Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey
This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher…
Schaefer, David R.; Simpkins, Sandra D.; Vest, Andrea E.; Price, Chara D.
Extracurricular activities are settings that are theorized to help adolescents maintain existing friendships and develop new friendships. The overarching goal of the current investigation was to examine whether coparticipating in school-based extracurricular activities supported adolescents' school-based friendships. We used social network methods…
Pollard, Michael S; Tucker, Joan S; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David; Go, Myong-Hyun
This article examines how friendship networks in adolescence are linked to tobacco use trajectories through a combination of analytic techniques that traditionally are located in separate literatures: social network analysis and developmental trajectory analysis. Using six years of longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we identify a set of six unique developmental trajectories of smoking (never smokers, steady lows, delayed increasers, early increasers, decreasers, and steady highs). Individuals' locations in their friendship networks were then linked to their trajectory group membership. Adolescents with a greater number of smoking friends were more likely to belong to the higher use trajectories. Beyond this exposure to smoking peers, individuals who at baseline were either members of a smoking group or liaisons to a smoking group were more likely than members of a nonsmoking group to belong to the higher use trajectories. Liaisons to a smoking group were particularly likely to belong to the delayed increaser trajectory group. Trajectory group membership for adolescents who belonged to a nonsmoking group did not significantly differ from those who were isolates or liaisons to a nonsmoking group. The study suggests features of an individual's social network have long-lasting associations with smoking behaviors.
Schaefer, David R; Simpkins, Sandra D; Vest, Andrea E; Price, Chara D
Extracurricular activities are settings that are theorized to help adolescents maintain existing friendships and develop new friendships. The overarching goal of the current investigation was to examine whether coparticipating in school-based extracurricular activities supported adolescents' school-based friendships. We used social network methods and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine whether dyadic friendship ties were more likely to exist among activity coparticipants while controlling for alternative friendship processes, namely dyadic homophily (e.g., demographic and behavioral similarities) and network-level processes (e.g., triadic closure). Results provide strong evidence that activities were associated with current friendships and promoted the formation of new friendships. These associations varied based on school level (i.e., middle vs. high school) and activity type (i.e., sports, academic, arts). Results of this study provide new insight into the complex relations between activities and friendship that can inform theories of their developmental outcomes.
Lodder, Gerine M A; Scholte, Ron H J; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Giletta, Matteo
Adolescents tend to form friendships with similar peers and, in turn, their friends further influence adolescents' behaviors and attitudes. Emerging work has shown that these selection and influence processes also might extend to bully victimization. However, no prior work has examined selection and influence effects involved in bully victimization within cliques, despite theoretical account emphasizing the importance of cliques in this regard. This study examined selection and influence processes in adolescence regarding bully victimization both at the level of the entire friendship network and the level of cliques. We used a two-wave design (5-month interval). Participants were 543 adolescents (50.1% male, Mage = 15.8) in secondary education. Stochastic actor-based models indicated that at the level of the larger friendship network, adolescents tended to select friends with similar levels of bully victimization as they themselves. In addition, adolescent friends influenced each other in terms of bully victimization over time. Actor Parter Interdependence models showed that similarities in bully victimization between clique members were not due to selection of clique members. For boys, average clique bully victimization predicted individual bully victimization over time (influence), but not vice versa. No influence was found for girls, indicating that different mechanisms may underlie friend influence on bully victimization for girls and boys. The differences in results at the level of the larger friendship network versus the clique emphasize the importance of taking the type of friendship ties into account in research on selection and influence processes involved in bully victimization.
Frank, Kenneth A.; Muller, Chandra; Mueller, Anna S.
Although research on social embeddedness and social capital con-firms the value of friendship networks, little has been written about how social relations form and are structured by social institutions. Using data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors show that the odds of a new friendship nomination were 1.77 times greater within clusters of high school students taking courses together than between them. The estimated effect cannot be attributed to exposure to peers in similar grade levels, indirect friendship links, or pair-level course overlap, and the finding is robust to alternative model specifications. The authors also show how tendencies associated with status hierarchy inhering in triadic friendship nominations are neutralized within the clusters. These results have implications for the production and distribution of social capital within social systems such as schools, giving the clusters social salience as “local positions.” PMID:25364011
Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Hawley, Patricia H; Little, Todd D
Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adolescents' (N = 374, 12-14 years) intrinsic and extrinsic friendship motivation on friendship selection and social influence by utilizing social network modeling. In addition, longitudinal relations among motivation and friendship quality were estimated with structural equation modeling. Extrinsic motivation predicted activity in making friendship nominations during the sixth grade and lower friendship quality across time. Intrinsic motivation predicted inactivity in making friendship nominations during the sixth, popularity as a friend across the transition to middle school, and higher friendship quality across time. Social influence effects were observed for both motives, but were more pronounced for intrinsic motivation.
Lakon, Cynthia M; Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Timberlake, David S; Hipp, John R
Peer and parental influences are critical socializing forces shaping adolescent development, including the co-evolving processes of friendship tie choice and adolescent smoking. This study examines aspects of adolescent friendship networks and dimensions of parental influences shaping friendship tie choice and smoking, including parental support, parental monitoring, and the parental home smoking environment using a Stochastic Actor-Based model. With data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health of youth in grades 7 through 12, including the In-School Survey, the first wave of the In-Home survey occurring 6 months later, and the second wave of the In-Home survey, occurring one year later, this study utilizes two samples based on the social network data collected in the longitudinal saturated sample of sixteen schools. One consists of twelve small schools (n = 1,284, 50.93 % female), and the other of one large school (n = 976, 48.46 % female). The findings indicated that reciprocity, choosing a friend of a friend as a friend, and smoking similarity increased friendship tie choice behavior, as did parental support. Parental monitoring interacted with choosing friends who smoke in affecting friendship tie choice, as at higher levels of parental monitoring, youth chose fewer friends that smoked. A parental home smoking context conducive to smoking decreased the number of friends adolescents chose. Peer influence and a parental home smoking environment conducive to smoking increased smoking, while parental monitoring decreased it in the large school. Overall, peer and parental factors affected the coevolution of friendship tie choice and smoking, directly and multiplicatively.
Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Salmivalli, Christina; Cillessen, Antonius H N
This study investigated the development of relational and physical victimization in adolescent friendship networks over time. Using longitudinal social network analysis (SIENA) it was simultaneously tested whether similarity in victimization contributed to friendship formation (selection effects) and whether victimization of friends contributed to changes in victimization (influence effects). This was done for peer-reported relational and physical victimization separately in two middle schools (total N = 480; N = 220, 47% girls, in School 1; N = 260, 52% girls, in School 2) across three time points (Grades 6 through 8; M ages 11.5-13.5). Gender, ethnicity, and baseline aggression were controlled as individual predictors of victimization. Similarity in physical victimization predicted friendship formation, whereas physical victimization was not influenced by friends' victimization but rather by adolescents' own physical aggression. Peer influence effects existed for relational victimization, in that adolescents with victimized friends were more likely to increase in victimization over time as well, over and above the effect of adolescents' own relational aggression. These selection and influence effects were not further qualified by gender. The results suggested that both selection and influence processes as well as individual characteristics play a role in the co-evolution of friendships and victimization, but that these processes are specific for different types of victimization.
Kornienko, Olga; Santos, Carlos E
We integrated a social network analysis and developmental perspectives to examine the effects of friendship network popularity on depressive symptoms during early adolescence. We explored whether the association between social status processes (i.e., friendship network popularity) and depressive symptoms was moderated by socio-cognitive aspects of peer relations (i.e., a fear of negative evaluation by peers) and gender. This longitudinal study was conducted with a sample of 367 adolescents (48.5 % female; M age = 11.9 years; 9 % European American, 19 % African American, 7 % Native American, 60 % Latino(a), 5 % other) attending sixth and seventh grades at Time 1. Results indicated that, for males with high levels of fear of negative evaluation, friendship network popularity was associated negatively with increases in depressive symptoms. Conversely, for females with high levels of fear of negative evaluation, friendship network popularity was associated positively with increases in depressive symptoms. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
Lee, Jee Young; Kwon, Yeji; Yang, Soeun; Park, Sora; Kim, Eun-Mee; Na, Eun-Yeong
Cyberbullying is one of the negative consequences of online social interaction. The digital environment enables adolescents to engage in online social interaction beyond the traditional physical boundaries of families, neighborhoods, and schools. The authors examined connections to friendship networks in both online and offline settings are related to their experiences as victims, perpetrators, and bystanders of cyberbullying. A comparative face-to-face survey of adolescents (12-15-year-olds) was conducted in Korea (n = 520) and Australia (n = 401). The results reveal that online networks are partially related to cyberbullying in both countries, showing the size of social network sites was significantly correlated with experience cyberbullying among adolescents in both countries. However there were cultural differences in the impact of friendship networks on cyberbullying. The size of the online and offline networks has a stronger impact on the cyberbullying experiences in Korea than it does in Australia. In particular, the number of friends in cliques was positively related to both bullying and victimization in Korea.
Barber, Carolyn; Wasson, Jillian Woodford
Friendships serve as a source of support and as a context for developing social competence. Although advanced coursework may provide a unique context for the development of friendships, more research is needed to explore exactly what differences exist. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the Adolescent Health and…
Wang, Cheng; Hipp, John R; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M
Friendship tie choices in adolescent social networks coevolve simultaneously with youths' cigarette smoking and drinking. We estimate direct and multiplicative relationships between both peer influence and peer selection with salient parental factors affecting both friendship tie choice and the use of these 2 substances. We utilize 1 sample of 12 small schools and a single large school extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Using a Stochastic Actor-Based modeling approach over 3 waves, we find: (a) a peer selection effect, as adolescents nominated others as friends based on cigarette and alcohol use levels across samples; (b) a peer influence effect, as adolescents adapted their smoking and drinking behaviors to those of their best friends across samples; (c) reciprocal effect between cigarette and alcohol usage in the small school sample; (d) a direct effect of parental support and the home smoking environment on adolescent friendship tie choice in the small school sample; (e) a direct effect of the home smoking environment on smoking across samples; (f) a direct effect of the home drinking environment on alcohol use across samples; and (g) a direct effect of parental monitoring on alcohol use across samples. We observed an interaction between parental support and peer influence in affecting drinking, and an interaction between the home drinking environment and peer influence on drinking, in the small school sample. Our findings suggested the importance of delineating direct and synergistic pathways linking network processes and parental influence as they affect concurrent cigarette and alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record
Wang, Cheng; Hipp, John R; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M
To explore the co-evolution of friendship tie choice and alcohol use behavior among 1,284 adolescents from 12 small schools and 976 adolescents from one big school sampled in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (AddHealth), we apply a Stochastic Actor-Based (SAB) approach implemented in the R-based Simulation Investigation for Empirical Network Analysis (RSiena) package. Our results indicate the salience of both peer selection and peer influence effects for friendship tie choice and adolescent drinking behavior. Concurrently, the main effect models indicate that parental monitoring and the parental home drinking environment affected adolescent alcohol use in the small school sample, and that parental home drinking environment affected adolescent drinking in the large school sample. In the small school sample, we detect an interaction between the parental home drinking environment and choosing friends that drink as they multiplicatively affect friendship tie choice. Our findings suggest that future research should investigate the synergistic effects of both peer and parental influences for adolescent friendship tie choices and drinking behavior. And given the tendency of adolescents to form ties with their friends' friends, and the evidence of local hierarchy in these networks, popular youth who do not drink may be uniquely positioned and uniquely salient as the highest rank of the hierarchy to cause anti-drinking peer influences to diffuse down the social hierarchy to less popular youth. As such, future interventions should harness prosocial peer influences simultaneously with strategies to increase parental support and monitoring among parents to promote affiliation with prosocial peers.
Bagwell, Catherine L.; Schmidt, Michelle E.
Highly readable and comprehensive, this volume explores the significance of friendship for social, emotional, and cognitive development from early childhood through adolescence. The authors trace how friendships change as children age and what specific functions these relationships play in promoting adjustment and well-being. Compelling topics…
Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.
This study investigated early adolescent friendship selection and social influence with regard to academic motivation (self-efficacy and intrinsic value), engagement (effortful and disruptive behavior), and achievement (GPA calculated from report card grades) among 6th graders (N = 587, 50% girls at Wave 1; N = 576, 52% girls at Wave 2) followed…
Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M
This study investigated early adolescent friendship selection and social influence with regard to academic motivation (self-efficacy and intrinsic value), engagement (effortful and disruptive behavior), and achievement (GPA calculated from report card grades) among 6th graders (N = 587, 50% girls at Wave 1; N = 576, 52% girls at Wave 2) followed from fall to spring within 1 academic year. A stochastic actor-based model of social network analysis was used to overcome methodological limitations of prior research on friends, peer groups, and academic adjustment. Evidence that early adolescents sought out friends who were similar to themselves (selection) was found in regard to academic self-efficacy, and a similar trend was found for achievement. Evidence that friends became more similar to their friends over time (influence) was found for all aspects of academic adjustment except academic self-efficacy. Collectively, results indicate that selection effects were not as pervasive as influence effects in explaining similarity among friends in academic adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Jeon, Kwon Chan; Goodson, Patricia
Background. Documented trends in health-related risk behaviors among US adolescents have remained high over time. Studies indicate relationships among mutual friends are a major influence on adolescents' risky behaviors. Social Network Analysis (SNA) can help understand friendship ties affecting individual adolescents' engagement in these behaviors. Moreover, a systematic literature review can synthesize findings from a range of studies using SNA, as well as assess these studies' methodological quality. Review findings also can help health educators and promoters develop more effective programs. Objective. This review systematically examined studies of the influence of friendship networks on adolescents' risk behaviors, which utilized SNA and the Add Health data (a nationally representative sample). Methods. We employed the Matrix Method to synthesize and evaluate 15 published studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, retrieved from the Add Health website and 3 major databases (Medline, Eric, and PsycINFO). Moreover, we assigned each study a methodological quality score (MQS). Results. In all studies, friendship networks among adolescents promoted their risky behaviors, including drinking alcohol, smoking, sexual intercourse, and marijuana use. The average MQS was 4.6, an indicator of methodological rigor (scale: 1-9). Conclusion. Better understanding of risky behaviors influenced by friends can be useful for health educators and promoters, as programs targeting friendships might be more effective. Additionally, the overall MQ of these reviewed studies was good, as average scores fell above the scale's mid-point.
Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.
Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adolescents' (N = 374, 12-14 years) intrinsic and…
Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W.
Objectives. We examined the coevolution of adolescent friendships and peer influences with respect to their risk behaviors and social networking site use. Methods. Investigators of the Social Network Study collected longitudinal data during fall 2010 and spring 2011 from 10th-grade students in 5 Southern California high schools (n = 1434). We used meta-analyses of stochastic actor-based models to estimate changes in friendship ties and risk behaviors and the effects of Facebook and MySpace use. Results. Significant shifts in adolescent smoking and drinking occurred despite little change in overall prevalence rates. Students with higher levels of alcohol use were more likely to send and receive friendship nominations and become friends with other drinkers. They were also more likely to increase alcohol use if their friends drank more. Adolescents selected friends with similar Facebook and MySpace use habits. Exposure to friends’ risky online pictures increased smoking behaviors but had no significant effects on alcohol use. Conclusions. Our findings support a greater focus on friendship selection mechanisms in school-based alcohol use interventions. Social media platforms may help identify at-risk adolescent groups and foster positive norms about risk behaviors. PMID:24922126
Zhao, Xu; Gao, Minghui
What is the relation between parents' views of their own friendships and their beliefs and practices about their children's friendships? Do parents who enjoy high-quality adult friendships understand and support adolescent friendships in ways different from parents who do not have close adult friendships? Relying on systematic analysis of…
Knecht, Andrea B.; Burk, William J.; Weesie, Jeroen; Steglich, Christian
This study applies multilevel social network analytic techniques to examine processes of homophilic selection and social influence related to alcohol use among friends in early adolescence. Participants included 3,041 Dutch youth (M age =12 years, 49% female) from 120 classrooms in 14 schools. Three waves with 3-month intervals of friendship…
Chu, Judy Y.
Adolescent boys perceive their male peer group culture--and their socialization toward masculine norms emphasized within this culture--as negatively influencing their abilities to develop close male friendships. Boys who manage to develop close, male friendships, however, draw strength from these relationships to resist the social pressures of…
Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate; Hankin, Benjamin L.
Objective: This study examined the relationship of ADHD symptoms to different aspects of close friendship quality as rated by both adolescents (target adolescent and a close friend) within a friendship dyad. Method: Participants were 41 same-sex friendship dyads who completed questionnaires about their friendship. Separate symptom dimensions of…
Block, Per; Grund, Thomas
Homophily – the tendency for individuals to associate with similar others – is one of the most persistent findings in social network analysis. Its importance is established along the lines of a multitude of sociologically relevant dimensions, e.g. sex, ethnicity and social class. Existing research, however, mostly focuses on one dimension at a time. But people are inherently multidimensional, have many attributes and are members of multiple groups. In this article, we explore such multidimensionality further in the context of network dynamics. Are friendship ties increasingly likely to emerge and persist when individuals have an increasing number of attributes in common? We analyze eleven friendship networks of adolescents, draw on stochastic actor-oriented network models and focus on the interaction of established homophily effects. Our results indicate that main effects for homophily on various dimensions are positive. At the same time, the interaction of these homophily effects is negative. There seems to be a diminishing effect for having more than one attribute in common. We conclude that studies of homophily and friendship formation need to address such multidimensionality further. PMID:25525503
Thomas, Katelyn K.; Bowker, Julie C.
This study of 384 young adolescents (45% girls, "M" age = 12.94 years) and their desired friendships (friendships that adolescents indicate they would like to form in the future) examined whether (a) adolescents desire to be friends with peers who are well-liked, popular, aggressive, and prosocial; (b) having desired friendships is…
Mrug, Sylvie; Borch, Casey; Cillessen, Antonius H N
Adolescents' friendships with other-sex peers serve important developmental functions, but they may also facilitate engagement in problem behavior. This study examines the unique contributions of other-sex friendships and friends' behavior to alcohol use, smoking, and initiation of sexual intercourse among late adolescent girls and boys. A total of 320 adolescents (53% girls; 33% racial/ethnic minorities) provided sociometric nominations of friendships annually in grades 10-12. Friendship networks were derived using social network analysis in each grade. Adolescents and their friends also reported on their alcohol use, smoking, and sexual debut at each assessment. After controlling for demographics, previous problem behavior, and friends' behavior, other-sex friendships in 10th grade were associated with initiation of smoking among girls over the following year, and other-sex friendships in 11th grade were linked with lower levels of subsequent alcohol use among boys. Additionally, friends' smoking and sexual experience in 10th grade predicted the same behaviors for all adolescents over the following year. Other-sex friendships thus appear to serve as a risk context for adolescent girls' smoking and a protective context for adolescent boys' drinking. Promoting mixed-gender activities and friendships among older high school students may be helpful in reducing males' alcohol use, but may need to incorporate additional components to prevent increases in females' smoking.
Uhlendorff, Harald; Oswald, Hans
This study analyzed the relation between the friendship networks of parents and the peer networks of their children. Subjects were 255 second- through fifth-grade children of an inner-city primary school in the western part of Berlin, Germany, who were interviewed about friends. In the interview, children were asked to name other children with…
Winterrowd, Erin; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Chavez, Ernest L.
Friendship factors have been implicated in adolescent suicidality, but this relationship has not been verified across ethnicities. This study examined suicidality and friendship problems (i.e., social isolation, poor friendship quality, friends' school disconnection, and friends' delinquency) among Mexican American adolescents, an understudied,…
Pleydon, Anne P.; Schner, Joseph G.
Young female offenders (n=29) and female high school students (n=47) were compared in terms of delinquent behavior and relationships with their best female friend and peer group. Results indicated friendships of delinquent and nondelinquent female adolescents are essentially similar despite higher levels of peer pressure among delinquents. (BF)
Kandel, Denise B.
Examines longitudinal sociometric data on adolescent friendship pairs, friends-to-be, and former friends in order to assess homophily on four attributes: (1) frequency of current marijuana use, (2) level of educational aspirations, (3) political orientation, and (4) participation in minor delinquency. The finding that socialization of peers is…
DiCicco-Bloom, Benjamin; Romer, Daniel
The authors argue that the recent increase in poker play among adolescent males in the United States was primarily attributable to high-status male youth who are more able to organize "informal" gambling games (e.g., poker and sports betting) than are low-status male youth who are left to gamble on "formal" games (e.g., lotteries and slot…
Brendgen, Mara; Markievicz, Dorothy; Doyle, Anna Beth; Bukowski, William M.
Eighty adolescents and their same-sex friends rated the quality of their friendship, ranked their preference for this friendship, and participated in a videotaped discussion. Compared to boys, girls rated their friendship quality more positively and less negatively and showed more positive and less negative behavior in interaction with their…
Miao, Lili; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Nie, Da-Cheng; Cai, Shi-Min
Homophily is a significant mechanism for link prediction in complex network, of which principle describes that people with similar profiles or experiences tend to tie with each other. In a multi-relationship network, friendship among people has been utilized to reinforce similarity of taste for recommendation system whose basic idea is similar to homophily, yet how the taste inversely affects friendship prediction is little discussed. This paper contributes to address the issue by analyzing two benchmark data sets both including user's behavioral information of taste and friendship based on the principle of homophily. It can be found that the creation of friendship tightly associates with personal taste. Especially, the behavioral information of taste involving with popular objects is much more effective to improve the performance of friendship prediction. However, this result seems to be contradictory to the finding in Zhang et al. (2013) that the behavior information of taste involving with popular objects is redundant in recommendation system. We thus discuss this inconformity to comprehensively understand the correlation between them.
Wilkinson, Ross B.
Two studies are reported presenting the development of the Adolescent Friendship Attachment Scale (AFAS), a 30 item self-report measure of adolescent close friendship conceptualized as an attachment relationship. Study One reports the results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with a sample of 490 adolescents aged 13 to 19 years. A…
Thomas, Jennifer J.
Although researchers have investigated how adolescents' friendships affect their romantic relationships, the influence of romantic relationships on friendships is unexamined. As a first step, 9th- (n = 198) and 11th grade students (n = 152) reported on their conceptions of friendship when one friend had a romantic relationship and when neither…
Titzmann, Peter F; Brenick, Alaina; Silbereisen, Rainer K
Increasingly, adolescents are growing up in multiethnic multicultural societies. While intergroup prejudice can threaten the multicultural societal cohesion, intergroup friendships are strong predictors of reduced prejudice. Thus, more research is needed to fully understand the development of intergroup friendships and their relations to less prejudicial attitudes. This study addressed two major developmental research questions: first, whether longitudinal patterns of intergroup friendships of native adolescents (i.e., whether or not a native German adolescent has a friendship with an immigrant at different points in time) relate to changes in rates of prejudice about immigrants. Second, whether these friendship patterns that unfold over time can be predicted by contact opportunities, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control assessed at the beginning of the study. The sample included 372 native German adolescents (14.7 years of age at first assessment, 62.3% girls) who showed one of four friendship trajectories over the three annual assessments: they either maintained, gained, never had, or lost a friendship with an outgroup peer. In particular, results showed that adolescents who gained an intergroup friendship over the three time points showed a significant decrease in negative prejudice over the study. All four theorized predictors contributed to explain friendship trajectory membership. Generally, adolescents with many opportunities for contact, positive attitudes about contact, perceived positive social norms for contact, and high levels of behavioral control (self-efficacy) were more likely to maintain a friendship with an outgroup member than to follow any of the three other friendship trajectories (gain, lost, or never had). The pattern of predictions differed, however, depending on the specific pairs of friendship trajectories compared.
Thomas, Jennifer J
Although researchers have investigated how adolescents' friendships affect their romantic relationships, the influence of romantic relationships on friendships is unexamined. As a first step, 9th- (n = 198) and 11th grade students (n = 152) reported on their conceptions of friendship when one friend had a romantic relationship and when neither friend had a romantic relationship. As predicted, adolescents believed friendships in which a friend was dating would be characterized by less positive features and more negative features than friendships in which neither friend was dating. Additionally, older adolescents thought romantic relationships were more damaging to companionship and corumination than did younger adolescents. The closer nature of older adolescents' romantic relationships may result in lower quality friendships or older adolescents may be more aware of the potential negative consequences of romantic relationships for friendships. Girls viewed friendships as higher in conflict-rivalry and lower in corumination when one friend was dating while boys did not. And although girls and boys viewed friendships as lower in intimacy and companionship when a friend has a romantic partner, the difference was greater for girls than boys. Girls may be more sensitive to the effects of a friend's romantic relationship on their friendship than are boys. Findings necessitate theories of close relationships that incorporate age and gender as important variables.
Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Durkin, Kevin; Jaquet, Emma; Ziatas, Kathryn
This study investigated the relation between friendship, loneliness and depressive symptoms in adolescents with Asperger's Syndrome (AS). Thirty-five adolescents with AS and 35 controls matched on chronological age, school year and gender distribution, completed questionnaires designed to ascertain the quality of their best-friendship, motivation…
Masden, Catherine A.; Leung, Olivia N.; Shore, Bruce M.; Schneider, Barry H.; Udvari, Stephen J.
This research examined links among academic ability, social-perspective coordination, and friendship quality, within the context of gifted adolescents' friendships. The sample consisted of 120 early adolescents (59 girls, 61 boys), 81 of whom were identified as gifted. Academic ability, sex, and grade significantly predicted social-perspective…
Rosenblum, L. Penny
This study of 40 adolescents with visual impairments and 23 of their best friends found that adolescents with visual impairments are successful in establishing and maintaining reciprocal, intimate best friendships. The friends engaged in typical activities and felt that visual impairments did not have a strong negative impact on their friendships.…
Hamm, Jill V.; Faircloth, Beverly S.
Friendships serve as a secure base and buffer that help adolescents to cope with the psychological challenges of the social ecology of high school. Through these relationships, adolescents develop a stronger sense of belonging to their schools.
Attachment theory proposes that experiences with the primary caregivers are an important basis for the development of close social relationships outside the parent-child relationship. This study examined the association between representations of attachment, as assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), representations of friendship and peer relations, as assessed with an interview in a sample of 43 adolescents. Secure attachment representations were significantly related to interview-based assessments of close friendships, friendship concept, integration in a peer group, and emotion regulation within close friendships. Attachment experiences reported during the AAI, their integration, and their coherency were related to friendship quality and friendship concept. Results show the close associations between attachment representations and friendship relationships during adolescence. The associations between peer relations and attachment representations differed depending on whether an interview approach or a questionnaire approach was used.
Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M; Schouten, Alexander P
Previous research has been largely silent about what precisely influences online friendship formation and has ignored motives for online communication as potential explanations. Drawing on a sample of 493 adolescents, this study tested a path model of adolescent friendship formation including as predictors introversion/extraversion, online self-disclosure, motive for social compensation, and frequency of online communication. Our path analysis showed that extraverted adolescents self-disclosed and communicated online more frequently, which, in turn, facilitated the formation of online friendships. Introverted adolescents, by contrast, were more strongly motivated to communicate online to compensate for lacking social skills. This increased their chances of making friends online. Among introverted adolescents, a stronger motive for social compensation also led to more frequent online communication and online self-disclosure, resulting in more online friendships. The model suggests that the antecedents of online friendship formation are more complex than previously assumed and that motives for online communication should be studied more closely.
Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W
Purpose Friendship networks are an important source of peer influence. However, existing network studies vary in terms of how they operationalize friendship and friend’s influence on adolescent substance use. This study uses social network analysis to characterize three types of friendship relations: (1) mutual or reciprocated, (2) directional, and (3) intimate friends. We then examine the relative effects of each friendship type on adolescent drinking and smoking behavior. Methods Using a saturated sample from the Add Health data, a nationally representative sample of high-school adolescents (N=2,533 nested in 12 schools), we computed the level of exposure to drinking and smoking of friends using a network exposure model, and their association with individual drinking and smoking using fixed effect models. Results Results indicated that the influence from (1) is stronger on adolescent substance use than (2), especially for smoking. Regarding the directionality of (2), adolescents are equally influenced by both nominating and nominated friends on their drinking and smoking behavior. Results for (3) indicated that the influence from “best friends” was weaker than the one from non-“best friends,” which indicates that the order of friend nomination may not matter as much as nomination reciprocation. Conclusions This study demonstrates that considering different features of friendship relationships is important in evaluating friends’ influence on adolescent substance use. Related policy implications are discussed. PMID:22824443
Smith, Sanne; Van Tubergen, Frank; Maas, Ineke; McFarland, Daniel A
Ethnically diverse settings provide opportunities for interethnic friendship but can also increase the preference for same-ethnic friendship. Therefore, same-ethnic friendship preferences, or ethnic homophily, can work at cross-purposes with policy recommendations to diversify ethnic representation in social settings. In order to effectively overcome ethnic segregation, we need to identify those factors within diverse settings that exacerbate the tendency toward ethnic homophily. Using unique data and multiple network analyses, the authors examine 529 adolescent friendship networks in English, German, Dutch, and Swedish schools and find that the ethnic composition of school classes relates differently to immigrant and native homophily. Immigrant homophily disproportionately increases as immigrants see more same-ethnic peers, and friendship density among natives has no effect on this. By contrast, native homophily remains relatively low until natives see dense groups of immigrants. The authors' results suggest that theories of interethnic competition and contact opportunities apply differently to ethnic majority and minority groups.
Pleydon, A P; Schner, J G
Young female offenders (n = 29) and female high school students (n = 47) were compared in terms of delinquent behavior and relationships with their best female friend and peer group. Young offenders exhibited significantly more delinquent behavior than did high school students in the past year. Delinquents and nondelinquents did not significantly differ in amount of companionship, conflict, help, security, and closeness with their best female friend, and amount of trust, alienation, and perceived intimacy in their peer group. Less communication and more perceived peer pressure in the peer group distinguished delinquent females from nondelinquent females. Perceived peer pressure significantly predicted delinquent behavior in female adolescents. In short, friendships of delinquent and nondelinquent female adolescents are essentially similar despite higher levels of peer pressure among delinquents.
You, Jianing; Lin, Min Pei; Fu, Kei; Leung, Freedom
This study examined associations of peer socialization and selection, over time, with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among 5,787 (54.2 % females) Chinese community adolescents. Both effects were tested using two aspects of adolescents' friendship networks: the best friend and the friendship group. Participants completed questionnaires assessing NSSI, depressive symptoms and maladaptive impulsive behaviors at two waves of time over a 6-month period. Results showed that even after controlling for the effects of depressive symptoms and maladaptive impulsive behaviors, the best friends' engagement in NSSI still significantly predicted adolescents' own engagement in NSSI. Adolescents' friendship groups' NSSI status also significantly predicted their own NSSI status and frequency. Additionally, adolescents with NSSI tended to join peer groups with other members also engaging in NSSI.
Thayer, Shawna M.; Delgado, Melissa Y.
This study was designed to describe the conflict resolution practices used in Mexican American adolescents' friendships, to explore the role of cultural orientations and values and gender-typed personality qualities in conflict resolution use, and to assess the connections between conflict resolution and friendship quality. Participants were 246 Mexican American adolescents (M = 12.77 years of age) and their older siblings (M = 15.70 years of age). Results indicated that adolescents used solution-oriented strategies most frequently, followed by nonconfrontation and control strategies. Girls were more likely than boys to use solution-oriented strategies and less likely to use control strategies. Familistic values and gender-typed personality qualities were associated with solution-oriented conflict resolution strategies. Finally, conflict resolution strategies were related to overall friendship quality: solution-oriented strategies were positively linked to intimacy and negatively associated with friendship negativity, whereas nonconfrontation and control strategies were associated with greater relationship negativity. PMID:19183710
Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.
The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on their self-consciousness, internalizing problems, and the quality of their best friendship. Results indicated stronger associations between private self-consciousness and internalizing correlates than between public self-consciousness and internalizing problems, suggesting that private self-consciousness may be a stronger risk factor during adolescence. Contrary to expectations, evidence revealed that positive friendship quality may exacerbate some difficulties associated with self-consciousness. Results pertaining to friendship quality add to the growing literature on the ways in which friendships can contribute to adjustment difficulties. PMID:19998530
Bowker, Julie C.
This study examined young adolescents' experiences with best friendship dissolution. Participants were 77 sixth-grade students (M age = 11.63 years, SD = 0.36; 11.00-12.69 age range) who reported on past experiences with (1) "complete dissolutions" (when friendship ties are completely severed), and (2) "downgrade dissolutions"…
Bukowski, William M.; And Others
Discusses a model that suggests that popularity and friendship are linked to different forms of adjustment and emotional well-being and emphasizes that friendship is an important mediator between popularity and loneliness. Results of a study that involved 169 early adolescents in fifth and sixth grades supported the model. (BB)
Tipton, Leigh A.; Christensen, Lisa; Blacher, Jan
Background: High friendship quality is often defined by high levels of intimacy, companionship, closeness and low levels of conflict. Quality friendships develop over time and may be influenced by both behaviour problems and social skills. Materials and methods: Participants were 103, 13-year-old adolescents with or without intellectual…
Biggs, Bridget K.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Wu, Yelena P.
Research indicates social anxiety is associated with lower friendship quality, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This 2-month longitudinal study examined social withdrawal as a mediator of the social anxiety-friendship quality link in a sample of 214 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.1 years, SD = 0.73) that included an…
Pawlby, Susan J.; Mills, Alice; Taylor, Alan; Quinton, David
Compares the friendships of girls (N=50) at risk for difficulties in early adult partnerships with those of 50 girls of the same age. Results indicate key differences in both romantic and non-romantic adolescent friendships between the two groups. Findings offer a clearer understanding of processes linking childhood adversity and poor adult…
Hartl, Amy C; Laursen, Brett; Cillessen, Antonius H N
The present study examined whether adolescent friendships dissolve because of characteristics of friends, differences between friends, or both. Participants were 410 adolescents (201 boys, 209 girls; mean age = 13.20 years) who reported a total of 573 reciprocated friendships that originated in the seventh grade. We conducted discrete-time survival analyses, in which peer nominations and teacher ratings collected in Grade 7 predicted the occurrence and timing of friendship dissolution across Grades 8 to 12. Grade 7 individual characteristics were unrelated to friendship stability, but Grade 7 differences in sex, peer acceptance, physical aggression, and school competence predicted subsequent friendship dissolution. The findings suggest that compatibility is a function of similarity between friends rather than the presence or absence of a particular trait.
Selfhout, Maarten H. W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
The present study examines both the unique and the combined role of best friends' delinquency and perceived friendship quality in the development of adolescent delinquency. Questionnaire data were gathered from 435 Dutch adolescent best friends (mean age at first wave = 12.97) over a period of 5 years with annual assessments. Results showed that…
De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
This five-wave study aims to investigate the development of adolescents' perceptions of support, negative interaction, and power in best friendships from ages 12 to 20 years. Furthermore, gender differences and linkages between the three dimensions are explored. A total of 593 early adolescents (53.6% boys) and 337 middle adolescents (43.3% boys)…
Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.
The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on…
Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Fletcher, Anne C.
This study examined the prospective relationship between negative parenting behaviors and adolescents' friendship competence in a community sample of 416 two-parent families in the Southeastern USA. Adolescents' externalizing problems and their emotional insecurity with parents were examined as mediators. Parents' psychological control was…
Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie
The first aim of the present study was to examine associations between different aspects of adolescent friendship relations (i.e., frequency of contact with friends, trust in friends, and perceived friends' deviance) on one hand, and adolescent problem behavior and self-esteem on the other hand. The second aim was to determine whether the findings…
In order to assess the determinants of homophobia among Belgian adolescents, a shortened version of the Homophobia scale (Wright et al., 1999) was included in a representative survey among Belgian adolescents (n = 4,870). Principal component analysis demonstrated that the scale was one-dimensional and internally coherent. The results showed that homophobia is still widespread among Belgian adolescents, despite various legal reforms in the country aiming to combat discrimination of gay women and men. A multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that boys, ethnic minorities, individuals with high levels of ethnocentrism and an instrumental worldview, Muslim minorities, and those with low levels of associational involvement scored significantly higher on the scale. While among boys an extensive friendship network was associated with higher levels of homophobia, the opposite phenomenon was found among girls. We discuss the possible relation between notions of masculinity within predominantly male adolescent friendship networks and social support for homophobia.
Locke, Jill; Ishijima, Eric H.; Kasari, Connie; London, Nancy
By definition, children with autism have poor peer relationships despite age and ability. When children enter adolescence, social problems typically worsen and feelings of loneliness and isolation may emerge. Thus, the overarching goal of the current study is to examine the social-emotional relationships of adolescents with autism and their…
Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; El-Sheikh, Mona
This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents' friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends' positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress.…
Smahel, David; Brown, B Bradford; Blinka, Lukas
The past decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of youths using the Internet, especially for communicating with peers. Online activity can widen and strengthen the social networks of adolescents and emerging adults (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011), but it also increases the risk of Internet addiction. Using a framework derived from Griffiths (2000a), this study examined associations between online friendship and Internet addiction in a representative sample (n = 394) of Czech youths ages 12-26 years (M = 18.58). Three different approaches to friendship were identified: exclusively offline, face-to-face oriented, Internet oriented, on the basis of the relative percentages of online and offline associates in participants' friendship networks. The rate of Internet addiction did not differ by age or gender but was associated with communication styles, hours spent online, and friendship approaches. The study revealed that effects between Internet addiction and approaches to friendship may be reciprocal: Being oriented toward having more online friends, preferring online communication, and spending more time online were related to increased risk of Internet addiction; on the other hand, there is an alternative causal explanation that Internet addiction and preference for online communication conditions young people's tendency to seek friendship from people met online.
Haynie, Dana L.; Doogan, Nathan J.; Soller, Brian
Researchers have examined selection and influence processes in shaping delinquency similarity among friends, but little is known about the role of gender in moderating these relationships. Our objective is to examine differences between adolescent boys and girls regarding delinquency-based selection and influence processes. Using longitudinal network data from adolescents attending two large schools in AddHealth (N = 1,857) and stochastic actor-oriented models, we evaluate whether girls are influenced to a greater degree by friends' violence or delinquency than boys (influence hypothesis) and whether girls are more likely to select friends based on violent or delinquent behavior than boys (selection hypothesis). The results indicate that girls are more likely than boys to be influenced by their friends' involvement in violence. Although a similar pattern emerges for nonviolent delinquency, the gender differences are not significant. Some evidence shows that boys are influenced toward increasing their violence or delinquency when exposed to more delinquent or violent friends but are immune to reducing their violence or delinquency when associating with less violent or delinquent friends. In terms of selection dynamics, although both boys and girls have a tendency to select friends based on friends' behavior, girls have a stronger tendency to do so, suggesting that among girls, friends' involvement in violence or delinquency is an especially decisive factor for determining friendship ties. PMID:26097241
van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Kerr, Magraret; van Zalk, Nejra; Stattin, Håkan
To what extent do adolescents and their friends socialize each others' attitudes toward immigrants? Can friends' positive attitudes toward immigrants counter adolescents' negative attitudes toward immigrants, and do friends' negative attitudes decrease adolescents' positive attitudes? These questions were examined by following a large (N = 1,472) friendship network of adolescents (49.2 % girls; M(age) = 13.31 at first measurement) across three annual measurements. Selection and influence processes regarding tolerance and xenophobia were distinguished with longitudinal social network analyses, controlling for effects of age, gender, and immigrant background. Findings showed that friends' tolerance predicted increases in adolescents' tolerance and friends' xenophobia predicted increases in adolescents' xenophobia. Moreover, friends' tolerance predicted a lower likelihood of adolescents' xenophobia increasing. The current results suggest that interventions should distinguish between tolerance and xenophobia, as these appear to represent two separate dimensions that are each influenced in specific ways by friends' tolerance and xenophobia.
Hällsten, Martin; Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens
Youth unemployment is a contemporary social problem in many societies. Youths often have limited access to information about jobs and limited social influence, yet little is known about the relationship between social capital and unemployment risk among youth. We study the effect of social capital on unemployment risk in a sample of 19 year olds of Swedish, Iranian, and Yugoslavian origin living in Sweden (N = 1590). We distinguish between two dimensions of social capital: occupational contact networks and friendship networks. First, ego's unemployment is found to be strongly associated with friends' unemployment among individuals of Yugoslavian origins and individuals of Swedish origin, but not Iranian origin. Second, occupational contact networks reduce unemployment risks for all groups, but especially so for Iranians. The effect sizes of the two dimensions are similar and substantial: going from low to high values on these measures is associated with a difference of some 60-70 percent relative difference in unemployment risk. The findings are robust to a number of different model specifications, including a rich set of social origin controls, personality traits, educational performance, friends' characteristics, and friendship network characteristics, as well as controls for geographical employment patterns. A sensitivity simulation shows that homogeneity bias need to be very strong to explain away the effect.
Banny, Adrienne M.; Heilbron, Nicole; Ames, Angharad; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Two longitudinal studies examined associations between relational aggression and friendship quality during adolescence. In Study 1, 62 adolescents in Grades 6 (25.8%), 7 (32.3%), and 8 (41.9%) completed assessments of friendship affiliations, relational and overt aggression, and friendship quality at 2 time points, 1 year apart. Results using…
van der Horst, Mariska; Coffe, Hilde
This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue that these characteristics shape SWB through the…
Cheadle, Jacob E; Walsemann, Katrina M; Goosby, Bridget J
Background We evaluated the contributions of teen alcohol use to the formation and continuation of new and existing friendships while in turn estimating the influence of friend drinking on individuals’ regular use and heavy drinking. Method Longitudinal network analysis was used to assess the mutual influences between teen drinking and social networks among adolescents in two large Add Health schools where full network data was collected three times. Friendship processes were disaggregated into the formation of new friendships and the continuation of existing friendships in a joint model isolating friendship selection and friend influences. Results Friends have a modest influence on one another when selection is controlled. Selection is more complicated than prior studies suggest, and is only related to new friendships and not their duration in the largest school. Alcohol use predicts decreasing popularity in some cases, and popularity does not predict alcohol consumption. Conclusion Intervention efforts should continue pursuing strategies that mitigate negative peer influences. The development of socializing opportunities that facilitate relationship opportunities to select on healthy behaviors also appears promising. Future work preventing teen substance use should incorporate longitudinal network assessments to determine whether programs promote protective peer relationships in addition to how treatment effects diffuse through social networks. PMID:26692436
Mazurek, Micah O.; Kanne, Stephen M.
Anxiety and depression are common among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), highlighting a need to identify factors that protect against these symptoms. Among typically developing children, friendships are protective, and lead to better emotional outcomes. The current study examined a large, well-characterized sample of…
Ciairano, Silvia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Roggero, Antonella; Bonino, Silvia; Beyers, Wim
This study distinguishes different patterns of friendship quality in terms of support from and conflict with friends, and reciprocity. Associations between friendship patterns and adolescents' adjustment (self-perception, expectations for the future, depressive feelings, sense of alienation, lying, disobedience, and aggression) were hypothesized…
Bukowski, William M.; And Others
Tested the validity of the Friendship Qualities Scale (FQS), which assesses the quality of children's and early adolescents' relationships with their best friends along five aspects of the friendship relation: companionship, conflict, help/aid, security, and closeness. Discusses the dimensions according to the issues related to the measurement of…
Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A; Rose, Amanda J
This multi-method, longitudinal study considered the interplay among depressive symptoms, aversive interpersonal behavior, and interpersonal rejection in early and middle adolescents' friendships. In particular, the study examined a newly identified interpersonal process, conversational self-focus (i.e., the tendency to redirect conversations about problems to focus on the self). Traditional interpersonal theories of depression suggest that individuals with depressive symptoms engage in aversive behaviors (such as conversational self-focus) and are rejected by others. However, in the current study, not all adolescents with depressive symptoms engaged in conversational self-focus and were rejected by friends. Instead, conversational self-focus moderated prospective relations of depressive symptoms and later friendship problems such that only adolescents with depressive symptoms who engaged in conversational self-focus were rejected by friends. These findings are consistent with current conceptualizations of the development of psychopathology that highlight heterogeneity among youth who share similar symptoms and the possibility of multifinality of outcomes.
Lesbians may face unique challenges when building friendships. The intersection of culturally sanctioned discrimination and familial rejection may intensify the role friendships play for lesbians and the development of social support networks. The author discusses existing research and qualitative findings and provides suggestions for counselors…
Kuo, Melissa H.; Orsmond, Gael I.; Cohn, Ellen S.; Coster, Wendy J.
This study compared perceptions of adolescents' friendships between adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents, examined factors associated with friendship qualities, and investigated the adolescents' reports on the activities they did with friends and how activity patterns differed by gender. Ninety-one…
van der Horst, Mariska; Coffé, Hilde
This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue that these characteristics shape SWB through the benefits they bring. Benefits considered are more social trust, less stress, better health, and more social support. Results confirm that higher frequency of contacts and higher number of friends, as well as lower heterogeneity of the friendship network are related to more social trust, less stress, and a better health. Frequency of contact and number of friends, as well as more heterogeneity of the friendship network increase the chance of receiving help from friends. With the exception of receiving help from friends, these benefits are in turn related to higher levels of SWB. Only the frequency of meeting friends face-to-face has a remaining positive direct influence on SWB.
Background Low levels of physical activity and increased participation in sedentary leisure-time activities are two important obesity-risk behaviors that impact the health of today’s youth. Friend’s health behaviors have been shown to influence individual health behaviors; however, current evidence on the specific role of friendship networks in relation to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior is limited. The purpose of this review was to summarize evidence on friendship networks and both physical activity and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents. Method After a search of seven scientific databases and reference scans, a total of thirteen articles were eligible for inclusion. All assessed the association between friendship networks and physical activity, while three also assessed sedentary behavior. Results Overall, higher levels of physical activity among friends are associated with higher levels of physical activity of the individual. Longitudinal studies reveal that an individual’s level of physical activity changes to reflect his/her friends’ higher level of physical activity. Boys tend to be influenced by their friendship network to a greater extent than girls. There is mixed evidence surrounding a friend’s sedentary behavior and individual sedentary behavior. Conclusion Friends’ physical activity level appears to have a significant influence on individual’s physical activity level. Evidence surrounding sedentary behavior is limited and mixed. Results from this review could inform effective public health interventions that harness the influence of friends to increase physical activity levels among children and adolescents. PMID:24289113
Pijl, Sip Jan; Koster, Marloes; Hannink, Anne; Stratingh, Anna
One of the methods used most often to assess students' friendships and friendship networks is the reciprocal nomination method. However, an often heard complaint is that this technique produces rather negative outcomes. This study compares the reciprocal nomination method with another method to assess students' friendships and friendship networks:…
Delgado, Melissa Y; Ettekal, Andrea Vest; Simpkins, Sandra D; Schaefer, David R
Are Latino adolescents' friendships an untapped resource for academic achievement or perhaps one of the reasons why these youth struggle academically? Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6782; 7th through 12th graders; 52.9 % female), we examined whether the process of Latino students' school belonging mediated the relationships between the context of friendships (i.e., friendship network indicators) and their academic outcomes (i.e., a context-process-outcomes model), and tested whether the process-context link varied by friends' characteristics (i.e., GPA and problem behavior; social capital). Moreover, we tested whether all relationships varied across the four largest Latino subgroups in the U.S. (i.e., Mexican, Central/South American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban). Our findings indicate that being nominated as a friend by peers and perceiving to have friends exerted both direct effects on school belonging in all but one of the Latino ethnic samples (i.e., Puerto Rican samples) and indirect effects on academic achievement in the full Latino, Mexican, and Central/South American samples. As such, school belonging was more likely to explain the links between academic achievement with nominations by peers as a friend and perceived friends than with having close-knit friendship groups. However, having a close-knit group of average or low-achieving friends predicted more school belonging for Mexican youth, but less school belonging for Cubans. Our findings suggest that friendships may be particularly beneficial for the school belonging process of highly marginalized groups in the U.S. (i.e., Mexican-origin).
Obiunu, Jude J.
The study investigated the relationship between parents and peer influences on the qualities of adolescent friendship. Relevant literature in the field of adolescent friendship qualities and parental interaction were investigated. The problem of the study is the increasing incidences of emotional, imbalance among young people that manifest in…
Cheung, Sum Kwing; McBride-Chang, Catherine
During adolescence, the number of cross-sex friends increases dramatically. This study focused on correlates of adolescents' cross-sex friendship satisfaction. Three hundred and twenty Hong Kong secondary four (10th grade) students were asked to rate their best cross-sex friends on the Friendship Satisfaction Scale (Tsuzuki & Matsui, 2000).…
Mrug, Sylvie; Borch, Casey; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
Adolescents' friendships with other-sex peers serve important developmental functions, but they may also facilitate engagement in problem behavior. This study examines the unique contributions of other-sex friendships and friends' behavior to alcohol use, smoking, and initiation of sexual intercourse among late adolescent girls and boys. A total…
Kretschmer, Tina; Pike, Alison
Using a sibling design, this study examined the association between adolescents' friendship experiences and their aspirations for self-acceptance, affiliation, and financial success. We hypothesized that adolescent siblings would differ in their aspirations and that unique experiences in friendships would be associated with these differences.…
Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun
Immigrant youth often rebuild their friendships and other social networks after arriving in a new country. The difficulties involved can threaten their psychosocial development. Formation of social networks needs to be understood within the macro sociocultural context that shapes the experience. Nonetheless, the current literature on social…
Lifshitz, Hefziba; Hen, Irit; Weisse, Izhak
The self-concept and quality of friendship of 40 adolescents with visual impairments (20 in public schools and 20 in a residential school) were compared to those of 41 sighted adolescents. The findings indicate a similar self-concept profile for sighted adolescents and adolescents with visual impairments, although the scores of the participants…
Shin, Sung Yae; Lee, Sang Gyu
Background This study attempted to identify the sources of job stress according to job position and investigate how friendship networks affect job stress. Methods Questionnaires based on The Health Professions Stress Inventory (HPSI) developed by Wolfgang experienced by healthcare providers were collected from 420 nurses, doctors and radiological technologists in two general hospitals in Korea by a multistage cluster sampling method. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the effects of friendship networks on job stress after controlling for other factors. Results The severity of job stress differed according to level of job demands (p = .006); radiologic technologists experienced the least stress (45.4), nurses experienced moderate stress (52.4), and doctors experienced the most stress (53.6). Those with long-term friendships characterized by strong connections reported lower levels of stress than did those with weak ties to friends among nurses (1.3, p < .05) and radiological technologists (11.4, p < .01). The degree of cohesion among friends had a positive impact on the level of job stress experienced by nurses (8.2, p < .001) and radiological technologists (14.6, p < .1). Doctors who participated in workplace alumni meetings scored higher than those who did not. However, those who participated in alumni meetings outside the workplace showed the opposite tendency, scoring 9.4 (p < .05) lower than those who did not. The resources from their friendship network include both information and instrumental support. As most radiological technologists were male, their instrumental support positively affected their job stress (9.2, p < .05). Life information support was the primary positive contributor to control of nurses’ (4.1, p < .05), radiological technologists’ (8.0, p < .05) job stress. Conclusion The strength and density of such friendship networks were related to job stress. Life information support from their friendship network was the primary
Piehler, Timothy F; Dishion, Thomas J
Interpersonal dynamics within friendships were observed in a sample of 120 (60 male, 60 female) ethnically diverse 16- and 17-year-old adolescents characterized as persistently antisocial, adolescent-onset, and normative. Dyadic mutuality and deviant talk were coded from videotaped friendship interactions. Persistently antisocial adolescents demonstrated lower levels of dyadic mutuality compared with adolescent-onset and normative adolescents. Persistently antisocial and adolescent-onset adolescents spent more time in deviant talk than did normative adolescents. Across groups, girls were rated as more mutual and coded less in deviant talk than boys. Furthermore, friendship dyads who engaged in high levels of deviant talk and were mutual in their interactions reported the highest rates of antisocial behavior.
Selfhout, M. H. W.; Branje, S. J. T.; Meeus, W. H. J.
This study examined friendship types in developmental trajectories of perceived closeness and balanced relatedness. In addition, differences between friendship types in the development of constructive problem solving and depression were examined. Questionnaire data of five annual waves were used from two adolescent cohorts (cohort 1: M = 12.41…
Sedgewick, Felicity; Hill, Vivian; Yates, Rhiannon; Pickering, Leanne; Pellicano, Elizabeth
This mixed-methods study examined gender differences in the social motivation and friendship experiences of adolescent boys and girls with autism relative to those without autism, all educated within special education settings. Autistic girls showed similar social motivation and friendship quality to non-autistic girls, while autistic boys…
Paxton, S J; Schutz, H K; Wertheim, E H; Muir, S L
This study explored friendship variables in relation to body image, dietary restraint, extreme weight-loss behaviors (EWEBs), and binge eating in adolescent girls. From 523 girls, 79 friendship cliques were identified using social network analysis. Participants completed questionnaires that assessed body image concerns, eating, friendship relations, and psychological family, and media variables. Similarity was greater for within than for between friendship cliques for body image concerns, dietary restraint, and EWLBs, but not for binge eating. Cliques high in body image concerns and dieting manifested these concerns in ways consistent with a high weight/shape-preoccupied subculture. Friendship attitudes contributed significantly to the prediction of individual body image concern and eating behaviors. Use of EWLBs by friends predicted an individual's own level of use.
de Wied, Minet; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim H J
The present study addressed empathy's role in conflict resolution within the context of adolescent same-sex friendship relations. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess dispositional affective empathy and conflict resolution styles (problem solving, conflict engagement, withdrawal and compliance). The data of 307 adolescents (149 boys, 158 girls) were included in a multigroup path analysis with sex as a moderator variable. In agreement with the hypothesis that higher levels of dispositional empathy are associated with more successful conflict management, dispositional affective empathy was found to be positively linked to problem solving and negatively linked to conflict engagement among adolescent boys and girls. Dispositional affective empathy was not related to the two more passive strategies (withdrawal and compliance). Sex differences were demonstrated in empathic tendencies, with girls being more empathic than boys. Sex differences were also established in conflict resolution strategies, with girls using problem solving, withdrawal and compliance more frequently than boys. Both sexes scored equally low on conflict engagement, however, and were found to prefer problem solving to all other conflict resolution strategies. Findings are discussed in terms of previous research on empathy and conflict resolution.
This study explores the role that digital media technologies play in adolescents' experiences of friendship and identity. The author draws on findings from in-depth interviews with 32 adolescents (15 girls, 17 boys) ages 13-18 (M = 15.5 years) attending one of seven secondary schools in Bermuda. The adolescents were asked to describe the nature of…
Schwarz, Beate; Stutz, Melanie; Ledermann, Thomas
Although there is strong evidence for the effect of interparental conflict on adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems, little is known about the effect on the quality of adolescents' relationships. The current study investigates the link between adolescents' friendships and interparental conflict as reported by both parents and…
Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun
Immigrant youth often rebuild their friendships and other social networks after arriving in a new country. The difficulties involved can threaten their psychosocial development. Formation of social networks needs to be understood within the macro sociocultural context that shapes the experience. Nonetheless, the current literature on social network formation rarely captures that context. Knowledge about immigrant youths' social network, for example, is often embedded in assimilation, ethnic identity, and adaptation literature. This paper examines how the sociocultural context enables immigrant youth to rebuild their friendship networks. A critical ethnography was conducted in the northwest region of the United States. Sixteen Taiwanese immigrant youth and their parents (N = 13) participated in the study. Data collection consisted of semi-structured in-depth interviews, a demographic questionnaire, and participant observations. The findings showed that because of limited English proficiency, the youth kept at a distance from American peers to avoid nervousness and embarassment. Further analysis, derived from xenophobia, found that limited English proficiency increases segregation between American peers ("we") and immigrant youth ("the other"). The English as a Second Language program inadvertently perpetuates the immigrants' sense of "otherness" and increases the odds of their becoming targets of discrimination. A protective factor for these youths is living near an ethnic community because the inclusion of coethnics increases new friendship networks. Knowledge about the teen culture in coethnics' countries of origin (China, Hong Kong, or the United States), also influences their selection of friends.
Bukowski, William M., Ed.; And Others
Most research on the subject of friendship has concentrated on peer acceptance, dyadic properties, and the contribution that friendship makes to development and adjustment. This book explores the role of friendships in a child's social and emotional growth. The articles, based on presentations made at an SRCD (Society for Research in Child…
Macdonald-Wallis, Kyle; Jago, Russell; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Thompson, Janice L
Despite the known health benefits, the majority of children do not meet physical activity guidelines, with past interventions to increase physical activity yielding little success. Social and friendship networks have been shown to influence obesity, smoking and academic achievement, and peer-led interventions have successfully reduced the uptake of adolescent smoking. However, the role of social networks on physical activity is not clear. This paper investigates the extent to which friendship networks influence children's physical activity, and attempts to quantify the association using spatial analytical techniques to account for the social influence. Physical activity data were collected for 986 children, aged 10-11 years old, from 40 schools in Bristol, UK. Data from 559 children were used for analysis. Mean accelerometer counts per minute (CPM) and mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day (MVPA) were calculated as objective measures of physical activity. Children nominated up to 4 school-friends, and school-based friendship networks were constructed from these nominations. Networks were tested to assess whether physical activity showed spatial dependence (in terms of social proximity in social space) using Moran's I statistic. Spatial autoregressive modelling was then used to assess the extent of spatial dependence, whilst controlling for other known predictors of physical activity. This model was compared with linear regression models for improvement in goodness-of-fit. Results indicated spatial autocorrelation of both mean MVPA (I = .346) and mean CPM (I = .284) in the data, indicating that children clustered in friendship groups with similar activity levels. Spatial autoregressive modelling of mean MVPA concurred that spatial dependence was present (ρ = .26, p < .001), and improved model fit by 31% on the linear regression model. These results demonstrate an association between physical activity levels of children and their
Poulin, Francois; Denault, Anne-Sophie
The goal of this study was to provide an in-depth examination of friendships within organized activities. The prevalence of friendships with co-participants, their quality and characteristics, and their associations with adjustment were investigated. A sample of 281 (60% girls) 8th grade adolescents reported their friendships, activities, and…
Rose, Amanda J; Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A; Glick, Gary C; Smith, Rhiannon L; Luebbe, Aaron M
Co-rumination is a dyadic process between relationship partners that refers to excessively discussing problems, rehashing problems, speculating about problems, mutual encouragement of problem talk, and dwelling on negative affect. Although studies have addressed youths' tendency to co-ruminate, little is known about the nature of co-ruminative conversations. The primary goal of the present study (N = 314 adolescent friend dyads) was to identify microsocial processes that sustain and reinforce problem talk among adolescent co-ruminating friends. Results indicated that co-rumination was characterized by friends responding to each other's statements about problems with engaged statements (e.g., questions, supportive statements) that elicited even more problem talk. Results also indicated that some aspects of co-rumination (i.e., extensively talking about problems, rehashing problems, speculating about problems, and mutual encouragement of problem talk) were associated with positive friendship adjustment, whereas other aspects (i.e., dwelling on negative affect) were associated with internalizing problems. The present research highlights the utility of attending to microsocial processes in friends' conversations and has implications for intervention.
Benner, Aprile D; Wang, Yijie
There is an extensive body of work documenting the negative socioemotional and academic consequences of perceiving racial/ethnic discrimination during adolescence, but little is known about how the larger peer context conditions such effects. Using peer network data from 252 eighth graders (85% Latino, 11% African American, 5% other race/ethnicity), the present study examined the moderating role of cross-ethnic friendships and close friends' experiences of discrimination in the link between adolescents' perceptions of discrimination and well-being. Cross-ethnic friendships and friends' experiences of discrimination generally served a protective role, buffering the negative effects of discrimination on both socioemotional well-being and school outcomes. Overall, results highlight the importance of considering racial/ethnic-related aspects of adolescents' friendships when studying interpersonal processes closely tied to race/ethnicity.
Forgeron, Paula A; MacLaren Chorney, Jill; Carlson, Torie E; Dick, Bruce D; Plante, Erica
Adolescents with chronic pain frequently perceive a lack of support from friends. Support from a peer with a shared experience has been found to provide emotional, informational, and appraisal support. We sought to quantify the frequency with which adolescents with chronic pain want to befriend other adolescents with chronic pain, and to describe the features of these friendships. Adolescents with chronic pain who had attended a 10-week structured self-management program from 3 sites were invited to complete an online survey. Forty teens participated, 95% (n = 38) were girls; 32% (n = 13) befriended another; 52% (n = 21) were interested in befriending another but did not; 15% (n = 6) were not interested in befriending anyone. Over half (62%) of the friendships lasted at least 1 year (n = 8), but only 2 intermingled these with their regular friendships. Pain was discussed frequently during interactions. The most common reasons for not forming friendships were no time to exchange contact information during group and not having things in common. Reasons for not being interested in forming a friendship also included not having anything in common apart from pain. The majority of participants were interested in befriending another. Emotional support, by feeling understood and discussing pain without fear that the other is disinterested, was the main peer support provided. Without common interests, this form of friendship may not last and is at risk for being overly solicitous by focusing on pain. It remains unclear whether the benefits of peer support translate into improved function.
van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Gibson, Jenny L.; St Clair, Michelle C.; Owens, Matt; Brodbeck, Jeannette; Dunn, Valerie; Lewis, Gemma; Croudace, Tim; Jones, Peter B.; Kievit, Rogier A.; Goodyer, Ian M.
Background Early life stress (ELS) consists of child family adversities (CFA: negative experiences that happened within the family environment) and/or peer bullying. ELS plays an important role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms and clinical disorders. Identifying factors that may reduce depressive symptoms in adolescents with ELS may have important public mental health implications. Methods We used structural equation modelling and examined the impact of adolescent friendships and/or family support at age 14 on depressive symptoms at age 17 in adolescents exposed to ELS before age 11. To this end, we used structural equation modelling in a community sample of 771 adolescents (322 boys and 477 girls) from a 3 year longitudinal study. Significant paths in the model were followed-up to test whether social support mediated or moderated the association between ELS and depressive symptoms at age 17. Results We found that adolescent social support in adolescence is negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in boys and girls exposed to ELS. Specifically, we found evidence for two mediational pathways: In the first pathway family support mediated the link between CFA and depressive symptoms at age 17. Specifically, CFA was negatively associated with adolescent family support at age 14, which in turn was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In the second pathway we found that adolescent friendships mediated the path between peer bullying and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational bullying was negatively associated with adolescent friendships at age 14, which in turn were negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In contrast, we did not find a moderating effect of friendships and family support on the association between CFA and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Friendships and/or family support in adolescence mediate the relationship between ELS and late adolescent depressive symptoms in boys and
Gummerum, Michaela; Keller, Monika
Few studies so far have investigated whether abrupt social changes in a society affect the development of friendship and moral reasoning. In this study, 2 cohorts of 188 East German children and adolescents (aged 7, 9, 12, and 15 years) were interviewed in 1990 and 2005. Participants were asked about the importance of close friendship (friendship concept) as well as their moral decisions and reasoning in a friendship dilemma. Overall, results show that in 2005, East German participants referred to normative and interpersonal-altruistic-empathic concerns significantly more often than participants interviewed in 1990. Reference to relationship concerns decreased from 1990 to 2005. With few exceptions, these cohort effects were equally found in younger (children) and older (adolescents) age groups.
Sedgewick, Felicity; Hill, Vivian; Yates, Rhiannon; Pickering, Leanne; Pellicano, Elizabeth
This mixed-methods study examined gender differences in the social motivation and friendship experiences of adolescent boys and girls with autism relative to those without autism, all educated within special education settings. Autistic girls showed similar social motivation and friendship quality to non-autistic girls, while autistic boys reported having both qualitatively different friendships and less motivation for social contact relative to boys without autism and to girls with and without autism. Semi-structured interviews with the adolescents corroborated these findings, with one exception: autistic girls reported high levels of relational aggression within their friendships, suggesting that girls on the autism spectrum in particular may struggle with identifying and dealing with conflict in their social lives.
The current study explores the relationship between friendship formation, school engagement, and belonging among White and Hispanic students. It employed the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of adolescents in high school. The sample consisted of 6,366 Mexican, 1,132 Cuban, 1,330 Puerto Rican,…
La Greca, Annette M.; Harrison, Hannah Moore
This study examined multiple levels of adolescents' interpersonal functioning, including general peer relations (peer crowd affiliations, peer victimization), and qualities of best friendships and romantic relationships as predictors of symptoms of depression and social anxiety. An ethnically diverse sample of 421 adolescents (57% girls; 14 to 19…
Schneider, Barry H.; Woodburn, Sharon; del Pilar Soteras del Toro, Maria; Udvari, Stephen J.
Harry Stack Sullivan maintained that competition between friends in early adolescence would generally destroy their friendship. Working with early adolescent samples in Canada, Costa Rica, and Cuba, we found that hypercompetitiveness--a form of competition involving the need to prove one?s own superiority--was linked with conflict between friends,…
Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Walsh, Sophie; Harel, Shirley; Shulman, Shmuel
Findings of this study, conducted on 142 adolescents (67 ninth graders and 75 eleventh graders), show that romantic experiences among adolescents are manifested in different forms: romantic fantasies, cross-gender friendships, and sustained interactions with a romantic partner. These three forms of experience are manifested differently across age…
Tarrant, Mark; MacKenzie, Liam; Hewitt, Lisa A.
This study applied a social identity perspective to the study of adolescent self-concept and social development. British adolescents aged 14-15 years (N=114) completed a questionnaire which asked them to: (i) rate their degree of identification with a school-based friendship group; (ii) complete a measure of multi-dimensional self-concept; and…
Vervoort, Miranda H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Scheepers, Peer L. H.
The relationships between the proportion of ethnic minority adolescents in school classes, the proportion and quality of majority-minority friendships and intergroup attitudes were examined using multi-level analysis (N = 2386 adolescents in 117 school classes in the Netherlands). In school classes with high proportions of ethnic minority…
Berndt, Thomas J.
This document reports findings of two studies on relations between: (1) adolescents' peer relationships and their self-esteem; and (2) adolescents' social status and friendships. Participating in the first study were nearly 300 seventh- and eighth-graders who completed Harter's (1985) Self-Perception Profile for Children. This measure includes…
Mjaavatn, Per Egil; Frostad, Per; Pijl, Sip Jan
Based on a survey of 123 Norwegian students aged 14-15 (grade 10) this article will discuss possible gender differences in peer relations, social position and friendship criteria. The students filled in a questionnaire that included sociometry and questions on friendship criteria, self-esteem and social support. We found significant gender…
Longitudinal, mixed method research on friendships, conducted over the past two decades with Black, Latino, Asian, and European American boys, reveals three themes: (1) the importance for boys of being able to share their secrets with their close friends; (2) the importance of close friendships for boys' mental health; and (3) the loss of but…
Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Wigfield, Allan
Examined stability and change from middle childhood to middle adolescence in participants' perceptions of their friendship-making ability and their friends' deviant behavior. Although perceptions were not highly stable over 5 years, participants perceived their friendship-making ability as greater during childhood than during adolescence;…
Sigstad, Hanne Marie Høybråten
Background: This study examined how adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities define qualities of friendship and discussed the extent to which these definitions adhere to established definitions of close friendship. Materials and Methods: The study was based on qualitative interviews with 11 adolescents in secondary school. The interviews…
Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Di Pomponio, Ileana; Nigito, Concetta Simona
This study is the first contribution to the understanding of gender differences in best friendship patterns of adolescents sexual minorities. We explored friendship patterns, self-disclosure, and internalized sexual stigma in an Italian sample of lesbian (N = 202) and gay (N = 201) adolescents (aged 14-22 years). We found gender differences in…
Kretschmer, Tina; Pike, Alison
Using a sibling design, this study examined the association between adolescents' friendship experiences and their aspirations for self-acceptance, affiliation, and financial success. We hypothesized that adolescent siblings would differ in their aspirations and that unique experiences in friendships would be associated with these differences. Within our sample of 102 same-sex sibling pairs (mean age older sibling 16 years, younger sibling 14 years), only a small degree of sibling similarity was found for aspirations as well as friendship experiences. Self-acceptance and affiliation were positively linked to general friendship positivity as well as to positive features of the adolescents' closest friend. Bivariate model-fitting techniques revealed that nonshared processes (i.e., unique to each child in the family) explained these links between friendship experiences and aspirations. The results indicate that growing up in one home and being socialized by the same parents does not make adolescent siblings similar in their aspirations but rather that nonshared experiences like those with close friends are related to aspiration dissimilarity of siblings.
McFarland, Daniel A.; Moody, James; Diehl, David; Smith, Jeffrey A.; Thomas, Reuben J.
Adolescent societies—whether arising from weak, short-term classroom friendships or from close, long-term friendships—exhibit various levels of network clustering, segregation, and hierarchy. Some are rank-ordered caste systems and others are flat, cliquish worlds. Explaining the source of such structural variation remains a challenge, however, because global network features are generally treated as the agglomeration of micro-level tie-formation mechanisms, namely balance, homophily, and dominance. How do the same micro-mechanisms generate significant variation in global network structures? To answer this question we propose and test a network ecological theory that specifies the ways features of organizational environments moderate the expression of tie-formation processes, thereby generating variability in global network structures across settings. We develop this argument using longitudinal friendship data on schools (Add Health study) and classrooms (Classroom Engagement study), and by extending exponential random graph models to the study of multiple societies over time. PMID:25535409
Hand, Laura Shaffer; Furman, Wyndol
This study used a social exchange framework to examine the features of non-romantic other-sex (OS) friendships compared with same-sex (SS) friendships and romantic relationships. High school seniors (N = 141) completed open-ended interviews about the benefits and costs of having OS friendships, SS friendships, and romantic relationships in…
Collibee, Charlene; LeTard, Amanda J.; Aikins, Julie Wargo
Both autonomy and friendship quality have consistently been associated with adolescent adjustment. To date, the potentially moderating role of peer relationships in the context of autonomy achievement has received less attention. The present study used observational and quantitative data, as well as multiple reporters, to examine interactions…
Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne
The current study examines the social information processing and coping styles (SIP) of overweight and average weight adolescents, and whether the associations between friendship quality and SIP differ for these two groups (N = 156, M age = 12.79). On the basis of height and weight assessments, overweight (n = 70) and average weight (n = 86)…
Baiocco, Roberto; Pallini, Susanna; Santamaria, Federica
The aim of the present study is to validate a short form of the Adolescent Friendship Attachment Scale that evaluates best friend's attachment considering three styles: Secure, Anxious, and Avoidant. The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the three-factor structure as found in the long form.
Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.
Driven by existing socialization theories, this study describes specific friendship contexts in which peer influence of alcohol misuse and depressive symptoms occurs. In the fall and spring of the school year, surveys were administered to 704 Italian adolescents (53% male, M[subscript age] = 15.53) enrolled in Grades 9, 10 and 11. Different…
Molloy, Lauren E.; Gest, Scott D.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Osgood, D. Wayne
Prospective longitudinal data from over 14,000 youth residing in 28 communities in the rural United States were analyzed to examine the emergence of mixed-sex friendship groups in early adolescence. Youth were surveyed on 5 occasions between fall of 6th grade and spring of 9th grade. At each assessment, youth reported the names of up to 7…
Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Hawk, Skyler T; Schwartz, Seth J; Frijns, Tom; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol; Meeus, Wim
Spending leisure time with deviant peers may have strong influences on adolescents' delinquency. The current 3-wave multi-informant study examined how parental control and parental prohibition of friendships relate to these undesirable peer influences. To this end, annual questionnaires were administered to 497 Dutch youths (283 boys, mean age = 13 years at baseline), their best friends, and both parents. Cross-lagged panel analyses revealed strong longitudinal links from contacts with deviant peers to adolescent delinquency, but not vice versa. Parent-reported prohibition of friendships positively predicted contacts with deviant peers and indirectly predicted higher adolescent delinquency. Similar indirect effects were not found for parental control. The results suggest that forbidden friends may become "forbidden fruit," leading to unintended increases in adolescents' own delinquency.
Fuglestad, Paul T.; Wall, Melanie M.; Shim, Jin Joo; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Drawing on multiple theoretical perspectives (e.g., social comparison theory, reward theory, evolutionary theory), the present research examined the relations of self and friendship network weight status to body satisfaction, self-esteem, and depression. A diverse, population-based sample of adolescents completed measures of well-being and were measured for height and weight. Boys had greater self-esteem if their male friendship networks’ weight status mismatched, versus matched, their own weight status (d = .23). Conversely, boys had greater body satisfaction if their female friendship networks’ weight status matched, versus mismatched, their own weight status (d = .18). For girls, the relations of male and female friendship networks’ weight status with well-being did not vary by one’s own weight status. Evolutionary theory appears to best explain the observed patter of results, and clinicians may want to consider friends’ weight status when dealing with adolescents’ body satisfaction issues. PMID:28316367
Kasari, Connie; Locke, Jill; Gulsrud, Amanda; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin
Self, peer and teacher reports of social relationships were examined for 60 high-functioning children with ASD. Compared to a matched sample of typical children in the same classroom, children with ASD were more often on the periphery of their social networks, reported poorer quality friendships and had fewer reciprocal friendships. On the…
Attachment theory proposes that experiences with the primary caregivers are an important basis for the development of close social relationships outside the parent-child relationship. This study examined the association between representations of attachment, as assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), representations of friendship and…
Kandel, Denise B.
Actual similarity on a variety of attributes (sociodemographic, background characteristics, attitudes, and behaviors) was investigated in a large sample of friendship pairs among 773 high school boys and 1,106 girls. The data were collected through structured, self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. (Author/JMB)
Sadeghipour, Maryam; Khoshnevisan, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Afshin; Shariatpanahi, Seyed Peyman
By using a standard questionnaire, the level of dental brushing frequency was assessed among 201 adolescent female middle school students in Tehran. The initial assessment was repeated after 5 months, in order to observe the dynamics in dental health behavior level. Logistic Regression model was used to evaluate the correlation among individuals' dental health behavior in their social network. A significant correlation on dental brushing habits was detected among groups of friends. This correlation was further spread over the network within the 5 months period. Moreover, it was identified that the average brushing level was improved within the 5 months period. Given that there was a significant correlation between social network's nodes' in-degree value, and brushing level, it was suggested that the observed improvement was partially due to more popularity of individuals with better tooth brushing habit. Agent Based Modeling (ABM) was used to demonstrate the dynamics of dental brushing frequency within a sample of friendship network. Two models with static and dynamic assumptions for the network structure were proposed. The model with dynamic network structure successfully described the dynamics of dental health behavior. Based on this model, on average, every 43 weeks a student changes her brushing habit due to learning from her friends. Finally, three training scenarios were tested by these models in order to evaluate their effectiveness. When training more popular students, considerable improvement in total students' brushing frequency was demonstrated by simulation results.
Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.
The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence. Yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating, and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks.…
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Helms, Heather M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Sales, Lara H.
This study examined the nature and correlates of different patterns of perceived control in adolescents' relationships with their best friends. Participants included firstborn adolescents (M = 14.94 years), their younger siblings (M = 12.44 years) and both their mothers and fathers in 163 families as well as a best friend of each adolescent (M =…
Mundt, Marlon P; Antonaccio, Olena P; French, Michael T; Zakletskaia, Larissa I
Weapon-related violent crime is a serious, complex, and multifaceted public health problem. The present study uses data from Waves I and III of Add Health (n = 10,482, 54% female) to examine how friendship group integration and cohesion in adolescence (ages 12-19) is associated with weapon-related criminal activity as a young adult (ages 18-26). Results indicate that greater cohesion in friendship groups is associated with significantly lower weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood. In addition, for adolescent girls, a greater number of close friendship ties-an indicator of friendship group integration-is associated with less weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood. These findings suggest that school-based initiatives to facilitate inclusive and cohesive adolescent peer communities may be an effective strategy to curb weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood.
Guan, Yuan-Pan; You, Zhi-Qiang; Han, Xiao-Pu
Social group is a type of mesoscopic structure that connects human individuals in microscopic level and the global structure of society. In this paper, we propose a tag-based model considering that social groups expand along the edge that connects two neighbors with a similar tag of interest. The model runs on a real-world friendship network, and its simulation results show that various properties of simulated group network can well fit the empirical analysis on real-world social groups, indicating that the model catches the major mechanism driving the evolution of social groups and successfully reconstructs the social group network from a friendship network and throws light on digging of relationships between social functional organizations.
Sadeghipour, Maryam; Khoshnevisan, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Afshin; Shariatpanahi, Seyed Peyman
By using a standard questionnaire, the level of dental brushing frequency was assessed among 201 adolescent female middle school students in Tehran. The initial assessment was repeated after 5 months, in order to observe the dynamics in dental health behavior level. Logistic Regression model was used to evaluate the correlation among individuals’ dental health behavior in their social network. A significant correlation on dental brushing habits was detected among groups of friends. This correlation was further spread over the network within the 5 months period. Moreover, it was identified that the average brushing level was improved within the 5 months period. Given that there was a significant correlation between social network’s nodes’ in-degree value, and brushing level, it was suggested that the observed improvement was partially due to more popularity of individuals with better tooth brushing habit. Agent Based Modeling (ABM) was used to demonstrate the dynamics of dental brushing frequency within a sample of friendship network. Two models with static and dynamic assumptions for the network structure were proposed. The model with dynamic network structure successfully described the dynamics of dental health behavior. Based on this model, on average, every 43 weeks a student changes her brushing habit due to learning from her friends. Finally, three training scenarios were tested by these models in order to evaluate their effectiveness. When training more popular students, considerable improvement in total students’ brushing frequency was demonstrated by simulation results. PMID:28103260
Bot, Sander M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Knibbe, Ronald A; Meeus, Wim H J
Friends are presumed to exert a substantial influence on young people's drinking patterns. The current study focused on the effects of the best friend's drinking behaviour on the alcohol consumption of 12-14-year-old adolescents. Furthermore, we hypothesized friendship characteristics (i.e., reciprocity and sociometric status differences) to moderate the extent in which adolescents had been influenced by their best friends. Longitudinal data of 1276 adolescents and their best friends were used to examine whether the adolescent's friend's drinking behaviour, reciprocity of the friendship, and status differences between friends affected the magnitude of change in the adolescent's drinking behaviour. The findings showed that best friend's drinking behaviour is related to adolescent's drinking both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Cross-sectionally, this association was particularly strong between mutual friends and friends with lower status. In longitudinal analyses, a different picture emerged. Respondents were most likely to adopt their friend's drinking behaviour when it was a unilateral friend with a higher status.
Szwedo, David E.; Chango, Joanna M.; Allen, Joseph P.
Objective Youths' ability to positively cope with negative emotions and their self-perceived friendship competence were examined as potential moderators of links between multiple aspects of romantic relationships and residualized increases in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into early adulthood. Method Participants included 184 teens (46% male; 42% non-white) assessed at ages 15-19 and 21, as well as a sub-sample of 62 romantic partners of participants assessed when teens were 18. Results Results of hierarchical linear regressions showed that positive coping served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for romantically involved adolescents and also for teens receiving more intense emotional support from their romantic partners, but not for youth whose relationship had ended and had not been replaced by a new relationship. Higher perceived friendship competence served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for youth enduring the dissolution and non-replacement of their romantic relationship. Conclusions Greater use of positive coping skills and higher perceived friendship competence may help protect adolescents from depressive symptoms in different types of romantic experiences. PMID:24645877
Szwedo, David E; Chango, Joanna M; Allen, Joseph P
Youths' ability to positively cope with negative emotions and their self-perceived friendship competence were examined as potential moderators of links between multiple aspects of romantic relationships and residualized increases in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into early adulthood. Participants included 184 teens (46% male; 42% non-White) assessed at ages 15 to 19 and 21, as well as a subsample of 62 romantic partners of participants assessed when teens were 18. Results of hierarchical linear regressions showed that positive coping served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for romantically involved adolescents and also for teens receiving more intense emotional support from their romantic partners, but not for youth whose relationship had ended and had not been replaced by a new relationship. Higher perceived friendship competence served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for youth enduring the dissolution and nonreplacement of their romantic relationship. Greater use of positive coping skills and higher perceived friendship competence may help protect adolescents from depressive symptoms in different types of romantic experiences.
Momeni, Naghmeh; Rabbat, Michael
The friendship paradox is the phenomenon that in social networks, people on average have fewer friends than their friends do. The generalized friendship paradox is an extension to attributes other than the number of friends. The friendship paradox and its generalized version have gathered recent attention due to the information they provide about network structure and local inequalities. In this paper, we propose several measures of nodal qualities which capture different aspects of their activities and influence in online social networks. Using these measures we analyse the prevalence of the generalized friendship paradox over Twitter and we report high levels of prevalence (up to over 90% of nodes). We contend that this prevalence of the friendship paradox and its generalized version arise because of the hierarchical nature of the connections in the network. This hierarchy is nested as opposed to being star-like. We conclude that these paradoxes are collective phenomena not created merely by a minority of well-connected or high-attribute nodes. Moreover, our results show that a large fraction of individuals can experience the generalized friendship paradox even in the absence of a significant correlation between degrees and attributes. PMID:26863225
Eom, Young-Ho; Jo, Hang-Hyun
The friendship paradox states that your friends have on average more friends than you have. Does the paradox ``hold'' for other individual characteristics like income or happiness? To address this question, we generalize the friendship paradox for arbitrary node characteristics in complex networks. By analyzing two coauthorship networks of Physical Review journals and Google Scholar profiles, we find that the generalized friendship paradox (GFP) holds at the individual and network levels for various characteristics, including the number of coauthors, the number of citations, and the number of publications. The origin of the GFP is shown to be rooted in positive correlations between degree and characteristics. As a fruitful application of the GFP, we suggest effective and efficient sampling methods for identifying high characteristic nodes in large-scale networks. Our study on the GFP can shed lights on understanding the interplay between network structure and node characteristics in complex networks.
Ethnic and racial intergroup attitudes are assumed to develop due to the influence of socialization contexts. However, there is still little longitudinal evidence supporting this claim. We also know little about the relative importance of socialization contexts, the possible interplay between them as well as about the conditions and mechanisms that might underlie socialization effects. This longitudinal study of adolescents (N = 517) examined the effects of parents and peers' anti-immigrant attitudes as well as intergroup friendships on relative changes in adolescents' anti-immigrant prejudice, controlling for the effects of socioeconomic background. It also examined whether the effects of parents or peers would depend on adolescents' intergroup friendships. In addition, it explored whether the effects of parents, peers, and intergroup friendships would be mediated or moderated by adolescents' empathy. Results showed significant effects of parents, peers, intergroup friendships, and socioeconomic background on changes in youth attitudes, highlighting the role of parental prejudice. They also showed adolescents with immigrant friends to be less affected by parents and peers' prejudice than youth without immigrant friends. In addition, results showed the effects of parents, peers, and intergroup friendships to be mediated by adolescents' empathic concern. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
French, Doran C; Purwono, Urip; Triwahyuni, Airin
Adolescents' religious involvement occurs within a social context, an understudied aspect of which is relationships with peers. This longitudinal study assessed changes in religiosity over 1 year and explored the extent to which these were associated with their friends' religiosity and problem behavior. The first year sample included 1,010 (52.5% female) Muslim 13 and 15 year old Indonesian adolescents; 890 of these were assessed 1 year later. Adolescents were similar to their friends in religiosity. Changes in religiosity from year one to two were associated with friends' religiosity such that adolescents with religious friends were more religious at year two than those with less religious friends. Reductions in religiosity were also associated with the presence of problem behavior, consistent with the inverse relationship between these. Peers may play an important role in the development of adolescent religiousness and exploring these influences deserves further study.
Adams, Ryan E.; Cantin, Stephane
The objective of the study was to examine the effects of self-disclosure in best friendships on the pathway from peer victimization to depressive symptoms as mediated by self-esteem for physical appearance (SEPA) in overweight adolescents. Utilizing data from 610 French-speaking Canadian adolescents in Grades 7 and 8, the current study examined…
Piehler, Timothy F.; Dishion, Thomas J.
In a sample of 711 ethnically diverse adolescents, the observed interpersonal dynamics of dyadic adolescent friendship interactions were coded to predict early adulthood tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Deviant discussion content within the interactions was coded along with dyadic coregulation (i.e., interpersonal coordination, attention…
Huntley, Jillian; Owens, Laurence
Adolescence marks the beginning of a significant shift away from the world of parental support to the formation of intimate friendships with peers. Developmentally, this is an important time for adolescents as they seek to develop interpersonal skills, share activities and develop a deeper sense of understanding of themselves and others through…
Poulin, François; Denault, Anne-Sophie
The goal of this study was to provide an in-depth examination of friendships within organized activities. The prevalence of friendships with co-participants, their quality and characteristics, and their associations with adjustment were investigated. A sample of 281 (60% girls) 8th grade adolescents reported their friendships, activities, and adjustment. The results showed that 70% of youths have friends who co-participate with them. Friends in individual sports are more academically oriented whereas friends in team sports are more supportive but display higher levels of problem behavior. Finally, having friends in activities is associated with lower problem behavior and better academic functioning.
Scholte, Ron H J; Overbeek, Geertjan; ten Brink, Giovanni; Rommes, Els; de Kemp, Raymond A T; Goossens, Luc; Engels, Rutger C M E
The present study examined to what extent the number of friends and their social and personal characteristics were related to peer victimization in adolescence. Participants were 2,180 adolescents (1,143 girls), aged 11-18 (M = 14.2), who were classified as victims, bully-victims, or non-involved (i.e., adolescents who neither bullied others nor were victimized by others). Three types of friends were distinguished: reciprocal friends, desired friends (who were unilaterally nominated by a target adolescent) and choosing friends (who unilaterally nominated a target adolescent). Between-group comparisons of the three types of friends showed that victims had fewer reciprocal and choosing friends than non-involved adolescents. Compared to bully-victims and non-involved adolescents, victims had reciprocal friends who were socially less well adjusted. No differences existed with respect to the characteristics of the desired friends. In general, victims' choosing friends scored less positive on the personal characteristics than bully-victims' and non-involved adolescents' choosing friends. Within-group comparisons revealed that victims' reciprocal friends showed lower adjustment than victims' desired friends, but higher adjustment than their choosing friends. For bully-victims and non-involved adolescents, such differences between their three types of friends were largely absent. Our findings seem to suggest that victims' reciprocal friendships may not be totally default associations and that out of all possible friends, victims might tend to select those who score most positive on personal or social factors.
Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M
Interactions with friends are a salient part of students' experience at school. Thus, friends are likely to be an important source of influence on achievement goals. This study investigated processes within early adolescent friendships (selection and influence) with regard to achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals) among sixth graders (N = 587, 50% girls at wave 1, N = 576, 52% girls at wave 2) followed from fall to spring within one academic year. Students' gender was examined as a moderator in these processes. Longitudinal social network analysis found that friends were similar to each other in mastery goals and that this similarity was due to both selection and influence effects. Influence but not selection effects were found for performance-approach goals. Influence effects for performance-approach goals were stronger for boys compared to girls in the classroom. Neither selection, nor influence, effects were found in relation to performance-avoidance goals. However, the higher a student was in performance-avoidance goals, the less likely they were to be named as a friend by classmates. Implications for early adolescents' classroom adjustment are discussed.
Knecht, Andrea; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Baerveldt, Chris; Steglich, Christian E. G.; Raub, Werner
Positive association of relevant characteristics is a widespread pattern among adolescent friends. A positive association may be caused by the selection of similar others as friends and by the deselection of dissimilar ones, but also by influence processes where friends adjust their behavior to each other. Social control theory argues that…
French, Doran C.; Purwono, Urip; Triwahyuni, Airin
Adolescents' religious involvement occurs within a social context, an understudied aspect of which is relationships with peers. This longitudinal study assessed changes in religiosity over 1 year and explored the extent to which these were associated with their friends' religiosity and problem behavior. The first year sample included 1,010 (52.5%…
Antheunis, Marjolijn L.; Schouten, Alexander P.; Krahmer, Emiel
The aim of this study was to examine the role of social networking sites (SNSs) in early adolescents' social lives. First, we investigated the relation between SNS use and several aspects of early adolescents' social lives (i.e., friendship quality, bridging social capital, and bonding social capital). Second, we examined whether there are…
Schwartz, David; Kelly, Brynn M; Mali, Luiza V; Duong, Mylien T
Adolescents who have been exposed to violence in the community often experience subsequent difficulties with academic achievement. Because competence in the classroom is a salient developmental task during the adolescent years, outcomes in this critical context can then have broader implications for social and psychological functioning. In the current study, we tested a hypothesized progression in which the association between violence exposure and deficient achievement is presumed to potentiate friendships with academically disengaged peers. We followed 415 urban adolescents (53 % girls; average age of 14.6 years) for a one-year period, with two annual assessment of psychosocial functioning. Exposure to violence in the community and academic engagement were assessed with a self-report inventory; reciprocated friendships were assessed with a peer interview; and achievement was indexed based on a review of school records. Consistent with our hypotheses, neighborhood violence was associated with deficient classroom achievement. Poor achievement, in turn, mediated associations between community violence exposure and low academic engagement among friends. Our findings highlight pathways though which exposure to community violence potentially predicts later dysfunction.
Tarrant, Mark; MacKenzie, Liam; Hewitt, Lisa A
This study applied a social identity perspective to the study of adolescent self-concept and social development. British adolescents aged 14-15 years (N=114) completed a questionnaire which asked them to: (i) rate their degree of identification with a school-based friendship group; (ii) complete a measure of multi-dimensional self-concept; and (iii) report their experiences of a variety of personal, relational and socio-institutional (e.g., achieving economic independence) developmental tasks. Compared to low identifiers, participants who were highly identified with a friendship group reported highest levels of self-esteem; and these differences were most marked in non-academic domains of self. High identifiers also displayed higher levels of general self-esteem and reported more positive experiences of personal and relational developmental tasks. The discussion focuses on the potential benefits to understanding of social developmental processes that can be derived from a consideration of adolescents' subjective appraisals of their peer relations.
Hiatt, Cody; Laursen, Brett; Mooney, Karen S; Rubin, Kenneth H
Friendships differ in terms of their quality and participants may or may not agree as to their perceptions of relationship quality. Two studies (N = 230 and 242) were conducted to identify distinct and replicable categories of friendship among young adolescents (M = 11.6 years old) using self and partner reports of relationship quality. Same-sex friendships were identified from reciprocated friend nominations. Each friend described perceptions of negativity and social support in the relationship. Cluster analyses based on reports from both friends yielded 4 friendship types in each study: a high quality group, a low quality group, and two groups in which friends disagreed about the quality of the relationship. High quality friendships were most apt to be stable from the 6(th) to the 7(th) grade. Participants in high quality friendships reported the highest levels of global self-worth and perceived behavioral conduct and the lowest levels of problem behaviors. Dyads reporting discrepant perceptions of quality differed from dyads who agreed that the friendship was high quality in terms of stability and individual adjustment, underscoring the advantages of person-centered strategies that incorporate perceptions of both partners in categorizations of relationships.
Hiatt, Cody; Laursen, Brett; Mooney, Karen S.; Rubin, Kenneth H.
Friendships differ in terms of their quality and participants may or may not agree as to their perceptions of relationship quality. Two studies (N = 230 and 242) were conducted to identify distinct and replicable categories of friendship among young adolescents (M = 11.6 years old) using self and partner reports of relationship quality. Same-sex friendships were identified from reciprocated friend nominations. Each friend described perceptions of negativity and social support in the relationship. Cluster analyses based on reports from both friends yielded 4 friendship types in each study: a high quality group, a low quality group, and two groups in which friends disagreed about the quality of the relationship. High quality friendships were most apt to be stable from the 6th to the 7th grade. Participants in high quality friendships reported the highest levels of global self-worth and perceived behavioral conduct and the lowest levels of problem behaviors. Dyads reporting discrepant perceptions of quality differed from dyads who agreed that the friendship was high quality in terms of stability and individual adjustment, underscoring the advantages of person-centered strategies that incorporate perceptions of both partners in categorizations of relationships. PMID:25620829
Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Di Pomponio, Ileana; Nigito, Concetta Simona
This study is the first contribution to the understanding of gender differences in best friendship patterns of adolescents sexual minorities. We explored friendship patterns, self-disclosure, and internalized sexual stigma in an Italian sample of lesbian (N = 202) and gay (N = 201) adolescents (aged 14-22 years). We found gender differences in cross-sex and cross-orientation patterns of best friendship. Gay men (52%) reported more cross-sex friendships than lesbians (20%). The 52% of participants had cross-orientation friendships, and no differences were found between lesbians and gay men. Lesbian and gay men with a cross-orientation best friend showed a lower level of internalized sexual stigma. Gay men with cross-orientation friendship showed a low level of internalized sexual stigma and less conflict with a best friend. For gay men and lesbian participants, self-disclosure to the best friend was better predicted by internalized sexual stigma and self-disclosure. Future studies may provide direct comparisons between heterosexual and sexual minority individuals.
Amaku, Marcos; Grisi-Filho, José Henrique de Hildebrand; Negreiros, Rísia Lopes; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Ferreira, Fernando; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Cipullo, Rafael Ishibashi; Marques, Fernando Silveira; Ossada, Raul
The network of animal movements among livestock premises is an important topological structure for the spread of infectious diseases. The central focus of this study was to analyze strategies for selecting premises based on the friendship paradox ("your friends have more friends than you do") - in which premises that neighbor randomly selected premises are sampled for surveillance or control - to determine whether these strategies are viable alternatives for the surveillance and control of diseases in scenarios with insufficient data on animal movement. To test the effectiveness of these strategies, we performed three sets of simulations. In the first set, we examined the risk of spreading an infectious disease using the cattle movement network of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. All tested strategies based on the friendship paradox have comparable performance to the hub control strategy (controlling premises that sold more animals) and superior performance to random sampling in terms of both reducing the risk of purchasing infected animals and the number of premises that need to be controlled. In the second and third sets of simulations, we observed that the friendship paradox strategies were more sensitive than the random sampling strategy to detect cases and disease, respectively. The survey of the entire animal movement network to identify animal premises with a key role in trade is not always possible, either because the data are insufficient or because informal trade is significant. If surveying the network is not possible, all approaches based on knowledge of the network become useless. As an alternative, knowing that there is a hidden movement network that follows rules inherent to all networks, such as the friendship paradox, can be used to our advantage. Strategies based on the friendship paradox do not assume knowledge of the animal movement network and therefore may be viable alternatives for the surveillance or control of infectious diseases in the
Kasari, Connie; Locke, Jill; Gulsrud, Amanda; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin
Self, peer and teacher reports of social relationships were examined for 60 high-functioning children with ASD. Compared to a matched sample of typical children in the same classroom, children with ASD were more often on the periphery of their social networks, reported poorer quality friendships and had fewer reciprocal friendships. On the playground, children with ASD were mostly unengaged but playground engagement was not associated with peer, self, or teacher reports of social behavior. Twenty percent of children with ASD had a reciprocated friendship and also high social network status. Thus, while the majority of high functioning children with ASD struggle with peer relationships in general education classrooms, a small percentage of them appear to have social success.
Hernández-Hernández, Ana María; Viga-de Alva, Dolores; Huerta-Quintanilla, Rodrigo; Canto-Lugo, Efrain; Laviada-Molina, Hugo; Molina-Segui, Fernanda
We use complex network theory to study the differences between the friendship concepts in elementary school and university students. Four friendship networks were identified from surveys. Three of these networks are from elementary schools; two are located in the rural area of Yucatán and the other is in the urban area of Mérida, Yucatán. We analyzed the structure and the communities of these friendship networks and found significant differences among those at the elementary schools compared with those at the university. In elementary schools, the students make friends mainly in the same classroom, but there are also links among different classrooms because of the presence of siblings and relatives in the schools. These kinds of links (sibling-friend or relative-friend) are called, in this work, “mixed links”. The classification of the communities is based on their similarity with the classroom composition. If the community is composed principally of students in different classrooms, the community is classified as heterogeneous. These kinds of communities appear in the elementary school friendship networks mainly because of the presence of relatives and siblings. Once the links between siblings and relatives are removed, the communities resembled the classroom composition. On the other hand, the university students are more selective in choosing friends and therefore, even when they have friends in the same classroom, those communities are quite different to the classroom composition. Also, in the university network, we found heterogeneous communities even when the presence of sibling and relatives is negligible. These differences made up a topological structure quite different at different academic levels. We also found differences in the network characteristics. Once these differences are understood, the topological structure of the friendship network and the communities shaped in an elementary school could be predicted if we know the total number of
Hernández-Hernández, Ana María; Viga-de Alva, Dolores; Huerta-Quintanilla, Rodrigo; Canto-Lugo, Efrain; Laviada-Molina, Hugo; Molina-Segui, Fernanda
We use complex network theory to study the differences between the friendship concepts in elementary school and university students. Four friendship networks were identified from surveys. Three of these networks are from elementary schools; two are located in the rural area of Yucatán and the other is in the urban area of Mérida, Yucatán. We analyzed the structure and the communities of these friendship networks and found significant differences among those at the elementary schools compared with those at the university. In elementary schools, the students make friends mainly in the same classroom, but there are also links among different classrooms because of the presence of siblings and relatives in the schools. These kinds of links (sibling-friend or relative-friend) are called, in this work, "mixed links". The classification of the communities is based on their similarity with the classroom composition. If the community is composed principally of students in different classrooms, the community is classified as heterogeneous. These kinds of communities appear in the elementary school friendship networks mainly because of the presence of relatives and siblings. Once the links between siblings and relatives are removed, the communities resembled the classroom composition. On the other hand, the university students are more selective in choosing friends and therefore, even when they have friends in the same classroom, those communities are quite different to the classroom composition. Also, in the university network, we found heterogeneous communities even when the presence of sibling and relatives is negligible. These differences made up a topological structure quite different at different academic levels. We also found differences in the network characteristics. Once these differences are understood, the topological structure of the friendship network and the communities shaped in an elementary school could be predicted if we know the total number of students
Coleman, William Lord
Friendship formation (making friends, keeping friends, and having successful interactions with peers and adults) constitutes a critical developmental-social milestone for adolescents. This process can be especially challenging for adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, whose attentional problems may negatively affect their social skills (verbal and nonverbal language) and who fail to appreciate the complexity and nuances of adolescent communication. They often do not respond to feedback cues. They may be perceived as "immature," lacking empathy, and loners and losers, they may endure a "reputational bias," and they often experience coexisting challenges (eg, language problems, learning disabilities, or obesity). Successful and gratifying interactions, or the lack thereof, deeply and broadly affect adolescents: their self-esteem, self-image, confidence, school-learning, lifestyle, behavior, sexual activity, intimacy formation, mental-emotional well-being, and physical health. Successful achievement of this ever-evolving milestone has lifelong implications. This article describes various social-interactional skills, other components of social competence, and the dysfunctions that may cause social failure and suffering and describes how to evaluate and help manage problems in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Rabold, Susann; Baier, Dirk
Ethnic differences in violent behavior can be found in official crime statistics, as well as in surveys on juvenile delinquency. To explain these differences, research mainly focuses on factors like parental violence, violence legitimizing norms of masculinity, or socio-economic status. Little research has examined the role of friendship network's…
Gallup, Jennifer; Duff, Christine; Serianni, Barbara; Gallup, Adam
A phenomenological study was conducted to investigate the social experiences and perceptions of friendship among three adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) engaged in online videogame play in the context of a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG). Semi-structured interviews with three participants, diagnosed with…
Ojanen, Tiina; Stratman, Aaron; Card, Noel A.; Little, Todd D.
Motivation is assumed to influence behaviors via perceived agency over goal pursuits, but empirical research integrating motivation and action-control processes in social development is close to nonexistent. We applied this perspective to the study of early adolescent friendships by examining motivation for and perceived control (ability and…
Cook, Thomas D.; Herman, Melissa R.; Phillips, Meredith; Settersten, Richard A., Jr.
This study assessed how schools, neighborhoods, nuclear families, and friendship groups jointly contribute to positive change during early adolescence. Analyses showed that the four context indices modestly intercorrelated at the individual student level, but clustered more tightly at the school and neighborhood levels. Joint influence of all four…
Lakon, Cynthia M; Hipp, John R
We examine the moderating role of friendship and school network characteristics in relationships between 1) youths' friends smoking behavior and youths' own generalized expectancies regarding risk and future orientation and 2) generalized expectancies of youths' friends and youths' own generalized expectancies. We then relate these constructs to smoking. Using a longitudinal sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 15,142), the relationship between friends' generalized expectancies and youths' expectancies is stronger for those more central in the network, with more reachability, or stronger network ties, and weaker for those with denser friendship networks. Risk expectancies exhibited an inverted U shaped relationship with smoking at the next time point, whereas future orientation expectancies displayed a nonlinear accelerating negative relationship. There was also a feedback effect in which smoking behavior led to higher risk expectancies and lower future orientation expectancies in instrumental variable analyses.
Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary W
Childhood aggression-disruptiveness (AD), chronic peer rejection, and deviant friendships were examined as predictors of early-adolescent rule-breaking behaviors. Using a sample of 383 children (193 girls and 190 boys) who were followed from ages 6 to 14, peer rejection trajectories were identified and incorporated into a series of alternative models to assess how chronic peer rejection and deviant friendships mediate the association between stable childhood AD and early-adolescent rule breaking. There were multiple mediated pathways to rule breaking that included both behavioral and relational risk factors, and findings were consistent for boys and girls. Results have implications for better understanding the influence of multiple social processes in the continuity of antisocial behaviors from middle childhood to early adolescence.
Brockman, Libby N.; Christakis, Dimitri A.; Moreno, Megan A.
Objective Social networking sites (SNSs) are increasingly used for research. This paper reports on two studies examining the feasibility of friending adolescents on SNSs for research purposes. Methods Study 1 took place on www.MySpace.com where public profiles belonging to 18-year-old adolescents received a friend request from an unknown physician. Study 2 took place on www.Facebook.com where college freshmen from two US universities, enrolled in an ongoing research study, received a friend request from a known researcher’s profile. Acceptance and retention rates of friend requests were calculated for both studies. Results Study 1: 127 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 62.2% male and 51.8% Caucasian. 49.6% accepted the friend request. After 9 months, 76% maintained the online friendship, 12.7% defriended the study profile and 11% deactivated their profile. Study 2: 338 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 56.5% female and 75.1% Caucasian. 99.7% accepted the friend request. Over 12 months, 3.3% defriended the study profile and 4.1% deactivated their profile. These actions were often temporary; the overall 12-month friendship retention rate was 96.1%. Conclusion Friending adolescents on SNSs is feasible and friending adolescents from a familiar profile may be more effective for maintaining online friendship with research participants over time. PMID:25485226
Eagle, Nathan; Pentland, Alex Sandy; Lazer, David
Data collected from mobile phones have the potential to provide insight into the relational dynamics of individuals. This paper compares observational data from mobile phones with standard self-report survey data. We find that the information from these two data sources is overlapping but distinct. For example, self-reports of physical proximity deviate from mobile phone records depending on the recency and salience of the interactions. We also demonstrate that it is possible to accurately infer 95% of friendships based on the observational data alone, where friend dyads demonstrate distinctive temporal and spatial patterns in their physical proximity and calling patterns. These behavioral patterns, in turn, allow the prediction of individual-level outcomes such as job satisfaction.
Piehler, Timothy F.; Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Dishion, Thomas J.
In a sample of 998 ethnically diverse adolescents, a multiagent, multimethod approach to the measurement of adolescent effortful control, adolescent substance use, and friendship influence was used to predict escalations to early-adult tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use by ages 22-23. Structural equation modeling revealed that adolescent…
McDonough, Meghan H.; Crocker, Peter R. E.
This study examined the factor structure of the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (SFQS; Weiss & Smith, 1999) and compared two models in which (a) self-worth mediated the relationship between physical self/friendship quality and sport commitment and (b) friendship quality and physical self-perceptions directly predicted self-worth and sport…
Marsh, Penny; Allen, Joseph P.; Ho, Martin; Porter, Maryfrances; McFarland, F. Christy
Although success in managing evolving peer relationships is linked to critical adolescent outcomes, little is known about the specific factors that lead to success or failure in peer relationship development across adolescence. This longitudinal study examines the role of adolescents' level of ego development as a predictor of the future course of…
Malmendier-Muehlschlegel, Anja; Rosewall, Juliet K; Smith, Jared G; Hugo, Pippa; Lask, Bryan
This study explored the relationship between quality of friendships, motivation to change and peer support among young people receiving inpatient treatment for Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Thirty participants were recruited from three inpatient wards. Questionnaires assessed motivational stage, friendship functions and characteristics of friendships specific to AN. Three friendship functions - Help, Intimacy and Self-Validation - were significantly and positively correlated with greater motivational stage. Describing friends on the ward as supportive of adherence to the treatment program was positively associated with greater motivational stage and higher quality friendships. The association between motivation, friendship quality and peer support in treatment identifies close and supportive friendships among young people with AN as a potential target to improve outcomes.
Matheson, Catherine; Olsen, Rebecca J; Weisner, Thomas
We asked 27 Euro American teens ages 16 to 17 with developmental disabilities in Los Angeles to describe friendships. Eleven characteristics of friendship reported in the research literature (similarity, proximity, transcending context, companionship, reciprocity, mutuality, intimacy, support, trust/loyalty, conflict management, and stability) were mentioned by at least some teens. However, most teens focused on companionship, doing activities across contexts, similarity in interests/personality, sheer proximity, and stability. Gender did not influence number or types of themes reported. Teens with higher IQ/Vineland Communication scores mentioned more friendship themes and were less positive about their friendships. Most teens reported some satisfying friendships, and friendships between peers with developmental disability usually were more stable and positive than friendships with typically developing peers.
Cui, Ai-Xiang; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Tang, Ming; Hui, Pak Ming; Fu, Yan
Although the structural properties of online social networks have attracted much attention, the properties of the close-knit friendship structures remain an important question. Here, we mainly focus on how these mesoscale structures are affected by the local and global structural properties. Analyzing the data of four large-scale online social networks reveals several common structural properties. It is found that not only the local structures given by the indegree, outdegree, and reciprocal degree distributions follow a similar scaling behavior, the mesoscale structures represented by the distributions of close-knit friendship structures also exhibit a similar scaling law. The degree correlation is very weak over a wide range of the degrees. We propose a simple directed network model that captures the observed properties. The model incorporates two mechanisms: reciprocation and preferential attachment. Through rate equation analysis of our model, the local-scale and mesoscale structural properties are derived. In the local-scale, the same scaling behavior of indegree and outdegree distributions stems from indegree and outdegree of nodes both growing as the same function of the introduction time, and the reciprocal degree distribution also shows the same power-law due to the linear relationship between the reciprocal degree and in/outdegree of nodes. In the mesoscale, the distributions of four closed triples representing close-knit friendship structures are found to exhibit identical power-laws, a behavior attributed to the negligible degree correlations. Intriguingly, all the power-law exponents of the distributions in the local-scale and mesoscale depend only on one global parameter, the mean in/outdegree, while both the mean in/outdegree and the reciprocity together determine the ratio of the reciprocal degree of a node to its in/outdegree. Structural properties of numerical simulated networks are analyzed and compared with each of the four real networks. This
This paper explores the Partnermarktsurvey to analyze how the size and composition of individuals' friendship networks are associated with the opportunities for contact and interaction provided by individuals' immediate social environment. The size and composition of individuals' social environment are strongly reflected in the size and composition of their network of friends. Several properties of an individual's foci of activity help to transform mere contacts into opportunities for interaction. The paper suggests to combine macro-structural theory with micro-sociological theories about action and social capital.
Fuld, Gilbert L
Online social networking is a 21st century innovation increasingly embraced by today's young people. It provides new opportunities for communication that expand an adolescent's world. Yet adults, often suspicious of new trends and technologies initially embraced by youth, often see these new environments as perilous places to visit. These fears have been accentuated by media hype, especially about sexual predators. How dangerous are they? Because the rush to go on these sites is a new phenomenon, research is as yet scant. This review explores current beliefs and knowledge about the dangers of social networking sites.
Osgood, D. Wayne; Feinberg, Mark E.; Wallace, Lacey N.; Moody, James
This paper examines how an adolescent's position relative to cohesive friendship groups in the school-wide social network is associated with alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. We extend prior research in this area by refining the categories of group positions, using more extensive friendship information, applying newer analytic methods to identify friendship groups, and making strategic use of control variables to clarify the meaning of differences among group positions. We report secondary analyses of 6th through 9th grade data from the PROSPER study, which include approximately 9,500 adolescents each year from 27 school districts and 368 school grade cohort friendship networks. We find that core members of friendship groups were more likely to drink than isolates and liaisons, especially in light of their positive social integration in school, family, and religious contexts. Isolates were more likely to use cigarettes than core members, even controlling for all other factors. Finally, liaisons were more likely to use marijuana than core members. PMID:24389068
Ryzin, Mark J. Van; Dishion, Thomas J.
Background Aggression is one of the more stable characteristics of child and adolescent development, and violent behavior in early adulthood is often foreshadowed by aggressive behavior in childhood and early adolescence. Considerable evidence has linked coercive family interactions to aggressive behavior in childhood, but less research has been conducted on the joint role of family and peer interaction in the escalation of aggression to violence in adulthood. Methods We coded family interactions at age 12–13 and friendship interaction at age 16–17 in a multiethnic sample of youth and families. Violence in young adulthood (age 22–23) was measured using self-report, criminal records, and parent report. We tested the hypothesis that a process of “coercive joining” in friendship interactions mediated the relationship between coercive family interactions and serious violence. Results We found that observed coercive joining in friendships at age 16–17 predicted early-adulthood violent behavior over and above an established tendency toward antisocial behavior. We also found that observed coercive family interactions at age 12 predicted early-adulthood violence, and that coercive joining with friends fully mediated this link. Conclusions These results significantly extend coercion theory by suggesting that coercive joining in the context of peer groups is an additional mechanism by which coercive processes in the family are extended and amplified to violent behavior in early adulthood. Our findings suggest the importance of addressing both individual interpersonal skills and self-organizing peer groups when intervening to prevent violent behavior. PMID:23130651
Franken, Aart; Keijsers, Loes; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ter Bogt, Tom
Music Marker Theory posits that music is relevant for the structuring of peer groups and that rock, urban, or dance music preferences relate to externalizing behavior. The present study tested these hypotheses, by investigating the role of music preference similarity in friendship selection and the development of externalizing behavior, while taking the effects of friends' externalizing behavior into account. Data were used from the first three waves of the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study (N = 1144; 50% boys; M age = 12.7; SD = 0.47), including students who entered the first-year of secondary school. Two hypotheses were tested. First, adolescents were expected to select friends based both on a similarity in externalizing behavior and music genre preference. Second, a preference for rock, urban, or dance, music types was expected to predict the development of externalizing behavior, even when taking friends' influence on externalizing behavior into account. Stochastic Actor-Based Modeling indicated that adolescents select their friends based on both externalizing behavior and highbrow music preference. Moreover, both friends' externalizing behavior and a preference for dance music predicted the development of externalizing behavior. Intervention programs might focus on adolescents with dance music preferences.
Smahel, David; Brown, B. Bradford; Blinka, Lukas
The past decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of youths using the Internet, especially for communicating with peers. Online activity can widen and strengthen the social networks of adolescents and emerging adults (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011), but it also increases the risk of Internet addiction. Using a framework derived from…
Chow, Chong Man; Ruhl, Holly; Buhrmester, Duane
The current study examined the effect of empathy on friendship quality in the context of dyadic same-sex friendships, and how such an effect might be mediated by interpersonal competence. A special version of the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was used to examine this hypothesis in 146 same-sex friend dyads in 10th grade. Results…
Matheson, Catherine; Olsen, Rebecca J.; Weisner, Thomas
We asked 27 Euro American teens ages 16 to 17 with developmental disabilities in Los Angeles to describe friendships. Eleven characteristics of friendship reported in the research literature (similarity, proximity, transcending context, companionship, reciprocity, mutuality, intimacy, support, trust/loyalty, conflict management, and stability)…
Conway, Christopher C; Rancourt, Diana; Adelman, Caroline B; Burk, William J; Prinstein, Mitchell J
Tests of interpersonal theories of depression have established that elevated depression levels among peers portend increases in individuals' own depressive symptoms, a phenomenon known as depression socialization. Susceptibility to this socialization effect may be enhanced during the transition to adolescence as the strength of peer influence rises dramatically. Socialization of depressive symptoms among members of child and adolescent friendship groups was examined over a 1-year period among 648 youth in grades six through eight. Sociometric methods were utilized to identify friendship groups and ascertain the prospective effect of group-level depressive symptoms on youths' own depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed a significant socialization effect and indicated that this effect was most potent for (a) girls and (b) individuals on the periphery of friendship groups. Future studies would benefit from incorporating child and adolescent peer groups as a developmentally salient context for interpersonal models of depression.
Bowker, Julie C; Spencer, Sarah V
Research on friendship and adjustment has traditionally focused on same-sex, same-grade, and same-school peers. Recent evidence, however, suggests that many adolescents have other-sex and other-school friends that significantly impact their adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine young adolescents' experiences with mixed-grade friendships (friendships between adolescents in the same school but of different grades), a type of friendship about which little is known. Participants were 179 seventh grade and 178 eighth grade students (55 percent female; M age = 13.2 years, SD = .68) who reported on their same-grade and mixed-grade friendships and loneliness. Peer nominations of same-grade aggression, anxious-withdrawal, victimization and rejection were also collected. Descriptive analyses revealed that 83 percent of students reported having a mixed-grade friend, 36 percent of these friendships being mutual. Adolescents who made mixed-grade nominations and who had mutual mixed-grade friendships reported less loneliness than other adolescents. Results also suggested that mixed-grade friends may protect same-grade friendless girls from feelings of loneliness, and eighth grade same-grade friendless adolescents and anxious-withdrawn boys from victimization. Taken together, findings strongly suggest that mixed-grade friendships are developmentally significant peer relationships during early adolescence.
Boyer, Cherrie B; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa; Bethel, James; Li, Su X; Henry-Reid, Lisa; Futterman, Donna; Maturo, Donna; Straub, Diane M; Howell, Kourtney; Reid, Shirleta; Lowe, Jaime; Kapogiannis, Bill G; Ellen, Jonathan M
OBJECTIVES To examine the feasibility and acceptability of a friendship-based network recruitment strategy for identifying undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection within young women's same-sex friendship networks and to determine factors that facilitated and hindered index recruiters (IRs) in recruiting female friendship network members (FNMs) as well as factors that facilitated and hindered FNMs in undergoing HIV screening. DESIGN A cross-sectional study design that incorporated dual incentives for IRs and their female FNMs. SETTING The IRs were recruited through 3 Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions sites within their Adolescent Medicine Trials Units. Data were collected from January 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010. PARTICIPANTS The IRs self-identifying as HIV positive, negative, or status unknown were enrolled to recruit FNMs to undergo HIV screening. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reports of HIV risk and facilitators and barriers to network recruitment and HIV screening were assessed using an audio-computer-assisted self-interview. Participants were identified as HIV negative or positive on the basis of an OraQuick HIV test with confirmatory enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or Western blot tests. RESULTS Nearly all (156 [98.1%]) eligible IRs agreed to participate and most (78.4%) recruited 1 or more FNMs. Of the 381 FNMs, most (342 [89.8%]) agreed to HIV screening. Although a high acceptance of HIV screening was achieved, the HIV prevalence was low (0.26%). CONCLUSION Our findings provide compelling evidence to suggest that use of a female friendship network approach is a feasible and acceptable means for engaging at-risk young women in HIV screening, as shown by their high rates of agreement to undergo HIV screening.
Kreager, Derek A; Haynie, Dana L
The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence, yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks. Drawing on Granovetter's classic concept of weak ties, we argue that adolescent romantic partners are likely to be network bridges, or liaisons, connecting daters to new peer contexts which, in turn, promote changes in individual drinking behaviors and allow these behaviors to spread across peer networks. Using longitudinal data of 459 couples from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and identify the unique contributions of partners' drinking, friends' drinking, and friends-of-partners' drinking to daters' own future binge drinking and drinking frequency. Findings support the liaison hypothesis and suggest that friends-of-partners' drinking have net associations with adolescent drinking patterns. Moreover, the coefficient for friends-of-partners drinking is larger than the coefficient for one's own peers and generally immune to prior selection. Our findings suggest that romantic relationships are important mechanisms for understanding the diffusion of emergent problem behaviors in adolescent peer networks.
Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.
The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence, yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks. Drawing on Granovetter’s classic concept of weak ties, we argue that adolescent romantic partners are likely to be network bridges, or liaisons, connecting daters to new peer contexts which, in turn, promote changes in individual drinking behaviors and allow these behaviors to spread across peer networks. Using longitudinal data of 459 couples from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and identify the unique contributions of partners’ drinking, friends’ drinking, and friends-of-partners’ drinking to daters’ own future binge drinking and drinking frequency. Findings support the liaison hypothesis and suggest that friends-of-partners’ drinking have net associations with adolescent drinking patterns. Moreover, the coefficient for friends-of-partners drinking is larger than the coefficient for one’s own peers and generally immune to prior selection. Our findings suggest that romantic relationships are important mechanisms for understanding the diffusion of emergent problem behaviors in adolescent peer networks. PMID:25328162
Tucker, Joan S.; de la Haye, Kayla; Kennedy, David P.; Green, Harold D.; Pollard, Michael S.
Purpose Although a number of social network studies have demonstrated peer influence effects on adolescent substance use, findings for marijuana use have been equivocal. This study examines whether structural features of friendships moderate friends’ influence on adolescent marijuana use over time. Methods Using one-year longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this paper examines whether three structural features of friendships moderate friends’ influence on adolescent marijuana use: whether the friendship is reciprocated, the popularity of the nominated friend, and the popularity/status difference between the nominated friend and the adolescent. The sample consists of students in grade 10/11 at Wave I, who were in grade 11/12 at Wave II, from two large schools with complete grade-based friendship network data (N = 1612). Results In one school, friends’ influence on marijuana use was more likely to occur within mutual, reciprocated friendships compared to non-reciprocated relationships. In the other school, friends’ influence was stronger when the friends were relatively popular within the school setting or much more popular than the adolescents themselves. Conclusions Friends’ influence on youth marijuana use may play out in different ways, depending on the school context. In one school influence occurred predominantly within reciprocated relationships that are likely characterized by closeness and trust, whereas in the other school adopting friends’ drug use behaviors appeared to be a strategy to attain social status. Further research is needed to better understand the conditions under which structural features of friendships moderate friends’ influence on adolescent marijuana use. PMID:24054813
Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra
This study examined cross-ethnic friendship choices and intergroup attitudes in a sample of 762 sixth-grade Asian American students (Mage = 11.5 years) attending 1 of 19 middle schools that varied in ethnic composition. Multiple measures of friendship (quantity and quality) and intergroup attitudes (affective, cognitive, behavioral) toward White, Latino, and Black grademates were assessed. The results showed that Asian American students overnominated White students and undernominated Latino and Black students as their friends when school availability of each ethnic group was accounted for. Cross-ethnic friendships were related to better intergroup attitudes, especially the behavioral dimension of attitudes. Cross-ethnic friendships were least likely to change attitudes toward Blacks. Implications for future research, educational practice, and attitude intervention programs were discussed.
Selfhout, Maarten H W; Branje, Susan J T; ter Bogt, Tom F M; Meeus, Wim H J
The present study examines the role of similarity in music preferences in the formation and discontinuation of friendships over a 1-year period. Questionnaire data were gathered from 283 Dutch same-sex mutual best friends (mean age=12.97) in two waves with a 1-year interval. Results show consistent evidence for high similarity in specific music dimensions among friends at both waves. Moderate similarity was found in the overall patterning of preferences for music genres at both waves, even after controlling for similarity in social background. Specific music similarity in more non-mainstream music dimensions and overall music similarity at Wave 1 were related to selecting a new friend at Wave 2. However, similarity in music preferences was not related to the discontinuation of an existing friendship at Wave 2. Thus, results suggest that similarity in music preferences is related to friendship formation, and not to friendship discontinuation.
McDonough, Meghan H; Crocker, Peter R E
This study examined the factor structure of the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (SFQS; Weiss and Smith, 1999) and compared two models in which (a) self-worth mediated the relationship between physical self/friendship quality and sport commitment and (b) friendship quality and physical self-perceptions directly predicted self-worth and sport commitment. Female team sport participants (N = 227) between the ages of 11 and 14 years completed measures of sport commitment, enjoyment, athletic competence, physical attractiveness, self-worth, and friendship qualities. A confirmatory factor analysis found an inadequate fit for the SFQS, mainly due to problems with the loyalty and intimacy subscale. Separating the loyalty and intimacy factor into two subscales provided an adequate fit. Examination of the two structural models indicated that both models provided an adequate overall fit but that self-worth only weakly predicted sport commitment, suggesting the mediator model was impractical. Friendship quality had a weak relationship with self-worth and sport commitment. Results are discussed in light of issues in measuring sport friendship quality and future directions in this developing field.
Osgood, D Wayne; Feinberg, Mark E; Ragan, Daniel T
Seeking to reduce problematic peer influence is a prominent theme of programs to prevent adolescent problem behavior. To support the refinement of this aspect of prevention programming, we examined peer influence and selection processes for three problem behaviors (delinquency, alcohol use, and smoking). We assessed not only the overall strengths of these peer processes, but also their consistency versus variability across settings. We used dynamic stochastic actor-based models to analyze five waves of friendship network data across sixth through ninth grades for a large sample of U.S. adolescents. Our sample included two successive grade cohorts of youth in 26 school districts participating in the PROSPER study, yielding 51 longitudinal social networks based on respondents' friendship nominations. For all three self-reported antisocial behaviors, we found evidence of both peer influence and selection processes tied to antisocial behavior. There was little reliable variance in these processes across the networks, suggesting that the statistical imprecision of the peer influence and selection estimates in previous studies likely accounts for inconsistencies in results. Adolescent friendship networks play a strong role in shaping problem behavior, but problem behaviors also inform friendship choices. In addition to preferring friends with similar levels of problem behavior, adolescents tend to choose friends who engage in problem behaviors, thus creating broader diffusion.
Deutsch, Arielle R; Steinley, Douglas; Slutske, Wendy S
Although socializing effects of friends' drinking on adolescent drinking behavior have been firmly established in previous literature, study results on the importance of gender, as well as the specific role that gender may play in peer socialization, are very mixed. Given the increasing importance of gender in friendships (particularly opposite-sex friendships) during adolescence, it is necessary to better understand the nuanced roles that gender can play in peer socialization effects on alcohol use. In addition, previous studies focusing on the interplay between individual gender and friends' gender have been largely dyadic; less is known about potential gendered effects of broader social networks. The current study sought to further investigate potential effects of gender on friends' influence on adolescent drinking behavior with particular emphasis on the number of same-sex and opposite-sex friends within one's friendship network, as well as closeness to these friends. Using Waves I and II of the saturated sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), adolescent friendship networks were used to calculate the mean drinking behaviors of adolescent friends. Multi-level models estimated the effects of individual drinking behaviors, friend drinking behaviors, and school-level drinking behaviors on adolescent drinking 1 year later, as well as moderating effects of gender composition of friendship groups and male and female friend closeness on the relationship between friends' drinking behaviors and adolescent drinking behavior. Results documented that gender composition of friendship groups did not influence the effect of friends' drinking on individual drinking 1 year later. However, closeness to friends did influence this relationship. As closeness to male friends decreased, the influence of their drinking behavior increased, for both boys and girls. A similar effect was found for female friends, but only for boys. Female friend
Spies Shapiro, Lauren A; Margolin, Gayla
Since the advent of social networking site (SNS) technologies, adolescents' use of these technologies has expanded and is now a primary way of communicating with and acquiring information about others in their social network. Overall, adolescents and young adults' stated motivations for using SNSs are quite similar to more traditional forms of communication-to stay in touch with friends, make plans, get to know people better, and present oneself to others. We begin with a summary of theories that describe the role of SNSs in adolescents' interpersonal relationships, as well as common methodologies used in this field of research thus far. Then, with the social changes that occur throughout adolescence as a backdrop, we address the ways in which SNSs intersect with key tasks of adolescent psychosocial development, specifically peer affiliation and friendship quality, as well as identity development. Evidence suggests that SNSs differentially relate to adolescents' social connectivity and identity development, with sociability, self-esteem, and nature of SNS feedback as important potential moderators. We synthesize current findings, highlight unanswered questions, and recommend both methodological and theoretical directions for future research.
Addressing the importance of international student engagement on campus and creating friendships with host-country nationals during their time abroad, this small-scale study explores the question of, "Are there trends in how or through what means international students are making connections with co-national, multi-national, or host-national…
Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M
The present longitudinal study examined the indirect effect of 6th-grade negative friendship quality on the associations between 5th-grade relational aggression and age 15 social-psychological adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms and risky behavior). The study consisted of a secondary analysis of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development using 776 children (M = 10.42 years in 5th grade; 50.4% boys) from the original sample. Using teacher and self-report ratings, relational and physical aggression, friendship quality, depressive symptoms, and risky behavior were measured. Bootstrapping mediation analyses were conducted. Negative friendship quality was found to mediate the association between relational aggression and depressive symptoms as well as between relational aggression and risky behavior, when controlling for physical aggression, gender and age. This longitudinal study identifies possible developmental pathways by which relational aggression and future social psychological adjustment may be linked.
Baines, Ed; Blatchford, Peter
Gender segregated peer networks during middle childhood have been highlighted as important for explaining later sex differences in behaviour, yet few studies have examined the structural composition of these networks and their implications. This short-term longitudinal study of 119 children (7-8 years) examined the size and internal structure of boys' and girls' social networks, their overlap with friendship relations, and their stability over time. Data collection at the start and end of the year involved systematic playground observations of pupils' play networks during team and non-team activities and measures of friendship from peer nomination interviews. Social networks were identified by aggregating play network data at each time point. Findings showed that the size of boy's play networks on the playground, but not their social networks, varied according to activity type. Social network cores consisted mainly of friends. Girl's social networks were more likely to be composed of friends and boys' networks contained friends and non-friends. Girls had more friends outside of the social network than boys. Stability of social network membership and internal network relations were higher for boys than girls. These patterns have implications for the nature of social experiences within these network contexts.
Fournet, Julie; Barrat, Alain
Contacts between individuals play an important role in determining how infectious diseases spread. Various methods to gather data on such contacts co-exist, from surveys to wearable sensors. Comparisons of data obtained by different methods in the same context are however scarce, in particular with respect to their use in data-driven models of spreading processes. Here, we use a combined data set describing contacts registered by sensors and friendship relations in the same population to address this issue in a case study. We investigate if the use of the friendship network is equivalent to a sampling procedure performed on the sensor contact network with respect to the outcome of simulations of spreading processes: such an equivalence might indeed give hints on ways to compensate for the incompleteness of contact data deduced from surveys. We show that this is indeed the case for these data, for a specifically designed sampling procedure, in which respondents report their neighbors with a probability depending on their contact time. We study the impact of this specific sampling procedure on several data sets, discuss limitations of our approach and its possible applications in the use of data sets of various origins in data-driven simulations of epidemic processes.
Fournet, Julie; Barrat, Alain
Contacts between individuals play an important role in determining how infectious diseases spread. Various methods to gather data on such contacts co-exist, from surveys to wearable sensors. Comparisons of data obtained by different methods in the same context are however scarce, in particular with respect to their use in data-driven models of spreading processes. Here, we use a combined data set describing contacts registered by sensors and friendship relations in the same population to address this issue in a case study. We investigate if the use of the friendship network is equivalent to a sampling procedure performed on the sensor contact network with respect to the outcome of simulations of spreading processes: such an equivalence might indeed give hints on ways to compensate for the incompleteness of contact data deduced from surveys. We show that this is indeed the case for these data, for a specifically designed sampling procedure, in which respondents report their neighbors with a probability depending on their contact time. We study the impact of this specific sampling procedure on several data sets, discuss limitations of our approach and its possible applications in the use of data sets of various origins in data-driven simulations of epidemic processes.
Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Jonson-Reid, Melissa
Friendship is typically assumed to be a protective factor for victims of school bullying, so the possibility of victimization by friends is rarely explored. This study examines the prevalence of positive affiliation between the victims and aggressors in verbal and physical bullying. Peer nomination inventories were used to assess the friendship…
Crothers, Laura M.; Field, Julaine E.; Kolbert, Jered B.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between gender identity and relational aggression. Women's relationships are instrumental in the establishment and maintenance of a positive self-concept and identity, yet relational aggression is a common aspect of female friendships. The authors investigated this role conflict, focusing…
Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.; Bagwell, Catherine
The effect of friendship reciprocation and friend aggression on the stability of aggression across a 6-month period following the transition to secondary school was studied in a sample of 298 Grade 6 children from a predominately white, middle-class, Midwestern American community. The stability of aggression was generally high but it varied as a…
Selfhout, Maarten H. W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
The present study examines the role of similarity in music preferences in the formation and discontinuation of friendships over a 1-year period. Questionnaire data were gathered from 283 Dutch same-sex mutual best friends (mean age = 12.97) in two waves with a 1-year interval. Results show consistent evidence for high similarity in specific music…
Cook, Thomas D.; Deng, Yingying; Morgano, Emily
This study examines how a wide variety of diverse friendship group attributes affect changes in indicators of school performance, social behavior, and mental health between early seventh and late eighth grade. Nine hundred and one middle school students named their friends. Independent data from these friends were used to construct friendship…
Smith, Rhiannon L
Although empathetic distress (i.e., taking on a friend's emotional distress as one's own) has been examined as a "cost of caring" especially common among girls, relations with adjustment remain untested. The current study tested associations of empathetic distress with friendship quality, depression, and anxiety. Adolescents (N = 300, ages 12-18) reported on their perceived experience of empathetic distress following a conversation with a friend about problems. The study also considered youths' emotional engagement in friends' positive life events, referred to as empathetic joy. Results indicated that girls reported greater empathetic distress and empathetic joy compared with boys. Findings also suggest that although empathetic distress may have positive implications for youths' friendship adjustment, this may come at the expense of emotional well-being. In contrast, empathetic joy was associated with greater positive friendship quality and fewer internalizing symptoms.
This paper draws on social capital theory to discuss the way social class plays out in the friendships of teenage students. Based on data from individual interviews and focus groups with 75 students in four London secondary schools, it is suggested that students tend to form friendships with people who belong to the same social-class background as…
Piehler, Timothy F; Dishion, Thomas J
In a sample of 711 ethnically diverse adolescents, the observed interpersonal dynamics of dyadic adolescent friendship interactions were coded to predict early adulthood tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Deviant discussion content within the interactions was coded along with dyadic coregulation (i.e., interpersonal coordination, attention synchrony). Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, deviant content in adolescent interactions at age 16-17 years was strongly predictive of problematic use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana at ages 22 and 23. Although dyadic coregulation was not directly predictive of early adulthood substance use, it did moderate the impact of deviant talk within the dyad on future alcohol and marijuana use. For these substances, high levels of dyadic coregulation increased the risk associated with high levels of deviant talk for problematic use in early adulthood. Results held when comparing across genders and across ethnic groups. The results suggest that these interpersonal dynamics are associated with developmental trajectories of risk for or resilience to peer influence processes.
Wimmer, Andreas; Lewis, Kevin
A notable feature of U.S. social networks is their high degree of racial homogeneity, which is often attributed to racial homophily--the preference for associating with individuals of the same racial background. The authors unpack racial homogeneity using a theoretical framework that distinguishes between various tie formation mechanisms and their effects on the racial composition of networks, exponential random graph modeling that can disentangle these mechanisms empirically, and a rich new data set based on the Facebook pages of a cohort of college students. They first show that racial homogeneity results not only from racial homophily proper but also from homophily among coethnics of the same racial background and from balancing mechanisms such as the tendency to reciprocate friendships or to befriend the friends of friends, which both amplify the homogeneity effects of homophily. Then, they put the importance of racial homophily further into perspective by comparing its effects to those of other mechanisms of tie formation. Balancing, propinquity based on coresidence, and homophily regarding nonracial categories (e.g., students from "elite" backgrounds or those from particular states) all influence the tie formation process more than does racial homophily.
van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Magraret; van Zalk, Nejra; Stattin, Hakan
To what extent do adolescents and their friends socialize each others' attitudes toward immigrants? Can friends' positive attitudes toward immigrants counter adolescents' negative attitudes toward immigrants, and do friends' negative attitudes decrease adolescents' positive attitudes? These questions were examined by following a large (N = 1,472)…
Graber, Rebecca; Turner, Rhiannon; Madill, Anna
This is a novel investigation of whether, and how, a single close supportive friendship may facilitate psychological resilience in socio-economically vulnerable British adolescents. A total of 409 adolescents (160 boys, 245 girls, four unknown), aged between 11 and 19 years, completed self-report measures of close friendship quality, psychological resilience, social support, and other resources. Findings revealed a significant positive association between perceived friendship quality and resilience. This relationship was facilitated through inter-related mechanisms of developing a constructive coping style (comprised of support-seeking and active coping), effort, a supportive friendship network, and reduced disengaged and externalising coping. While protective processes were encouragingly significantly present across genders, boys were more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of disengaged and externalizing coping than girls. We suggest that individual close friendships are an important potential protective mechanism accessible to most adolescents. We discuss implications of the resulting Adolescent Friendship and Resilience Model for resilience theories and integration into practice.
Shapiro, Lauren A. Spies; Margolin, Gayla
Since the advent of SNS technologies, adolescents' use of these technologies has expanded and is now a primary way of communicating with and acquiring information about others in their social network. Overall, adolescents and young adults’ stated motivations for using SNSs are quite similar to more traditional forms of communication—to stay in touch with friends, make plans, get to know people better, and present oneself to others. We begin with a summary of theories that describe the role of SNSs in adolescents’ interpersonal relationships, as well as common methodologies used in this field of research thus far. Then, with the social changes that occur throughout adolescence as a backdrop, we address the ways in which SNSs intersect with key tasks of adolescent psychosocial development, specifically peer affiliation and friendship quality, as well as identity development. Evidence suggests that SNSs differentially relate to adolescents’ social connectivity and identity development, with sociability, self-esteem, and nature of SNS feedback as important potential moderators. We synthesize current findings, highlight unanswered questions, and recommend both methodological and theoretical directions for future research. PMID:23645343
Light, John M.; Greenan, Charlotte C.; Rusby, Julie C.; Nies, Kimberley M.; Snijders, Tom A.B.
A novel version of Snijders’s stochastic actor-based modeling (SABM) framework is applied to model the diffusion of first alcohol use through middle school-wide longitudinal networks of early adolescents, aged approximately 11–14 years. Models couple a standard SABM for friendship network evolution with a proportional hazard model for first alcohol use. Meta-analysis of individual models for 12 schools found significant effects for friendship selection based on the same alcohol use status, and for an increased rate of onset to first use based on exposure to already-onset peers. Onset rate was greater at higher grades and among participants who spent more unsupervised time with friends. Neither selection nor exposure effects interacted with grade, adult supervision, or gender. PMID:24039379
Hill, E M; Griffiths, F E; House, T
Depression is a major public health concern worldwide. There is evidence that social support and befriending influence mental health, and an improved understanding of the social processes that drive depression has the potential to bring significant public health benefits. We investigate transmission of mood on a social network of adolescents, allowing flexibility in our model by making no prior assumption as to whether it is low mood or healthy mood that spreads. Here, we show that while depression does not spread, healthy mood among friends is associated with significantly reduced risk of developing and increased chance of recovering from depression. We found that this spreading of healthy mood can be captured using a non-linear complex contagion model. Having sufficient friends with healthy mood can halve the probability of developing, or double the probability of recovering from, depression over a 6-12-month period on an adolescent social network. Our results suggest that promotion of friendship between adolescents can reduce both incidence and prevalence of depression.
Linden-Andersen, Stine; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Doyle, Anna-Beth
Perceived similarity of personality in same-sex friends was examined in a sample of 124 adolescents (63 girls). Adolescents rated themselves and a nominated friend (n = 42 reciprocated, 82 non-reciprocated dyads) on developmentally relevant personality items assessing autonomy, prosociality, and responsive caregiving. Results from hierarchical…
Sharabi, Adi; Margalit, Malka
Many adolescents spend time online, communicating with friends, family members and strangers, and these social activities have been often related with their loneliness experience. The goals of this study were to examine the social distress expressed by adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD) and to distinguish between unique…
Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.
Research on friendship and adjustment has traditionally focused on same-sex, same-grade, and same-school peers. Recent evidence, however, suggests that many adolescents have other-sex and other-school friends that significantly impact their adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine young adolescents' experiences with "mixed-grade"…
A friendship fence is a wonderful alternative to the standard mural. It provides a fantastic opportunity for children to help design a creative learning environment. In this article, the author describes an art project that involves creating a friendship fence. The author relates that she began introducing her students to Ndebele beadwork dolls…
Rodkin, Philip C.; Ahn, Hai-Jeong
This study compares three variations in how researchers construct middle childhood social networks: (1) with "friendships" or "affiliations" as a relational tie; (2) with children providing "self reports" of relationships, or in addition, "multi-informant reports" of relationships in which they are not involved; and (3) whether network computation…
Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Rizzo, John A
Evidence of negative stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination towards obese individuals has been widely documented. However, the effect of a larger body size on social network ties or friendship formations is less well understood. In this paper, we explore the extent to which higher body weight results in social marginalization of adolescents. Using data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we estimate endogeneity-corrected models including school-level fixed effects that account for bi-directionality and unobserved confounders to ascertain the effect of body weight on social network ties. We find that obese adolescents have fewer friends and are less socially integrated than their non-obese counterparts. We also find that such penalties in friendship networks are present among whites but not African-Americans or Hispanics, with the largest effect among white females. These results are robust to common environmental influences at the school-level and to controls for preferences, risk attitudes, low self-esteem and objective measures of physical attractiveness.
Harper, Gary W.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Benhorin, Shira; Watson, Susan E.; Boyer, Cherrie B.
This article presents findings from a qualitative evaluation of an HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) prevention intervention for urban African American youth (Project ÒRÉ), which was delivered to groups of 3 to 8 adolescents who were members of the same friendship network. Sixteen focus groups (N = 63) were conducted with youth following…
Koskinen, Johan; Stenberg, Sten-Ake
When studying educational aspirations of adolescents, it is unrealistic to assume that the aspirations of pupils are independent of those of their friends. Considerable attention has also been given to the study of peer influence in the educational and behavioral literature. Typically, in empirical studies, the friendship networks have either been…
Poulin, Francois; Kiesner, Jeff; Pedersen, Sara; Dishion, Thomas J.
There is a strong empirical connection between individual and peer substance use during adolescence. The determination of whether this level of covariation reflects influence or selection is obscured by both the design and measurement strategies used. This present study utilizes a short-term longitudinal design with bi-monthly assessments to…
Benner, Aprile D.
This longitudinal study examined Latino adolescents' feelings of loneliness and the repercussions of loneliness for later educational success. Participants were 640 Latino students (56% girls, 62% Mexican/Mexican-American) who reported on loneliness across the first 2 years of high school. Growth mixture modeling identified three distinct…
Snijders, Tom A B; Lomi, Alessandro; Torló, Vanina Jasmine
We propose a new stochastic actor-oriented model for the co-evolution of two-mode and one-mode networks. The model posits that activities of a set of actors, represented in the two-mode network, co-evolve with exchanges and interactions between the actors, as represented in the one-mode network. The model assumes that the actors, not the activities, have agency. The empirical value of the model is demonstrated by examining how employment preferences co-evolve with friendship and advice relations in a group of seventy-five MBA students. The analysis shows that activity in the two-mode network, as expressed by number of employment preferences, is related to activity in the friendship network, as expressed by outdegrees. Further, advice ties between students lead to agreement with respect to employment preferences. In addition, considering the multiplexity of advice and friendship ties yields a better understanding of the dynamics of the advice relation: tendencies to reciprocation and homophily in advice relations are mediated to an important extent by friendship relations. The discussion pays attention to the implications of this study in the broader context of current efforts to model the co-evolutionary dynamics of social networks and individual behavior.
Moreno, Megan A; Kolb, Jennifer
Social networking sites are popular among and consistently used by adolescents. These sites present benefits as well as risks to adolescent health. Recently, pediatric providers have also considered the benefits and risks of using social networking sites in their own practices.
Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Jih, Yeou-Rong; Block, Per; Hiu, Chii-Fen; Holmes, Emily A; Lau, Jennifer Y F
Adolescence is characterized as a period of social reorientation toward peer relationships, entailing the emergence of sophisticated social abilities. Two studies (Study 1: N = 42, ages 13-17; Study 2: N = 81, ages 13-16) investigated age group differences in the impact of relationship reciprocation within school-based social networks on an experimental measure of cooperation behavior. Results suggest development between mid- and late adolescence in the extent to which reciprocation of social ties predicted resource allocation. With increasing age group, investment decisions increasingly reflected the degree to which peers reciprocated feelings of friendship. This result may reflect social-cognitive development, which could facilitate the ability to navigate an increasingly complex social world in adolescence and promote positive and enduring relationships into adulthood.
Espelage, Dorothy L.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Wasserman, Stanley
During adolescence, friendship affiliations and groups provide companionship and social and emotional support, and they afford opportunities for intimate self-disclosure and reflection. Friendships often promote positive psychosocial development, but some youth learn and adopt antisocial attitudes and deviant behaviors through their friendships.…
Kim, Harris Hyun-Soo
Research on the social determinants of health suggests that interpersonal networks play a critical role in facilitating individual mental and physical well-being. Prior studies also indicate that ecological or contextual factors contribute to positive health outcomes. This study extends prior research by examining the factors associated with adolescent health in an Asian context. Based on the multilevel analysis of the Korean Youth Panel Survey (2006 & 2007), a longitudinal project funded by the Korean government, it investigates some of the key variables related to the mental health of Korean students. Much of previous research focuses on the functions of social capital. This study contributes to the social epidemiology literature by investigating the possible downside of network ties. Specifically, it asks whether having delinquent friends is associated with negative mental health experiences. In addition, little research has been conducted concerning the associations between adolescent health outcomes and school characteristics. This study moves in that direction by examining the relationship between mental well-being of students and a variety of school related variables (e.g., subjective attitude toward school and quality of relationship with peers and teachers). Hierarchical linear modeling shows that, among the social capital control variables, being properly integrated into the family and frequent peer interaction significantly add to mental health. At the individual (student) level only, ties to delinquent friends are negatively associated with mental health, while at both individual and contextual levels, school characteristics are positively related to adolescent subjective well-being.
Fujimoto, Kayo; Snijders, Tom A B; Valente, Thomas W
In this study, we examined the dynamics of the perception of "dislike" ties (reputational dislike) among adolescents within the contexts of friendship, perceived popularity, substance use, and Facebook use. Survey data were collected from a longitudinal sample of 238 adolescents from the 11th and 12th grades in one California high school. We estimated stochastic actor-based network dynamic models, using reports of reputational dislike, friendships, and perceived popularity, to identify factors associated with the maintenance and generation reputational dislike ties. The results showed that high-status adolescents and more frequent Facebook users tended to become perceived as or stay disliked by their peers over time. There was a tendency for friendships to promote the creation and maintenance of reputational disliking but not vice versa. Adolescents tended to perceive others as disliked when their friends also perceived them as disliked. There was no evidence that either cigarette smoking or drinking alcohol affected reputational dislike dynamics. This study highlights the important role that the hierarchical peer system, online peer context, and friendships play in driving information diffusion of negative peer relations among adolescents.
Poulin, François; Denault, Anne-Sophie
Previous research examining relationships between parental monitoring, friendship networks, and substance use did not take into account the gender of both the adolescent and the friends. The goal of this study was to test a mediation model in which having other-sex friends during mid-adolescence mediates the relationships between parental monitoring in early adolescence and substance use during late adolescence. We hypothesized that mediation would be observed for girls but not for boys. A sample of 333 adolescents (60 % girls) was surveyed yearly from ages 12 to 19. The findings provided support for an indirect relationship (mediation via other-sex friendships) between early adolescent parental monitoring and late adolescent alcohol use among girls only. That is, for girls, higher levels of parental monitoring lead to fewer other-sex friendships, which then lead to lower levels of subsequent alcohol use. For drug use, the findings provided support for a direct relationship between early adolescent parental monitoring and late adolescent drug use for both boys and girls. Thus, parents seem to have a protective effect on their daughters' later use of alcohol by limiting inclusion of male friends in their networks.
McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro
This study examined the associations of substance use, psychological distress, and mental health services receipt with the structure and content of adolescent school-based networks. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we found that substance use was associated with receiving more, but making fewer, peer…
Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel
Using a genetically informed twin design, this study examined (a) whether, in line with gene-environment correlation (rGE), a genetic disposition for anxiety puts children at risk of being victimized by a close friend or by other peers, and (b) whether, in line with gene-environment interaction (GxE), victimization by a close friend or by other peers moderates the expression of a genetic disposition for anxiety. Participants were 268 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (MZ males = 71, MZ females = 80, DZ males = 56, DZ females = 61; 87% of European descent) assessed via questionnaires in Grade 8 (M age = 14.06 years, SD = 3.60). Participants reported about their victimization by a close friend and by other peers and their anxiety level. Victimization by a close friend and victimization by other peers were uncorrelated. In line with rGE, genetic factors related to anxiety predicted victimization by other peers, whereas victimization by a close friend was not predicted by heritable characteristics. Moreover, in line with a suppression process of GxE, victimization by other peers reduced the role of genetic factors in explaining interindividual differences in anxiety. In contrast, in line with a diathesis-stress process of GxE, victimization by a close friend fostered the expression of a genetic disposition for anxiety. Victimization by a close friend seems to happen to adolescents regardless of their personal, heritable characteristics. If it does occur, however, it is a source of distress mostly for youth with a genetic vulnerability for anxiety.
Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair
Although peer networks have been implicated as influential in a range of adolescent behaviors, little is known about relationships between peer network structures and risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among youth. This study is a descriptive analysis of how peer network “types” may be related to subsequent risk for IPV perpetration among adolescents using data from 3,030 male respondents to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Sampled youth were a mean of 16 years of age when surveyed about the nature of their peer networks, and 21.9 when asked to report about IPV perpetration in their adolescent and early adulthood relationships. A latent class analysis of the size, structure, gender composition and delinquency level of friendship groups identified four unique profiles of peer network structures. Men in the group type characterized by small, dense, mostly male peer networks with higher levels of delinquent behavior reported higher rates of subsequent IPV perpetration than men whose adolescent network type was characterized by large, loosely connected groups of less delinquent male and female friends. Other factors known to be antecedents and correlates of IPV perpetration varied in their distribution across the peer group types, suggesting that different configurations of risk for relationship aggression can be found across peer networks. Implications for prevention programming and future research are addressed. PMID:20422351
Allen, Joseph P; Porter, Maryfrances R; McFarland, F Christy
Adolescents' susceptibility to peer influence was examined as a marker of difficulties in the general process of autonomy development that was likely to be related to deficits across multiple domains of psychosocial functioning. A laboratory-based assessment of susceptibility to peer influence in interactions with a close friend was developed and examined in relation to corollary reports obtained from adolescents, their mothers, and close peers at ages 13 and 14. As hypothesized, observed susceptibility to peer influence with a close friend predicted future responses to negative peer pressure, but it was also related to broader markers of problems in functioning, including decreases in popularity, and increasing levels of depressive symptoms, over time. Susceptibility to peer influence was also linked to higher concurrent levels of substance use, externalizing behavior, and sexual activity. Results are interpreted as reflecting the central role of establishing autonomy with peers in psychosocial development.
Hutchinson, Delyse M; Rapee, Ronald M
This study examined the role of friendship networks and peer influences in body image concern, dietary restraint, extreme weight loss behaviours (EWLBs) and binge eating in a large community sample of young adolescent females. Based on girls' self-reported friendship groups, social network analysis was used to identify 173 friendship cliques. Results indicated that clique members shared similar scores on measures of dieting, EWLB and binge eating, but not body image concern. Average clique scores for dieting, EWLB and binge eating, were also correlated significantly with clique averages on measures of perceived peer influence, body mass index and psychological variables. Multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived peer influences in weight-related attitudes and behaviours were predictive of individual girls' level of body image concern, dieting, EWLB use and binge eating. Notably, an individual girl's dieting and EWLB use could be predicted from her friends' respective dieting and EWLB scores. Findings highlight the significance of the peer environment in body image and eating problems during early adolescence.
This paper seeks to examine the plausibility of the concept of "Civic Friendship" as a philosophical model for a conceptualisation of "belonging". Such a concept, would hold enormous interest for educators in enabling the identification of particular virtues, attitudes and values that would need to be taught and nurtured to…
Alvarez Valdivia, Ibis M.; Schneider, Barry H.; Carrasco, Cecilia Villalobos
The purpose of this study was to determine the links between school adjustment, friendship, and identification with both the cultures of origin and with the host culture. Our overriding hypothesis was that integration in Berry's terms, that is, simultaneous identification with both the culture of origin and the majority Spanish/Catalan culture,…
Litwack, Scott D.; Aikins, Julie Wargo; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
The primary goal of this study was to examine the similarities and distinctions between two types of popularity, sociometric and perceived, in their associations with friendship characteristics and how they in turn are related to depressive affect and self-esteem. Among 245 eighth graders, sociometric popularity was associated with a greater…
Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Pollack, Lance M.
There is an urgent need for continued innovation in the design of HIV/STI prevention interventions for African American females, a group at high risk for STIs and HIV. In particular, attention to social development and to culture is needed. The present study reports on a group randomized controlled trial of a friendship-based HIV/STI prevention…
Rees, Carter; Freng, Adrienne; Winfree, L Thomas
Race/ethnicity and the structure of an adolescent's social network are both important factors in the etiology of delinquent behavior. Yet, much of the minority-group delinquency literature overlooks the Native American youth population that traditionally exhibits high rates of alcohol use and abuse. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we compare the structural characteristics of school-based friendship networks of American Indian youth and other racial/ethnic groups. Our core sample for the descriptive analysis consists of 70,841 youth (Caucasian = 42,096; Black = 13,554; Asian = 4,758; Hispanic = 4,464; American Indian = 3,426; Other = 2,543; Female = 50%). We find that Native American youth generally occupy similar social positions within school hierarchies compared to other minority groups. However, American Indian youth have fewer ties at the school level than Caucasian youth, including reports of fewer reciprocated friendships, a smaller number of in-school friends, and membership in less cohesive personal networks. We also focus on the detrimental social and physical consequences of alcohol use during adolescence and offer an extended consequences model (n = 5,841) that includes the interactive effects of race/ethnicity, age, and drinking influences on relationships with friends (Caucasian = 59%; Black = 19%; Asian = 7%; Hispanic = 7%; American Indian = 5%; Other = 3%; Female = 54%). American Indian youth are no more likely than other youth to report personal drinking as being detrimental to social relationships with parents, peers, and romantic partners. We address ties between our findings and criminal justice policies and practices, as well as the implications for similar network analyses involving other racial/ethnic groups.
Reich, Stephanie M; Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Espinoza, Guadalupe
Many new and important developmental issues are encountered during adolescence, which is also a time when Internet use becomes increasingly popular. Studies have shown that adolescents are using these online spaces to address developmental issues, especially needs for intimacy and connection to others. Online communication with its potential for interacting with unknown others, may put teens at increased risk. Two hundred and fifty-one high school students completed an in-person survey, and 126 of these completed an additional online questionnaire about how and why they use the Internet, their activities on social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace) and their reasons for participation, and how they perceive these online spaces to impact their friendships. To examine the extent of overlap between online and offline friends, participants were asked to list the names of their top interaction partners offline and online (Facebook and instant messaging). Results reveal that adolescents mainly use social networking sites to connect with others, in particular with people known from offline contexts. While adolescents report little monitoring by their parents, there was no evidence that teens are putting themselves at risk by interacting with unknown others. Instead, adolescents seem to use the Internet, especially social networking sites, to connect with known others. While the study found moderate overlap between teens' closest online and offline friends, the patterns suggest that adolescents use online contexts to strengthen offline relationships.
This research reported in this article ethnographically examines ethnicity and achievement in the formation of Korean Chinese students' peer networks. With the significance of children's peer networks in their interaction and school experience in mind, this article demonstrates how a group of ethnic Korean students at one Korean bilingual school…
Khair, K; Holland, M; Carrington, S
Access to modern treatments allows adolescents with haemophilia to manage their haemophilia at home, with improved treatment outcomes and quality of life, but has reduced peer support and the potential for experiential learning from older peers. Social networking, aided by modern communication technologies, may offer health benefits through peer support. We sought to assess whether or not disease-specific social networking could benefit adolescents with severe haemophilia. A total of 150 adolescents (aged 10-18) with severe haemophilia A or B from 11 UK treatment centres or those who had attended focus groups to explore the potential for a social network designed specifically for their use were surveyed. Teenage boys with severe haemophilia in the UK who responded to an online and paper questionnaire (n = 47; 31% response rate) rarely knew of or socialized with others with haemophilia outside their families. Two-thirds of respondents said they would like to meet others. For 70% of boys, parents were the major source of information about haemophilia, yet more than half said they often had trouble finding answers to their questions. These boys frequently used online social networks to chat with friends. Adolescents with severe haemophilia frequently have limited contact with others and many wish to have greater contact. They may benefit from peer support and experiential learning gained through online social networking. The SixVibe restricted access social network is to be launched in 2011. It includes features designed to promote and facilitate the development of peer-to peer disease management skills for adolescents with severe haemophilia.
March, John S.; Silva, Susan G.; Compton, Scott; Anthony, Ginger; DeVeaugh-Geiss, Joseph; Califf, Robert; Krishnan, Ranga
Objective: The current generation of clinical trials in pediatric psychiatry often fails to maximize clinical utility for practicing clinicians, thereby diluting its impact. Method: To attain maximum clinical relevance and acceptability, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN) will transport to pediatric psychiatry the practical…
Sijtsema, Jelle J; Rambaran, J Ashwin; Caravita, Simona C S; Gini, Gianluca
The current study examined the development of bullying and defending over a 1-year period as related to friends' influence and individual and friends' moral disengagement (i.e., self-justification mechanisms that allow one to avoid moral self-censure of transgressive actions) in children and young adolescents. Via longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena), it was tested whether similarity between friends in bullying and defending developed over time due to friends' influence, while controlling for friendship selection processes, and whether there were differences in these processes between children (age 9-10 years; n = 133; 42.9% girls) and young adolescents (age 11-14 years; n = 236; 40.6% girls). Results showed that individuals selected peers as friends who were similar in bullying and became more similar to friends in bullying over time, but only in early adolescence. Moreover, there was marginal support that friends' influence was stronger in young adolescents with higher moral disengagement. In early adolescence, bullying was also indirectly influenced through friends' moral disengagement, with different effects for boys and girls. With regard to defending, young adolescents maintained friendships with peers who were similar in defending, and became more similar to friends in terms of defending over time. These findings suggest important differences between late childhood and early adolescence in socialization processes and indicate that in early adolescence, friends' influence on the development of bullying is partially affected by moral disengagement.
Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Dishion, Thomas J.
Background: Aggression is one of the more stable characteristics of child and adolescent development, and violent behavior in early adulthood is often foreshadowed by aggressive behavior in childhood and early adolescence. Considerable evidence has linked coercive family interactions to aggressive behavior in childhood, but less research has been…
Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian; Turney, Kristin; Kao, Grace
Background/Context: Prior research has linked social engagement, such as peer interaction and participation in school activities, to a host of positive outcomes for youth and adolescents. However, little research considers patterns of social engagement among racial/ethnic minority and immigrant adolescents, despite prior research suggesting…
Forgeron, Paula A; Evans, Joan; McGrath, Patrick J; Stevens, Bonnie; Finley, G Allen
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain negatively affects an adolescent’s life; however, little is known about the social impact of chronic pain for adolescents. More is known about the general peer relationships of adolescents with chronic pain than their close friendships. Close friendships begin to take on more importance during adolescence as these relationships facilitate the development of an adolescent’s sense of personal identity and increasing independence from family influences. Thus, chronic pain may create friendship challenges for adolescents beyond those typically experienced during this developmental trajectory, which may negatively impact their abilities to secure social support. OBJECTIVES: To better understand the challenges adolescents with chronic pain face with regard to their friendships. METHODS: An interpretative phenomenological study using individual interviews was conducted. RESULTS: Two themes emerged. ‘Rethinking the self with pain’ describes the intrusive nature of chronic pain, challenging the participants to rethink the way they view themselves and their place within their social network. ‘Rethinking friendships’ describes the interpretation of their friends’ reactions to their chronic pain condition, which led to these adolescents spending more time by themselves, and feeling misunderstood and unsupported. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of chronic pain on the adolescent as an individual as well as the responses of close friends and others within their social network resulted in the development of new friendship needs. However, the adolescents were not always able to secure these new friendship needs. Their experiences suggest factors within friendships that may be ameliorated by interventions, thus maintaining and strengthening their close friendships. PMID:24308027
Yin, Haiping; Rong, Zhihai; Yan, Gang
A total of 49 students, about half of them male, from various countries and 4 student helpers attended the 2008 China Complex Systems Summer School organized by the Santa Fe Institute and the Chinese Academy of Sciences held in Beijing. We studied the development of the social network among these participants during the school, which lasted for 4 weeks, by carrying out surveys at different times of the school. The students got to know each other through various activities, including being roommates, eating together everyday, attending lectures, doing group projects, sight-seeing visits, etc. The topological structures and various properties of the network are discussed. The results indicate how the participants became friends as time went by. By considering the correlations between reciprocal evaluations via the Pearson’s correlation coefficient, it is found that the ethnicity and gender are important factors in establishing personal relationships and in getting mutually consistent perceptions on the relationships. We also study the clique components and community structures in the networks.
Laursen, Brett; Hartup, Willard W.
Discusses how friendships are transformed from equality-based exchange relationships during early childhood into need-based communal relationships during adolescence. Builds upon thesis that developmental changes in friendships can best be understood using both deep- and surface- structure levels of analysis. Examines cognitive representations of…
Winterrowd, Erin; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Chavez, Ernest L.
Research suggests a link between friendships and suicidality among U.S. youth, but this link has not been confirmed across ethnicities. The relationship between friendships and suicidality among Mexican American and European American adolescents was examined in this study. Specifically, the role of friendship problems (i.e., social isolation, poor…
Yuan, Yue; An, Weihua
Prior research has identified a list of individual attributes, along with neighborhood, school, and network characteristics, as potential factors affecting perceived risk. However, prior research has rarely investigated the simultaneous effects of these factors on perceived risk. This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), supplemented with the 1990 census data, to examine the associations of neighborhood, school, and network characteristics and perceived risk among adolescents. To account for the overlaps between school districts and neighborhoods, we use cross-classified multilevel modeling (CCMM). Our analyses lead to two main findings. First, perceived risk appears to be context-specific. Perceived risk at school is mostly affected by school characteristics but not by neighborhood characteristics. Perceived risk in neighborhood is mostly affected by neighborhood characteristics but not by school characteristics. Second, network characteristics matter for both types of perceived risk and more so for perceived risk at school than in neighborhood. We find that, while having more friends is associated with a lower level of perceived risk, having more friends with delinquent and violent behaviors is associated with a higher level of perceived risk among adolescents.
Reid, Shannon E
The present study examines both the patterns of friendship networks and how these network characteristics relate to the risk factors of institutional misconduct for incarcerated youth. Using friendship networks collected from males incarcerated with California's Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), latent profile analysis was utilized to create homogeneous groups of friendship patterns based on alter attributes and network structure. The incarcerated youth provided 144 egocentric networks reporting 558 social network relationships. Latent profile analysis identified three network profiles: expected group (67%), new breed group (20%), and model citizen group (13%). The three network profiles were integrated into a multiple group analysis framework to examine the relative influence of individual-level risk factors on their rate of institutional misconduct. The analysis finds variation in predictors of institutional misconduct across profile types. These findings suggest that the close friendships of incarcerated youth are patterned across the individual characteristics of the youth's friends and that the friendship network can act as a moderator for individual risk factors for institutional misconduct.
Schapiro, Michelle; Schneider, Barry H.; Shore, Bruce M.; Margison, Judith A.; Udvari, Stephen J.
Competitive goal orientations were rated by self, peers, and teachers for 38 gifted- and 38 regular-program, same-sex, friendship dyads (19 female and 19 male) from grades 7 and 8 (N = 152). Gifted dyads were reassessed on friendship quality and stability at the end of the school year and after the summer. Gifted students were more task-oriented…
Haas, Steven A; Schaefer, David R; Kornienko, Olga
Much research has explored the role of social networks in promoting health through the provision of social support. However, little work has examined how social networks themselves may be structured by health. This article investigates the link between individuals' health and the characteristics of their social network positions. We first develop theoretical predictions for how health may influence the structure of adolescent networks. We then test these predictions using longitudinal analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We find important relationships between the health status of adolescents and the characteristics of the social network positions within which they are embedded. Overall we find that adolescents in poor health form smaller local networks and occupy less central global positions than their healthy peers. These results also have implications for social network research, expanding the scope of factors responsible for the network positions individuals occupy.
Rowsell, H Claire; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L; Deane, Frank P
The present study explored the relationship between emotion identification skill (EIS) and friendships in adolescence. Students from five Australian high schools completed questionnaires annually from Grade 8 to Grade 12 including subjective measures of EIS and a peer-based objective measure of social functioning (e.g., friendship nominations). The total sample of participants was 795 (406 males; 389 females) with 468 (225 males; 243 females) completing questionnaires in Grade 12. EIS in early adolescence was predictive of friendships for females in late adolescence. Specifically, girls starting out with low EIS in Grade 8 tended to have fewer female friendships and more male friendships in Grade 12. There were no effects for males. Lower initial EIS was associated with significant improvements in awareness over time, but these improvements had no effect on friendships in Grade 12. The EIS that girls enter high school with may influence their friendship composition into late adolescence.
Tran, Alisia G T T; Lee, Richard M
This study examined the direct and moderating role of cultural socialization in relation to same-race and cross-race friendships and social competence among Asian American late-adolescents (N = 146). We hypothesized that same-race and cross-race friendships would be uniquely associated with social competence, but that these associations would be moderated by cultural socialization practices targeting enculturation and preparation for bias. Using Pearson correlations, cross-race friendships were significantly correlated with social competence, whereas same-race friendships had a marginally significant relation. In moderator analyses, only preparation for bias was a significant moderator of cross-race friendships in relation to social competence. Specifically, for late-adolescents who reported a high level of preparation for bias, there was a positive relation between cross-race friendships and social competence. There were no significant interactions between same-race friendships and any dimension of cultural socialization in relation to social competence. The findings support the relevance of cultural socialization in Asian American late-adolescent social development.
Shoham, David A; Tong, Liping; Lamberson, Peter J; Auchincloss, Amy H; Zhang, Jun; Dugas, Lara; Kaufman, Jay S; Cooper, Richard S; Luke, Amy
Recent studies suggest that obesity may be "contagious" between individuals in social networks. Social contagion (influence), however, may not be identifiable using traditional statistical approaches because they cannot distinguish contagion from homophily (the propensity for individuals to select friends who are similar to themselves) or from shared environmental influences. In this paper, we apply the stochastic actor-based model (SABM) framework developed by Snijders and colleagues to data on adolescent body mass index (BMI), screen time, and playing active sports. Our primary hypothesis was that social influences on adolescent body size and related behaviors are independent of friend selection. Employing the SABM, we simultaneously modeled network dynamics (friendship selection based on homophily and structural characteristics of the network) and social influence. We focused on the 2 largest schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and held the school environment constant by examining the 2 school networks separately (N = 624 and 1151). Results show support in both schools for homophily on BMI, but also for social influence on BMI. There was no evidence of homophily on screen time in either school, while only one of the schools showed homophily on playing active sports. There was, however, evidence of social influence on screen time in one of the schools, and playing active sports in both schools. These results suggest that both homophily and social influence are important in understanding patterns of adolescent obesity. Intervention efforts should take into consideration peers' influence on one another, rather than treating "high risk" adolescents in isolation.
Shoham, David A.; Tong, Liping; Lamberson, Peter J.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Zhang, Jun; Dugas, Lara; Kaufman, Jay S.; Cooper, Richard S.; Luke, Amy
Recent studies suggest that obesity may be “contagious” between individuals in social networks. Social contagion (influence), however, may not be identifiable using traditional statistical approaches because they cannot distinguish contagion from homophily (the propensity for individuals to select friends who are similar to themselves) or from shared environmental influences. In this paper, we apply the stochastic actor-based model (SABM) framework developed by Snijders and colleagues to data on adolescent body mass index (BMI), screen time, and playing active sports. Our primary hypothesis was that social influences on adolescent body size and related behaviors are independent of friend selection. Employing the SABM, we simultaneously modeled network dynamics (friendship selection based on homophily and structural characteristics of the network) and social influence. We focused on the 2 largest schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and held the school environment constant by examining the 2 school networks separately (N = 624 and 1151). Results show support in both schools for homophily on BMI, but also for social influence on BMI. There was no evidence of homophily on screen time in either school, while only one of the schools showed homophily on playing active sports. There was, however, evidence of social influence on screen time in one of the schools, and playing active sports in both schools. These results suggest that both homophily and social influence are important in understanding patterns of adolescent obesity. Intervention efforts should take into consideration peers’ influence on one another, rather than treating “high risk” adolescents in isolation. PMID:22768124
O'Malley, A James; Christakis, Nicholas A
We develop novel mixed effects models to examine the role of health traits on the status of peoples' close friendship nominations in the Framingham Heart Study. The health traits considered are both mutable (body mass index (BMI), smoking, blood pressure, body proportion, muscularity, and depression) and, for comparison, basically immutable (height, birth order, personality type, only child, and handedness); and the traits have varying degrees of observability. We test the hypotheses that existing ties (i.e. close friendship nominations) are more likely to dissolve between people with dissimilar (mutable and observable) health traits whereas new ties are more likely to form between those with similar (mutable and observable) traits while controlling for persons' age, gender, geographic separation, and education. The mixed effects models contain random effects for both the nominator (ego) and nominated (alter) persons in a tie to account for the fact that people were involved in multiple relationships and contributed observations at multiple exams. Results for BMI support the hypotheses that people of similar BMI are less likely to dissolve existing ties and more likely to form ties, while smoker to non-smoker ties were the least likely to dissolve and smoker to smoker ties were the most likely to form. We also validated previously known findings regarding homophily on age and gender, and found evidence that homophily also depends upon geographic separation.
Sterk-Elifson, Claire; Elifson, Kirk W.
A study exploring friendship relations of homeless, male drug users (aged between 21 and 50 years) through 27 in-depth interviews in Atlanta (Georgia) found that subjects were engaged in friendship networks that offered social support and that there was a relationship between friendships and patterns of crack cocaine use. (JB)
Glick, Gary C.; Rose, Amanda J.
The proposal that friendships provide a context for the development of social skills is widely accepted. Yet little research exists to support this claim. In the present study, children and adolescents (N = 912) were presented with vignettes in which a friend encountered a social stressor and they could help the friend and vignettes in which they…
Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Lee, Wonjae
This study followed 125 7th-grade students in Taiwan for the entire school year and analyzed the individual and social network factors predicting their involvement in physical bullying over 5 waves of data. Using self-reports of bullying experiences, 20 classroom-level networks of bullying and friendship were constructed for 4 classrooms and 5 temporal points, from which 4 individual-level network measures were calculated. They included bully and victim centrality, popularity, and embeddedness in friendship networks. A series of mixed models for repeated measures were constructed to predict students' bully and victim centrality in bullying network at time t + 1. Compared to girls, boys were more likely to be both the bullies and victims. Lower self-esteem and higher family economic status contributed to victim centrality. Having parents married and living together predicted lower bully centrality. Higher educational level of parents predicted lower victim and bully centrality. Regarding the social network factors, students' bully centrality at t positively predicted their bully centrality at t + 1, whereas victim centrality predicted their subsequent victim centrality. Interaction effects between friendship network and bullying network were observed. Embeddedness in friendship network reduced victim centrality at t + 1 except for those students with low victim centrality at t. For those with high victim centrality at t, popularity increased their risk of physical victimization over time. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…
MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Papadakis, Alison A.; Fedigan, Shea K.; Ash, Sarah E.
Although relationship expectations are thought to influence all social interactions, little is known about the function of children's friendship expectations. This study examined the associations among children's friendship expectations and their behavior within their friendships, their friendship adjustment, and their socioemotional functioning.…
Johnson, K.D.; Whitbeck, L.B.; Hoyt, D.R.
Recent research on the social support networks of homeless and runaway youth suggest the social networks of runaway youth are made up largely of transient deviant peer relationships. This paper examined social network characteristics of 428 homeless and runaway adolescents from small-to moderate-sized cities in four Midwestern states. We…
Huisman, Chip; Bruggeman, Jeroen
The aim of this study is to examine the role of Dutch second grade (age 13-14) high school peer networks in mediating socioeconomic background and school type effects on smoking behavior. This study is based on a longitudinal design with two measurement waves at five different high schools, of the complete networks of second grader friendships, as…
Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn
Objective To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends’ aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Method Participants included a community sample of 230 5th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child’s and friend’s aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. Results General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents’ understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. Conclusions The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one’s own and others’ well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:26688775
Goza, Franklin; Ryabov, Igor
Little attention has been paid to the role of peer social capital in the school context, especially as a predictor of adolescents' academic outcomes. This study uses a nationally representative (N = 13,738, female = 51%), longitudinal sample and multilevel models to examine how peer networks impact educational achievement and attainment. Results reveal that, in addition to those factors typically associated with academic outcomes (e.g., school composition), two individual-level peer network measures, SES and heterogeneity, had significant effects. Although educational attainment was generally worse in low SES schools, for all ethnic groups higher attainment was associated with attending schools with higher concentrations of minority students. At the individual level, however, membership in integrated peer networks was negatively related to high school graduation for Asians, Latinos, and non-Hispanic whites, and to GPA for Asians and Latinos, as only African-American achievement increased in more racially/ethnically heterogeneous peer networks. Our results suggest that co-ethnic and co-racial peer friendship networks should not be viewed as obstacles to the educational accomplishments of today's youth. In fact, in many cases the opposite was true, as results generally support the ethnic social capital hypothesis while providing little corroboration for oppositional culture theory. Results also suggest that co-racial and co-ethnic ties may mediate the negative effects of school choice, or more specifically of between-school socioeconomic segregation. Consequently, we conclude that school policies aimed at socioeconomic desegregation are likely to beneficially affect the academic outcomes of all race/ethnic groups.
Gremmen, Mariola Claudia; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian; Veenstra, René
This study concerns peer selection and influence dynamics in early adolescents' friendships regarding academic achievement. Using longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena), both selection and influence processes were investigated for students' average grades and their cluster-specific grades (i.e., language, exact, and social cluster). Data were derived from the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study, using 6 waves (N = 601; Mage = 12.66, 48.9% boys at first wave). Results showed developmental differences between the first and second year of secondary school (seventh and eighth grade). Whereas selection processes were found in the first year on students' cluster-specific grades, influence processes were found in the second year, on both students' average and cluster-specific grades. These results suggest that students initially tend to select friends on the basis of similar cluster-based grades (first year), showing that similarity in achievement is attractive for friendships. Especially for low-achieving students, similar-achieving students were highly attractive as friends, whereas they were mostly avoided by high-achieving students. Influence processes on academic achievement take place later on (second year), when students know each other better, indicating that students' grades become more similar over time in response to their connectedness. Concluding, this study shows the importance of developmental differences and specific school subjects for understanding peer selection and influence processes in adolescents' academic achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record
Ford, Kim, Ed.
Friendship lies at the very heart of the middle school experience. Here are books to help students navigate those waters, recognize what (and who) has value, and determine what kind of friend they want to be.
Fisher, Kim W.; Shogren, Karrie A.
This study examined adolescents' social capital, through social network analyses (i.e., ego network analyses), in two high schools where students were placed into academic tracks adopted by the schools and shaped by disability status (i.e., general education, co-taught, segregated special education classrooms). The impact of academic tracks, as…
Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan
Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…
Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Goossens, Luc; Duriez, Bart; Niemiec, Christopher P.
This study investigated the associations among psychologically controlling parenting, relational aggression, friendship quality, and loneliness during adolescence. A model was proposed in which relational aggression plays an intervening role in the relations between both parental psychological control and friendship outcomes. In a sample comprised…
Bukowski, William M.; And Others
Studied the associations between measures of friendship and popularity derived from nomination and rating scales procedures with a sample of school-age and early adolescent boys and girls. Found that each of these techniques can provide parallel measures of popularity (sociometric preference) and friendship (whether the child is participating in a…
DeLay, Dawn; Ha, Thao; Van Ryzin, Mark; Winter, Charlotte; Dishion, Thomas J.
Adolescent friendships that promote problem behavior are often chosen in middle school. The current study examines the unintended impact of a randomized school based intervention on the selection of friends in middle school, as well as on observations of deviant talk with friends five years later. Participants included 998 middle school students (526 boys and 472 girls) recruited at the onset of middle school (age 11-12 years) from three public middle schools participating in the Family Check-up model intervention. The current study focuses only on the effects of the SHAPe curriculum—one level of the Family Check-up model—on friendship choices. Participants nominated friends and completed measures of deviant peer affiliation. Approximately half of the sample (n=500) was randomly assigned to the intervention and the other half (n=498) comprised the control group within each school. The results indicate that the SHAPe curriculum affected friend selection within School 1, but not within Schools 2 or 3. The effects of friend selection in School 1 translated into reductions in observed deviancy training five years later (age 16-17 years). By coupling longitudinal social network analysis with a randomized intervention study the current findings provide initial evidence that a randomized public middle school intervention can disrupt the formation of deviant peer groups and diminish levels of adolescent deviance five years later. PMID:26377235
DeLay, Dawn; Ha, Thao; Van Ryzin, Mark; Winter, Charlotte; Dishion, Thomas J
Adolescent friendships that promote problem behavior are often chosen in middle school. The current study examines the unintended impact of a randomized school-based intervention on the selection of friends in middle school, as well as on observations of deviant talk with friends 5 years later. Participants included 998 middle school students (526 boys and 472 girls) recruited at the onset of middle school (age 11-12 years) from three public middle schools participating in the Family Check-up model intervention. The current study focuses only on the effects of the SHAPe curriculum-one level of the Family Check-up model-on friendship choices. Participants nominated friends and completed measures of deviant peer affiliation. Approximately half of the sample (n = 500) was randomly assigned to the intervention, and the other half (n = 498) comprised the control group within each school. The results indicate that the SHAPe curriculum affected friend selection within school 1 but not within schools 2 or 3. The effects of friend selection in school 1 translated into reductions in observed deviancy training 5 years later (age 16-17 years). By coupling longitudinal social network analysis with a randomized intervention study, the current findings provide initial evidence that a randomized public middle school intervention can disrupt the formation of deviant peer groups and diminish levels of adolescent deviance 5 years later.
Schaefer, David R.; adams, jimi; Haas, Steven A.
Adolescent smoking and friendship networks are related in many ways that can amplify smoking prevalence. Understanding and developing interventions within such a complex system requires new analytic approaches. We draw on recent advances in dynamic network modeling to develop a technique that explores the implications of various intervention…
Gutstein, Steven E.; Rudd, M. David
This booklet describes Houston's Systemic Crisis Intervention Program (SCIP), an outpatient-based program for adolescents who have attempted suicide, used during the suicidal crisis period and based on the premise that children need a healthy kin system to serve as a buffer to the all too frequent crises of adolescence. The introduction presents…
Kruger, L J; Bernstein, G; Botman, H
The relationship between team friendships and burnout was investigated. The participants were counselors from 16 work teams in a short-term residential facility for emotionally disturbed children and adolescents that was located in the United States. The burnout dimensions were lack of personal accomplishment, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization (Maslach & Jackson, 1986). Reciprocal nominations between team members were used as a measure of team friendships. Friendship between members of the same team was positively related to personal accomplishment and inversely related to emotional exhaustion. The frequency of three aspects of team friendships was also examined: personal discussions, work discussions, and having fun. Having fun with a team friend was positively related to personal accomplishment, and having work discussions with a team friend was inversely related to depersonalization. The women reported more frequent contact with team friends than the men did.
Crosnoe, Robert; Erickson, Kristan Glasgow; Dornbusch, Sanford M.
Used self-reports and reports from friends to explore gender differences in the impact of risk and protective factors on adolescent deviant behavior. Both family and school factors reduced adolescent delinquency and substance use and protected adolescents against the impact of having deviant friends, though school factors were more consistently…
Seymour, Helena; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A.
Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical…
Harris, Robert A.
The beginning of the friendship between myself and H.F. Schaefer (hereafter 'Fritz') took place in Berkeley. The development of this friendship is best described by the question: How did a red diaper baby become good friends with one who had a totally different view of 'ultimate questions'? The essential role my wife, Christine Chapin Harris, plays in the friendship when Fritz moves to Georgia is next described. The story continues with Fritz's efforts over many years, finally successful, to encourage us to visit Georgia. This part of the history emphasizes Fritz's kindness towards Christine. I end this section with our adventures with Fritz in Georgia. The final section is about our old age common humanity.
Uecker, Jeremy E
I analyze the effects of Catholic schooling, Protestant schooling, and homeschooling on adolescents' religious lives and test three mechanisms through which these schooling strategies might influence religiosity: friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors. Data from Wave 1 of the National Survey of Youth and Religion suggest that Catholic schoolers attend religious services more frequently and value their faith more highly than public schoolers, but attend religious education classes and youth group less often. Protestant schoolers' involvement in their local congregation is similar to public schoolers', but their faith plays a more salient role in their life and they are more active in private religious activities. Homeschoolers do not differ significantly from public schoolers on any outcome considered. Moreover, friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors play a very limited role in mediating the relationships between schooling strategies and adolescent religiosity. Interpretations of these findings are presented and discussed.
Fu, Jingcheng; Wu, Jianliang
The friendship paradox (FP) is a sociological phenomenon stating that most people have fewer friends than their friends do. It is to say that in a social network, the number of friends that most individuals have is smaller than the average number of friends of friends. This has been verified by Feld. We call this interpreting method mean value version. But is it the best choice to portray the paradox? In this paper, we propose a probability method to reinterpret this paradox, and we illustrate that the explanation using our method is more persuasive. An individual satisfies the FP if his (her) randomly chosen friend has more friends than him (her) with probability not less than 1/2. Comparing the ratios of nodes satisfying the FP in networks, rp, we can see that the probability version is stronger than the mean value version in real networks both online and offline. We also show some results about the effects of several parameters on rp in random network models. Most importantly, rp is a quadratic polynomial of the power law exponent γ in Price model, and rp is higher when the average clustering coefficient is between 0.4 and 0.5 in Petter-Beom (PB) model. The introduction of the probability method to FP can shed light on understanding the network structure in complex networks especially in social networks.
Scott, Mary E.; Saunders, Kevin W.
Two sample lessons are presented to help elementary-school children with behavior disorders understand friendship relationships. Hypothetical student relations are diagrammed, and class discussions deal with the reasons for students' popularity and unpopularity and the acceptability or unacceptability of the reasons. (JDD)
After years of using Rube Goldberg-inspired projects to teach concepts of simple machines, the author sought a comparable project to reinforce electricity lessons in his ninth-grade Science and Technology course. The Friendship Detector gives students a chance to design, test, and build a complex circuit with multiple switches and battery-powered…
Adolescent sexual behaviour may show clustering in neighbourhoods, schools and friendship networks. This study aims to assess how experience with sexual intercourse clusters across the social world of adolescents and whether predictors implicated by life history theory or personality traits can account for its between-individual variation and social patterning. Using data on 2877 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we ran logistic multiple classification models to assess the clustering of sexual experience by approximately 17.5 years in schools, neighbourhoods and friendship networks. We examined how much clustering at particular levels could be accounted for by life history predictors and Big Five personality factors. Sexual experience exhibited substantial clustering in friendship networks, while clustering at the level of schools and neighbourhoods was minimal, suggesting a limited role for socio-ecological influences at those levels. While life history predictors did account for some variation in sexual experience, they did not explain clustering in friendship networks. Personality, especially extraversion, explained about a quarter of friends' similarity. After accounting for life history factors and personality, substantial unexplained similarity among friends remained, which may reflect a tendency to associate with similar individuals or the social transmission of behavioural norms. PMID:27853543
de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D; Pollard, Michael S; Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S
Adolescents often befriend peers who are similar to themselves on a range of demographic, behavioral, and social characteristics, including substance use. Similarities in lifetime history of marijuana use have even been found to predict adolescent friendships, and we examine whether this finding is explained by youth's selection of friends who are similar on a range of more proximate, observable characteristics that are risk factors for marijuana use. Using two waves of individual and social network data from two high schools that participated in Add Health (N = 1,612; 52.7% male), we apply longitudinal models for social networks to test whether or not several observable risky attributes (psychological, behavioral, and social) predict adolescent friendship choices, and if these preferences explain friend's similarities on lifetime marijuana use. Findings show that similarities on several risk factors predict friendship choices, however controlling for this, the preference to befriend peers with a similar history of marijuana use largely persists. The results highlight the range of social selection processes that lead to similarities in marijuana use among friends and larger peer groups, and that also give rise to friendship groups whose members share similar risk factors for substance use. Friends with high "collective risk" are likely to be important targets for preventing the onset and social diffusion of substance use in adolescents.
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Kolaczyk, Eric; Jang, Jisun; Swenson, Theadora; Bhindarwala, Asma Moiz
This study investigates an association between social network characteristics and binge drinking from adolescence to young adulthood, utilizing National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 7,966) and employing social network and longitudinal analysis. Lower integration and socialization with alcohol-using peers had immediate risks of binge drinking during adolescence; however, over time, the effects of socialization with alcohol-using peers had the most dramatic reduction. The most prestigious adolescents had the highest longitudinal risks of binge drinking, although they had no immediate risk. Alcohol consumption-related interventions overlooking longitudinal dynamics of social networks may not effectively prevent adolescents from binge drinking in young adulthood.
This study examined the role of adolescents' perceived close relationships with significant others (attachment relationships with mothers/fathers, appraisal of homeroom teacher as secure base, and quality of peer friendship) in explaining differences in their socioemotional and behavioral functioning (peer-network/peer-dyadic loneliness,…
Dwyer, Dominic B; Harrison, Ben J; Yücel, Murat; Whittle, Sarah; Zalesky, Andrew; Pantelis, Christos; Allen, Nicholas B; Fornito, Alex
Adolescence is a time when the ability to engage cognitive control is linked to crucial life outcomes. Despite a historical focus on prefrontal cortex functioning, recent evidence suggests that differences between individuals may relate to interactions between distributed brain regions that collectively form a cognitive control network (CCN). Other research points to a spatially distinct and functionally antagonistic system--the default-mode network (DMN)--which typically deactivates during performance of control tasks. This literature implies that individual differences in cognitive control are determined either by activation or functional connectivity of CCN regions, deactivation or functional connectivity of DMN regions, or some combination of both. We tested between these possibilities using a multilevel fMRI characterization of CCN and DMN dynamics, measured during performance of a cognitive control task and during a task-free resting state, in 73 human adolescents. Better cognitive control performance was associated with (1) reduced activation of CCN regions, but not deactivation of the DMN; (2) variations in task-related, but not resting-state, functional connectivity within a distributed network involving both the CCN and DMN; (3) functional segregation of core elements of these two systems; and (4) task-dependent functional integration of a set of peripheral nodes into either one network or the other in response to prevailing stimulus conditions. These results indicate that individual differences in adolescent cognitive control are not solely attributable to the functioning of any single region or network, but are instead dependent on a dynamic and context-dependent interplay between the CCN and DMN.
Jones, Martin H.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Kibe, Grace W.
The study is one of few to examine how living in rural, suburban, or urban settings may alter factors supporting African Americans adolescents' math performance. The study examines the relationship of math self-concept and perceptions of friends' academic behaviors to African American students' math performance. Participants (N = 1,049) are…
Bukowski, William M.; Newcomb, Andrew F.
Considerable stability was observed on measures of acceptance, rejection, preference, and impact in a one-year longitudinal study of sociometric stability and friendship choice consistency in an early-adolescent peer group. Findings provided new information about patterns of stability in early adolescent peer groups and revealed the need for…
Rose, Amanda J.; Smith, Rhiannon L.; Glick, Gary C.; Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.
This research highlights the critical role of gender in the context of problem talk and social support in adolescents' friendships. Early- and middle-adolescents' (N = 314 friend dyads; Ms = 13.01 and 16.03 years) conversations about problems were studied using observation and a short-term longitudinal design. Mean-level gender differences emerged…
Courtois, Cédric; All, Anissa; Vanwynsberghe, Hadewijch
This article presents the results of a study concerning the use of online profile pages by adolescents to know more about "offline" friends and acquaintances. Previous research has indicated that social networking sites (SNSs) are used to gather information on new online contacts. However, several studies have demonstrated a substantial overlap between offline and online social networks. Hence, we question whether online connections are meaningful in gathering information on offline friends and acquaintances. First, the results indicate that a combination of passive uncertainty reduction (monitoring a target's profile) and interactive uncertainty reduction (communication through the target's profile) explains a considerable amount of variance in the level of uncertainty about both friends and acquaintances. More specifically, adolescents generally get to know much more about their acquaintances. Second, the results of online uncertainty reduction positively affect the degree of self-disclosure, which is imperative in building a solid friend relation. Further, we find that uncertainty reduction strategies positively mediate the effect of social anxiety on the level of certainty about friends. This implies that socially anxious teenagers benefit from SNSs by getting the conditions right to build a more solid relation with their friends. Hence, we conclude that SNSs play a substantial role in today's adolescents' everyday interpersonal communication.
Children's friendships are currently understood from a psychological perspective that focuses on the child's internal concept of friendship and how it develops. Very few scholars have directly examined how children's talk in the relationship influences the friendship or the perceptions children have of the friendship. A communicative perspective…
Drawing on data from the first large-scale comprehensive study of older lesbian life in the United Kingdom, this article explores the nature of friendship and community among old lesbians. Strong friendship bonds and social networking emerge as key features of old lesbian culture. In particular the article focuses on "chosen families," including relationships with ex-lovers, and on the extensive network of both organized and informal social groups that continue to structure and support a sense of community among old lesbians. It shows the lasting importance of friendships and social structures formed earlier in life against a background of stigmatization, homophobia, and heterosexism, and argues for the recognition of these communities of identity by those who care for older people.
Uecker, Jeremy E.
I analyze the effects of Catholic schooling, Protestant schooling, and homeschooling on adolescents’ religious lives and test three mechanisms through which these schooling strategies might influence religiosity: friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors. Data from Wave 1 of the National Survey of Youth and Religion suggest that Catholic schoolers attend religious services more frequently and value their faith more highly than public schoolers, but attend religious education classes and youth group less often. Protestant schoolers’ involvement in their local congregation is similar to public schoolers’, but their faith plays a more salient role in their life and they are more active in private religious activities. Homeschoolers do not differ significantly from public schoolers on any outcome considered. Moreover, friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors play a very limited role in mediating the relationships between schooling strategies and adolescent religiosity. Interpretations of these findings are presented and discussed. PMID:21709822
Ragan, Daniel T; Osgood, D Wayne; Feinberg, Mark E
The current study investigates the possibility that friendship networks connect adolescents to influence from a broader group of adults beyond their own families. In doing so, we combine two rich traditions of research on adult influence on children and adolescents. Family research has suggested a number of ways in which effective parenting can reduce deviant behavior among adolescents. In addition, research on neighborhoods has advanced the idea that adults outside of the immediate family can exert social control that may reduce deviance. We employ longitudinal social network analysis to examine data drawn from the PROSPER Peers Project, a longitudinal study of adolescents following over 12,000 students in 27 non-metropolitan communities as they moved from 6th through 9th grade. We find evidence that the behavior of friends' parents is linked, both directly and indirectly, to adolescent alcohol use. Findings suggest that much of the influence from friends' parents is mediated through peer behavior, but that parental knowledge reported by friends continues to be associated with alcohol use even when controlling for competing mechanisms. Furthermore, adolescents tend to choose friends who report similar levels of parenting as themselves. Our results provide support for the position that friendships in adolescence connect youth to a broader network of adults and illustrate how adults outside of the family contribute to the social control of adolescents.
Wainright, Jennifer L; Patterson, Charlotte J
This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics and drawn from a national sample. On both self-reported and peer-reported measures of relations with peers, adolescents were functioning well, and the quality of their peer relations was not associated with family type. Regardless of family type, adolescents whose parents described closer relationships with them reported higher quality peer relations and more friends in school and were rated as more central in their friendship networks.
Faircloth, Beverly S.; Hamm, Jill V.
Dynamic features of peer network experiences (membership fluidity and network interconnectedness) were examined for their role in African American and White early adolescents' sense of belonging in mathematics classrooms. Because these dynamic features are naturally present in adolescents' peer group affiliations, attention to them provides a more…
Kim, Sun Mi; Park, Sung Yong; Kim, Young In; Son, Young Don; Chung, Un-Sun; Min, Kyung Joon; Han, Doug Hyun
Aim Disruptive behaviors are thought to affect the progress of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents. In resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) studies of MDD, the affective network (limbic network) and the default mode network (DMN) have garnered a great deal of interest. We aimed to investigate RSFC in a sample of treatment-naïve adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors. Methods Twenty-two adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors (disrup-MDD) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used a seed-based correlation approach concerning two brain circuits including the affective network and the DMN, with two seed regions including the bilateral amygdala for the limbic network and the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) for the DMN. We also observed a correlation between RSFC and severity of depressive symptoms and disruptive behaviors. Results The disrup-MDD participants showed lower RSFC from the amygdala to the orbitofrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus compared to HC participants. Depression scores in disrup-MDD participants were negatively correlated with RSFC from the amygdala to the right orbitofrontal cortex. The disrup-MDD participants had higher PCC RSFC compared to HC participants in a cluster that included the left precentral gyrus, left insula, and left parietal lobe. Disruptive behavior scores in disrup-MDD patients were positively correlated with RSFC from the PCC to the left insular cortex. Conclusion Depressive mood might be correlated with the affective network, and disruptive behavior might be correlated with the DMN in adolescent depression. PMID:26770059
Overall view of astronaut John Glenn, Jr., as he enters into the spacecraft Friendship 7 prior to MA-6 launch operations at Launch Complex 14. Astronaut Glenn is entering his spacecraft to begin the first American manned Earth orbital mission.
Seymour, Helena; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A
Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical education from the perspective of students with (n = 8) and without (n = 8) physical disabilities. All participants attended a reversely integrated school and were interviewed using a semistructured, open-ended format. An adapted version of Weiss, Smith, and Theeboom's (1996) interview guide exploring perceptions of peer relationships in the sport domain was used. Four conceptual categories emerged from the analysis: development of friendship, best friend, preferred physical activities and outcomes, and dealing with disability. The results demonstrated the key characteristics of best friends and the influential role they play.
Vernon, Lynette; Barber, Bonnie L; Modecki, Kathryn L
An important developmental task for adolescents is to become increasingly responsible for their own health behaviors. Establishing healthy sleep routines and controlling media use before bedtime are important for adequate, quality sleep so adolescents are alert during the day and perform well at school. Despite the prevalence of adolescent social media use and the large percentage of computers and cell phones in adolescents' bedrooms, no studies to date have investigated the link between problematic adolescent investment in social networking, their sleep practices, and associated experiences at school. A sample of 1,886 students in Australia aged between 12 and 18 years of age completed self-report data on problematic social networking use, sleep disturbances, sleep quality, and school satisfaction. Structural equation modeling (SEM) substantiated the serial mediation hypothesis: for adolescents, problematic social networking use significantly increased sleep disturbances, which adversely affected perceptions of sleep quality that, in turn, lowered adolescents' appraisals of their school satisfaction. This significant pattern was largely driven by the indirect effect of sleep disturbances. These findings suggest that adolescents are vulnerable to negative consequences from social networking use. Specifically, problematic social networking is associated with poor school experiences, which result from poor sleep habits. Promoting better sleep routines by minimizing sleep disturbances from social media use could improve school experiences for adolescents with enhanced emotional engagement and improved subjective well-being.
Endestad, Tor; Melinder, Annika Maria D.; Øie, Merete Glenne; Sevenius, Andre; Bruun Wyller, Vegard
Neural network investigations are currently absent in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). In this study, we examine whether the core intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are altered in adolescent CFS patients. Eighteen adolescent patients with CFS and 18 aged matched healthy adolescent control subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI). Data was analyzed using dual-regression independent components analysis, which is a data-driven approach for the identification of independent brain networks. Intrinsic connectivity was evaluated in the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and central executive network (CEN). Associations between network characteristics and symptoms of CFS were also explored. Adolescent CFS patients displayed a significant decrease in SN functional connectivity to the right posterior insula compared to healthy comparison participants, which was related to fatigue symptoms. Additionally, there was an association between pain intensity and SN functional connectivity to the left middle insula and caudate that differed between adolescent patients and healthy comparison participants. Our findings of insula dysfunction and its association with fatigue severity and pain intensity in adolescent CFS demonstrate an aberration of the salience network which might play a role in CFS pathophysiology. PMID:27414048
Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E; Allen, Joseph P; Evans, Meredyth A; Hare, Amanda L
This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13-14 years and again at ages 20-22 years. At ages 20-22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship quality on their web pages were coded by observers. Results suggested that youths who had been better adjusted at ages 13-14 years were more likely to be using social networking web pages at ages 20-22 years, after statistically controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and parental income. Overall, youths' patterns of peer relationships, friendship quality, and behavioral adjustment at ages 13-14 years and at ages 20-22 years predicted similar qualities of interaction and problem behavior on their social networking websites at ages 20-22 years. Findings are consistent with developmental theory asserting that youths display cross-situational continuity in their social behaviors and suggest that the conceptualization of continuity may be extended into the online domain.
Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Evans, Meredyth A.; Hare, Amanda L.
This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13–14 years and again at ages 20–22 years. At ages 20–22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship quality on their web pages were coded by observers. Results suggested that youths who had been better adjusted at ages 13–14 years were more likely to be using social networking web pages at ages 20–22 years, after statistically controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and parental income. Overall, youths' patterns of peer relationships, friendship quality, and behavioral adjustment at ages 13–14 years and at ages 20–22 years predicted similar qualities of interaction and problem behavior on their social networking websites at ages 20–22 years. Findings are consistent with developmental theory asserting that youths display cross-situational continuity in their social behaviors and suggest that the conceptualization of continuity may be extended into the online domain. PMID:20053005
Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.
This study investigated moderating effects of classroom friendship network structures (centralization and density), teacher-student attunement on aggression and popularity, and gender on changes in the social status of aggression over 1 school year. Longitudinal multilevel analyses with 2 time points (fall and spring) were conducted on a sample of…
adolescents, say a grade or an entire school . These distributions can serve as more than mere curiosities when used as a basis for a dynamic model of...or an entire school . These distributions can serve as more than mere curiosities when used as a basis for a dynamic model of network change and...with our culture of substance use, these questions seem rhetorical and elicit high school memories of either clandestine meetings with friends at safe
Daniel, João R.; Santos, António J.; Antunes, Marta; Fernandes, Marília; Vaughn, Brian E.
We used stochastic actor-based models to test whether the developmental dynamics of friendships and antipathies in preschool peer groups (followed throughout three school years) were co-dependent. We combined choices from three sociometric tasks of 142 children to identify friendship and antipathy ties and used SIENA to model network dynamics. Our results show that different social processes drive the development of friendship and antipathy ties, and that they do not develop in association (i.e., friendship ties are not dependent on existing antipathies, and vice-versa). These results differ from those of older children (age range = 10–14) suggesting that the interplay of friendship and antipathy only plays a significant role in the peer group context in older children. We propose these differences to be likely related with preschool age children's inaccurate perceptions of their classmates' relationships, particularly of their antipathies, and/or with the absence of shared norms to deal with antipathetic relationships. PMID:27766087
Daniel, João R; Santos, António J; Antunes, Marta; Fernandes, Marília; Vaughn, Brian E
We used stochastic actor-based models to test whether the developmental dynamics of friendships and antipathies in preschool peer groups (followed throughout three school years) were co-dependent. We combined choices from three sociometric tasks of 142 children to identify friendship and antipathy ties and used SIENA to model network dynamics. Our results show that different social processes drive the development of friendship and antipathy ties, and that they do not develop in association (i.e., friendship ties are not dependent on existing antipathies, and vice-versa). These results differ from those of older children (age range = 10-14) suggesting that the interplay of friendship and antipathy only plays a significant role in the peer group context in older children. We propose these differences to be likely related with preschool age children's inaccurate perceptions of their classmates' relationships, particularly of their antipathies, and/or with the absence of shared norms to deal with antipathetic relationships.
Rice, Eric; Milburn, Norweeta G; Monro, William
Peer-based prevention programs for homeless youth are complicated by the potential for reinforcing high-risk behaviors among participants. The goal of this study is to understand how homeless youth could be linked to positive peers in prevention programming by understanding where in social and physical space positive peers for homeless youth are located, how these ties are associated with substance use, and the role of social networking technologies (e.g., internet and cell phones) in this process. Personal social network data were collected from 136 homeless adolescents in Los Angeles, CA. Respondents reported on composition of their social networks with respect to: home-based peers and parents (accessed via social networking technology; e.g., the internet, cell phone, texting), homeless peers and agency staff (accessed face-to-face) and whether or not network members were substance-using or non-substance-using. Associations between respondent's lifetime cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine use and recent (previous 30 days) alcohol and marijuana use were assessed by the number of non-substance-using versus substance-using ties in multivariate linear regression models. 43% of adolescents reported a non-substance-using home-based tie. More of these ties were associated with less recent alcohol use. 62% of adolescents reported a substance-using homeless tie. More of these ties were associated with more recent marijuana use as well as more lifetime heroin and methamphetamine use. For homeless youth, who are physically disconnected from positive peers, social networking technologies can be used to facilitate the sorts of positive social ties that effective peer-based prevention programs require.
Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Farkas, George; Muller, Chandra
This article examines the role of friends in girls' and boys' advanced course taking and explores whether friends' characteristics are particularly important for girls' math and science attainment. With the use of data from Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Heath, the results indicate that same-sex friends' academic performance significantly predicts course taking in all subjects for girls, but not for boys. Furthermore, for math and science only, the effects of friends' performance are greater in the context of a predominantly female friendship group, which suggests that such groups provide a counterpoint to the gendered stereotypes and identities of those subjects. PMID:20333274
Caravita, Simona C S; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Rambaran, J Ashwin; Gini, Gianluca
Moral disengagement processes are cognitive self-justification processes of transgressive actions that have been hypothesized to be learned and socialized within social contexts. The current study aimed at investigating socialization of moral disengagement by friends in two developmentally different age groups, namely late childhood (age: 9-10 years; n = 133, 42.9% girls) and early adolescence (age: 11-14 years; n = 236, 40.6% girls) over a 1-year period. Specifically, the current study examined whether similarity in moral disengagement between friends was the result of friends' influence or friend selection. Moreover, gender (42% girls), individual bullying behavior, and perceived popularity status were examined as potential moderators of socialization for moral disengagement within friendship networks. Self-report measures were used to assess moral disengagement, sociometric questions and a peer-nomination scale for friendship networks and bullying behavior, respectively. Longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena) was used to study change of moral disengagement in friendship networks during a 1-year interval. In early adolescence, friends were more likely to be similar to each other over time and this was explained only by influence processes and not by selection processes. Gender, bullying, and perceived popularity did not moderate the friends' influence on moral disengagement over time. Results indicate that self-justification processes change over time already in late childhood, but only in early adolescence this change is likely to be dependent upon peers' moral disengagement.
Fletcher, Anne C; Rollins, Alethea; Nickerson, Pamela
Children's (N=142) school friendships with same versus different race peers were coded for prevalence and the extent to which parents maintained social relationships with these friends (a proxy for extension of friendships beyond the school context). Membership in integrated versus nonintegrated social networks at school was unassociated with psychosocial well-being. Out-of-school extension of interracial friendships was linked with greater social competence among Black children. Black children whose friendships with both same and different race peers were extended beyond the school context reported higher levels of self-esteem.
CALHOUN, CASEY D.; HELMS, SARAH W.; HEILBRON, NICOLE; RUDOLPH, KAREN D.; HASTINGS, PAUL D.; PRINSTEIN, MITCHELL J.
Adolescents’ peer experiences may have significant associations with biological stress-response systems, adding to or reducing allostatic load. This study examined relational victimization as a unique contributor to reactive hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis responses as well as friendship quality and behavior as factors that may promote HPA recovery following a stressor. A total of 62 adolescents (ages 12–16; 73% female) presenting with a wide range of life stressors and adjustment difficulties completed survey measures of peer victimization and friendship quality. Cortisol samples were collected before and after a lab-based interpersonally themed social stressor task to provide measures of HPA baseline, reactivity, and recovery. Following the stressor task, adolescents discussed their performance with a close friend; observational coding yielded measures of friends’ responsiveness. Adolescents also reported positive and negative friendship qualities. Results suggested that higher levels of adolescents’ relational victimization were associated with blunted cortisol reactivity, even after controlling for physical forms of victimization and other known predictors of HPA functioning (i.e., life stress or depressive symptoms). Friendship qualities (i.e., low negative qualities) and specific friendship behaviors (i.e., high levels of responsiveness) contributed to greater HPA regulation; however, consistent with theories of rumination, high friend responsiveness in the context of high levels of positive friendship quality contributed to less cortisol recovery. Findings extend prior work on the importance of relational victimization and dyadic peer relations as unique and salient correlates of adaptation in adolescence. PMID:25047287
Watt, Anne S.
Relates how a child's love of Yoko Kawashima Watkins's book,
Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Schouten, Alexander P
The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of friend networking sites (e.g., Friendster, MySpace) for adolescents' self-esteem and well-being. We conducted a survey among 881 adolescents (10-19-year-olds) who had an online profile on a Dutch friend networking site. Using structural equation modeling, we found that the frequency with which adolescents used the site had an indirect effect on their social self-esteem and well-being. The use of the friend networking site stimulated the number of relationships formed on the site, the frequency with which adolescents received feedback on their profiles, and the tone (i.e., positive vs. negative) of this feedback. Positive feedback on the profiles enhanced adolescents' social self-esteem and well-being, whereas negative feedback decreased their self-esteem and well-being.
Calder, Lynsey; Hill, Vivian; Pellicano, Elizabeth
Research has shown that friendship impacts the overall experience of mainstream school for autistic children. Using a unique combination of quantitative, qualitative and social network methods, we investigated the extent and nature of autistic children's friendships from their perspective and from those of their mothers, teachers and classroom…
Chen, Chien-Yu; Mao, Hsiao-Yen; Hsieh, An-Tien
The importance of workplace friendship is recognized by researchers and practitioners, but its antecedents with respect to work roles are not well understood. Employees' gender might moderate a relationship between work roles and friendships. Data from a survey of 221 international tourist hotel employees showed that a key aspect of job support, role ambiguity, was negatively related to having workplace friendships. However, employees' gender did not moderate this relationship. Role clarity (the opposite of role ambiguity) may facilitate workplace friendships.
Mason, Michael J.
This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and…
Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Murray, David; Welk, Greg; Birnbaum, Amanda; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Saksvig, Brit; Jobe, Jared B.
This report studies the relationship between peer-related physical activity (PA) social networks and the PA of adolescent girls. Methods: Cross-sectional, convenience sample of adolescent girls. Mixed-model linear regression analyses to identify significant correlates of self-reported PA while accounting for correlation of girls in the same…
Lonardo, Robert A.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.
Adolescent networks include parents, friends, and romantic partners, but research on the social learning mechanisms related to delinquency has not typically examined the characteristics of all three domains simultaneously. Analyses draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 957), and our analytic sample contains 51% male and…
Mason, Michael J; Schmidt, Christopher; Abraham, Anisha; Walker, Leslie; Tercyak, Kenneth
The present study examined components of adolescents' social environment (social network, extracurricular activities, and family relationships) in association with depression. A total of 332 adolescents presenting for a routine medical check-up were self-assessed for social network risk (i.e., smoking habits of best male and female friends), extracurricular activity level (i.e., participation in organized sports teams, clubs, etc.), family relationship quality (i.e., cohesion and conflict), and symptoms of depression (i.e., minimal, mild, moderate/severe). Results of a forward linear regression modeling indicate that social environment components were associated with a significant proportion of the variance in adolescent depression (Adjusted R (2) = .177, p < or = .05). Specifically, adolescent females (beta = .166, p < .01) and those having more smokers in their social network (beta = .107, p < .05) presented with significantly greater depression symptoms. Conversely, adolescents who engaged in more extracurricular activities (beta = -.118, p < .05) and experienced higher quality family relationships (beta = -.368, p < .001) presented with significantly lower depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the important role that the social environment plays in adolescent depression, as well as yields new insights into socially-based intervention targets that may ameliorate adolescent depression. These intervention targets may be gender-specific, include positive social network skills training, increase adolescents' engagement in organized activities, and attend to the quality of their family relationships.
French, Doran C.; Purwono, Urip; Rodkin, Philip C.
This study assessed the similarity of adolescents and their friends and peer network associates in religiosity and the extent to which these relationships were associated with antisocial behavior. The sample included 1010 Indonesian (480 male, 530 female) 8th (13.37 years) and 10th grade (15.36 years) students. Adolescents were similar to their…
Hamilton, Nancy L.; Brantley, Laura Bunch; Tims, Frank M.; Angelovich, Nancy; McDougall, Barbara
Substance-abusing adolescents experiencing inadequate family structure and functioning will be at a serious disadvantage with regard to recovery. The family support network (FSN) intervention seeks to extend the focus of treatment beyond the world of the adolescent by engaging the family, a major system in his or her life. Designed to increase…
Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.
Establishing friendships is an important developmental goal of early childhood, but little research has addressed ways in which parents support the friendship development of their young children with disabilities. The purpose of this survey study was to explore the support strategies that parents use to facilitate their children's friendships.…
Prakash, Madhu Suri
Embracing the best ideals of Victory Gardens, this essay celebrates Friendship Gardens. The latter go further: collapsing the dualisms separating victors from losers. Friendships that transcend differences and honor diversity are among the many fruits and organic gifts harvested and shared in the commons created by Friendship Gardens. This essay…
Bukowski, William M.
Examines the historical and conceptual foundations of friendship research. Areas addressed include functions of friendship, study of peer relations and peer systems, associated methodological and measurement challenges, and the study of friendship today. The discussion is framed around the "Harry Potter" (by J. K. Rowling) phenomena. (SD)
Rose, Amanda J; Smith, Rhiannon L; Glick, Gary C; Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A
This research highlights the critical role of gender in the context of problem talk and social support in adolescents' friendships. Early- and middle-adolescents' (N = 314 friend dyads; Ms = 13.01 and 16.03 years) conversations about problems were studied using observation and a short-term longitudinal design. Mean-level gender differences emerged in that girls participated in problem talk more than boys and responded in a more positive and engaged manner to friends' statements about problems (e.g., by saying something supportive, asking a question) than did boys. Interestingly, boys used humor during problem talk more than girls. Despite mean-level differences, there were not gender differences in the functional significance of participating in problem talk and positive engaged responses in that these behaviors predicted increased friendship closeness for both boys and girls. In contrast, humor during problem talk predicted increased closeness only for boys, highlighting an understudied pathway to closeness in boys' friendships.
Bussing, Regina; Meyer, Johanna; Zima, Bonnie T.; Mason, Dana M.; Gary, Faye A.; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson
Objective: This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Methods: Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207) and low risk (n = 167) for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescents’ psychopathology and mental health service utilization, whereas adolescents self-reported their emotional status and ADHD stigma perceptions. Analyses were conducted using ANOVAs and nested logistic regression modeling. Results: Parents of youth with childhood ADHD reported support networks consisting of fewer spouses but more healthcare professionals, and lower levels of support than control parents. Caregiver strain increased with adolescent age and psychopathology. Increased parental network support, youth ADHD symptoms, and caregiver strain, but lower youth stigma perceptions were independently associated with increased service use. Conclusions: Raising children with ADHD appears to significantly impact parental social network experiences. Reduced spousal support and overall lower network support levels may contribute to high caregiver strain commonly reported among parents of ADHD youth. Parental social network experiences influence adolescent ADHD service use. With advances in social networking technology, further research is needed to elucidate ways to enhance caregiver support during ADHD care. PMID:26402692
Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Lim, Michelle H; Shumaker, Erik A; Levinson, Cheri A; Thompson, Tess
High social anxiety in adults is associated with self-report of impaired friendship quality, but not necessarily with impairment reported by friends. Further, prospective prediction of social anxiety and friendship quality over time has not been tested among adults. We therefore examined friendship quality and social anxiety prospectively in 126 young adults (67 primary participants and 59 friends, aged 17-22 years); the primary participants were screened to be extreme groups to increase power and relevance to clinical samples (i.e., they were recruited based on having very high or very low social interaction anxiety). The prospective relationships between friendship quality and social anxiety were then tested using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Friendship quality prospectively predicted social anxiety over time within each individual in the friendship, such that higher friendship quality at Time 1 predicted lower social anxiety approximately 6 months later at Time 2. Social anxiety did not predict friendship quality. Although the results support the view that social anxiety and friendship quality have an important causal relationship, the results run counter to the assumption that high social anxiety causes poor friendship quality. Interventions to increase friendship quality merit further consideration.
Jacobs, Wura; Goodson, Patricia; Barry, Adam E.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.
Background: Despite previous research indicating an adolescents' alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use is dependent upon their sex and the sex composition of their social network, few social network studies consider sex differences and network sex composition as a determinant of adolescents' ATOD use behavior. Methods: This systematic…
Nichols, Joe D.; White, Janet
This project examined the relationships among the motivation and cognitive profiles of adolescent friendship cliques and peripheral (outside the clique group) students in lower and upper track algebra classes. Two hundred and thirty students from two high schools completed a motivation and cognitive engagement instrument as well as a peer group…
McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise; Hughes, Diane L.; Gallagher, Emily K.
Peers become increasingly influential in children's development during late childhood and early adolescence. A large body of research has documented children's proclivity for forming friendships with peers who share similar attributes to themselves, a phenomenon termed homophily. Researchers have used multiple procedures to operationalize…
Rice, Eric; Kurzban, Seth; Ray, Diana
Although social integration tends to have positive effects on the mental health of housed adolescents, the role of homeless adolescents' social networks is more ambiguous. Social network data were collected from 136 homeless adolescents in Hollywood, California to examine how network ties are associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Face-to-face relationships with street-based peers were a risk factor for both anxiety and depression, while contacting home-based friends through social networking technology was found to be protective for depression. Community-based and public agencies serving homeless adolescents should consider facilitating the maintenance of these protective relationships by providing internet access.
Splasdown of Freindship 7 From: The John Glenn Story: Summary of astronaut John Glenn's flying career, from naval aviation training to space flight. The Mercury project is featured as John Glenn flies the Friendship 7 spacecraft. President John F. Kennedy presents the NASA Distinguished service Medal to Astronaut John Glenn.
Carpenter, Delesha M.; Meador, Amy E.; Elstad, Emily A.; Hogan, Susan L.; DeVellis, Robert F.
Objectives Our objective is to explore how vasculitis, affects patients’ friendships and social participation. Methods Vasculitis patients (n=221) completed an online questionnaire that asked if, and how, relationships with friends have changed since receiving a vasculitis diagnosis. Participants’ written responses were imported into Atlas.ti, and two independent researchers used both structured and unstructured coding to identify themes. After reaching 100% consensus on the themes present in each participant’s responses, the coders determined how themes were interrelated across participants. Results Over half of patients (52%) expressed that vasculitis negatively impacted their friendships and 25% noted a negative impact on their social participation. At limes, this negative impact was related to structural changes in patients’ social networks due to loss of friendships. Reduced social participation was also associated with friends’ inability to understand vasculitis and its effects, vasculitis-related fatigue, and lifestyle changes such as not being able to drink alcohol and avoiding infection-prone events. Additionally, patients withdrew from social engagements due to fatigue or because of physical symptoms and side effects. Conclusion The unique circumstances associated with a rare chronic illness like vasculitis can create significant barriers to friendships, including loss of these relationships. Interventions designed to help patients cope with the social impact of vasculitis are implicated, especially if they increase patients’ ability to engage in dialogue about their illness with their friends. PMID:22325346
Bowker, Julie C; Thomas, Katelyn K; Norman, Kelly E; Spencer, Sarah V
Rejection sensitivity (RS) refers to the tendency to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and overreact to experiences of possible rejection. RS is a clear risk factor for psychological maladaptation during early adolescence. However, there is growing evidence of significant heterogeneity in the psychological correlates of RS. To investigate when RS poses the greatest psychological risk during early adolescence, this study examines mutual best friendship involvement (or lack thereof) and the best friends' RS as potential moderators of the associations between RS and psychological difficulties. Participants were 150 7th grade students (58 boys; M age = 13.05 years) who nominated their best friends, and reported on their RS, social anxiety, and self-esteem. Results from a series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that mutual best friendship involvement and best friends' RS were both significant moderators when fear of negative evaluation (a type of social anxiety) served as the dependent variable. The association between RS and fear of negative evaluation was stronger for adolescents without mutual best friends than adolescents with mutual best friends. In addition, the association between RS and fear of negative evaluation was the strongest for adolescents whose best friends were highly rejection sensitive (relative to adolescents whose best friends were moderately or low in RS). Findings highlight the importance of considering best friendships in studies of RS and strongly suggest that, although having mutual best friendships may be protective for rejection sensitive adolescents, having a rejection sensitive best friend may exacerbate difficulties. The significance of friends in the lives of rejection sensitive adolescents is discussed as well as possible applied implications of the findings and study limitations.
Calder, Lynsey; Hill, Vivian; Pellicano, Elizabeth
Research has shown that friendship impacts the overall experience of mainstream school for autistic children. Using a unique combination of quantitative, qualitative and social network methods, we investigated the extent and nature of autistic children's friendships from their perspective and from those of their mothers, teachers and classroom peers. Consistent with previous research, children with autism (n = 12), aged between 9 and 11 years, rated their friendships to be of poorer quality than their non-autistic classroom peers (n = 11). There was, however, much variability in autistic children's ratings, which, unexpectedly, was related to neither children's cognitive ability nor their theory of mind ability. Encouragingly, the children generally reported satisfaction with their friendships, and although no child was socially isolated, the degree of inclusion in friendship networks varied widely. Furthermore, autistic children's social motivation emerged as a key factor in parents' and teachers' reports in determining both the nature and extent of their friendships. Adults played an active role in supporting children's friendships, but this sometimes conflicted with what the children wanted. These findings highlight the need to ascertain the perspectives of young people with autism on their friendships and to consider the social and ethical implications of when and how to intervene.
Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan
Background: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old.…
Coyne, Sarah M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Day, Randal D; Harper, James; Stockdale, Laura
This study examined the relationship between parent-child social networking, connection, and outcomes for adolescents. Participants (491 adolescents and their parents) completed a number of questionnaires on social networking use, feelings of connection, and behavioral outcomes. Social networking with parents was associated with increased connection between parents and adolescents. Feelings of connection then mediated the relationship between social networking with parents and behavioral outcomes, including higher prosocial behavior and lower relational aggression and internalizing behavior. Conversely, adolescent social networking use without parents was associated with negative outcomes, such as increased relational aggression, internalizing behaviors, delinquency, and decreased feelings of connection. These results indicate that although high levels of social networking use may be problematic for some individuals, social networking with parents may potentially strengthen parent-child relationships and then lead to positive outcomes for adolescents.
Jokisaari, Markku; Vuori, Jukka
The authors evaluated how a group-based career intervention affected career network ties among Finnish adolescents as they made educational choices and prepared for their transition to secondary education. They examined the career-related network ties of 868 students during their last year in comprehensive school (junior high school) in a…
Mason, Michael J.; Valente, Thomas W.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Mennis, Jeremy; Lawrence, Frank; Zelenak, Patricia
A sample of 301 Philadelphia adolescents were assessed for substance use and place-based social network quality, a weighted variable based upon risky and protective behaviors of alters. The network measure was anchored in routine locations identified as safe, risky, important, or favorite. Results show young females' (13-16) substance use was…
Miller, Adam B; Adams, Leah M; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J
This study examined parental relationship quality, friendship quality, and depression as mediators of the association between child maltreatment (CM) and adolescent suicidal ideation (SI). Participants were 674 adolescents (46% female; 55% African American) involved in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Data were collected via youth self-report at ages 12, 16, and 18. CM before age 12 predicted poor parental relationships and depression, but not poor friendships, at age 16. Age 16 depression was negatively associated with parental relationship quality and positively associated with SI at age 18. An indirect path from CM to SI via depression was significant, suggesting that the early CM affects depression severity, which in turn is associated with SI. Strong friendship quality (age 16) was associated with SI at age 18; however, there was no significant indirect path from CM to SI via friendships. Results suggest that: 1) CM before age 12 affects parental relationships in adolescence; 2) depression and friendships are related to suicide ideation in later adolescence; and 3) depression partially mediates the association between CM and SI. Results highlight the importance of assessing for a history of CM, quality of interpersonal relationships, and depression severity among youth reporting SI.
Miller, Adam B.; Adams, Leah M.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J.
This study examined parental relationship quality, friendship quality, and depression as mediators of the association between child maltreatment (CM) and adolescent suicidal ideation (SI). Participants were 674 adolescents (46% female; 55% African American) involved in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Data were collected via youth self-report at ages 12, 16, and 18. CM before age 12 predicted poor parental relationships and depression, but not poor friendships, at age 16. Age 16 depression was negatively associated with parental relationship quality and positively associated with SI at age 18. An indirect path from CM to SI via depression was significant, suggesting that the early CM affects depression severity, which in turn is associated with SI. Strong friendship quality (age 16) was associated with SI at age 18; however, there was no significant indirect path from CM to SI via friendships. Results suggest that: 1) CM before age 12 affects parental relationships in adolescence; 2) depression and friendships are related to suicide ideation in later adolescence; and 3) depression partially mediates the association between CM and SI. Results highlight the importance of assessing for a history of CM, quality of interpersonal relationships, and depression severity among youth reporting SI. PMID:25454119
This paper reports on one of the key findings from a recent ethnographic study (Roberts, D., 2007. Friendships and the community of students: peer learning amongst a group of pre-registration student nurses. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Salford, UK) and aims to highlight the importance of friendships for student nurses in clinical practice. An interpretive ethnographic approach was taken in order to reveal the student experience during their pre registration programme. Data was collected using ethnographic interviewing (Sorrell, J.M., Redmond, G.M., 1995. Interviews in qualitative nursing research: differing approaches for ethnographic and phenomenological studies. Journal of Advanced Nursing 21, 1117-1122.) and participant observation. Within this paper I argue that student nurses exist on the edge of the community of practice (of the qualified staff) and therefore form their own parallel community where students are all seen as being in the same boat. In particular students use the friendships they develop in clinical practice to enable them to learn; developing an 'ask anything' culture where all students are perceived as valuable sources of knowledge. Furthermore, it appears that knowledge is contextually bound and not therefore linked to seniority, or length of time served on the course.
Cheng, Siwei; Xie, Yu
Social contexts exert structural effects on individuals' social relationships, including interracial friendships. In this study, we posit that, net of group composition, total context size has a distinct effect on interracial friendship. Under the assumptions of (i) maximization of preference in choosing a friend, (ii) multidimensionality of preference, and (iii) preference for same-race friends, we conducted analyses using microsimulation that yielded three main findings. First, increased context size decreases the likelihood of forming an interracial friendship. Second, the size effect increases with the number of preference dimensions. Third, the size effect is diluted by noise, i.e., the random component affecting friendship formation. Analysis of actual friendship data among 4,745 American high school students yielded results consistent with the main conclusion that increased context size promotes racial segregation and discourages interracial friendship.
Struik, Laura Louise; Bottorff, Joan L; Jung, Mary; Budgen, Claire
Because adolescent girls are being targeted on social networking sites by the tobacco industry, new online tobacco control (TC) initiatives are needed. The purpose of this interpretive descriptive study was to explore adolescent girls' perspectives on the use of social networking sites to deliver TC messages targeting young women. Focus groups were conducted with 17 girls aged 16 to 19. Seven TC messages were provided for evaluation and as context for discussion about the delivery of TC messages on social networking sites. Data were analyzed for themes, which included concerns about the effectiveness of current TC messages and the stereotypical representations of gender, factors perceived to influence the effectiveness of TC messages on social networking sites, and suggestions for enhancing the effectiveness of TC messages placed on social networking sites. Endorsement of TC messaging on social networking sites suggests that this medium is an untapped resource for smoking prevention.
Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Light, John; Rusby, Julie; Westling, Erika; Crewe, Stephanie; Flay, Brian; Campbell, Leah; Zaharakis, Nikola; McHenry, Chantal
Adolescent substance use is a developmentally contingent social practice that is constituted within the routine social-environment of adolescents' lives. Few studies have examined peer networks, perceived activity space risk (risk of substance use at routine locations), and substance use. We examined the moderating influence of peer network characteristics on the relationship between perceived activity space risk and substance use among a sample of 250 urban adolescents. Significant interactions were found between peer networks and perceived activity space risk on tobacco and marijuana use, such that protective peer networks reduced the effect of activity place risk on substance use. A significant 3-way interaction was found on marijuana use indicating that gender moderated peer network's effect on activity space risk. Conditional effect analysis found that boys' peer networks moderated the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use, whereas for girls, the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use was not moderated by their peer networks. These findings could advance theoretical models to inform social-environmental research among adolescents.
Evans, Clare R; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Williams, David R; Subramanian, S V
Adolescent health and behaviors are influenced by multiple contexts, including schools, neighborhoods, and social networks, yet these contexts are rarely considered simultaneously. In this study we combine social network community detection analysis and cross-classified multilevel modeling in order to compare the contributions of each of these three contexts to the total variation in adolescent body mass index (BMI). Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is used, and for robustness we conduct the analysis in both the core sample (122 schools; N = 14,144) and a sub-set of the sample (16 schools; N = 3335), known as the saturated sample due to its completeness of neighborhood data. After adjusting for relevant covariates, we find that the school-level and neighborhood-level contributions to the variance are modest compared with the network community-level (σ(2)school = 0.069, σ(2)neighborhood = 0.144, σ(2)network = 0.463). These results are robust to two alternative algorithms for specifying network communities, and to analysis in the saturated sample. While this study does not determine whether network effects are attributable to social influence or selection, it does highlight the salience of adolescent social networks and indicates that they may be a promising context to address in the design of health promotion programs.
Gilliam, Patricia P; Ellen, Jonathan M; Leonard, Lori; Kinsman, Sara; Jevitt, Cecilia M; Straub, Diane M
The transition process from pediatric to adult health care for adolescents with chronic diseases is always challenging and can be even more so for adolescents with HIV disease. The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics and current practices surrounding the transition of adolescents from the clinics of the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions to adult medical care. This report focuses on the processes of transition, perceived barriers and facilitators, and anecdotal reports of successes and failures. Practice models used to assist adolescents during transition to adult medical care are described. Interviews were conducted with 19 key informants from 14 Adolescent Trials Network clinics. Findings revealed no consistent definition of "successful" transition, little consensus among the sites regarding specific elements of a transition program, and a lack of mechanisms to assess outcomes. Sites that viewed transition as a process rather than an event consistently described more structured program elements.
Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra
This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to control for common environment at the network level and to solve the simultaneity (reflection) problem. Our second equation is a panel dynamic weight production function relating an individual's Body Mass Index z-score (zBMI) to his fast food consumption and his lagged zBMI, and allowing for irregular intervals in the data. Results show that there are positive but small peer effects in fast food consumption among adolescents belonging to a same friendship school network. Based on our preferred specification, the estimated social multiplier is 1.15. Our results also suggest that, in the long run, an extra day of weekly fast food restaurant visits increases zBMI by 4.45% when ignoring peer effects and by 5.11%, when they are taken into account.
Fujimoto, Kayo; Unger, Jennifer B.; Valente, Thomas W.
Using a network analytic framework, this study introduces a new method to measure peer influence based on adolescents' affiliations or 2-mode social network data. Exposure based on affiliations is referred to as the "affiliation exposure model." This study demonstrates the methodology using data on young adolescent smoking being influenced by…
Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan
Background Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents’ views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods Focus groups were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old. Facilitators asked participants for their views regarding use of social networking web sites (SNSs) and text messaging for sexual health education. Tape-recorded data was transcribed; transcripts were manually evaluated then discussed to determine thematic consensus. Results A total of 29 adolescents participated in 5 focus groups. Participants were 65.5% female. Three themes emerged from our data. First, adolescents preferred sexual health education resources that are accessible. Second, adolescents preferred online resources that are trustworthy. Third, adolescents discussed preference for “safe” resources. Discussion Adolescents were enthusiastic and insightful regarding technology for enhancing sexual health education. The themes that influence adolescents’ preferences in sexual health education using technology are similar to barriers that exist in other aspects of adolescent health communication. Translation to Health Education Practice Findings suggest ways in which health organizations can understand adolescents’ views and concerns about how their interactions with professionals take place regarding sexual health. PMID:22229150
Mason, Michael; Light, John; Campbell, Leah; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Crewe, Stephanie; Way, Thomas; Saunders, Heather; King, Laura; Zaharakis, Nikola M; McHenry, Chantal
Close peer networks can affect adolescents' health behaviors by altering their social environments, and thus their risk for and protection against substance use involvement. We tested a 20 minute intervention named Peer Network Counseling that integrates motivational interviewing and peer network strategies with 119 urban adolescents who reported occasional or problem substance use. Adolescents presenting at primary care clinic were randomized to intervention or control conditions and followed for 6 months. Mixed-effect latent growth models were used to evaluate intervention effects on trajectories of alcohol and marijuana use, offers to use substances, and moderation models to test for interactions between intervention condition and peer network characteristics. A significant intervention effect was found for boys for offers to use alcohol from friends (p<.05), along with a trend significant effect for alcohol use (p<.08). Intervention was more effective in reducing marijuana use, vs. control, for participants with more peer social support (p<.001) and with more peer encouragement for prosocial behavior (school, clubs, sports, religious activities); however, intervention did not affect these network characteristics. Results provide support to continue this line of research to test brief interventions that activate protective peer network characteristics among at-risk adolescents, while also raising some interesting gender-based intervention questions for future research.
Vernon, Lynette; Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L
Concerns are growing about adolescents' problematic social networking and possible links to depressed mood and externalizing behavior. Yet there remains little understanding of underlying processes that may account for these associations, including the mediating role of sleep disruption. This study tests this putative mediating process and examines change in problematic social networking investment and disrupted sleep, in relation to change in depressed mood and externalizing behavior. A sample of 874 students (41% male; 57.2% Caucasian; baseline M age = 14.4 years) from 27 high schools were surveyed. Participants' problematic social networking, sleep disruption, and psychopathology (depressed mood, externalizing behaviors) were measured annually over 3 years. Longitudinal mediation was tested using latent trajectories of problematic social networking use, sleep disruption, and psychopathology. Both problematic social networking and sleep disruption underwent positive linear growth over time. Adolescents who increasingly invested in social networking reported increased depressed mood, with around 53% of this association explained by the indirect effect of increased sleep disruptions. Further, adolescents who increasingly invested in social networking also reported increased externalizing behavior; some of this relation was explained (13%) via increased sleep disruptions. However an alternative model in which increased externalizing was associated with increased social networking, mediated by sleep disruptions, indicated a reciprocal relation of similar magnitude. It is important for parents, teachers, and psychologists to minimize the negative effects of social networking on adolescents' psychopathology. Interventions should potentially target promoting healthy sleep habits through reductions in social networking investment and rescheduling usage away from bedtime.
Roberts, Megan E.; Nargiso, Jessica E.; Gaitonde, Linda Brazil; Stanton, Cassandra A.; Colby, Suzanne M.
Objective: Converging lines of research suggest that adolescents’ smoking behaviors are strongly influenced by the characteristics of their social network and the social processes their network facilitates. The primary goal of this study was to conduct a detailed comparison of the social networks of adolescent smokers and nonsmokers to determine what aspects relate the most to smoking status. A secondary goal was to conduct within-group analyses to examine relationships between key measures of behavior-specific social support and (a) smoking susceptibility among nonsmokers, and (b) readiness to quit smoking among smokers. Method: A matched sample of 190 adolescent smokers and nonsmokers (Mage = 16.8 years; 51% female) completed a questionnaire in which they nominated and reported on up to 10 important people in their lives. This measure allowed us to examine adolescents’ overall networks (both peers and family) and to investigate numerous aspects, including general network characteristics (e.g., size of network, average contact with network members), social support (e.g., importance of people in the network), and the pervasiveness of smoking in the network (e.g., percentage of smoking peers). Results: The pervasiveness of smoking in adolescents’ social network was the strongest distinguisher of smokers versus nonsmokers. In addition, behavior-specific social support was strongly associated with susceptibility to initiate smoking among nonsmokers and readiness to quit among smokers. Conclusions: This research offers insight into potential targets for prevention and early intervention by demonstrating how social networks can both promote and attenuate risk for smoking. PMID:25785800
Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.; Rose, Amanda J.
This multi-method, longitudinal study considered the interplay among depressive symptoms, aversive interpersonal behavior, and interpersonal rejection in early and middle adolescents’ friendships. In particular, the study examined a newly identified interpersonal process, conversational self-focus (i.e., the tendency to redirect conversations about problems to focus on the self). Traditional interpersonal theories of depression suggest that individuals with depressive symptoms engage in aversive behaviors (such as conversational self-focus) and are rejected by others. However, in the current study, not all adolescents with depressive symptoms engaged in conversational self-focus and were rejected by friends. Instead, conversational self-focus moderated prospective relations of depressive symptoms and later friendship problems such that only adolescents with depressive symptoms who engaged in conversational self-focus were rejected by friends. These findings are consistent with current conceptualizations of the development of psychopathology that highlight heterogeneity among youth who share similar symptoms and the possibility of multifinality of outcomes. PMID:25640911
Zhong, Suyu; He, Yong; Shu, Hua; Gong, Gaolang
Human brain asymmetries have been well described. Intriguingly, a number of asymmetries in brain phenotypes have been shown to change throughout the lifespan. Recent studies have revealed topological asymmetries between hemispheric white matter networks in the human brain. However, it remains unknown whether and how these topological asymmetries evolve from adolescence to young adulthood, a critical period that constitutes the second peak of human brain and cognitive development. To address this question, the present study included a large cohort of healthy adolescents and young adults. Diffusion and structural magnetic resonance imaging were acquired to construct hemispheric white matter networks, and graph-theory was applied to quantify topological parameters of the hemispheric networks. In both adolescents and young adults, rightward asymmetry in both global and local network efficiencies was consistently observed between the 2 hemispheres, but the degree of the asymmetry was significantly decreased in young adults. At the nodal level, the young adults exhibited less rightward asymmetry of nodal efficiency mainly around the parasylvian area, posterior tempo-parietal cortex, and fusiform gyrus. These developmental patterns of network asymmetry provide novel insight into the human brain structural development from adolescence to young adulthood and also likely relate to the maturation of language and social cognition that takes place during this period.
Sias, Patricia M.; Pedersen, Hannah; Gallagher, Erin B.; Kopaneva, Irina
This study examined information communication technologies and workplace friendship dynamics. Employees reported factors that influenced their initiation of friendship with a coworker and reported patterns and perceptions of communication with their workplace friend via different communication methods. Results indicated that personality, shared…
Bukowski, William; Lisboa, Carolina
Basic concepts and procedures of qualitative analysis are discussed, especially as they relate to the study of the features, processes, and effects of friendships. The contributions of the previous chapters are presented according to theory and research on friendship as a developmental process.
Keller, Monika; Edelstein, Wolfgang
In this study, reasoning about moral responsibilities in friendships on the part of 97 subjects was assessed at the ages of 7, 9, 12, and 15 years. Assessment was undertaken of: (1) general reasoning about the moral obligation of promise keeping; (2) general reasoning about responsibilities in friendship; and (3) situation-specific reasoning about…
Koenis, Marinka M G; Brouwer, Rachel M; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Mandl, René C W; van Soelen, Inge L C; Kahn, René S; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E
The brain is a network and our intelligence depends in part on the efficiency of this network. The network of adolescents differs from that of adults suggesting developmental changes. However, whether the network changes over time at the individual level and, if so, how this relates to intelligence, is unresolved in adolescence. In addition, the influence of genetic factors in the developing network is not known. Therefore, in a longitudinal study of 162 healthy adolescent twins and their siblings (mean age at baseline 9.9 [range 9.0-15.0] years), we mapped local and global structural network efficiency of cerebral fiber pathways (weighted with mean FA and streamline count) and assessed intelligence over a three-year interval. We find that the efficiency of the brain's structural network is highly heritable (locally up to 74%). FA-based local and global efficiency increases during early adolescence. Streamline count based local efficiency both increases and decreases, and global efficiency reorganizes to a net decrease. Local FA-based efficiency was correlated to IQ. Moreover, increases in FA-based network efficiency (global and local) and decreases in streamline count based local efficiency are related to increases in intellectual functioning. Individual changes in intelligence and local FA-based efficiency appear to go hand in hand in frontal and temporal areas. More widespread local decreases in streamline count based efficiency (frontal cingulate and occipital) are correlated with increases in intelligence. We conclude that the teenage brain is a network in progress in which individual differences in maturation relate to level of intellectual functioning.
Weissman, David G.; Schriber, Roberta A.; Fassbender, Catherine; Atherton, Olivia; Krafft, Cynthia; Robins, Richard W.; Hastings, Paul D.; Guyer, Amanda E.
Background Early adolescent onset of substance use is a robust predictor of future substance use disorders. We examined the relation between age of substance use initiation and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the core reward processing (nucleus accumbens; NAcc) to cognitive control (prefrontal cortex; PFC) brain networks. Method Adolescents in a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth reported their substance use annually from ages 10 to 16 years. At age 16, 69 adolescents participated in a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Seed-based correlational analyses were conducted using regions of interest in bilateral NAcc. Results The earlier that adolescents initiated substance use, the stronger the connectivity between bilateral NAcc and right dorsolateral PFC, right dorsomedial PFC, right pre-supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule, and left medial temporal gyrus. Discussion The regions that demonstrated significant positive linear relationships between the number of adolescent years using substances and connectivity with NAcc are nodes in the right frontoparietal network, which is central to cognitive control. The coupling of reward and cognitive control networks may be a mechanism through which earlier onset of substance use is related to brain function over time, a trajectory that may be implicated in subsequent substance use disorders. PMID:26215473
Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W.
This study investigates two contagion mechanisms of peer influence based on direct communication (cohesion) versus comparison through peers who occupy similar network positions (structural equivalence) in the context of adolescents' drinking alcohol and smoking. To date, the two contagion mechanisms have been considered observationally inseparable, but this study attempts to disentangle structural equivalence from cohesion as a contagion mechanism by examining the extent to which the transmission of drinking and smoking behaviors attenuates as a function of social distance (i.e., from immediate friends to indirectly connected peers). Using the U.S. Add Health data consisting of a nationally representative sample of American adolescents (Grades 7-12), this study measured peer risk-taking up to four steps away from the adolescent (friends of friends of friends of friends) using a network exposure model. Peer influence was tested using a logistic regression model of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. Results indicate that influence based on structural equivalence tended to be stronger than influence based on cohesion in general, and that the magnitude of the effect decreased up to three steps away from the adolescent (friends of friends of friends). Further analysis indicated that structural equivalence acted as a mechanism of contagion for drinking and cohesion acted as one for smoking. These results indicate that the two transmission mechanisms with differing network proximities can differentially affect drinking and smoking behaviors in American adolescents. PMID:22475405
Espinoza, Guadalupe; Juvonen, Jaana
Young adolescents are quickly becoming avid users of social networking sites (SNSs); however, little is known regarding how they use these sites. The goal of the present study was to examine the extent to which young adolescents use SNSs, with whom they connect via these sites, and whether SNS use disrupts daily functioning. Among 268 middle-school students surveyed, 63% reported having their own profile page on an SNS. On average, adolescents reported having 196 SNS contacts (friends), most of whom were known peers. Young adolescents with an SNS spent most of their time viewing and responding to comments written on their profile page. Among the SNS users, 39% reported getting behind on schoolwork and 37% reported losing sleep at least once because they were visiting an SNS. As SNS use becomes embedded in young teens' daily lives, it is important to better understand how such use affects their daily adaptive functioning.
Shin, Wonsun; Ismail, Nurzali
This study investigated the role of parental and peer mediation in young adolescents' engagement in risk-taking in social networking sites (SNSs). A survey conducted in Malaysia with 469 SNS users aged 13-14 revealed that control-based parental mediation can cause boomerang effects, making young adolescents more inclined to taking risks in SNSs. While discussion-based parental mediation was found to be negatively related to young adolescents' befriending strangers in SNSs, it did not reduce privacy risks. Findings also suggested that peer influence could result in undesirable outcomes. In particular, the more young adolescents talked about Internet-related issues with peers, the more likely they were to disclose personally identifiable information on SNSs.
Shaw, Daniel J.; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Pike, G. Bruce
Adolescence places high demands on inter-personal interactions and, hence, on the extraction and processing of social cues. Here we assess longitudinally the development of brain activity within a network implicated in social cognition—the action observation network. We performed activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses to define regions of interest based upon the mature action observation network of adults. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we then examined developmental trajectories of functional brain activity within these brain regions. Using this approach, we reveal quadratic trajectories within a fronto-parietal network previously shown to demonstrate correlated morphological development. PMID:21278194
Branco, Bianca de Moraes; Wagner, Adriana
The goal of this case study was to understand the success (or failure) of the ICPAE initiative (from Portuguese: Intern with possibility of External Activity) of the Foundation for Social-Educative Services of Rio Grande do Sul in the light of the characteristics of the social network of these young transgressors and of their perception of the functioning of their family. Five adolescents were investigated in the beginning and in the end of the ICPAE experience. We used a social network map, and for evaluating the functioning of the family we used the GARF scale (Global Assessment of Relational Functioning Scale). It was observed that the social network of these youths tended to be poorer than in the first map and also that they were centered on the family. The second ICPAE assessment revealed significantly worse results in comparison to the first, except in the case of one adolescent who had the most complete social network in both moments.
The concept of friendship has had a great deal of attention within recent years from philosophers. However, this attention restricts itself to friendship between adults and rarely considers the issue of friendship between children. The issue of friendship and how we socialise with others ought to be an important concept for education, yet schools…
van Hoogdalem, Anne-Greth; Singer, Elly; Eek, Anneloes; Heesbeen, Daniëlle
We need methods to measure friendship among very young children to study the beginnings of friendship and the impact of experiences with friendship for later development. This article presents an overview of methods for measuring very young children's friendships. A behavioural sociometric method was constructed to study degrees of friendship…
Rosenblum, L. Penny
A study of 10 adolescents with visual impairments and their best friends found each adolescent had a unique perspective on the impact of visual impairment on family, school, and peer relationships but that all valued their friendships. A key to a successful friendship was participating in a joint activity. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Kibler, Amanda K.; Atteberry, Allison; Hardigree, Christine N.; Salerno, April S.
Background/Context: Two-way dual-language programs have become an increasingly popular educational model in the United States for language minority and majority speakers, with a small but growing number of programs at the high school level. Little is known, however, about how adolescents' social networks develop in the contexts of these programs.…
Sherman, B R; Donovan, B R
In a sample of 53 at-risk pregnant adolescents, the relationship between their perceptions of maternal acceptance-rejection in childhood and the nature of their social supports was examined. Perception of acceptance-rejection was significantly correlated with both frequency of interaction with social network members and expectations of their future support. Implications for public health strategies are discussed.
French, Doran C.; Purwono, Urip; Rodkin, Philip
The objectives of this longitudinal study were to predict the tobacco and alcohol use of Indonesian Muslim adolescents from their religiosity and the substance use of friends and network affiliates. At Year 1, there were 996 participants from eighth grade (n = 507, age = 13.4 years) and 10th grade (n = 489, age = 15.4); 875 were followed into the…
Bosworth, Kris; And Others
The Body Awareness Resource Network (BARN) is a computer-based system designed as a confidential, nonjudgmental source of health information for adolescents. Topics include alcohol and other drugs, diet and activity, family communication, human sexuality, smoking, and stress management; programs are available for high school and middle school…
Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Jih, Yeou-Rong; Block, Per; Hiu, Chii-Fen; Holmes, Emily A.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.
Adolescence is characterized as a period of social reorientation toward peer relationships, entailing the emergence of sophisticated social abilities. Two studies (Study 1: N = 42, ages 13-17; Study 2: N = 81, ages 13-16) investigated age group differences in the impact of relationship reciprocation within school-based social networks on an…
Zhang, L; Gan, J Q; Wang, H
Previous studies have established the importance of the fronto-parietal brain network in the information processing of reasoning. At the level of cortical source analysis, this eletroencepalogram (EEG) study investigates the functional reorganization of the theta-band (4-8Hz) neurocognitive network of mathematically gifted adolescents during deductive reasoning. Depending on the dense increase of long-range phase synchronizations in the reasoning process, math-gifted adolescents show more significant adaptive reorganization and enhanced "workspace" configuration in the theta network as compared with average-ability control subjects. The salient areas are mainly located in the anterior cortical vertices of the fronto-parietal network. Further correlation analyses have shown that the enhanced workspace configuration with respect to the global topological metrics of the theta network in math-gifted subjects is correlated with the intensive frontal midline theta (fm theta) response that is related to strong neural effort for cognitive events. These results suggest that by investing more cognitive resources math-gifted adolescents temporally mobilize an enhanced task-related global neuronal workspace, which is manifested as a highly integrated fronto-parietal information processing network during the reasoning process.
Virji-Babul, Naznin; Hilderman, Courtney G E; Makan, Nadia; Liu, Aiping; Smith-Forrester, Jenna; Franks, Chris; Wang, Z J
Sports-related concussion is a major public health issue; however, little is known about the underlying changes in functional brain networks in adolescents following injury. Our aim was to use the tools from graph theory to evaluate the changes in brain network properties following concussion in adolescent athletes. We recorded resting state electroencephalography (EEG) in 33 healthy adolescent athletes and 9 adolescent athletes with a clinical diagnosis of subacute concussion. Graph theory analysis was applied to these data to evaluate changes in brain networks. Global and local metrics of the structural properties of the graph were calculated for each group and correlated with Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores. Brain networks of both groups showed small-world topology with no statistically significant differences in the global metrics; however, significant differences were found in the local metrics. Specifically, in the concussed group, we noted: 1) increased values of betweenness and degree in frontal electrode sites corresponding to the (R) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the (R) inferior frontal gyrus and 2) decreased values of degree in the region corresponding to the (R) frontopolar prefrontal cortex. In addition, there was significant negative correlation between degree and hub value, with total symptom score at the electrode site corresponding to the (R) prefrontal cortex. This preliminary report in adolescent athletes shows for the first time that resting-state EEG combined with graph theoretical analysis may provide an objective method of evaluating changes in brain networks following concussion. This approach may be useful in identifying individuals at risk for future injury.
Pica-Smith, Cinzia; Poynton, Timothy A.
Supporting interethnic and interracial friendships in schools among children and adolescents is an important part of a progressive educational agenda informed in equity, social justice frameworks, and critical multicultural education that leads to a reduction in racial prejudice. Positive intergroup contact is a necessary condition in prejudice…
Sharabany, Ruth; Eshel, Yohanan; Hakim, Caesar
The development of intimate same- and other-sex friendships in Arab children and adolescents in Israel was investigated in relation to their perceived parenting styles. It was hypothesized that girls would show higher levels of intimacy than boys, and that cross-sex intimacy in both groups would increase with age, whereas same-sex intimate…
Kreager, Derek A.
This article examines the extent to which participation in high school interscholastic sports contributes to male violence. Deriving competing hypotheses from social control, social learning, and masculinity theories, I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test if (1) type of sport and (2) peer athletic…
This study examines the role of racial/ethnic segregation and peer effects in shaping educational achievement and attainment, using multi-level modeling on a nationally representative sample of adolescents. As in many prior studies, school socioeconomic composition was a significant predictor of achievement and attainment for students of all…
Lammers, Jayne C.; Marsh, Valerie L.
Building upon research exploring adolescent writing in technology-mediated contexts, this article examines writing and sharing in the online space of Fanfiction.net. Drawing on qualitative data from a longitudinal inquiry with a 16-year-old who writes in multiple contexts, this study explores the writing opportunities afforded on Fanfiction.net…
Nair, Jyotsna; Nair, Satish S.; Kashani, Javad H.; Reid, John C.; Rao, Venkatesh G.
Examined the relationship between quality of adjustment in adolescents and a set of psychiatric diagnoses, personality traits, parental bonding, and social support variables. Through the use of various questionnaires it was found that several variables (e.g. Conduct Disorder and Social Conformity) had a significant role in classifying adolescents…
Tahmasebi, Amir M; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bruehl, Ruediger; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Gallinat, Jürgen; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Loth, Eva; Mareckova, Klara; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Paus, Tomáš
Large-scale magnetic resonance (MR) studies of the human brain offer unique opportunities for identifying genetic and environmental factors shaping the human brain. Here, we describe a dataset collected in the context of a multi-centre study of the adolescent brain, namely the IMAGEN Study. We focus on one of the functional paradigms included in the project to probe the brain network underlying processing of ambiguous and angry faces. Using functional MR (fMRI) data collected in 1,110 adolescents, we constructed probabilistic maps of the neural network engaged consistently while viewing the ambiguous or angry faces; 21 brain regions responding to faces with high probability were identified. We were also able to address several methodological issues, including the minimal sample size yielding a stable location of a test region, namely the fusiform face area (FFA), as well as the effect of acquisition site (eight sites) and scanner (four manufacturers) on the location and magnitude of the fMRI response to faces in the FFA. Finally, we provided a comparison between male and female adolescents in terms of the effect sizes of sex differences in brain response to the ambiguous and angry faces in the 21 regions of interest. Overall, we found a stronger neural response to the ambiguous faces in several cortical regions, including the fusiform face area, in female (vs. male) adolescents, and a slightly stronger response to the angry faces in the amygdala of male (vs. female) adolescents.
Haas, Steven A.; Schaefer, David R.; Kornienko, Olga
Much research has explored the role of social networks in promoting health through the provision of social support. However, little work has examined how social networks themselves may be structured by health. This article investigates the link between individuals' health and the characteristics of their social network positions.We first develop…
Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul
Adolescents who like each other may become more similar to each other with regard to internalizing and externalizing problems, though it is not yet clear which social mechanisms explain these similarities. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed four mechanisms that may explain similarity in adolescent peer networks with regard to externalizing and internalizing problems: selection, socialization, avoidance and withdrawal. At three moments during one school-year, we asked 542 adolescents (8th grade, M-age = 13.3 years, 51 % female) to report who they liked in their classroom, and their own internalizing and externalizing problems. Adolescents tend to prefer peers who have similar externalizing problem scores, but no significant selection effect was found for internalizing problems. Adolescents who share the same group of friends socialize each other and then become more similar with respect to externalizing problems, but not with respect to internalizing problems. We found no significant effects for avoidance or withdrawal. Adolescents may choose to belong to a peer group that is similar to them in terms of externalizing problem behaviors, and through peer group socialization (e.g., enticing, modelling, mimicking, and peer pressure) become more similar to that group over time.
Prakash, Madhu Suri
Embracing the best ideals of Victory Gardens, this essay celebrates Friendship Gardens. The latter go further: collapsing the dualisms separating victors from losers. Friendships that transcend differences and honor diversity are among the many fruits and organic gifts harvested and shared in the commons created by Friendship Gardens. This essay shares the hope of transforming enemies into friends and neighbors. It also joins many millions whose dreams are already taking flight while getting grounded: seeking to transform all our toxic lawnscapes into foodscapes; ending the dis-ease of billions going to bed starving amidst the mountains of food wasted for growing Wall Street profits in the twenty first century.
The author has noticed a characteristic form of close, frolicsome friendship between recovering adolescent schizophrenic patients. It occurs in groups of young patients in a psychiatric clinic and in a day-care institution. Through this type of friendship, their intersubjectivity, ability for empathy and human relations develop, essential changes for the amelioration of schizophrenia. It is characterized by 1 A mutual relationship on equal terms with another schizophrenic patient of the same sex and generation; particularly close friendship between two patients, or sometimes several patients who form a group, spending much time together. 2 Playful, childish behavior, jokes and jests; Patients laugh and make others laugh, playing together. 3 Touching the friends' bodies and coordinated playing such as dancing and singing together. 4 Chatting and having common interests, along with sharing various experiences. 5 Enjoyment with so much energy that sometimes, as in a gang, social norms are contravened. 6 Being a transient phenomenon that ends naturally after a certain period. Through such friendship, the adolescents show mental growth compared with their premorbid state. They come to sympathize with others' feelings and willingly cooperate. Their social relationships and spheres of activity expand, and spontaneity and self-esteem become improved. They come to assert themselves adequately, tolerate stress, and conform to social norms. Moreover, they advance to developing a purpose. e.g. work. To be able to have empathy through friendship with those of the same sex and generation is a basic developmental theme generally seen in childhood and pre-adolescence. Such friendship between the patients studied represents benign regression in such a developmental period. This type of friendship is characterized by a frolicsome and playful atmosphere. Frolicking by means of jokes, jests and body-touching, and play with coordinated acts lead to the sharing of emotions and
Hawaii State Dept. of Health, Honolulu. Maternal and Child Health Branch.
This publication reports on a survey to develop a profile of adolescent health in Hawaii in order to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies. The survey covered: general health status; family, peer, and school problems; depression and suicide; use of licit and illicit substances; sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases; and…
Mason, Michael J
This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and relations with parents, on substance use. Results of path modeling with AMOS showed that the model provided a very good fit to the data and demonstrated partial mediation effects of social network quality on substance use. The standardized mediated effect of school problems on substance use, mediated by social network quality, was 0.13 (p < .01, 95% CI [.072, .189]). An effect size measure was applied to determine what proportion of the total effect was mediated by the intervening (social network quality) variable and produced a 0.34 effect size. The results highlight the potential preventive role of social network quality in addressing urban adolescent substance use.
Campbell, Kelly; Holderness, Nicole; Riggs, Matt
Interpersonal chemistry refers to a connection between two individuals that exists upon first meeting. The goal of the current study is to identify beliefs about the underlying components of friendship chemistry. Individuals respond to an online Friendship Chemistry Questionnaire containing items that are derived from interdependence theory and the friendship formation literature. Participants are randomly divided into two subsamples. A principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation is performed on subsample 1 and produces 5 factors: Reciprocal candor, mutual interest, personableness, similarity, and physical attraction. A confirmatory factor analysis is conducted using subsample 2 and provides support for the 5-factor model. Participants with agreeable, open, and conscientious personalities more commonly report experiencing friendship chemistry, as do those who are female, young, and European/white. Responses from participants who have never experienced chemistry are qualitatively analyzed. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:26097283
Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer; Moss, Colleen K.
Friendships are important not only to youth development but also to the growth and expansion of social networks. Although there has long been acknowledgment of this importance for youth, such relationships can be especially elusive for transition-age students with autism, intellectual disability, and other developmental disabilities. This article…
Skelton, Diana; Orcullo, Marjorie
Around the world, children who grow up in poverty and children who grow up in middle-class homes rarely have opportunities to get to know one another. Tapori is a friendship network that seeks to make connections between disparate groups of children possible. Its newsletter shares true stories from the point of view of children living in…
People seek and provide support through their personal social network, especially when they must cope with stress, deal with an emergency, or need help. Coping with a new culture or new environment is a stressful situation that sojourner students must face. Support through friendship plays an important role in facing such new situations. Focusing…
Browning, Christopher R.; Soller, Brian; Jackson, Aubrey L.
This study integrates insights from social network analysis, activity space perspectives, and theories of urban and spatial processes to present an innovative approach to neighborhood effects on health-risk behavior among youth. We suggest spatial patterns of neighborhood residents’ non-home routine activities may be conceptualized as ecological, or “eco”-networks, which are two-mode networks that indirectly link residents through socio-spatial overlap in routine activities. We further argue structural configurations of eco-networks are consequential for youth’s behavioral health. In this study we focus on a key structural feature of eco-networks—the neighborhood-level extent to which households share two or more activity locations, or eco-network reinforcement—and its association with two dimensions of health-risk behavior, substance use and delinquency/sexual activity. Using geographic data on non-home routine activity locations among respondents from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS), we constructed neighborhood-specific eco-networks by connecting sampled households to “activity clusters,” which are sets of spatially-proximate activity locations. We then measured eco-network reinforcement and examined its association with adolescent dimensions of health risk behavior employing a sample of 830 youth ages 12-17 nested in 65 census tracts. We also examined whether neighborhood-level social processes (collective efficacy and intergenerational closure) mediate the association between eco-network reinforcement and the outcomes considered. Results indicated eco-network reinforcement exhibits robust negative associations with both substance use and delinquency/sexual activity scales. Eco-network reinforcement effects were not explained by potential mediating variables. In addition to introducing a novel theoretical and empirical approach to neighborhood effects on youth, our findings highlight the importance of eco-network
Browning, Christopher R; Soller, Brian; Jackson, Aubrey L
This study integrates insights from social network analysis, activity space perspectives, and theories of urban and spatial processes to present an novel approach to neighborhood effects on health-risk behavior among youth. We suggest spatial patterns of neighborhood residents' non-home routines may be conceptualized as ecological, or "eco"-networks, which are two-mode networks that indirectly link residents through socio-spatial overlap in routine activities. We further argue structural configurations of eco-networks are consequential for youth's behavioral health. In this study we focus on a key structural feature of eco-networks--the neighborhood-level extent to which household dyads share two or more activity locations, or eco-network reinforcement--and its association with two dimensions of health-risk behavior, substance use and delinquency/sexual activity. Using geographic data on non-home routine activity locations among respondents from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS), we constructed neighborhood-specific eco-networks by connecting sampled households to "activity clusters," which are sets of spatially-proximate activity locations. We then measured eco-network reinforcement and examined its association with dimensions of adolescent health risk behavior employing a sample of 830 youth ages 12-17 nested in 65 census tracts. We also examined whether neighborhood-level social processes (collective efficacy and intergenerational closure) mediate the association between eco-network reinforcement and the outcomes considered. Results indicated eco-network reinforcement exhibits robust negative associations with both substance use and delinquency/sexual activity scales. Eco-network reinforcement effects were not explained by potential mediating variables. In addition to introducing a novel theoretical and empirical approach to neighborhood effects on youth, our findings highlight the importance of intersecting conventional routines for
Litt, Dana M; Stock, Michelle L
The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not. The results provided evidence that descriptive norms for alcohol use, as portrayed by Facebook profiles, significantly impact willingness to use, prototypes, attitudes toward use, and perceived vulnerability. A multiple mediation analysis indicated that prototypes, attitudes, and perceptions of use mediated the relationship between the content of the Facebook profile and willingness. These results indicate that adolescents who perceive that alcohol use is normative, as evidenced by Facebook profiles, are at higher risk for cognitions shown to predict alcohol use than adolescents who do not see alcohol use portrayed as frequently on Facebook.
la Sala, Louise; Skues, Jason; Wise, Lisa; Theiler, Stephen
The current study investigated how adolescents behave on Social Networking Sites (SNSs) and how they interpret the feedback they receive online from others. Thirty-four Australian adolescents (26 girls, 8 boys) aged 13 to 17 years participated in the study. Five semi-structured focus groups (3 mixed groups, 2 all-girl groups) were conducted to explore how adolescents perceive their own and others' SNS behaviours, the motivation underlying these behaviours, and the expected outcomes related to particular behaviours. Teenagers reported that they spend a good deal of time planning their SNS posts, felt that the information they posted was a true reflection of them as a person, and thus interpreted feedback ("likes") as measuring their self-worth. In contrast, some teenagers were perceived as "chasing the like" for status and popularity while not caring about how accurately their posts represented them as a person. A potential gender bias in these findings is discussed.
Langrehr, Kimberly J
This study examined the moderating role of transracially adoptive parents' cross-racial friendships in the relationship between their color-blind attitudes and views toward cultural and racial socialization. Using hierarchical multiple regression analyses and the Johnson-Neyman technique, it was hypothesized that parents' color-blind attitudes would significantly account for 3 different dimensions of socialization beliefs (i.e., prejudice awareness, ethnic pride, and egalitarian socialization) and that self-reported cross-racial friendships would moderate the effects of color-blind attitudes. Results suggest that having several cross-racial friendships minimized the effects of participants' color-blind attitudes on their ethnic pride and egalitarian socialization beliefs, whereas having few cross-racial friendships enhanced the effects of color-blind attitudes on both socialization variables. The importance of transracially adoptive families creating diverse and multiracial social networks is discussed.
Kowert, Rachel; Domahidi, Emese; Quandt, Thorsten
Some researchers believe that online gaming spaces can be socially accommodating environments for socially inhibited individuals, such as the socially inept, socially anxious, or shy. While previous research has examined, and found, significant links between these populations and online video game play, it remains unknown to what extent these spaces are contributing to tangible social benefits for the socially inhibited. The current study addresses this question by evaluating the link between gaming-related friendships and shyness, as quantified by emotional sensitivity. Drawing from a representative sample of German game players, the results indicate that emotionally sensitive players are using online gaming spaces differently from their less emotionally sensitive counterparts and reporting tangible differences in their in-game friendship networks. This suggests that online games hold the potential to be socially advantageous for shy individuals by allowing them to overcome their traditional social difficulties and generate new friendships as well as strengthen old ones.
Mednick, Sara C; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H
Troubled sleep is a commonly cited consequence of adolescent drug use, but it has rarely been studied as a cause. Nor have there been any studies of the extent to which sleep behavior can spread in social networks from person to person to person. Here we map the social networks of 8,349 adolescents in order to study how sleep behavior spreads, how drug use behavior spreads, and how a friend's sleep behavior influences one's own drug use. We find clusters of poor sleep behavior and drug use that extend up to four degrees of separation (to one's friends' friends' friends' friends) in the social network. Prospective regression models show that being central in the network negatively influences future sleep outcomes, but not vice versa. Moreover, if a friend sleeps =7 hours, it increases the likelihood a person sleeps < or =7 hours by 11%. If a friend uses marijuana, it increases the likelihood of marijuana use by 110%. Finally, the likelihood that an individual uses drugs increases by 19% when a friend sleeps < or =7 hours, and a mediation analysis shows that 20% of this effect results from the spread of sleep behavior from one person to another. This is the first study to suggest that the spread of one behavior in social networks influences the spread of another. The results indicate that interventions should focus on healthy sleep to prevent drug use and targeting specific individuals may improve outcomes across the entire social network.
Boman, John H; Stogner, John; Miller, Bryan Lee
While it is commonly understood that the substance use of peers influences an individual's substance use, much less is understood about the interplay between substance use and friendship quality. Using a sample of 2,148 emerging adults nested within 1,074 dyadic friendships, this study separately investigates how concordance and discordance in binge drinking and marijuana use between friends is related to each friend's perceptions of friendship quality. Because "friendship quality" is a complex construct, we employ a measure containing five sub-elements--companionship, a lack of conflict, willingness to help a friend, relationship security, and closeness. Results for both binge drinking and marijuana use reveal that individuals in friendship pairs who are concordant in their substance use perceive significantly higher perceptions of friendship quality than individuals in dyads who are dissimilar in substance use. Specifically, concordant binge drinkers estimate significantly higher levels of companionship, relationship security, and willingness to help their friend than concordant non-users, discordant users, and discordant non-users. However, the highest amount of conflict in friendships is found when both friends engage in binge drinking and marijuana use. Several interpretations of these findings are discussed. Overall, concordance between friends' binge drinking and marijuana use appears to help some elements of friendship quality and harm others.
The purpose of this study has been to explore young children's understandings and experiences of friendship as these manifested in children's behaviours, in a reception class setting. Drawing on an evolutionary, ecological framework, friendship is seen as not only the expression and further development of social understandings and cognitive…
Brakefield, Tiffany A; Mednick, Sara C; Wilson, Helen W; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H
Peers have a powerful effect on adolescents' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Here, we examine the role of social networks in the spread of attitudes towards sexuality using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Although we found evidence that both sexual activity (OR = 1.79) and desire to have a romantic relationship (OR = 2.69) may spread from person to person, attraction to same sex partners did not spread (OR = 0.96). Analyses of comparable power to those that suggest positive and significant peer-to-peer influence in sexual behavior fail to demonstrate a significant relationship on sexual attraction between friends or siblings. These results suggest that peer influence has little or no effect on the tendency toward heterosexual or homosexual attraction in teens, and that sexual orientation is not transmitted via social networks.
Sato, João Ricardo; Biazoli, Claudinei Eduardo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Crossley, Nicolas; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Vieira, Gilson; Zugman, André; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Anés, Mauricio; Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Del'aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Amaro, Edson; McGuire, Philip; Lacerda, Acioly L T; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca
Abnormal connectivity patterns have frequently been reported as involved in pathological mental states. However, most studies focus on "static," stationary patterns of connectivity, which may miss crucial biological information. Recent methodological advances have allowed the investigation of dynamic functional connectivity patterns that describe non-stationary properties of brain networks. Here, we introduce a novel graphical measure of dynamic connectivity, called time-varying eigenvector centrality (tv-EVC). In a sample 655 children and adolescents (7-15 years old) from the Brazilian "High Risk Cohort Study for Psychiatric Disorders" who were imaged using resting-state fMRI, we used this measure to investigate age effects in the temporal in control and default-mode networks (CN/DMN). Using support vector regression, we propose a network maturation index based on the temporal stability of tv-EVC. Moreover, we investigated whether the network maturation is associated with the overall presence of behavioral and emotional problems with the Child Behavior Checklist. As hypothesized, we found that the tv-EVC at each node of CN/DMN become more stable with increasing age (P < 0.001 for all nodes). In addition, the maturity index for this particular network is indeed associated with general psychopathology in children assessed by the total score of Child Behavior Checklist (P = 0.027). Moreover, immaturity of the network was mainly correlated with externalizing behavior dimensions. Taken together, these results suggest that changes in functional network dynamics during neurodevelopment may provide unique insights regarding pathophysiology.
Yuan, Kai; Qin, Wei; Yu, Dahua; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Jin, Chenwang; Tian, Jie
Regardless of whether it is conceptualized as a behavioral addiction or an impulse-control disorder, internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been speculated to be associated with impaired cognitive control. Efficient cognitive behavior involves the coordinated activity of large-scale brain networks, however, whether the interactions among these networks during resting state modulated cognitive control behavior in IGD adolescents remain unclear. Twenty-eight IGD adolescents and twenty-five age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls participated in our study. Stroop color-word task was conducted to evaluate the cognitive control deficits in IGD adolescents. Functional connectivity and Granger Causal Analysis were employed to investigate the functional and effective connections within and between the salience, central executive, and default mode networks. Meanwhile, diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess the structural integrity of abnormal network connections. The abnormal functional connectivity within central executive networks and effective connectivity within salience network in IGD adolescents were detected. Moreover, the inefficient interactions between these two brain networks were observed. In addition, we identified reduced fractional anisotropy in salience network, right central executive network tracts, and between-network (the anterior cingulate cortex-right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex tracts) pathways in IGD individuals. Notably, we observed a significant correlation between the effective and structural connection from salience network to central executive network and the number of errors during incongruent condition in Stroop task in both IGD and control subjects. Our results suggested that impaired cognitive control in IGD adolescents is likely to be mediated through the abnormal interactions and structural connection between intrinsic large-scale brain networks.
Lawford, Heather L; Doyle, Anna-Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy
Generativity, defined as concern for future generations, is theorized to become a priority in midlife, preceded by a stage in which intimacy is the central issue. Recent research, however, has found evidence of generativity even in adolescence. This longitudinal study explored the associations between caregiving in friendships, closely related to intimacy, and early generative concern in a young adolescent sample. Given the importance of close friendships in adolescence, it was hypothesized that responsive caregiving in early adolescent friendships would predict later generative concern. Approximately 140 adolescents (56 % female, aged 14 at Time 1) completed questionnaires regarding generative concern and responsive caregiving with friends yearly across 2 years. Structural equation modeling revealed that caregiving predicted generative concern 1 year later but generative concern did not predict later caregiving. These results suggest that caregiving in close friendships plays an important role in the development of adolescents' motivation to contribute to future generations.
Jelenchick, Lauren A; Hawk, Skyler T; Moreno, Megan A
Problematic Internet use (PIU), defined as Internet use that is risky, excessive, or impulsive in nature and leads to adverse life consequences, is an emerging health concern among adolescents worldwide. Social networking site (SNS) use is among the most popular and common Internet use activities for youth; however, risks of SNS use for PIU remain unexplored. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of adolescents at risk for PIU within a national school-based sample of Dutch adolescents and to explore associations between SNS use and PIU. Adolescents were recruited from six public schools in the Netherlands to complete a survey, which included SNS use questions and the Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS). Logistic regression models were used to test associations between risk for PIU and demographic or SNS use variables. A total of 474 adolescents participated (98% response rate), and 11% (n=51) of adolescents were at risk for PIU. Risk for PIU was significantly associated with gender (p=0.015), increased age (p=0.034), and posting on SNS more than four times a day (p=0.003). Risk for PIU was not associated with number of SNS profiles, SNS preference or the number of online friends. Findings illustrate high risk groups for PIU includes males and older teens. Findings also illuminate that risk for PIU related to SNS was not associated with a specific SNS or number of SNSs used but was related to one's personal investment in SNSs by posting four or more times a day.
Hames, Elizabeth C.; Rajmohan, Ravi; Fang, Dan; Anderson, Ronald; Baker, Mary; Richman, David M.; O’Boyle, Michael
Background: Attentional deficits in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are often noted, but their specific nature remains unclear. Objective: The present study used the child Attentional Network Task (Child ANT) in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine if the consistently cited deficits of orienting attention are truly due to dysfunctions of orienting-based networks. We hypothesized that these observations are, in fact, a reflection of executive dysfunctions. As such, we expected that although ASD adolescents would perform worse on the orienting portion of the Child ANT, the strongest differences in activation between them and the neurotypical (NT) control group would be in areas classically associated with executive functioning (e.g., the frontal gyri and anterior cingulate cortex). Method: The brain activity of six high-functioning adolescents with ASD and six NT adolescents was recorded while these individuals performed the three subcomponents of the Child ANT. Results: ASDs were shown to be more accurate than NTs for the alerting, less accurate for the orienting, and similar in accuracy for the executive portions of the Child ANT. fMRI data showed increased bilateral frontal gyri recruitment, areas conventionally associated with executive control, during the orienting task for the ASD group. Conclusion: We submit that the increased activations represent neurocorrelates of signal fixation attributable to the subset of executive control responsible for sustained maintenance signals, not the main components of orienting. Therefore, excessive fixation in ASD adolescents is likely due to dysfunctions of executive control and not the orienting subcomponent of the attention network. PMID:27843514
Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Zaharakis, Nikola; Campbell, Leah Floyd; Benotsch, Eric G; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; King, Laura
Although adolescent tobacco use has declined in the last 10 years, African American high school seniors' past 30-day use has increased by 12 %, and as they age they are more likely to report lifetime use of tobacco. Very few urban youth are enrolled in evidenced-based smoking prevention and cessation programming. Therefore, we tested a text messaging smoking cessation intervention designed to engage urban youth through an automated texting program utilizing motivational interviewing-based peer network counseling. We recruited 200 adolescents (90.5 % African American) into a randomized controlled trial that delivered either the experimental intervention of 30 personalized motivational interviewing-based peer network counseling messages, or the attention control intervention, consisting of text messages covering general (non-smoking related) health habits. All adolescents were provided smart phones for the study and were assessed at baseline, and at 1, 3, and 6 months post intervention. Utilizing repeated measures general linear models we examined the effects of the intervention while controlling for race, gender, age, presence of a smoker in the home, and mental health counseling. At 6 months, participants in the experimental condition significantly decreased the number of days they smoked cigarettes and the number of cigarettes they smoked per day; they significantly increased their intentions not to smoke in the future; and significantly increased peer social support among girls. For boys, participants in the experimental condition significantly reduced the number of close friends in their networks who smoke daily compared to those in the control condition. Effect sizes ranged from small to large. These results provide encouraging evidence of the efficacy of text messaging interventions to reduce smoking among adolescents and our intervention holds promise as a large-scale public health preventive intervention platform.
Rulison, Kelly L; Kreager, Derek A.; Osgood, D. Wayne
We tested two hypotheses derived from Moffitt’s (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. Specifically, we tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from delinquent behavior become less accepted. Participants were 4,359 adolescents from 14 communities in the PROSPER study, which assessed friendship networks and delinquency from 6th (M = 11.8 years) to 9th (M = 15.3 years) grade. We operationalized peer acceptance as: number of nominations received (indegree centrality), attractiveness as a friend (adjusted indegree centrality), and network bridging potential (betweenness centrality) and tested the hypotheses using multilevel modeling. Contrary to Moffitt’s hypothesis, persistently delinquent youth did not become more accepted between early and middle adolescence, and although abstainers were less accepted in early adolescence, they became more accepted over time. Results were similar for boys and girls; when differences occurred, they provided no support for Moffitt’s hypotheses for boys and were opposite of her hypotheses for girls. Sensitivity analyses using alternative strategies and additional data to identify persistently delinquent adolescents produced similar results. We explore the implications of these results for Moffitt’s assertions that social mimicry of persistently antisocial adolescents leads to increases in delinquency and that social isolation leads to abstention. PMID:25243328
Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Campbell, Kelly; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Burgess, Kim B.
Previous research suggests that anxiously withdrawn preadolescents demonstrate success in forming friendships, yet these friendships tend to be of lesser quality. Drawing on Selman's (1980) theory of interpersonal understanding, we compared levels of friendship understanding between anxiously withdrawn preadolescents and a sample of non-withdrawn…
de Vries, Dian A; Peter, Jochen; de Graaf, Hanneke; Nikken, Peter
Previous correlational research indicates that adolescent girls who use social network sites more frequently are more dissatisfied with their bodies. However, we know little about the causal direction of this relationship, the mechanisms underlying this relationship, and whether this relationship also occurs among boys to the same extent. The present two-wave panel study (18 month time lag) among 604 Dutch adolescents (aged 11-18; 50.7% female; 97.7% native Dutch) aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge. Structural equation modeling showed that social network site use predicted increased body dissatisfaction and increased peer influence on body image in the form of receiving peer appearance-related feedback. Peer appearance-related feedback did not predict body dissatisfaction and thus did not mediate the effect of social network site use on body dissatisfaction. Gender did not moderate the findings. Hence, social network sites can play an adverse role in the body image of both adolescent boys and girls.
Hill, Nancy E.; Bromell, Lea; Tyson, Diana F.; Flint, Roxanne
Adolescence is marked by change and renegotiation in almost every arena--biological, social, and cognitive development; identity development; changes in peer relations and friendships; a renegotiation of family relationships, especially the parent-adolescent relationship; and school transitions. Further, for African Americans, adolescence is also…
Floros, Georgios; Siomos, Konstantinos
This paper presents a cross-sectional study of a large, high-school Greek student sample (N=1971) with the aim to examine adolescent motives for participating in social networking (SN) for a possible link with parenting style and cognitions related to Internet addiction disorder (IAD). Exploratory statistics demonstrate a shift from the prominence of online gaming to social networking for this age group. A regression model provides with the best linear combination of independent variables useful in predicting participation in SN. Results also include a validated model of negative correlation between optimal parenting on the one hand and motives for SN participation and IAD on the other. Examining cognitions linked to SN may assist in a better understanding of underlying adolescent wishes and problems. Future research may focus in the patterns unveiled among those adolescents turning to SN for the gratification of basic unmet psychological needs. The debate on the exact nature of IAD would benefit from the inclusion of SN as a possible online activity where addictive phenomena may occur.
Dishion, Thomas J; Tipsord, Jessica M
In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that "select" adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors.
Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary; Chapman, Rebekah
Typically adolescents' friends are considered a risk factor for adolescent engagement in risk-taking. This study took a more novel approach, by examining adolescent friendship as a protective factor. In particular it investigated friends' potential to intervene to reduce risk-taking. Five-hundred-forty adolescents (mean age 13.47 years) were asked…
Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Blair, Bethany L.
Adolescents' emotional reactivity in family, close friendships, and romantic relationships was examined in a community-based sample of 416 two-parent families. Six waves of annual data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Emotional reactivity to interparental conflict during early adolescence was associated prospectively with…
Ophir, Yaakov; Rosenberg, Hananel; Asterhan, Christa S C; Schwarz, Baruch B
Exposure to war is associated with psychological disturbances, but ongoing communication between adolescents and teachers may contribute to adolescents' resilience. This study examined the extent and nature of teacher-student communication on Social Network Sites (SNS) during the 2014 Israel-Gaza war. Israeli adolescents (N = 208, 13-18 yrs) completed information about SNS communication. A subset of these (N = 145) completed questionnaires on social rejection and distress sharing on SNS. More than a half (56%) of the respondents communicated with teachers via SNS. The main content category was 'emotional support'. Adolescents' perceived benefits from SNS communication with teachers were associated with distress sharing. Social rejection was negatively associated with emotional support and perceived benefits from SNS communication. We conclude that SNS communication between teachers and students may provide students with easy access to human connections and emotional support, which is likely to contribute to adolescents' resilience in times of war.
Schweitzer, Julie B; Riggins, Tracy; Liang, Xia; Gallen, Courtney; Kurup, Pradeep K; Ross, Thomas J; Black, Maureen M; Nair, Prasanna; Salmeron, Betty Jo
The persistence of effects of prenatal drug exposure (PDE) on brain functioning during adolescence is poorly understood. We explored neural activation to a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) versus a control task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in adolescents with PDE and a community comparison group (CC) of non-exposed adolescents. We applied graph theory metrics to resting state data using a network of nodes derived from the VSWM task activation map to further explore connectivity underlying WM functioning. Participants (ages 12-15 years) included 47 adolescents (27 PDE and 20 CC). All analyses controlled for potentially confounding differences in birth characteristics and postnatal environment. Significant group by task differences in brain activation emerged in the left middle frontal gyrus (BA 6) with the CC group, but not the PDE group, activating this region during VSWM. The PDE group deactivated the culmen, whereas the CC group activated it during the VSWM task. The CC group demonstrated a significant relation between reaction time and culmen activation, not present in the PDE group. The network analysis underlying VSWM performance showed that PDE group had lower global efficiency than the CC group and a trend level reduction in local efficiency. The network node corresponding to the BA 6 group by task interaction showed reduced nodal efficiency and fewer direct connections to other nodes in the network. These results suggest that adolescence reveals altered neural functioning related to response planning that may reflect less efficient network functioning in youth with PDE.
Wrzus, Cornelia; Hänel, Martha; Wagner, Jenny; Neyer, Franz J
For researchers and practitioners interested in social relationships, the question remains as to how large social networks typically are, and how their size and composition change across adulthood. On the basis of predictions of socioemotional selectivity theory and social convoy theory, we conducted a meta-analysis on age-related social network changes and the effects of life events on social networks using 277 studies with 177,635 participants from adolescence to old age. Cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies consistently showed that (a) the global social network increased up until young adulthood and then decreased steadily, (b) both the personal network and the friendship network decreased throughout adulthood, (c) the family network was stable in size from adolescence to old age, and (d) other networks with coworkers or neighbors were important only in specific age ranges. Studies focusing on life events that occur at specific ages, such as transition to parenthood, job entry, or widowhood, demonstrated network changes similar to such age-related network changes. Moderator analyses detected that the type of network assessment affected the reported size of global, personal, and family networks. Period effects on network sizes occurred for personal and friendship networks, which have decreased in size over the last 35 years. Together the findings are consistent with the view that a portion of normative, age-related social network changes are due to normative, age-related life events. We discuss how these patterns of normative social network development inform research in social, evolutionary, cultural, and personality psychology.
Hornstein, Christiane; Trautmann-Villalba, Patricia; Wild, Elke; Baranski, Natalie; Wunderlich, Regina; Schwarz, Markus
Psychiatric disorder in pregnancy and after child birth as well as psychological distress are well known factors that put child wellbeing at risk. They are, however, often estimated as less frequent and less severe then they occur. Postpartum psychiatric disorder meets mothers of all social classes, they are highly stigmatized, therefore often disregarded and remain undetected. The affected mothers socially withdraw themselves due to feelings of shame, fear and guilt. They cut themselves off from psychiatric treatment and from support by child welfare institutions. The regional network "Hand in Hand" in the Rhine-Neckar-area consisting of psychiatrists, psychotherapists, gynaecologists, paediatricians, social workers and midwives uses and connects the resources available in public health and youth aid to support both the child wellbeing as well as the mental health of mothers. Our program begins by identifying risk factors for mothers' postpartum disorders and continues by increasing awareness with the previous named professional groups, so that they act promptly and offer treatment and support. The following paper describes our network activities emphasizing anti-stigma, instruction of professionals and intervention with affected families.
Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J; Carmona, Susana; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Sánchez-González, Javier; Guzmán-de-Villoria, Juan; Franco, Carolina; Robles, Olalla; Arango, Celso; Desco, Manuel
Math-gifted subjects are characterized by above-age performance in intelligence tests, exceptional creativity, and high task commitment. Neuroimaging studies reveal enhanced functional brain organization and white matter microstructure in the frontoparietal executive network of math-gifted individuals. However, the cortical morphometry of these subjects remains largely unknown. The main goal of this study was to compare the cortical morphometry of math-gifted adolescents with that of an age- and IQ-matched control group. We used surface-based methods to perform a vertex-wise analysis of cortical thickness and surface area. Our results show that math-gifted adolescents present a thinner cortex and a larger surface area in key regions of the frontoparietal and default mode networks, which are involved in executive processing and creative thinking, respectively. The combination of reduced cortical thickness and larger surface area suggests above-age neural maturation of these networks in math-gifted individuals. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1893-1902, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Thomas, Silke; Heinrich, Sabine; Kühnlein, Anja; Radon, Katja
A potential association between socioeconomic status (SES) and self-reported use of mobile phones has been investigated in a few studies. If measured exposure to mobile phone networks differs by SES in children, it has not yet been studied. Interview data of 1,481 children and 1,505 adolescents on participants' mobile phone use, socio-demographic characteristics and potential confounders were taken from the German MobilEe-study. Sociodemographic data was used to stratify participants into three "status groups" (low, middle, high). Using a personal dosimeter, we obtained an exposure profile over 24 h for each of the participants. Exposure levels during waking hours were expressed as mean percentage of the reference level. Children with a low SES were more likely to own a mobile phone (OR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1-3.9) and also reported to use their mobile phone longer per day (OR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.1-5.4) than children with a high SES. For adolescents, self-reported duration of mobile phone use per day was also higher with a low SES (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.4-8.4) compared with a high SES. No association between SES and measured exposure to mobile telecommunication networks was seen for children or adolescents. Mobile phone use may differ between status groups with higher use among disadvantaged groups. However, this does not result in higher overall exposure to mobile telecommunication networks. Whether short duration of own mobile phone use or the small numbers of participants with a low SES are causal, have to be investigated in further studies.
Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described their alcohol and tobacco use on two occasions one year apart. Actor-based models simultaneously examined changes in peer network ties and changes in individual behaviors for all participants within each school. Multi-level analyses examined changes in individual behaviors for adolescents entering new peer groups and adolescents in stable peer groups, both of which were embedded within the school-based peer networks. Similar results emerged from both analytic methods: Selection and socialization contributed to similarity of alcohol use, but only selection was a factor in tobacco use.
Mastrandrea, Rossana; Fournet, Julie; Barrat, Alain
Given their importance in shaping social networks and determining how information or transmissible diseases propagate in a population, interactions between individuals are the subject of many data collection efforts. To this aim, different methods are commonly used, ranging from diaries and surveys to decentralised infrastructures based on wearable sensors. These methods have each advantages and limitations but are rarely compared in a given setting. Moreover, as surveys targeting friendship relations might suffer less from memory biases than contact diaries, it is interesting to explore how actual contact patterns occurring in day-to-day life compare with friendship relations and with online social links. Here we make progresses in these directions by leveraging data collected in a French high school and concerning (i) face-to-face contacts measured by two concurrent methods, namely wearable sensors and contact diaries, (ii) self-reported friendship surveys, and (iii) online social links. We compare the resulting data sets and find that most short contacts are not reported in diaries while long contacts have a large reporting probability, and that the durations of contacts tend to be overestimated in the diaries. Moreover, measured contacts corresponding to reported friendship can have durations of any length but all long contacts do correspond to a reported friendship. On the contrary, online links that are not also reported in the friendship survey correspond to short face-to-face contacts, highlighting the difference of nature between reported friendships and online links. Diaries and surveys suffer moreover from a low sampling rate, as many students did not fill them, showing that the sensor-based platform had a higher acceptability. We also show that, despite the biases of diaries and surveys, the overall structure of the contact network, as quantified by the mixing patterns between classes, is correctly captured by both networks of self-reported contacts and
Mastrandrea, Rossana; Fournet, Julie; Barrat, Alain
Given their importance in shaping social networks and determining how information or transmissible diseases propagate in a population, interactions between individuals are the subject of many data collection efforts. To this aim, different methods are commonly used, ranging from diaries and surveys to decentralised infrastructures based on wearable sensors. These methods have each advantages and limitations but are rarely compared in a given setting. Moreover, as surveys targeting friendship relations might suffer less from memory biases than contact diaries, it is interesting to explore how actual contact patterns occurring in day-to-day life compare with friendship relations and with online social links. Here we make progresses in these directions by leveraging data collected in a French high school and concerning (i) face-to-face contacts measured by two concurrent methods, namely wearable sensors and contact diaries, (ii) self-reported friendship surveys, and (iii) online social links. We compare the resulting data sets and find that most short contacts are not reported in diaries while long contacts have a large reporting probability, and that the durations of contacts tend to be overestimated in the diaries. Moreover, measured contacts corresponding to reported friendship can have durations of any length but all long contacts do correspond to a reported friendship. On the contrary, online links that are not also reported in the friendship survey correspond to short face-to-face contacts, highlighting the difference of nature between reported friendships and online links. Diaries and surveys suffer moreover from a low sampling rate, as many students did not fill them, showing that the sensor-based platform had a higher acceptability. We also show that, despite the biases of diaries and surveys, the overall structure of the contact network, as quantified by the mixing patterns between classes, is correctly captured by both networks of self-reported contacts and
Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary W.
This study examined the associations between children's co-occurring relational and physical aggression trajectories and their peer relations (i.e., peer rejection, peer acceptance, and reciprocated friendships) from late childhood (Grade 4; M[subscript age] = 10.0) to early adolescence (Grade 8; M[subscript age] = 13.9). Using a sample of 477…
Astronaut John Glenn in the Friendship 7 capsule during the first manned orbital flight, the MA-6 mission. Boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas (intercontinental ballistic missile), the MA-6 mission lasted for 5 hours and orbited the Earth three times.
Jugert, Philipp; Noack, Peter; Rutland, Adam
This study examined changes in and predictors of preference for same-ethnic friendships among German (N = 106) and Turkish (N = 45) preadolescents (M age = 10.4 years) during their 1st year in an ethnically heterogeneous school. Drawing on the contact hypothesis, it examined the relation between children's attitudes and their preference for…
Astronaut John Glenn enters the Mercury spacecraft, Friendship 7, prior to the launch of MA-6 on February 20, 1961 and became the first American who orbited the Earth. The MA-6 mission was the first manned orbital flight boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile), lasted for five hours, and orbited the Earth three times.
Caldwell, Mayta A.; Peplau, Letitia Anne
College students answered questionnaires regarding number of same sex friends and frequency of interaction, typical and preferred kinds of interactions, and emotional intimacy. Men and women did not differ in number of friends, time spent with friends, nor in value placed on intimate friendships. Sex differences were found, however, in the nature…
Wolf, Deborah Goleman
Both research and the gay community opinion have relied primarily on stereotypes in their ignorance of the older lesbian. A preliminary study of the close friendship patterns of older lesbians is underway in San Francisco, where gay community life is more visible than in other cities. Even there, lesbians are more underground than gay men. Most…
Cohen, Steve Martin
Analysis of national (N=1469) and New York (N=1683) survey data shows that indicators of ethnic assimilation (interethnic marriage and friendship) and of social class are generally unrelated. However, associations in the hypothesized direction among the more recently arrived ethnic groups suggest social class is an important correlate of ethnic…
Silverman, Carol J.
Examines a dimension of neighboring that need not assume friendship as the role model. When the model assumes only a sense of connectedness as defining neighboring, then the residential correlation, shown in many studies between urbanism and neighboring, disappears. Theories of neighboring, study variables, methods, and analysis are discussed.…
Individuals that participate in exchanges with delayed rewards can be exploited if their partners don't reciprocate. In humans, friendships are built on trust, and trust enhances cooperation. New evidence suggests that close social bonds also enhance trust in chimpanzees.
Liu, Xiaolin; Silverman, Alan; Kern, Mark; Ward, B. Douglas; Li, Shi-Jiang; Shaker, Reza; Sood, Manu R.
Background The neural network mechanisms underlying visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are incompletely understood. It has been proposed that an intrinsic salience network plays an important role in chronic pain and IBS symptoms. Using neuroimaging, we examined brain responses to rectal distension in adolescent IBS patients, focusing on determining the alteration of salience network integrity in IBS and its functional implications in current theoretical frameworks. We hypothesized that (1) brain responses to visceral stimulation in adolescents are similar to those in adults, and (2) IBS is associated with an altered salience network interaction with other neurocognitive networks, particularly the default mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN), as predicted by the theoretical models. Methods IBS patients and controls received subliminal and liminal rectal distension during imaging. Stimulus-induced brain activations were determined. Salience network integrity was evaluated by functional connectivity of its seed regions activated by rectal distension in the insular and cingulate cortices. Key Results Compared with controls, IBS patients demonstrated greater activation to rectal distension in neural structures of the homeostatic afferent and emotional arousal networks, especially the anterior cingulate and insular cortices. Greater brain responses to liminal vs. subliminal distension were observed in both groups. Particularly, IBS is uniquely associated with an excessive coupling of the salience network with the DMN and ECN in their key frontal and parietal node areas. Conclusions & Inferences Our study provided consistent evidence supporting the theoretical predictions of altered salience network functioning as a neuropathological mechanism of IBS symptoms. PMID:26467966
Schneider, Barry H.
Background: The friendships of socially withdrawn/anxious children and early adolescents have been found to lack critical rewarding qualities. Observational research may help elucidate the obstacles they face in forming and maintaining high-quality friendships with sociable peers. Method: We observed the interactions of 38 socially withdrawn early…
Hollins, Sharon L; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Walker, Frederick Rohan; Cairns, Murray J
Maternal immune activation (MIA) and adolescent cannabinoid exposure (ACE) have both been identified as major environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. We examined the effects of these two risk factors alone, and in combination, on gene expression during late adolescence. Pregnant rats were exposed to the viral infection mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C) on gestational day (GD) 15. Adolescent offspring received daily injections of the cannabinoid HU210 for 14days starting on postnatal day (PND) 35. Gene expression was examined in the left entorhinal cortex (EC) using mRNA microarrays. We found prenatal treatment with poly I:C alone, or HU210 alone, produced relatively minor changes in gene expression. However, following combined treatments, offspring displayed significant changes in transcription. This dramatic and persistent alteration of transcriptional networks enriched with genes involved in neurotransmission, cellular signalling and schizophrenia, was associated with a corresponding perturbation in the expression of small non-coding microRNA (miRNA). These results suggest that a combination of environmental exposures during development leads to significant genomic remodeling that disrupts maturation of the EC and its associated circuitry with important implications as the potential antecedents of memory and learning deficits in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.
Whyte, Elisabeth M; Behrmann, Marlene; Minshew, Nancy J; Garcia, Natalie V; Scherf, K Suzanne
Multiple hypotheses have been offered to explain the impaired face-processing behavior and the accompanying underlying disruptions in neural circuitry among individuals with autism. We explored the specificity of atypical face-processing activation and potential alterations to fusiform gyrus (FG) morphology as potential underlying mechanisms. Adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) and age-matched typically developing (TD) adolescents were scanned with sMRI and fMRI as they observed human and animal faces. In spite of exhibiting comparable face recognition behavior, the HFA adolescents evinced hypo-activation throughout the face-processing system in response to unfamiliar human, but not animal, faces. They also exhibited greater activation in affective regions of the face-processing network in response to animal, but not human, faces. Importantly, this atypical pattern of activation in response to human faces was not related to atypical structural properties of the FG. This atypical neural response to human faces in autism may stem from abnormalities in the ability to represent the reward value of social (i.e. conspecific) stimuli.
Amaral, Marina Azambuja; Guedes, Gabriela Helena Barbosa Ferreira; Epifanio, Matias; Wagner, Mario Bernardes; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Mattiello, Rita
Probiotics have emerged as a promising intervention for the prevention of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. Assess the effect of probiotics on prevention of RTIs in children and adolescents. MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, SCIELO, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and Web of Science. Key words: "respiratory tract infections" AND probiotics. Randomized controlled trials RCT assessing the effect of probiotics on RTIs in children and adolescents were included. Two reviewers, working independently, to identify studies that met the eligibility criteria. Main and secondary outcomes were RTIs and adverse effects, respectively. Twenty-one trials with 6.603 participants were included. Pairwise meta-analysis suggested that Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus (LCA) was the only effective probiotic to the rate of RTIs compared to placebo (RR0.38; Crl 0.19-0.45). Network analysis showed that the LCA exhibited 54.7% probability of being classified in first, while the probability of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 (LFC) being last in the ranking was 15.3%. LCA showed no better effect compared to other probiotic strains by indirect analysis. This systematic review found a lack of evidence to support the effect of probiotic on the incidence rate of respiratory infections in children and adolescents. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bukowski, William M.; Sippola, Lorrie K.
Although research on friendship reveals the significance of friendship for children, questions about friendship and development remain unanswered. It is argued that the study of friendship would benefit from a return to basic questions about what friendship is, how it is measured, and how it varies across people and contexts.
Wang, Lubin; Shen, Hui; Lei, Yu; Zeng, Ling-Li; Cao, Fenglin; Su, Linyan; Yang, Zheng; Yao, Shuqiao; Hu, Dewen
Internet addiction (IA) is a condition characterized by loss of control over Internet use, leading to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. Recent neuroimaging studies have begun to identify IA-related changes in specific brain regions and connections. However, whether and how the interactions within and between the large-scale brain networks are disrupted in individuals with IA remain largely unexplored. Using group independent component analysis, we extracted five intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) from the resting-state fMRI data of 26 adolescents with IA and 43 controls, including the anterior and posterior default mode network (DMN), left and right fronto-parietal network (FPN), and salience network (SN). We then examined the possible group differences in the functional connectivity within each ICN and between the ICNs. We found that, compared with controls, IA subjects showed: (1) reduced inter-hemispheric functional connectivity of the right FPN, whereas increased intra-hemispheric functional connectivity of the left FPN; (2) reduced functional connectivity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the anterior DMN; (3) reduced functional connectivity between the SN and anterior DMN. Our findings suggest that IA is associated with imbalanced interactions among the DMN, FPN and SN, which may serve as system-level neural underpinnings for the uncontrollable Internet-using behaviors.
Oberst, Ursula; Wegmann, Elisa; Stodt, Benjamin; Brand, Matthias; Chamarro, Andrés
Social networking sites (SNS) are especially attractive for adolescents, but it has also been shown that these users can suffer from negative psychological consequences when using these sites excessively. We analyze the role of fear of missing out (FOMO) and intensity of SNS use for explaining the link between psychopathological symptoms and negative consequences of SNS use via mobile devices. In an online survey, 1468 Spanish-speaking Latin-American social media users between 16 and 18 years old completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Social Networking Intensity scale (SNI), the FOMO scale (FOMOs), and a questionnaire on negative consequences of using SNS via mobile device (CERM). Using structural equation modeling, it was found that both FOMO and SNI mediate the link between psychopathology and CERM, but by different mechanisms. Additionally, for girls, feeling depressed seems to trigger higher SNS involvement. For boys, anxiety triggers higher SNS involvement.
Brem, Silvia; Bucher, Kerstin; Halder, Pascal; Summers, Paul; Dietrich, Thomas; Martin, Ernst; Brandeis, Daniel
Late development of specialization in the visual word processing system was examined using event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of word and symbol string processing in groups of adolescents (15.2-17.3 years) and adults (19.8-30.8 years). We focused our ERP analyses on fast visual activity: the occipital P1 (82-131 ms) modulated by physical stimulus characteristics and the occipito-temporal N1 (132-256 ms) reflecting visual tuning for print. Our fMRI analyses concentrated on basal occipito-temporal activations in the visual word form area VWFA. For words, the correlation of fMRI activation in the VWFA and N1 amplitude confirmed the close relationship of the electrophysiological N1 with metabolic activity in the VWFA. Further support for this relationship came from low resolution electromagnetic tomography localizing the word-specific N1 near the VWFA. Both imaging techniques revealed age-independent differences between words and symbol strings. Late development, however, was preferentially detected with ERPs. Decreases of P1 and N1 amplitudes with age were not limited to words and suggested further maturation of the underlying brain microstructure and function. Following adolescence, decreasing N1 latencies specific to words point to continued specialization of the visual word processing system. Both N1 and fMRI measures correlated with reading performance. In summary, the similarity of global fMRI activation patterns between groups suggests a fully established distribution of the reading network in adolescence, while the decreasing N1 latencies for words indicate protracted fine tuning after adolescence.
Kreager, Derek A; Staff, Jeremy; Gauthier, Robin; Lefkowitz, Eva S; Feinberg, Mark E
A sexual double standard in adolescence has important implications for sexual development and gender inequality. The present study uses longitudinal social network data (N = 914; 11-16 years of age) to test if gender moderates associations between adolescents' sexual behaviors and peer acceptance. Consistent with a traditional sexual double standard, female adolescents who reported having sex had significant decreases in peer acceptance over time, whereas male adolescents reporting the same behavior had significant increases in peer acceptance. This pattern was observed net of respondents' own perceived friendships, further suggesting that the social responses to sex vary by gender of the sexual actor. However, findings for "making out" showed a reverse double standard, such that female adolescents reporting this behavior had increases in peer acceptance and male adolescents reporting the same behavior had decreases in peer acceptance over time. Results thus suggest that peers enforce traditional sexual scripts for both "heavy" and "light" sexual behaviors during adolescence. These findings have important implications for sexual health education, encouraging educators to develop curricula that emphasize the gendered social construction of sexuality and to combat inequitable and stigmatizing peer responses to real or perceived deviations from traditional sexual scripts.
Rodríguez, Sue A; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J
Research on the associations between parent-adolescent relationships and friendships among Latinos is limited. Drawing on developmental and ecological perspectives, we examined bidirectional associations between parental warmth and friendship intimacy with same-sex peers from early to late adolescence using a longitudinal cross-lag panel design. Parent-adolescent immigration status and adolescent gender were examined as moderators of these associations. Home interviews were conducted with 246 Mexican American adolescents (51 % female) when they were in early (M = 12.55; SD = .60 years), middle (M = 14.64; SD = .59 years), and late adolescence (M = 17.67; SD = .57 years). Modest declines in paternal warmth were evident from early to late adolescence, but maternal warmth was high and stable across this time period. Girls' intimacy with same-sex friends also was high and stable from early to late adolescence, but boys' intimacy with same-sex friends increased over this time period. In general, findings revealed that adolescents' perceptions of parents' warmth in early adolescence were associated positively with friendship intimacy in middle adolescence, and friendship intimacy in middle adolescence was associated positively with parental warmth in late adolescence. Some associations were moderated by adolescent gender and parent-adolescent immigration status. For example, there was an association from maternal warmth in early adolescence to friendship intimacy in late adolescence only for immigrant youth. These findings suggest that among Mexican American adolescents, their relationships with their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends are intertwined closely and that gender and immigration status shape some of these associations during adolescence.
Negriff, Sonya; Elizabeth, J. Susman; Trickett, Penelope K.
There is strong evidence that early pubertal timing is associated with adolescent problem behaviors. However, there has been limited investigation of the mechanisms or developmental relationships. The present study examined longitudinal models incorporating pubertal timing, delinquency, and sexual activity in a sample of 454 adolescents (9–13 years old at enrollment; 47% females). Participants were seen for three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Characteristics of friendship networks (older friends, male friends, older male friends) were examined as mediators. Structural equation modeling was used to test these associations as well as temporal relationships between sexual activity and delinquency. Results showed that early pubertal timing at Time 1 was related to more sexual activity at Time 2, which was related to higher delinquency at Time 3, a trend mediation effect. None of the friendship variables mediated these associations. Gender or maltreatment status did not moderate the meditational pathways. The results also supported the temporal sequence of sexual activity preceding increases in delinquency. These findings reveal that early maturing adolescents may actively seek out opportunities to engage in sexual activity which appears to be risk for subsequent delinquency. PMID:21191640
Van Zalk, Nejra; Van Zalk, Maarten
Nonclinical social anxiety in adolescence can be highly problematic, as it likely affects current and especially new social interactions. Relationships with significant others, such as close friends, mothers, and fathers, could aid socially anxious adolescents' participation in social situations, thereby helping reduce feelings of social anxiety. We examined whether making friends as well as high friendship quality help reduce social anxiety over time, and whether friends', mothers', and fathers' care interact in reducing social anxiety. Using longitudinal data from 2,194 participants in a social network (48% girls; Mage = 13.58) followed for 3 years, we estimated friendship selection and influence processes via a continuous time-modeling approach using SIENA. We controlled for the effects of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, gender, age, and family structure. Our findings suggest that perceived care by friends mediated the effect of making friends on social anxiety. Perceptions of mother and father, as well as friend care and connectedness, respectively, did not interact in decreasing social anxiety. Nonetheless, care and connectedness with mothers, fathers, and friends jointly predicted decreases in social anxiety. Caring relationships with friends and parents each play a role in mutually protecting early adolescents against increasing in social anxiety over time.
Laher, Fatima; Hornschuh, Stefanie; Nkala, Busisiwe; Chimoyi, Lucy; Otwombe, Kennedy; Kaida, Angela; Gray, Glenda Elisabeth; Miller, Cari
Background Internet access via mobile phones and computers facilitates interaction and potential health communication among individuals through social networking. Many South African adolescents own mobile phones and can access social networks via apps. Objective We investigated sociodemographic factors and HIV risk behaviors of adolescent social networking users in Soweto, South Africa. Methods We conducted an interviewer-administered, cross-sectional survey of adolescents aged 14-19 years. Independent covariates of social networking were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Of 830 adolescents, 57% (475/830) were females and the median age was found to be 18 years (interquartile range 17-18). Social networking was used by 60% of adolescents (494/830); more than half, that is, 87% (396/494) accessed social networks through mobile phones and 56% (275/494) spent more than 4 hours per day using their mobile phones. Social networking was independently associated with mobile usage 2-4 hours (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.06, CI: 1.69-5.51) and more than 4 hours per day (AOR: 6.16, CI: 3.46-10.9) and one (AOR: 3.35, CI: 1.79-6.27) or more sexual partner(s) (AOR: 2.58, CI: 1.05-6.36). Conclusions Mobile phone–based social networking is prevalent among sexually active adolescents living in Soweto and may be used as an entry point for health promotion and initiation of low-cost adolescent health interventions. PMID:27683173
Hess, Beth B.
Contrary to the bonding mystique, there is increasing evidence that women's lives are not lacking in friends nor men's so well-endowed. Women's well-developed interpersonal skills are an asset when events such as spouse's death or retirement require the reconstruction of social networks. (Author/SK)
Almaatouq, Abdullah; Radaelli, Laura; Pentland, Alex; Shmueli, Erez
Persuasion is at the core of norm creation, emergence of collective action, and solutions to ‘tragedy of the commons’ problems. In this paper, we show that the directionality of friendship ties affect the extent to which individuals can influence the behavior of each other. Moreover, we find that people are typically poor at perceiving the directionality of their friendship ties and that this can significantly limit their ability to engage in cooperative arrangements. This could lead to failures in establishing compatible norms, acting together, finding compromise solutions, and persuading others to act. We then suggest strategies to overcome this limitation by using two topological characteristics of the perceived friendship network. The findings of this paper have significant consequences for designing interventions that seek to harness social influence for collective action. PMID:27002530
Pachucki, Mark C; Ozer, Emily J; Barrat, Alain; Cattuto, Ciro
How are social interaction dynamics associated with mental health during early stages of adolescence? The goal of this study is to objectively measure social interactions and evaluate the roles that multiple aspects of the social environment--such as physical activity and food choice--may jointly play in shaping the structure of children's relationships and their mental health. The data in this study are drawn from a longitudinal network-behavior study conducted in 2012 at a private K-8 school in an urban setting in California. We recruited a highly complete network sample of sixth-graders (n = 40, 91% of grade, mean age = 12.3), and examined how two measures of distressed mental health (self-esteem and depressive symptoms) are positionally distributed in an early adolescent interaction network. We ascertained how distressed mental health shapes the structure of relationships over a three-month period, adjusting for relevant dimensions of the social environment. Cross-sectional analyses of interaction networks revealed that self-esteem and depressive symptoms are differentially stratified by gender. Specifically, girls with more depressive symptoms have interactions consistent with social inhibition, while boys' interactions suggest robustness to depressive symptoms. Girls higher in self-esteem tended towards greater sociability. Longitudinal network behavior models indicate that gender similarity and perceived popularity are influential in the formation of social ties. Greater school connectedness predicts the development of self-esteem, though social ties contribute to more self-esteem improvement among students who identify as European-American. Cross-sectional evidence shows associations between distressed mental health and students' network peers. However, there is no evidence that connected students' mental health status becomes more similar in their over time because of their network interactions. These findings suggest that mental health during early
Smith, Paige Hall; White, Jacquelyn W.; Moracco, Kathryn E.
A conceptualization of gendered interpersonal aggression that is grounded in the social ecological framework is presented to explicate factors in adolescents' gendered environments that give rise to aggression and victimization. The focus is on gendered social structures and social networks. Our framework for prevention suggests that violence…
Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J.; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described…
Dudovitz, Rebecca N.; Chung, Paul J.; Wong, Mitchell D.
Background: Poor academic (eg, "I am a bad student") and behavioral (eg, "I am a troublemaker") self-concepts are strongly linked to adolescent substance use. Social networks likely influence self-concept. However, little is understood about the role teachers and athletic coaches play in shaping both academic and behavioral…
Kelly, Adrian B; O'Flaherty, Martin; Toumbourou, John W; Homel, Ross; Patton, George C; White, Angela; Williams, Joanne
School connectedness is central to the long term well-being of adolescents, and high quality parent-child relationships facilitate school connectedness. This study examined the extent to which family relationship quality is associated with the school connectedness of pre- and early teenagers, and how this association varies with adolescent involvement in peer drinking networks. The sample consisted of 7,372 10-14 year olds recruited from 231 schools in 30 Australian communities. Participants completed the Communities that Care youth survey. A multi-level model of school connectedness was used, with a random term for school-level variation. Key independent variables included family relationship quality, peer drinking networks, and school grade. Control variables included child gender, sensation seeking, depression, child alcohol use, parent education, and language spoken at home. For grade 6 students, the association of family relationship quality and school connectedness was lower when peer drinking networks were present, and this effect was nonsignificant for older (grade 8) students. Post hoc analyses indicated that the effect for family relationship quality on school connectedness was nonsignificant when adolescents in grade 6 reported that the majority of friends consumed alcohol. The results point to the importance of family-school partnerships in early intervention and prevention.
Sentse, Miranda; Kiuru, Noona; Veenstra, René; Salmivalli, Christina
Our knowledge on adolescents' bullying behavior has rapidly increased over the past decade and it is widely recognized that bullying is a group process and, consequently, context-dependent. Only since recently, though, researchers have had access to statistical programs to study these group processes appropriately. The current 1-year longitudinal study examined the interplay between adolescents' bullying and likeability from a social network perspective. Data came from the evaluation of the Finnish KiVa antibullying program, consisting of students in grades 7-9 (N = 9,183, M age at wave 1 = 13.96 years; 49.2% boys; M classroom size = 19.47) from 37 intervention and 30 control schools. Perceived popularity, gender, and structural network effects were additionally controlled. Longitudinal social network analysis with SIENA revealed that, overall, the higher the students' level of bullying, the less they were liked by their peers. Second, students liked peers with similar levels of bullying and this selection-similarity effect was stronger at low levels of bullying. This selection effect held after controlling for selection-similarity in perceived popularity and gender. Third, students were likely to increase in bullying when they liked peers high on bullying and to decrease in bullying when they liked peers low on bullying. Again, this influence effect held after controlling for the effects of perceived popularity and gender on changes in bullying behavior. No significant differences between control and intervention schools appeared in the effects. The results are discussed in light of their theoretical and methodological implications.
Sampasa‐Kanyinga, H.; Hamilton, H. A.
Summary Objective Social networking sites (SNSs) not only offer users an opportunity to link with others but also allow individuals to compare themselves with other users. However, the link between the use of SNSs and the dissatisfaction with body weight is largely unknown. We investigated the associations between the use of SNSs and the perception of body weight and related behaviours among adolescent men and women. Methods The study sample consisted of 4,468 (48.5% women) 11–19‐year‐old Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Results Overall, 54.6% of students reported using SNSs for 2 h or less per day, 28.0% reported using them for more than 2 h d−1 and 17.4% reported infrequent or no use of SNSs (reference category). After adjustment for covariates, results showed that adolescent women who use SNSs for more than 2 h d−1 had greater odds of dissatisfaction with body weight (odds ratio = 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–3.16). More specifically, they were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.20; 95% CI: 1.34−3.60) compared with those who reported infrequent or no use of SNSs. Conversely, men who use SNSs for 2 h or less per day presented a lower risk for perceiving themselves as overweight (RRR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47−0.98) but not those who use SNSs for more than 2 h d−1. Women who use SNSs for more than 2 h d−1 reported a greater likelihood of trying to lose weight (RRR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.62−3.90). Conclusions Our results showed that heavy use of SNSs is associated with dissatisfaction with body weight in adolescent women. PMID:27812377
Dredge, Rebecca; Gleeson, John; Garcia, Xochitl de la Piedad
The measurement of cyberbullying has been marked by several inconsistencies that lead to difficulties in cross-study comparisons of the frequency of occurrence and the impact of cyberbullying. Consequently, the first aim of this study was to develop a measure of experience with and impact of cyberbullying victimization in social networking sites in adolescents. The second aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of a purpose-built measure (Social Networking Experiences Questionnaire [SNEQ]). Exploratory factor analysis on 253 adolescent social networking sites users produced a six-factor model of impact. However, one factor was removed because of low internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha was higher than .76 for the victimization and remaining five impact subscales. Furthermore, correlation coefficients for the Victimization scale and related dimensions showed good construct validity. The utility of the SNEQ for victim support personnel, research, and cyberbullying education/prevention programs is discussed.
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.; Kupanoff, Kristina
Compared mothers' and fathers' direct involvement in adolescent girls' versus boys' peer relationships, and examined the links between parents' involvement and the qualities of adolescents' friendship and peer experiences. Findings revealed mothers were more knowledgeable about adolescents' peer relationships than fathers, and both mothers and…
Silbereisen, Rainer K.; And Others
This study was conducted to examine the timing of adolescent transitions. Its first aim was to investigate the hypothesis that cumulated family adversities during childhood would predict earlier transitions in domains such as behavioral autonomy and friendship formation during adolescence. Subjects (N=1,631) were adolescents between the ages of 13…
Investigated similarities and differences between close friendships and romantic relationships among 95 adolescents, who were either diabetic or healthy. Among healthy adolescents, found demonstrated time-dependent links between intimacy in both relationship types. Among diabetic adolescents, found a preference for romantic partners who offered…
Hammond, Rachel K.; Hoffman, Jennifer M.
Adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA) possess core social and pragmatic deficits, which interfere with normal relationship development. At a time when friendships are increasingly important, many adolescents with HFA realize they are different from their peers. Initial research has indicated that adolescence is the time when symptoms of…
Smokowski, Paul Richard; Bacallao, Martica; Buchanan, Rachel Lee
The specific aim of this study was to examine pathways leading to internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in Latino adolescents. Adolescent feelings of interpersonal humiliation, family conflict and commitment, and friendships with peers were investigated as potential mediators linking acculturation stress to subsequent adolescent self-esteem and…
Laugeson, Elizabeth A; Frankel, Fred; Mogil, Catherine; Dillon, Ashley R
This study examines the efficacy of a manualized parent-assisted social skills intervention in comparison with a matched Delayed Treatment Control group to improve friendship quality and social skills among teens 13-17 years of age with autism spectrum disorders. Targeted skills included conversational skills, peer entry and exiting skills, developing friendship networks, good sportsmanship, good host behavior during get-togethers, changing bad reputations, and handling teasing, bullying, and arguments. Results revealed, in comparison with the control group, that the treatment group significantly improved their knowledge of social skills, increased frequency of hosted get-togethers, and improved overall social skills as reported by parents. Possibly due to poor return rate of questionnaires, social skills improvement reported by teachers was not significant. Future research should provide follow-up data to test the durability of treatment.
Kreager, Derek A.; Staff, Jeremy; Gauthier, Robin; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Feinberg, Mark E.
A sexual double standard in adolescence has important implications for sexual development and gender inequality. The present study uses longitudinal social network data (N = 914; 11–16 years of age) to test if gender moderates associations between adolescents’ sexual behaviors and peer acceptance. Consistent with a traditional sexual double standard, female adolescents who reported having sex had significant decreases in peer acceptance over time, whereas male adolescents reporting the same behavior had significant increases in peer acceptance. This pattern was observed net of respondents’ own perceived friendships, further suggesting that the social responses to sex vary by gender of the sexual actor. However, findings for “making out” showed a reverse double standard, such that female adolescents reporting this behavior had increases in peer acceptance and male adolescents reporting the same behavior had decreases in peer acceptance over time. Results thus suggest that peers enforce traditional sexual scripts for both “heavy” and “light” sexual behaviors during adolescence. These findings have important implications for sexual health education, encouraging educators to develop curricula that emphasize the gendered social construction of sexuality and to combat inequitable and stigmatizing peer responses to real or perceived deviations from traditional sexual scripts. PMID:27833252
Siegel, Rebecca S.; Freeman, Andrew J.; La Greca, Annette M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.
Background: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with psychosocial impairment, but few studies have examined peer relationship functioning and PBD. Adolescence is a crucial developmental period when peers become increasingly salient. Objective: This study compared perceived friendship quality and peer victimization in adolescents with…
Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Park, Lora E.
The present study of 150 adolescents ("M" age = 13.05 years) examined the associations between appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) and psychological adjustment during early adolescence, and evaluated three types of other-gender peer experiences (other-gender friendship, peer acceptance, and romantic relationships) as…
Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.
Investigated whether friendships with deviant peers would be related negatively to the emotional and behavioral adjustment of 305 adolescents, 13 years of age. Found that adolescents with deviant friends were more delinquent than those with no mutual friends or nondeviant friends, and showed similarly problematic depression levels as friendless…
Asbjornslett, Mona; Engelsrud, Gunn H.; Helseth, Solvi
This article examines how Norwegian children with physical disabilities experience friendship during the transition between primary and secondary school. The research was based on 38 life mode interviews with 15 children. Two themes were explored: (1) different kinds of friends: friends with disabilities, friends without disabilities and…
Hall, Jeffrey A.; Larson, Kiley A.; Watts, Amber
The ideal standards model predicts linear relationship among friendship standards, expectation fulfillment, and relationship satisfaction. Using a diary method, 197 participants reported on expectation fulfillment in interactions with one best, one close, and one casual friend (N = 591) over five days (2,388 interactions). Using multilevel…
Boman, John H., IV; Krohn, Marvin D.; Gibson, Chris L.; Stogner, John M.
While associations with deviant peers are well understood to impact individual development, less is understood about the relationship between friendship quality and delinquency. Two criminological theories--social control theory and self-control theory--are able to offer an explanation for the latter relationship. Social control and self-control…
Poorthuis, Astrid M. G.; Thomaes, Sander; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; de Castro, Bram Orobio
Is prosocial behavior a prerequisite for having good-quality friendships? This study (N=477, mean age=12.2 years) examined whether the link between children's prosocial tendencies and their perceived friendship quality was dependent on children's level of popularity in the peer group. Children's prosocial tendencies were assessed both as observed…
Ralph, Leslie E. R.; Epkins, Catherine C.
Background: Children's friendship quality is a particularly important risk or protective factor for internalizing problems and loneliness. Past research indicates that relationship satisfaction is related to perceived similarity; however, it is unclear whether this relation is seen in girls' friendship quality and whether this relation is…
The launch of the MA-6, Friendship 7, on February 20, 1962. Boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM), Friendship 7 was the first U.S. marned orbital flight and carried Astronaut John H. Glenn into orbit. Astronaut Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth.
John glenn entering the capsule prior to the launch of Friendship 7 From: The John Glenn Story: Summary of astronaut John Glenn's flying career, from naval aviation training to space flight. The Mercury project is featured as John Glenn flies the Friendship 7 spacecraft. President John F. Kennedy presents the NASA Distinguished service Medal to Astronaut John Glenn.
In this article, I explore the claim that one-to-one encounters between community music facilitators and music participants can be described as friendships. By exploring the relational structure through the call and the welcome, I make some general comments on friendship before finally tackling the question lying at the heart of this article: How…
Shushok, Frank, Jr.
Aristotle believed that perfect friendship based in goodness is rare because few people seek to be good. In this article, the author suggests that colleges and universities can prove him wrong by helping students understand the ways and whys of being a true friend. Here, he advocates a friendship curriculum to guide students in learning to create…
This paper provides an introduction to the enduring friendship between Hannah Arendt and Karl Jaspers. It shows how their intellectual development as public educators was sustained by their ongoing dialogue which flourished not in spite of but because of their huge differences of circumstance and personality. This friendship between two renowned…
Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian E.
Analyzed friendship patterns of individuals aged 85+ years, 77% of whom were women. Despite high levels of disability and loss of age peers, majority were in frequent contact with friends and still had close friend. Over 31 months, predictors of friendship involvement changed. At Time 1, mood was most important; at Time 3, increased disability was…
Watt, K. J.; Johnson, P.; Virji-Babul, N.
Background: Measuring the perception of friendship in adults with Down syndrome (DS) has long been a research challenge. While there have been studies investigating the number of friends children with DS have in, the study of how adults with DS view the concept of friendship has been relatively unexplored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the…
This paper examines how young people's friendships influence safer sexual practices. Through a thematic discourse analysis, interviews with Sydney-based young people (aged 18-25 years) and Australian-based sexual health websites for young people are considered. Interview data illustrate how friendships can support young people's sexual experiences, concerns and safeties beyond the practice of 'safe sex' (condom use). This is evident in friends' practices of sex and relationship advice, open dialogue, trust and sharing experiential knowledge, as well as friend-based sex. Meanwhile, friendship discourse from selected Australian sexual health websites fails to engage with the support offered by friendship, or its value to a sexual health agenda. Foucault's account of friendship as a space of self-invention is considered in light of these data, along with his argument that friendship poses a threat to formal systems of knowing and regulating sex. Whether sexual or not, many close friendships are sexually intimate given the knowledge, support and influence these offer to one's sexual practices and relations. This paper argues that greater attention to friendship among sexual health promoters and researchers would improve professional engagements with young people's contemporary sexual cultures, and better inform their attempts to engage young people through social media.
Urberg, K A; Değirmencioğlu, S M; Pilgrim, C
The relative influence of adolescents closest friends and their friendship group on their cigarette smoking and alcohol use was investigated in a short-term, longitudinal study of 1,028 students in the 6th, 8th, and 10th grades in 2 school systems. The amount of influence over the school year was modest in magnitude and came from the closest friend for initiation of cigarette and alcohol use. Only the friendship group use predicted transition into current cigarette use, whereas only the close friend use predicted transition into current alcohol use. Both group and close friends independently contributed to the prediction of adolescents' drinking to intoxication. No difference in the amount of influence, was found between stable and unstable close friendships or friendship groups; neither grade nor gender of the adolescents related to the amount of influence.
Harris, Phyllis Braudy
Friendships are an integral part of the human experience. Yet, dementia often takes a toll on social relationships, and many friends withdraw. This research, however, focuses on friendships that remain, despite a diagnosis of dementia. It examines the quality of the friendships of people with dementia and long-term friendships. Data were collected…
Alles-Jardel, Monique; Schneider, Barry H.; Boutry, Virginie
Compared Comorian and Algerian 10- and 11-year-old immigrants' attitudes toward school, friendship nominations, and friendship quality. Found that ethnic origin was a factor in choosing friends; positive friendship quality associated with better attitudes toward school; and in-group friendships were more common and of higher quality than those…
social network (DS), (8) network of American football games among colleges (AFC), (9) social network of friendships of a karate club (FKC), (10...Ax2 = 12 book karate football ’•■ electronic circuit dolphins a C. Elegans 102 Figure 8: For Universal scaling law for six real-world
Dishion, Thomas J; Nelson, Sarah E; Bullock, Bernadette Marie
Premature autonomy describes a developmental dynamic where parents of high-risk adolescents reduce their involvement and guidance when confronted with challenges of problem behaviour and the influence of deviant friendships. This dynamic was tested on the sample of Oregon Youth Study boys (N=206), whose family management practices and friendships were observed on videotaped interaction tasks. Latent growth curve models were used to examine longitudinal trends between deviant friendship interactions and family management. Direct observations of deviant friendship process at age 14 were associated with degradation in family management during adolescence. A comparison of antisocial and well-adjusted boys clarified that parents of antisocial boys (started early and persisted) decreased family management around puberty, in comparison to parents of well-adjusted boys who maintained high levels of family management through adolescence. In predicting late adolescent problem behaviour, there was a statistically reliable interaction between family management degradation and deviant peer involvement in adolescence in support of the premature autonomy hypothesis. Adolescent males involved in deviant friendships, and whose parents decreased their family management, were most likely to use marijuana and commit antisocial acts at age 18. The implications for interventions that target adolescents are discussed.
Holland, Scott K.
Abstract Comprehension of narrative stories plays an important role in the development of language skills. In this study, we compared brain activity elicited by a passive-listening version and an active-response (AR) version of a narrative comprehension task by using independent component (IC) analysis on functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 21 adolescents (ages 14–18 years). Furthermore, we explored differences in functional network connectivity engaged by two versions of the task and investigated the relationship between the online response time and the strength of connectivity between each pair of ICs. Despite similar brain region involvements in auditory, temporoparietal, and frontoparietal language networks for both versions, the AR version engages some additional network elements including the left dorsolateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and sensorimotor networks. These additional involvements are likely associated with working memory and maintenance of attention, which can be attributed to the differences in cognitive strategic aspects of the two versions. We found significant positive correlation between the online response time and the strength of connectivity between an IC in left inferior frontal region and an IC in sensorimotor region. An explanation for this finding is that longer reaction time indicates stronger connection between the frontal and sensorimotor networks caused by increased activation in adolescents who require more effort to complete the task. PMID:24689887
Ehrlich, Katherine B; Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude
Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents' experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents' experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semistructured discussions about areas of parent-adolescent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents' social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents.
Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Fischi-Gomez, Elda; Batalle, Dafnis; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Eixarch, Elisenda; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Gratacós, Eduard; Hüppi, Petra S.
Adverse conditions during fetal life have been associated to both structural and functional changes in neurodevelopment from the neonatal period to adolescence. In this study, connectomics was used to assess the evolution of brain networks from infancy to early adolescence. Brain network reorganization over time in subjects who had suffered adverse perinatal conditions is characterized and related to neurodevelopment and cognition. Three cohorts of prematurely born infants and children (between 28 and 35 weeks of gestational age), including individuals with a birth weight appropriated for gestational age and with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), were evaluated at 1, 6, and 10 years of age, respectively. A common developmental trajectory of brain networks was identified in both control and IUGR groups: network efficiencies of the fractional anisotropy (FA)-weighted and normalized connectomes increase with age, which can be related to maturation and myelination of fiber connections while the number of connections decreases, which can be associated to an axonal pruning process and reorganization. Comparing subjects with or without IUGR, a similar pattern of network differences between groups was observed in the three developmental stages, mainly characterized by IUGR group having reduced brain network efficiencies in binary and FA-weighted connectomes and increased efficiencies in the connectome normalized by its total connection strength (FA). Associations between brain networks and neurobehavioral impairments were also evaluated showing a relationship between different network metrics and specific social cognition-related scores, as well as a higher risk of inattention/hyperactivity and/or executive functional disorders in IUGR children. PMID:28008304
Van Cleemput, Katrien
This study explores some possibilities of social network analysis for studying adolescents' communication patterns. A full network analysis was conducted on third-grade high school students (15 year olds, 137 students) in Belgium. The results pointed out that face-to-face communication was still the most prominent way for information to flow…
Campbell, Kelly; Holderness, Nicole; Riggs, Matt
Interpersonal chemistry refers to a connection between two individuals that exists upon first meeting. The goal of the current study is to identify beliefs about the underlying components of friendship chemistry. Individuals respond to an online Friendship Chemistry Questionnaire containing items that are derived from interdependence theory and the friendship formation literature. Participants are randomly divided into two subsamples. A principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation is performed on subsample 1 and produces 5 factors: Reciprocal candor, mutual interest, personableness, similarity, and physical attraction. A confirmatory factor analysis is conducted using subsample 2 and provides support for the 5-factor model. Participants with agreeable, open, and conscientious personalities more commonly report experiencing friendship chemistry, as do those who are female, young, and European/white. Responses from participants who have never experienced chemistry are qualitatively analyzed. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.