamental frequency, formants and diadochokinesis, vocal modulations, rhythms, and speed of speech in adolescents during follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Twenty-three adolescent females who were nonusers of oral contraceptives participated in a cross-sectional study of menstrual cycle influences on voicing and speaking tasks. Acoustic analyses were performed during both phases of the menstrual cycle using the Kay Elemetrics Computer Speech Lab Software Package. Data were analyzed using Student's paired sample t test. Phono-articulatory parameters were similar in both phases of the menstrual cycle (fundamental frequency: 192.6+/-23.9 Hz; minimum formant 891.7+/-110.3 Hz; and maximum formant: 2471.5+/-203.6 Hz). In diadochokinesis, they had a speed of 5.6+/-0.6 seg/s and vocal intensity was 61.5+/-2.6 dB. The mean values for the variations in voice modulations were as follows: anger (21.7+/-8.7 Hz)adolescents showed similar voice fundamental frequency and intensity, formants, speed of speech, and suprasegmental speech parameters. The results shown in this study may be used as standard of acoustic phono-articulatory for adolescents. PMID:17981011

  17. Evaluating an Adolescent Behavioral Program: Leadership, Education, Achievement, and Development for Adolescent Female Offenders in Corrections.

    PubMed

    Panosky, Denise M; Shelton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a pilot study designed to: test the feasibility of implementation, assess implementation barriers, and determine the effectiveness of a modified evidence-based program designed for adolescent female offenders in a women's correctional facility in the United States. A therapeutic expressive arts behavioral program, Leadership, Education, Achievement and Development (LEAD), has been used in community settings as a health promotion program. This behavioral program was adapted to LEAD-Corrections (LEAD-C) and serves incarcerated adolescent female offenders. Results of this pilot study show that it is feasible to offer LEAD-C in a correctional setting. Positive effects were noted on session satisfaction surveys as well as formative and summative evaluations. Implementation of LEAD-C, using therapeutic expressive arts interventions, included coping strategies to help adolescents become confident and self-assured and review better choices. Adolescents were taught to utilize these learned coping strategies in their life, which may help to overcome adversity, enhance resilience, and support youth transition at the time of reentry to the community. PMID:26186153

  18. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Depression in Urban Adolescent Females: Implications for Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor

    Despite an increased interest in adolescent depression from theoretical and clinical perspectives, there have been few attempts to investigate depression in non-clinical populations. To identify demographic, sociocultural, and behavioral factors related to adolescent depression in a non-clinical population of urban adolescent females, a racially…

  19. Family History Predicts Stress Fracture in Active Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Loud, Keith J.; Micheli, Lyle J.; Bristol, Stephanie; Austin, S. Bryn; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Increased physical activity and menstrual irregularity have been associated with increased risk for stress fracture among adult women active in athletics. The purposes of this study were to determine whether menstrual irregularity is also a risk factor for stress fracture in active female adolescents and to estimate the quantity of exercise associated with an increased risk for this injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS A case-control study was conducted of 13- to 22-year-old females diagnosed with their first stress fracture, each matched prospectively on age and self-reported ethnicity with 2 controls. Patients with chronic illnesses or use of medications known to affect bone mineral density were excluded, including use of hormonal preparations that could alter menstrual cycles. The primary outcome, stress fracture in any extremity or the spine, was confirmed radiographically. Girls with stress fracture had bone mineral density measured at the lumbar spine by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS The mean ± SD age of the 168 participants was 15.9 ± 2.1 years; 91.7% were postmenarchal, with a mean age at menarche of 13.1 ± 1.1 years. The prevalence of menstrual irregularity was similar among cases and controls. There was no significant difference in the mean hours per week of total physical activity between girls in this sample with stress fracture (8.2 hours/week) and those without (7.4 hours/week). In multivariate models, case subjects had nearly 3 times the odds of having a family member with osteoporosis or osteopenia. In secondary analyses, participants with stress fracture had a low mean spinal bone mineral density for their age. CONCLUSIONS Among highly active female adolescents, only family history was independently associated with stress fracture. The magnitude of this association suggests that further investigations of inheritable skeletal factors are warranted in this population, along with evaluation of bone mineral density in girls with stress

  20. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Extreme Personality Dispositions in Adolescent Female Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pergadia, Michele L.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Lessov, Christina N.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The objective was to determine whether the pattern of environmental and genetic influences on deviant personality scores differs from that observed for the normative range of personality, comparing results in adolescent and adult female twins. Methods: A sample of 2,796 female adolescent twins ascertained from birth records provided…

  1. Images of Black Females in Children's/Adolescent Contemporary Realistic Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Dierdre Glenn

    1999-01-01

    Examines the messages transmitted to black girls through books for children and adolescents commonly introduced in school. Concludes that children's and adolescents' books do reflect a trickle-down effect of images of black females and poor white females that appear in adult books and films. (SLD)

  2. Eating Disorders among a Community-Based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…

  3. Comparison of Language Skills of Adjudicated and Nonadjudicated Adolescent Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Debra J.; Dagenais, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study attempted to determine whether there were any differences or similarities in the basic cognitive and language skills of 4 groups of adolescents: adjudicated (a judge's decision to establish responsibility for a delinquent act) and nonadjudicated male and females. Method: The 4 groups of adolescents were 18 adjudicated females,…

  4. 14 Week Group Counselling Proposal for Increasing Self-Esteem in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Katherine; Mills, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    This psychoeducational counselling group is designed to explore the many facets of the emerging female adolescent identity and foster a high level of self-esteem. According to Powell (2004) adolescence is a time, and even more so for females, which can be marked by many identity conflicts and low levels of self-esteem. As such, this 14 week…

  5. The Dilemmas of Peer Relationships Confronting Mathematically Gifted Female Adolescents: Nine Cases in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Chen-Yao

    2011-01-01

    There has been a scarcity of research studies addressing the dilemmas of peer relationships confronting gifted adolescent females. In this study, the peer relationships of nine mathematically gifted adolescent females living in Taiwan are explored using a qualitative multicase study. Data analysis revealed six compelling themes: a proclivity for…

  6. [Injuries in male and female adolescent soccer players].

    PubMed

    Schneider, A S; Mayer, H M; Geißler, U; Rumpf, M C; Schneider, C

    2013-03-01

    This study addresses the epidemiology of injuries in adolescent male and female soccer players in Germany. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to analyse the injuries in male and female youth soccer players in Germany. This study was designed as a cross-sectional web-based survey. From March until December 2011 we investigated 1110 soccer players (male n = 841; female n = 269) aged 12 - 19 years (15.0 ± 2.0 years) from 60 clubs in Southern Germany. A total of 664 (79 %) of the 841 boys and 67 (25 %) of the 269 girls reported being injured due to soccer. The total number of injuries was 2373. Respectively the frequency of injury was 2.85 in boys and 7.10 in girls. The lower extremities were affected in 70 % of all reported cases. Strains were the most common injuries in the lower and upper extremities (35 %). The boys reported in 51.5 % of all injuries that the injury was non-contact in nature. In contrast, 52.1 % of the injuries in girls were reported as contact injuries. Similar amounts of injuries were observed in training versus games for both genders. Prevention procedures, such as a thorough warm-up, should be implemented before every game and training to reduce the risk of injury. PMID:23446953

  7. Exploring dysmenorrhoea and menstrual experiences among Lebanese female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Santina, T; Wehbe, N; Ziade, F

    2012-08-01

    Data on menstrual experiences and their impact on quality of life among women in developing countries are scant. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dysmenorrhoea among adolescent girls in Sidon city and suburbs, Lebanon, and to explore its possible relationship with menstrual experience. In a cross-sectional design, 389 post-menarcheal schoolgirls aged 13-19 years were selected using a cluster random sampling method. Of these 161 (41.4%) were regularly or sometimes absent from school due to menstrual problems and 289 (74.3%) experienced dysmenorrhoea. Nevertheless only 7.3% of the girls had consulted a physician about dysmenorrhoea. Three-quarters of these young women (75.2%) had scores indicating negative menstrual experience based on the Menstrual Experience and Behavior Questionnaire. Significant predictors of dysmenorrhoea were negative menstrual experience, younger age of girl, longer duration of bleeding and longer cycle length. Better reproductive health educational programmes focusing on menstruation are needed for female adolescents. PMID:23057375

  8. On the Gender Effects of Handedness in Professional Tennis

    PubMed Central

    Breznik, Kristijan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of the gender variable in relation to other player and match characteristics on the advantage possessed by left-handed professional tennis players over their right-handed rivals. The data include 16 732 male tennis players and 16 432 female tennis players who played 438 937 and 415 346 matches, respectively, in the period from 1968 to the end of 2011. The results revealed that the advantage of left-handed professional tennis players is higher in males compared to females. The inverse impact of player and match quality on the left- handers’ advantage was clearly confirmed. On the contrary, it seems that the type of court surface does not directly imply this advantage. To obtain an overview on the individual level, directed and weighted networks of tennis matches in both gender categories were constructed. Applying network analytic methods and the PageRank algorithm, the best left and right-handed players in the Open Era of tennis were identified. The top three ranked left-handed players in the male and female categories were found to be far more consistent in their ranks achieved against left and right-handed opponents compared to their right-handed counterparts. Key Points The advantage of left-handed professional tennis players over their right-handed opponents is higher in males compared to females. The quality of player and match is inversely proportional to the advantage of left-handers against their right-handed counterparts. On the contrary, it seems that the type of court surface does not directly imply this advantage. When the tennis talent appears in left-handers it is likely to be an outstanding one, particularly in the female category. PMID:24149815

  9. Persistent genital hyperinnervation following progesterone administration to adolescent female rats.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhaohui; Smith, Peter G

    2014-12-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia, a female pelvic pain syndrome affecting substantial numbers of women, is characterized by genital hypersensitivity and sensory hyperinnervation. Previous studies have shown that the risk of developing provoked vestibulodynia is markedly elevated following adolescent use of oral contraceptives with high progesterone content. We hypothesized that progesterone, a steroid hormone with known neurotropic properties, may alter genital innervation through direct or indirect actions. Female Sprague Dawley rats received progesterone (20 mg/kg subcutaneously) from Days 20-27; tissue was removed for analysis in some rats on Day 28, while others were ovariectomized on Day 43 and infused for 7 days with vehicle or 17beta estradiol. Progesterone resulted in overall increases in vaginal innervation at both Day 28 and 50 due to proliferation of peptidergic sensory and sympathetic (but not parasympathetic) axons. Estradiol reduced innervation in progesterone-treated and untreated groups. To assess the mechanisms of sensory hyperinnervation, we cultured dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons and found that progesterone increases neurite outgrowth by small unmyelinated (but not myelinated) sensory neurons, it was receptor mediated, and it was nonadditive with NGF. Pretreatment of ganglion with progesterone also increased neurite outgrowth in response to vaginal target explants. However, pretreatment of vaginal target with progesterone did not improve outgrowth. We conclude that adolescent progesterone exposure may contribute to provoked vestibulodynia by eliciting persistent genital hyperinnervation via a direct effect on unmyelinated sensory nociceptor neurons and that estradiol, a well-documented therapeutic, may alleviate symptoms in part by reducing progesterone-induced sensory hyperinnervation. PMID:25359899

  10. Fluoxetine disrupts motivation and GABAergic signaling in adolescent female hamsters.

    PubMed

    Shannonhouse, John L; DuBois, Dustin W; Fincher, Annette S; Vela, Alejandra M; Henry, Morgan M; Wellman, Paul J; Frye, Gerald D; Morgan, Caurnel

    2016-08-01

    Initial antidepressant treatment can paradoxically worsen symptoms in depressed adolescents by undetermined mechanisms. Interestingly, antidepressants modulate GABAA receptors, which mediate paradoxical effects of other therapeutic drugs, particularly in females. Although the neuroanatomic site of action for this paradox is unknown, elevated GABAA receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens can disrupt motivation. We assessed fluoxetine's effects on motivated behaviors in pubescent female hamsters - anhedonia in the reward investigational preference (RIP) test as well as anxiety in the anxiety-related feeding/exploration conflict (AFEC) test. We also assessed accumbal signaling by RT-PCR and electrophysiology. Fluoxetine initially worsened motivated behaviors at puberty, relative to adulthood. It also failed to improve these behaviors as pubescent hamsters transitioned into adulthood. Low accumbal mRNA levels of multiple GABAA receptor subunits and GABA-synthesizing enzyme, GAD67, assessed by RT-PCR, suggested low GABAergic tone at puberty. Nonetheless, rapid fluoxetine-induced reductions of α5GABAA receptor and BDNF mRNA levels at puberty were consistent with age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine and disruption of the motivational state. Whole-cell patch clamping of accumbal slices also suggested low GABAergic tone by the low amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) at puberty. It also confirmed age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine. Specifically, fluoxetine potentiated mIPSC amplitude and frequency at puberty, but attenuated the amplitude during adulthood. These results implicate GABAergic tone and GABAA receptor plasticity in adverse motivational responses and resistance to fluoxetine during adolescence. PMID:27068049

  11. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Cytomegalovirus Infections in Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Laura Patricia; Bernstein, David I.; Callahan, S. Todd; Turley, Christine B.; Munoz, Flor M.; Ferreira, Jennifer; Acharya, Mekhala; Simone, Gina A. Gorgone; Patel, Shital M.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading cause of disability, including sensorineural hearing loss, developmental delay, and mental retardation. Understanding risk factors for acquisition of CMV infection in adolescent females will help determine vaccine strategies. Methods Females (12–17 years) were recruited from primary care settings in Cincinnati, Galveston, Houston, and Nashville from June 2006 to July 2010 for a seroepidemiologic study, from which seronegative participants were recruited for a CMV vaccine trial. Participants (n = 1585) responded to questions regarding potential exposures. For those with young children in the home (n = 859), additional questions were asked about feeding and changing diapers, and for those > 14 years of age (n = 1162), questions regarding sexual activity were asked. Serum was evaluated for CMV antibody using a commercial immunoglobulin G assay. Results Cytomegalovirus antibody was detected in 49% of participants. In the univariate analyses, CMV seroprevalence was significantly higher among African Americans, those with children < 3 years of age in the home, and those with a history of oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse. Among those with young children in the home, feeding children and changing diapers further increased the association with CMV infection. However, in the final multivariate analysis, only African Americans and household contact with young children were associated with CMV infection. Conclusions By age 12, evidence of CMV infection was common. Multiple factors regarding race and personal behaviors likely contribute to seroconversion earlier in life. PMID:23687583

  12. Pathways to Sexual Risk Taking Among Female Adolescent Detainees

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African American female adolescent detainees: a relational pathway and a substance use coping pathway. The relational pathway indicated that child maltreatment would be related to non-condom use via depressive self-concept and condom use self-efficacy. The substance use coping pathway suggested that depressive self-concept and alcohol-based expectancies for sexual enhancement would mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and non-condom use. As hypothesized, the relational pathway variables were associated with one another in the expected directions; however, evidence of mediation was not found. Support for mediation was found for the substance use coping pathway. Exploratory across group comparison analysis indicated that the relational pathway was significant for White girls whereas the substance use coping pathway was significant for African American girls. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:21188488

  13. Wii Tennis Play for Low-Income African American Adolescents’ Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Exergames, which are video games that require gross motor activity, are popular activities that produce energy expenditure. Seventy-four low-income African American 12- to 18-year-old adolescents were randomly assigned to a 30-minute condition: 1) solitary Wii tennis exergame play against virtual peers; 2) social Wii tennis exergame play against a real peer; or 3) control group with sedentary computer activity. Adolescents were tested for caloric expenditure after exposure to treatment conditions as well as on a tennis court using Actical accelerometers. Adolescents who played the social exergame against a peer expended significantly more energy than those who played alone. Both exergame groups expended more energy than the control group. Adolescents who played the social exergame also expended comparable calories to actual tennis court play during a simulated lesson. Exergames, then, could promote physical activity, thereby becoming a tool to combat the obesity crisis that is affecting many youth. PMID:24058381

  14. Differences in physical fitness among young tennis players in between 1992 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Filipčič, Aleg; Filipčič, Tjasa; Leskošek, Bojan

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to find a trend of changes for selected anthropometric characteristics and motor abilities of young male and female tennis players of three different age groups. Trends were observed in the periods between 1992, 2000 and 2008. In addition, a comparison of results of tennis players and school pupils was included. The sample of subjects were selections of young tennis players and of primary and secondary schools pupils (boys and girls) divided into three age groups (12- to 13-year-olds, 14- to 15-year-olds, and 16- to 17-year-olds). Fitness tests items (backwards obstacle course, forward bend on the bench, 20-second hand-tapping, 60-second sit-ups) and three anthropometric measurements (body height, body weight, BMI) were included in this study. The analysis of trends for different periods of measurement in male and female tennis players revealed an increase in some test items and a decrease in others. In the majority of observed fitness test items, young tennis players performed better than their school peers, indicating the positive effects of training and an appropriate selection process of tennis players. Male and female tennis players were taller than the school pupils, and body height values in both groups increased from 1992 to 2008. The body weight and BMI values for male and female tennis players, and male and female pupils in all three age groups have been constantly increasing. PMID:26040081

  15. Body dissatisfaction in female adolescents: extent and correlates.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sven; Weiss, Melanie; Thiel, Ansgar; Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Hoffmann, Holger; Diehl, Katharina

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the extent, patterns, and predictors of feelings of body dissatisfaction experienced by female German adolescents. Using 3D-avatar software, a sample population of 144 girls between 14 and 17 years of age was asked to estimate their actual body image, their desired body image (individual ideal), and the body image they believed their parents and their best female friend considered to be the ideal body image for them. The participants estimated their actual body mass index (BMI) to be 18.82 ± 3.01. The individual ideal body shape reported was significantly thinner, with a BMI score of 16.84 ± 2.51. Given a girl who stands 1.65 m and weighs 55 kg, this corresponds to a difference in weight of about 5.5 kg. After adjustment for the participant's self-reported BMI, participating in an esthetic sport was correlated with a significantly lower body dissatisfaction. Conversely, low socio-economic status and the amount of time spent watching TV was correlated with a significantly higher body dissatisfaction. Negative body image-related comments made by parents were significantly associated with body dissatisfaction. The girls who participated in this study would like to be an average of 1.97 BMI units thinner. The findings presented here suggest that future intervention measures should focus on the risk groups of physically inactive girls, those who smoke, and those with a lower social status and high rates of TV consumption. Intervention measures would be especially effective in German schools which offer lower education levels and should include the pupils' parents, who should be informed about the negative effects weight- and diet-related comments have on their children's body images. PMID:23207738

  16. Maladaptive schemas in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa and implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Reece, John; Reid, Sophie; Atkins, Linsey; Patton, George

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has highlighted the presence of Young's Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) in individuals with an eating disorder (ED). This study assessed the EMSs reported by adolescent females with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) compared with a community group. Thirty-six adolescent females diagnosed with AN or subthreshold AN and 111 female secondary school students completed a questionnaire that included the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-report of Personality, and the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary Care. Two independent AN subtypes and two community subtypes were derived from responses to the questionnaire, and significant differences between the four comparison groups were found. High Pathology AN participants reported the highest level of psychological maladjustment. Social Isolation and Emotional Inhibition appeared to be most characteristic of adolescent AN in this sample. The results suggest that EMSs may require attention in the treatment of AN in adolescent females, and that different AN subtypes may require individualized treatment approaches. PMID:25464069

  17. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  18. Analyses of gait and jump tasks in female obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Filipe Ricardo Pires; Figueira Martins, Ana Teresa da Conceição; Teixeira, Ana Maria Miranda Botelho

    2012-02-01

    In spite of the advances in knowledge on the multi-factorial nature of obesity, many questions related to the consequences of the disease continue to be unanswered. Several studies have reported biomechanic and kinematic adaptation and alterations in walking and in tasks of every day life, motivated by the additional load of fat mass in children and adults. The main objective of this study was to understand the effect of obesity in the electromyographic activity of four lower extremity muscles during three speeds of walking and during a countermovement jump (CMJ) in twenty two (9 obese and 13 normal weight) female adolescents aged 13. Although electromyographic differences were not observed between groups for normal, slow and fast speeds, data suggests that the preferred pace of the obese is less efficient than that of the normal weight group. In CMJ task, differences in the after-fall jump phase were observed. More studies are needed to explain if the few differences observed between groups are caused by the bigger amount of fat mass. PMID:22433262

  19. Sociocultural Variations in the Body Image Perceptions of Urban Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Laura S.; Stormer, Colleen Cook

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the influences of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and ethnic peer group composition on awareness and internalization of socially sanctioned standards of appearance using the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Adolescence Questionnaire. Findings for 208 adolescent females highlight the importance of multiple ecological factors in…

  20. Self-Concept and Coping Skills of Female Early Adolescents in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Kyung Mi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the coping strategies and self-concept of Korean female early adolescents. These adolescents (n = 351) were enrolled in a middle school in Seoul. The subjects completed the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale and Coping Responses Inventory questionnaires. The subjects exhibited the greatest…

  1. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1), eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2), eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV). Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032). There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049). The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034) and percentage of central fat (p=0.039) compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751). Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess. PMID:24676194

  2. Women's Sports Media, Self-Objectification, and Mental Health in Black and White Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Kristen; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2003-01-01

    Considers that sports media exposure may be linked to female adolescents' body perceptions. Tests this relationship from the perspective of objectification theory. Finds that self-objectification appears to be as problematic for adolescent girls as for college women, regardless of race or body mass. Focuses on self-objectification in adolescents…

  3. Disordered Eating and Weight Control among Adolescent Female Athletes and Performance Squad Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Diane E.; Blinde, Elaine M.

    1994-01-01

    Adolescents and individuals participating in activities that emphasize body shape and control have been identified as risk groups for eating disorders. A study sought to determine whether certain groups of adolescent females are more vulnerable to disordered eating patterns or usage of pathogenic weight control techniques. Involvement in organized…

  4. Clinical Correlates and Repetition of Self-Harming Behaviors among Female Adolescent Victims of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John; Theriault, Chantal; Cinq-Mars, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated self-harming behaviors in 149 female adolescent victims of sexual abuse, first, by determining the rates of nine types of self-mutilating behavior at intake and nine months later and, second, by investigating comorbidity of clinical correlates associated with these behaviors. The adolescents were divided into three groups…

  5. The Association of Objectively Determined Physical Activity Behavior among Adolescent Female Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Louise; Mummery, W. Kerry; Schofield, Grant; Hopkins, Will

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which physical activity among adolescent female friends is interdependent. The participants were 318 adolescent girls with a mean age of 16.0 years (range: 15-18 years). Pedometry was used to assess physical activity over 4 days. The relationship between an individual girl and her…

  6. Sapphires-in-Transition: Enhancing Personal Development among Black Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Joyce Lynom

    1994-01-01

    Describes school counselor intervention program used for facilitating the personal development of adolescents. Notes that intervention occurred through activities that were designed for black female adolescents in a secondary public school. Describes how goals were met through structured developmental activities, counseling sessions, and organized…

  7. Perceived Physical Attractiveness and Frequency of Substance Use among Male and Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated relationship between perceived physical attractiveness and frequency of substance use among 1,297 adolescents. Female adolescents who rated themselves as unattractive were more likely to use illicit psychoactive substances than those who rated themselves as average or attractive. Perceived attractiveness did not contribute to…

  8. Familial and Individual Perspective-Taking Processes in Adolescent Females with Bulimic Symptomatology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupp, Gary L.; Jurkovic, Gregory J.

    1996-01-01

    Compared perspective-taking processes in adolescent females displaying signs of bulimia and their mothers (n=17) to control mother-daughter dyads (n=41). The bulimic adolescents and their mothers were less able to predict the responses of the other on personality instruments than were controls. Discusses other findings and their theoretical and…

  9. Factor Structure of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosson, David S.; Neumann, Craig S.; Forth, Adelle E.; Salekin, Randall T.; Hare, Robert D.; Krischer, Maya K.; Sevecke, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence for the fit of the 3- and 4-factor models of Psychopathy Checklist-based ratings of psychopathy in adult males and adolescents, evidence is less consistent in adolescent females. However, prior studies used samples much smaller than recommended for examining model fit. To address this issue, we conducted a confirmatory…

  10. High Frequency of Staphylococcus Saprophyticus Urinary Tract Infections Among Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lo, Denise Swei; Shieh, Huei Hsin; Barreira, Eliane Roseli; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta; Gilio, Alfredo Elias

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a rarely reported agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in the pediatric population. In our retrospective 3-year study, S. saprophyticus comprised 24.5% of 106 isolates of UTIs in female adolescents 12-15 years of age who attended an emergency department. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of this etiology when empirically treating UTIs in female adolescents. PMID:26075812

  11. Health benefits of tennis

    PubMed Central

    Pluim, Babette M; Staal, J Bart; Marks, Bonita L; Miller, Stuart; Miley, Dave

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the role of tennis in the promotion of health and prevention of disease. The focus was on risk factors and diseases related to a sedentary lifestyle, including low fitness levels, obesity, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. A literature search was undertaken to retrieve relevant articles. Structured computer searches of PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL were undertaken, along with hand searching of key journals and reference lists to locate relevant studies published up to March 2007. These had to be cohort studies (of either cross sectional or longitudinal design), case–control studies, or experimental studies. Twenty four studies were identified that dealt with physical fitness of tennis players, including 17 on intensity of play and 16 on maximum oxygen uptake; 17 investigated the relation between tennis and (risk factors for) cardiovascular disease; and 22 examined the effect of tennis on bone health. People who choose to play tennis appear to have significant health benefits, including improved aerobic fitness, a lower body fat percentage, a more favourable lipid profile, reduced risk for developing cardiovascular disease, and improved bone health. PMID:17504788

  12. Epidemiological analysis of doping offences in the professional tennis circuit

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Tennis is a professional sport under a strict anti-doping control. However, since the first violation of the code, the positive cases have not been statistically studied. The objective of this study was to analyze doping offences in the international professional tennis circuit. Methods All offences to the Doping Code committed by tennis players during 2003-2009 were collected from the ITF official webpage, registered and analyzed. Results An average of 1905.7 (±174.5) samples was obtained per year. Fifty-two doping offences were reported and the overall incidence of positive doping samples accounted for 0.38% and 7.4 (±4.1) cases/year. Male players showed higher incidence doping offences than females (p = 0.0004). The incidence in wheelchair players was higher than in non-handicapped subjects (p = 0.0001) Banned substance distribution showed: stimulants 32.69%, cannabis 23.07%; anabolic 11.53%, diuretics and masking agents 11.53, β2-agonists 9.61%; corticosteroids 3.84%, others 3.84%. The overall incidence of 'social drugs' (cocaine, cannabis) was 36.53%. All EPO and blood samples were normal, while the incidence of 'out-of-competition' offences was 0.12%. The lower incidence of doping was found in Grand Slams tournaments. Conclusions The incidence of positive doping samples among professional tennis players is quite low supporting the assumption that there is no evidence of systematic doping in Tennis. "Social drugs" misuse constitutes the main problem of doping in tennis. Male and wheelchair tennis players showed higher risk of infringing the doping code than their females and non-handicapped counterparts. Findings of this study should help to determine the direction of the ongoing strategy in the fight against doping in Tennis. PMID:21159201

  13. Hyperplastic Breast Anomalies in the Female Adolescent Breast

    PubMed Central

    Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Lemaine, Valerie; Weathers, William M.; Chike-Obi, Chuma J.; Xue, Amy S.; Heller, Lior

    2013-01-01

    Macromastia in adolescents is multifactorial and usually idiopathic, associated with obesity or hormonal imbalances. Less commonly, it can result from virginal or juvenile breast hypertrophy, a rare condition of unknown etiology, where an alarmingly rapid breast enlargement occurs during puberty. Breast hypertrophy in the adolescent population can have significant long-term medical and psychological impacts. Although symptoms can be severe, many plastic surgeons, pediatricians, and parents are often reluctant to surgically treat adolescent macromastia. However, reduction mammoplasty is a safe and effective treatment and may be the only way to alleviate the increased social, psychological, and physical strain caused by macromastia in adolescents. PMID:24872740

  14. Psychosocial and developmental characteristics of female adolescents who have committed sexual offenses.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia; van Vugt, Eveline S; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Hendriks, Jan

    2014-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine differences in psychosocial and developmental characteristics between Adolescent Females who have committed Sexual Offenses (AFSOs; n = 40), Adolescent Females who have committed nonsexual Violent Offenses (AFVOs; n = 533), and Adolescent Males who have committed Sexual Offenses (AMSO, n = 743). Results showed that AFSOs and AMSOs were remarkably similar, whereas AFSOs and AFVOs were remarkably different on the measured variables. Compared to AFVOs, AFSOs less often had antisocial friends and problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school) and family (e.g., parental problems, poor authority and control, and run away from home). Victimization of sexual abuse outside the family and social isolation were found to be more common in AFSOs than in AFVOs. Victimization of sexual abuse outside the family was the only specific characteristic of female adolescent sexual offending, as this was more common in AFSOs than in both AMSOs and AFVOs. PMID:23823249

  15. Bone Health in Adolescent Athletes with a Focus on Female Athlete Triad

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    Peak bone mass (PBM) is a negative predictor of osteoporosis and life-long fracture risk. Because osteoporosis is such a prevalent disease with life-threatening consequences later in life, it is important to try to maximize PBM. Adolescence is a critical time for bone acquisition. This review discusses some of the differences in male and female skeletal development and modifiable factors that enhance bone accrual in this age group, particularly in athletes. Hormonal influences, physical activity effects, and nutritional contributions are presented, with a focus on the adolescent athlete. Emphasis is placed on the importance of appropriate energy availability in this age group. The Female Athlete Triad (the inter-relationship of decreased energy availability, menstrual irregularity, and low bone density) is an important issue for adolescent, athletic women, and is therefore reviewed, including prevention and treatment strategies. Recommendations for maximizing bone density in both male and female adolescents are discussed. PMID:21378496

  16. The Influence of an After School Single Gender Literacy Community on the Early-Adolescent Female's Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Brown, Jibby L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the research of the 20th and 21st centuries, the ability to sustain voice in our adolescent females continues to present a concern. This qualitative study in educational and literacy research uncovers an educational framework that can strengthen the voice of adolescent females by using non-traditional methods and female preferred learning…

  17. Single-Sex versus Coeducational Environment and Achievement in Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaco, Nanci M.; Gaier, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that, if high school environment reduces discrepancy between conflicting roles, adolescent females may place greater emphasis on achievement. Within this context, explores differential benefits of single-sex and coeducational schooling. Issue explored is not whether one is preferable for females; rather, the concern is how each of these…

  18. Eating Attitudes in a Diverse Sample of Israeli Adolescent Females: A Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzer, Y.; Tzischinsky, O.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the eating attitudes in Israeli Jewish female adolescents. Methods: A representative sample of 1270 females in grades 7-12 from five different Israeli schools from five different residential areas were assessed by EAT-26. Results: Of the total sample, 19.5% were identified as having abnormal eating attitudes. In terms of…

  19. Incorporating Gender Specific Approaches for Incarcerated Female Adolescents: Multilevel Risk Model for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Chiquitia L.; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The rise in female delinquency has resulted in large numbers of girls being incarcerated in Youth Development Centers (YDC). However, there are few gender specific treatment programs for incarcerated female adolescent offenders, particularly for those with a history of substance dependency. In this article, we present a Multi-level Risk Model…

  20. Adolescent Boys' Intentions of Seeking Help from Male Friends and Female Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Heather A.; Graham, Joanna; Campbell, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study examined adolescent boys' intentions of seeking help from male friends and female friends. We evaluated mean differences in boys' help-seeking intentions; assessed whether boys' individual characteristics predicted their intentions; and examined perceived support from male friends and female friends as mediators of these relationships.…

  1. The transfer of skill from short tennis to lawn tennis.

    PubMed

    Coldwells, A; Hare, M E

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish if short tennis skills transferred to lawn tennis. The experiment was conducted in two parts. In the first experiment 16 children (average age 8.9 years) were coached for 20 h (2 h/day for 2 weeks). The experimental group (n = 8) received 10 h of short tennis coaching followed by 10h of tennis coaching. The control group (n = 8) received tennis coaching only. In the second experiment 14 children (average age 8.5 years) were coached for 8h in group strokes alone (only ground strokes were tested and analysed). The experimental group (n = 7) received 4h of short tennis coaching and 4h of tennis coaching; the control group (n = 7) received tennis coaching only. Prior to coaching, all children were tested on the Dyer Backboard Test. The tests were video-taped for later analysis of technique. The video was analysed by three coaches in terms of backswing, positioning (position where player stood in reference to the bounce of the ball), follow-through, and placement (accuracy with which the ball was hit). The experimental group improved more than the control group on the Dyer Backboard Test (p < 0.05) in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2 both groups improved (p < 0.05) with coaching; there was no difference (p > 0.05) between the two groups following coaching. This implied that the short tennis skills positively transferred to tennis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8112273

  2. Somatic symptoms among US adolescent females: associations with sexual and physical violence exposure.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Tucker, Christine M; Bengtson, Angela; Kupper, Lawrence L; McLean, Samuel A; Martin, Sandra L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between physical and sexual violence exposure and somatic symptoms among female adolescents. We studied a nationally representative sample of 8,531 females, aged 11-21 years, who participated in the 1994-1995 Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Female adolescents were asked how often they had experienced 16 specific somatic symptoms during the past 12 months. Two summary categorical measures were constructed based on tertiles of the distributions for the entire female sample: (a) total number of different types of symptoms experienced, and (b) number of frequent (once a week or more often) different symptoms experienced. Groups were mutually exclusive. We examined associations between adolescents' violence exposure and somatic symptoms using multinomial logistic regression analyses. About 5 % of adolescent females reported both sexual and non-sexual violence, 3 % reported sexual violence only, 36 % reported non-sexual violence only, and 57 % reported no violence. Adolescents who experienced both sexual and non-sexual violence were the most likely to report many different symptoms and to experience very frequent or chronic symptoms. Likelihood of high symptomatology was next highest among adolescents who experienced sexual violence only, followed by females who experienced non-sexual violence only. Findings support an exposure-response association between violence exposure and somatic symptoms, suggesting that symptoms can be markers of victimization. Treating symptoms alone, without addressing the potential violence experienced, may not adequately improve adolescents' somatic complaints and well-being. PMID:23340952

  3. Television Viewing and Adolescents' Beliefs about Male-Female Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Kim Walsh; Brown, Jane D.

    Drawing on a social cognitive understanding of the relationship between television and viewers which suggests that adolescents will seek media content consistent with their already developed notions about the sexes, a study surveyed 1,613 adolescents (aged 12 to 17). Respondents were drawn from 10 standard metropolitan statistical areas that are…

  4. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence. Although, these athletes apparently undergo sufficient physical activity to develop healthy bones, it is possible that other...

  5. Influence of Peers on Young Adolescent Females' Romantic Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee E.; Garwick, Ann W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Initiation of sexual intercourse during early adolescence is a known risk factor for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Purpose: To examine young women's stories describing peer in?uences on their romantic and sexual decisions and behavior during early adolescence. Methods: Semistructured ethnographic interviews were…

  6. Development of multi-dimensional body image scale for malaysian female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965). The 152 items from selected multiple measures of body image were examined through factor analysis and for internal consistency. Correlations between Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale and body mass index (BMI), risk of eating disorders and self-esteem were assessed for construct validity. A seven factor model of a 62-item Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents with construct validity and good internal consistency was developed. The scale encompasses 1) preoccupation with thinness and dieting behavior, 2) appearance and body satisfaction, 3) body importance, 4) muscle increasing behavior, 5) extreme dieting behavior, 6) appearance importance, and 7) perception of size and shape dimensions. Besides, a multidimensional body image composite score was proposed to screen negative body image risk in female adolescents. The result found body image was correlated with BMI, risk of eating disorders and self-esteem in female adolescents. In short, the present study supports a multi-dimensional concept for body image and provides a new insight into its multi-dimensionality in Malaysian female adolescents with preliminary validity and reliability of the scale. The Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale can be used to identify female adolescents who are potentially at risk of developing body image disturbance through future intervention programs. PMID:20126371

  7. Development of multi-dimensional body image scale for malaysian female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965). The 152 items from selected multiple measures of body image were examined through factor analysis and for internal consistency. Correlations between Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale and body mass index (BMI), risk of eating disorders and self-esteem were assessed for construct validity. A seven factor model of a 62-item Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents with construct validity and good internal consistency was developed. The scale encompasses 1) preoccupation with thinness and dieting behavior, 2) appearance and body satisfaction, 3) body importance, 4) muscle increasing behavior, 5) extreme dieting behavior, 6) appearance importance, and 7) perception of size and shape dimensions. Besides, a multidimensional body image composite score was proposed to screen negative body image risk in female adolescents. The result found body image was correlated with BMI, risk of eating disorders and self-esteem in female adolescents. In short, the present study supports a multi-dimensional concept for body image and provides a new insight into its multi-dimensionality in Malaysian female adolescents with preliminary validity and reliability of the scale. The Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale can be used to identify female adolescents who are potentially at risk of developing body image disturbance through future intervention programs. PMID:20126371

  8. The relationship between stress and body satisfaction in female and male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kristen; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between stress and body satisfaction in adolescence. A sample consisting of 515 adolescents aged 12-16 years completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing general and specific aspects of adolescent stress, body satisfaction and the psychological constructs of self-esteem, depressive symptoms and body importance. Results revealed a significant association between higher body dissatisfaction and higher ratings of peer stress, lower self-esteem and greater body importance for female and male adolescents. These findings suggest that adolescent stress relates to satisfaction with the body and that this stress is specifically focused on the peer environment for both genders during adolescence. This may have implications for intervention programmes aimed at improving body satisfaction, suggesting that the inclusion of stress management training in these programmes could specifically focus on difficulties within the peer domain. PMID:23897844

  9. Ethnicity and problem behaviors among adolescent females in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guiao, Isabelita Z; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2004-04-01

    Depression, alcohol use, and suicidal behaviors are common problems among adolescents in the United States. Little is known about how these problem behaviors differ among adolescent, multiethnic females. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, regression analyses were performed to determine differences in these adolescent problem behaviors among multiethnic females using Latinas as the referent group. The random sample (N = 3,310, aged 12-19 years) included Latinas, and African-, Asian-, Native-, and Euro-American females. Measures included the CES-D, number of drinks each time alcohol was consumed in the past year, and a composite measure of suicidal behaviors. Latinas reported significantly higher risk for adolescent depression than did Euro-American peers and higher risk for alcohol use than did African- and Asian-American peers only. There were no significant differences in risk for suicidal behaviors between Latinas and their peers representing any of the other four ethnic groups. As adolescents of Latin, African, Asian, Native or aboriginal, and European ethnicity live all over the world, the findings inform future studies on adolescent depression, alcohol use, and suicidal behaviors among adolescents representing any of these ethnic groups in any part of the globe. PMID:15199970

  10. Health workers' perceptions of Italian female adolescents: a qualitative study about sexuality, contraception, and caring practices in family health centers.

    PubMed

    Olivari, Maria Giulia; Santoro, Elena; Stagni Brenca, Elisa; Confalonieri, Emanuela; Di Blasio, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to explore health workers' perceptions of providing sexuality and contraception care for female adolescents within family health centers. We interviewed 26 volunteer health workers and analyzed the interviews using thematic analysis. We identified three main themes: (a) "adolescents and sexuality," with the subthemes "initiation rite," "me like the others," and "just for fun"; (b) "adolescents and contraception," with the subthemes "omnipotent adolescents," "aware adolescents," and "women's responsibility"; and PMID:26167812

  11. Alcohol--a predictor of risky sexual behavior among female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lepusić, Dubravko; Radović-Radovcić, Sandra

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol use has been linked to risky sexual practices among adolescents. However, limited research on alcohol use and risky sexual behavior has been conducted among female adolescents. This study examined a high quantity of alcohol as a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among female adolescents. Three hundred ninety-three adolescent females aged 15-21 were assessed for alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants also provided 2 swab specimens that were assayed for STDs. Use of high alcohol quantity was defined as > or = 3 drinks in 1 sitting. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of alcohol use at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STDs over a 12-month period. Age, intervention group and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that use of high alcohol quantity predicted inconsistent condom use, high sexual sensation seeking, multiple sexual partners, sex while high on alcohol or drugs, and having anal sex during 12-month follow-up period. These findings suggest that STD-related behavioral interventions for adolescents should discuss the link between alcohol and STD-risk behavior. Deeper understanding of alcohol as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among female adolescents is of paramount importance for development of efficient prevention programs at individual and community levels. The risk of acquiring an STD is higher among teenagers than among adults. PMID:23837266

  12. Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to athletic activity. This is usually 4 to 6 months after surgery. Tennis elbow surgery is considered successful in 80% to 90% of patients. However, it is not uncommon to see a loss of strength. New Developments Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is currently being investigated for its effectiveness ...

  13. Anyone for Tennis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mestre, Neville

    2004-01-01

    Tennis is a sport in which the mathematics involves an unusual scoring system together with other applications pertinent to the draw for different types of tournaments and the relative ratios of points won and lost. The name of the sport is thought to have originated from the French word "tenez", which translates roughly as "to receive (the…

  14. Elite collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D: 4D ratios than those of nonathlete controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Chen; Su, Borcherng; Kan, Nai-Wen; Lai, Su-Ling; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Chi, Chung-Pu; Chang, Ching-Chyuan; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2015-03-01

    The ratio of the length of the second finger (index finger) to the fourth finger (ring finger) (2D:4D ratio) is a putative marker for prenatal hormones. Physiological research has suggested a low 2D:4D ratio correlates with high athletic ability. Athletes of specific sports (e.g., American football) have lower 2D:4D ratios than those of nonathletes, whereas athletes of some sports (e.g., rowing, gymnastics, and soccer) do not. This study investigated the 2D:4D ratios among collegiate tennis athletes, elite collegiate tennis athletes, and nonelite collegiate tennis athletes and compared them with nonathletes of both sexes. The participants included 43 elite collegiate tennis athletes (Level I intercollegiate athletes in Taiwan; 27 males and 16 females), 107 nonelite collegiate tennis athletes (Level II athletes; 55 males and 52 females), and 166 nonathlete college students (80 males and 86 females). The principle findings suggest that (a) regardless of sex, collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; (b) elite collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; (c) among females but not males, athletes and nonelite athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; and (d) males have lower 2D:4D values than those of females. PMID:25226321

  15. Black and White Adolescent Females' Pre-Pregnancy Nutrition Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Roger C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Results indicated that black females ingested more energy, protein, calcium, and iron than did white females. Significant percentages of both black and white females' intakes of energy, calcium, and iron fell below recommended allowances, suggesting that most of those surveyed possessed poor prepregnancy nutritional status. (RJM)

  16. Do perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to physical activity differ between male and female adolescents?

    PubMed

    Tergerson, Jennifer L; King, Keith A

    2002-11-01

    A four-page survey was administered to 535 adolescents at two single-sex (one male, one female) high schools in Cincinnati, Ohio, to examine whether perceptions of physical activity differed by gender. More specifically, the survey assessed perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to exercising. Results indicated that the most helpful cue to physical activity for both female and male students was "having a friend to exercise with." The most commonly reported benefit of exercising among females was "to stay in shape," whereas the most commonly reported benefit to exercising among males was "to become strong." Among females, the most common barrier to exercising was "having no time to exercise," whereas males were most likely to report "wanting to do other things with my time." Multivariate analyses of covariance revealed that perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to physical activity differed significantly based on gender. Recommendations on specific strategies to increasing male and female adolescent physical activity levels are offered. PMID:12557633

  17. Female Adolescents with Severe Substance and Conduct Problems Have Substantially Less Brain Gray Matter Volume

    PubMed Central

    Dalwani, Manish S.; McMahon, Mary Agnes; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Young, Susan E.; Regner, Michael F.; Raymond, Kristen M.; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Banich, Marie T.; Tanabe, Jody L.; Crowley, Thomas J; Sakai, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages. Hypotheses: Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate), valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex) and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum). Methods We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years) with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8) toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold. Results Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls. Conclusions Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in

  18. Challenges and costs related to recruitment of female adolescents for clinical research.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M Cynthia; Gohmann, Stephan

    2008-10-01

    Addressing health issues in adolescents is a national priority. However, recruitment of adolescents into research studies can be challenging and costly. The purpose of this article was to compare procedures, costs, and challenges in recruiting female adolescents from two hospitals and two high schools in an urban area of the southern United States. Three studies will be described. The findings indicate that the choice of recruitment procedures and sites has major implications for study budget in terms of personnel time as well as for the timeline of the study. PMID:18804013

  19. Comparison of Substance Use Typologies as Predictors of Sexual Risk Outcomes in African American Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve S

    2016-01-01

    African American female adolescents have a disproportionate risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other adverse sexual health outcomes. Both alcohol and marijuana use have been shown to predict sexual risk among young African American women. However, no studies have attempted to differentiate alcohol and marijuana typologies use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes exclusively among adolescents who use these substances. This study compared recent alcohol and/or marijuana use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes over 18 months among 182 African American female adolescents. African American females (14-20 years) completed interviews at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-months. At each assessment, pregnancy testing was conducted and self-collected vaginal swab specimens were assayed for Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using DNA amplification. Logistic subject-specific random-intercept models compared sexual risk outcomes during follow-up among adolescents who reported recent use of alcohol only (AO), marijuana only (MO) or both substances (A + M) at the baseline assessment. Relative to baseline AO use, baseline MO use predicted condom non-use at last sex. Relative to AO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy. Relative to MO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy and acquisition of T. vaginalis and any STI. The results suggest that African American female adolescents who use A + M may represent a priority population for STI, HIV, and pregnancy prevention efforts. PMID:25929200

  20. A developmental-contextual model of depressive symptoms in Mexican-origin female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Gayles, Jochebed G

    2012-03-01

    The current study tested a developmental-contextual model of depressive symptomatology among Mexican-origin, female early and middle adolescents and their mothers. The final sample comprised 271 dyads. We examined the interrelations among cultural (i.e., acculturation dissonance), developmental (i.e., pubertal development and autonomy expectation discrepancies), and interpersonal (i.e., mother-daughter conflict and maternal supportive parenting) factors in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms. For both early and middle adolescents, maternal support was negatively associated with mother-daughter conflict and depressive symptoms. Mother-daughter autonomy expectation discrepancies were positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but this association was found only among early adolescents. Further, mother-daughter acculturation dissonance was positively associated with mother-daughter conflict but only among middle adolescents. Findings call for concurrently examining the interface of developmental, relational, and cultural factors in predicting female adolescents' depressive symptomatology and the potential differences by developmental stage (e.g., early vs. middle adolescence). PMID:21967564

  1. Coping Styles of Female Adolescent Cancer Patients with Potential Fertility Loss

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Devin; Knapp, Caprice A.; Christie, Juliette; Phares, Vicky; Wells, Kristen J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the coping styles of female adolescent cancer patients regarding potential loss of fertility. Expectations and desires for the future, coping styles in typical adolescence, and coping styles when faced with potential loss of fertility due to cancer treatment are discussed. Methods Female adolescents diagnosed with cancer aged 12–18 years at study (N=14) were administered a 10-item values clarification tool to pilot test the readability and relevance of the items on reproductive concerns, followed by a cognitive debriefing interview asking participants how they would respond to each item. These qualitative responses were assessed for coping style type using the constant comparative approach. Results All adolescent participants reported having a strong desire for biological children in the future. Reactions to questions regarding the loss of fertility fell into two categories of coping styles: emotion-focused coping or problem-focused (engagement) coping. Within emotion-focused coping, there were three distinct styles: externalizing attribution style, internalizing attribution style, and repressive adaptation. Problem-focused coping adolescents displayed optimism. Conclusion Successful interventions aimed at promoting adaptive coping styles should seek to uncover adolescents' values about future parenthood and reproduction. Development of an age-appropriate assessment to stimulate dialogue regarding fertility and initiate an adolescent's cognitive processing of potential fertility loss is warranted. PMID:23781403

  2. Management of Large Ovarian Neoplasms in Pediatric and Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Amies Oelschlager, Anne-Marie E; Gow, Kenneth W; Morse, Christopher B; Lara-Torre, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The overwhelming majority of ovarian cysts in pediatric and adolescent girls are physiologic; however, large simple and complex ovarian lesions often require surgical intervention due to the increased risk of neoplasia. In this review article, we discuss the preoperative evaluation and intraoperative management of large ovarian neoplasms. We review the current literature regarding long term ovarian function and fertility, rates of recurrence and residual disease, and novel surgical approaches. Managing large ovarian neoplasms in the pediatric and adolescent population requires careful preoperative and intraoperative care to optimally resect neoplasia while maximizing fertility and minimizing pain. PMID:26165911

  3. What do sexually active adolescent females say about relationship issues?

    PubMed

    Bralock, Anita; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

    2009-04-01

    Many sexually active teenagers face risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. The purpose of our study was to gain an understanding about influences on condom use among sexually active adolescents in relationships. Data were collected through semi-structured openended interviews. The findings of this study suggest that many adolescents desired the love of a male partner, and were willing to concede to his request of practicing unprotected sex. Findings support the urgent need for interventions that will promote skill-building techniques to negotiate safer sex behaviors among youth who are most likely to be exposed to STIs through risky behaviors. PMID:19268234

  4. Self-Esteem in Hispanic Adolescent Females and Its Relation to Dual Parent Households and Single Mother Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Linda Marie Pettis

    2002-01-01

    The development of a sense of self in adolescence has been shown to be influenced by the perceived level of warmth of the mother. Additionally, the nature of the home environment has been found to relate to an adolescent's level of self-esteem (Buri, 1990; Field, Lang, Yando, and Bendell, 1993). Hispanic adolescent females and their mothers in…

  5. Adolescent Females and Body Image: Eating Disorders and Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leroux, Janice A.; Cuffaro, Maria Assunta

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the internal and external predisposing factors that signal potential eating disorders in females. It outlines the psychology of high ability females, which places them at greater risk for the development of an eating disorder and provides recommendations for identification and intervention. (Contains…

  6. Do Australian Adolescent Female Fake Tan (Sunless Tan) Users Practice Better Sun-Protection Behaviours than Non-Users?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Melinda; Jones, Sandra C.; Caputi, Peter; Iverson, Don

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine differences in sun-protection behaviours, and incidence of sunburn, between Australian adolescent female fake tan users and non-users. Design: Cross sectional survey. Method: 398 adolescent females aged 12 to 18 years participated in a survey at public venues, schools, and online. The main outcome measures were…

  7. Female Adolescents' Educational Choices about Reproductive Health Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Melanie A.; Chiappetta, Laurel; Young, Amanda J.; Zuckoff, Allan; DiClemente, Carlo C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess girls' reproductive educational choices, satisfaction with choice, and relationship between demographics, module choice, and satisfaction. Methods: We recruited 286 girls, aged 13 to 21 years, from a hospital-based adolescent clinic, from advertisements, and by word of mouth. At enrollment, participants completed a 60-minute…

  8. Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Females and Males: Risk and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Madeley, Mary Clare

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence and consequences of body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys and girls and discusses the role of body dissatisfaction in psychological disorders, including depression and eating disorders. Additionally, it explores predictors of the development of body dissatisfaction, including individual, familial, peer,…

  9. Biomechanics and tennis

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, B

    2006-01-01

    Success in tennis requires a mix of player talent, good coaching, appropriate equipment, and an understanding of those aspects of sport science pertinent to the game. This paper outlines the role that biomechanics plays in player development from sport science and sport medicine perspectives. Biomechanics is a key area in player development because all strokes have a fundamental mechanical structure and sports injuries primarily have a mechanical cause. PMID:16632567

  10. Paralimbic Gray Matter Reductions in Incarcerated Adolescent Females with Psychopathic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Lora M.; Ermer, Elsa; Nyalakanti, Prashanth K.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathy-related paralimbic and limbic structural brain abnormalities have been implicated in incarcerated adult and adolescent male samples. However, there have been few neuroimaging studies of psychopathic traits in females in general and no studies from incarcerated female youth in particular. Here we present the first study to examine the relationship between brain gray matter volumes and psychopathic traits (assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version [PCL-YV]) in a sample of maximum-security incarcerated female adolescents (N = 39; mean age = 17.6 years). Consistent with male samples, regional gray matter volumes were negatively related to psychopathic traits in female youth offenders in limbic and paralimbic areas, including orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal cortex, temporal poles, and left hippocampus. These results provide evidence that psychopathic traits manifest similar neural abnormalities across sex and age. PMID:24682609

  11. Comparative Efficacy and Tolerability of Dapsone 5% Gel in Adult Versus Adolescent Females with Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Kircik, Leon; Gallagher, Conor J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the response to dapsone 5% gel was similar in adolescent girls and adult women with facial acne vulgaris. Design and setting: Subgroup analysis of female subjects with acne vulgaris receiving active treatment enrolled in two randomized, double-blind Phase 3 clinical trials. Treatment: Twice-daily applications of dapsone 5% gel over 12 weeks. Participants: Adolescent (12-17 years of age) and adult (≥18 years of age) females. Measurements: At baseline and at Weeks 2,4,6,8, and 12, subjects were evaluated using the global acne assessment score and by counts of inflammatory, noninflammatory, and total acne vulgaris lesions. Adverse events were monitored. Results: A total of 347 adolescent and 434 adult women were included in the subgroup analysis. At Week 12, dapsone 5% gel significantly reduced mean global acne assessment score in both subgroups (p<0.001); however, the proportion of subjects with clinical success (no or minimal acne based on global acne assessment score) at Week 12 was greater in adult women (53.5%) versus adolescent females (45.3%, p=0.022). Significantly greater percentage reductions in both noninflammatory (p<0.0001) and total lesion counts (p=0.0008) were observed in the adult group as compared to the adolescent group. Percentage reductions from baseline in inflammatory lesions were similar in both groups. No major safety issues and no previously unrecognized safety signals were noted. Conclusion: This subgroup analysis of female patients indicates that dapsone 5% gel twice daily is effective in reducing inflammatory and noninflammatory acne vulgaris lesions in both adolescent and adult women, and is safe in these subgroups. Overall, these data suggest that efficacy of dapsone 5% gel twice daily for facial acne vulgaris may be greater in the adult female population. PMID:25610522

  12. Teaching and Coaching Tennis Using System 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Janet

    2006-01-01

    The United States Professional Tennis Association (USPTA) has developed a universal language for tennis instruction entitled System 5: The Five Keys to Tennis, which is extremely easy to teach and learn and covers court positioning, strategy, and stroke selection. Many professional tennis instructors have used System 5 since its inception but…

  13. Sexual behavior of female adolescents on the spread of HIV/AIDS and other STDs in Carriacou.

    PubMed

    Patrice-Coy, Celestine; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; Boodram, Cheryl Ann Sarita

    2016-09-01

    This article explores information relating to female adolescents knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Carriacou. The authors aimed at finding out whether adolescent females in Carriacou receive adequate information about HIV and other STDs. Where did students receive most of their information about HIV/STDs and whether the knowledge has influenced their sexual behaviors? Furthermore, this study focused on how female adolescents feel toward people living with HIV/STDs.Focus group method was employed with 2 age groups of female adolescent students. Content analysis was carried out by the researcher to analyze the data. Themes were developed using coding and thematic analysis.The findings revealed that female adolescents were highly aware of HIV/STDs-related facts. They were knowledgeable and have received adequate information about HIV/STDs. PMID:27603390

  14. Beliefs and attitudes of male and female adolescents and the risk of smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kasim, K; Al-Zalabani, A; Abd El-Moneim, ES; Amer, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescent smoking relates to numerous risk factors, of which beliefs and attitudes toward smoking may play a role. The study aimed to investigate the association between beliefs and attitudes and the risk of adolescent smoking. Materials and Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional study, 3,400 students were recruited from 34 intermediate and secondary schools in Madinah City, Al Madinah Region, Saudi Arabia. Data about sociodemographics, smoking-related factors, and beliefs and attitudes toward smoking were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of smoking was estimated and the studied beliefs and attitudes were compared by smoking status and sex using appropriate statistical analyses including multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of the 3,322 respondents, 33.02% (38.9% males and 26.4% females) were current smokers. Beliefs and attitudes toward smoking significantly differed between smokers and nonsmokers in the studied male and female students. The adjusted risk of smoking was significantly increased among female adolescents who believed that male smokers were more attractive [odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-2.9] and among male smokers who believed that female smokers are more attractive (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.2). The risk was also increased among all adolescents who believed that smoking lent comfort in social gatherings. Belief that smoking is harmful, however, was negatively associated with the risk of smoking, particularly among females (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.35-0.91). Conclusions: The study revealed a considerable high prevalence of smoking among male and female adolescents. Addressing the beliefs and knowledge about smoking during childhood is crucial in any antismoking program. PMID:27089105

  15. Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Alaine Souza; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato; Gomes, Mayra Ruana de A.; de Almeida, Ludmila Remígio; de Souza, Gabriely Feitosa F.; Cunha, Samara Barreto; Pitangui, Ana Carolina R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL) in female adolescent students. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001); interference in ADL (p<0.001); medication use (p<0.001); age (p=0.045) and seek for medical care (p<0.022). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance. PMID:25119759

  16. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Coverage Among Female Adolescents in Managed Care Plans - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Ng, Judy; Ye, Faye; Roth, Lindsey; Sobel, Katherine; Byron, Sepheen; Barton, Mary; Lindley, Megan; Stokley, Shannon

    2015-10-30

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection, with a reported 79 million persons aged 15–59 years in the United States currently infected with HPV, and approximately 14 million new cases diagnosed each year. Although most HPV infections are asymptomatic, transient, and do not cause disease, persistent HPV infection can lead to cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancer. In the United States, approximately 27,000 HPV-attributable cancers occur each year. HPV vaccination is an effective primary prevention strategy that can reduce many of the HPV infections that lead to cancer, and is routinely recommended for adolescents aged 11–12 years. To determine whether the recommended HPV vaccination series is currently being administered to adolescents with health insurance, CDC and the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) assessed 2013 data from the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS). The HEDIS HPV Vaccine for Female Adolescents performance measure evaluates the proportion of female adolescent members in commercial and Medicaid health plans who receive the recommended 3-dose HPV vaccination series by age 13 years. In 2013, in the United States, the median HPV vaccination coverage levels for female adolescents among commercial and Medicaid plans were 12% and 19%, respectively (ranges = 0%–34% for commercial plans; 5%–52% for Medicaid plans). Improving HPV vaccination coverage and understanding of what health plans might do to support HPV vaccination are needed, including understanding the barriers to, and facilitators for, vaccination coverage. PMID:26513219

  17. The Relation between Self Esteem Levels and Life Quality Levels of Disabled and Non-Disabled Tennis Sportsmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civan, Adem

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the self-esteem and life quality levels of disabled and non-disabled tennis sportsmen; and also to set forth the relation between their self-esteem and life quality levels. The research group consists of total 44 sportsmen including 22 disabled tennis sportsmen (n[subscript (female)]=9, n[subscript…

  18. Comparing 9 to 10 Years Old Children's Performance in Tennis and Physical Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcucu, Burcin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the degree of performance-related physical coordination of elementary education children (male and female) that play tennis according to their age and gender and to investigate the relationship between their motor ability tests and performances. A total of 210 children tennis players (9 to 10 years; 105 males…

  19. Creating a Future: A Study of Resilience in Suicidal Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everall, Robin D.; Altrows, K. Jessica; Paulson, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors designed this study to understand how adolescents overcome suicidality from the subjective perspective of 13 previously suicidal female participants. A resilience framework was used to conceptualize the process. Data analysis using basic interpretive qualitative inquiry revealed 4 domains of resilience: social processes, emotional…

  20. Adolescent Females' Idolization of Male Media Stars as a Transition into Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karniol, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Examines whether feminine media stars idolized by adolescent girls provide a safe target of romantic love before girls start dating and become sexually active. Surveys of seventh and ninth grade Israeli girls indicate that idolizing feminine stars may be an intermediate step in a sequence that starts with idolizing females and continues to the…

  1. The Relationship between Religiosity and Adjustment among African-American, Female, Urban Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Joanna; Armistead, Lisa; Austin, Barbara-jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Study provides a description of religiosity in a sample of African-American female teens and examines religion as a resource for these adolescents by focusing on the association between religiosity and sexual activity, self-esteem, and general psychological functioning. Results reveal that greater overall religiosity was associated with greater…

  2. Factors Affecting Self-Esteem, Depression, and Negative Behaviors in Sexually Abused Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, K. Brent; Sorell, Gwendolyn T.

    1989-01-01

    Used symbolic interaction theoretical framework to predict association of seven variables with self-esteem, depression level, and negative behaviors of female adolescent incest victims (N=101). Found type of sexual act single most powerful distress predictor. Found age and race had unexpected associations with victim outcomes. (Author/CM)

  3. Self-Injurious Behavior: A Bi-Modal Treatment Approach to Working with Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Judy A.; Sias, Shari M.

    2003-01-01

    The topic of self-injurious behavior (SIB), particularly among female adolescents, has been gaining widespread attention in mainstream culture. However, limited research has been generated examining effective treatment modalities. Given the lack of information concerning treatment models, this article presents a bi-modal treatment approach with a…

  4. The Developmental Origins and Treatment Needs of Female Adolescents with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazler, Richard J.; Mellin, Elizabeth A.

    2004-01-01

    Rates of female to male depression rapidly soar during adolescence to a 2:1 ratio despite fairly equal rates throughout childhood. The literature suggests that changes in social development, social role expectations, and/or biology may play significant roles, but research considering these factors is scarce and inconsistent. This review considers…

  5. Do Perceived Cues, Benefits, and Barriers to Physical Activity Differ between Male and Female Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tergerson, Jennifer L.; King, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed adolescents at single-sex high schools to examine whether perceptions of physical activity differed by gender. The most helpful cue to physical activity for males and females was having a friend to exercise with. Parental encouragement and having a parent who exercised were also helpful. Wanting to do other things was a common barrier to…

  6. A Qualitative Comparison of the Perceptions of Victims and School Authorities on Early Adolescent Female Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirta-Leiker, Chaitra Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study compared the perceptions of self-identified victims and school authority figures in regards to adolescent relational aggression among female middle school students. Six significant aspects of this issue were explored, including causal conditions; contextual factors; definitions and descriptions of relationally aggressive…

  7. Condom and Other Contraceptive Use among a Random Sample of Female Adolescents: A Snapshot in Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Diane M.; Lee, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the sexual practices of 235 females aged 15 to 19 years and their readiness to use specific contraceptive methods. Results indicate that, despite the availability of newer contraceptive methods, most sexually active adolescents were least resistant to using condoms, perceiving the male condom as an acceptable preventative both for…

  8. A Case Study of the Suicide of a Gifted Female Adolescent: Implications for Prediction and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    In this case study focusing on a gifted adolescent female who took her life at the age of 18 using a firearm, the researcher investigated the personal, environmental, and cultural variables that may have contributed to her suicide. Data were collected from interviews, documents, and other artifacts, including a videotape that was a compilation of…

  9. Depression as a Moderator of Sociocultural Influences on Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Females and Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…

  10. Some Self-Reported Correlates of Runaway Behavior in Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander, Stephen W.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated correlates of runaway behavior in adolescent females (N=52) as contrasted with nonrunaways (N=51). Results indicated that nonrunaway girls described their parents as supportive and restrictive and themselves as having social self-esteem to a significantly greater extent than did their runaway peers. (LLL)

  11. Early Pregnancy among Adolescent Females with Serious Emotional Disturbances: Risk Factors and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Brown, Eric C.; Greenbaum, Paul E.

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 109 female adolescents with serious emotional disturbances (ages 9-18) found the following risk factors for early pregnancy: being African American, low family income, dropping out of school, conduct disorder, and substance use disorder. However, according to multivariate analysis, only dropping out of school was a significant…

  12. Changes in Nutrition Knowledge Scores and Calcium Intake in Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Julie; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Female adolescents were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=29), which received nutrition instruction, and a no-treatment control group (n=20). In the experimental group, nutrition knowledge increased significantly, calcium and vitamin D intake increased, and mean intakes for calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus were closer to the…

  13. Menstrual Knowledge and Practices of Female Adolescents in Urban Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Tazeen Saeed; Rizvi, Syeda Naghma

    2010-01-01

    Menstruation is a normal physiological process that is managed differently according to various social and cultural understandings. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the menstrual practices among 1275 female adolescents of urban Karachi, Pakistan from April to October 2006 by using interviews. Data was entered and…

  14. Brief Report: Binge Drinking among High-Risk Male and Female Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

    2006-01-01

    A major factor attributed to the problem and consequences of underage alcohol use is binge drinking. The objective of this study was to examine binge drinking and other alcohol-related problem behaviour among high-risk male and female adolescents who were from alternative schools and programs because of learning and/or behaviour problems.…

  15. Ecological Factors Associated with STD Risk Behaviors among Detained Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.; Yarber, William L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors used Bronfenbrenner's conceptual framework of an ecological systems model to examine factors that are independently associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors among 280 sexually active detained female adolescents. Using computer-assisted self-interviewing procedures, the authors assessed individual…

  16. The Reproduction of Family Life: Perspectives of Male and Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Capitalist, patriarchal, and sexist social structures and values affect how working class adolescents plan to allocate responsibility for domestic labor. Interviews with 83 Canadian male and female high school students revealed that they anticipate choosing patterns of domestic labor which perpetuate women's subordinate roles at home and work. (AM)

  17. Positive Adult Support and Depression Symptoms in Adolescent Females: The Partially Mediating Role of Eating Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linville, Deanna; O'Neil, Maya; Huebner, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This study examined linkages between depression symptoms (DEP) and positive adult support (PAS) in female adolescents and the partially mediating influence of eating disturbances (ED). Structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement models for each of the latent constructs, determine the relationships among the latent constructs,…

  18. New Insights into the Comorbidity between ADHD and Major Depression in Adolescent and Young Adult Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.

  19. Predicting Career Orientation in Adolescent Females: A Look at Some Forgotten Family Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lighter, Jessica R.; And Others

    A study examined the effects of maternal employment status and a series of intrafamilial variables on the career orientation of adolescent females and on their attitudes toward working mothers. The Career Orientation Scale (COS), a researcher-developer scale designed to measure the extent to which work is viewed as central to the female…

  20. The BASC-2 Profiles of Female Adolescents At-Risk of Developing an Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowitz, Annie L.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study sought to examine a commonly used social-emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition, Self-Report of Personality (BASC-2, SRP), for the emergence of a common profile of…

  1. Factors Predicting Behavioral Response to a Physical Activity Intervention among Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Schneider, Margaret; Cooper, Dan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether individual factors influenced rates of physical activity change in response to a school-based intervention. Methods: Sedentary adolescent females (N = 63) participated in a 9-month physical activity program. Weekly levels of leisure-time physical activity were reported using an interactive website. Results: Change…

  2. Isokinetic Leg Flexion and Extension Strength of Elite Adolescent Female Track and Field Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housh, Terry J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Adolescent female track-and-field athletes were measured to compare isokinetic strength of leg flexion and extension movements. Throwers, jumpers, middle-distance runners, and sprinters participated in the study. Throwers were found to be stronger in absolute strength, but there were no significant differences in relative strength. Results are…

  3. Gifted Adolescent Females' Attitudes toward Gender Equality in Educational and Intergender Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Linda; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Gifted adolescent females (N=122) in a seminar on careers and intellectual opportunities for women were surveyed for attitudes toward gender equality. Although 75 percent of the sample strongly agreed that women should expect equality in professional and academic domains, belief in equality in dating, marriage, and etiquette was far more variable.…

  4. Influences on Adolescent African American Females' Global Self-Esteem: Body Image and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnage, Barbara F.

    2004-01-01

    This study of 105 senior high school Southern African American adolescent females examined the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (body image), and ethnic identity. As predicted, the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (r = 0.46, p less than 0.001), and ethnic identity (r = 40, p less than…

  5. Incidence of First Pregnancy among Black Adolescent Females over Three Decades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride Murry, Velma

    1992-01-01

    Studies previously identified factors associated with adolescent pregnancy among a nationally representative sample of unmarried African-American females (n=4,663) born between 1938 and 1962. Data from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth suggest substantial changes in sexual behavior over the years. (SLD)

  6. Understanding and Counseling Self-Mutilation in Female Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zila, Laurie MacAniff; Kiselica, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the syndrome of self-mutilation in female adolescents and young adults. Discusses causes, symptoms, types, definitions, and treatments. Includes an explanation of the lexical and conceptual confusion that accompanies self-mutilation. Addresses implications and recommendations for counselors. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/GCP)

  7. Experiences with Dating Violence and Help Seeking Among Hispanic Females in Their Late Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Ferranti, Dina; Halstead, Valerie; Ilias, Vanessa M

    2016-04-01

    Hispanic females in their late adolescence appear to be disproportionately affected by dating violence, yet the majority of victims never seek out formal services. The purpose of this study was to explore the dating violence and help-seeking experiences of Hispanic females in their late adolescence. Participants were recruited from a social service agency providing wrap-around services to individuals and families affected by abuse in South Florida. Eleven in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with Hispanic female victims of dating violence in their late adolescence (18 to 24 years of age) in English or Spanish. A thematic analysis of transcripts identified four major themes: (a) conflict, culture, and context influences Hispanic couples; (b) missed opportunities to accessing help; (c) pivotal moments are needed to access formal services; and (d) family matters. Participants of this study believed that dating violence was more normative in Hispanic relationships than "American" relationships. Although participants had opportunities to seek formal services early in their relationships, formal services were only sought after pivotal moments. Families played an important role in supporting or further victimizing the participants. Findings from this study can be used to inform interventions addressing both informal and formal sources of support for Hispanic female victims of dating violence in their late adolescence. PMID:27077507

  8. Factor Structure Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) and latent mean structures analysis (LMS) were used to test measurement invariance and latent mean differences on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale[TM] (KAIT) across males and females in the standardization sample. MCFA found that the parameters of the KAIT two-factor model were…

  9. Family Correlates of Adjustment Profiles in Mexican-Origin Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Lara, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This study used a person-centered approach to examine patterns of adjustment along psychological (i.e., depression, self-esteem, anxiety) and academic (i.e., academic motivation) domains in a sample (N = 338) of Mexican-origin female adolescents. Four adjustment profiles were identified. A "High Functioning" (n = 173) group, which exhibited high…

  10. Gender Consciousness and Class Action for Women: A Comparison of Black and White Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hraba, Joseph; Yarbrough, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Examines the proposition that objective conditions of inequality, aspirations, media use, gender consciousness, class and race consciousness, and symbolic and social participation in the women's movement affect Black and White female adolescents' commitment to class action for women. Reports on research in three high schools in Waterloo, Iowa.…

  11. Recovery from Major Depressive Disorder among Female Adolescents: A Prospective Test of the Scar Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beevers, Christopher G.; Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the psychosocial consequences of experiencing major depressive disorder (MDD). In a 7-year longitudinal study of 496 female adolescents, the authors identified 49 girls who experienced their first episode of MDD and then recovered. They were compared with a randomly selected group of 98 never depressed participants on 13…

  12. Peer Attitudes Towards Adolescent Participants in Male- and Female-Oriented Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Thomas R.; Hicks, Catherine M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in…

  13. Self-Perceptions of a High School Female Adolescent with Asperger Syndrome: A Case History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kemberly V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge base about female adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS). The findings will be useful in providing educators with an insight into the social world of Asperger syndrome in order to give them a better understanding of the syndrome, and to assist them in teaching students more effectively. The…

  14. "Running a Train": Adolescent Boys' Accounts of Sexual Intercourse Involving Multiple Males and One Female

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to be at risk…

  15. Effects of Group Therapy on Female Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thun, Debra; Sims, Patricia L.; Adams, Mary Ann; Webb, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Explores treatment interventions for female sexual abuse survivors through a pilot study examining the relationship between group treatment and adolescent self-image. Results revealed that participants who received group therapy increased in levels of impulse control and that the experimental group had a decrease in self-reliance whereas the…

  16. Parent Perception of Provider Interactions Influences HPV Vaccination Status of Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon

    2016-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage among adolescent females is well below national public health goals. Many known barriers to HPV vaccine receipt can be addressed in parent-physician conversations. This study sought to explore parent experiences and attitudes related to HPV vaccination of adolescent girls, focused on interactions with providers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of parents using a nationally representative online panel. Among parents with ≥1 daughter aged 11 to 17 years, provider recommendations for HPV vaccine and specified age to begin the HPV vaccine series were associated with HPV vaccine status. Parents who reported their daughters were unlikely to complete the HPV series were more likely to have had no discussion of HPV vaccine with the provider. Efforts to increase HPV vaccination rates among adolescent females should continue to focus on improving provider discussion of HPV vaccine. PMID:26450982

  17. Female Reproductive Health After Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers: Guidelines for the Assessment and Management of Female Reproductive Complications

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Monika L.; Meacham, Lillian R.; Patterson, Briana; Casillas, Jacqueline S.; Constine, Louis S.; Hijiya, Nobuko; Kenney, Lisa B.; Leonard, Marcia; Lockart, Barbara A.; Likes, Wendy; Green, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose As more young female patients with cancer survive their primary disease, concerns about reproductive health related to primary therapy gain relevance. Cancer therapy can often affect reproductive organs, leading to impaired pubertal development, hormonal regulation, fertility, and sexual function, affecting quality of life. Methods The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer (COG-LTFU Guidelines) are evidence-based recommendations for screening and management of late effects of therapeutic exposures. The guidelines are updated every 2 years by a multidisciplinary panel based on current literature review and expert consensus. Results This review summarizes the current task force recommendations for the assessment and management of female reproductive complications after treatment for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Experimental pretreatment as well as post-treatment fertility preservation strategies, including barriers and ethical considerations, which are not included in the COG-LTFU Guidelines, are also discussed. Conclusion Ongoing research will continue to inform COG-LTFU Guideline recommendations for follow-up care of female survivors of childhood cancer to improve their health and quality of life. PMID:23382474

  18. Dual-task performance under acute stress in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Koenig, Julian; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Research to elucidate early alterations of higher cognitive processes in adolescents with BPD is rare. This study investigated differences in dual-task performance in adolescents with BPD during stress and non-stress conditions. The study sample comprised 30 female adolescents with BPD and 34 healthy controls. The impact of stress on dual-task performance was measured using a standardized stressor. Self-reports of distress and measures of heart rate (HR) were obtained to measure stress reactivity. There were no group differences in task performance. Under stress conditions, the performance on the auditory task decreased in both groups but without significant group differences. Healthy controls showed an increase of mean HR after stress induction compared to no change in the BPD group. The finding of attenuated HR response to acute stress in adolescent patients with BPD may contradict current theories that the affective hyperresponsivity in BPD is based on a biologically determined mechanism. PMID:26852226

  19. Short-term and long-term effects of repeated social defeat during adolescence or adulthood in female rats.

    PubMed

    Ver Hoeve, E S; Kelly, G; Luz, S; Ghanshani, S; Bhatnagar, S

    2013-09-26

    Accumulating evidence suggests that adolescence represents a sensitive period during which social stressors influence adult behavior and stress reactivity. However, relatively little is known about the impact of social stress in adolescence on behaviors or stress reactivity in females. In this study, we exposed adolescent or adult female rats to the repeated social stress of defeat for seven consecutive days. Repeated defeat resulted in distinctly different behavioral repertoires during defeat in adolescent compared to adult female rats. Adolescent females exhibited more play and avoidant behaviors and adult females exhibited more active and aggressive behaviors toward the resident female. Examination of the short-term effects of social defeat using the Porsolt forced swim test (FST) indicated that adolescents, regardless of their exposure to social defeat, showed increased time immobile and decreased time swimming compared to adults. Adolescent rats exposed to defeat also exhibited increased climbing compared to their age-matched naïve counterparts. These effects dissipated with age. Interestingly, no effects of defeat were observed in adult females, however, when these females were re-assessed in the FST 30 days after the end of defeat, we observed increased swimming at the expense of climbing. Using exposure to a novel restraint to assess stress reactivity, we found that stress during adolescence and adulthood led to lower basal adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations and that both stressed and control adolescent groups exhibited a delay in recovery in adulthood compared to stressed and control adult groups. Fos protein analysis further suggested that cortical/thalamic structures serve as potential substrates that mediate these long-term impacts of stress during adolescence. Thus, repeated social stress during adolescence produces different patterns of effects as compared with repeated social stress during adulthood. PMID:23402852

  20. African American Adolescent Females' Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety, Familial Strategies, and Sexual Debut

    PubMed Central

    Choby, Alexandra A.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Catania, Joseph A.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Harper, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual debut represents a developmental transition that holds possibility for growth and for risk. Family and neighborhood may impact timing of debut. This qualitative study examined family strategies (e.g., moving, parental monitoring), perceptions of neighborhood, and attitudes about sex and sexual debut among sexually experienced and inexperienced African American adolescent females living in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. Findings show that more familial strategies were reported by sexually inexperienced females, suggesting that strategies may delay sexual debut. Furthermore, experiences with neighborhood violence related to attitudes about sex and sexual debut, suggesting a linkage between death anxiety and sexual debut among female youth. PMID:22523481

  1. Can laboratory-based tennis profiles predict field tests of tennis performance?

    PubMed

    Perry, Arlette C; Wang, Xuewen; Feldman, Brandon B; Ruth, Tiffany; Signorile, Joseph

    2004-02-01

    The present study examined the impact of physical characteristics of adolescent competitive tennis players (13-18 years) on field tests of tennis performance. Results (n = 33) showed that boys were taller (p = 0.001), possessed greater wingspan (p = 0.030), had greater maximum oxygen consumption (p = 0.001), and performed better on isokinetic strength measurements. Multiple regression analyses controlling for age and sex showed that height (p = 0.025), maximum minute ventilation (p = 0.005), and isokinetic strength measurements significantly and positively affected ball velocity. Knee extension average power was the only variable to positively and significantly affect ball placement (p = 0.040); however, several isokinetic strength measurements negatively affected ball placement. For the nondominant side, down-the-line strokes showed reduced accuracy (p = 0.001) and ball velocity (p = 0.001) compared with cross-court strokes. Given our results, resistance training may be beneficial for the performance of on-court tennis play. PMID:14971970

  2. Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Delinquent Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariga, Michio; Uehara, Toru; Takeuchi, Kazuo; Ishige, Yoko; Nakano, Reiko; Mikuni, Masahiko

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although juveniles within the justice system have high psychiatric morbidity, few comprehensive investigations have shown posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female delinquents. Here, we aim to describe the nature and extent of PTSD and trauma exposure and to clarify the relationships among comorbidity and psychosocial factors in…

  3. Psychological Profile of the Female Adolescent Incest Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German, Don-Nee E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Forty female incest victims, ages 12-18, were administered personality and self-concept assessments. Subjects were found to be shy, expedient, guilt-prone, aggressive, realistic, and withdrawn and to have low overall self-concept. Subjects showed more confidence about physical appearance and intellectual and school status than other aspects of…

  4. Nutrition Knowledge among Adolescent High School Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Patricia; Toma, Ramses B.; Tuveson, Richard V.; Jacob, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of a sports nutrition education program in changing the nutrition behavior of females (N=72) on high school varsity softball teams. Pretests indicated no significant difference in nutrition knowledge between experimental and control groups. However, following nutrition education, significant differences in nutrition…

  5. Premarital Contraceptives Usage among Male and Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornick, Joesph P.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Variables important in predicting female contraception usage were found to be those which involved dyadic commitment, conditions of love, self-esteem, and father's occupation (social class). The best predictors of male contraception usage involved experience in dating and internalization of role models via mother's and father's permissiveness.…

  6. Predicting Adolescent and Adult Antisocial Behavior among Adjudicated Delinquent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernkovich, Stephen A.; Lanctot, Nadine; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2008-01-01

    Studies identifying the mechanisms underlying the causes and consequences of antisocial behavior among female delinquents as they transit to adulthood are scarce and have important limitations: Most are based on official statistics, they typically are restricted to normative samples, and rarely do they gather prospective data from samples of…

  7. Pathways to Sexual Risk Taking among Female Adolescent Detainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African…

  8. Fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex of adolescent male and female suicide victims.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Conley, Robert R; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2009-01-01

    Prior epidemiological, prospective intervention, and peripheral and central fatty acid composition studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acid deficiency may be associated with the pathoaetiology of depression and suicide. In the present study, we determined the fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adolescent male and female suicide victims and age-matched controls. Fatty acid composition (wt% total fatty acids) and concentrations (micromol/g) were determined in the postmortem PFC (Brodmann area 10) of male and female adolescent (aged 13-20 years) suicide victims (n=20) and age-matched controls (n=20) by gas chromatography. None of the major polyunsaturated fatty acids including the principle brain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), monounsaturated fatty acids, or saturated fatty acids differed significantly between adolescent suicide victims and controls before or after segregation by gender. The arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6): DHA ratio and adrenic acid (22:4n-6) composition were negatively correlated with age at death in controls but not in suicides, and males exhibited a greater AA:DHA ratio irrespective of cause-of-death. These results demonstrate that adolescent male and female suicide victims do not exhibit DHA deficits in the postmortem PFC relative to age-matched controls, and suggest that suicide victims do not exhibit the normal age-related decrease in adrenic acid composition and the AA:DHA ratio. PMID:19064316

  9. Factors associated with the process of adaptation among Pakistani adolescent females living in United States.

    PubMed

    Khuwaja, Salma A; Selwyn, Beatrice J; Mgbere, Osaro; Khuwaja, Alam; Kapadia, Asha; McCurdy, Sheryl; Hsu, Chiehwen E

    2013-04-01

    This study explored post-migration experiences of recently migrated Pakistani Muslim adolescent females residing in the United States. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirty Pakistani Muslim adolescent females between the ages of 15 and 18 years living with their families in Houston, Texas. Data obtained from the interviews were evaluated using discourse analysis to identify major reoccurring themes. Participants discussed factors associated with the process of adaptation to the American culture. The results revealed that the main factors associated with adaptation process included positive motivation for migration, family bonding, social support networks, inter-familial communication, aspiration of adolescents to learn other cultures, availability of English-as-second-language programs, participation in community rebuilding activities, and faith practices, English proficiency, peer pressure, and inter-generational conflicts. This study provided much needed information on factors associated with adaptation process of Pakistani Muslim adolescent females in the United States. The results have important implications for improving the adaptation process of this group and offer potential directions for intervention and counseling services. PMID:22940911

  10. Socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for female adolescents in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Javadnoori, Mojgan; Hasanpour, Marzieh; Hazavehei, Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi; Taghipour, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite clear reasons for necessity of sexual health education for adolescents, it is a contested issue and has faced challenges in most cultures. Providing sexual education for non-married adolescents is culturally unacceptable in most Muslim societies. Objective: This qualitative study addressed socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for female adolescents in Iran. Materials and Methods: Qualitative data from female adolescents (14-18 yr), mothers, teachers, authorities in health and education organizations, health care providers and clergies were collected in two large cities of Iran including Mashhad and Ahvaz through focus group discussions and individual in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional qualitative content analysis with MAXqda software. Results: Our results revealed that the main socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for adolescents in Iran are affected by taboos surrounding sexuality. The emergent categories were: denial of premarital sex, social concern about negative impacts of sexual education, perceived stigma and embarrassment, reluctance to discuss sexual issues in public, sexual discussion as a socio-cultural taboo, lack of advocacy and legal support, intergenerational gap, religious uncertainties, and imitating non-Islamic patterns of education. Conclusion: It seems that cultural resistances are more important than religious prohibitions, and affect more the nature and content of sexual health education. However, despite existence of salient socio-cultural doubtful issues about sexual health education for adolescents, the emerging challenges are manageable to some extent. It is hoped that the acceptability of sexual health education for adolescents could be promoted through overcoming the cultural taboos and barriers as major obstacles. PMID:24639734

  11. A developmental approach to pregnancy prevention with early adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Proctor, S E

    1986-10-01

    Traditional pregnancy prevention strategies employed with adults and older teens do not recognize significant developmental differences between early adolescents and other age groups. Methods that compliment, reflect, and are consistent with developmental needs of the young teen provide cogent approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. Particular emphasis should be placed on interpersonal relationships and their importance in the young woman's life, especially the relationship between the young teen and her parents. Developing and improving all relationships instrumental in positively affecting teen decision-making represent potent approaches to pregnancy prevention. The axioms of Piaget, Erikson, and Mercer are examined in regard to cognitive, social, emotional, and psychosexual development in the 12-14 year old. Young teens' responses to sex education as well as their use of contraception are reviewed in relation to developmental theory. PMID:3534458

  12. Contraceptive method switching among American female adolescents, 1979.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, M B; Zelnik, M

    1985-01-01

    Better knowledge about contraceptive use in adolescents is needed if pregnancy prevention is to be improved. Data from the 1979 National Survey of Young Women were used to examine method switching once contraceptive use had begun among 449 never-pregnant young women who reported premarital intercourse more than once. Bivariate chi2 tests and multivariate logit regression were used to examine factors related to switching in four analyses: overall switching; switching among those with one intercourse partner; and switching from nonmedical and medical methods separately. Frequency of intercourse and type of first method had an interactive effect on switching; length of exposure to switching, type of relationship, and reason for choosing the first method were also significant. These results suggest that providers and educators should consider the circumstances under which contraceptive methods are chosen and used by young women when counseling them as to what method may be best for them. PMID:3965412

  13. The Whys of Teaching Tennis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Brett R.; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Hannon, James C.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the importance of clearly defining tennis terms and explaining the reasons behind certain techniques so that students will learn and apply the material taught and enjoy the game more fully. (Contains 4 figures.)

  14. Does self-esteem affect body dissatisfaction levels in female adolescents?☆

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Coelho, Fernanda Dias; Paes, Santiago Tavares; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of self-esteem on levels of body dissatisfaction among adolescent females. Methods: A group of 397 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were enrolled in the study. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was applied to assess body dissatisfaction. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to assess self-esteem. Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were also measured. These anthropometric data were controlled in the statistical analyses. Results: The multiple regression model indicated influence of "positive self-esteem" (R2=0.16; p=0.001) and "negative self-esteem" (R2=0.23; p=0.001) subscales on the BSQ scores. Univariate analysis of covariance demonstrated differences in BSQ scores (p=0.001) according to groups of self-esteem. Conclusion: It was concluded that self-esteem influenced body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls from Juiz de Fora, MG. PMID:25479855

  15. Left-handedness in professional and amateur tennis.

    PubMed

    Loffing, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert; Strauss, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Negative frequency-dependent effects rather than innate predispositions may provide left-handers with an advantage in one-on-one fighting situations. Support mainly comes from cross-sectional studies which found significantly enhanced left-hander frequencies among elite athletes exclusively in interactive sports such as baseball, cricket, fencing and tennis. Since professional athletes' training regimes continuously improve, however, an important unsolved question is whether the left-handers' advantage in individual sports like tennis persists over time. To this end, we longitudinally tracked left-hander frequencies in year-end world rankings (men: 1973-2011, ladies: 1975-2011) and at Grand Slam tournaments (1968-2011) in male and female tennis professionals. Here we show that the positive impact of left-handed performance on high achievement in elite tennis was moderate and decreased in male professionals over time and was almost absent in female professionals. For both sexes, left-hander frequencies among year-end top 10 players linearly decreased over the period considered. Moreover, left-handedness was, however, no longer seems associated with higher probability of attaining high year-end world ranking position in male professionals. In contrast, cross-sectional data on left-hander frequencies in male and female amateur players suggest that a left-handers' advantage may still occur on lower performance levels. Collectively, our data is in accordance with the frequency-dependent hypothesis since reduced experience with left-handers in tennis is likely to be compensated by players' professionalism. PMID:23145151

  16. Reasons for Fighting among Violent Female Adolescents: A Qualitative Investigation from an Urban, Midwestern Community.

    PubMed

    Resko, Stella M; Reddock, Ebony C; Ranney, Megan L; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Mountain, Sarah Kruman; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Walton, Maureen A

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the self-reported reasons for fighting among female adolescents (N = 72). Data are drawn from brief intervention sessions addressing violent behavior and alcohol use. Young women age 14 to 18 (Mean = 16) were recruited in an urban emergency department (58.3% African American/Black, 31.9% White, and 9.7% other races/ethnicities). Participants identified multiple reasons that they engage in fights including self-protection/self-defense, enhancing social status and respect, safety (e.g., preventing future fights or sexual assaults), revenge/retaliation, social motivations (e.g., defending family or friends, fighting over romantic interests), coping, and enjoyment. Results provide insight into opportunities and challenges in developing interventions addressing aggression among female adolescents. PMID:27018828

  17. [Psychodynamik focal therapy of bulimia nervosa for female adolescents and young adults].

    PubMed

    Reich, Günter; Horn, Hildegard; Winkelmann, Klaus; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas; Stefini, Anette

    2014-01-01

    A manual for a disorder oriented psychodynamic treatment of bulimia nevosa and atypical bulimia nervosa of female adolescents and young adults is presented. This manual is applied in a therapy project, which started in 2007. The work on conflicts and structural dysfunctions is meant to lead to the removal or alleviation of the symptoms and an improvement of eating behavior and body image. The bulimic symptoms are contextualized and focussed according to the conflicts and ego-structural deficits of the patients. Typical patterns of interpersonal relationships, transference, conflict, defence and structural problems as well as therapeutic steps are described. The typical psychosocial situation of female adolescence and young adult age is taken into account. Special emphasis is laid on the limitedness of the therapy to 60 sessions and the active structuring of the final phase of he therapy by the therapist. PMID:24693801

  18. Single-sex versus coeducational environment and achievement in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Monaco, N M; Gaier, E L

    1992-01-01

    For women, the nature and range of experiences during the high school years take on special significance, since it is during this period that they usually weigh their various roles and adjust their levels of aspirations accordingly. If the high school environment is successful in reducing the discrepancy between what are often viewed as conflicting roles, adolescent females may place greater emphasis on achievement. It is within this context that the present paper explored the differential benefits of single-sex and coeducational schooling. The issue explored is not whether one is preferable for females; rather, the concern here is how each of these settings influences both achievement and personal fulfillment. PMID:1414569

  19. Differential motivational profiles following adolescent sucrose access in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, Amy C; Abbott, Kirsten N; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents are the highest consumers of sugar sweetened drinks. Excessive consumption of such drinks is a likely contributor to the development of obesity and may be associated with enduring changes in the systems involved in reward and motivation. We examined the impact of daily sucrose consumption in young male and female rats (N=12 per group) across the adolescent period on the motivation to perform instrumental responses to gain food rewards as adults. Rats were or were not exposed to a sucrose solution for 2h each day for 28days across adolescence [postnatal days (P) 28-56]. They were then trained as adults (P70 onward) to lever press for a palatable 15% cherry flavored sucrose reward and tested on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule to assess motivation to respond for reinforcement. Female rats exposed to sucrose had higher breakpoints on the PR schedule than controls, whereas male rats exposed to sucrose had lower breakpoints than controls. These results show that consumption of sucrose during adolescence produced sex-specific behavioral changes in responding for sucrose as adults. PMID:26826605

  20. The prevalence of risk factors for general recidivism in female adolescent sexual offenders: a comparison of three subgroups.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia E

    2013-09-01

    To our knowledge, there are no former studies in which subgroups of female adolescent sexual offenders are studied. Therefore, we examined differences in risk factors for general recidivism between female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense against a younger child (CSO, n=25), female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense with a peer victim (PSO, n=15) and female adolescents who have committed a misdemeanor sexual offenses (MSO, n=31). Results showed that CSOs had considerably fewer problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school), family (e.g., parental alcohol problems, parental mental health problems, poor authority and control, out of home placements and run away from home) and friends (antisocial friends) than MSOs and/or PSOs. No differences were found in the prevalence of mental health problems, physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:23830779

  1. Suicidal behavior among inner-city Hispanic adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Razin, A M; O'Dowd, M A; Nathan, A; Rodriguez, I; Goldfield, A; Martin, C; Goulet, L; Scheftel, S; Mezan, P; Mosca, J

    1991-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is disproportionately frequent among inner-city Hispanic adolescent girls. In an attempt to generate a multifactorial set of hypotheses to explain this behavior, 33 such subjects consecutively admitted for suicidal behavior and 15 demographically identical nonsuicidal subjects were assessed by means of a structured interview. Mothers of all subjects were also assessed. Attempts were nearly always impulsive and nonlethal, though often with a stated wish to die. Nearly all were overdoses, and were precipitated by conflicts with mother or boyfriend. Mothers could usually identify the precipitants. Attempters' parents were less often born in the U.S., their mothers seemed medically less healthy, and their extended families were more often supported by public assistance, and had a higher incidence of criminal and psychiatric problems. School performance was poorer among attempters, who had suffered more and earlier losses, especially of biologic fathers, with whom fewer had ongoing relationships. They more often had boyfriends, had begun sexual activity, had recently lost friends, and expressed a mistrustful stance toward friendships. Similarly, their mothers had fewer friends and more often expressed a mistrustful stance. Relationships with mothers seemed more intense, desperate, and even violent, and attempters were much more often parentified, i.e., mothering their mothers. Although both groups often assumed caretaking roles in their families, attempters were more negatively described by themselves and by their mothers. While knowledge of suicidal models was common in both groups, attempters' mothers knew of even more models than did their daughters or the nonsuicidal subjects or their mothers. Notably, more attempters' mothers had themselves made attempts. Families of most attempters were usually mobilized by the attempt. These findings permit the construction of a putative profile of risk factors that can be tested more rigorously. PMID:1993520

  2. HTLV-1-associated infective dermatitis and probable HTLV-1- associated myelopathy in an adolescent female*

    PubMed Central

    Steglich, Raquel Bisacotti; Tonoli, Renata Elise; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Pinto, Giselle Martins; Riesgo, Rudimar dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated infective dermatitis (ID) is a chronic, severe and recurrent eczema occurring during childhood in patients vertically infected with HTLV-1. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesia (HAM/ TSP) is slow and progressive. We report the case of an adolescent female from a non-endemic area for HTLV-1 who presents ID and, most likely, associated HAM/TSP. PMID:26312674

  3. Female Adolescent Subjectivities in Las Vegas: Poststructural Thoughts on the Intersections of Gender, Sexuality, Consumer Logic and Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dentith, Audrey M.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, data collected from an ethnographic study of adolescent girls growing up in the city of Las Vegas in the US is used to further our understanding of the role of mediated sex and consumer culture and in relationship to emerging adolescent female identities. Girls in this study articulated a clear sense of their abilities to make…

  4. Brief Report: Sexual Sensation Seeking and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behaviour among African-American Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…

  5. Effect of Aerobics Exercise on Self-Esteem in Iranian Female Adolescents Covered by Welfare Organization

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Mansooreh; Alavi, Mousa; Zolaktaf, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Deprivation of parents might decrease self-esteem (SE) and result in affective and social incompatibility. In this randomized control trial, we examined the effect of aerobics exercise on SE among female adolescents living with no natural family. Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of all female adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (n: 72) who were covered by Isfahan Welfare organization. Participants were assigned into intervention and control groups by matched random sampling. Intervention included 8 weeks of aerobics exercise. Coppersmith SE inventory was administered before and after intervention as well as after one month follow-up. Results. No significant difference was seen between pre-SE scores of intervention (32.7 ± 8.4) and control (33.0 ± 6.7) groups (t = .16, P = .87). A significant difference was obtained in post-SE scores (40.2 ± 5.7 versus 34.7 ± 6.8, t = 3.58, P = .001) and in one month follow-up scores (36.4 ± 5.2 versus 33.0 ± 5.2, t = 2.25, P = .03). Discussion. The results demonstrated a low level of pre-SE in both groups. However, a significant improvement was seen in posttest of intervention group which persisted even one month after intervention. It supports the use of aerobics for female adolescents deprived from family life. PMID:25610905

  6. Cadmium Increases the Sensitivity of Adolescent Female Mice to Nicotine-Related Behavioral Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Adeniyi, Philip Adeyemi; Olatunji, Babawale Peter; Ishola, Azeez Olakunle; Ajonijebu, Duyilemi Chris; Ogundele, Olalekan Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates spatial and nonspatial working memory, anxiety related behavior, and motor activities in cadmium and/or nicotine exposed female adolescent mice. P28 female adolescent mice (albino strain) were divided into four groups of five (n = 5) mice each. A set of mice (Nic) received subcutaneous nicotine (2.0 mg/kg) while a separate set (Cd) was treated with 2.0 mg/kg cadmium (subcutaneous). For the combined treatments of cadmium and nicotine, we administered 2.0 mg/kg Nicotine and 2.0 mg/kg of Cd. Subsequently, a separate group of animals (n = 5; control) received normal saline. The total duration of treatment for all groups was 28 days (P28–P56). At P56, the treatment was discontinued, after which the animals were examined in behavioural tests. Nicotine and cadmium increased the metabolism and food intake in the female adolescent mice. This also corresponded to an increase in weight when compared with the control. However, a combined nicotine-cadmium treatment induced a decline in weight of the animals versus the control. Also, nicotine administration increased the motor function, while cadmium and nicotine-cadmium treatment caused a decline in motor activity. Both nicotine and cadmium induced a reduction in memory index; however, nicotine-cadmium treatment induced the most significant decrease in nonspatial working memory. PMID:25477708

  7. Incidence of child and adolescent abuse among incarcerated females in the northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Falbo, Gilliatt; Caminha, Fátima; Aguiar, Florence; Albuquerque, Jácia; de Chacon Lourdes, M; Miranda, Simone; Marques, Sônia

    2004-10-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence and the tendency for abused and neglected children to become abusers, delinquents, and violent offenders in their adult life is an important field to be understood. It is also important to understand these backgrounds to guide future preventative interventions. Through a cross-sectional study, the occurrence of abuse during childhood and adolescence of adult women incarcerated in a female state prison at Recife in northeast Brazil was investigated. Among 219 prisoners, 190 accepted to join the research; 149 were young women (23-27 years) with severe educational deficiency. Living in poor socioeconomical conditions with problematic and violent familiar relations, 116 (61 per cent) left home at the end of their adolescence and the same number reported having been abused (p < 0.000015). There was a statistical significance between the abuses suffered and witnessed by the subjects and the perpetration of abuse against children and adolescents by themselves (p < 0.0022 and p < 0.0000049). Parents were the most frequent perpetrators (37.4 per cent). Sexual activity and use of legal and illegal drugs occurred early in adolescence. The group also had a family history of violence. Based on the analysed data of this studied group, the authors assumed that the abuse suffered in childhood and adolescence of these women drove them to be abusers in adult life and could have been a predictive marker for their conduct disorders and subsequent criminal behavior. PMID:15510761

  8. Father Involvement, Dating Violence, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a National Sample of Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. PMID:25475102

  9. Father Involvement, Dating Violence, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a National Sample of Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T.; Quinn, Camille R.; Cryer, Qiana R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/ or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman’s life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. PMID:25475102

  10. Rare Parenchyma Meningioma in an Adolescent Female With Cheek Tingling

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wenjie; Li, Meirong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The following is a report on a rare parenchyma meningioma and the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. To our knowledge, this was the first characterization of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in a parenchyma meningioma. Three days after initial presentation, a 14-year-old female student reported feeling tingling in her cheek, grading 3 to 4 points. Two hours later, the tingling had disappeared. The patient was admitted to hospital with stable vital signs and no abnormal presentations upon physical examination. A routine CT scan of the brain showed a quasicircular region of the left occipital lobe was homogenous hyperdense and an arcualia calcification was found on the lesion's margin and the boundary was ill-defined. Further MRI and contrast-enhanced scanning of the brain showed that a lobulated nidus with abnormal signaling was present in the left occipital lobe and was approximately 1.9 × 2.0 cm. Hypointensity on T1-weighted imaging and a slight hyperintensity on T2-weighted imaging was also observed. A short T2 signal appeared on the margin and a few longer T2 edema zones appeared around the nidus, whereas the lesion showed homogenous enhancement. MRS was characterized by a slight or moderate increase of a choline (Cho) peak and a small reduction of the N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) peak. After completing the preoperative preparation, the excision of the supratentorial deep lesions was performed on the patient. The pathology led to a diagnosis of a left occipital lobe meningioma, WHO I. The patient was followed-up for 14 months postoperation, and had no reoccurrences. Intraparenchymal meningioma rarely occurs in brain parenchyma, and is characterized by lesions with abundant blood supply and requires a glioma to be identified. MRS is a potential tool for preoperative diagnosis of intraparenchymal meningioma. PMID:27082619

  11. Predictive equations underestimate resting energy expenditure in female adolescents with phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Quirk, Meghan E.; Schmotzer, Brian J.; Schmotzer, Brian J.; Singh, Rani H.

    2010-01-01

    Resting energy expenditure (REE) is often used to estimate total energy needs. The Schofield equation based on weight and height has been reported to underestimate REE in female children with phenylketonuria (PKU). The objective of this observational, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the agreement of measured REE with predicted REE for female adolescents with PKU. A total of 36 females (aged 11.5-18.7 years) with PKU attending Emory University’s Metabolic Camp (June 2002 – June 2008) underwent indirect calorimetry. Measured REE was compared to six predictive equations using paired Student’s t-tests, regression-based analysis, and assessment of clinical accuracy. The differences between measured and predicted REE were modeled against clinical parameters to determine to if a relationship existed. All six selected equations significantly under predicted measured REE (P< 0.005). The Schofield equation based on weight had the greatest level of agreement, with the lowest mean prediction bias (144 kcal) and highest concordance correlation coefficient (0.626). However, the Schofield equation based on weight lacked clinical accuracy, predicting measured REE within ±10% in only 14 of 36 participants. Clinical parameters were not associated with bias for any of the equations. Predictive equations underestimated measured REE in this group of female adolescents with PKU. Currently, there is no accurate and precise alternative for indirect calorimetry in this population. PMID:20497783

  12. Nicotine-induced plasma corticosterone is attenuated by social interactions in male and female adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Pentkowski, N S; Painter, M R; Thiel, K J; Peartree, N A; Cheung, T H C; Deviche, P; Adams, M; Alba, J; Neisewander, J L

    2011-11-01

    Most smokers begin smoking during adolescence, a period during which social reward is highly influential. Initial exposure to nicotine can produce anxiogenic effects that may be influenced by social context. This study examined play behavior and plasma corticosterone following nicotine administration (0.6 mg/kg, s.c.) in both male and female adolescent (PND39) Sprague-Dawley rats in either isolate or social contexts. In blood samples collected immediately following the 15-min test session, nicotine increased plasma corticosterone relative to saline in both male and female isolate rats, but failed to do so in both males and females placed together in same-sex pairs. Nicotine also attenuated several indices of play behavior including nape attacks, pins and social contact. In isolate rats, nicotine selectively increased locomotor activity in females; however, when administered to social pairs, nicotine decreased locomotion in both sexes. These findings suggest that the presence of a social partner may decrease the initial negative, stress-activating effects of nicotine, perhaps leading to increased nicotine reward. PMID:21782841

  13. Nicotine-induced plasma corticosterone is attenuated by social interactions in male and female adolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    Pentkowski, N.S.; Painter, M.R.; Thiel, K.J.; Peartree, N.A.; Cheung, T.H.C.; Deviche, P.; Adams, M.; Alba, J.; Neisewander, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Most smokers begin smoking during adolescence, a period during which social reward is highly influential. Initial exposure to nicotine can produce anxiogenic effects that may be influenced by social context. This study examined play behavior and plasma corticosterone following nicotine administration (0.6 mg/kg, s.c.) in both male and female adolescent (PND39) Sprague-Dawley rats in either isolate or social contexts. In blood samples collected immediately following the 15-min test session, nicotine increased plasma corticosterone relative to saline in both male and female isolate rats, but failed to do so in both males and females placed together in same-sex pairs. Nicotine also attenuated several indices of play behavior including nape attacks, pins and social contact. In isolate rats, nicotine selectively increased locomotor activity in females; however, when administered to social pairs, nicotine decreased locomotion in both sexes. These findings suggest that the presence of a social partner may decrease the initial negative, stress-activating effects of nicotine, perhaps leading to increased nicotine reward. PMID:21782841

  14. Advanced Tennis for Coaches, Teachers and Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilmanis, Gundars A.

    This book is designed to help the reader attain a real understanding of the mechanics of tennis. It provides an important link between tennis theory and practice. The book covers activities that develop skills in beginners through advanced tennis and tactics applicable for seasoned players. The author draws upon scientific principles of…

  15. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Titilola M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal (< = Tanner stage 2), and mid to post pubertal (Tanner stage > 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5%) of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001). There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420

  16. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal (< = Tanner stage 2), and mid to post pubertal (Tanner stage > 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5%) of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001). There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be “unhappy” and “weak” and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the “best”. These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420

  17. FEMALE PERPETRATION OF VIOLENCE IN HETEROSEXUAL INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS: ADOLESCENCE THROUGH ADULTHOOD

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jessica Roberts; Ghandour, Reem M.; Kub, Joan E.

    2008-01-01

    This article critically reviews 62 empirical studies that examine the prevalence of female perpetrated intimate partner violence across three distinct populations (adolescents, college students, and adults). All studies were published between 1996 and 2006 and reported prevalence rates of physical, emotional, and/or sexual violence perpetrated by females in heterosexual intimate relationships. The highest rates were found for emotional violence, followed by physical and sexual violence. Prevalence rates varied widely within each population, most likely due to methodological and sampling differences across studies. Few longitudinal studies existed, limiting the extent to which we could identify developmental patterns associated with female perpetrated intimate partner violence. Differences and similarities across populations are highlighted. Methodological difficulties of this area of inquiry as well as implications for practice, policy, and research are discussed. PMID:18936281

  18. Quantitative assessment of the serve speed in tennis.

    PubMed

    Vaverka, Frantisek; Cernosek, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    A method is presented for assessing the serve speeds of tennis players based on their body height. The research involved a sample of top world players (221 males and 215 females) who participated in the Grand Slam tournaments in 2008 and 2012. The method is based on the linear regression analysis of the association between the player's body height and the serve speed (fastest serve, average first-serve, and second-serve speed). The coefficient of serve speed (CSS) was calculated as the quotient of the measured and the theoretical value of the serve speed on a regression line relative to the player's body height. The CSS of >1, 1 and <1 indicate above-average, average, and below-average serve speeds, respectively, relative to the top world tennis players with the same body height. The CSS adds a new element to the already existing statistics about a tennis match, and provides additional information about the performance of tennis players. The CSS can be utilised e.g. for setting the target serve speed of a given player to achieve based on his/her body height, choosing the most appropriate match strategy against a particular player, and a long-term monitoring of the effectiveness of training focused on the serve speed. PMID:26879039

  19. Adolescent chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical hypo-responsiveness and depression-like behavior in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Wulsin, Aynara C; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P

    2016-03-01

    Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45-58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood. PMID:26751968

  20. Adolescent chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical hypo-responsiveness and depression-like behavior in adult female rats

    PubMed Central

    Wulsin, Aynara C.; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A.; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45–58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood. PMID:26751968

  1. Psychological barriers to optimal insulin therapy: more concerns in adolescent females than males

    PubMed Central

    Wisting, Line; Bang, Lasse; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate psychological barriers (illness perceptions, insulin beliefs, and coping strategies) to optimal insulin therapy among adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D), with a specific focus on gender differences and mode of treatment (insulin pump vs pen). Methods A total of 105 males and females (12–20 years) participated in this study. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, and the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences were completed. Additionally, diabetes clinical data were collected by the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. Results Females had significantly more negative illness perceptions than males on all dimensions (p<0.05), with moderate-to-large effect sizes. Regarding insulin beliefs, females scored significantly higher than males on insulin concern (p<0.001), indicating more concerns about insulin. There were no significant gender differences on perceptions of insulin necessity. Finally, females scored significantly higher on the coping strategies being social and solving family problems (p<0.01), indicating more positive coping among females than males for these subscales. In terms of treatment mode, the only statistically significant difference in the psychological aspects was for the illness perception treatment control, with patients using insulin pen reporting more negative perceptions on this dimension than patients using insulin pump. Conclusions Addressing psychological aspects may be a clinically important supplement to standard somatic T1D care. The consistent finding of gender differences across the psychological measures implies that a tailored treatment approach for males and females with T1D may be warranted. PMID:27403325

  2. Pattern and predictors of interpersonal violence among adolescent female students in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Mouchira; Ahmed, Dalia; Halawa, Eman Fawzy

    2014-12-01

    Violence among female adolescents is a major public health problem. The objective of this study is to detect the pattern and predicting factors of interpersonal violence among adolescent female students in a nursing high school in Cairo. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the academic year 2011-2012 and included a total of 220 students using a self-administered questionnaire. Physical violence exposure at home, school and community among studied adolescents were 65.5, 30.4 and 25.9% respectively. Verbal violence was found in 55, 69 and 60% at home, school and community respectively. Finally 5 and 41.3% of studied students were exposed to sexual violence at home and community respectively. The highest violence exposure score was at school from teachers while the highest score of being violent was mainly towards the community. Multivariate regression analysis for violence scores revealed that younger students, students from urban residence and higher crowding index were significant predictors for total violence exposure and being violent scores. Prevention programmes should be given for all students especially high risk ones (young age, urban residence and high crowdness index families) and their families to address and overcome this problem. PMID:24627151

  3. Family Correlates of Adjustment Profiles in Mexican-Origin Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Lara, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study used a person-centered approach to examine patterns of adjustment along psychological (i.e., depression, self-esteem, anxiety) and academic (i.e., academic motivation) domains in a sample (N = 338) of Mexican-origin female adolescents. Four adjustment profiles were identified. A High Functioning (n = 173) group, which exhibited high positive adjustment and academic functioning, an Average Functioning (n = 83) group, who exhibited average psychological and academic functioning, an Academically Oriented and Stressed (n = 19) group, who exhibited high academic motivation, but poor psychological functioning in anxiety and negative affect, and a Low Functioning” (n = 25) group, who exhibited poor adjustment overall. Further, paternal and maternal parenting characteristics (i.e., autonomy granting, parent-adolescent conflict, and supportive parenting) were differentially related to Mexican-origin female adolescents’ profiles, providing further evidence for the existence of the profiles. Results contribute to the current literature on Latino adolescents and highlight the importance of examining psychological and academic domains concurrently to determine how these two domains of adjustment are linked among this population. PMID:23678230

  4. The role of dissociation in self-injurious behavior among female adolescents who were sexually abused.

    PubMed

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Zohar, Gali

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the role of dissociation (persistent versus peritraumatic) in self-injurious behavior among at-risk Israeli female adolescents. In addition, the relationship between childhood sexual abuse, depression, dissociation, and potency was investigated. A convenience sample of 93 female adolescents aged 12 years to 18 years were recruited from institutions for at-risk adolescent girls in Israel. Participants were administered an anonymous self-report questionnaire that included six measures: Demographics, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire, the Traumatic Events Questionnaire, and the Potency Scale. Results indicated that childhood sexual abuse increases the risk for self-injurious behavior more than threefold. Higher levels of persistent dissociation were found among girls who reported child sexual abuse compared to those who did not. Self-injurious behavior was predicted by persistent dissociation. Girls who engaged in self-injurious behavior had lower potency and higher depression levels, regardless of childhood sexual abuse history. PMID:25101954

  5. Precursors of post-bout motion sickness in adolescent female boxers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chou; Tseng, Tzu-Chiang; Hung, Ting-Hsuan; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2014-08-01

    Athletic head trauma (both concussive and sub-concussive) is common among adolescents. Head trauma often is followed by motion sickness-like symptoms, by changes in cognitive performance, and by changes in standing body sway. We evaluated adolescent female boxers who did and did not report motion sickness after a bout (i.e., a boxing match), together with a control group of non-boxers. We asked whether pre-bout body sway would differ between boxers who experienced post-bout motion sickness and those who did not. In addition, we asked whether pre-bout cognitive performance would differ between non-boxers and boxers with and without post-bout motion sickness. Seven of twenty boxers reported motion sickness after a bout. Pre-bout measures of cognitive performance and body sway were different in boxers who reported post-bout motion sickness than in boxers without post-bout sickness or controls. The results suggest that susceptibility to motion sickness-like symptoms in adolescent female boxers may be manifested in characteristic patterns of body sway and cognitive performance. It may be possible to use pre-bout data to predict susceptibility to post-bout symptoms. PMID:24671652

  6. Dance 4 Your Life: Exploring the Health and Well-Being Implications of a Contemporary Dance Intervention for Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Mary Kate; Quin, Edel; Redding, Emma

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological and psychological impact of contemporary dance classes on adolescent females. Fifty-five females, aged 14 were recruited from secondary schools in the UK. The intervention constituted a program of contemporary dance classes with an emphasis on building muscular strength. Full ethics…

  7. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  8. "Sisters of Nia": A Social Justice Advocacy Intervention for School Counselors in Their Work with Adolescent African American Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Lee Edmondson; Haizlip, Breyan; Rogers, Tiffany; Brown, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent African American females face multiple obstacles that hinder their educational success. High school completion and college attendance rates remain lower for African American females than those for other racial and gender groups, while pregnancy rates for African American teens are higher. Group work holds promise for meeting the…

  9. The Moderating Role of Father's Care on the Onset of Binge Eating Symptoms among Female Late Adolescents with Insecure Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Ugo; Cacioppo, Marco; Schimmenti, Adriano

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the association between quality of attachment, perception of the father's bond, and binge eating symptoms in a sample of female late adolescents. In total, 233 female students aged between 18 and 20 years completed measures on binge eating, quality of attachment and parent-child relationship. Data showed that respondents…

  10. The Mediating Role of Physical Self-Concept on Relations between Biological Maturity Status and Physical Activity in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Sean P.; Standage, Martyn; Loney, Tom; Gammon, Catherine; Neville, Helen; Sherar, Lauren B.; Malina, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and self-reported physical activity in adolescent British females. Biological maturity status, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 407 female British year 7-9 pupils (M age = 13.2 years, SD = 1.0).…

  11. Assessing weight perception accuracy to promote weight loss among U.S. female adolescents: A secondary analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity have become a global epidemic. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among U.S. adolescents has almost tripled in the last 30 years. Results from recent systematic reviews demonstrate that no single, particular intervention or strategy successfully assists overweight or obese adolescents in losing weight. An understanding of factors that influence healthy weight-loss behaviors among overweight and obese female adolescents promotes effective, multi-component weight-loss interventions. There is limited evidence demonstrating associations between demographic variables, body-mass index, and weight perception among female adolescents trying to lose weight. There is also a lack of previous studies examining the association of the accuracy of female adolescents' weight perception with their efforts to lose weight. This study, therefore, examined the associations of body-mass index, weight perception, and weight-perception accuracy with trying to lose weight and engaging in exercise as a weight-loss method among a representative sample of U.S. female adolescents. Methods A nonexperimental, descriptive, comparative secondary analysis design was conducted using data from Wave II (1996) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Data representative of U.S. female adolescents (N = 2216) were analyzed using STATA statistical software. Descriptive statistics and survey weight logistic regression were performed to determine if demographic and independent (body-mass index, weight perception, and weight perception accuracy) variables were associated with trying to lose weight and engaging in exercise as a weight-loss method. Results Age, Black or African American race, body-mass index, weight perception, and weight perceptions accuracy were consistently associated with the likeliness of trying to lose weight among U.S. female adolescents. Age, body-mass index, weight perception, and weight-perception accuracy were

  12. A grounded theory of female adolescents' dating experiences and factors influencing safety: the dynamics of the Circle

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Sharyl E

    2007-01-01

    Background This paper describes the nature and characteristics of the dating relationships of adolescent females, including any of their experiences of abuse. Methods A grounded theory approach was used with 22 theoretically sampled female adolescents ages 15–18. Results Several important themes emerged: Seven stages of dating consistently described the relationships of female adolescents. A circle consisting of two interacting same sex peer groups provided structure for each teen as they navigated the dating course. The circle was the central factor affecting a female adolescent's potential for risk or harm in dating relationships. Teens defined abuse as an act where the intention is to hurt. Having once succumbed to sexual pressure, teens felt unable to refuse sex in subsequent situations. Conclusion An awareness of both the stages of dating and the dynamics of the circle will assist health care providers to plan and implement interventions in the female adolescent population. Study findings on factors and influences that support non-abusive versus abusive relationship might help identify female teens at risk and/or support interventions aimed at preventing dating violence. PMID:17883833

  13. Markers of Inflammation, Endothelial Activation and Autoimmunity in Adolescent Female Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Alshammari, Eyad; Shafi, Shahida; Nurmi-Lawton, Jaana; Burut, Dayangku Fatiha Pengiran; Lanham-New, Susan; Ferns, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    High levels of physical activity have been linked to benefits in cardiovascular and bone health by affecting, in part, changes in proinflammatory profile. Therefore, we have aimed to assess the effects of intensive training on markers of inflammation, endothelial activation and auto-immunity in the absence of the potential confounding effects of incident atherosclerosis. The subjects comprised 25 competitive gymnasts and 19 healthy sedentary adolescent females, aged 8-17 years. Serum soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) and Hsp27 antibody titres were measured by ELISAs in a sample of adolescent girls who were either physically active (competitive gymnasts) or sedentary. The association between age, body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, serum hsCRP, sICAM-1 and Hsp27 antigen and antibody titres were determined. The mean serum sICAM-1 concentrations were significantly higher in the gymnasts compared to the sedentary females (0.29 ± 0.02 versus 0.23 ± 0.01 mg·L-1, p < 0.01). In contrast serum hsCRP concentrations were substantially lower in the gymnasts compared to the sedentary adolescent females (0.49 ± 0.03 versus 1.38 ± 0.19 mg·L-1, p < 0.001). Differences remained significant after adjustment for anthropometric factors. We also found that serum Hsp27 antigen concentrations were determined by dietary saturated fat intake (p < 0.001), and antibody titres to Hsp27 were determined by dietary PUFA (p < 0.001) after adjustment for BMI. Our findings show that young female gymnasts have an altered profile of inflammatory markers and endothelial activation compared to their less physically active peers. Key points Results showed that adolescent young female gymnasts have an altered serum inflammatory markers and endothelial activation, compared to their less physically active peers. Physical activities improved immune system. Differences in these biochemical data kept

  14. Sport Nutrition and Doping in Tennis: An Analysis of Athletes’ Attitudes and Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Kondric, Miran; Sekulic, Damir; Uljevic, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Zvan, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition and doping issues are rarely studied in the sport of tennis. The aims of this investigation were to determine knowledge on doping (KD) and knowledge on sport nutrition (KSN), and corresponding socio-demographic-, sport-, and sport-nutrition- and doping-factors among an international sample of high-level tennis players of both sexes (43 females; 22 years old on average). In the first phase of the investigation, the KSN and KD questionnaires were studied for their reliability and validity. The consumption of NS is found to be very high, with almost of all the females and 80% of the males using NS at least occasionally. The athletes showed a low tendency regarding future doping usage, although most of them are convinced that doping does exist in tennis. Since athletes declared that their coaches are their main source of information about NS and doping, future studies should investigate what coaches actually know about such problems. KSN has been found to be protective against potential doping behavior in the future. Males are found to be more prone to doping than females. Therefore, in order to prevent doping behavior in tennis we strongly suggest intensive educational programs on sports nutrition and doping-related problems. Key Points The incidence of nutritional supplementation use among the tennis players is found to be very high, especially among the females. Although most of the subjects are of the opinion that the doping behavior is present in tennis circuit, we have found a low tendency regarding future doping usage, and high levels of athletes’ trust in their coaches with regard to nutritional supplementation and doping. There are indices that the knowledge about nutrition is protective factor against potential doping behavior. It clearly reinforces the need to include a wide educational program on sports nutrition in tennis, but also in other sports. PMID:24149808

  15. The influence of self-compassion on emotional well-being among early and older adolescent males and females

    PubMed Central

    Bluth, Karen; Blanton, Priscilla W.

    2014-01-01

    Self-compassion has been associated with well-being in adult samples, but has rarely been assessed in adolescents. In this study, 90 students ages 11–18 completed an online survey assessing self-compassion, life satisfaction, perceived stress and positive and negative affect. Findings indicated that older female adolescents had lower self-compassion than either older male adolescents or early adolescents of either gender, and self-compassion was associated significantly with all dimensions of emotional well-being with the exception of positive affect. Additionally, phase of adolescence, but not gender, was found to moderate the relationship between self-compassion and dimensions of well-being; for older adolescents, the inverse relationship between self-compassion and negative affect was stronger. Lastly, the influence of the various components of self-compassion was investigated and discussed. PMID:25750655

  16. Rorschach interpretation with high-ability adolescent females: psychopathology or creative thinking?

    PubMed

    Franklin, K W; Cornell, D G

    1997-02-01

    Highly intelligent and creative persons have long posed interpretation difficulties for users of the Rorschach Inkblot Test. This study examined Exner's (1993) Schizophrenia, Depression, and Coping Deficit indices as adjustment measures in a sample of 43 female adolescents enrolled in an early college entrance program and a comparison group of 19 girls enrolled in public high school gifted programs. Contrary to conventional interpretation, higher scores on the Rorschach Schizophrenia Index among the accelerants were correlated with healthy emotional adjustment on both the California Psychological Inventory and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA). Further analyses offered support for the hypothesis that among accelerants, elevated scores on the Rorschach constellations did not indicate psychopathology, but rather their creative thinking style. PMID:9018850

  17. Single trial nicotine conditioned place preference in pre-adolescent male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Alexander W; Konz, Nathan; Hirsch, Zahava; Weedon, Jeremy; Dow-Edwards, Diana L

    2014-10-01

    The mean age of first voluntary tobacco inhalation is 12.3 years (DiFranza et al., 2004). 60% of smokers start smoking before the age of 14 and 90% are dependent before reaching the age of 19. Females are typically more sensitive to nicotine than males yet few studies examine the effects of nicotine on the reward systems in pre-adolescent female subjects. This study utilized the single trial conditioned place preference (CPP) test in very young (postnatal day 25-27) rats of both sexes. Latent effects on anxiety and amphetamine response were determined 5 and 7 days following a second nicotine exposure. Results show that 0.05 mg/kg nicotine induced CPP in females following a single trial while both sexes showed CPP following the 0.5 mg/kg dose. Five days later, rats dosed with 0.05 mg/kg show increased time on the open arm of the elevated plus maze, an anxiolytic response. While baseline activity was increased in nicotine-exposed males 7 days following dosing, amphetamine response was not affected by the treatments in either sex. Therefore, our data suggest that young females are more sensitive to nicotine reward than males supporting a heightened sensitivity of the mesolimbic dopamine system in very young females. However, alterations in baseline activity were only seen in males suggesting that different components of the system are affected by nicotine in each sex. An anxiolytic response to nicotine 5 days after dosing may suggest that this very young age group is uniquely affected by this very low nicotine dose. Clearly, nicotine has substantial acute and lasting effects during pre-adolescence at doses substantially lower than seen at older ages as reported by others. These effects, which could potentially result from cigarette or e-cigarette smoking by 11-12 year old children , focus attention on the vulnerability of this age group to nicotine. PMID:25109273

  18. The Effect of Social Skills Training on Perceived Competence of Female Adolescents with Deafness

    PubMed Central

    Soleimanieh Naeini, Tahereh; Keshavarzi Arshadi, Farnaz; Hatamizadeh, Nikta; Bakhshi, Enayatollah

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there are considerable researches on effectiveness of social skills training, little information is available on the effects of such training on perceived competence of adolescents with deafness. Objectives This study was conducted in special school settings to determine the effects of social skills training on perceived competence of female adolescents with deafness. Patients and Methods A prepost quasi-experimental design was used to perform the study. Sixty nine female students with deafness who were enrolled in all of the four different special secondary schools in Tehran, Iran, between 2010 and 2011 participated in this research. Two of four secondary schools were randomly allocated to the intervention group (33 students), and the other two to the control group (36 students). The participants were between 11 and 21 years (Mean = 15.43; SD = 1.89), and more than three fourth of each groups ( i.e. 28 students in each groups) were affected by profound hearing impairment . The intervention group participated in twelve bi-weekly sessions. Pretest and posttest data were collected using the ‘Hearing Impaired Children Self-Image Test’. The questionnaire was filled by an interviewer. This questionnaire asks students about their feeling toward their own competence in domains of cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and communication competence and school adjustment. The data was analyzed by using SPSS software, version 16. Results The intervention led to significant improvement in total perceived competence scores of adolescents with deafness (P < 0.001) as well as in three domains of socio-emotional competence (P = 0.003), communication competence (P < 0.001), and school adjustment (P = 0.018). Conclusions It is likely that learning social skills in adolescents with deafness would improve their sense of competence, and emotional well being. PMID:24693408

  19. Factors Affecting Female Attitude Formation toward Science. Specific Reference to 12-14 Year Old Female Adolescents and Their Affective Orientation toward Middle School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Deborah A.

    This paper: (1) briefly reviews the existing literature which supports that female adolescents possess significantly more negative attitudes toward middle school science than do males; (2) examines the process of gender socialization in the United States to establish the socio-cultural and social psychological framework within which an attitudinal…

  20. Table tennis dystonia.

    PubMed

    Le Floch, Anne; Vidailhet, Marie; Flamand-Rouvière, Constance; Grabli, David; Mayer, Jean-Michel; Gonce, Michel; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Roze, Emmanuel

    2010-02-15

    Focal task-specific dystonia (FTSD) occurs exclusively during a specific activity that usually involves a highly skilled movement. Classical FTSD dystonias include writer's cramp and musician's dystonia. Few cases of sport-related dystonia have been reported. We describe the first four cases of FTSD related to table tennis (TT), two involving professional international competitors. We also systematically analyzed the literature for reports of sport-related dystonia including detailed clinical descriptions. We collected a total of 13 cases of sport-related dystonia, including our four TT players. Before onset, all the patients had trained for many years, for a large number of hours per week. Practice time had frequently increased significantly in the year preceding onset. As TT is characterized by highly skilled hand/forearm movements acquired through repetitive exercises, it may carry a higher risk of FTSD than other sports. Intensive training may result in maladaptive responses and overwhelm homeostatic mechanisms that regulate cortical plasticity in vulnerable individuals. Our findings support the importance of environmental risk factors in sport-related FTSD, as also suggested in classical FTSD, and have important implications for clinical practice. PMID:20108363

  1. Multiple Sexual Partnerships among Female Adolescents in Rural Uganda: The effects of family structure and school attendance

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Nanlesta A.; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Gray, Ronald H.; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Lutalo, Tom; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Background A better understanding is needed of the contextual factors that influence HIV risk behaviors among female adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of family structure on lifetime sexual partners and on the number of sexual partners in the last year among female adolescents in rural Rakai, Uganda; and to determine if the influence of family structure on these outcomes differed by adolescents’ school attendance status. Methods The sample consisted of 2,337 unmarried adolescent girls, aged 15-19, enrolled in the Rakai Community Cohort Study. The last survey interview within the time period 2001-2008 available for each girl was used. Analyses were stratified by age (15-17 year olds and 18-19 year olds) and school status. Multinomial logistic regression was used. Results Living in a household with a biological father was protective against both outcomes. Family structure was not associated with the outcomes among in-school adolescents but was significantly associated with outcomes among out-of-school adolescents. Conclusions Findings suggest that understanding the familial context in which female adolescents develop, as well as its interaction with school attendance, is important for HIV prevention efforts. Both research and programmatic initiatives must consider the interplay between the family and school domains when considering ways to reduce HIV acquisition among adolescent women. PMID:25415632

  2. Effects of perpetrator identity on suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury in sexually victimized female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Unlu, Gulsen; Cakaloz, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in these cases. Patients and methods Data of 254 sexually abused female adolescents between the ages of 12–18 years were evaluated. The cases were classified into three groups, namely “sexual dating violence”, “incest”, and “other child sexual abuse”, according to the identity of the perpetrator. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features. Results Major depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, which was present in 44.9% of the cases. Among all victims, 25.6% had attempted suicide, 52.0% had suicidal ideation, and 23.6% had NSSI during the postabuse period. A logistic regression analysis revealed that attempted suicide was predicted by dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.053; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.473, 6.330) and depression (AOR =2.238; 95% CI =1.226, 4.086). Dating violence victimization was also the strongest predictor of subsequent suicidal ideation (AOR =3.500; 95% CI =1.817, 6.741). In addition, revictimization was determined to be an important risk factor for both suicidal ideation (AOR =2.897; 95% CI =1.276, 6.574) and NSSI (AOR =3.847; 95% CI =1.899, 7.794). Conclusion Perpetrator identity and revictimization are associated with negative mental health outcomes in sexually victimized female adolescents. Increased risk of suicidality and NSSI should be borne in mind while assessing cases with dating violence and revictimization histories, in particular. PMID:27382291

  3. Body Mass-Related Predictors of the Female Athlete Triad Among Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Thralls, Katie J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T; Kern, Mark; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2016-02-01

    Early detection of the female athlete triad is essential for the long-term health of adolescent female athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between common anthropometric markers (ideal body weight [IBW] via the Hamwi formula, youth-percentile body mass index [BMI], adult BMI categories, and body fat percentage [BF%]) and triad components, (low energy availability [EA], measured by dietary restraint [DR], menstrual dysfunction [MD], low bone mineral density [BMD]). In the sample (n = 320) of adolescent female athletes (age 15.9± 1.2 y), Spearman's rho correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations between anthropometric clinical cutoffs and triad components. All underweight categories for the anthropometric measures predicted greater likelihood of MD and low BMD. Athletes with an IBW >85% were nearly 4 times more likely to report MD (OR = 3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.9]) and had low BMD (OR = 4.1, 95% CI [1.2, 14.2]). Those in <5th percentile for their age-specific BMI were 9 times more likely to report MD (OR 9.1, 95% CI [1.8, 46.9]) and had low BMD than those in the 50th to 85th percentile. Athletes with a high BF% were almost 3 times more likely to report DR (OR = 2.8, 95% CI [1.4, 6.1]). Our study indicates that low age-adjusted BMI and low IBW may serve as evidence-based clinical indicators that may be practically evaluated in the field, predicting MD and low BMD in adolescents. These measures should be tested for their ability as tools to minimize the risk for the triad. PMID:26252427

  4. Genetic sensitivity to emotional cues, racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among African–American adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Swartzendruber, Andrea L.; Smearman, Erica L.; Brody, Gene H.; DiClemente, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial stress, including stress resulting from racial discrimination (RD), has been associated with elevated depressive symptoms. However, individuals vary in their reactivity to stress, with some variability resulting from genetic differences. Specifically, genetic variation within the linked promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) is related to heightened reactivity to emotional environmental cues. Likewise, variations within this region may interact with stressful life events (e.g., discrimination) to influence depressive symptoms, but this has not been empirically examined in prior studies. The objective of this study was to examine whether variation in the 5-HTTLPR gene interacts with RD to predict depressive symptoms among a sample of African–American adolescent females. Participants were 304 African–American adolescent females enrolled in a sexually transmitted disease prevention trial. Participants completed a baseline survey assessing psychosocial factors including RD (low vs. high) and depressive symptomatology (low vs. high) and provided a saliva sample for genotyping the risk polymorphism 5-HTTLPR (s allele present vs. not present). In a logistic regression model adjusting for psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms, an interaction between RD and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with depressive symptomatology (AOR = 3.79, 95% CI: 1.20–11.98, p = 0.02). Follow-up tests found that high RD was significantly associated with greater odds of high depressive symptoms only for participants with the s allele. RD and 5-HTTLPR status interact to differentially impact depressive symptoms among African–American adolescent females. Efforts to decrease depression among minority youth should include interventions which address RD and strengthen factors (e.g., coping, emotion regulation, building support systems) which protect youth from the psychological costs of discrimination. PMID:26157407

  5. Genetic sensitivity to emotional cues, racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among African-American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Smearman, Erica L; Brody, Gene H; DiClemente, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial stress, including stress resulting from racial discrimination (RD), has been associated with elevated depressive symptoms. However, individuals vary in their reactivity to stress, with some variability resulting from genetic differences. Specifically, genetic variation within the linked promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) is related to heightened reactivity to emotional environmental cues. Likewise, variations within this region may interact with stressful life events (e.g., discrimination) to influence depressive symptoms, but this has not been empirically examined in prior studies. The objective of this study was to examine whether variation in the 5-HTTLPR gene interacts with RD to predict depressive symptoms among a sample of African-American adolescent females. Participants were 304 African-American adolescent females enrolled in a sexually transmitted disease prevention trial. Participants completed a baseline survey assessing psychosocial factors including RD (low vs. high) and depressive symptomatology (low vs. high) and provided a saliva sample for genotyping the risk polymorphism 5-HTTLPR (s allele present vs. not present). In a logistic regression model adjusting for psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms, an interaction between RD and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with depressive symptomatology (AOR = 3.79, 95% CI: 1.20-11.98, p = 0.02). Follow-up tests found that high RD was significantly associated with greater odds of high depressive symptoms only for participants with the s allele. RD and 5-HTTLPR status interact to differentially impact depressive symptoms among African-American adolescent females. Efforts to decrease depression among minority youth should include interventions which address RD and strengthen factors (e.g., coping, emotion regulation, building support systems) which protect youth from the psychological costs of discrimination. PMID:26157407

  6. The Impact of Social Stress During Adolescence or Adulthood and Coping Strategy on Cognitive Function of Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Kevin; Barry, Mark; Plona, Zachary; Ho, Andrew; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Valentino, Rita J.

    2015-01-01

    The age of stressor exposure can determine its neurobehavioral impact. For example, exposure of adolescent male rats to resident-intruder stress impairs cognitive flexibility in adulthood. The current study examined the impact of this stressor in female rats. Rats were exposed to resident-intruder stress during early adolescence (EA), mid-adolescence (MA) or adulthood (Adult). They were tested in an operant strategy-shifting task for side discrimination (SD), reversal learning (REV) and strategy set-shifting (SHIFT) the following week. Performance varied with age, stress and coping style. MA and EA rats performed SD and SHIFT better than other ages, respectively. Social stress impaired performance in rats depending on their coping strategy as determined by a short (SL) or long (LL) latency to become subordinate. SL rats were impaired in SD and REV, whereas EA-LL rats were impaired in SHIFT. These impairing effects of female adolescent stress did not endure into adulthood. Strategy set-shifting performance for female adolescents was positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation as indicated by c-fos expression suggesting that this region is engaged during task performance. This contrasts with the inverse relationship between these indices reported for male adolescent rats. Together, the results demonstrate that social stress produces cognitive impairments for female rats that depend on age and coping style but unlike males, the impairing effects of female adolescent social stress are immediate and do not endure into adulthood. Sex differences in the impact of adolescent social stress on cognition may reflect differences in mPFC engagement during the task. PMID:25746514

  7. A displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with female athlete triad: A case report.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shinichi; Arai, Yuji; Hara, Kunio; Tsuzihara, Takashi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, calorie intake and menstrual cycles is most important to prevent such stress fractures. Athletes as well as their coaches or parents therefore need to understand female athlete triad. PMID:20205723

  8. Determinants of Heterosexual Adolescents Having Sex with Female Sex Workers in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Junice Y. S.; Wong, Mee-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the proportion of and socio-ecological factors associated with ever having had sex with female sex workers (FSWs) among heterosexual adolescents. We also described the characteristics of the adolescents who reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs. Methods This is a cross-sectional study (response rate: 73%) of 300 heterosexually active male adolescents of 16 to 19 years attending a national STI clinic in Singapore between 2009 and 2014. We assessed the ecological factors (individual, parental, peer, school and medial influences) and sexual risk behaviors using a self-reported questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and confidence intervals (CI). Results The proportion of heterosexual male adolescents who had ever had sex with FSWs was 39%. Multivariate analysis showed that significant factors associated with ever having had sex with FSWs were sex initiation before 16 years old (aPR 1.79 CI: 1.30–2.46), never had a sexually active girlfriend (aPR 1.75 CI 1.28–2.38), reported lower self-esteem score (aPR 0.96 CI: 0.93–0.98), higher rebelliousness score (aPR 1.03 CI: 1.00–1.07) and more frequent viewing of pornography (aPR 1.47 CI: 1.04–2.09). Lifetime inconsistent condom use with FSWs was 30%. Conclusions A significant proportion of heterosexual male adolescents attending the public STI clinic had ever had sex with FSWs. A targeted intervention that addresses different levels of influence to this behavior is needed. This is even more so because a considerable proportion of adolescents reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs, who may serve as a bridge of STI transmission to the community. National surveys on adolescent health should include the assessment of frequency of commercial sex visits and condom use with FSWs for long-term monitoring and surveillance. PMID:26808561

  9. The timing of neuronal loss across adolescence in the medial prefrontal cortex of male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Willing, J; Juraska, J M

    2015-08-20

    Adolescence is a critical period of brain maturation characterized by the reorganization of interacting neural networks. In particular the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region involved in executive function, undergoes synaptic and neuronal pruning during this time in both humans and rats. Our laboratory has previously shown that rats lose neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and there is an increase in white matter under the frontal cortex between adolescence and adulthood. Female rats lose more neurons during this period, and ovarian hormones may play a role as ovariectomy before adolescence prevents neuronal loss. However, little is known regarding the timing of neuroanatomical changes that occur between early adolescence and adulthood. In the present study, we quantified the number of neurons and glia in the male and female mPFC at multiple time points from preadolescence through adulthood (postnatal days 25, 35, 45, 60 and 90). Females, but not males, lost a significant number of neurons in the mPFC between days 35 and 45, coinciding with the onset of puberty. Counts of GABA immunoreactive cell bodies indicated that the neurons lost were not primarily GABAergic. These results suggest that in females, pubertal hormones may exert temporally specific changes in PFC anatomy. As expected, both males and females gained white matter under the PFC throughout adolescence, though these gains in females were diminished after day 35, but not in males. The differences in cell loss in males and females may lead to differential vulnerability to external influences and dysfunctions of the PFC that manifest in adolescence. PMID:26047728

  10. Core Temperature and Sweat Responses in Professional Women's Tennis Players During Tournament Play in the Heat

    PubMed Central

    Tippet, Melissa L.; Stofan, John R.; Lacambra, Magie; Horswill, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Tennis is often played in hot, humid environments, intensifying the thermoregulatory strain placed on the athletes. As a safety measure, some tennis organizations allow for a 10-minute break in play between the second and third sets when environmental conditions are extreme. However, the actual effect of these breaks in reducing core temperature is unknown. Objective: To determine change in core temperature after a 10-minute break in play and assess fluid balance in professional female tennis players during tournament matches in the heat. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A Women's Tennis Association Tour–sanctioned outdoor tournament on hard courts under hot conditions (30.3°C ± 2.3°C). Patients or Other Participants: Seven professional tennis players. Main Outcome Measure(s): Change in core temperature after a 10-minute break in tournament play, fluid intake, and sweat losses during match play. Results: Core temperature was reduced from 38.92°C to 38.67°C (change of −0.25°C ± 0.20°C) when a break was taken (P  =  .02). Mean sweat rate during match play was 2.0 ± 0.5 L/h. During that time, mean fluid intake was 1.5 ± 0.5 L/h, resulting in a 1.2% ± 1.0% reduction in body mass. Conclusions: Female professional tennis players are subjected to high heat loads during match play in hot environments. However, a 10-minute break in play decreased core temperature in 6 of 7 players by an average of 0.25°C, indicating that the break provides practical benefits in the field. Furthermore, although mean sweat rate in this group of female tennis players was high, most athletes were still able to minimize mass loss to less than 2% of their prematch weight. PMID:21214351

  11. Risky Sexual Behavior among Rural Female Adolescents in Malaysia: A Limited Role of Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Results: Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. Conclusion: The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia. PMID:24762359

  12. Electromyographic assessment of forearm muscle function in tennis players with and without Lateral Epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Alizadehkhaiyat, Omid; Frostick, Simon P

    2015-12-01

    There is no consensus about the main aetiology of Lateral Epicondylitis (LE) or Tennis Elbow. While electromyographic assessment of alterations in neuromuscular control and activation patterns of forearm muscles has received increasing interest as potential intrinsic factors in non-tennis players, there has been insufficient attention in tennis players. The purpose of present review was to search the literature for the electromyographic studies of forearm muscles in tennis players in order to (1) identify related implications for LE, (2) highlight key technical and methodological shortcomings, and (3) suggest potential pathways for future research. An electronic search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholars (1980 to October 2014) was conducted. Titles, abstracts, and full-text articles were screened to identify "peer-reviewed" studies specifically looking into "electromyographic assessment of forearm muscles" in "tennis players". After screening 104 articles, 13 original articles were considered in the main review involving a total of 216 participants (78% male, 22% female). There were indications of increased wrist extensor activity in all tennis strokes and less experienced single-handed players, however with insufficient evidence to support their relationship with the development of LE. Studies varied widely in study population, sample size, gender, level of tennis skills, electrode type, forearm muscles studied, EMG recording protocol, EMG normalisation method, and reported parameters. As a result, it was not possible to present combined results of existing studies and draw concrete conclusions in terms of clinical implications of findings. There is a need for establishment of specific guidelines and recommendations for EMG assessment of forearm musculature particularly in terms of electrode and muscle selection. Further studies of both healthy controls and tennis players suffering from LE with adequate sample sizes and well-defined demographics

  13. The Impact of School Subsidies on HIV-Related Outcomes among Adolescent Female Orphans

    PubMed Central

    Hallfors, Denise Dion; Cho, Hyunsan; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Mapfumo, John; Iritani, Bonita; Zhang, Lei; Luseno, Winnie; Miller, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examine effects of school support as a structural HIV prevention intervention for adolescent female orphans in Zimbabwe after 5 years. Methods 328 orphan adolescent girls were followed in a clustered randomized control trial from 2007 to 2010. The experimental group received school fees, uniforms, and school supplies and were assigned a school-based “helper.” In 2011-12, the control group received delayed partial treatment of school fees only. At the final data point in 2012, survey, HIV, and HSV-2 biomarker data were collected from approximately 88% of the sample. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on endpoint outcomes, controlling for age, religious affiliation, and baseline SES. Results The two groups did not differ on HIV or HSV-2 biomarkers. The comprehensive five-year intervention continued to reduce the likelihood of marriage, improve school retention, improve SES (food security), and marginally maintain gains in quality of life, even after providing school fees to the control group. Conclusions Paying school fees and expenses resulted in significant improvements in life outcomes for orphan adolescent girls. Biological evidence of HIV infection prevention, however, was not observed. Our study adds to the growing body of research on school support as HIV prevention for girls in sub-Saharan Africa, but as yet, no clear picture of effectiveness has emerged. PMID:25530603

  14. A model of premarital coitus and contraceptive behavior among female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strahle, W M

    1983-02-01

    At the most general level, I seek to model female adolescent sexual and contraceptive behavior in terms of the social context in which it occurs. Drawing on emerging theoretical literature pertaining to social exchange theory and changes in the social positions of women (and men) and also on existing substantive literature, I apply these notions to adolescent sexuality and contraceptive usage. The reviews of the literature reveal a number of inconsistencies among those factors (variables) advanced to explain both the prevalence and frequency of premarital coitus and contraceptive employment. Furthermore, as there is a paucity of well-developed theoretical models that might explain these inconsistencies, what is needed is an additional study that seeks to examine the net effects of those variables used in the literature to explain variations in female premarital coitus and contraceptive use. The present formulation is a two-stage causal model that can be used to estimate the impact of these variables on premarital coital behavior (stage 1) and subsequent contraceptive usage (stage 2). These models, and a concomitant set of hypotheses, take into account an array of the more significant sociological and social psychological variables as far as the prediction of the two phenomena in question are concerned. These models may be useful in guiding future research as they graphically display the relationships between these sets of variables within the context of a more general theory of human behavior. PMID:6838356

  15. Fruit consumption, fitness, and cardiovascular health in female adolescents: the Penn State Young Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, T; Chinchilli, V M; Rollings, N; Kieselhorst, K; Tregea, D F; Henderson, N A; Sinoway, L I

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the relations among nutrient intake, fitness, serum antioxidants, and cardiolipoprotein profiles in female adolescents. The study design was a cross-sectional analysis of the Penn State Young Women's Health Study. The present study was performed with the entire cohort (n = 86) when they were 17.1+/-0.5 y (x+/-SD) of age. Primary measurements included cardiolipoprotein indexes, serum antioxidants, nutrient intakes, aerobic fitness, and percentage body fat. The cohort was stratified by estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) measurements and by percentage body fat. The fifth quintile by estimated VO2max had significantly lower percentage body fat, higher athletic scores, higher fruit intake, lower total serum cholesterol, and lower ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL cholesterol than members of the first quintile. When the members of the first and fifth quintiles by percentage body fat were compared, the first quintile had significantly lower weight, lower body mass index, higher estimated VO2max, higher athletic scores, lower ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, and higher fruit, carbohydrate, and fiber intakes. Correlation analyses performed with the data for the entire cohort showed fruit consumption to be positively correlated with estimated VO2max, and predicted VO2max to be positively correlated with circulating beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol. This study provided evidence that the positive associations of exercise and fruit consumption with cardiovascular health apply to female adolescents as well as to adults. PMID:9537609

  16. Female adolescents' perceptions, beliefs, motivations, and attitudes in the negotiation of science texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Camille

    This study was an investigation of female adolescents' perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and reading science-related texts. Three surveys were used to collect data from 253 middle school students in Grade 7 and Grade 8 and six interviews were conducted with students. The interviews allowed a deeper analysis of the value students placed on science and on reading science-related texts. The quantitative data were collected through the following surveys: Test of Science Related Attitudes, Motivation for Reading Informational Books in School adapted, and Metacognitive Awareness Reading Strategies Inventory adapted. The purpose of the surveys was to provide a comprehensive picture of students' self-reported perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and the motivation to engage. Literacy processes and practices make engagement and learning in science possible; however, intrinsic motivation and cognitive strategies are critical influential components that educators cannot overlook. The female adolescents in this study expressed greater competence when involved in learning science through inquiry experimentation integrated with literacy presented in different formats.

  17. The Relationship between Regular Sports Participation and Vigilance in Male and Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Rafael; Huertas, Florentino; Yuste, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Francesc; Sanabria, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between regular sport participation (soccer) and vigilance performance. Two groups of male and female adolescents differentiated in terms of their sport participation (athletes, n = 39, and non-athletes, n = 36) took part in the study. In one session, participants performed the Leger Multi-stage fitness test to estimate their aerobic fitness level. In the other session, participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) to evaluate their vigilance performance. Perceived arousal prior to the task and motivation toward the task were also measured in the PVT session. The results revealed that athletes had better cardiovascular fitness and showed better performance in the PVT. However, correlation analyses did not show any significant relationship between cardiovascular fitness and performance in the PVT. Athletes showed larger scores in motivation and perceived arousal measures with respect to non-athletes, although, once again, these variables were not correlated with PVT performance. Gender differences were observed only in the Leger test, with males showing greater fitness level than females. The major outcome of this research points to a positive relationship between regular sport participation and vigilance during adolescence. This relationship did not seem to be influenced by gender, perceived arousal, motivation toward the task or cardiovascular fitness. We discuss our results in terms of the different hypotheses put forward in the literature to explain the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning. PMID:25849873

  18. Effects of Eucommia ulmoides extract on longitudinal bone growth rate in adolescent female rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Jeong-Il; Song, MiKyung; Lee, Donghun; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Soo Young; Park, Juyeon; Choi, Ho-Young; Kim, Hocheol

    2015-01-01

    Eucommia ulmoides is one of the popular tonic herbs for the treatment of low back pain and bone fracture and is used in Korean medicine to reinforce muscles and bones. This study was performed to investigate the effects of E. ulmoides extract on longitudinal bone growth rate, growth plate height, and the expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in adolescent female rats. In two groups, we administered a twice-daily dosage of E. ulmoides extract (at 30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively) per os over 4 days, and in a control group, we administered vehicle only under the same conditions. Longitudinal bone growth rate in newly synthesized bone was observed using tetracycline labeling. Chondrocyte proliferation in the growth plate was observed using cresyl violet dye. In addition, we analyzed the expressions of BMP-2 and IGF-1 using immunohistochemistry. Eucommia ulmoides extract significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate and growth plate height in adolescent female rats. In the immunohistochemical study, E. ulmoides markedly increased BMP-2 and IGF-1 expressions in the proliferative and hypertrophic zones. In conclusion, E. ulmoides increased longitudinal bone growth rate by promoting chondrogenesis in the growth plate and the levels of BMP-2 and IGF-1. Eucommia ulmoides could be helpful for increasing bone growth in children who have growth retardation. PMID:25087723

  19. Understanding soft drink consumption among female adolescents using the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Nada O; Lee, Jerry W; Modeste, Naomi N; Johnston, Patricia K

    2003-06-01

    This study identified factors that influence regular soda consumption among 707 female students, aged 13-18 years, attending North Los Angeles County public high schools. Participants completed a group-administered Theory of Planned Behavior-based questionnaire. Almost all of the participants, 96.3%, reported that they currently drink soda; 50.1% reported drinking 2 glasses of soda or more per day during the past year. Students reported drinking regular soda more than diet soda and reported drinking phosphoric acid-containing soda more than non-phosphoric acid-containing soda. Attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control had statistically significant positive associations with intention, and were each significant predictors of intention to drink regular soda and together explained 64% of its variance. The strongest predictor was attitude, followed by perceived behavioral control and subjective norm. Our results suggest that efforts to reduce soda consumption among female adolescents should include parents and friends. It is also important that soda should not be excessively available at home or widely accessible to teenagers at schools. Healthy eating messages for adolescents need to be developed and incorporated into existing and future campaigns to reinforce the perception that there are other healthier drinks that quench thirst and that taste good as well. PMID:12828230

  20. Preliminary study of the flora in the lower genital tracts of sexually active adolescent females in relation to symptoms and inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Russo, J F; Ronkin, S; Furness, G

    1981-03-01

    The lower genital tracts of 20 sexually active adolescent females were examined for the presence of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Corynebacterium genitalium, and Corynebacterium pseudogenitalium. Fifty percent of the asymptomatic adolescent females and 50% of the symptomatic adolescent females were colonized with M. hominis, which is higher than the percentage reported in adult females. None of the asymptomatic adolescent females and only 10% of the symptomatic adolescent females were colonized with U. urealyticum, which is much lower than the percentage reported in adults. None of the study patients was colonized with C. genitalium, but 25% were colonized with C. pseudogenitalium. No relationship was found between the presence of M. hominis in the lower genital tract and a clinically identifiable vaginal discharge or inflammatory changes in exfoliated cervical and vaginal epithelial cells. The presence of M.hominis in the lower genital tract does not appear to be influenced by use of oral contraceptives or antecedent pregnancy. PMID:7333925

  1. Unplanned pregnancy in adolescents: association with family structure, employed mother, and female friends with health-risk habits and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Vázquez-Rodriguez, Carlos F; Saldívar-González, Atenógenes H; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza M; Córdova-Fernández, José A; Felizardo-Ávalos, Jorge; Sánchez-Márquez, Wilberto

    2014-02-01

    Previous publications have suggested that living in a nonintact family household and socializing with girlfriends who smoke or who consume alcoholic beverages favor the development of health-risk habits and customs in adolescents. However, their relationship with unplanned pregnancy in adolescents has not been determined. We investigated the association between family structure, employed mother, and female friends with health-risk habits and behaviors with unplanned pregnancy in adolescents (n = 3,130). After adjusting for low maternal educational level and low family income, logistic regression analyses showed that having an employed mother and socializing with girlfriends who have health-risk habits or behaviors, rather than living in a nonintact family household, appear to be the most important health-risk factors for unplanned pregnancy in adolescents. It is important for health-care programs for adolescents to be revised and for their strategies be strengthened in order to reach the objectives for which they were created. PMID:23949273

  2. Nutrition for Tennis: Practical Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Ranchordas, Mayur K.; Rogersion, David; Ruddock, Alan; Killer, Sophie C.; Winter, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Tennis is a pan-global sport that is played year-round in both hemispheres. This places notable demands on the physical and psychological preparation of players and included in these demands are nutritional and fluid requirements both of training and match- play. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review nutritional recommendations for tennis. Notably, tennis players do not excel in any particular physiological or anthropometric characteristic but are well adapted in all areas which is probably a result of the varied nature of the training demands of tennis match play. Energy expenditures of 30.9 ± 5.5 and 45.3 ± 7.3 kJ·min-1 have been reported in women and men players respectively regardless of court surface. Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1·d-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1 and dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 provides ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. Depending on environmental conditions, sweat rates of 0.5 to and over 5 L·hr-1 and sodium losses of 0.5 - 1.8 g have been recorded in men and women players. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ≤ 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. Key Points Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1. Dietary fat intake should

  3. Adolescent pre-treatment with oxytocin protects against adult methamphetamine-seeking behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Callum; Cornish, Jennifer L; Baracz, Sarah J; Suraev, Anastasia; McGregor, Iain S

    2016-03-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), given acutely, reduces self-administration of the psychostimulant drug methamphetamine (METH). Additionally, chronic OT administration to adolescent rats reduces levels of alcohol consumption in adulthood, suggesting developmental neuroplasticity in the OT system relevant to addiction-related behaviors. Here, we examined whether OT exposure during adolescence might subsequently inhibit METH self-administration in adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered vehicle or OT (1 mg/kg, i.p.) once daily from postnatal days (PND) 28 to 37 (adolescence). At PND 62 (adulthood), rats were trained to self-administer METH (intravenous, i.v.) in daily 2-hour sessions for 10 days under a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) reinforcement schedule, followed by determination of dose-response functions (0.01-0.3 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.) under both FR1 and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. Responding was then extinguished, and relapse to METH-seeking behavior assessed following priming doses of non-contingent METH (0.1-1 mg/kg, i.p.). Finally, plasma was collected to determine pre-treatment effects on OT and corticosterone levels. Results showed that OT pre-treatment did not significantly inhibit the acquisition of METH self-administration or FR1 responding. However, rats pre-treated with OT responded significantly less for METH under a PR reinforcement schedule, and showed reduced METH-primed reinstatement with the 1 mg/kg prime. Plasma OT levels were also significantly higher in OT pre-treated rats. These results confirm earlier observations that adolescent OT exposure can subtly, yet significantly, inhibit addiction-relevant behaviors in adulthood. PMID:25402719

  4. A Primary Care–Based, Multicomponent Lifestyle Intervention for Overweight Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Victor J.; Perrin, Nancy; Wu, Philip; Pearson, John; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; Dickerson, John; Lynch, Frances

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Most clinic-based weight control treatments for youth have been designed for preadolescent children by using family-based care. However, as adolescents become more autonomous and less motivated by parental influence, this strategy may be less appropriate. This study evaluated a primary care–based, multicomponent lifestyle intervention specifically tailored for overweight adolescent females. METHODS: Adolescent girls (N = 208) 12 to 17 years of age (mean ± SD: 14.1 ± 1.4 years), with a mean ± SD BMI percentile of 97.09 ± 2.27, were assigned randomly to the intervention or usual care control group. The gender and developmentally tailored intervention included a focus on adoptable healthy lifestyle behaviors and was reinforced by ongoing feedback from the teen’s primary care physician. Of those randomized, 195 (94%) completed the 6-month posttreatment assessment, and 173 (83%) completed the 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome was reduction in BMI z score. RESULTS: The decrease in BMI z score over time was significantly greater for intervention participants compared with usual care participants (−0.15 in BMI z score among intervention participants compared with −0.08 among usual care participants; P = .012). The 2 groups did not differ in secondary metabolic or psychosocial outcomes. Compared with usual care, intervention participants reported less reduction in frequency of family meals and less fast-food intake. CONCLUSIONS: A 5-month, medium-intensity, primary care–based, multicomponent behavioral intervention was associated with significant and sustained decreases in BMI z scores among obese adolescent girls compared with those receiving usual care. PMID:22331335

  5. Variation in Sexual Behaviors in a Cohort of Adolescent Females: The Role of Personal, Perceived Peer and Family Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Melanie A.; Bost, James E.; Adimora, Ada A.; Orr, Donald P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about how adolescent sexual behaviors develop and the influence of personal or perceived social attitudes. We sought to describe how personal, perceived peer and perceived family attitudes towards adolescent sexual activity influences adolescent females’ sexual behaviors over time. Methods Between 1999–2006, 358 English-speaking females, aged 14–17 were recruited from three urban adolescent clinics. Participants completed quarterly and annual questionnaires over 4 years. Primary outcomes were engagement in eight sexual behaviors: kissing, having breasts or genitals touched, touching partners’ genitals, and oral (giving or receiving), anal, or vaginal sex. Three attitudinal scales assessed personal importance of abstinence, perceived peer beliefs about when to have sex and perceived family beliefs that adolescent sex is negative.. We used generalized estimating equations to identify predictors of each sexual behavior and compared whether personal, perceived peer or perceived family attitudes predicted sexual behaviors over time. Results The odds of reporting each sexual behavior increased with age but were lower among those whose personal or perceived family attitudes were less positive. Participants’ personal attitudes towards adolescent sex were the strongest predictor of engagement in all eight sexual behaviors even after controlling for perceived peer and perceived family attitudes. Conclusions Female adolescent’s personal attitudes towards abstinence appear to be the strongest predictor of engagement in a variety of sexual behaviors. Efforts to influence adolescent attitudes towards abstinence may be an important approach to reducing sexual behaviors that increase the risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:21185529

  6. Prevalence rates of male and female sexual violence perpetrators in a national sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2013-12-01

    IMPORTANCE Sexual violence can emerge in adolescence, yet little is known about youth perpetrators-especially those not involved with the criminal justice system. OBJECTIVE To report national estimates of adolescent sexual violence perpetration and details of the perpetrator experience. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data were collected online in 2010 (wave 4) and 2011 (wave 5) in the national Growing Up With Media study. Participants included 1058 youths aged 14 to 21 years who at baseline read English, lived in the household at least 50% of the time, and had used the Internet in the last 6 months. Recruitment was balanced on youths' biological sex and age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Forced sexual contact, coercive sex, attempted rape, and completed rape. RESULTS Nearly 1 in 10 youths (9%) reported some type of sexual violence perpetration in their lifetime; 4% (10 females and 39 males) reported attempted or completed rape. Sixteen years old was the mode age of first sexual perpetration (n = 18 [40%]). Perpetrators reported greater exposure to violent X-rated content. Almost all perpetrators (98%) who reported age at first perpetration to be 15 years or younger were male, with similar but attenuated results among those who began at ages 16 or 17 years (90%). It is not until ages 18 or 19 years that males (52%) and females (48%) are relatively equally represented as perpetrators. Perhaps related to age at first perpetration, females were more likely to perpetrate against older victims, and males were more likely to perpetrate against younger victims. Youths who started perpetrating earlier were more likely than older youths to get in trouble with caregivers; youths starting older were more likely to indicate that no one found out about the perpetration. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Sexual violence perpetration appears to emerge earlier for males than females, perhaps suggesting different developmental trajectories. Links between perpetration and violent sexual

  7. The effect of early menarche on the sexual behaviors of Korean female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Ji In; Lee, Chang Hun; Park, Jae Hong; Ye, Byeong Jin; Kwon, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Young Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the relationships between early menarche and sexual behaviors among Korean female adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based survey that was conducted on female high school students in grades 10-12. The survey included 17,867 students, and 974 students were assigned to the early menarche group because they had experienced menarche when they were in grade four or below, and 16,893 students were assigned to the normal menarche group because they had experienced menarche during or after grade five. The characteristics of the sexual behaviors in the early menarche and normal menarche group were analyzed. Results The early menarche group was at a higher risk of intersexual kissing or petting (odds ratio [OR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.87), intersexual intercourse (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.65-3.36), homosexual kissing or petting (OR, 3.53; 95% CI, 2.22-5.59), homosexual intercourse (OR, 7.70; 95% CI, 4.04-14.66), being the victim (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.98-4.22) or the assailant (OR, 13.55; 95% CI, 6.61-27.78) of sexual assaults, intercourse without any contraception (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.06-3.46), and pregnancy (OR, 5.72; 95% CI, 2.31-14.15) than the normal menarche group. Conclusion Early menarche is associated with risky sexual behaviors among adolescent females; therefore, developing comprehensive sexual health education programs and tools for early intervention are required for children who are expected to experience early menarche. PMID:26512348

  8. Brain Cortical Thickness Differences in Adolescent Females with Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, Peter K.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Tanabe, Jody; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Banich, Marie T.; Crowley, Thomas J.; Sakai, Joseph T.

    2016-01-01

    Some youths develop multiple substance use disorders early in adolescence and have severe, persistent courses. Such youths often exhibit impulsivity, risk-taking, and problems of inhibition. However, relatively little is known about the possible brain bases of these behavioral traits, especially among females. Methods We recruited right-handed female patients, 14–19 years of age, from a university-based treatment program for youths with substance use disorders and community controls similar for age, race and zip code of residence. We obtained 43 T1-weighted structural brain images (22 patients and 21 controls) to examine group differences in cortical thickness across the entire brain as well as six a priori regions-of-interest: 1) medial orbitofrontal cortex; 2) rostral anterior cingulate cortex; and 3) middle frontal cortex, in each hemisphere. Age and IQ were entered as nuisance factors for all analyses. Results A priori region-of-interest analyses yielded no significant differences. However, whole-brain group comparisons revealed that the left pregenual rostral anterior cingulate cortex extending into the left medial orbitofrontal region (355.84 mm2 in size), a subset of two of our a priori regions-of-interest, was significantly thinner in patients compared to controls (vertex-level threshold p = 0.005 and cluster-level family wise error corrected threshold p = 0.05). The whole-brain group differences did not survive after adjusting for depression or externalizing scores. Whole-brain within-patient analyses demonstrated a positive association between cortical thickness in the left precuneus and behavioral disinhibition scores (458.23 mm2 in size). Conclusions Adolescent females with substance use disorders have significant differences in brain cortical thickness in regions engaged by the default mode network and that have been associated with problems of emotional dysregulation, inhibition, and behavioral control in past studies. PMID:27049765

  9. The relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students.

    PubMed

    Bodiba, P; Madu, S N; Ezeokana, J O; Nnedum, O A U

    2008-03-01

    The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods). Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised. First year female students from three different Schools and Faculties at the University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus, South Africa, participated in the study. Using the availability and convenient sampling method, 75 students were selected for this study. For the quantitative aspect of the study, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Measure was used to measure self-esteem. For the qualitative part, a topic guide was used for the focus group discussions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Pearson's Product Moment Correlation were used to analyse the quantitative data, while the phenomenological principle of open coding used for the thematic analysis. Results showed that there is a relationship between body mass and self-concept and that overweight participants tend to have a low self-esteem. Low self-esteem was perceived to be aggravated by a number of factors, like the attitude of the media and the society. Participants who are overweight also indicated that they are limited in certain activities of daily living (e.g., sports) as a result of their body mass. They expressed mixed feelings and frustration when it comes to such activities. The above results did not differ from those reported from western cultures. Support groups, life-skills programmes and psychotherapy should be

  10. Rectus abdominis muscle strains in tennis players.

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, Javier; Ghisi, Juan P; Kokalj, Antonio M

    2007-11-01

    Rectus abdominis muscle strains are common and debilitating injuries among competitive tennis players. Eccentric overload, followed by forced contraction of the non-dominant rectus abdominis during the cocking phase of the service motion is the accepted injury mechanism. A tennis-specific rehabilitation program emphasising eccentrics and plyometric strengthening of the abdominal wall muscles, contributes to the complete functional recovery in tennis players, and could help reduce recurrences. PMID:17957025

  11. A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of a Community-Based HIV Prevention Intervention for Mexican American Female Adolescents: The SHERO's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Gary W.; Bangi, Audrey K.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Doll, Mimi; Pedraza, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a quasi-experimental evaluation of a community-based, culturally and ecologically tailored HIV prevention intervention for Mexican American female adolescents grounded in the AIDS risk reduction model. A total of 378 Mexican American female adolescents (mean age = 15.2) participated in either the nine-session SHERO's (a…

  12. Somatic and Neuroendocrine Changes in Response to Chronic Corticosterone Exposure During Adolescence in Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, E T; Savenkova, M; Karatsoreos, I N; Romeo, R D

    2016-02-01

    Prolonged stress and repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can result in many sex-dependent behavioural and metabolic changes in rats, including alterations in feeding behaviour and reduced body weight. In adults, these effects of stress can be mimicked by corticosterone, a major output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and recapitulate the stress-induced sex difference, such that corticosterone-treated males show greater weight loss than females. Similar to adults, chronic stress during adolescence leads to reduced weight gain, particularly in males. However, it is currently unknown whether corticosterone mediates this somatic change and whether additional measures of neuroendocrine function are affected by chronic corticosterone exposure during adolescence in a sex-dependent manner. Therefore, we examined the effects of non-invasively administered corticosterone (150 or 300 μg/ml) in the drinking water of male and female rats throughout adolescent development (30-58 days of age). We found that adolescent animals exposed to chronic corticosterone gain significantly less weight than controls, which may be partly mediated by the effects of corticosterone on food consumption, fluid intake and gonadal hormone function. Our data further show that, despite similar circulating corticosterone levels, males demonstrate a greater sensitivity to these changes than females. We also found that Npy1 and Npy5 receptor mRNA expression, genes implicated in appetite regulation, was significantly reduced in the ventral medial hypothalamus of corticosterone-treated males and females compared to controls. Finally, parameters of gonadal function, such as plasma sex steroid concentrations and weight of reproductive tissues, were reduced by adolescent corticosterone treatment, although only in males. The data obtained in the present study indicate that chronic corticosterone exposure throughout adolescent development results in significant and sex

  13. Sexual behavior and the influencing factors among out of school female adolescents in Mushin market, Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odeyemi, Kofoworola; Onajole, Adebayo; Ogunowo, Babatunde

    2009-01-01

    High rates of adolescent pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and unsafe abortions in Nigeria indicate the need for a greater understanding of factors that affect adolescent sexuality. The sexual health needs of adolescents remain poorly known and addressed particularly among vulnerable subpopulations like out-of-school adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the sexual behavior of female out-of-school adolescents and to identify factors that influence their sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of unmarried, out-of-school female adolescents (n = 332, mean age 17 y), selected using cluster sampling, who were working in a major market (Mushin) in Lagos, Nigeria. Data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaires. Many girls (43.7%) have had sexual intercourse. The mean age at initiation was 16 years. The main reason for initiation was curiosity. Risky sexual behavior and transactional sex was common. Nonconsensual sex was also reported. Sexual health knowledge was poor, and friends served as their main source of information on sexual health issues. Factors associated with the initiation of sexual activity were friends sexual behavior, the person adolescents reside with, parents marital status, availability of funds to meet basic needs, and watching pornography (p < .05). Out-of-school female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior are exposed to sexual abuse, lack skills to resist pressure, and have limited access to credible reproductive health information. Appropriate interventions including provision of sexuality education and a supportive environment must be instituted to address their needs. PMID:19526700

  14. Professional Female Athletes. Financial Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Annie

    1987-01-01

    Female professional athletes are earning more than ever before and projections suggest opportunities will continue to increase. Salary differentials between male and female tennis and golf professionals are made. Product endorsement income is discussed. Steps coaches, parents, counselors, and colleges should take in guiding females toward…

  15. Pre-pubertal gonadectomy and the social consequences of acute ethanol in adolescent male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Morales, Melissa; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been shown that pre-pubertal or adult gonadectomy (GX) increases ethanol intake in male rats. This study examined whether this sex-selective increase reflects a GX-induced maintenance in males of more adolescent-typical responsiveness to ethanol characterized by enhanced sensitivity to positive (e.g., socially facilitating) and a decreased sensitivity to adverse (e.g., socially inhibitory) effects of ethanol. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-pubertally GX, sham (SH)-operated, or non-manipulated (NM) at postnatal day (P) 25. During the late adolescent transition into adulthood (P48 - baseline day), rats were given a saline injection, placed alone into a familiar test apparatus for 30min and then exposed for 10min to an unfamiliar partner of the same age and sex. On the following day (P49), similar testing occurred after administration of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 or 1.25g/kg ethanol. At baseline, GX males and females displayed higher levels of social activity (especially adolescent-typical play and contact behavior) than SH and NM animals, with GX females displaying greater social activity than GX males. Neither males nor females demonstrated social facilitation at lower ethanol doses, regardless of hormonal status. Whereas the social inhibitory effects of higher doses of ethanol were similar across groups among females, SH males were less sensitive than both GX and NM males to ethanol-induced social inhibition. These results suggest that enhanced ethanol intake in GX males is not related to alterations in sensitivity to ethanol's social inhibitory effects. GX, however, results in retention of adolescent-typical social behaviors, with older GX adolescent rats resembling early adolescents in exhibiting elevated social activity-particularly play and contact behavior. PMID:24816080

  16. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. PMID:26635492

  17. Reliability of a wellness inventory for use among adolescent females aged 12–14 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The wellness construct has application in a number of fields including education, healthcare and counseling, particularly with regard to female adolescents. The effective measurement of wellness in adolescents can assist researchers and practitioners in determining lifestyle behaviors in which they are lacking. Behavior change interventions can then be designed which directly aid in the promotion of these areas. Methods The 5-Factor Wellness Inventory (designed to measure the Indivisible Self model of wellness) is a popular instrument for measuring the broad aspects of wellness amongst adolescents. The instrument comprises 97 items contributing to 17 subscales, five dimension scores, four context scores, total wellness score, and a life satisfaction index. This investigation evaluated the test-retest (intra-rater) reliability of the 5F-Wel instrument in repeated assessments (seven days apart) among adolescent females aged 12–14 years. Percentages of exact agreement for individual items, and the number of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness and the five summary dimension scores were calculated. Results Overall, 46 (95.8%) participants responded with complete data and were included in the analysis. Item agreement ranged from 47.8% to 100% across the 97 items (median 69.9%, interquartile range 60.9%-73.9%). The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness at the re-assessment was 87.0%, 97.8% and 97.8% respectively. The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 for the domain scores at the reassessment ranged between 54.3-76.1%, 78.3-95.7% and 89.1-95.7% respectively across the five dimensions. Conclusions These findings suggest there was considerable variation in agreement between the two assessments on some individual items. However, the total wellness score and the five dimension summary scores remained comparatively stable between assessments

  18. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16-19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. PMID:26635492

  19. Negative Mood Increases Selective Attention to Negatively Valenced Body Parts in Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Svaldi, Jennifer; Bender, Caroline; Caffier, Detlef; Ivanova, Viliana; Mies, Nina; Fleischhaker, Christian; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation. Method In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12) and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12) were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded. Results After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants’ attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive) mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG. Discussion The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients’ body image disturbance. PMID:27123587

  20. Eating attitudes and food intakes of elite adolescent female figure skaters: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elite adolescent female figure skaters compete in an aesthetic-based sport that values thin builds and lithe figures. To conform to the sport’s physical requirements, skaters may alter their eating patterns in unhealthful directions. This study assesses the eating attitudes and dietary intakes of elite adolescent female figure skaters to assess the potential nutritional risks among them. Methods Thirty-six elite competitive adolescent female figure skaters (mean age 16 ± 2.5 SD years) completed self-administered three-day records of dietary intake and simultaneous physical activity records during training season. Two months later, they attended a national training camp during which they completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), provided fasting blood samples, and had heights and weights measured. Results Participants’ mean body mass index (BMI) was 19.8 ± 2.1 SD. Their BMIs were within the normal range, and the majority (70%) did not report a history of recent weight loss. The mean EAT-40 score was normal (19.5 ± 13.5 SD) and below the cut-off score of 30 that indicates clinically significant eating pathology. However, one-quarter of the skaters had EAT-40 scores above 30. The skaters reported a mean energy intake of 1491 ± 471 SD kcal/day (31 ± 10 SD kcal/kg), with 61.6% of calories from carbohydrate, 14.6% from protein, and 23.7% from fat. Their reported dietary intakes were high in carbohydrates but low in total energy, fat, and bone-building nutrients. Conclusions Although these highly active young women compete in a sport that prizes leanness, they had appropriate weights. The athletes reported dietary intakes that were far below estimated energy needs and were at moderate risk of disordered eating. Anticipatory guidance is warranted to improve their dietary intakes, particularly of bone-building nutrients. PMID:23237333

  1. The Relationship of Body Image Perception and Weight Status to Recent Change in Weight Status of the Adolescent Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Barbara Ann

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship of body image perception and weight status to recent change in weight status of adolescent females. Nonobese, overweight, and obese girls (N=90) aged 13 through 17 completed Body-Cathexis Scale and self-report recent change in weight status and demographic questionnaire. Results revealed significant positive correlation…

  2. Peer Victimization among Adolescent Females: A Literature Review of the Significant Causes and Consequences Associated with Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Casey; Duncan, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    Peer victimization is an all too common occurrence in schools throughout the United States, affecting millions of adolescents every year. Involvement in peer victimization carries devastating consequences that can last a lifetime. Recent research indicates males and females engage in different forms of victimization, with males displaying more…

  3. Self-Esteem and Theoretical Mediators of Safer Sex among African American Female Adolescents: Implications for Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Lescano, Celia M.; Brown, Larry K.; Harrington, Kathy; Davies, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Theories of health behavior posit that change is accomplished by modifying factors deemed as mediators. A set of mediators from several theoretical models used in sexual risk reduction programs was assessed among a sample of 522 African American female adolescents. The goal was to determine whether self-esteem was associated with sexually…

  4. Identity Development of Gifted Female Adolescents: The Influence of Career Development, Age, and Life-Role Salience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoffner, Marie F.; Newsome, Deborah W.

    2001-01-01

    This study identified a set of factors, including vocational exploration and commitment, commitment to the role of work, and participation in the role of studying, which explained 43.3 percent of the variance in the identity development of 95 gifted female adolescents. Of these factors, vocational exploration and commitment contributed the most to…

  5. Prior Victimization and Sexual and Contraceptive Self-Efficacy among Adolescent Females under Child Protective Services Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovsepian, S. Lory; Blais, Martin; Manseau, Helene; Otis, Joanne; Girard, Marie-Eve

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent females under Child Protective Services care in Quebec, Canada (n = 328) completed a questionnaire designed to explore associations between prior victimization (childhood sexual abuse and four forms of dating violence) and four dimensions of sexual and contraceptive self-efficacy. Five MANCOVAs were performed. In each model, a…

  6. A Cross-Cultural Perspective of Parental Influence on Female Adolescents' Achievement Beliefs and Behaviors in Sport and School Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhalla, Jennifer A.; Weiss, Maureen R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about parental socialization processes for youth participants from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine parental influence on self-perceptions, task values, and achievement behaviors among female adolescents from two cultures using Eccles' expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983). Twelve…

  7. The Relationship between Sexual Abuse and a Bulimic Behavior: Findings from Community-Wide Surveys of Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Luster, Tom

    Reviews of the pertinent literature reveal a lack of consensus as to whether there is an association between sexual abuse history and eating disorders. Therefore, an examination of the relationship between sexual abuse and a bulimic behavior (purging) in a large sample of female adolescents was undertaken. Answers taken from a sample of 8,680…

  8. The Uptake of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine among Adolescent Females in the United States: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Jacqueline A.; Peterson, Jane Anthony

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive review of literature was conducted to identify the barriers and facilitators, from the parents'/guardians' and primary care providers' (PCPs) perspective, that are associated with the uptake of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among adolescent females. Findings from 14 peer-reviewed articles indicate that 37% of adolescent…

  9. The Use of the BASC-2 for the Identification of Female Adolescents at Risk for Developing an Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowitz, Annie L.; Choi, Hee-Sook; Schweinle, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study examined the potential use of a commonly used social--emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2), for detecting the presence of possible eating disorders in…

  10. ''A Burden in Your Heart'': Lessons of Disclosure from Female Preadolescent and Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staller, Karen M.; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To enhance understanding of the sexual abuse disclosure process from the perspective of preteen and teenage survivors. To reconsider prominent models of the disclosure process in light of our findings. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from four focus groups in which 34 preadolescent and adolescent female survivors of…

  11. Brief Report: Direct and Indirect Relations of Risk Factors with Eating Behavior Problems in Late Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Birgit; Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Zimmermann-van Beuningen, Ritine

    2009-01-01

    This study explored correlations between risk factors and eating behavior problems in late adolescent, non-clinical females (N = 301). Participants completed questionnaires for assessing eating problems, the closely associated factors of Body Mass Index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction, and a number of other risk variables that are thought to be…

  12. Violence Exposure and Health-Related Risk among African American Adolescent Female Detainees: A Strategy for Reducing Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodson, Kamilah M.; Hives, Courtney C.; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile crime and violent victimization continue to be significant social problems, in that adolescents, females in particular, are likely to participate in health-related risk behaviors as a result of having been victimized or exposed to a violent environment. Specifically, abuse, neglect, sexual molestation, poverty, and witnessing violence are…

  13. The Relationship of Parental Education and Maternal Work and Occupational Status to Occupational Aspiration in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlin, Frances-Dee

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of parental education and maternal work and occupational status to the occupational aspirations of adolescent females. Significant association was found between occupational aspiration and father's education and between occupational aspiration and mother's occupational status (traditional or…

  14. Randomized Trial Outcomes of a TTM-Tailored Condom Use and Smoking Intervention in Urban Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Armstrong, Kay; Rossi, Joseph S.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Sun, Xiaowu; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Yin, Hui-Qing; Coviello, Donna; Evers, Kerry; Velicer, Wayne F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and sexual risk behaviors in urban adolescent females are prevalent and problematic. Family planning clinics reach those who are at most risk. This randomized effectiveness trial evaluated a transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored intervention to increase condom use and decrease smoking. At baseline, a total of 828 14- to 17-year-old females…

  15. Sexual Victimization among African American Adolescent Females: Examination of the Reliability and Validity of the Sexual Experiences Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, Heather; Matson, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent females are disproportionately represented among reported cases of sexual victimization. Because sexual victimization is associated with an array of negative sequelae (e.g., depression, alcohol abuse), psychometrically sound instruments are urgently needed to assess sexual victimization or coercion. The investigation conducts a…

  16. Perceived milk intolerance is related to bone mineral content in 10-13 year-old female adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine associations among lactose maldigestion status, perceived milk intolerance (PMI), dietary calcium intake and bone mineral content in early adolescent females. Methodology: Subjects were 291 girls who participated in a sub-study of the multiple-...

  17. Suicide Attempts and Associated Factors in Male and Female Korean Adolescents A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Chin, Young Ran; Choi, Kyungwon

    2015-10-01

    Using data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, this study seeks to investigate associations of suicide attempts with family, individual, and behavioral factors on the basis of gender. Among male adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, who had poor subjective academic achievement, depression, experiences of smoking and sexual coitus, drug abuse, suicidal ideation and plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Among the female adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, had depression, low self-rated health, experiences of drug abuse and sexual coitus, and expressed unhappiness, suicidal ideation and suicide plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Thus, the development of a suicide prevention program for Korean adolescents requires different approaches for males and females. PMID:25812547

  18. Predictors for DSM-5 nonsuicidal self-injury in female adolescent inpatients: The role of childhood maltreatment, alexithymia, and dissociation.

    PubMed

    Lüdtke, Janine; In-Albon, Tina; Michel, Chantal; Schmid, Marc

    2016-05-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between various adverse childhood experiences, alexithymia, and dissociation in predicting nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in an inpatient sample of female adolescents. Seventy-two adolescents (aged 14-18 years) with NSSI disorder (n=46) or mental disorders without NSSI (n=26) completed diagnostic interviews and self-report measures to assess NSSI disorder according to the DSM-5 criteria, childhood maltreatment, alexithymia, and dissociation. Alexithymia and dissociation were highly prevalent in both study groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that only alexithymia was a significant predictor for NSSI, whereas childhood maltreatment and dissociation had no predictive influence. The association between alexithymia and NSSI emphasizes the significance of emotion regulation training for female adolescents with NSSI. Efforts to reduce NSSI behavior should therefore foster skills to heighten the perception and recognition of one's own emotions. PMID:27088878

  19. Perceptions of parental control and the development of indecision among late adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, J R; Olivette, M J

    1993-01-01

    Late adolescent females (N = 86; M age = 19.1 years) completed reliable and valid self-report measures on their perception of both parents' authority style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) and their own tendency toward decisional procrastination. Households where daughters perceived both parents as high authoritarian (n = 32) were significantly more likely to raise daughters with strong indecision tendencies than were parents perceived as low authoritarian (n = 23). Mothers and fathers perceived as high (n = 22) or low (n = 22) authoritative, and high (n = 32) or low (n = 24) permissive, did not produce significant differences in daughters' self-reported decisional procrastination. Results suggest that parental authority characterized by stern inflexibility and overcontrol has the greatest influence on daughters who develop chronic indecision tendencies. PMID:8266848

  20. Low socioeconomic status predicts abnormal eating attitudes in Latin American female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Power, Yuri; Power, Lorena; Canadas, Maria Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to study the proportion of Ecuadorian students fulfilling criteria on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) in relation to socioeconomic status. Seven hundred and twenty three female adolescent participants recruited from Quito, Ecuador were administered a brief questionnaire consisting of the EAT-40 as well as lifestyle questions. Mean EAT-40 score was 17.12, with 14% fulfilling criteria. Lower socioeconomic status and watching more television predicted higher scores; however BMI, age, and positive smoking status failed to correlate. The presently unvalidated Spanish version of the EAT-26 highly correlated with the validated EAT-40 (R=0.94). A higher than expected proportion of Ecuadorians are at risk for eating disorders, especially among lower socioeconomic groups. The EAT-26 should be considered for validation as a primary screening tool in Latin America. PMID:18307113

  1. Psychosocial Outcomes of Sexual Risk Reduction in a Brief Intervention for Urban African American Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bangi, Audrey; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Pollack, Lance M.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes psychosocial outcomes of a group randomized controlled trial of a friendship-based HIV/STI prevention intervention grounded in the AIDS Risk Reduction Model (ARRM). A total of 264 African American adolescent females were randomized to a single-session Project ÒRÉ HIV/STI prevention intervention or a nutrition/exercise health promotion intervention with their friendship group. At posttest, Project ÒRÉ participants scored higher on knowledge of HIV/STI prevention and protection (p < .01), knowledge of living with HIV/STI (p < .01), perceived HIV risk (p < .05), perceived STI risk (p < .01), and intentions to use condoms for vaginal sex (p < .05). Findings suggest that a brief friendship-based HIV/STI prevention intervention for youth can impact ARRM factors that increase the ability to recognize and label risky sexual behaviors as problematic and promote commitment to changing high-risk behaviors. PMID:24039550

  2. Spondylolysis in young tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz‐Cotorro, A; Balius‐Matas, R; Estruch‐Massana, A; Angulo, J Vilaró

    2006-01-01

    The general aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of spondylolysis, a bone defect in the pars interarticularis of the vertebra, are reviewed. A retrospective study of young tennis players diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 with spondylolysis with or without spondylolisthesis, assessed by radiography and planar bone scintigraphy, is described. If the radiographic results were negative, computed tomography was performed. Sixty six cases were evaluated: 53 L5 lesions, eight L4 lesions, two L3 lesions, and one bilateral lesion at the L2 level. Two more lesions at two levels were found (bilateral L5 and unilateral L4 and L3 on the right side). Classification, treatment, and outcome of the cases are reported. A combination of radiography, planar bone scintigraphy, and SPECT is useful for evaluating spondylolysis in tennis players and recommending treatment. Use of a brace did not appear to achieve significant results. PMID:16632576

  3. Closed quotient and spectral measures of female adolescent singers in different singing styles.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Christopher; Lovetri, Jeannette

    2010-05-01

    Although quantifiable assessment of the singing voice is now commonplace, research on young (child and adolescent) voices is still in its infancy. There is still insufficient data on young people's voices based on which, "norms" in behavior could be modeled, particularly for contemporary commercial music (CCM), such as musical theater (MT). The objective of this study was to assess if quantifiable differences in vocal production and acoustic output of young singers exist between "classical" and "MT" styles. The study was a prospective cohort study of 20 adolescent female singers aged 12-17 years training their voices using a system, which includes both "classical" and "MT" styles. The study examined laryngographically derived closed quotient (CQ), average vowel spectra (AVS) and long-term average spectra (LTAS) measures of the sung voices of singers in "classical" and "MT" styles. The spectral slope was shallower for the MT voice, and the mean CQ was significantly higher across the pitch range when singing in an MT style than in a "classical" style. The second to fifth harmonics were stronger in the MT style than in classical, with a significant difference between the two styles. The increase in relative intensity in the first five harmonics was disproportionately higher than the increase in CQ. Results, therefore, suggested that MT singing primarily uses change in resonance strategy rather than raised vocal tension to achieve the tonal changes associated with the genre. PMID:19595563

  4. Teacher and Friend Social Support: Association with Body Weight in African-American Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Jevetta; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Webb, Fern J; Lee, Jenny; Doldren, Michelle; Rathore, Mobeen

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect ecological influences of teacher and friend social support on body weight and diet behaviors in African-American adolescent females. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional research design, a convenience sample of 182 urban African-American adolescent females (12-17 years old) completed a 39-item questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed perceived teacher social support, friend social support, nutrition self-efficacy, and diet behaviors (with internal reliability values of scale items: alpha = 0.74, 0.81, 0.77, and 0.69 respectively). Anthropometric assessments were conducted to measure height and weight to compute BMI. Majority of the participants were in middle or early high school (65 %) and were overweight or obese (57.7 %). Both teacher social support and friend social support demonstrated a positive, indirect influence on child weight status through nutrition self-efficacy and diet behaviors following two different and specific paths of influence. Diet behaviors, in turn, demonstrated a positive, direct effect on child weight status. In the structural model, teacher social support had the greatest effect on diet behaviors, demonstrating a direct, positive influence on diet behaviors (B = 0.421, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy was not significant. Friend social support demonstrated a positive, direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy (B = 0.227, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on diet behaviors was not statistically significant. The study's findings call for actively addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the school environment by implementing health behavior change strategies at various social and ecological environmental levels. PMID:26863465

  5. Prevention of acute knee injuries in adolescent female football players: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Atroshi, Isam; Magnusson, Henrik; Wagner, Philippe; Hägglund, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of neuromuscular training in reducing the rate of acute knee injury in adolescent female football players. Design Stratified cluster randomised controlled trial with clubs as the unit of randomisation. Setting 230 Swedish football clubs (121 in the intervention group, 109 in the control group) were followed for one season (2009, seven months). Participants 4564 players aged 12-17 years (2479 in the intervention group, 2085 in the control group) completed the study. Intervention 15 minute neuromuscular warm-up programme (targeting core stability, balance, and proper knee alignment) to be carried out twice a week throughout the season. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was rate of anterior cruciate ligament injury; secondary outcomes were rates of severe knee injury (>4 weeks’ absence) and any acute knee injury. Results Seven players (0.28%) in the intervention group, and 14 (0.67%) in the control group had an anterior cruciate ligament injury. By Cox regression analysis according to intention to treat, a 64% reduction in the rate of anterior cruciate ligament injury was seen in the intervention group (rate ratio 0.36, 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 0.85). The absolute rate difference was −0.07 (95% confidence interval −0.13 to 0.001) per 1000 playing hours in favour of the intervention group. No significant rate reductions were seen for secondary outcomes. Conclusions A neuromuscular warm-up programme significantly reduced the rate of anterior cruciate ligament injury in adolescent female football players. However, the absolute rate difference did not reach statistical significance, possibly owing to the small number of events. Trial registration Clinical trials NCT00894595. PMID:22556050

  6. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Female Adolescents According to Age, Bone Age and Pubertal Breast Stage

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336

  7. [DIFFERENCES IN ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN ADOLESCENT MALE AND FEMALE RATS EXPOSED AS NEWBORNS TO INFLAMMATORY PAIN OR STRESS].

    PubMed

    Butkevich, I P; Mikhailenko, V A; Vershinina, E A; Ulanova, N A

    2015-01-01

    In adolescent rats (25-35-day-old) exposed as newborns (the first and repeatedly second days) to adverse impacts (inflammatory pain, stress of short-term maternal separation or their combination) sex dimorphism was revealed in pain behavior under conditions of similar peripheral inflammation. According to the priority data obtained, strengthening of pain-related response in the formalin test was found in males, whereas pain sensitivity in females was not changed, that is pain experienced by them as newborns did not affect the system reactivity to the same chemical irritant in the adolescent period. However, the rats of both sexes, who experienced short-term stress of maternal deprivation (60 min-during the first and the second days of life), displayed increased pain sensitivity in the formalin test. Combined effect of inflammatory pain and maternal deprivation in newborns did not alter pain sensitivity in both adolescent males and adolescent females. The male and female rats exposed as newborns to maternal deprivation displayed a decrease of the anxiety level in the elevated plus maze; the rats, exposed to each of the above-mentioned early impacts showed a decline of adaptive behavior in the forced swimming test; the males exposed to pain and combined impacts demonstrated impairment of spatial learning in Morris labyrinth. Thus, we pioneered in demonstrating sex differences in the effects of inflammatory pain in newborn pups on pain sensitivity in the formalin test in adolescent rats. Separation of the influence of early stress or pain was revealed in adolescent females in the formalin test: maternal deprivation induced hyperalgesia, whereas pain failed to change functional activity of the tonic nociceptive system. PMID:26547951

  8. Factors Associated With Being Pleased With a Female Partner Pregnancy Among Sexually Active U.S. Adolescent Males.

    PubMed

    Lau, May; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2016-05-01

    Adolescent pregnancy remains a major U.S. public health problem. Little is known about pregnancy attitudes in U.S. adolescent males. The study objective was to identify factors from different domains that are associated with sexually active U.S. adolescent males who would be pleased with a female partner pregnancy (hereafter known as pleased with a pregnancy). The National Survey of Family Growth is a nationally representative survey of those 15 to 44 years old. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed of the 2002 and 2006-2010 cycles to examine factors associated with being pleased with a pregnancy among sexually active U.S. males. Among the 1,445 sexually active U.S. adolescent males surveyed, 25% would be pleased with a pregnancy. In bivariate analyses, ever being suspended from school, having sporadic health insurance, age, and ever HIV tested were significantly associated with being pleased with a pregnancy. In final multivariable analyses, sporadic insurance was associated with almost triple the odds, and being older and ever HIV tested with double the odds of being pleased with a pregnancy. Higher educational attainment for both adolescent males and adolescent males' fathers was associated with reduced odds of a being pleased with a pregnancy. One quarter of sexually active U.S. adolescent males would be pleased with a pregnancy. Adolescent males who have been sporadically insured, are older, and ever HIV tested have higher odds of being pleased with a pregnancy. Targeting these adolescent males for more focused pregnancy-prevention counseling may prove useful in reducing adolescent pregnancy rates. PMID:25563382

  9. Diurnal variation in tennis service.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, G; Speirs, L

    1998-06-01

    With informed consent, 6 competitive tennis players performed alternate 15 "first" (emphasis-speed) serves and 15 "second" (emphasis-accuracy) serves at 09:00, 14:00 and 18:00 hours. Serve velocity was measured by the digitisation of video footage of each serve. The Hewitt Tennis Achievement Test was employed to measure the accuracy of serve. The amount of spin imparted on the ball was not measured. First serves were at all times of day faster than second serves. First serves were faster but least accurate at 18:00 hours, the time of day that body temperature and grip strength were highest. At 09:00 hours, first serves were just as accurate as second serves, even though velocity of first serves was higher. No effects for time of day were found for the speed and accuracy of second serves. These results indicate that time of day does affect the performance of tennis serves in a way that suggest a nonlinear relationship between velocity and accuracy. PMID:9700810

  10. Gender and culture: reported problems, coping strategies and selected helpers of male and female adolescents in 17 countries.

    PubMed

    Gibson, J T; Baker, C E; Showalter, S M; Al-sarraf, Q; Atakan, S A; Borgen, W A; Guimaraes, I R; Giusti-ortiz, A L; Ishiyama, F I; Robertson, M

    1992-09-01

    This is the second report of a multinational project undertaken in 1988 by the International Round Table for the Advancement of Counseling that sought, among other things, to compare and contrast the reported problems, coping strategies, and help-seeking behavior of 2129 male and 2307 female adolescents from a total of three different socioeconomic backgrounds in each of 16 countries (Australia, Brazil, Canada, Greece, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Japan Kuwait, the Netherlands, the Philippines, China, Puerto Rico, Turkey, the US, and Venezuela) and from a "classless" background in Russia. The first report described the study and research methodology and cited preliminary findings that 1) problems and coping strategies tended to be universal and age-related; 2) impoverished subjects from Brazil, India, the Philippines, and Venezuela had more problems than any other adolescents; 3) problems were usually related to school, family, and identity rather than to sexuality; and 4) the most common coping strategy was individual problem-solving. This report compares male/female identification of up to three problems that cause worry, response to such problems, and help-seeking behavior. All adolescents cited problems in school, identity, and family. Males and females reported similar coping strategies and showed a strong dependence on individual coping strategies. Both males and females choose personal friends and family members as those most likely to help with problems. Males exhibited a higher percentage of problems related to school and a lower percentage of family problems. Russian adolescents reported more problems relating to altruism than any other group, especially males. These results imply that strong similarities exist for males and females, and the findings are worrisome in that problems related to sexuality were not cited. Counselors should expect the concerns of adolescents to be developmentally related and to overwhelm gender differences. PMID:12293037

  11. Self-reported previous knee injury and low knee function increase knee injury risk in adolescent female football.

    PubMed

    Clausen, M B; Tang, L; Zebis, M K; Krustrup, P; Hölmich, P; Wedderkopp, N; Andersen, L L; Christensen, K B; Møller, M; Thorborg, K

    2016-08-01

    Knee injuries are common in adolescent female football. Self-reported previous knee injury and low Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are proposed to predict future knee injuries, but evidence regarding this in adolescent female football is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale score as risk factors for future knee injuries in adolescent female football. A sample of 326 adolescent female football players, aged 15-18, without knee injury at baseline, were included. Data on self-reported previous knee injury and KOOS questionnaires were collected at baseline. Time-loss knee injuries and football exposures were reported weekly by answers to standardized text-message questions, followed by injury telephone interviews. A priori, self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale scores (< 80 points) were chosen as independent variables in the risk factor analyses. The study showed that self-reported previous knee injury significantly increased the risk of time-loss knee injury [relative risk (RR): 3.65, 95% confidence (CI) 1.73-7.68; P < 0.001]. Risk of time-loss knee injury was also significantly increased in players with low KOOS subscale scores (< 80 points) in Activities of Daily Living (RR: 5.0), Sport/Recreational (RR: 2.2) and Quality of Life (RR: 3.0) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, self-reported previous knee injury and low scores in three KOOS subscales significantly increase the risk of future time-loss knee injury in adolescent female football. PMID:26179111

  12. Tennis Courts: A Construction and Maintenance Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Tennis Court & Track Builders Association.

    This manual addresses court design and planning; the construction process; court surface selection; accessories and amenities; indoor tennis court design and renovation; care and maintenance tips; and court repair, reconstruction, and renovation. General and membership information is provided on the U.S. Tennis Court and Track Builders Association…

  13. Social isolation in adolescence alters behaviors in the forced swim and sucrose preference tests in female but not in male rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Suzie; Flashner, Bess; Chiu, Melissa; ver Hoeve, Elizabeth; Luz, Sandra; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2012-01-18

    Social interactions in rodents are rewarding and motivating and social isolation is aversive. Accumulating evidence suggests that disruption of the social environment in adolescence has long-term effects on social interactions, on anxiety-like behavior and on stress reactivity. In previous work we showed that adolescent isolation produced increased reactivity to acute and to repeated stress in female rats, whereas lower corticosterone responses to acute stress and decreased anxiety-related behavior were noted in isolated males. These results indicate a sex specific impact on the effects of social stress in adolescence. However, little is known about whether social isolation impacts behaviors related to affect and whether it does so differently in male and female rats. The present study investigated the impact of adolescent social isolation from day 30-50 of age in male and female Sprague Dawley rats on behavior in the forced swim test at the end of adolescence and in adulthood and on behavior in the sucrose preference test in adulthood. Adult female rats that were isolated in adolescence exhibited increased climbing on the first and second day of the forced swim test and showed an increased preference for sucrose compared to adult females that were group-housed in adolescence. There were no effects in male rats. The results indicate that social isolation in adolescence produces a stable and active behavioral phenotype in adult female rats. PMID:21907226

  14. Adolescent MDMA exposure diminishes the physiological and neurotoxic consequences of an MDMA binge in female rats.

    PubMed

    Piper, Brian J; Henderson, Christina S; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2014-07-01

    Intermittent MDMA pretreatment blocked the reductions in serotonin transporter (SERT) binding induced by an MDMA binge in a prior study in adolescent male rats. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the physiological, behavioral, and neurochemical responses to MDMA are sexually dimorphic. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received MDMA (10 mg/kg × 2) or Saline on every fifth day from postnatal day (PD) 35-60 and an MDMA binge (5 mg/kg × 4) on PD 67. The MDMA binge induced a pronounced temperature dysregulation in MDMA-naïve, but not MDMA-pretreated, groups. Similarly, MDMA-pretreated animals were resistant to the binge-induced SERT reductions, especially in the hippocampus. Motor activity at PD 68 was not reduced by the binge, unlike the responses found in males. These results show that female rats differ from males in their responses to an MDMA binge but are similar with respect to preconditioning from prior MDMA exposure. PMID:24752593

  15. Rett syndrome in adolescent and adult females: clinical and molecular genetic findings.

    PubMed

    Smeets, E; Schollen, E; Moog, U; Matthijs, G; Herbergs, J; Smeets, H; Curfs, L; Schrander-Stumpel, C; Fryns, J P

    2003-10-15

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder which is diagnosed clinically. We report on 30 adolescent and adult females with classical or atypical RTT of whom 24 have a MECP2 mutation. In these 24 females, the clinical manifestations, degree of severity, and disorder profiles are discussed as well as the genotype phenotype correlation. After X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) study in these cases, we found no correlation between skewing and milder phenotype. Three large deletions were found after additional Southern blot analysis in three classical RTT cases. We confirm that early truncating mutations in MECP2 are responsible for a more severe course of the disorder. Three disorder profiles related to the missense mutations R133C and R306C, and to deletions in the C terminal segment are described and are of interest for further clinical study on larger numbers of cases. The R133C genotype has a predominantly autistic presentation while the R306C genotype is associated with a slower disease progression. The phenotype of the "hotspot" deletions in the C terminal segment is predominantly characterized by rapid progressive neurogenic scoliosis. Older women with RTT are underdiagnosed: seven adults were first diagnosed as having RTT between 29 and 60 years of age, and confirmed on finding a MECP2 mutation. Knowledge of the clinical phenotype of RTT at an adult age is important for all involved in the care of these individuals. The involvement of the parent support group is very important in this matter. PMID:12966523

  16. Normal taste acuity and preference in female adolescents with impaired 6-n-propylthiouracil sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Ayako; Kubota, Masaru; Sakai, Midori; Higashiyama, Yukie

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between 6-n-propylthiouracil sensitivity and taste characteristics in female students at Nara Women's University. Participants (n=135) were screened for 6-npropylthiouracil sensitivity using a taste test with 0.56 mM 6-n-propylthiouracil solution, and the sensitivity was confirmed by an assay for the bitter-taste receptor gene, TAS2R38. Based on the screening results, 33 6-npropylthiouracil tasters and 21 non-tasters were enrolled. The basic characteristics that are thought to influence taste acuity, including body mass index, saliva volume and serum micronutrient concentrations (iron, zinc and copper), were similar between the two groups. In an analysis using a filter-paper disc method, there were no differences in the acuity for four basic tastes (sweet, salty, sour and bitter) between 6-n-propylthiouracil tasters and non-tasters. In addition, the taste preference for the four basic tastes as measured by a visual analogue scale was also comparable between the two groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that 6-n-propylthiouracil nontasters have taste sensitivity for the four basic tastes similar to that in 6-n-propylthiouracil tasters, at least in female adolescents, as measured by the gustatory test using a filter-paper disc method. PMID:25164453

  17. Relationship between Violent Behavior and Repeated Weight-Loss Dieting among Female Adolescents in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Nao; Nishida, Atsushi; Shimodera, Shinji; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Oshima, Norihito; Watanabe, Norio; Akechi, Tatsuo; Furukawa, Toshiaki A.; Okazaki, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether interpersonal violence perpetration and violence toward objects are associated with body mass index (BMI), body weight perception (BWP), and repeated weight-loss dieting in female adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a self-report questionnaire was performed evaluating interpersonal violence perpetration, violence toward objects, the number of diets, BMI, BWP, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), victimization, substance use, and other psychosocial variables among 9,112 Japanese females aged between 12–18 years. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze the contribution of BMI, BWP, and weight-control behavior to the incidence of violent behavior, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Results The number of diets was associated with both interpersonal violence perpetration (OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.08–1.29, p<0.001) and violence toward objects (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.24–1.45, p<0.001), after adjusting for age, BMI, BWP, the GHQ-12 total score, victimization, and substance use. In terms of BMI and BWP, the “overweight” BWP was associated with violence toward objects (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.07–1.54, p<0.05). On the other hand, the “Underweight” and “Slightly underweight” BMI were related to violence toward objects [(OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.01–1.62, p<0.05) and (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.07–1.51, p<0.05), respectively]. The “Underweight” BWP was related to interpersonal violence perpetration (OR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.38–3.84, p<0.05). Conclusions The cumulative number of diets is associated with violent behavior in female adolescents. In addition, underweight BMI and extreme BWP are associated with violent behavior. PMID:25210854

  18. Exposure to social defeat stress in adolescence improves the working memory and anxiety-like behavior of adult female rats with intrauterine growth restriction, independently of hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Miyako; Ninomiya-Baba, Midori; Chiba, Shuichi; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for memory impairment and emotional disturbance during growth and adulthood. However, this risk might be modulated by environmental factors during development. Here we examined whether exposing adolescent male and female rats with thromboxane A2-induced IUGR to social defeat stress (SDS) affected their working memory and anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. We also used BrdU staining to investigate hippocampal cellular proliferation and BrdU and NeuN double staining to investigate neural differentiation in female IUGR rats. In the absence of adolescent stress, IUGR female rats, but not male rats, scored significantly lower in the T-maze test of working memory and exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test compared with controls. Adolescent exposure to SDS abolished these behavioral impairments in IUGR females. In the absence of adolescent stress, hippocampal cellular proliferation was significantly higher in IUGR females than in non-IUGR female controls and was not influenced by adolescent exposure to SDS. Hippocampal neural differentiation was equivalent in non-stressed control and IUGR females. Neural differentiation was significantly increased by adolescent exposure to SDS in controls but not in IUGR females. There was no significant difference in the serum corticosterone concentrations between non-stressed control and IUGR females; however, adolescent exposure to SDS significantly increased serum corticosterone concentration in control females but not in IUGR females. These results demonstrate that adolescent exposure to SDS improves behavioral impairment independent of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats with IUGR. PMID:25725425

  19. Late Stage Freiberg Infraction in a Division I Collegiate Tennis Player

    PubMed Central

    Faircloth, Johnnie; Mitchell, Jennifer J; Edwards, David S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Freiberg infraction is a relatively rare osteochondrosis of the metatarsal head. The etiology of Freiberg infraction is poorly understood but likely involves factors such as, repetitive trauma and vascular compromise. When discovered early, Freiberg infraction can be cured with conservative measures but late presentations require surgical intervention. We present a case of stage V Freiberg infraction in a Division I collegiate tennis player that responded to conservative treatment. Case Report: A 20 year old female tennis player presented with worsening of her chronic foot pain. She had tenderness to palpation and diminished range of motion at the second metatarsophalangeal joint. Radiographs revealed late stage Freiberg infraction of the second metatarsal. This patient’s pain was successfully treated with conservative measures; prolonging her collegiate tennis career. Conclusion: Surgical intervention is required for definitive treatment of late stage Freiberg infraction. Conservative treatment can be effective in prolonging the athlete’s career. PMID:27299057

  20. Competitive Performance Correlates of Mental Toughness in Tennis: A Preliminary Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cowden, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated relationships between mental toughness and measures of competitive performance in tennis. Forty-three male (N = 25) and female (N = 18) players (M age = 13.6 years, SD = 2.4) completed the mental toughness inventory, and the point-by-point outcomes recorded during a competitive tennis match (singles) were used to generate performance indices for each athlete. The results indicated that mental toughness was associated with several, but not all, macro, micro, and critical moment performance indices. The findings suggest mental toughness may contribute to successful performance during tennis competition, although the importance of the construct appears to depend depend on specific match situations. Future mental toughness research should consider a range of factors related to sport performance, including athletes' and opponents' physical, technical, and tactical abilities. PMID:27502244

  1. Growth and maturity status of elite British junior tennis players.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Gillian K; Cumming, Sean P; Coelho E Silva, Manuel; Cooke, Karl; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Growth and maturation impact the selection, development and progression of youth athletes. Individual differences in the growth and maturity may afford a performance advantage, clouding coaches and practitioners' perceptions regarding current ability and future potential. This may result in the exclusion of talented, yet less physically gifted athletes. Participants were 91 male (n = 47) and female (n = 44) elite British Junior tennis players, 8-17 years of age (12.5 ± 1.9 years). Height and body mass were measured and compared to growth charts; hand-wrist radiographs were taken. Skeletal age (SA) was estimated with the Fels method and contrasted to chronological age (CA). Mean height and body mass of individual players ranged between the 50th and 90th centiles for age and sex. Females were advanced in SA relative to CA (0.3-0.89 years.) from 8 years. Males were average to delayed in maturation from 8 to 12 years, but advanced in SA from 14 to 16 years (0.75-1.23 years). Individual differences in growth and maturation appear to contribute towards the selection of elite junior tennis players, with a bias towards males and females who are advanced in maturation and comparatively tall and heavy for their age. This has important implications for talent identification and development. PMID:26930031

  2. Preoperative Factors Predicting Intraoperative Blood Loss in Female Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Yang, Mingyuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chuanfeng; Fan, Jianping; Chen, Ziqiang; Wei, Xianzhao; Zhang, Guoyou; Bai, Yushu; Zhu, Xiaodong; Xie, Yang; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this article, a retrospective analysis of 161 female patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is performed who underwent posterior correction and fusion using all-pedicle screw instrument. The aim of this article is to find out preoperative factors that influence intraoperative blood loss (IOBL) in female patients with AIS. The IOBL in posterior correction and fusion surgery for patients with idiopathic scoliosis greatly varies. The variables affecting the IOBL also greatly vary among different studies. Medical records of all female patients with AIS who underwent posterior correction and fusion operations using the all-pedicle screw system in our hospital from January 2012 to January 2014 were reviewed. Patients with irregular menstruation, who underwent osteotomy, and using coagulants were excluded. Preoperative clinical data, including patient age, height, weight, Risser sign, day after last menstruation, major curve Cobb angle, fulcrum-bending Cobb angle, curve flexibility index, sagittal thoracic Cobb angle, sagittal lumbar Cobb angle, albumin, hemoglobin, platelet, activated partial thromboplastic time (APTT), prothrombin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen, fusion level, menstrual phase, and blood type, were collected. Data were further analyzed using multiple linear regression with forward elimination. A total of 161 patients were included in this study. The mean IOBL was 933.98 ± 158.10 mL (500–2000 mL). Forward selection showed that fulcrum-bending Cobb angle, fusion level, Risser sign, APTT, fibrinogen, and menstrual phase were the preoperative factors that influenced the IOBL in female patients with AIS. Equation of IOBL was built by multiple linear regression: IOBL = −966.228 + 54.738 Risser sign + 18.910 fulcrum-bending Cobb angle + 114.737 fibrinogen + 21.386 APTT − 71.312 team 2 − 177.985 team 3 − 165.082 team 4 + 53.470 fusion level. R = 0.782. Operation for patients with AIS was featured by large IOBL

  3. An animal model of female adolescent cannabinoid exposure elicits a long-lasting deficit in presynaptic long-term plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, Jonathan W; Corches, Alex; Vieira, Philip A; Hiroto, Alex S; Mackie, Ken; Korzus, Edward

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis continues to be the most accessible and popular illicit recreational drug. Whereas current data link adolescence cannabinoid exposure to increased risk for dependence on other drugs, depression, anxiety disorders and psychosis, the mechanism(s) underlying these adverse effects remains controversial. Here we show in a mouse model of female adolescent cannabinoid exposure deficient endocannabinoid (eCB)-mediated signaling and presynaptic forms of long-term depression at adult central glutamatergic synapses in the prefrontal cortex. Increasing endocannabinoid levels by blockade of monoacylglycerol lipase, the primary enzyme responsible for degrading the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with the specific inhibitor JZL 184 ameliorates eCB-LTD deficits. The observed deficit in cortical presynaptic signaling may represent a neural maladaptation underlying network instability and abnormal cognitive functioning. Our study suggests that adolescent cannabinoid exposure may permanently impair brain functions, including the brain's intrinsic ability to appropriately adapt to external influences. PMID:25979486

  4. The Specific Role of Childhood Abuse, Parental Bonding, and Family Functioning in Female Adolescents With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Infurna, Maria Rita; Brunner, Romuald; Holz, Birger; Parzer, Peter; Giannone, Francesca; Reichl, Corinna; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-04-01

    This study examined a broad variety of adverse childhood experiences in a consecutive sample of female adolescent inpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 44) compared with a clinical control (CC; n = 47) group with mixed psychiatric diagnoses. BPD was diagnosed using a structured clinical interview; different dimensions of childhood adversity were assessed using the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Family Assessment Device. A history of childhood adversity was significantly more common in patients with BPD than in the CC group. Using a multivariate model, sexual abuse (OR = 13.8), general family functioning (OR = 8.9), and low maternal care (OR = 7.6) were specific and independent predictors of adolescent BPD. The results increase our knowledge of the specific role of different dimensions of childhood adversity in adolescent BPD. They have important implications for prevention and early intervention as they highlight the need for specific strategies for involving the family. PMID:25905734

  5. Expanding our Lens: Female Pathways to Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence and Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Javdani, Shabnam; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn

    2012-01-01

    Women and girls’ engagement in antisocial behavior represents a psychological issue of great concern given the radiating impact that women’s antisociality can have on individuals, families, and communities. Despite its importance and relevance for psychological science, this topic has received limited attention to date and no systematic review of risk factors exists. The present paper aims to systematically review the empirical literature informing risk factors relevant to women’s antisocial behavior, with a focus on adolescence and adulthood. Primary aims are to 1) review empirical literatures on risk factors for female antisocial behavior across multiple levels of influence (e.g., person-level characteristics, risky family factors, and gender-salient contexts) and fields of study (e.g., psychology, sociology); 2) evaluate the relevance of each factor for female antisocial behavior; and 3) incorporate an analysis of how gender at both the individual and ecological level shapes pathways to antisocial behavior in women and girls. We conclude that women’s antisocial behavior is best-understood as being influenced by person-level or individual vulnerabilities, risky family factors, and exposure to gender-salient interpersonal contexts, and underscore the importance of examining women’s antisocial behavior through an expanded lens that views gender as an individual level attribute as well as a social category that organizes the social context in ways that may promote engagement in antisocial behavior. Based on the present systematic review, an integrative pathway model is proposed toward the goal of synthesizing current knowledge and generating testable hypotheses for future research. PMID:22001339

  6. Anxiety is correlated with running in adolescent female mice undergoing activity-based anorexia.

    PubMed

    Wable, Gauri S; Min, Jung-Yun; Chen, Yi-Wen; Aoki, Chiye

    2015-04-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a widely used animal model for identifying the biological basis of excessive exercise and starvation, 2 hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN). Anxiety is correlated with exercise in AN. Yet the anxiety level of animals in ABA has not been reported. We asked: Does food restriction as part of ABA induction change the anxiety level of animals? If so, is the degree of anxiety correlated with degree of hyperactivity? We used the open field test before food restriction and the elevated plus maze test (EPM) during food restriction to quantify anxiety among singly housed adolescent female mice and determined whether food restriction alone or combined with exercise (i.e., ABA induction) abates or increases anxiety. We show that food restriction, with or without exercise, reduced anxiety significantly, as measured by the proportion of entries into the open arms of EPM (35.73%, p = .04). Moreover, ABA-induced individuals varied in their open arm time measure of anxiety and this value was highly and negatively correlated to the individual's food restriction-evoked wheel activity during the 24 hr following the anxiety test (R = -.75, p = .004, N = 12). This correlation was absent among the exercise-only controls. In addition, mice with higher increase in anxiety ran more following food restriction. Our data suggest that food restriction-evoked wheel running hyperactivity can be used as a reliable and continuous measure of anxiety in ABA. The parallel relationship between anxiety level and activity in AN and ABA-induced female mice strengthens the animal model. PMID:25730124

  7. Anxiety is correlated with running in adolescent female mice undergoing activity-based anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Wable, Gauri S.; Min, Jung-Yun; Chen, Yi-Wen; Aoki, Chiye

    2015-01-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a widely used animal model for identifying the biological basis of excessive exercise and starvation, two hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN). Anxiety is correlated with exercise in AN. Yet the anxiety level of animals in ABA has not been reported. We asked: Does food restriction as part of ABA induction change the anxiety level of animals? If so, is the degree of anxiety correlated with degree of hyperactivity? We used the open field test before food restriction and the elevated plus maze test (EPM) during food restriction to quantify anxiety among singly housed adolescent female mice and determined whether food restriction alone or combined with exercise (i.e., ABA induction) abates or increases anxiety. We show that food restriction, with or without exercise, reduced anxiety significantly, as measured by the proportion of entries into the open arms of EPM (35.73 %, p= .04). Moreover, ABA-induced individuals varied in their open arm time measure of anxiety and this value was highly and negatively correlated to the individual’s food restriction-evoked wheel activity during the 24 hours following the anxiety test (R = − .75, p= .004, N = 12). This correlation was absent among the exercise-only controls. Additionally, mice with higher increase in anxiety ran more following food restriction. Our data suggest that food restriction-evoked wheel running hyperactivity can be used as a reliable and continuous measure of anxiety in ABA. The parallel relationship between anxiety level and activity in AN and ABA-induced female mice strengthens the animal model. PMID:25730124

  8. Locomotor activity changes in female adolescent and adult rats during repeated treatment with a cannabinoid or club drug.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Jenny L; Evans, Rhys L; Grainger, Darren B; Nicholson, Katherine L

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults of both sexes are the primary consumers of "club" drugs; yet, most of the mechanistic preclinical research in this area has been performed in adult male rodents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute and repeated effects of drugs that are commonly abused by adolescents in female adolescent and adult rats in a rodent model of behavioral sensitization. During two five-day periods separated by a two-day break, rats were injected daily with saline or with one of the following drugs: cocaine (7 or 15 mg/kg), ketamine (3 or 10 mg/kg), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (3, 10, or 30 mg/kg), or Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (0.03, 0.1, 0.3 or 1 mg/kg) and their locomotor activity was measured. Cocaine increased activity across days in both age groups. Whereas ketamine produced progressive increases in activity with repeated administration in rats of both ages, MDMA increased, and then decreased, activity in the chronic dosing regimen in female adolescents only. Tolerance to the initial stimulatory effects of low doses of THC was observed at both ages. The results with THC are similar to those obtained for male rats tested under identical conditions in a previous study; however, in contrast with the present results in females, male adolescent rats in the previous study failed to develop behavioral sensitization to ketamine. Together, these results suggest that age and sex strongly influence the progressive adaptive changes that occur with repeated administration of some, but not all, of these commonly abused substances. PMID:22180350

  9. Associations Between a Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene, Alcohol Use, and Sexual Behaviors among Female Adolescent African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brown, Jennifer L.; Brody, Gene H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent African-American females are disproportionately impacted by HIV, thus there is a clear need to understand factors associated with increased HIV-risk behaviors among this vulnerable population. We sought to explore the association between a dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4), a genetic marker associated with natural variations in rewarding behaviors, and self-reported alcohol-use and sexual risk-behaviors, while controlling for other known correlates of risk-taking such as impulsivity, sensation seeking, and peer norms among a group of high-risk African American female adolescents to evaluate whether this biological factor enhances our understanding of patterns of risk in this vulnerable group. PMID:27087792

  10. The Relationship between Ethnic Identity and Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Infections among Low Income Detained African American Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between ethnic identity and Chlamydia and Gonorrhea infections among detained African American female adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 123 African American female adolescents within eight detention facilities in Georgia. Using A-CASI technology, data were collected on demographics, ethnic identity, laboratory confirmed Chlamydia and Gonorrhea, and other known correlates for STIs, such as socioeconomic status, parental monitoring and risky sexual behaviors. Rates of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea testing yielded incidence rates of 25.6% and 5.6% respectfully. Findings indicated that controlling for STI correlates, participants who indicated high ethnic identity were 4.3 times more likely to test positive for an STI compared to those scoring low on the measure of ethnic identity. PMID:23075205

  11. The mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and physical activity in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Sean P; Standage, Martyn; Loney, Tom; Gammon, Catherine; Neville, Helen; Sherar, Lauren B; Malina, Robert M

    2011-06-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and self-reported physical activity in adolescent British females. Biological maturity status, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 407 female British year 7-9 pupils (M age = 13.2 years, SD = 1.0). Participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (Kowalski, Crocker, & Donen, 2004) and the Children and Youth Physical Self-Perceptions Profile (Whitehead, 1995). Percentage of predicted adult height attained at measurement was used as an estimate of biological maturity status. Structural equation modelling using maximum likelihood estimation and bootstrapping procedures revealed that perceptions of sports competence, body attractiveness and physical self-worth mediated an inverse relation between maturity status and physical activity. The results provide partial support for Petersen and Taylor's (1980) Mediated Effects Model of Psychological and Behavioural Adaptation to Puberty within the context of physical activity. PMID:20655102

  12. The mediating effect of global self-worth on physical activity in African-American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Powell-Young, Yolanda M

    2009-07-01

    Having an excess of body fat has been identified as a predictor for participatory frequency in physical activity, a behavior that influences the development and persistence of obesity. However, the psychological factors that contribute to this pathway have not been as easily identified. This is particularly significant for population subgroups that are not only uniquely impacted by obesity-related morbidities but who are underrepresented in research as well. This study sample consisted of African-American adolescent females (N = 310), from 14 to 18 years of age, who were recruited from the urban South. Data obtained from self-reported and demographic questionnaires, as well as from anthropometric measurements, were analyzed to explore the mediating effect of global self-worth between BMI and physical activity. Mediation analysis revealed that 2% of the influence that BMI exerts on how frequently African-American adolescent females engaged in physical activity can be attributed to global self-worth. PMID:19691180

  13. Cortical neuroinflammation contributes to long-term cognitive dysfunctions following adolescent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment in female rats.

    PubMed

    Zamberletti, Erica; Gabaglio, Marina; Prini, Pamela; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    Over 180 million people consume cannabis globally. Cannabis use peaks during adolescence with a trend for continued consumption by adults. Notably, several studies have shown that long-term and heavy cannabis use during adolescence can impair brain maturation and predispose to neurodevelopmental disorders, although the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated whether, in female rats, chronic administration of increasing doses of the psychotropic plant-derived cannabis constituent, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), during adolescence (PND 35-45) could affect microglia function in the long-term. Furthermore, we explored a possible contribution of microglia to the development of THC-induced alterations in mood and cognition in adult female rats. Present data indicate that adolescent THC administration induces a persistent neuroinflammatory state specifically localized within the adult prefrontal cortex (PFC), characterized by increased expression of the pro-inflammatory markers, TNF-α, iNOS and COX-2, and reduction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. This neuroinflammatory phenotype is associated with down-regulation of CB1 receptor on neuronal cells and up-regulation of CB2 on microglia cells, conversely. Interestingly, blocking microglia activation with ibudilast during THC treatment significantly attenuates short-term memory impairments in adulthood, simultaneously preventing the increases in TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2 levels as well as the up-regulation of CB2 receptors on microglia cells. In contrast, THC-induced depressive-like behaviors were unaffected by ibudilast treatment. Our findings demonstrate that adolescent THC administration is associated with persistent neuroinflammation within the PFC and provide evidence for a causal association between microglial activation and the development long-term cognitive deficits induced by adolescent THC treatment. PMID:26499171

  14. Depression and Associated Factors among Adolescent Females in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Raheel, Hafsa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescents who suffer from depression early in life, have an increase in suicidal tendency, anxiety, conduct disorders, substance abuse, and continue to be depressed, later on in life. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescent girls in Riyadh city in order to carry out early intervention. Methods: A cross-sectional, school-based survey was conducted among 1028 adolescent girls aged 15–19 years in secondary schools of Riyadh city. Riyadh was divided into clusters and within each cluster, both public and private schools were enrolled. From the selected schools students from grade 10–12 were surveyed. Survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire including the beck depression inventory-II, and questions exploring the correlates of depression. Results: About 30% of participants were found to be depressed. Depression was more prevalent among female adolescents whose household income was <12,000 Saudi Riyal/month (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, confidence interval [CI] 0.97–6.84), did not have a good relationship with peers and family members (OR 4.63, CI 2.56–8.41), lived with single parent or alone (OR 1.77, CI 0.97–3.23), been emotionally abused (OR 3.45, CI 2.56–8.41), and those who had been subjected to physical violence, at least once (OR 3.34, CI 1.89–5.91). Conclusions: Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better-coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents. PMID:26445637

  15. Effects of Phlomis umbrosa Root on Longitudinal Bone Growth Rate in Adolescent Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghun; Kim, Young-Sik; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Guo, Hailing; Kim, Hocheol

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone growth and growth mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8-10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in response to P. umbrosa administration in either growth plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial growth plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in growth plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the growth plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway. PMID:27070559

  16. Idiopathic Bilateral Gluteus Maximus Contracture in Adolescent Female: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Abhishek; Shukla, Jiten

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Bilateral gluteus muscle contracture is a rare entity. “Idiopathic contracture of gluteus maximus” a term proposed by Gao is a rare condition. It present as typical complain of inability to squat with patient assuming a typical frog leg position. Case Report: We report a case of idiopathic gluteal muscle contracture in adolescent female presenting with inability to squat, sit cross legged and painless awkward gait. The patient could not sit comfortably except in a high chair position. No history of repeated intramuscular injections in the buttocks or signs suggestive of post-polio residual paralysis. All her investigations were within normal limit. Our patient belonged to type III according to GMC classification and underwent surgical release of fibrotic band of gluteal maximus muscle. Patient had remarkable recovery with patient able to squat and sit cross-legged within 4 weeks of surgery. Conclusion: Gluteal maximus contracture, though rare, present with characteristic clinical symptom and should not be missed. Our patient though presented late showed excellent result after surgical release. PMID:27298891

  17. Racial differences in the influence of female adolescents' body size on dating and sex.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Rizzo, John A; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Heiland, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of body size on dating and sexual experiences of white (non-Hispanic) and African American (non-Hispanic) female adolescents. Using data from Add-Health, we estimate the effects of obesity and BMI z-score on the probability of having been involved in a romantic relationship, having ever been touched in the genital area in a sexual way, and having ever engaged in sexual intercourse. We find that obese white teenage girls are less likely to have been in a romantic relationship compared to their non-obese counterparts. In addition, obese white girls are less likely to ever have had sex (intercourse) or to ever have been intimate. There are no systematic differences in relationship experiences and sexual behaviors between obese and non-obese black girls. Overall, the estimated relationships are very robust to common environmental influences at the school-level and to the inclusion of proxies for low self-esteem, attitudes toward sex and interviewer assessment of appearance and personality. Instrumental variables estimates and estimates from models with lagged weight status confirm the overall patterns. PMID:24361085

  18. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Background Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape) among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years), who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR) 2.05, confidence intervals (CI) 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46), and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60) contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services. PMID:25967381

  19. Synaptic number changes in the medial prefrontal cortex across adolescence in male and female rats: A role for pubertal onset.

    PubMed

    Drzewiecki, Carly M; Willing, Jari; Juraska, Janice M

    2016-09-01

    Adolescence is a unique period of development, marked by maturation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region important for executive functioning. During this time, the human PFC decreases in overall volume and thickness. Likewise in adolescent rodents, losses of neurons, dendrites, dendritic spines and neurotransmitter receptors have been documented within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), sometimes with sex and layer specificity. However, changes in the number of synapses during this time have not been examined. In the present study, we stereologically quantified the number of synaptophysin-immunoreactive boutons in the male and female rat mPFC across multiple time points from the juvenile period through adulthood (postnatal days (P) 25, 35, 45, 60 and 90). In females, there was a significant decrease in synaptophysin boutons between P35 and P45, coinciding with the onset of puberty. In males, there was no significant main effect of age on synaptophysin boutons; however, in both males and females, pubertal onset was associated with significant synaptic losses. These results suggest that puberty is a critical period for synaptic pruning within the rat mPFC, potentially contributing to maturation of adolescent executive function. Synapse 70:361-368, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27103097

  20. Anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of elite junior tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez‐Muñoz, Cristóbal; Sanz, David; Zabala, Mikel

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to describe the anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of elite male and female junior tennis players, to compare the anthropometric data, body composition and somatotype of the first 12 elite junior tennis players on the ranking with the lower ranked players, and to establish an anthropometric profile chart for elite junior tennis players. Methods A total of 123 (57 males and 66 females) elite junior tennis players participated in this study. The athletes were divided into two groups, the first 12 and the lower ranked players, according to gender. A total of 17 anthropometric variables were recorded of each subject. Results There were no significant differences in height and weight between the first 12 and the lower ranked boys, while the first 12 girls were significantly taller than the lower ranked girls (p = 0.009). Significant differences were found for humeral and femoral breadths between the first 12 and the lower ranked girls (p = 0.000; p = 0.004, respectively). The mean (SD) somatotype of elite male junior tennis players could be defined as ectomesomorphic (2.4 (0.7), 5.2 (0.8), 2.9 (0.7)) and the mean (SD) somatotype of elite female junior tennis players evaluated could be defined as endomesomorphic (3.8 (0.9), 4.6 (1.0), 2.4 (1.0)). No significant differences were found in somatotype components between the first 12 and the lower ranked players of both genders. Conclusions When comparing the first 12 and the lower ranked elite junior tennis players of both genders, no significant differences were observed in any measured item for the boys. By contrast, significant differences were observed in height and humeral and femoral breadths between the first 12 and the lower ranked girls, whereby the first 12 were taller and had wider humeral and femoral breadths than the lower ranked players. These differences could influence the playing style of junior female players. PMID:17957016

  1. The Effect of Grip Size on the Hitting Force During a Soft Tennis Forehand Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ohguni, Mika; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Hiroki; Imada, Kohdai; Funane, Sota

    2009-01-01

    Background: Grip size of a tennis racquet has been reported to influence performance, but clear evidence of a correlation has yet to be established. Hypothesis: Hitting force during a soft tennis forehand stroke correlates with grip size. Study Design: Controlled clinical study. Methods: A total of 40 healthy volunteers (20 men and 20 women) with a mean age of 21.9 years were enrolled. Of the 40 participants, 20 were experienced soft tennis players (10 men and 10 women) and 20 were nonexperienced soft tennis players (10 men and 10 women). Based on racquets with 5 different grip sizes, the hitting force during a soft tennis forehand stroke was measured with a handheld dynamometer. Correlations between 4 factors (sex, experience, grip and pinch strengths, and middle finger length) and hitting force were evaluated with each grip size. Measurements for each factor were repeated, and a 2-way analysis of variance was performed on the obtained data. Results: The hitting force was greater for male players than for female players and greater for experienced players than for nonexperienced players (P < .01). Men with large grip and pinch strengths demonstrated an increased hitting force with an increase in grip size. Men who had a long middle finger also demonstrated increased hitting force when grip size increased (P < .05). Conclusion: The hypothesis proved accurate for experienced men who had a large grip strength, a large pinch strength, and a long middle finger. Clinical Relevance: Large-grip-sized racquets may result in better forehand stroke performance when used by experienced male soft tennis players with a large grip strength, a large pinch strength, and a long middle finger. PMID:23015889

  2. Sex Trafficking Related Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes among Adolescent Female Students in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Sex trafficking has been a long-standing concern in Nepal. Very little has been achieved, however, in terms of actual reduction in the number of victims despite numerous anti-sex trafficking programs. This situation may be attributable to a lack of empirical evidence upon which to formulate anti-sexual trafficking interventions. This study aimed to assess sex trafficking-related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns among adolescent female students in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between August–September 2013 among 292 adolescent female students (>10 years old) using systematic random sampling from three high schools in Sindhupalchowk district, Nepal. As an initial step, descriptive analyses were employed to characterize the data and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and related attitudes. Results Seventy-six percent of sampled students reported that they were aware of sex trafficking and 94.6% indicated media (i.e., radio or television) as the primary sources of their knowledge. Fifty-one percent mentioned relatives/friends as mediators of sex trafficking, 60.4% reported promise for better jobs as the primary attraction behind sex trafficking, and 48.6% mentioned adolescent females as the most vulnerable group for sex trafficking. Over half (56.8%) of the respondents had positive attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns. Age (OR = 3.38, 95% CI:2.51–4.55), parents’ occupation (OR = 3.89, 95% CI:1.58–9.58), and having a radio/TV at home (OR = 6.67, 95% CI:3.99–9.54) were significantly associated with awareness, whereas being younger (OR = 0.67, 95% CI:0.55–0.79) and having joint-family (OR = 2.67, 95% CI:1.49–4.80) were significantly associated with

  3. Rectus abdominis muscle strains in tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Maquirriain, Javier; Ghisi, Juan P; Kokalj, Antonio M

    2007-01-01

    Rectus abdominis muscle strains are common and debilitating injuries among competitive tennis players. Eccentric overload, followed by forced contraction of the non‐dominant rectus abdominis during the cocking phase of the service motion is the accepted injury mechanism. A tennis‐specific rehabilitation program emphasising eccentrics and plyometric strengthening of the abdominal wall muscles, contributes to the complete functional recovery in tennis players, and could help reduce recurrences. PMID:17957025

  4. Violence exposure and health related risk among African American adolescent female detainees: A strategy for reducing recidivism

    PubMed Central

    Woodson, Kamilah M.; Hives, Courtney; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile crime and violent victimization continue to be significant social problems (Fitzpatrick, Piko, Wright, & LaGory, 2005); in that, adolescents, females in particular, are likely to participate in health related risk behaviors as result of having been victimized or exposed to a violent environment. Specifically, abuse, neglect, sexual molestation, poverty, and witnessing violence are well known risk factors for the development of trauma-related psychopathology and poor outcomes relative to delinquency, drug and alcohol abuse, and HIV risk behaviors (Steiner, Garcia, & Matthews, 1997). HIV infection is a common public health concern disproportionally affecting adolescent African American female detainees. This unique population has a serious history of violence exposure, which subsequently tends to lead to engaging in risky sexual behaviors, mental health problems, and abusing substances. Also, as a result of little to no intervention, this population is recidivating at an alarming rate, a problem that may further exacerbate the expression of health-related risk behaviors among African American adolescent female detainees. The authors briefly describe a pilot program to be implemented in the juvenile justice system that is based on the Model of Accumulated Risk (Garbarino, 1996), Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model (1994), and the Positive Youth Justice Model (Butts, Bazemore, & Meroe, 2009). The program proposes to reduce risky sexual behaviors, teach alternatives to abusing substances, treat mental health concerns, and reduce the rate of recidivism through “positive youth development”, PYD (Butts, Bazemore, & Meroe, 2009). Tying elements of wraparound services and reeducation together, this program addresses salient concerns that may have an impact on an adolescent detainees’ success following their release from prison in a holistic manner. PMID:21373205

  5. Influence of sexual sensation-seeking on factors associated with risky sexual behaviour among African-American female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Penn, Dolly C.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rose, Eve S.; Sales, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The identification of antecedents to sexual risk among youth is critical to the development and dissemination of multilevel interventions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of sexual sensation-seeking on partner age, partner communication, and the sexual attitudes and behaviours of African-American female youth. Methods This study examined survey data collected by audio computer-assisted self-interviews from 701 young African-American females between 14 and 20 years of age. The survey consisted of items designed to measure adolescents’ sexual risk and preventive behaviours. Results The results of this study suggest that sexual sensation-seeking is associated with condom use among adolescent African-American females. For adolescents who reported greater sexual sensation-seeking, lower levels of sexual happiness were associated with a decreased likelihood of condom use at last intercourse (β = 1.01, P ≤ 0.05). For those reporting lower levels of sexual sensation-seeking, greater sexual enjoyment was associated with a greater likelihood of condom use at last intercourse (β = 0.93, P ≤ 0.01). Adolescents with younger sexual partners and lower levels of sexual sensation-seeking reported a higher proportion of condom use in the past 6 months (β = 0.70, P = 0.01). Higher partner communication self-efficacy and decreasing levels of sexual sensation-seeking were associated with fewer lifetime sexual partners (β = –0.54, P ≤ 0.05). Conclusions Future research should address the impact of these variables on adolescent relationship dynamics and sexual decision-making. PMID:25355174

  6. Proximity to Sports Facilities and Sports Participation for Adolescents in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Reimers, Anne K.; Wagner, Matthias; Alvanides, Seraphim; Steinmayr, Andreas; Reiner, Miriam; Schmidt, Steffen; Woll, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationship between proximity to specific sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities for adolescents in Germany. Methods A sample of 1,768 adolescents aged 11–17 years old and living in 161 German communities was examined. Distances to the nearest sports facilities were calculated as an indicator of proximity to sports facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Participation in specific leisure-time sports activities in sports clubs was assessed using a self-report questionnaire and individual-level socio-demographic variables were derived from a parent questionnaire. Community-level socio-demographics as covariates were selected from the INKAR database, in particular from indicators and maps on land development. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between proximity to the nearest sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities. Results The logisitic regression analyses showed that girls residing longer distances from the nearest gym were less likely to engage in indoor sports activities; a significant interaction between distances to gyms and level of urbanization was identified. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that for adolescent girls living in rural areas participation in indoor sports activities was positively associated with gym proximity. Proximity to tennis courts and indoor pools was not associated with participation in tennis or water sports, respectively. Conclusions Improved proximity to gyms is likely to be more important for female adolescents living in rural areas. PMID:24675689

  7. Geographic Variation in Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy in the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study (MOAFTS)

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Min; Madden, Pamela A.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Colditz, Graham A.; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Schootman, Mario; Heath, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite well-known adverse health effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSP), it is still unclear if MSP varies geographically and if neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation (SED) plays an important role in MSP. This study aims to investigate small-area geographic variation in MSP and examine the association of SED with MSP. Methods The Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study (MOAFTS) is a cohort study of female like-sex twins born in Missouri to Missouri-resident parents during 1975–1985. Biological mothers completed a baseline interview in 1995–1998 and reported MSP with the twins. Residential address of the mother at birth was geocoded. We developed a census tract-level SED index using a common factor approach based on 21 area-level socioeconomic variables from the 1980 Census data. Multilevel logistic regressions estimated geographic heterogeneity (random effect) in MSP and the odds ratios (ORs, fixed effects) of neighborhood SED associated with MSP. Results Of 1658 MOAFTS mothers, 35.2% reported any MSP and 21.9% reported MSP beyond the first trimester. Neighborhood SED was associated with any MSP (the highest vs. the lowest quartile: OR = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40–2.57, Ptrend<0.001) and MSP beyond the first trimester (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.38–2.85, Ptrend = 0.002) in unadjusted analyses. After adjusting for individual covariates (demographics, socioeconomic conditions, alcohol use, and parents’ cohabitation), neighborhood SED was not associated with MSP, but geographic variation still persisted in MSP (variance = 0.41, P = 0.003) and in MSP beyond the first trimester (variance = 0.82, P<0.001). Conclusions Neighborhood SED was associated with MSP in unadjusted analyses but this association could be explained by individual socioeconomic conditions. Nonetheless, significant geographic variation in MSP persisted and was not accounted for by differences in neighborhood SED. To develop effective interventions to reduce MSP

  8. An exploratory study of adolescent female reactions to direct-to-consumer advertising: the case of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Leader, Amy E; Cashman, Rebecca; Voytek, Chelsea D; Baker, Jillian L; Brawner, Bridgette M; Frank, Ian

    2011-10-01

    When the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was approved in 2006, an extensive direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising campaign raised awareness and promoted vaccination. This study explores adolescents' exposure to and understanding of the messages in these advertisements. Sixty-seven African American females participated in a focus group about DTC advertising for the HPV vaccine. Virtually all adolescents had seen an HPV vaccine DTC advertisement, but most did not understand the health information contained in it. If DTC advertising is to be an effective source of health information for adolescents in the future, it must take into account the unique features of an adolescent audience. PMID:22054031

  9. Assessment of the differences in masticatory behavior between male and female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Scudine, Kelly Guedes de Oliveira; Pedroni-Pereira, Aline; Araujo, Darlle Santos; Prado, Daniela Galvão de Almeida; Rossi, Ana Claudia; Castelo, Paula Midori

    2016-09-01

    Chewing behavior may show sex differences; thus, the present study aimed to compare the masticatory aspects and the prediction of masticatory performance between male and female adolescents. Ninety-one healthy subjects (47 girls, 44 boys), caries-free and aged 14-17years, were included. Masticatory performance and maximal bite force were evaluated using a color-changeable chewing gum and digital gnathodynamometer, respectively. Masticatory behavior was assessed by the subjective aspect of the quality of the masticatory function (validated questionnaire) and the Orofacial Myofunctional Evaluation with Scores expanded (OMES-e) was used to determine chewing time, frequency of chewing cycles and other aspects. Salivary flow rate was also assessed. The physical examination involved measurements of facial morphometry, body weight, height, skeletal muscle mass, and dental/occlusal evaluations. It was observed that boys showed larger facial dimensions, higher bite force and chewing frequency and better masticatory performance than girls. They also showed shorter chewing time, fewer chewing cycles and lower score for OMES-e (that is, more changes in orofacial myofunctional aspects). Bite force showed a weak correlation with skeletal muscle mass only in boys (r=0.3035; p=0.0451). The masticatory performance was dependent on the bite force in boys (Adj R(2)=19.2%; Power=84.1%); among girls, masticatory performance was dependent on the frequency of chewing cycles and masticatory behavior (subjective aspect) (Adj R(2)=34.1%; Power=96.1%). The findings support the existence of sex differences in many masticatory aspects of function and behavior, hence the importance of considering sex differences when evaluating masticatory function and myofunctional therapy outcomes among young subjects. PMID:27143251

  10. VIEW OF BUILDING 221 (TENNIS COURTS) FROM NORTHWEST CORNER WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 221 (TENNIS COURTS) FROM NORTHWEST CORNER WITH BUILDING 23 IN BACKGROUND, FACING SOUTHEAST - Roosevelt Base, Tennis Courts, Corner of Reeves Avenue & Pennsylvania Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. VIEW OF BUILDING 221 (TENNIS COURTS) FROM NORTHEAST CORNER, BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 221 (TENNIS COURTS) FROM NORTHEAST CORNER, BUILDING 24 IN BACKGROUND, FACING SOUTHWEST - Roosevelt Base, Tennis Courts, Corner of Reeves Avenue & Pennsylvania Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. General view, Belair Bath and Tennis Club, Belair at Bowie, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view, Belair Bath and Tennis Club, Belair at Bowie, Maryland, looking west. - Belair Bath and Tennis Club, Southwest corner of Belair Drive and Tulip Grove Drive, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

  13. WEST TENNIS COURTS AND NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER'S HOUSING, FROM SOUTH OAKWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST TENNIS COURTS AND NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICER'S HOUSING, FROM SOUTH OAKWOOD DRIVE - Hamilton Field, Tennis Courts, Escolta Avenue at Sixth Street, & Crescent Drive near South Oakwood Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  14. 1. FACILITY 26, TENNIS AND BASKETBALL COURTS. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FACILITY 26, TENNIS AND BASKETBALL COURTS. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD QUARTERS F. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Tennis Courts, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  15. Chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Ca; Pereira, Maria Cs; Santana, Luana N da Silva; Fernandes, Rafael M; Teixeira, Francisco B; Oliveira, Gedeão B; Fernandes, Luanna Mp; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas A; Prediger, Rui D; Crespo-López, Maria E; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Lima, Rafael R; Maia, Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that heavy ethanol exposure in early life may produce long-lasting neurobehavioral consequences, since brain structural maturation continues until adolescence. It is well established that females are more susceptible to alcohol-induced neurotoxicity and that ethanol consumption is increasing among women, especially during adolescence. In the present study, we investigated whether chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats may induce hippocampal histological damage and neurobehavioral impairments. Female rats were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) by gavage from the 35(th)-90(th) day of life. Ethanol-exposed animals displayed reduced exploration of the central area and increased number of fecal boluses in the open field test indicative of anxiogenic responses. Moreover, chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence induced marked impairments on short-term memory of female rats addressed on social recognition and step-down inhibitory avoidance tasks. These neurobehavioral deficits induced by ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood were accompanied by the reduction of hippocampal formation volume as well as the loss of neurons, astrocytes and microglia cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces long-lasting emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in the hippocampus. PMID:25922423

  16. Associations between the serotonin-1A receptor C(-1019)G polymorphism and disordered eating symptoms in female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lim, Se-Won; Ha, Juwon; Shin, Dong-Won; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Kye-Hyun

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the C(-1019)G polymorphism of the serotonin-1A receptor gene and eating behavior in female adolescents. A total of 204 post-menarche, adolescent women, aged 16-17 years, were recruited from two neighboring high schools in Seoul. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to isolate and examine the C(-1019)G polymorphism in the serotonin-1A receptor genes (rs6295) of all participants. The Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE) and the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26) were administered to all participants. The total score of the EAT-26 differed significantly among the three genotype groups [CC, CG, GG (F = 4.844, p = 0.009)]. Both the EAT-26 (F = 9.69, p = 0.002) and the BITE (F = 5.22, p = 0.023) scores were higher in the participants who were G allele carriers than in the non-carrier group. The dieting subscale of the EAT-26 was higher among the G allele carriers (F = 12.941, p < 0.001), and these results were maintained even after adjusting for depression and anxiety. These findings suggest that the C(-1019)G polymorphism in the 5-HT1A receptor gene is associated with disordered eating symptoms in Korean female adolescents. PMID:20454985

  17. Mediators involved in the relation between depressive symptoms and weight status in female adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Choo, Tse-Hwei J.; Larson, Nicole I.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Depression may be a risk factor for overweight status, but mechanisms involved in this relationship are unclear. This study explored behavioral factors involved in the relationship between adolescent depression symptoms and adult overweight status. A population-based cohort of female participants in Project EAT (n=1,035) was followed over 10 years and reported on psychological functioning, weight status, and eating and activity patterns in early/middle adolescence (1999=Time 1; T1), middle adolescence/early young adulthood (2004=Time 2; T2), and early/middle young adulthood (2009=Time 3; T3). Structural equation models were fit which included T1 depression scores predicting overweight status at T3, with T2 fruit and vegetable consumption, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and binge eating examined as mediators. There were small but significant effects of T1 depression scores predicting an increased likelihood of T3 overweight status (standardized estimate=0.038; p=.007), and of T2 binge eating mediating the relation between T1 depression and T3 overweight status (standardized indirect effect estimate=.036; p=.009). Binge eating may be one pathway to overweight among depressed females, suggesting that recognition and treatment of eating pathology in individuals with depression may help prevent overweight. Examination of other behavioral (and non-behavioral) factors explaining the relationship between depression and overweight is warranted. PMID:25640769

  18. Parent & Family Influences on Adopting Healthy Weight-Related Behaviors: Views and Perceptions of Obese African-American Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Keeley J; McRitchie, Susan; Collier, David N; Lutes, Lesley D; Sumner, Susan

    2015-06-01

    RTI International is acknowledged for supporting the time of Susan McRitchie, Keeley Pratt and Susan Sumner to participate in the design, execution, or analysis of this study. East Carolina University would like to acknowledge Brittney France for being a triangulated investigator for the qualitative analysis and to the Pitt Memorial Hospital Foundation for financial support of the healthy lifestyles camp. Our purpose was to evaluate the views of obese African-American (AA) female adolescents concerning parent and family factors relating to obesity and a healthy lifestyle. Obese AA female adolescents enrolled in a residential healthy lifestyle program completed inventories measuring family functioning and perceptions of parenting styles, and participated in focus groups to identify themes regarding parent and family involvement in healthy lifestyle change. The majority of participants' mothers were scored as "inductive/authoritative" and fathers were "indulgent". Mothers reportedly were seen as more likely to encourage dieting to control weight than fathers. Common themes of the focus groups included a desire for family involvement, identification of family behaviors that were supportive as well as those which were perceived as unhelpful. Though generalizability of these results is limited by a homogenous small sample size, our results suggest that obese adolescents seeking weight loss treatment desire significant family involvement in their efforts. PMID:27269493

  19. Adolescent contraceptive risk-taking behavior: a social psychological model of females' use of and compliance with birth control.

    PubMed

    Durant, R H; Sanders Jm; Jay, S; Levinson, R

    1990-01-01

    Assuming that contraceptives are readily available and affordable to most adolescents, but that insufficient contraceptive use and high pregnancy rates stem from adolescent female risk-taking, a multivariate model of adolescent female contraceptive risk-taking behavior is described. Derived from behavioral science theory and empirical research, the model postulates direct and indirect associations between relevant variables. It also assumes behavior is comprised of deciding to initiate birth control, choosing a contraceptive method, complying with the method, and deciding to change methods or discontinue birth control. Premarital sexual standards and experiences, length of sexual relationship, religiosity and traditional values, and physical and sexual development are discussed as variables that directly affect the frequency of sexual intercourse. The frequency of sexual intercourse and perceived risk of pregnancy, and the perceived probability of pregnancy and outcome experiences of sexual activity are also examined. Variables that mediate the impact of coital frequency on contraceptive risk-taking include the cognitive assessment of pregnancy and contraception, support by significant others, personality development, and experience with contraceptives. Empirical tests of the model are discussed. PMID:12317634

  20. Clothing Interests, Body Satisfaction, and Eating Behavior of Adolescent Females: Related or Independent Dimensions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littrell, Mary Ann; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Administered instruments measuring adolescents' dress concerns, body satisfaction, and eating behaviors to 751 adolescent girls. Items measuring clothing interests, body satisfaction, and eating behaviors were conceptually independent; clothing factors showed little or no correlation with either body satisfaction or eating factors. (Author/NB)

  1. Female Overweight and Obesity in Adolescence: Developmental Trends and Ethnic Differences in Prevalence, Incidence, and Remission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using…

  2. Health Information Needs of d/Deaf Adolescent Females: A Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chad E.; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Lieberth, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent health and health literacy are critical health topics recognized in Healthy People 2020. Evidence indicates that adolescents who are d/Deaf have unique health-related needs, yet health communication efforts have not reached them. Despite the Internet's exponential growth and the growth of online health information-seeking behavior among…

  3. Adolescent Journeys: Finding Female Authority in "The Rain Catchers" and "The House on Mango Street"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubb, Christina Rose

    2007-01-01

    This article compares the first-person narratives of two adolescent girls in the novels "The Rain Catchers" and "The House on Mango Street". I propose that adolescent girls can use literacy to read the world around them as a text and therefore help them to form their own identities enough to ultimately find authority in telling their own stories.…

  4. Finding a Voice: Art Therapy with Female Adolescent Sexual Abuse Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backos, Amy K.; Pagon, Barb E.

    1999-01-01

    Adolescents who have suffered the trauma of incest or rape often search for inner resolution amidst a society that can be more rejecting than comforting. Therapists need to be aware of issues specific to this population, as well as societal influences that impact recovery. Describes the components of an adolescent art therapy group for female…

  5. "Styled by Their Perceptions": Black Adolescent Girls Interpret Representations of Black Females in Popular Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.; McArthur, Sherell A.

    2015-01-01

    Identity formation is a critical process shaping the lives of adolescents and can present distinct challenges for Black adolescent girls who are positioned in society to negotiate ideals of self when presented with false and incomplete images representing Black girlhood. Researchers have found distorted images of Black femininity derived from…

  6. Using Artwork and Photography to Explore Adolescent Females' Perceptions of Dating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Forman, Julia; Sikes, April

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 75% of young people report being involved in dating relationships by the eighth grade (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], 2005). This indicates a significant need to understand how adolescents conceptualize dating relationships. More specifically, there is minimal literature on how adolescents define healthy and unhealthy…

  7. Retired Matches Among Male Professional Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Breznik, Kristijan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of characteristics of various games and players on the proportion of retired tennis matches in the Open Era of tennis. The data included over 420,000 matches played among 17,553 tennis players in the period from 1968 to the end of 2010. The influence of the surface type was clearly confirmed, with the proportion of retired matches being higher on hard and clay courts compared to grass and carpet surfaces. Similarly, more retired matches were observed in outdoor venues than in indoor ones. The impact of other variables, tournament types, rounds at which the game was played and both players' ranks, is more ambiguous. Our interpretation of the obtained results is presented in the paper. Network analytic methods were applied to extract players with the most retired matches in their careers. Eventually, we defined a group of top tennis players and gave a more precise insight into retired matches in that group. Correspondence analysis was used to visually display the two-mode network of top players and the proportion of retired matches by surface type. Key pointsThe proportion of retired matches among professional tennis players has been increasing recently.Clay and hard courts are the most risky surfaces in relation to retired matches, particularly if the match is played at an outdoor venue.The difference in rankings of both players is proportional to the number/proportion of retired matches in professional tennis.Network analytic techniques could serve as an effective method to ascertain (a) group(s) of tennis players with the highest number of retired matches played among them. PMID:24149200

  8. Recruitment and Retention of Older Adolescent and Young Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Cancer in Longitudinal Research

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, Mary Ann; Conte, Teresa; Hudson, Melissa; Shad, Aziza; Ruble, Kathy; Herth, Kaye; Canino, Alyssa; Kemmy, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe the challenges encountered in the recruitment and retention of a sample of older adolescent and young adult female survivors of childhood cancer for a longitudinal study testing a targeted psychosocial intervention aimed at enhancing hope. Data Sources Published literature on constructing longitudinal intervention studies and strategies in the recruitment and retention of childhood cancer survivors in research was used to develop the protocol of this study. Data Synthesis Using empirical literature to construct the study’s design resulted in achieving certain goals for the design, but not in the recruitment and retention of study participants. Using online technology to deliver the intervention and collect data was efficient and effective. Traditional approaches to recruitment and retention of those survivors, however, were not effective. Use of more novel approaches to enroll study participants demonstrated only modest success. Conclusions Additional research is needed on strategies to successfully recruit and retain older adolescents and young adult female survivors of childhood cancer in longitudinal intervention studies. Implications for Nursing The improvement in the psychological well-being of female survivors of childhood cancer remains an important outcome in ongoing care. The need to continue to identify creative and effective ways to recruit and retain those survivors is warranted. PMID:22940512

  9. Randomized trial outcomes of a TTM-tailored condom use and smoking intervention in urban adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Armstrong, Kay; Rossi, Joseph S.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Sun, Xiaowu; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Yin, Hui-Qing; Coviello, Donna; Evers, Kerry; Velicer, Wayne F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and sexual risk behaviors in urban adolescent females are prevalent and problematic. Family planning clinics reach those who are at most risk. This randomized effectiveness trial evaluated a transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored intervention to increase condom use and decrease smoking. At baseline, a total of 828 14- to 17-year-old females were recruited and randomized within four urban family planning clinics. Participants received TTM or standard care (SC) computerized feedback and stage-targeted or SC counseling at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. Blinded follow-up telephone surveys were conducted at 12 and 18 months. Analyses revealed significantly more consistent condom use in the TTM compared with the SC group at 6 and 12, but not at 18 months. In baseline consistent condom users (40%), significantly less relapse was found in the TTM compared with the SC group at 6 and 12, but not at 18 months. No significant effects for smoking prevention or cessation were found, although cessation rates matched those found previously. This TTM-tailored intervention demonstrated effectiveness for increasing consistent condom use at 6 and 12 months, but not at 18 months, in urban adolescent females. This intervention, if replicated, could be disseminated to promote consistent condom use and additional health behaviors in youth at risk. PMID:24794584

  10. Evaluation of relationship between oral health-related quality of life and occlusion traits among female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Farzanegan, Fahimeh; Heravi, Farzin; Sooratgar, Aidin; Dastmalchi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of malocclusions on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) among female adolescents. Materials and Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional descriptive study. A total of 129 female students with age ranges between 14 and 17 years old were randomly selected from Mashhad (Iran) high schools and were asked to fill out an OHRQOL questionnaire included in four parts: Oral symptoms, functional limitations, emotional well-being and social well-being. Each participant was clinically examined to assess her malocclusion according to the index of complexity, outcome and need (ICON) and finally the data were entered to SPSS 11.5 and the relation between these two variables was assessed with Pearson correlation test. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: There was statistically significant correlation between ICON scores and quality of life (P = 0.0176). Being separately assessed, among four parts of the questionnaire, only emotional well-being was significantly correlated with the ICON score (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Malocclusions play a vital role in OHRQOL. However, in female adolescents among four parts of OHRQOL, emotional well-being had significant relationship with malocclusions. PMID:25540664

  11. Aberrant brain responses to emotionally valent words is normalised after cognitive behavioural therapy in female depressed adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Jie-Yu; J Whitaker, Kirstie; Murray, Graham K; Elliott, Rebecca; Hagan, Cindy C; Graham, Julia ME; Ooi, Cinly; Tait, Roger; Holt, Rosemary J; van Nieuwenhuizen, Adrienne O; Reynolds, Shirley; Wilkinson, Paul O; Bullmore, Edward T; Lennox, Belinda R; Sahakian, Barbara J; Goodyer, Ian; Suckling, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression in adolescence is debilitating with high recurrence in adulthood, yet its pathophysiological mechanism remains enigmatic. To examine the interaction between emotion, cognition and treatment, functional brain responses to sad and happy distractors in an affective go/no-go task were explored before and after Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) in depressed female adolescents, and healthy participants. Methods Eighty-two Depressed and 24 healthy female adolescents, aged 12–17 years, performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) affective go/no-go task at baseline. Participants were instructed to withhold their responses upon seeing happy or sad words. Among these participants, 13 patients had CBT over approximately 30 weeks. These participants and 20 matched controls then repeated the task. Results At baseline, increased activation in response to happy relative to neutral distractors was observed in the orbitofrontal cortex in depressed patients which was normalised after CBT. No significant group differences were found behaviourally or in brain activation in response to sad distractors. Improvements in symptoms (mean: 9.31, 95% CI: 5.35–13.27) were related at trend-level to activation changes in orbitofrontal cortex. Limitations In the follow-up section, a limited number of post-CBT patients were recruited. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first fMRI study addressing the effect of CBT in adolescent depression. Although a bias toward negative information is widely accepted as a hallmark of depression, aberrant brain hyperactivity to positive distractors was found and normalised after CBT. Research, assessment and treatment focused on positive stimuli could be a future consideration. Moreover, a pathophysiological mechanism distinct from adult depression may be suggested and awaits further exploration. PMID:26406969

  12. Barriers and facilitators adolescent females living with HIV face in accessing contraceptive services: a qualitative assessment of providers’ perceptions in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Hagey, Jill M; Akama, Eliud; Ayieko, James; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R; Patel, Rena C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Avoiding unintended pregnancies is important for the health of adolescents living with HIV and has the additional benefit of preventing potential vertical HIV transmission. Health facility providers represent an untapped resource in understanding the barriers and facilitators adolescents living with HIV face when accessing contraception. By understanding these barriers and facilitators to contraceptive use among adolescent females living with HIV, this study aimed to understand how best to promote contraception within this marginalized population. Methods We conducted structured in-depth interviews with 40 providers at 21 Family AIDS Care & Education Services - supported clinics in Homabay, Kisumu and Migori counties in western Kenya from July to August 2014. Our interview guide explored the providers’ perspectives on contraceptive service provision to adolescent females living with HIV with the following specific domains: contraception screening and counselling, service provision, commodity security and clinic structure. Transcripts from the interviews were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Results According to providers, interpersonal factors dominated the barriers adolescent females living with HIV face in accessing contraception. Providers felt that adolescent females fear disclosing their sexual activity to parents, peers and providers, because of repercussions of perceived promiscuity. Furthermore, providers mentioned that adolescents find seeking contraceptive services without a male partner challenging, because some providers and community members view adolescents unaccompanied by their partners as not being serious about their relationships or having multiple concurrent relationships. On the other hand, providers noted that institutional factors best facilitated contraception for these adolescents. Integration of contraception and HIV care allows easier access to contraceptives by removing the stigma of coming to a clinic solely for

  13. [Physiological changes in middle-aged persons and old people before and after tennis competition].

    PubMed

    Chai, Z; Long, Y; Zhan, C; Wu, Z; Wang, R; Tang, C; Zhou, L

    1992-09-01

    An examination of medical and physiological changes before and after tennis competition was performed on 71 middle-aged persons and old people in order to know whether they were adapted to this intense match or not. The result was that in the male group 1 (50-59 yrs), the heart rate, respiration rate and blood pressure before and after the tennis game had no significant differences (P > 0.05), indicating that this group was fit for the tennis competition, in the male group 2 (60-69 yrs) and male group 3 (70-79 yrs), as age advances, the number of unfitness to this game was increased gradually; in the female group (50-59 yrs), 28.5% of them showed a marked increase in the heart rate after the competition. We think that when persons have an electrocardiogram showing a significant undue changes of the ST segment and T wave after the contest, they are not suitable to this violent competition. So the medical surveillance is very important for the old people to play violent games such as tennis. The periodical health examination should be done before any exercise event with emphasis on the cardiovascular system so that the old sportsman can choose the proper exercise item and take self-control during the exercise. PMID:1304549

  14. Is competition making a comeback? Discovering methods to keep female adolescents engaged in STEM: A phenomenological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notter, Kathryn Betz

    The decreasing number of women who are graduating in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields continues to be a major concern. Despite national support in the form of grants provided by National Science Foundation, National Center for Information and Technology and legislation passed such as the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 that encourages women to enter the STEM fields, the number of women actually graduating in these fields is surprisingly low. This research study focuses on a robotics competition and its ability to engage female adolescents in STEM curricula. Data have been collected to help explain why young women are reticent to take technology or engineering type courses in high school and college. Factors that have been described include attitudes, parental support, social aspects, peer pressure, and lack of role models. Often these courses were thought to have masculine and "nerdy" overtones. The courses were usually majority male enrollments and appeared to be very competitive. With more female adolescents engaging in this type of competitive atmosphere, this study gathered information to discover what about the competition appealed to these young women. Focus groups were used to gather information from adolescent females who were participating in the First Lego League (FLL) and CEENBoT competitions. What enticed them to participate in a curriculum that data demonstrated many of their peers avoided? FLL and CEENBoT are robotics programs based on curricula that are taught in afterschool programs in non-formal environments. These programs culminate in a very large robotics competition. My research questions included: What are the factors that encouraged participants to participate in the robotics competition? What was the original enticement to the FLL and CEENBoT programs? What will make participants want to come back and what are the participants' plans for the future? My research mirrored data of previous findings such as lack

  15. Study of anemia in adolescents female and effect information, education and communication in rural area of central Kathmandu Valley.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R K C; Ghimire, H P; Panta, P P

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is a period of rapid change and opportunities. It is a coming up of age as children grow into young adults. It constitutes 10-19 yrs of age. In Nepal 23% of the population are adolescents. Across-sectional community based study was carried out in 3 schools in Jhaukhel (Bhaktapur) to determine the prevalence of anemia and the effect of IEC in female adolescents. Does IEC effect improve anemia rapidly. Two hundred four female school children were screened for Hemoglobin estimation by Simple Random Sampling method. Physical examination and nutritional assessment was also done. Hemoglobin estimation was done by Cynomethemoglobin method in their respective schools. Anemia was diagnosed according to WHO guidelines. IEC was given to all adolescents girls thrice in 1 month and again the effect of IEC was studied by estimating hemoglobin. Out of 204, 72 (35.3%) had anemia. Forty (34.2%) had anemia in the age group of 13-15 yrs, followed by 19 in age group 10-12 yrs and mild anemia was found in the age group 16-19 yrs. The adolescents girls whose parents were farmers and labourers were more anemic than others. Twelve (44.4%) maximum anemic girls were observed in those whose parental income was between NPRs 12000-16000. Out of 204 girls only 157 attained menarche. All girls 52 (33.1%) who attained menarche upto 13 yrs had more anemia than others of above 13 yrs of age group. The mean age at menarche was 13.05 yrs. The subjects exhibited increase in Hb significantly P value 0.000. Mean Hb before IEC was 12.26 (SD 1.43) and after IEC it was 12.81 (SD +/- 1.05). The Mean increase in percentage after IEC was 4.48 (SD +/- 9.68) in females. The Range was 20 to 41.18%. The Coefficient of relationship (Karl Pearson coefficient of correlation) between two Hb levels before and after giving IEC was 0.719, which is statistically significant with positive correlation (p = .000) and r2 = 0.516. It is represented as scattered diagram. PMID:24696933

  16. Prospective Associations between Depression and Obesity for Adolescent Males and Females- A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Suhail; Clavarino, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity and depression are increasingly prevalent and are currently recognised as major public health concerns worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the bi-directional associations between obesity and depression in adolescents using longitudinal studies. A systematic literature search was conducted using Pubmed (including Medline), PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL, BIOSIS Preview and the Cochrane Library databases. According to the inclusion criteria, 13 studies were found where seven studies evaluated depression leading to obesity and six other studies examined obesity leading to depression. Using a bias-adjusted quality effects model for the meta-analysis, we found that adolescents who were depressed had a 70% (RR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.40, 2.07) increased risk of being obese, conversely obese adolescents had an increased risk of 40% (RR 1.40, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.70) of being depressed. The risk difference (RD) of early adolescent depression leading to obesity is 3% higher risk than it is for obesity leading to depression. In sensitivity analysis, the association between depression leading to obesity was greater than that of obesity leading to depression for females in early adulthood compared with females in late adolescence. Overall, the findings of this study suggest a bi-directional association between depression and obesity that was stronger for female adolescents. However, this finding also underscores the importance of early detection and treatment strategies to inhibit the development of reciprocal disorders. PMID:27285386

  17. Acceptability, Language, and Structure of Text Message-Based Behavioral Interventions for High-Risk Adolescent Females: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ranney, Megan L.; Choo, Esther K.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Spirito, Anthony; Thorsen, Margaret; Mello, Michael J.; Morrow, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate key elements surrounding acceptability/feasibility, language, and structure of a text message-based preventive intervention for high-risk adolescent females. Methods We recruited high-risk 13- to 17-year-old females screening positive for past-year peer violence and depressive symptoms, during emergency department visits for any chief complaint. Participants completed semistructured interviews exploring preferences around text message preventive interventions. Interviews were conducted by trained interviewers, audio-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. A coding structure was iteratively developed using thematic and content analysis. Each transcript was double coded. NVivo 10 was used to facilitate analysis. Results Saturation was reached after 20 interviews (mean age 15.4; 55% white; 40% Hispanic; 85% with cell phone access). (1) Acceptability/feasibility themes: A text-message intervention was felt to support and enhance existing coping strategies. Participants had a few concerns about privacy and cost. Peer endorsement may increase uptake. (2) Language themes: Messages should be simple and positive. Tone should be conversational but not slang filled. (3) Structural themes: Messages may be automated but must be individually tailored on a daily basis. Both predetermined (automatic) and as-needed messages are requested. Dose and timing of content should be varied according to participants’ needs. Multimedia may be helpful but is not necessary. Conclusions High-risk adolescent females seeking emergency department care are enthusiastic about a text message-based preventive intervention. Incorporating thematic results on language and structure can inform development of future text messaging interventions for adolescent girls. Concerns about cost and privacy may be able to be addressed through the process of recruitment and introduction to the intervention. PMID:24559973

  18. Barriers to and Enablers of Contraceptive Use among Adolescent Females and their Interest in an Emergency Department-based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Chernick, Lauren S; Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Stockwell, Melissa; Castaño, Paula; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Objective Over 15 million adolescents, many at high risk for pregnancy, use emergency departments (ED) in the United States annually, but little is known regarding reasons for failure to use contraceptives in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to and enablers of contraceptive use among adolescent females using the ED and determine their interest in an ED-based pregnancy prevention intervention. Study Design We conducted semi-structured, open-ended interviews with females in an urban ED. Eligible females were 14-19 years old, sexually active, presenting for reproductive health complaints, and at risk for pregnancy, defined as non-use of effective (per the World Health Organization) contraception. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded based on thematic analysis. Enrollment continued until no new themes emerged. A modified Health Belief Model guided the organization of the data. Results Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (93%), insured (93%), and in a sexual relationship (86%). The primary barrier to contraceptive use was perceived health risk, including effects on menstruation, weight, and future fertility. Other barriers consisted of mistrust in contraceptives, ambivalent pregnancy intentions, uncertainty about the future, partner's desire for pregnancy, and limited access to contraceptives. Enablers of past contraceptive use included the presence of a school-based health clinic and clear plans for the future. All participants were receptive to ED-based pregnancy prevention interventions. Conclusions The identified barriers and enablers influencing hormonal contraceptive use can be used to inform the design of future ED-based adolescent pregnancy prevention interventions. PMID:25499588

  19. Should different marketing communication strategies be used to promote healthy eating among male and female adolescents?

    PubMed

    Chan, Kara; Ng, Yu-Leung; Prendergast, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine how interpersonal norms, media norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy had an influence on healthy eating intention among adolescents. A probability sample of 544 adolescents aged 12 to 18 was conducted. Results indicated that girls had a more favorable attitude and intention toward healthy eating than boys. Healthy eating intention among boys was predicted by attitude, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy, and among girls was predicted by perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Different marketing strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescent boys and girls should be adopted. PMID:25405634

  20. Factors associated with physical inactivity among female and male rural adolescents in Borneo - a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Whye Lian; Helmy, Hazmi; Chang, Ching Thon

    2014-01-01

    Rural communities have shown marked increase in metabolic syndrome among young people, with physical inactivity as one of the main contributing factors. This study aimed to determine factors associated with physical inactivity among male and female rural adolescents in a sample of schools in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 145 students aged 13-15 years. Data on socio-demographic, health-related, and psychosocial factors (perceived barriers, self-efficacy, social influences) were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometric measurement was taken to generate body mass index (BMI)-for-age, while physical activity (PA) level was assessed using pedometers. The mean steps per day was 6251.37 (SD=3085.31) with males reported as being more active. About 27% of the respondents were either overweight or obese, with more females in this group. There was no significant difference in steps among males and females (p=0.212), and nutritional status (BMI-for-age) (p=0.439). Females consistently scored higher in most items under perceived barriers, but had significantly lower scores in self-efficacy's items. Males were more influenced by peers in terms of PA (p<0.001) and were more satisfied with their body parts (p=0.047). A significantly higher body size discrepancy score was found among females (p=0.034, CI -0.639, -0.026). PA level was low and almost one-third of the respondents were overweight and obese. Female students faced more barriers and had lower self-efficacy with regards PA. Based on the findings, it is recommended that interventions focus on reducing barriers while increasing support for PA. This is particularly important in improving the health status of the youth, especially among the females. PMID:24447982

  1. [Study of mechanisms and factors related to sexual abuse in female children and adolescents

    PubMed

    Drezett, J; Caballero, M; Juliano, Y; Prieto, E T; Marques, J A; Fernandes, C E

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency of sexual abuse in children and adolescents and its related factors. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 617 cases of sexual abuse, assisted between July 1994 and August 1999 at the Womeńs Health Reference Center, divided into two groups: 71 children (age <10 years), and 546 adolescents (age > or =10 and <20 years). The analyzed variables were: sexual crime; embarrassment; presumption of violence; characteristics and number of abusers; the victimacute;s situation at the moment of the crime; and occurrence of physical traumas. Epi Info 6 software was utilized to gather data, and the results were analyzed by the chi-square test. RESULTS: Significant statistic results were found. 90.8% of the adolescents were victims of rape, and 46.5% of the children suffered sexual assault. The presupposed violence (PV) was more frequent in the group of children (63.4%) and a serious threat in the group of adolescents (63.2%). Innocentia consilli was exclusive PV among 100% of children and 59.5% of adolescents. 84.5% of children were molested by identifiable abusers, most frequently family members. Perpetrators were unknown in 72.3% of the cases of adolescent abuse. 42.3% of sexual abuse of children occurred in their homes, and 28.2% at the abusers. Adolescents were approached during daily activities (34.8%) and on their way to work or school (28.4%). Most patients did not have genital or extragenital trauma. CONCLUSIONS: Children suffered sexual assault, perpetrated by a known abuser through presupposed violence in private places. Adolescents were raped by unknown individuals, under serious threat, in nondomestic places. PMID:14647847

  2. Prenatal stress, regardless of concurrent escitalopram treatment, alters behavior and amygdala gene expression of adolescent female rats.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, David E; Neigh, Gretchen N; Bourke, Chase H; Nemeth, Christina L; Hazra, Rimi; Ryan, Steven J; Rowson, Sydney; Jairam, Nesha; Sholar, Courtney A; Rainnie, Donald G; Stowe, Zachary N; Owens, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Depression during pregnancy has been linked to in utero stress and is associated with long-lasting symptoms in offspring, including anxiety, helplessness, attentional deficits, and social withdrawal. Depression is diagnosed in 10-20% of expectant mothers, but the impact of antidepressant treatment on offspring development is not well documented, particularly for females. Here, we used a prenatal stress model of maternal depression to test the hypothesis that in utero antidepressant treatment could mitigate the effects of prenatal stress. We also investigated the effects of prenatal stress and antidepressant treatment on gene expression related to GABAergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the amygdala, which may underlie behavioral effects of prenatal stress. Nulliparous female rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps delivering clinically-relevant concentrations of escitalopram and mated. Pregnant dams were exposed to 12 days of mixed-modality stressors, and offspring were behaviorally assessed in adolescence (postnatal day 28) and adulthood (beyond day 90) to determine the extent of behavioral change. We found that in utero stress exposure, regardless of escitalopram treatment, increased anxiety-like behavior in adolescent females and profoundly influenced amygdala expression of the chloride transporters KCC2 and NKCC1, which regulate GABAergic function. In contrast, prenatal escitalopram exposure alone elevated amygdala expression of 5-HT1A receptors. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior returned to baseline and gene expression effects in the amygdala abated, whereas deficits emerged in novel object recognition for rats exposed to stress during gestation. These findings suggest prenatal stress causes age-dependent deficits in anxiety-like behavior and amygdala function in female offspring, regardless of antidepressant exposure. PMID:26032436

  3. Rehabilitation of the shoulder in tennis players.

    PubMed

    Plancher, K D; Litchfield, R; Hawkins, R J

    1995-01-01

    The tennis player places unique demands on the shoulder by creating a high risk for overuse and overloading of the soft tissues. Tennis requires concentric work to position and move the arm, eccentric work to stabilize the shoulder, effective depression of the humeral head to avoid impingement in the overhead position, and normal stability to prevent secondary impingement. The tennis serve produces enormous angular velocities about the shoulder joint. A comprehensive rehabilitation program has been described in which the therapist, trainer, player, and physician alike need to have an understanding of the basic biomechanics of this sport. This program can be used to treat the painful shoulder, prevent injury, and enhance performance. PMID:7712546

  4. Management of tennis elbow by Agnikarma

    PubMed Central

    Mahanta, Vyasadeva; Dudhamal, Tukaram S.; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Tennis elbow is a painful condition and causes restricted movement of forearm which requires treatment for long period. Till date only symptomatic treatments are available like use of anti-inflammatory analgesic drugs, steroids injection, physiotherapy, exercise etc. But none of these provide satisfactory result. Long term use of anti-inflammatory, analgesic drugs and steroids injection is also not free from the adverse effects. Usually, ‘wait-and-see policy’ of treatment guideline is recommended in most of medical texts. According to Ayurveda, snayugata vata can be correlated with the condition of tennis elbow. Sushruta has advised Agnikarma for disorders of snayu (ligaments and tendons), asthi (bone), siddhi (joints) etc. Hence, in this study a case of tennis elbow (snayugata vata) was treated by Agnikarma, along with administration of powder of Ashwagandha and Navajivana Rasa orally, for a period of 03 weeks. This combination therapy provided considerable relief in pain and movement of the elbow joint. PMID:23741162

  5. Attitudes and beliefs toward biobehavioural research participation: voices and concerns of urban adolescent females receiving outpatient mental health treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Bridgette M.; Volpe, Ellen M.; Stewart, Jennifer M.; Gomes, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Biobehavioural research methodology can be invasive and burdensome for participants—particularly adolescents with mental illnesses. Human biological researchers should consider how methodological impositions may hinder adolescent research participation. However, literature on adolescent’s voices and concerns toward biobehavioural research participation is virtually non-existent. Aim This study was designed to determine adolescents’ perceptions of participation in research involving the collection of biomarkers via blood, saliva and/or urine samples. Subjects and methods Urban adolescent females (aged 12–19) receiving outpatient mental health treatment (n = 37) participated in focus groups with concurrent survey administration to explore attitudes, beliefs and willingness/intentions toward biobehavioural research participation. Results Participants had favourable attitudes toward biobehavioural research and were amenable to provide each specimen type. Mistrust for research emerged, however, and concerns related to privacy and confidentiality were expressed. Conclusion Participant recruitment is a critical component in study design and implementation; this includes knowledge of population-specific recruitment barriers and facilitators. This innovative paper provides a context for the research participants’ decision-making process, strategies to allay fears and concerns and concrete areas to target in research-related interventions. Although the findings are from a specific, US-based sample, the implications warrant replication of the research in other geosocial settings. PMID:23822716

  6. The development of a culturally relevant, theoretically driven HPV prevention intervention for urban adolescent females and their parents/guardians.

    PubMed

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Baker, Jillian L; Voytek, Chelsea D; Leader, Amy; Cashman, Rebecca R; Silverman, Randee; Peter, Nadja; Buchner, Bradley J; Barnes, Christopher A; Jemmott, Loretta S; Frank, Ian

    2013-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States, accounting for the large majority of cervical cancer and anogenital warts cases. Two HPV vaccines are currently licensed and recommended for women and girls. However, vaccination rates have been suboptimal, with evidence of disparities influencing both uptake and series completion among African American and Hispanic adolescents. There has been a dearth of theory-based, behavioral interventions targeted to prevent HPV infection and increase HPV vaccine uptake among urban adolescents. This article describes the development of two skills-based intervention curricula aimed to increase HPV prevention and vaccination among low-income urban adolescent females 9 to 18 years old. Guided by the theory of planned behavior, elicitation research was conducted to elucidate the social psychological factors that underlie HPV vaccination intentions (N = 141). The findings were subsequently used to identify theoretical mediators of behavioral change to drive the intervention. Culturally relevant strategies to promote HPV vaccination were translated into the curricula content. Both curricula were designed to motivate and empower participants to reduce risk of being infected with HPV. Targeting theoretical mediators of behavioral change, derived from the voices of the community, may prove to be successful in increasing HPV vaccination and preventing HPV. PMID:23099659

  7. Ethnicity, ethnic identity, self-esteem, and at-risk eating disordered behavior differences of urban adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Deborah J; Thatcher, W Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: to determine the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem as dimensions of one's self-concept; and to determine if differences exist among one's ethnicity, ethnic identity, and/or self-esteem when examining at-risk eating disordered behaviors. A total of 893 urban adolescent females completed three behavioral subscales: the Eating Disorder Inventory, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and Phinney's Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. As hypothesized, ethnic identity was significantly associated with self-esteem to form one's self-concept. When compared to Mexican American and White females, only Black females who were in the higher ethnic identity and self-esteem categories had significantly lower at-risk eating disordered scores. Our findings suggest eating disorder status in Mexican American and White females may not be associated as much with ethnic identity as with other acculturation and self-concept factors. Further, this study demonstrated ethnicity, self-esteem, and ethnic identity play significant roles in eating disorder risks. PMID:23600553

  8. Physiological Responses to On-Court vs Running Interval Training in Competitive Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Sanz-Rivas, David; Sanchez-Muñoz, Cristobal; de la Aleja Tellez, Jose Gonzalez; Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare heart rate (HR), blood lactate (LA) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to a tennis-specific interval training (i.e., on-court) session with that of a matched-on-time running interval training (i.e., off-court). Eight well-trained, male (n = 4) and female (n = 4) tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 16.4 ± 1.8 years) underwent an incremental test where peak treadmill speed, maximum HR (HRmax) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) were determined. The two interval training protocols (i.e., off- court and on-court) consisted of 4 sets of 120 s of work, interspersed with 90 s rest. Percentage of HRmax (95.9 ± 2.4 vs. 96.1 ± 2.2%; p = 0.79), LA (6.9 ± 2.5 vs. 6.2 ± 2.4 mmol·L-1; p = 0.14) and RPE (16.7 ± 2.1 vs. 16.3 ± 1.8; p = 0.50) responses were similar for off-court and on-court, respectively. The two interval training protocols used in the present study have equivalent physiological responses. Longitudinal studies are still warranted but tennis-specific interval training sessions could represent a time-efficient alternative to off-court (running) interval training for the optimization of the specific cardiorespiratory fitness in tennis players. Key points On-court interval training protocol can be used as an alternative to running interval training Technical/tactical training should be performed under conditions that replicate the physical and technical demands of a competitive match During the competitive season tennis on-court training might be preferred to off-court training PMID:24150630

  9. Social influences on physical activity in Anglo-Australian and Vietnamese-Australian adolescent females in a single sex school.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew N; Dollman, James

    2009-01-01

    Social support is a consistent correlate of youth physical activity (PA) but few studies have examined this in cultural sub-groups. Female adolescents (n=113; 13.9+/-0.6years) from a metropolitan single sex private school participated in this study. PA was estimated using the 3 Day Physical Activity Recall (3dPAR), and aspects of social support using a specifically designed questionnaire. Anglo-Australians (n=74), whose parents were both born in Australia, were compared with Vietnamese-Australians (n=39), whose parents were both born in Vietnam. There were non-significant trends towards higher engagement in all measures of PA among Anglo-Australians. Anglo-Australians perceived higher levels of social support to be physically active. In the whole sample and in cultural sub-groups, support by mothers was a consistent predictor of PA. Among Vietnamese-Australians, activities shared with the mother predicted moderate to vigorous PA. Interventions targeting PA among adolescent females should consider interactions of social support and cultural background. PMID:18083632

  10. Acing common skin problems in tennis players.

    PubMed

    Basler, R S; Garcia, M A

    1998-12-01

    The following measures can help prevent skin disorders in tennis players: wearing properly fitted shoes to avoid tennis toe, talon noir, and calluses; applying lubricants to protect against blisters and chafing; washing skin thoroughly to reduce the risk of acne mechanica; and wearing a hat and sunscreen to guard against photoinjury. 'Stringer's fingers' can be prevented by breaking the habit of adjusting the racket strings after each point. Should these disorders become troublesome, conservative treatments are usually effective. For example, calluses may be carefully pared, and pain from a subungual hemorrhage can be relieved by piercing the toenail with a hot paper clip. PMID:20086771

  11. Vibration modeling and supression in tennis racquets.

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C. R.; Buechler, M. A.; Espino, Luis; Thompson, G. A.

    2003-01-01

    The size of the 'sweet spot' is one measure of tennis racquet performance. In terms of vibration, the sweet spot is determined by the placement of nodal lines across the racquet head. In this studx the vibrational characteristics of a tennis racquet are explorod to discover the size and location of the sweet spot. A numerical model of the racquet is developed using finite element analysis and the model is verified using the results from an experimental modal analysis. The affects of string tension on the racquet's sweet spot and mode shapes are then quantified. An investigation is also carried out to determine how add-on vibrational datnpers affect the sweet spot.

  12. Elevated cortisol in healthy female adolescent offspring of mothers with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Liu, Keke; Ruggero, Camilo J; Goldstein, Brandon; Klein, Daniel N; Perlman, Greg; Broderick, Joan; Kotov, Roman

    2016-05-01

    Offspring with maternal PTSD are at increased risk of developing PTSD themselves. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may play a role and have been noted in offspring, although evidence is mostly from adult offspring with PTSD symptoms themselves. The present study of adolescent girls (N=472) and their mothers (n=18 with lifetime PTSD versus n=454 with no PTSD) sought to determine whether healthy, non-affected offspring of mothers with PTSD would exhibit altered HPA axis function. Saliva samples were collected from the adolescent girls at waking, 30min after waking, and 8 pm on 3 consecutive days. Offspring whose mothers were diagnosed with PTSD demonstrated higher cortisol awakening response (CAR; Cohen's d=0.58) and greater total cortisol output (Cohen's d=0.62). In this preliminary study, higher cortisol levels during adolescence among offspring of mothers with PTSD may index a vulnerability in these at-risk youth. PMID:27088877

  13. Attitudes and beliefs regarding depression, HIV/AIDS and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors among clinically depressed African American adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Bridgette M.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals’ attitudes and beliefs toward behaviors are key indicators of behavioral performance. The purpose of this study was to elucidate attitudes and beliefs about depression, HIV/AIDS and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors among clinically depressed African American adolescent females and to develop an understanding of their context for HIV risk. For this descriptive qualitative inquiry, semi-structured interviews and surveys were employed (N = 24). The narratives reveal that behavioral sequelae of depression (i.e. loneliness) can produce risk for HIV. These findings may guide psychiatric nurse educators, scientists, and practitioners to modify HIV risk among clinically depressed African American adolescent females. PMID:23164403

  14. Attitudes and beliefs regarding depression, HIV/AIDS, and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors among clinically depressed African American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Brawner, Bridgette M

    2012-12-01

    Individuals' attitudes and beliefs toward behaviors are key indicators of behavioral performance. The purposes of this study were to elucidate attitudes and beliefs about depression, HIV/AIDS, and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors among clinically depressed African American adolescent females and to develop an understanding of their context for HIV risk. For this descriptive qualitative inquiry, semistructured interviews and surveys were employed (N = 24). The narratives reveal that behavioral sequelae of depression (i.e., loneliness) can produce risk for HIV. These findings may guide psychiatric nurse educators, scientists, and practitioners to modify HIV risk among clinically depressed African American adolescent females. PMID:23164403

  15. Sports Specialization is Associated with An Increased Risk of Developing Anterior Knee Pain in Adolescent Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Randon; Foss, Kim Barber; Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine if sport specialization increases the risk of anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes. Design Retrospective cohort epidemiology study. Methods Female basketball, soccer and volleyball players (N=546) were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of five middle schools and four high schools. A total of 357 multi-sport, and 189 single sport (66 basketball, 57 soccer and 66 volleyball) athlete subjects were included due to their diagnosis of patellofemoral pain on physical exam. Testing consisted of completion of a standardized history and physician-administered physical examination to determine the presence of patellofemoral pain (PFP). This study compared self-reported multi-sport athletes with sport specialized athletes participating in only one sport. The sports participation data was normalized by sport season with each sport accounting for one season of exposure. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and used to determine significant differences between athletes who specialized in sport in early youth and multi-sport athletes. Results Specialization in a single sport increased the relative risk of PFP incidence by 1.5 fold (95% CI 1.0 to 2.2; p=0.038) for cumulative PFP diagnoses. Specific diagnoses such as Sinding Larsen Johansson/patellar tendinopathy (95% CI 1.5 to 10.1; p=0.005) and Osgood Schlatter Disease (95% CI 1.5 to 10.1; p=0.005) demonstrated a four-fold greater relative risk in single sport compared to multiple sport athletes. Other specific PFP diagnoses such as Fat Pad, Plica, Trauma, Pes Anserine Bursitis and IT Band Tendonitis incidence were not different between single sport and multiple sport participants (p>0.05). Conclusion Early sport specialization in female adolescents is associated with increased risk of anterior knee pain disorders including PFP, Osgood Schlatter, Sinding Larsen-Johansson compared to multi

  16. Comparison of phalangeal ultrasound and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in healthy male and female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Halaba, Zenon P; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Piotrowska-Jastrzebska, Janina

    2005-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if there is a correlation between dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and phalangeal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in identifying children and adolescents with low bone density, and to assess if body size influences the results of the two techniques to the same degree. Measurements were performed in 67 girls and 83 boys aged 14 to 19 y using DBM Sonic 1200 (IGEA, Carpi, Italy) and the DXA equipment (LUNAR Radiation Corp., Madison, WI, USA). Twelve adolescents (eight males and four females) reported a past history of nonosteoporotic fractures. Lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS BMD), total body bone mineral density (TB BMD) and total body bone mineral content (TB BMC) correlated positively with age, height, BMI and weight, in both genders. Amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SOS) was positively correlated with age, height and Tanner stages in both genders and negatively correlated with BMI in females. TB BMD, TB BMC and LS BMD positively correlated with Ad-SOS only in males. In females, there were no significant correlations between Ad-SOS, TB BMD, TB BMC and LS BMD measurements. Twelve teenagers with previous fractures (high impact fractures) were found to have lower DXA and QUS values than age-matched teenagers without fractures but the statistical significance was found only in relation to TB BMD values (p = 0.02). In conclusion, we obtained results similar to those that have been reported by other authors using different QUS techniques. Furthermore, the Ad-SOS measurements taken at the distal metaphysis of the proximal phalanges correlate poorly with LS BMD and TB BMD measured by DXA in growing subjects. PMID:16344124

  17. African American Adolescent Female Identification with Engineering and Participation in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornick, Shayla L.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences that females have during middle and high school have been found to influence the perceptions that they have of their ability to be successful as an engineer and the value that they place on participating in engineering education. Engineering education continues to suffer from a lack of female participation. Several efforts have been…

  18. Body Image, Self-Esteem and Depression in Female Adolescent College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latha, K. S.; Hegde, Supriya; Bhat, S. M.; Sharma, P. S. V. N.; Rai, Pooja

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine whether Body Mass Index (BMI) and the subjective perception of body weight, and body shape satisfaction predict level of self-esteem and depression among female college students. Method: The sample comprised of 124 female college students ranging in age from 16-21 years. Self perception of…

  19. Anxious Attachment Style and Salivary Cortisol Dysregulation in Healthy Female Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskis, Andrea; Loveday, Catherine; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Clow, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attachment style has been linked with basal cortisol secretion in healthy adult women. We investigated whether dysregulation in basal cortisol secretion may be evident in younger healthy females. Methods: Sixty healthy females aged 9-18 years (mean 14.16, SD [plus or minus] 2.63 years) participated in the Attachment Style Interview…

  20. Female Secondary School Adolescents' Sexual Behavior and School Based HIV/AIDS Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inyang, Mfrekemfon P.

    2013-01-01

    Most adolescents engage in indiscriminate sexual experimentations. This practice exposes them to the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndromes (AIDS) are among the deadly diseases that exist globally. Twice as many girls, compared to boys…

  1. School Nurses on the Front Lines of Medicine: An Adolescent Female Student with Severe Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi

    2016-09-01

    Abdominal pain is a common chief complaint encountered by school nurses. This article explains the etiology of abdominal pain in children and adolescents, describes the office assessment, and delineates life-threatening conditions associated with severe abdominal pain that may prompt the school nurse to transfer the student to a local emergency department. PMID:27470683

  2. Evaluation of a Program to Delay Sexual Activity among Female Adolescents in Rural Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinn-Pike, Lynn

    1996-01-01

    Evaluated effects of a year-long, school-based program for 126 white adolescent girls. Program was designed to improve self-concept, expectations for future, educational plans, perceptions of maternal acceptance, and other perceptions. Intervention participants revealed less traditional sex role orientations, improved self-concept, and lessened…

  3. Item Parameter Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    The Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT[TM]) is an individually administered test of intelligence for individuals ranging in age from 11 to 85+ years. The item response theory-likelihood ratio procedure, based on the two-parameter logistic model, was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in the KAIT across males and…

  4. Gender and Body Concerns in Adolescent Females: Single Sex and Coeducational School Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensinger, Janell

    This paper involves focus group research with adolescent women from coeducational and single sex independent schools. First, it discusses research that finds girls who attend single sex institutions to be at a distinct advantage with respect to gender issues and academics. In order to obtain a better understanding of these differences, a study is…

  5. Career Counseling Is Personal Counseling: A Constructivist Approach to Nurturing the Development of Gifted Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Millie

    2007-01-01

    Gifted individuals face many concerns when contemplating their futures. Often hindered by career indecision; perfectionism; and multiple personal, familial, and societal pressures, some gifted young people flounder when they have the ability to flourish. Many counselors and educators trust that a wealth of talents will propel these adolescents to…

  6. The Relationship between Early Development and Psychosexual Behaviors in Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phinney, Virginia G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated relationship between early sexual maturation and psychosexual behaviors of dating and sexual intercourse among national sample of adolescent girls. Found early-maturing girls more likely to have experienced earlier dating and coital onset than late-maturing peers. Blacks experienced menarche and first intercourse at earlier ages, yet…

  7. Race and Ethnic Variation in the Schooling Consequences of Female Adolescent Sexual Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forste, Renata; Tienda, Marta

    1992-01-01

    Presents study results of the influence of adolescent childbearing and marriage on the likelihood of girls completing high school. Reports striking differences by ethnicity. Concludes that the effect of teen marriage on school completion was significant only for whites, with Latinas likely to drop out regardless of pregnancy, and married African…

  8. Issues in Fertility Control for Mentally Retarded Female Adolescents: II. Parental Attitudes toward Sterilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passer, Alice; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Interviews with 69 parents of mentally retarded adolescents revealed that 46 percent had considered sterilization for their daughters. Interest in sterilization especially correlated with increased severity of retardation and with difficulty teaching menstrual hygiene. Few parents supported either an extremely restrictive or permissive position.…

  9. Urban Teens: Trauma, Posttraumatic Growth, and Emotional Distress among Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ickovics, Jeanette R.; Meade, Christina S.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Ethier, Kathleen A.

    2006-01-01

    Urban teens face many traumas, with implications for potential growth and distress. This study examined traumatic events, posttraumatic growth, and emotional distress over 18 months among urban adolescent girls (N = 328). Objectives were to (a) describe types of traumatic events, (b) determine how type and timing of events relate to profiles of…

  10. Determinants of Indoor Tanning Behavior among Adolescent Females: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, J. Don

    2006-01-01

    Indoor tanning continues to grow in popularity even though empirical investigations denounce the behavior. Various reports have illustrated the detrimental health effects of ultraviolet (UV) exposure including increased risk for skin cancer. According to some physicians, the risk may be especially high for adolescents whose skin cells are dividing…

  11. Stressful Life Events and the Tripartite Model: Relations to Anxiety and Depression in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Halpern, Leslie F.; Ryan, Julie L.; Lowe, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the tripartite model reliably distinguishes anxiety and depression in adolescents, it remains unclear how negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity (PA) influence developmental pathways to internalizing problems. Based on models which propose that affectivity shapes how youth react to stress, the present study attempted to…

  12. Prospective Reciprocal Relations between Physical Activity and Depression in Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerstad, Sarah J.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents has been found in research, this relation has seldom been examined prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical…

  13. Examining Ethnic Differences in Predictors of Female Adolescent Smoking in Rural Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Angela J.; Shettler, Lauren; Matheson, Jennifer L.; Meszaros, Peggy S.; Piercy, Fred P.; Davis, Sean D.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the salience of multiple ecological factors (individual, family, peer, school, and community) as differential predictors of smoking for adolescent African-Americans and Whites in a sample of 2,029 7th-12th grade girls from a Mid-Atlantic southeastern state. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that significant predictors of…

  14. To Be Fat or Thin? Social Representations of the Body among Adolescent Female Students in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenzel, Lucia Marques; Saha, Lawrence J.; Guareschi, Pedrinho

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this paper are (a) to investigate how adolescents perceive and represent the body form with respect to being fat or thin, and (b) to describe the process of how they constructed the social representations for these latter two body conditions. The data were collected by means of individual and focus group interviews with adolescent…

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Dating Violence among Adolescent Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge of dating violence behaviors among adolescent victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), first, by determining the prevalence of psychological and physical dating violence and the reciprocity of violence, and second, by investigating the influence of certain CSA characteristics to dating violence.…

  16. Tennis Rackets and the Parallel Axis Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, Derek

    2014-04-01

    This simple experiment uses an unusual graph straightening exercise to confirm the parallel axis theorem for an irregular object. Along the way, it estimates experimental values for g and the moment of inertia of a tennis racket. We use Excel to find a 95% confidence interval for the true values.

  17. Buyer's Guide for Tennis Court Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Tennis Court & Track Builders Association.

    This booklet examines seven planning and decision-making tips for investing in and building tennis courts that can prolong court life and get the most from the investment. It examines defining needs, developing a budget, considering the use of a consultant, choosing a site, choosing a surface and developing working specifications, making specific…

  18. Tennis Rackets and the Parallel Axis Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This simple experiment uses an unusual graph straightening exercise to confirm the parallel axis theorem for an irregular object. Along the way, it estimates experimental values for g and the moment of inertia of a tennis racket. We use Excel to find a 95% confidence interval for the true values.

  19. Low Back Pain in a Tennis Player.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracker, Mark; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A group of physicians meet to discuss a case in which a middle-aged tennis player suffers from low back pain. The diagnosis, treatment and management of the case are discussed. The article is one in an occasional series. (JL)

  20. Fractal Aggregates in Tennis Ball Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabin, J.; Bandin, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the…

  1. The Effect of Moderate and High-Intensity Fatigue on Groundstroke Accuracy in Expert and Non-Expert Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Mark; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Hankey, Joanne; Nevill, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Exploring the effects of fatigue on skilled performance in tennis presents a significant challenge to the researcher with respect to ecological validity. This study examined the effects of moderate and high-intensity fatigue on groundstroke accuracy in expert and non-expert tennis players. The research also explored whether the effects of fatigue are the same regardless of gender and player’s achievement motivation characteristics. 13 expert (7 male, 6 female) and 17 non-expert (13 male, 4 female) tennis players participated in the study. Groundstroke accuracy was assessed using the modified Loughborough Tennis Skills Test. Fatigue was induced using the Loughborough Intermittent Tennis Test with moderate (70%) and high-intensities (90%) set as a percentage of peak heart rate (attained during a tennis-specific maximal hitting sprint test). Ratings of perceived exertion were used as an adjunct to the monitoring of heart rate. Achievement goal indicators for each player were assessed using the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport in an effort to examine if this personality characteristic provides insight into how players perform under moderate and high-intensity fatigue conditions. A series of mixed ANOVA’s revealed significant fatigue effects on groundstroke accuracy regardless of expertise. The expert players however, maintained better groundstroke accuracy across all conditions compared to the novice players. Nevertheless, in both groups, performance following high-intensity fatigue deteriorated compared to performance at rest and performance while moderately fatigued. Groundstroke accuracy under moderate levels of fatigue was equivalent to that at rest. Fatigue effects were also similar regardless of gender. No fatigue by expertise, or fatigue by gender interactions were found. Fatigue effects were also equivalent regardless of player’s achievement goal indicators. Future research is required to explore the effects of fatigue on performance in

  2. Co-occurrence of Erythrosis Pigmentosa Mediofacialis and Erythromelanosis Follicularis Faciei et Colli Associated with Keratosis Pilaris in an Adolescent Female

    PubMed Central

    Kalwaniya, Sarita; Morgaonkar, Manjaree; Gupta, Savera; Jain, Suresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Erythromelanosis follicularis faciei et colli (EFFC) is a rare disease characterized by a triad of reddish-brown pigmentation, erythema and follicular papules localized on face and neck and is usually described in males. Erythrosis pigmentosa mediofacialis (also known as Brocq or erythrosis pigmentosa peribuccalis) is a similar disorder of the mediofacial area but with female predominance. We report a case of simultaneous occurrence of erythrosis pigmentosa peribuccalis and EFFC associated with keratosis pilaris in an adolescent female. PMID:27512206

  3. Longitudinal Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms Among Male and Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Katie L; Wu, Qi; Smokowski, Paul R

    2016-06-01

    Using ecological theory and the peer socialization model, the current study identified risk and protective factors associated with internalizing and externalizing symptoms across ecological domains. It was hypothesized that the constellation of risk and protective factors within the peer microsystem would vary by gender: future optimism and negative peer influence were expected to be significant risk/protective factors for males, whereas peer victimization was expected to be significant risk factors among females. Using four waves of data, three-level hierarchical linear models were estimated for males and females. Results revealed that negative peer influence was a particularly salient risk factor for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors among males, although future optimism did not emerge as a significant protective factor. In addition, as hypothesized, peer victimization indicators were significant risk factors for females. Parent-child conflict was also significantly and positively associated with both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for males and females. Implications are discussed. PMID:26341092

  4. Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Infections After Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Anupam B.; Goldman, Dana P.; Seabury, Seth A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates among US females remain low, in part because of concerns that HPV vaccination may promote unsafe sexual activity by lowering perceived risks of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection (STI). OBJECTIVE To study whether HPV vaccination of females is associated with increases in STI rates. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Using a large, longitudinal insurance database of females aged 12 to 18 years insured from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2010, in the United States, we examined whether HPV vaccination was associated with an increase in incident STIs among females who were vaccinated compared with those who were not. We defined STIs as one or more medical claims for any of the following infections in a given quarter: chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, human immunodeficiency virus or AIDS, or syphilis. We used difference-in-difference analysis to compare changes in STI rates among HPV-vaccinated females before and after vaccination (index quarter) to changes among age-matched nonvaccinated females before and after the index quarter. We analyzed whether effects varied according to age and prior contraceptive medication use. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Rates of STIs. RESULTS The rates of STIs in the year before vaccination were higher among HPV-vaccinated females (94 of 21 610, 4.3 per 1000) compared with age-matched nonvaccinated females (522 of 186 501, 2.8 per 1000) (adjusted odds ratio, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.09-1.71; P = .007). The rates of STIs increased for the vaccinated (147 of 21 610, 6.8 per 1000) and nonvaccinated (781 of 186 501, 4.2 per 1000) groups in the year after vaccination (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.25-1.79; P < .001). The difference-in-difference odds ratio was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.80-1.38; P = .74), implying that HPV vaccination was not associated with an increase in STIs relative to growth among nonvaccinated females. Similar associations held among subgroups aged 12 through 14 years and

  5. Developmental Trajectories of Religiosity, Sexual Conservatism and Sexual Behavior among Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Woodrome, Stacy E.; Downs, Sarah M.; Hensel, Devon; Zimet, Gregory D.; Orr, Don P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity. PMID:24215966

  6. Synovial lipomatosis: A rare cause of knee pain in an adolescent female

    PubMed Central

    Miladore, Nicholas; Childs, Mary A; Sabesan, Vani J

    2015-01-01

    Synovial lipomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of the subsynovial adipose which can lead to a variety of presentations. Cases of synovial lipomatosis in children or adolescents are rare. This case report describes an adolescent patient with a rare bilateral presentation of synovial lipomatosis. She had been treated for years prior to her presentation for juvenile idiopathic arthritis. She presented with chronic bilateral knee pain, swelling, and mechanical symptoms. Bilateral MR imaging demonstrated effusions, hypertrophy of the synovium, and polyp-like projections of tissue with the same signal intensity as fat which is pathognomonic for synovial lipomatosis. Arthroscopic synovectomy and extensive debridement of polyp like fat projections of the right knee was performed. Histopathology was consistent with the synovial lipomatosis diagnosis. Postoperatively, the patient was satisfied with her outcome with improved pain relief and function in her right knee. PMID:25893181

  7. Fertility Risk Assessment and Preservation in Male and Female Prepubertal and Adolescent Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Zavras, Nikolaos; Siristatidis, Charalampos; Siatelis, Argyris; Koumarianou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Cancer represents the second cause of death in prepubertal children and adolescents, although it is currently associated with an overall survival rate of 80%-85%. The annual incidence rate is 186.6 per 1 million children and adolescents aged up to 19 years. Both disease and treatment options are associated with life-altering, long-term effects that require monitoring. Infertility is a common issue, and as such, fertility preservation represents an essential part in the management of young patients with cancer who are at risk of premature gonadal failure. This review deals with the up-to-date available data on fertility risk assessment and preservation strategies that should be addressed prior to antineoplastic therapy in this vulnerable subgroup of cancer patients. PMID:27398041

  8. Prospective Reciprocal Relations between Physical Activity and Depression in Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Jerstad, Sarah J.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective Although research has found an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents, few studies have examined this relation prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical activity. Method Data from a longitudinal study involving annual assessments of 496 adolescent girls (M age = 13, SD 0.7) followed over a 6-year period were analyzed to address these questions. Results Physical activity significantly reduced risk for future increases in depressive symptoms and risk for onset of major/minor depression and depressive symptoms and major/minor depression significantly reduced future physical activity, controlling for several covariates, though predictive effects were modest. Conclusions Results support a bidirectional relation between exercise and depression and imply that interventions that increase physical activity may reduce risk for depression among this high-risk population. PMID:20350037

  9. Fertility Risk Assessment and Preservation in Male and Female Prepubertal and Adolescent Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zavras, Nikolaos; Siristatidis, Charalampos; Siatelis, Argyris; Koumarianou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Cancer represents the second cause of death in prepubertal children and adolescents, although it is currently associated with an overall survival rate of 80%–85%. The annual incidence rate is 186.6 per 1 million children and adolescents aged up to 19 years. Both disease and treatment options are associated with life-altering, long-term effects that require monitoring. Infertility is a common issue, and as such, fertility preservation represents an essential part in the management of young patients with cancer who are at risk of premature gonadal failure. This review deals with the up-to-date available data on fertility risk assessment and preservation strategies that should be addressed prior to antineoplastic therapy in this vulnerable subgroup of cancer patients. PMID:27398041

  10. Reflections on beauty as it relates to health in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Freedman, R J

    1984-01-01

    Because an attractive appearance is so essential to the feminine gender role, the search for beauty causes special adjustment problems for adolescent girls. Psychologically they suffer from negative body image, lowered self-esteem, and achievement conflicts. Physically their health is undermined by current beauty norms which foster eating disorders, cosmetic acne, and breast surgery. The effects of physical fitness programs, the role of the media, and the influence of changing gender roles are also discussed. PMID:6235678

  11. Zinc fortification decreases ZIP1 gene expression of some adolescent females with appropriate plasma zinc levels.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Rosa O; Santiago, Alejandra; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; de la Barca, Ana M Calderón; García, Hugo S

    2014-06-01

    Zinc homeostasis is achieved after intake variation by changes in the expression levels of zinc transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary intake (by 24-h recall), absorption, plasma zinc (by absorption spectrophotometry) and the expression levels (by quantitative PCR), of the transporters ZIP1 (zinc importer) and ZnT1 (zinc exporter) in peripheral white blood cells from 24 adolescent girls before and after drinking zinc-fortified milk for 27 day. Zinc intake increased (p < 0.001) from 10.5 ± 3.9 mg/day to 17.6 ± 4.4 mg/day, and its estimated absorption from 3.1 ± 1.2 to 5.3 ± 1.3 mg/day. Mean plasma zinc concentration remained unchanged (p > 0.05) near 150 µg/dL, but increased by 31 µg/dL (p < 0.05) for 6/24 adolescents (group A) and decreased by 25 µg/dL (p < 0.05) for other 6/24 adolescents (group B). Expression of ZIP1 in blood leukocytes was reduced 1.4-fold (p < 0.006) in group A, while for the expression of ZnT1 there was no difference after intervention (p = 0.39). An increase of dietary zinc after 27-days consumption of fortified-milk did not increase (p > 0.05) the plasma level of adolescent girls but for 6/24 participants from group A in spite of the formerly appropriation, which cellular zinc uptake decreased as assessed by reduction of the expression of ZIP1. PMID:24922175

  12. Zinc Fortification Decreases ZIP1 Gene Expression of Some Adolescent Females with Appropriate Plasma Zinc Levels

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Rosa O.; Santiago, Alejandra; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B.; de la Barca, Ana M. Calderón; García, Hugo S.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis is achieved after intake variation by changes in the expression levels of zinc transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary intake (by 24-h recall), absorption, plasma zinc (by absorption spectrophotometry) and the expression levels (by quantitative PCR), of the transporters ZIP1 (zinc importer) and ZnT1 (zinc exporter) in peripheral white blood cells from 24 adolescent girls before and after drinking zinc-fortified milk for 27 day. Zinc intake increased (p < 0.001) from 10.5 ± 3.9 mg/day to 17.6 ± 4.4 mg/day, and its estimated absorption from 3.1 ± 1.2 to 5.3 ± 1.3 mg/day. Mean plasma zinc concentration remained unchanged (p > 0.05) near 150 µg/dL, but increased by 31 µg/dL (p < 0.05) for 6/24 adolescents (group A) and decreased by 25 µg/dL (p < 0.05) for other 6/24 adolescents (group B). Expression of ZIP1 in blood leukocytes was reduced 1.4-fold (p < 0.006) in group A, while for the expression of ZnT1 there was no difference after intervention (p = 0.39). An increase of dietary zinc after 27-days consumption of fortified-milk did not increase (p > 0.05) the plasma level of adolescent girls but for 6/24 participants from group A in spite of the formerly appropriation, which cellular zinc uptake decreased as assessed by reduction of the expression of ZIP1. PMID:24922175

  13. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Total Cholesterol, High-Density Lipoprotein, Apolipoprotein B, Apolipoprotein A-I, and Percent Body Fat in Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lungo, Diane; And Others

    The effect of aerobic exercise on total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), apolioprotein A-I (Apo A-I), and percent body fat in adolescent females was studied. The control subjects (n=86) were volunteers who had completed a physical education class at least six months prior to the commencement of the study,…

  14. A Comparison of the Effect of Single-Sex and Coeducational Schooling Arrangements on the Self-Esteem and Mathematics Achievement of Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollison, Richard A.

    Coeducation has been nearly universal in public schools in the United States during the 20th century. Research conducted in the last decade has questioned the effectiveness of coed schooling with regard to the self-esteem and mathematics achievement of adolescent females. Early research reported that single-sex schools where superior to…

  15. Dating Violence Perpetration and/or Victimization and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors among a Sample of Inner-City African American and Hispanic Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Henry, David B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven…

  16. Physical Activity of Male and Female Adolescents Living in a Town and a City in the Context of Public Health Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mynarski, Wladyslaw; Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Rozpara, Michal; Garbaciak, Wieslaw

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the physical activity of male and female adolescents from Poland living in a town (Czechowice-Dziedzice) and in a city (Katowice). Material and methods: The research involved 431 high school students aged 16-18 years (249 from Czechowice-Dziedzice and 182 from Katowice). Physical activity was measured by the short form of the…

  17. The Influence of Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Perceived Susceptibility Patterns on Sexual Risk Reduction for Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershaw, Trace S.; Ethier, Kathleen A.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Meade, Christina; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2005-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior can lead to pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our study of 300 adolescent females takes an integrative approach by incorporating these multiple outcomes to assess the influence of risk perceptions on sexual behavior by (1) identifying subgroups of perceived susceptibility…

  18. The Effectiveness of a Facebook-Assisted Teaching Method on Knowledge and Attitudes about Cervical Cancer Prevention and HPV Vaccination Intention among Female Adolescent Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ching-Yi; Wu, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Shao-Yu; Cheng, Su-Fen; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Liang, Shu-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lack of education is a known barrier to vaccination, but data on the design and effectiveness of interventions remain limited. Objective: This study aims to identify the effectiveness of a Facebook-assisted teaching method on female adolescents' knowledge and attitudes about cervical cancer prevention and on their human papillomavirus…

  19. Family Rejection, Social Isolation, and Loneliness as Predictors of Negative Health Outcomes (Depression, Suicidal Ideation, and Sexual Risk Behavior) among Thai Male-to-Female Transgender Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadegarfard, Mohammadrasool; Meinhold-Bergmann, Mallika E.; Ho, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of family rejection, social isolation, and loneliness on negative health outcomes among Thai male-to-female transgender adolescents. The sample consisted of 260 male respondents, of whom 129 (49.6%) were self-identified as transgender and 131 (50.4%) were self-identified as cisgender (nontransgender). Initial…

  20. Bone health in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa: what is a clinician to do?

    PubMed

    Katzman, Debra K; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this case report is to present a pharmacologic strategy for treatment of adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) and low bone mineral density (BMD). We present a 17.5-year-old girl with a 3-year history of AN and longstanding inability to optimize nutrition and gain weight, and a decrease over time in her already low BMD. A year after treatment with the 17-β estradiol patch (100 mcg twice weekly) with cyclic oral progesterone (2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate daily for days 1-10 of every month), her spine and hip BMD Z-scores improved, and a further decrease was prevented. This novel treatment is a consideration for girls with AN at greatest risk for low BMD. Adolescents with AN are at risk for low BMD, and the most effective treatment is weight and menses restoration, which can be difficult to attain and to sustain. Recent studies have shown promising results with pharmacological therapy for low BMD in AN. This article discusses current concepts related to bone loss in AN, and new pharmacologic considerations for adolescents at greatest risk for low BMD. PMID:23658091

  1. A flowchart for managing sexually transmitted infections among Nigerian adolescent females.

    PubMed Central

    Obunge, O. K.; Brabin, L.; Dollimore, N.; Kemp, J.; Ikokwu-Wonodi, C.; Babatunde, S.; White, S.; Briggs, N. D.; Hart, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To devise a flowchart suitable for assessing risk of trichomoniasis, chlamydia and gonorrhoea in an adolescent population, not all of whom will be sexually experienced or currently in a relationship. METHODS: The data used to derive the flowchart were generated from cross-sectional microbiological surveys of girls aged 14-19 years in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The flowchart screened on the basis of: (i) sexual experience; (ii) recent sexual activity; (iii) a positive urine leukocyte esterase (LE) test; and (iv) among LE negatives, a history of malodorous/pruritic discharge. FINDINGS: Using this flowchart, we found that 26.2% of all adolescents screened would receive treatment for cervicitis and vaginitis. Chlamydial, gonococcal, and trichomonal infections were correctly diagnosed in 37.5%, 66.7%, and 50% of the cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: Although the flowchart is more suitable for an adolescent population than the vaginal discharge algorithm used in syndromic management protocols, it still lacks precision and needs adapting to local settings. PMID:11357208

  2. Identification of sexually abused female adolescents at risk for suicidal ideations: a classification and regression tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Brabant, Marie-Eve; Hébert, Martine; Chagnon, François

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the clinical profiles of 77 female teenager survivors of sexual abuse and examined the association of abuse-related and personal variables with suicidal ideations. Analyses revealed that 64% of participants experienced suicidal ideations. Findings from classification and regression tree analysis indicated that depression, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and hopelessness discriminated profiles of suicidal and nonsuicidal survivors. The elevated prevalence of suicidal ideations among adolescent survivors of sexual abuse underscores the importance of investigating the presence of suicidal ideations in sexual abuse survivors. However, suicidal ideation is not the sole variable that needs to be investigated; depression, hopelessness and posttraumatic stress symptoms are also related to suicidal ideations in survivors and could therefore guide interventions. PMID:23428149

  3. SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL PREDICTORS OF INTERCOURSE FREQUENCY AND NUMBER OF SEXUAL PARTNERS AMONG MALE AND FEMALE AFRICAN AMERICAN ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Traylor, Amy C.; Howell, Rebecca J.; Church, Wesley T.; Bolland, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined 14 waves of data derived from a large, community-based study of the sexual behavior of impoverished youth between 12 and 17 years of age residing in the Deep South. We used multilevel linear modeling to identify ecological predictors of intercourse frequency and number of sexual partners among gender-specific subsamples. Results indicated that predictors of adolescent sexual behavior differed by both type of sexual behavior and gender. For males, age, maternal warmth, parental knowledge, curfew, self-worth, and sense of community predicted intercourse frequency, while age, parental knowledge, curfew, self-worth, friend support, and sense of community were significantly associated with having multiple sexual partners. Among females, age, curfew, and self-worth exerted significant effects on intercourse frequency, while age, parental knowledge, curfew, and self-worth exerted significant effects on having multiple sexual partners. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:26401060

  4. Similarities and differences in physical self-concept of males and females during late adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Cağlar, Emine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine age and sex differences in physical self-concept of Turkish late adolescents and early adults. A total of 715 high school and 1,125 university students voluntarily participated and were administered the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire. The findings indicate significant sex and age differences on multiple dimensions of physical self, and that males and high school students scored higher on almost all subscales of physical self. However, analysis did not reveal any significant age and sex interactions on physical self. In conclusion, males and females differ from each other on how they perceived themselves on the multiple dimensions of physical self, and developmental age changes were evident in physical self. PMID:19764275

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Original and Short Form of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits in Detained Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Colins, Olivier F; Andershed, Henrik; Hawes, Samuel W; Bijttebier, Patricia; Pardini, Dustin A

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the self-report version of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits in 191 detained female adolescents (M = 15.76, SD = 1.02). Evidence supporting the validity of the ICU scores was generally weak, largely due to poor functioning of the Unemotional subscale. Results from confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated support for a recently proposed shortened version of the ICU consisting of two subscales (Callousness and Uncaring). Both subscales showed acceptable to good internal consistency. This short-form version also improved criterion validity, though some issues regarding its convergent validity need further consideration. In conclusion, this study suggests that a short-form version of the ICU that includes a subset of the original items may hold promise as an efficient and valid method for assessing CU traits. PMID:26493393

  6. Searching for a sense of purpose: the role of parents and effects on self-esteem among female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Blattner, Meghan C C; Liang, Belle; Lund, Terese; Spencer, Renee

    2013-10-01

    Achieving a sense of purpose during adolescence is a developmental asset; however, searching for that purpose may be a developmental stressor. Supportive parent-child relationships may help youth during this stressful experience. The present study included 207 female students in the sixth, eighth, and tenth grades from two competitive private schools. Searching for purpose negatively predicted self-esteem. Hierarchical linear regression examined moderating effects of parental trust and alienation on searching for purpose as a predictor of self-esteem. Parental alienation significantly moderated the association between search for purpose and girls' self-esteem; conversely, parental trust did not moderate the association. Results suggest that parent-child relationships characterized by high levels of parental alienation may exacerbate the pernicious effects of search for purpose. Person-based analyses found four clusters corresponding to Foreclosed Purpose, Diffused Purpose, Uncommitted Purpose/Moratorium, and Achieved Purpose. We discuss implications for practice and research based on these results. PMID:24011100

  7. Low levels of physical activity in female adolescents cause overweight and obesity: are our schools failing our children?

    PubMed

    Mokabane, Nelly N; Mashao, Mercy M; van Staden, Marlise; Potgieter, Martin; Potgieter, Annelize

    2014-10-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among female adolescents is a global health problem. In developing countries such as South Africa, this increase is often associated with urbanisation and the adoption of a Western lifestyle. Two aspects of the Western lifestyle that contribute to the development of overweight and obesity are a decrease in physical activity levels and an increase in the consumption of energy-dense food, high in fats and refined sugar. Information on the prevalence of increased body fatness in populations in transition is scarce, but necessary for effective planning and intervention. Current indications are that there is a trend towards unhealthy behaviour among high-school girls, globally and in South Africa. Schools can play an important role in the prevention of overweight and obesity among schoolgirls. It is recommended that school governing bodies institute remedial action to prevent weight gain in children, especially girls. PMID:25363048

  8. Measurements of body fat distribution: assessment of collinearity with body mass, adiposity and height in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and height, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. METHODS : A controlled cross-sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 with normal weight, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 with normal weight and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central (CS) and peripheral skinfolds (PS). The BF% was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. RESULTS : The increase in central fat, represented by WC, UC, WHtR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase in peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh circumference were proportional to the increase in BMI and BF%. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The height showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being fair or weak with waist measurements. CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, as it showed the highest capacity to predict adiposity in each group, and also showed fair or weak correlation with height. PMID:25623729

  9. Role Conflict and the High School Female Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthrop, Joseph; Allison, Maria T.

    1983-01-01

    A study of female high school students sought to measure role conflict among females participating in traditionally approved sports--swimming, golf, gymnastics, and tennis--and those involved in sports such as basketball and track. The females gave little evidence of internal role conflict but had experienced external sources of conflict.…

  10. Binge Drinking of Ethanol during Adolescence Induces Oxidative Damage and Morphological Changes in Salivary Glands of Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Paraense, Ricardo Sousa de Oliveira; de Farias-Junior, Paulo Mecenas Alves; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates morphological and biochemistry effects of binge ethanol consumption in parotid (PG) and submandibular (SG) salivary glands of rats from adolescence to adulthood. Female Wistar rats (n = 26) received ethanol at 3 g/kg/day (20% w/v) for 3 consecutive days/week from the 35th until the 62nd day of life. Animals were treated in two periods: 1 week (G1) and 4 weeks (G2), with a control (treated with distilled water) and an ethanol group to each period. In morphological analysis, morphometric and immunohistochemistry evaluation for smooth muscle actin (αSMA), cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and vimentin (VIM) were made. Biochemical changes were analyzed by concentration of nitrites and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). The difference between groups in each analysis was evaluated by Mann-Whitney U test or Student's t-test (p ≤ 0.05). PG showed, at one week of ethanol exposure, lower CK-18 and α-SMA expression, as well as MDA levels. After four weeks, lower CK-18 and higher MDA levels were observed in PG exposed to ethanol, in comparison to control group. SG showed lower α-SMA expression after 1 and 4 weeks of ethanol exposure as well as higher MDA levels after 1 week. Ethanol binge consumption during adolescence promotes tissue and biochemical changes with only one-week binge in acinar and myoepithelial PG cells. PMID:27579155

  11. Female and male adolescents' subjective orientations to mathematics and the influence of those orientations on postsecondary majors.

    PubMed

    Perez-Felkner, Lara; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn; Schneider, Barbara; Grogan, Erin

    2012-11-01

    Although important strides toward gender parity have been made in several scientific fields, women remain underrepresented in the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences (PEMCs). This study examines the effects of adolescents' subjective orientations, course taking, and academic performance on the likelihood of majoring in PEMC in college. Results indicate that racial-ethnic and gender underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are interrelated and should be examined with attention to the intersecting factors influencing female and racial-ethnic minority adolescents' pathways toward careers in these fields. Among those who major in PEMC fields, women closely resemble men with respect to their subjective orientations. The effects of subjective orientations on women's chances of majoring in PEMC vary by their secondary school mathematics course completion levels. Women who take more mathematics courses are more likely to major in PEMC; however, course taking alone does not attenuate gender disparities in declaring these majors. High mathematics ability (as measured by standardized test scores in the 10th grade) appears to be positively associated with women's selection of social, behavioral, clinical, and health science majors. This association is less robust (and slightly negative) for women in PEMC. While advanced course taking appears to assist women in selecting PEMC majors, women who enter these fields may not be as strong as those who select other, less male-dominated scientific fields. PMID:22390658

  12. Birth characteristics and female sex hormone concentrations during adolescence: results from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Terryl J.; Rovine, Michael J.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Birth characteristics and adult hormone concentrations influence breast cancer risk, but little is known about the influence of birth characteristics on hormone concentrations, particularly during adolescence. Methods We evaluated the association of birth characteristics (birth weight, birth length, and gestational age) with serum sex hormone concentrations during late childhood and adolescence in 278 female participants of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children. Repeated measures analysis of variance models were used to assess the relationships of birth characteristics and serum estrogens and androgens at five different time points over a mean period of 7 years. Results In analyses that did not take into account time from blood draw until menarche, birth weight was inversely associated with pre-menarche concentrations of estradiol, estrone sulfate, androstenedione, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). In the post-menarche analyses, birth weight was not significantly associated with concentration of any of the hormones under investigation. Birth length and gestational age were not associated with hormone concentrations before or after menarche. Conclusion Birth weight is inversely associated with sex hormone concentrations before menarche in the model unadjusted for time from blood draw until menarche. Impact The in utero environment has long-term influences on the hormonal milieu, which could potentially contribute to breast cancer risk. PMID:21327460

  13. Binge Drinking of Ethanol during Adolescence Induces Oxidative Damage and Morphological Changes in Salivary Glands of Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Paraense, Ricardo Sousa de Oliveira; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Crespo-López, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates morphological and biochemistry effects of binge ethanol consumption in parotid (PG) and submandibular (SG) salivary glands of rats from adolescence to adulthood. Female Wistar rats (n = 26) received ethanol at 3 g/kg/day (20% w/v) for 3 consecutive days/week from the 35th until the 62nd day of life. Animals were treated in two periods: 1 week (G1) and 4 weeks (G2), with a control (treated with distilled water) and an ethanol group to each period. In morphological analysis, morphometric and immunohistochemistry evaluation for smooth muscle actin (αSMA), cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and vimentin (VIM) were made. Biochemical changes were analyzed by concentration of nitrites and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). The difference between groups in each analysis was evaluated by Mann-Whitney U test or Student's t-test (p ≤ 0.05). PG showed, at one week of ethanol exposure, lower CK-18 and α-SMA expression, as well as MDA levels. After four weeks, lower CK-18 and higher MDA levels were observed in PG exposed to ethanol, in comparison to control group. SG showed lower α-SMA expression after 1 and 4 weeks of ethanol exposure as well as higher MDA levels after 1 week. Ethanol binge consumption during adolescence promotes tissue and biochemical changes with only one-week binge in acinar and myoepithelial PG cells. PMID:27579155

  14. A new instrument to measure sexual competence and interaction competence in youth: psychometric properties in female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grauvogl, Andrea; Peters, Madelon L; Evers, Silvia M A A; van Lankveld, Jacques J D M

    2015-01-01

    The Sexual Competence and Interaction Competence in Youth is a self-report questionnaire that aims to measure sexual competence and interaction competence in adolescents. The study sample consisted of 276 female undergraduate students (M = 20.95 years, SD = 2.00 years). The factor structure of the questionnaire was calculated on full sample data. A subsample was used to calculate the validity and internal consistency (N = 236; M = 20.88 years, SD = 1.96). The test-retest reliability was also calculated in a subsample (N = 82; M = 21.45 years, SD = 1.74 years). On the basis of an exploratory factor analysis, 8 factors were extracted: (a) communication about sex, (b) refusing sex, (c) positive sexual attitudes, (d) male role in sexual interaction, (e) contraceptive use, (f) not suppressing problems and desires regarding sex, (g) sexual assertiveness, and (h) sexual hedonism. The subscales possess adequate internal consistency and moderate to excellent test-retest reliability. A higher order principal component analysis revealed a 2-factor structure that appears to adequately represent the sexual competence and interaction competence constructs. Furthermore, convergent and discriminant validity were considered to be good. The results indicate that the Sexual Competence and Interaction Competence in Youth may be a useful instrument to measure sexual and interaction competence among adolescents. PMID:24949740

  15. Age related changes in pelvis size among adolescent and adult females with reference to parturition from Naraingarh, Haryana (India).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Krishan; Gupta, Puneet; Shandilya, Shailza

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the ontogenic patterns of changes in growth during adolescence, pelvis variations and growth during twenties and thirties of age, structural remodeling of pelvis related to childbirth and relationship of pelvis area with physique based on the cross-sectional data on 391 females from the state of Haryana. Peak growth velocity for body height and breadths of skeletal traits occurred between 11 and 12 years, much before mean age of menarche at 13.5 years; while for body weight and body mass index (BMI) occurred between 14 and 15 years, after the mean age of menarche. Untill the age 11 years, 11.87% of growth in stature was remaining, 19.37% for bi-cristal breadth, 25.96% for bi-ischial breadth and 35.82% for pelvic area. The hypothesis of critical value of pelvic width of 240mm at iliocristale for menarche to occur has been only a statistical association. Higher prevalence of malnutrition during pubertal phase than pre- and post-pubertal phases was due to greater nutritional needs during puberty. Among adult females, BMI was very poorly correlated with stature but very strongly correlated with body breadths, body breadth-stature indices and body weight. The body mass and pelvis size continued to change during 20s and first half of 30s. The continued increase of BMI was due to increase in body fat and muscle mass in females 18 years and older. To tease apart age and parturition effects on pelvis variations, the analysis showed that pelvic bones remodeling took place after the first child was born and not after the subsequent births, and it was a sign of childbirth phenotypic plasticity rather than age. Pelvis area was strongly associated with stature, BMI and age. Mean pelvic area of tall females was greater than those of medium and short stature. Females with broad shoulders had significantly greater mean pelvis area than those with narrow shoulders and medium shoulders. Females having thin/lean physique had the smallest mean pelvis area

  16. Body Image and Quality-of-Life in Untreated Versus Brace-Treated Females With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Schwieger, Traci; Campo, Shelly; Weinstein, Stuart L.; Dolan, Lori A.; Ashida, Sato; Steuber, Keli R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design. The Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial (BrAIST) included skeletally immature high-risk patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with moderate curve sizes (20°– 40°). BrAIST was a multicenter, controlled trial using both randomized and preference treatment arms into either an observation group or a brace treatment group. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare body image and quality-of-life (QOL) in female AIS patients who were observed or treated with a brace. Summary of Background Data. Brace treatment is an effective means for controlling progressive scoliosis and preventing the need for surgery, but there is no consensus regarding the effect of brace treatment on body image or on QOL in adolescents with AIS. Methods. Data from female BrAIST patients in the randomized (n = 132) or preference (n = 187) arms and were observed (n = 120) or brace treated (n = 199) were analyzed. Patients completed the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQOL) 4.0 Generic Scales at baseline and 6 month follow-up visits up to 2 years. Items on the SAQ measured three body image constructs (self, ideal, and overall). The PedsQOL measured health, activities, feelings, social factors, and school. Results. . In general, there were no significant differences within or between study arms or treatments regarding body image or QOL through 2 years of follow-up. Poorer body image was significantly correlated with poorer QOL during the first 2 years of follow-up regardless of study arm or treatment. Patients who crossed-over to a different treatment and patients with largest Cobb angles ≥ 40 degrees had significantly poorer body image, in particular self-body image, compared with those that did not. Conclusion. This study does not support findings from previous research indicating that wearing a brace has a negative impact on or is negatively impacted by body image or

  17. Dietary Intake, Anthropometric Characteristics, and Iron and Vitamin D Status of Female Adolescent Ballet Dancers Living in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kathryn L; Mitchell, Sarah; Foskett, Andrew; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R

    2015-08-01

    Ballet dancing is a multifaceted activity requiring muscular power, strength, endurance, flexibility, and agility; necessitating demanding training schedules. Furthermore dancers may be under aesthetic pressure to maintain a lean physique, and adolescent dancers require extra nutrients for growth and development. This cross-sectional study investigated the nutritional status of 47 female adolescent ballet dancers (13-18 years) living in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants who danced at least 1 hr per day 5 days per week completed a 4-day estimated food record, anthropometric measurements (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and hematological analysis (iron and vitamin D). Mean BMI was 19.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 and percentage body fat, 23.5 ± 4.1%. The majority (89.4%) of dancers had a healthy weight (5th-85th percentile) using BMI-for-age growth charts. Food records showed a mean energy intake of 8097.3 ± 2155.6 kJ/day (48.9% carbohydrate, 16.9% protein, 33.8% fat, 14.0% saturated fat). Mean carbohydrate and protein intakes were 4.8 ± 1.4 and 1.6 ± 0.5 g/kg/day respectively. Over half (54.8%) of dancers consumed less than 5 g carbohydrate/kg/day, and 10 (23.8%) less than 1.2 g protein/kg/day. Over 60% consumed less than the estimated average requirement for calcium, folate, magnesium and selenium. Thirteen (28.3%) dancers had suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin (SF) < 20 μg/L). Of these, four had iron deficiency (SF < 12 μg/L, hemoglobin (Hb) ≥ 120 g/L) and one iron deficiency anemia (SF < 12 μg/L, Hb < 120 g/L). Mean serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D was 75.1 ± 18.6 nmol/L, 41 (91.1%) had concentrations above 50 nmol/L. Female adolescent ballet dancers are at risk for iron deficiency, and possibly inadequate nutrient intakes. PMID:25386731

  18. Aerobic Capacity, Activity Levels and Daily Energy Expenditure in Male and Female Adolescents of the Kenyan Nandi Sub-Group

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Alexander R.; Ojiambo, Robert; Konstabel, Kenn; Lieberman, Daniel E.; Reilly, John J.; Speakman, John R.; Pitsiladis, Yannis P.

    2013-01-01

    The relative importance of genetic and socio-cultural influences contributing to the success of east Africans in endurance athletics remains unknown in part because the pre-training phenotype of this population remains incompletely assessed. Here cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity levels, distance travelled to school and daily energy expenditure in 15 habitually active male (13.9±1.6 years) and 15 habitually active female (13.9±1.2) adolescents from a rural Nandi primary school are assessed. Aerobic capacity () was evaluated during two maximal discontinuous incremental exercise tests; physical activity using accelerometry combined with a global positioning system; and energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method. The of the male and female adolescents were 73.9±5.7 ml. kg−1. min−1 and 61.5±6.3 ml. kg−1. min−1, respectively. Total time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activities per day was 406±63 min (50% of total monitored time), 244±56 min (30%), 75±18 min (9%) and 82±30 min (10%). Average total daily distance travelled to and from school was 7.5±3.0 km (0.8–13.4 km). Mean daily energy expenditure, activity-induced energy expenditure and physical activity level was 12.2±3.4 MJ. day−1, 5.4±3.0 MJ. day−1 and 2.2±0.6. 70.6% of the variation in was explained by sex (partial R2 = 54.7%) and body mass index (partial R2 = 15.9%). Energy expenditure and physical activity variables did not predict variation in once sex had been accounted for. The highly active and energy-demanding lifestyle of rural Kenyan adolescents may account for their exceptional aerobic fitness and collectively prime them for later training and athletic success. PMID:23805234

  19. Clinical depression and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors among African-American adolescent females: unmasking the numbers.

    PubMed

    Brawner, B M; Gomes, M M; Jemmott, L S; Deatrick, J A; Coleman, C L

    2012-01-01

    Clinically depressed and nondepressed African-American adolescent females aged 13-19 years (N=131) were interviewed and surveyed to determine the relationship between depression and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors. Narratives indicate that the psychopathology of depression may create situations where the target population could become exposed to HIV. Specifically, depressed participants described feelings of loneliness, isolation, and wanting somebody to "comfort them" as aspects of depression that affect the decisions they make about sex and relationships. In essence, sex was viewed as a stress reliever, an anti-depressant and a way to increase self-esteem. They shared that even if they did not feel like having sex, they might just "git it over wit" so their partners would stop asking. Some also discussed financial and emotional stability offered by older, more sexually experienced partners. These age-discordant relationships often translated into trusting that their partners knew what was best for their sexual relationships (i.e., having unprotected sex). Sixty-nine percent (n=88) of the sample reported engaging in sexual activity. Given their mean age (16 ± 1.9 years) participants had been sexually active for 2 ± 1.8 years. The adolescents reported an average of 2 ± 1.8 sexual partners within the past three months. Depressed participants reported a higher frequency of having ever had sex (78% vs. 59%, χ(2)=5.236, p=0.022), and had a higher mean number of sexual partners (2 vs. 1, t=-2.023, p= 0.048) and sexual encounters under the influence of drugs and alcohol (8 vs. 2, t=-3.078, p=0.005) in the past three months. The results of this study can guide the modification and/or development of tailored HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention programs. The findings provide explicit, psychologically and culturally relevant information regarding the interaction between depression, self-medicating behaviors and risk for HIV/STIs among clinically

  20. The Effectiveness of Group Assertiveness Training on Happiness in Rural Adolescent Females with Substance Abusing Parents

    PubMed Central

    Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Khalili, Mina Norozi; Chenarani, Maryam Shakeri; Hamidi, Mahin; Akaberi, Arash; Ardani, Amir Rezaei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parental substance abuse confronts children with a variety of psychological, social, and behavioral problems. Children of substance abusing parents show higher levels of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression and exert lower levels of communication skills. Weak social skills in this group of adolescents put them at a higher risk for substance abuse. Many studies showed school based interventions such as life skill training can effective on future substance abusing in these high risk adolescences. Materials and Methods: The participants consisted of 57 middles schools girls, all living in rural areas and having both parents with substance dependency. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=28) and control (n=29) groups. The data were collected before and six weeks after training in both group. The intervention group received eight sessions of group assertiveness training. Participants were compared in terms of changes in scores on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire and the Gambrills-Richey Assertion Inventory. Results: The total score for happiness change from 43.68 ±17.62 to 51.57 ±16.35 and assertiveness score changed from 110.33±16.05 to 90.40±12.84. There was a significant difference in pretest-posttest change in scores for intervention (7.89±4.13) and control (-2.51±2.64) groups; t (55) =2.15, p = 0.049. These results suggest that intervention really does have an effect on happiness and assertiveness. Conclusion: Determining the effectiveness of these school based interventions on other life aspects such as substance abuse calls for further study on these rural adolescent girls. PMID:26383218