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Sample records for adolescent fruit consumption

  1. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School.

    PubMed

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find that the fraction of students eating a full serving of whole fruit increased from 4.3% to 45.1%. As such, school districts should consider offering fruit smoothies as part of a set of interventions designed to increase fruit consumption at school.

  2. Parental influences on adolescent fruit consumption: the role of adolescent self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Natalie; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2012-02-01

    The aims of this study were to examine whether adolescent self-efficacy mediates the associations between parental control, perceptions of the importance of healthy nutrition for child health and barriers to buying fruits and vegetables and adolescent fruit consumption using a theoretically derived explanatory model. Data were drawn from a community-based sample of 1606 adolescents in Years 7 and 9 of secondary school and their parents, from Victoria, Australia. Adolescents completed a web-based survey assessing their fruit consumption and self-efficacy for increasing fruit consumption. Parents completed a survey delivered via mail assessing parental control, perceptions and barriers to buying fruit and vegetables. Adolescent self-efficacy for increasing fruit consumption mediated the positive associations between parental control and perceptions of the importance of healthy nutrition for child health and adolescent fruit consumption. Furthermore, adolescent self-efficacy mediated the negative association between parental barriers to buying fruits and vegetables and adolescent fruit consumption. The importance of explicating the mechanisms through which parental factors influence adolescent fruit consumption not only relates to the advancement of scientific knowledge but also offers potential avenues for intervention. Future research should assess the effectiveness of methods to increase adolescent fruit consumption by focussing on both improving adolescents' dietary self-efficacy and on targeting parental control, perceptions and barriers.

  3. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find…

  4. Parental Influences on Adolescent Fruit Consumption: The Role of Adolescent Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Natalie; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine whether adolescent self-efficacy mediates the associations between parental control, perceptions of the importance of healthy nutrition for child health and barriers to buying fruits and vegetables and adolescent fruit consumption using a theoretically derived explanatory model. Data were drawn from a…

  5. Distance to food stores & adolescent male fruit and vegetable consumption: mediation effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physical environments in which adolescents reside and their access to food stores may influence their consumption of fruit and vegetables. This association could either be direct or mediated via psychosocial variables or home availability of fruit and vegetables. A greater understanding of these...

  6. Food Safety Is a Key Determinant of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Urban Beninese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nago, Eunice S.; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Lachat, Carl K.; Dossa, Romain A.; Kolsteren, Patrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption in urban Beninese adolescents and elements to develop a school-based fruit and vegetable program. Design: Sixteen focus groups conducted with a key word guide. Setting and Participants: Two private and 2 public secondary schools in Cotonou, Benin. One hundred fifty-three…

  7. Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable's the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. PMID:25887930

  8. Longitudinal predictors of frequent vegetable and fruit consumption among socio-economically disadvantaged Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2014-07-01

    Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ≤Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (≥2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (≥1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules.

  9. A review of the relationship between 100% fruit juice consumption and weight in children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies assessing a relationship between consumption of 100% fruit juice by children and adolescents and weight are contradictory. The purpose of this review was to assess the 9 cross-sectional and 12 longitudinal studies that have looked at this association. Of the 9 cross-sectional studies revie...

  10. Processes of change for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study sought to identify Transtheoretical model processes of change associated with consumption of >=5 daily servings of fruit and vegetables in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N=549; mean (SD) age=12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic...

  11. Correlates of soft drink and fruit juice consumption among Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vågstrand, Karin; Linné, Yvonne; Karlsson, Jan; Elfhag, Kristina; Lindroos, Anna Karin

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how soft drink and fruit juice consumption in teenagers is associated with life-style, other food choices, eating behaviour and maternal characteristics. A cross-sectional study of 16-year-old girls (n 275) and boys (n 199) and their mothers was undertaken. Questionnaires were used to assess habitual dietary intake, eating behaviour, physical activity, smoking and educational level. Weight and height were measured. It was found that eating breakfast less than five times per week was independently associated with a high soft drink consumption in both girls and boys. A low intake of cooked meals and milk and a high intake of salty snacks were associated with soft drinks in boys only, and a low intake of fruits in girls only. A high maternal juice intake, low milk and high fruit consumption were independent correlates of fruit juice intake in both girls and boys. In girls, being a smoker, having a smoking mother, a high soft drink intake, scoring low on emotional eating and high on cognitive restraint were also associated with fruit juice intake. A low intake of soft drinks and cooked meals was associated with fruit juice intake in boys only. Neither soft drinks nor fruit juice was associated with BMI. In conclusion, a high intake of both fruit juice and soft drinks were associated with a lower intake of foods such as milk and cooked meals. It might be possible to influence fruit juice intake among teenagers by aiming at their mothers, whereas the adolescents themselves should be targeted when the aim is to reduce soft drink consumption.

  12. Consumption of fruits and vegetables associated with other risk behaviors among adolescents in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Fabiana Medeiros de Almeida; Smith-Menezes, Aldemir; Duarte, Maria de Fátima da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of consumption of fruits and vegetables and identify the association with low level of physical activity, exposure to sedentary behavior, consumption of soft drinks and overweight/obesity in adolescents. Methods: This is a cross-sectional school-based study with a representative sample of 3992 students aged 14–19 years from the state of Sergipe, Brazil. The outcome was low consumption of fruits and vegetables (<5servings/day). Independent variables were: level of physical activity, sedentary behavior, consumption of soft drinks, and overweight/obesity. Global Student Health Survey questionnaire and body mass and height measurements were used, as well as chi-square test and crude and adjusted binary logistic regression. The significance level adopted was 5%. Results: The prevalence of inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables was high – 88.6% (95%CI=87.6–89.5). Higher likelihood of low consumption of fruits and vegetables was verified among boys who were exposed to sedentary behavior (OR=1.63; 95%CI=1.18–2.24), who consumed soft drinks (OR=3.04; 95%CI=2.10–4.40), with insufficiently physical activity (OR=1.98; 95%CI=1.43–2.73) and girls who consumed soft drinks (OR=1.88; 95%CI=1.43–2.47) and those with overweight/obesity (OR=1.63; 95%CI=1.19–2.23). Conclusions: There is a need of public policies aimed at encouraging the consumption of healthy foods among adolescents. PMID:27240560

  13. Relations among weight control behaviors and eating attitudes, social physique anxiety, and fruit and vegetable consumption in Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baş, Murat; Kiziltan, Gül

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among dieting, eating attitudes, social physique anxiety, and fruit and vegetable consumption among Turkish adolescents. Abnormal eating behavior (EAT-26 > or =20) was found in 32.8% of the total sample; this included 26.4% of the males and 38.7% of the females. Weight-control and weight-related behaviors are associated with high fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescents. Dieting was significantly associated with types of consumption in female adolescents. In addition, EAT-26 scores were significantly positively correlated with high fruit and vegetable consumption, but this association was not observed in SPAS scores among adolescents. Adolescents who engage in dieting behaviors seem to consume more fruit and vegetables than do other adolescents. Female adolescents may be more likely to display abnormal eating attitudes and dieting behaviors than do males. Although some weight-control behaviors may be risky, adolescents who were practicing dieting behaviors engaged in the positive dietary behavior of consuming more servings of fruit and vegetables than did non-dieters.

  14. Fruits and vegetables consumption and associated factors among in-school adolescents in five Southeast Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2012-10-11

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of fruits and vegetable consumption and associated factors among Southeast Asian in-school adolescents. Data were collected by self-report questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 16,084) of school children aged 13 to 15 years in five Southeast Asian countries. Overall, 76.3% of the 13 to 15 year-olds had inadequate fruits and vegetables consumptions (less than five servings per day); 28% reported consuming fruits less than once per day and 13.8% indicated consuming vegetables less than once per day. In multivariable analysis, lack of protective factors and being physically inactive were associated with inadequate fruits and vegetable consumption, and sedentary behaviour and being overweight was protective of inadequate fruits and vegetable consumption. The results stress the need for intervention programmes aimed at increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, targeting proximal factors such as the family environment and distal factors by aiming at integrating other risk factors such as physical activity into health promotion among adolescents.

  15. Personal eating, lifestyle, and family-related behaviors correlate with fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescents living in sicily, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Nolfo, Francesca; Rametta, Stefania; Bandini, Lorenzo; Ferranti, Roberta; Bonomo, Maria Concetta; Matalone, Margherita; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle habits and parental modeling have been reported to influence adolescents’ food choices, such as for fruit and vegetable consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the association be-tween personal eating (i. e. breakfast and snacking behavior), lifestyle (sedentary and physical activity), and family-related (i. e. consuming meals with parents, family rules, and television use) habits and fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents living in Sicily, southern Italy. A cross-sectional survey was conducted across 14 schools in urban and rural areas, including 1,135 adolescents (12 - 14 years old). Validated instruments were used to assess possible relationships between the study variables and daily fruit and vegetable consumption. Higher parental education, occupation, and rural environment were positively associated with adolescents’ daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. Both types of food consumption were negatively associated with an increased frequency of between-meal and out-of-home eating, and positively with having meals with parents and higher parental influence in adolescents’ food choices. Television viewing habits were not related with adolescents’ vegetable consumption, whereas having a television in their room and commercial advertisings were negatively associated with daily intake of fruits. Although socioeconomic and cultural status may influence fruit and vegetable consumption, personal eating and family-related behaviors may be targeted for implementing recommendations.

  16. Access to fast food and food prices: relationship with fruit and vegetable consumption and overweight among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Auld, M Christopher; Chaloupka, Frank J; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2007-01-01

    We examine the extent to which food prices and restaurant outlet density are associated with adolescent fruit and vegetable consumption, body mass index (BMI), and the probability of overweight. We use repeated cross-sections of individual-level data on adolescents from the Monitoring the Future Surveys from 1997 to 2003 combined with fast food and fruit and vegetable prices obtained from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association and fast food and full-service restaurant outlet density measures obtained from Dun & Bradstreet. The results suggest that the price of a fast food meal is an important determinant of adolescents' body weight and eating habits: a 10% increase in the price of a fast food meal leads to a 3.0% increase in the probability of frequent fruit and vegetable consumption, a 0.4% decrease in BMI, and a 5.9% decrease in probability of overweight. The price of fruits and vegetables and restaurant outlet density are less important determinants, although these variables typically have the expected sign and are often statistically associated with our outcome measures. Despite these findings, changes in all observed economic and socio-demographic characteristics together only explain roughly one-quarter of the change in mean BMI and one-fifth of the change in overweight over the 1997-2003 sampling period.

  17. Process of change for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study sought to identify Transtheoretical Model processes of change associated with consumption of = 5 daily servings of FVs in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N = 549; mean (SD) age = 12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic). Participan...

  18. Processes of change for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to identify Transtheoretical Model processes of change associated with consumption of ≥5 daily servings of FVs in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N=549; mean (SD) age=12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic). Participants completed measures of stages and processes of change, and were ranked according to intake level based on their reported stage. Spearman correlations and independent samples t tests were used in cross-sectional analyses of the relationship between processes of change and FV consumption. Consciousness raising, environmental reevaluation, helping relationships and stimulus control processes were significantly associated with FV consumption (ρ≥.12; p<.01), and were practiced more often by youths who consumed ≥5 daily servings of FVs relative to those who did not (p<.05). Findings highlight the potential of these processes for increasing FV consumption in this population.

  19. Fruit juice consumption is associated with improved nutrient adequacy in children and adolescents: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the study was to examine the contribution of 100% fruit juice consumption to dietary adequacy of shortfall nutrients by children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study and used data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants were...

  20. Determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among children and adolescents: a review of the literature. Part II: qualitative studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Large proportions of children do not fulfil the World Health Organization recommendation of eating at least 400 grams of fruit and vegetables (FV) per day. To promote an increased FV intake among children it is important to identify factors which influence their consumption. Both qualitative and quantitative studies are needed. Earlier reviews have analysed evidence from quantitative studies. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic review of qualitative studies of determinants of children's FV intake. Methods Relevant studies were identified by searching Anthropology Plus, Cinahl, CSA illumine, Embase, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Medline, PsycINFO, and Web of Science using combinations of synonyms for FV intake, children/adolescents and qualitative methods as search terms. The literature search was completed by December 1st 2010. Papers were included if they applied qualitative methods to investigate 6-18-year-olds' perceptions of factors influencing their FV consumption. Quantitative studies, review studies, studies reported in other languages than English, and non-peer reviewed or unpublished manuscripts were excluded. The papers were reviewed systematically using standardised templates for summary of papers, quality assessment, and synthesis of findings across papers. Results The review included 31 studies, mostly based on US populations and focus group discussions. The synthesis identified the following potential determinants for FV intake which supplement the quantitative knowledge base: Time costs; lack of taste guarantee; satiety value; appropriate time/occasions/settings for eating FV; sensory and physical aspects; variety, visibility, methods of preparation; access to unhealthy food; the symbolic value of food for image, gender identity and social interaction with peers; short term outcome expectancies. Conclusions The review highlights numerous potential determinants which have not been investigated thoroughly in

  1. Cognitive-Behavioral Health-Promotion Intervention Increases Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Physical Activity among South African Adolescents: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta S.; O’Leary, Ann; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry; Bellamy, Scarlett; Jones, Shasta; Landis, J. Richard; Heeren, G. Anita; Tyler, Joanne; Makiwane, Monde B.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of chronic diseases are high among Black South Africans. Few studies have tested cognitive-behavioral health-promotion interventions to reduce chronic diseases in South Africa. We tested the efficacy of such an intervention among adolescents in a cluster-randomized controlled trial. We randomly selected 9 of 17 matched-pairs of schools and randomized one school in each pair to the cognitive-behavioral health-promotion intervention designed to encourage health-related behaviors and the other to a HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention that served as the control. Interventions were based on social cognitive theory, the theory of planned behavior, and qualitative data from the target population. Data collectors, blind to participants’ intervention, administered confidential assessments at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. Primary outcomes were fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Participants were 1,057 grade 6 learners (mean age = 12.4 years), with 96.7% retained at 12-month follow-up. Generalized estimating equations revealed that averaged over the follow-ups, a greater percentage of health-promotion intervention participants than HIV/STD control participants met 5-a-Day fruit and vegetable and physical activity guidelines. The intervention also increased health-promotion knowledge, attitude, and intention, but did not decrease substance use or substance-use attitude and intention. The findings suggest that theory-based, contextually appropriate interventions may increase health behaviors among young adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21318928

  2. The Impact of Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program on Physical Activity, Sedentary Time and Fruit, Vegetable and Junk Food Consumption among Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Waitlist Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Straker, Leon M.; Howie, Erin K.; Smith, Kyla L.; Fenner, Ashley A.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Olds, Tim S.; Abbott, Rebecca A.; Smith, Anne J.

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the effects of participation in Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program (CAFAP), a community-based, family-centered behavioural intervention, on the physical activity, sedentary time, and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents. Methods In this waitlist controlled clinical trial in Western Australia, adolescents (n = 69, 71% female, mean age 14.1 (SD 1.6) years) and parents completed an 8-week intervention followed by 12 months of telephone and text message support. Assessments were completed at baseline, before beginning the intervention, immediately following the intervention, and at 3-, 6-, and 12- months follow-up. The primary outcomes were physical activity and sedentary time assessed by accelerometers and servings of fruit, vegetables and junk food assessed by 3-day food records. Results During the intensive 8-week intervention sedentary time decreased by −5.1 min/day/month (95% CI: −11.0, 0.8) which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .014). Moderate physical activity increased by 1.8 min/day/month (95% CI: −0.04, 3.6) during the intervention period, which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .041). Fruit consumption increased during the intervention period (monthly incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.3, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.56) and junk food consumption decreased (monthly IRR 0.8, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.94) and these changes were different to those seen during the waitlist period (p = .004 and p = .020 respectively). Conclusions Participating in CAFAP appeared to have a positive influence on the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents and many of these changes were maintained for one year following the intensive intervention. Trial Registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611001187932 PMID:25375109

  3. [Alcohol consumption and self esteem in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Alicia Alvarez; Alonso Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of levels of self esteem and alcohol consumption in adolescents, by carrying out a transversal, descriptive study, in a college of nursing of Queretaro in Mexico, in the month of July 2008, with a sample of 109 adolescents, between 17 and 20 years old. For attainment of the data two instruments were applied: AUDIT and the Rosemberg self esteem scale. The majority of the participating adolescents had high self esteem (94.5%) and none presented low self esteem. Of the adolescents in the study 80.7% did not consume alcohol hazardously. It was concluded that the adolescents presented high self esteem and low alcohol consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to implement preventive programs related to alcohol consumption and to identify the protective factors to guarantee the maintenance of healthy habits for the adolescents.

  4. Fruit Consumption by Youth in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Kirsten A.; Rossen, Lauren M.; Nielsen, Samara Joy; Branum, Amy M; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the contribution of whole fruit, including discrete types of fruit, to total fruit consumption and to investigate differences in consumption by socio-demographic characteristics. Methods We analyzed data from 3129 youth aged 2–19 years, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012. Using the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) and the What We Eat in America 150 food groups (WWEIA 150), we calculated the contribution of whole fruit, 100% fruit juices, mixed fruit dishes, and 12 discrete fruit and fruit juices to total fruit consumption. We examined differences by age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and poverty status. Results Nearly 90% of total fruit intake came from whole fruits (53%) and 100% fruit juices (34%) among youth aged 2–19 y. Apples, apple juice, citrus juice and bananas were responsible for almost half of total fruit consumption. Apples accounted for 18.9% of fruit intake. Differences by age were predominantly between youth aged 2–5 y and 6–11 y. For example, apples contributed a larger percentage of total fruit intake among youth 6–11 y (22.4%) than among youth 2–5 y (14.6%), but apple juice contributed a smaller percentage (8.8% v 16.8%), p<0.05. There were race/Hispanic origin differences in intake of citrus fruits, berries, melons, dried fruit, and citrus juices and other fruit juices. Conclusion These findings provide insight into what fruits U.S. youth are consuming and demographic factors that may influence consumption. PMID:26391940

  5. Social-Cognitive Correlates of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Minority and Non-Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franko, Debra L.; Cousineau, Tara M.; Rodgers, Rachel F.; Roehrig, James P.; Hoffman, Jessica A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Inadequate fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption signals a need for identifying predictors and correlates of intake, particularly in diverse adolescents. Design: Participants completed an on-line assessment in early 2010. Setting: Computer classrooms in 4 high schools. Participants: One hundred twenty-two Caucasian and 125 minority…

  6. Berry Fruit Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vendrame, Stefano; Del Bo’, Cristian; Ciappellano, Salvatore; Riso, Patrizia; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of risk factors which often includes central obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, as well as a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, and pro-thrombotic environment. This leads to a dramatically increased risk of developing type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death both in the United States and worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that berry fruit consumption has a significant potential in the prevention and treatment of most risk factors associated with Metabolic Syndrome and its cardiovascular complications in the human population. This is likely due to the presence of polyphenols with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, such as anthocyanins and/or phenolic acids. The present review summarizes the findings of recent dietary interventions with berry fruits on human subjects with or at risk of Metabolic Syndrome. It also discusses the potential role of berries as part of a dietary strategy which could greatly reduce the need for pharmacotherapy, associated with potentially deleterious side effects and constituting a considerable financial burden. PMID:27706020

  7. Fruit juice consumption by infants and children: a review.

    PubMed

    Dennison, B A

    1996-10-01

    The pattern of fruit juice consumption has changed over time. Fifty years ago, orange juice was the major juice produced and it was consumed primarily to prevent scurvy. Now, apple juice is the juice of choice for the under 5 age group. While fruit juice is a healthy, low-fat, nutritious beverage, there have been some health concerns regarding juice consumption. Nursing bottle caries have long been recognized as a consequence of feeding juice in bottles, using the bottle as a pacifier, and prolonged bottle feeding. Non-specific chronic diarrhea or "toddler's" diarrhea has been associated with juice consumption, especially juices high in sorbitol and those with a high fructose to glucose ratio. This relates to carbohydrate malabsorption, which varies by the type, concentration, and mixture of sugars present in different fruit juices. Fruit juice consumption by preschoolers has recently increased from 3.2 to about 5.5 fl oz/day. Consumption of fruit juice helps fulfill the recommendation to eat more fruits and vegetables, with fruit juice accounting for 50% of all fruit servings consumed by children, aged 2 through 18 years, and 1/3 of all fruits and vegetables consumed by preschoolers. Concomitant with the increase in fruit juice consumption has been a decline in milk intake. This is concerning as milk is the major source of calcium in the diet, and at present, only 50% of children, aged 1 through 5 years, meet the RDA for calcium. Studies of newborn infants and preschool-aged children have demonstrated a preference for sweet-tasting foods and beverages. Thus, it is not surprising that some children, if given the opportunity, might consume more fruit juice than is considered optimal. Eleven percent of healthy preschoolers consumed > or = 12 fl oz/day of fruit juice, which is considered excessive. Excess fruit juice consumption has been reported as a contributing factor in some children with nonorganic failure to thrive and in some children with decreased stature. In

  8. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-06-23

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  9. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  10. Few Associations between Income and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, Amanda L.; Fisk, Paul S.; Brunt, Ardith; Rhee, Yeong S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between income and the consumption of fruits and vegetables using the poverty income ratio (PIR). Design: Association between PIR and intake of fruits and vegetables combined. The PIR was divided into 5 groups ranging from less than poverty threshold (PT) to greater than or equal to 400% PT. Participants:…

  11. Beverage consumption among European adolescents in the HELENA Study

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, K.J.; Huybrechts, I.; Mouratidou, T.; Libuda, L.; Kersting, M.; DeVriendt, T.; Gottrand, F.; Widhalm, K.; Dallongeville, J.; Hallström, L.; González-Gross, M.; DeHenauw, S.; Moreno, L.A.; Popkin, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective Our objective was to describe the fluid and energy consumption of beverages in a large sample of European adolescents Methods We used data from 2,741 European adolescents residing in 8 countries participating in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS). We averaged two 24-hour recalls, collected using the HELENA-dietary assessment tool. By gender and age subgroup (12.5–14.9 y and 15–17.5 y), we examined per capita and per consumer fluid (milliliters [mL]) and energy (kilojoules [kJ]) intake from beverages and percent consuming ten different beverage groups. Results Mean beverage consumption was 1611 ml/d in boys and 1316 ml/d in girls. Energy intake from beverages was about 1966 kJ/d and 1289 kJ/d in European boys and girls respectively, with sugar-sweetened beverages (carbonated and non-carbonated beverages, including soft drinks, fruit drinks and powders/concentrates) contributing to daily energy intake more than other groups of beverages. Boys and older adolescents consumed the most amount of per capita total energy from beverages. Among all age and gender subgroups sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk (including chocolate milk and flavored yogurt drinks all with added sugar), low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of per capita energy. Water was consumed by the largest percent of adolescents followed by sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juice, and sweetened milk. Among consumers, water provided the greatest fluid intake and sweetened milk accounted for the largest amount of energy intake followed by sugar-sweetened beverages. Patterns of energy intake from each beverage varied between countries. Conclusions European adolescents consume an average of 1455 ml/d of beverages, with the largest proportion of consumers and the largest fluid amount coming from water. Beverages provide 1609 kJ/d, of which 30.4%, 20.7%, and 18.1% comes from sugar-sweetened beverages

  12. Fruit and vegetable consumption among high school students--United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-11-25

    A diet high in fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk for many chronic diseases and some cancers, and can aid in weight management. Current daily fruit and vegetable recommendations for adolescents who participate in <30 minutes of physical activity daily are 1.5 cups of fruit and 2.5 cups of vegetables for females and 2 cups of fruit and 3 cups of vegetables for males (1 cup is approximately equal to one medium apple, eight strawberries, 12 baby carrots, or one large tomato). However, recently published data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004 revealed that consumption was considerably below these levels. To assess fruit and vegetable consumption among high school students, CDC analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, in 2010, the median number of times per day that high school students consumed fruits and vegetables was 1.2 for both. For vegetables, the median number of times per day was lower for non-Hispanic black students (1.0) and Hispanic students (1.1) than non-Hispanic white students (1.4). Overall, 28.5% of high school students consumed fruit <1 time daily, and 33.2% of high school students consumed vegetables <1 time daily. The infrequent fruit and vegetable consumption by high school students highlights the need for effective strategies to increase consumption. Policy and environmental approaches to provide greater access to and availability of fruits and vegetables are among the strategies that schools and communities might choose to achieve this goal.

  13. Tinned fruit consumption and mortality in three prospective cohorts.

    PubMed

    Aasheim, Erlend T; Sharp, Stephen J; Appleby, Paul N; Shipley, Martin J; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brunner, Eric; Key, Tim J; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Dietary recommendations to promote health include fresh, frozen and tinned fruit, but few studies have examined the health benefits of tinned fruit. We therefore studied the association between tinned fruit consumption and mortality. We followed up participants from three prospective cohorts in the United Kingdom: 22,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort (1993-2012), 52,625 participants from the EPIC-Oxford cohort (1993-2012), and 7440 participants from the Whitehall II cohort (1991-2012), all reporting no history of heart attack, stroke, or cancer when entering these studies. We estimated the association between frequency of tinned fruit consumption and all cause mortality (primary outcome measure) using Cox regression models within each cohort, and pooled hazard ratios across cohorts using random-effects meta-analysis. Tinned fruit consumption was assessed with validated food frequency questionnaires including specific questions about tinned fruit. During 1,305,330 person years of follow-up, 8857 deaths occurred. After adjustment for lifestyle factors and risk markers the pooled hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of all cause mortality compared with the reference group of tinned fruit consumption less often than one serving per month were: 1.05 (0.99, 1.12) for one to three servings per month, 1.10 (1.03, 1.18) for one serving per week, and 1.13 (1.04, 1.23) for two or more servings per week. Analysis of cause-specific mortality showed that tinned fruit consumption was associated with mortality from cardiovascular causes and from non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. In a pooled analysis of three prospective cohorts from the United Kingdom self-reported tinned fruit consumption in the 1990s was weakly but positively associated with mortality during long-term follow-up. These findings raise questions about the evidence underlying dietary recommendations to promote tinned fruit consumption

  14. Tinned Fruit Consumption and Mortality in Three Prospective Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Aasheim, Erlend T.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Appleby, Paul N.; Shipley, Martin J.; Lentjes, Marleen A. H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brunner, Eric; Key, Tim J.; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary recommendations to promote health include fresh, frozen and tinned fruit, but few studies have examined the health benefits of tinned fruit. We therefore studied the association between tinned fruit consumption and mortality. We followed up participants from three prospective cohorts in the United Kingdom: 22,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort (1993–2012), 52,625 participants from the EPIC-Oxford cohort (1993–2012), and 7440 participants from the Whitehall II cohort (1991–2012), all reporting no history of heart attack, stroke, or cancer when entering these studies. We estimated the association between frequency of tinned fruit consumption and all cause mortality (primary outcome measure) using Cox regression models within each cohort, and pooled hazard ratios across cohorts using random-effects meta-analysis. Tinned fruit consumption was assessed with validated food frequency questionnaires including specific questions about tinned fruit. During 1,305,330 person years of follow-up, 8857 deaths occurred. After adjustment for lifestyle factors and risk markers the pooled hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of all cause mortality compared with the reference group of tinned fruit consumption less often than one serving per month were: 1.05 (0.99, 1.12) for one to three servings per month, 1.10 (1.03, 1.18) for one serving per week, and 1.13 (1.04, 1.23) for two or more servings per week. Analysis of cause-specific mortality showed that tinned fruit consumption was associated with mortality from cardiovascular causes and from non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. In a pooled analysis of three prospective cohorts from the United Kingdom self-reported tinned fruit consumption in the 1990s was weakly but positively associated with mortality during long-term follow-up. These findings raise questions about the evidence underlying dietary recommendations to promote tinned fruit

  15. Self-Control, Diet Concerns and Eater Prototypes Influence Fatty Foods Consumption of Adolescents in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrits, Joanne H.; O'Hara, Ross E.; Piko, Bettina F.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; de Ridder, Denise T. D.; Keresztes, Noemi; Kamble, Shanmukh V.; de Wit, John B. F.

    2010-01-01

    As adolescent overweight has become a widespread problem in the developed world, it is timely to understand commonalities underlying dietary practices across countries. This study examines whether consumption of fruits and vegetables and fatty foods among adolescents in different countries is related to the same individual difference and social…

  16. A novel approach for increasing fruit consumption in children.

    PubMed

    Perikkou, Anastasia; Gavrieli, Anna; Kougioufa, Maria-Matina; Tzirkali, Maria; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2013-09-01

    Despite the well-documented health benefits of fruits and vegetables and the public health campaigns promoting their consumption, children's intake is below the recommended levels. A randomized controlled trial for evaluating the effectiveness of a school-based intervention for increasing children's fruit intake, with the teacher being the exposure model, was designed. Two hundred eighteen elementary school students (aged 9 years) in Cyprus were randomly assigned into two 1-year intervention groups, the Educational Material group (EDUC) (n=59) and the Exposure group (EXPO) (n=67), or a control group (n=58). Children's dietary intake was assessed through 2-day dietary records before the intervention began (October 2008), at the end of the intervention (June 2009), and at 1-year follow-up (June 2010). Students in the EDUC group received a weekly educational program for increasing awareness and improving skills regarding fruit preparation/consumption and students in the EXPO group were exposed to the consumption of a fruit on a daily basis by their teacher. The control group members received no intervention. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the group effect and the time×group interaction. Higher fruit intake was reported by the children in the EXPO and the EDUC groups compared with the control group at the end of the intervention: a statistically significant group effect was found (P<0.001). At 1-year follow-up, results remained significant only for the children in the EXPO group (P<0.001). Exposure to fruit consumption by schoolteachers may be a more effective way for improving fruit intake of children compared with traditional educational approaches.

  17. Access to Supermarkets and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Andrea J.; Jiao, Junfeng; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Vernez Moudon, Anne; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether supermarket choice, conceptualized as a proxy for underlying personal factors, would better predict access to supermarkets and fruit and vegetable consumption than mere physical proximity. Methods. The Seattle Obesity Study geocoded respondents’ home addresses and locations of their primary supermarkets. Primary supermarkets were stratified into low, medium, and high cost according to the market basket cost of 100 foods. Data on fruit and vegetable consumption were obtained during telephone surveys. Linear regressions examined associations between physical proximity to primary supermarkets, supermarket choice, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Descriptive analyses examined whether supermarket choice outweighed physical proximity among lower-income and vulnerable groups. Results. Only one third of the respondents shopped at their nearest supermarket for their primary food supply. Those who shopped at low-cost supermarkets were more likely to travel beyond their nearest supermarket. Fruit and vegetable consumption was not associated with physical distance but, with supermarket choice, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions. Mere physical distance may not be the most salient variable to reflect access to supermarkets, particularly among those who shop by car. Studies on food environments need to focus beyond neighborhood geographic boundaries to capture actual food shopping behaviors. PMID:24625173

  18. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender.

  19. Increasing portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school lunch program can increase fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nicole; Reicks, Marla; Redden, Joseph P; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Vickers, Zata

    2015-08-01

    Increasing portion size can increase children's consumption of food. The goal of this study was to determine whether increasing the portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school cafeteria environment would increase children's consumption of them. We measured each child's consumption of the fruit and vegetables served in a cafeteria line on a control day (normal cafeteria procedures) and on two intervention days. When we increased the portion size of 3 of the 4 fruits and vegetables by about 50%, children who took those foods increased their consumption of them. Although this was an effective strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among students who took those foods, many children chose not to take any fruits or vegetables. Further efforts are needed to increase children's selection and consumption of fruits and vegetables in an environment of competing foods of higher palatability.

  20. Excessive recreational computer use and food consumption behaviour among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Using the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) data, we explore the association between excessive recreational computer use and specific food consumption behavior among California's adolescents aged 12-17. Method The adolescent component of CHIS 2005 measured the respondents' average number of hours spent on viewing TV on a weekday, the average number of hours spent on viewing TV on a weekend day, the average number of hours spent on playing with a computer on a weekday, and the average number of hours spent on playing with computers on a weekend day. We recode these four continuous variables into four variables of "excessive media use," and define more than three hours of using a medium per day as "excessive." These four variables are then used in logistic regressions to predict different food consumption behaviors on the previous day: having fast food, eating sugary food more than once, drinking sugary drinks more than once, and eating more than five servings of fruits and vegetables. We use the following variables as covariates in the logistic regressions: age, gender, race/ethnicity, parental education, household poverty status, whether born in the U.S., and whether living with two parents. Results Having fast food on the previous day is associated with excessive weekday TV viewing (O.R. = 1.38, p < 0.01). Having sugary food more than once is associated with excessive weekend TV viewing (O.R. = 1.50, p < 0.001). Having sugary drinks more than once is associated with excessive weekday TV viewing (O.R. = 1.41, p < 0.01), excessive weekday recreational computer use (O.R. = 1.38, p < 0.05), and excessive weekend TV viewing (O.R. = 1.43, p < 0.001). Finally, having more than five servings of fruits and vegetables on the previous day is negatively associated with all four media use variables: excessive weekday TV viewing (O.R. = 0.64, p < 0.001), excessive weekday recreational computer use (O.R. = 0.68, p < 0.01), excessive weekend TV viewing

  1. Fruits and vegetables: measuring intake and encouraging increased consumption.

    PubMed

    Woodside, Jayne V; Young, Ian S; McKinley, Michelle C

    2013-05-01

    A high intake of fruit and vegetables (FV) is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease, although the evidence base is mostly observational. Blood biomarkers offer an objective indicator of FV intake, potentially improving estimates of intakes based on traditional methods. A valid biomarker of overall FV intake would be able to confirm population intakes, more precisely evaluate the association between intakes and health outcomes and confirm compliance in FV interventions. Several substances have been proposed as biomarkers of FV intake: vitamin C, the carotenoids and polyphenols. Certain biomarkers are strong predictors of single FV; however, the proposed single biomarkers of FV consumption are only modestly predictive of overall FV consumption. This is likely to be due to the complexity of the FV food group. While accurately measuring FV intake is important in nutrition research, another critical question is: how best can an increase in FV intake be achieved? Increased FV intake has been achieved in efficacy studies using intensive dietary advice. Alternative, less intensive methods for encouraging FV consumption need to be developed and tested for population level intervention. Systematic reviews suggest peer support to be an effective strategy to promote dietary change. This review will describe the evidence for a link between increased FV intake and good health, outline possible novel biomarkers of FV consumption, present the most recently available data on population intake of FV and examine the usefulness of different approaches to encourage increased consumption of FV.

  2. Parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Gerda; Oenema, Anke; Kremers, Stef P J; van de Mheen, Dike

    2012-02-01

    This study examines the association between parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background. A cross-sectional study was performed among 1762 parent-child dyads. Mean age of the children was 8 years. One parent completed a questionnaire to measure their own and their child's fruit consumption, parenting style, education level and ethnicity. In mediation and moderation analyses, child fruit consumption was regressed on parental fruit consumption, parenting style, parental education and ethnicity. Participating children consumed on average 7.5 pieces of fruit per week. Fourteen percent met the recommended Dutch norm of two pieces of fruit per day. Parental and child fruit consumption were positively associated. The association was more pronounced under higher levels of psychological control and behavioural control, and among ethnic groups. Additionally, parental education and child fruit consumption were positively associated. Parental fruit consumption partially mediated this association. Interventions are needed to increase child fruit consumption. Interventions should focus on increasing parental fruit consumption and positive parental modelling, with particular focus on low-SES families. Additionally, interventions that combine positive modelling with positive general parenting skills (e.g. increasing behavioural control) may be more effective than interventions that focus on parental modelling alone.

  3. Frequency of takeaway food consumption and its association with major food group consumption, anthropometric measures and blood pressure during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Burlutsky, George; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Baur, Louise A; Mitchell, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We prospectively assessed the (1) frequency and socio-economic correlates of takeaway food consumption during adolescence; and (2) association between frequent takeaway food consumption with intakes of major food groups and anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP). In total, 699 Sydney schoolchildren (380 girls and 319 boys) who had dietary data at both 12 and 17 years of age were included for analyses. Takeaway food consumption was self-reported and based on a single question. Anthropometric measures and BP were collected. The proportion of participants who ate takeaway foods once per week or more increased significantly over 5 years from the age of 12 to 17 years: 35·5-44·1 % (P<0·0001). In total, 12-year-old girls compared with boys had reduced odds of takeaway foods once per week or more at the age of 17 years (P=0·01), multivariable-adjusted OR 0·63 (95 % CI 0·44, 0·90). In total, 12-year-old children who ate takeaway foods once per week or more had significantly lower mean fruit (220·3 v. 253·0 g/d; P=0·03) and vegetable consumption (213·2 v. 247·7 g/d; P=0·004), 5 years later (at 17 years of age). Frequent takeaway food consumption at the age of 12 years was not associated with anthropometric indices and BP at the age of 17 years. Consumption of takeaway foods became more frequent during adolescence, particularly among boys, and it was associated with reduced intake of fruits and vegetables.

  4. Salad bars and fruit and vegetable consumption in elementary schools: a plate waste study.

    PubMed

    Adams, Marc A; Pelletier, Robin L; Zive, Michelle M; Sallis, James F

    2005-11-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether students attending schools with self-service salad bars consume a greater amount of fruits and vegetables compared with students using preportioned servings and to evaluate the relationship between number of items offered and fruit and vegetable consumption. Two hundred ninety-four students in first through fifth grade were randomly selected from two schools with salad bars and two with preportioned servings. Weights of fruit and vegetable items were measured pre- and postconsumption and interobserver agreement +/-1 g was > or =95%. Presence of a salad bar was not associated with greater fruit and vegetable consumption. Fruit and vegetable consumption was positively related to the number of fruit and vegetable items offered at salad bars (P < .05), adjusting for sex and grade. Fruit and vegetable variety was associated with elementary school-age children's fruit and vegetable consumption when using salad bars.

  5. Effects of adolescent caffeine consumption on cocaine sensitivity.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Casey E; Levis, Sophia C; Schreiner, Drew C; Amat, Jose; Maier, Steven F; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2015-03-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used psychoactive substance, and consumption by adolescents has risen markedly in recent years. We identified the effects of adolescent caffeine consumption on cocaine sensitivity and determined neurobiological changes within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) that may underlie caffeine-induced hypersensitivity to cocaine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed caffeine (0.3 g/l) or water for 28 days during adolescence (postnatal day 28-55; P28-P55) or adulthood (P67-P94). Testing occurred in the absence of caffeine during adulthood (P62-82 or P101-121). Cocaine-induced and quinpirole (D2 receptor agonist)-induced locomotion was enhanced in rats that consumed caffeine during adolescence. Adolescent consumption of caffeine also enhanced the development of a conditioned place preference at a sub-threshold dose of cocaine (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.). These behavioral changes were not observed in adults consuming caffeine for an equivalent period of time. Sucrose preferences were not altered in rats that consumed caffeine during adolescence, suggesting there are no differences in natural reward. Caffeine consumption during adolescence reduced basal dopamine levels and augmented dopamine release in the NAc in response to cocaine (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Caffeine consumption during adolescence also increased the expression of the dopamine D2 receptor, dopamine transporter, and adenosine A1 receptor and decreased adenosine A2A receptor expression in the NAc. Consumption of caffeine during adulthood increased adenosine A1 receptor expression in the NAc, but no other protein expression changes were observed. Together these findings suggest that caffeine consumption during adolescence produced changes in the NAc that are evident in adulthood and may contribute to increases in cocaine-mediated behaviors.

  6. Nutrition education effective in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Meredith G; Rhee, Yeong; Honrath, Kerrie; Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H; Terbizan, Donna

    2016-05-01

    Despite the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption on weight and decreased risk for chronic disease, Americans' intake of fruits and vegetables is well below the recommended daily servings. While previous studies have assessed fruit and vegetable consumption and the influence of educational interventions on fruit and vegetable intake, no studies to date have examined the effects of nutrition education combined with provision of fruits and vegetables on changes in fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese adults. The objectives of this study were to evaluate fruit and vegetable consumption patterns, including intake of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables, provide education about benefits of consuming fruits and vegetables, expose participants to different varieties of fruits and vegetables, and improve fruit and vegetable consumption. Fifty-four adults (19 men/35 women; 44.7 ± 12.1 y) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups. The control group received no intervention, the education group attended weekly nutrition lessons focused on benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, and the fruit and vegetable group attended weekly nutrition lessons and received one serving of fruits and two servings of vegetables per day for 10 weeks. Intake of fruits and vegetables was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires and three-day food records. Findings suggested that while the majority of participants failed to consume the recommended number of servings of fruits and vegetables per day, nutrition education was helpful in improving the consumption frequency of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables among overweight and obese adults.

  7. High Potency and Other Alcoholic Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobli, Edessa C.; Dore, Heather S.; Werch, Chudley E.; Moore, Michele J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of high potency (liquor, malt liquor, fortified wine) and other alcoholic beverage consumption (beer, wine/wine coolers) among adolescents, the impact of gender and ethnicity, and the risk and protective factors that predicted consumption. A confidential survey revealed that, among eighth grade students,…

  8. Correlates of fruit, vegetable, soft drink, and snack intake among adolescents: the ESSENS study

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Mekdes K.; Henjum, Sigrun; Terragni, Laura; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying modifiable correlates of dietary behaviors is of utmost importance for the promotion of healthy dietary behaviors. Objective This study explores individual, home, and school/neighborhood environmental correlates of dietary behaviors (intake of fruits, vegetables, soft drinks, and unhealthy snacks) among adolescents. Methods In total, 742 adolescents with a mean age of 13.6 (SD=0.3) were included in this cross-sectional study conducted in 11 secondary schools located in the eastern part of Norway. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect data. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with the dietary behaviors included. Results A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in the school canteen was related to a higher consumption of soft drinks and snacks. A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in shops around schools during break or recess was related to a higher consumption of snacks. A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in shops around the neighborhood on the way to and from school was related to a higher consumption of soft drinks. Perceived parental modeling and perceived accessibility at home were found to be positively associated with all dietary behaviors. Perceived parental rules were inversely associated with soft drink and snack consumption; self-efficacy related to healthy eating was positively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. Other included school and neighborhood environmental correlates were not associated with the dietary behaviors. Conclusions There is a need to address the food purchasing behavior of the adolescents using different approaches. The findings also highlight the important role of parents and the home environment for healthy and unhealthy dietary behaviors of adolescents. PMID:27652684

  9. Dietary intake of phytonutrients in relation to fruit and vegetable consumption in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Cho, Yang-Hee; Park, Juyeon; Shin, Hye-Rim; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide baseline data for health policy creation by estimating phytonutrient intake and identifying major food sources of phytonutrients. Dietary recall data collected in the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and phytonutrient database of the Korea National Academy of Agricultural Science were used in this study. The proportions of the population satisfying recommended dietary guidelines for fruits and vegetables were estimated, and phytonutrient intake was compared between populations who consumed the recommended intake and those who did not. The study found that 5.3% of subjects satisfied the recommended fruit and vegetable intake. In particular, the proportions of adolescents (13 to 18 years of age) and young adults (19 to 39 years of age) meeting the recommended fruit and vegetable intake were lower than other age groups (P<0.001). Intakes of major carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene), flavonoids (anthocyanidins, hesperitin, quercetin, catechin, and isoflavones), and one phenolic compound (gallic acid) were significantly higher (P<0.001) among subjects who met the recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption compared with those who did not. Carrots, sweet potatoes, squash, tomatoes, and watermelons were found to be major sources of carotenoids. Flavonoids were mainly obtained from persimmons, mandarins, apples, grapes, onions, soybeans, and chestnuts. However, one or two food items contributed to nearly all intake of each phytonutrient, suggesting a lack of variety. In conclusion, the Korean population needs to consume a larger quantity and variety of fruits and vegetables.

  10. Fine-tuning the fruit-tracking hypothesis: spatiotemporal links between fruit availability and fruit consumption by birds in Andean mountain forests.

    PubMed

    Blendinger, Pedro G; Ruggera, Román A; Núñez Montellano, M Gabriela; Macchi, Leandro; Zelaya, Patricia V; Álvarez, M Eva; Martín, Eduardo; Acosta, Oriana Osinaga; Sánchez, Rocío; Haedo, Josefina; Boots, Mike

    2012-11-01

    1. The fruit-tracking hypothesis predicts spatiotemporal links between changes in the abundance of fruit-eating birds and the abundance of their fleshy-fruit resources. 2. While the spatial scale of plant-frugivore interactions has been explored to understand mismatches between observed and expected fruit-frugivore patterns, methodological issues such as the consequences of measuring fruit and frugivore abundance rather than fruit availability and fruit consumption have not been evaluated. 3. Here, we explored whether predicted fruit-frugivore spatiotemporal links can be captured with higher accuracy by proximate measurements of interaction strength. We used a 6-ha grided plot in an Andean subtropical forest to study the link between (i) fruit and fruit-eating bird abundances; (ii) fruit availability and frequency of fruit consumption; and (iii) covariation between frugivore abundance and frequency of frugivory. We evaluated these links for the entire frugivore assemblage and for the four most important species using data gathered bimonthly along a 2-year period. 4. Fleshy-fruit availability and abundance varied sharply temporally and were patchily distributed in mosaics that differed in fruit quantity. Fruit availability and abundance also varied along spatial gradients extended over the whole study plot. We found a strong response of the entire frugivorous bird assemblage to fruit availability over time, and a weakly significant relationship over space at the local scale. The main frugivore species widely differed in their responses to changes in fruit abundance in such a way that response at the assemblage level cannot be seen as the sum of individual responses of each species. Our results suggest that fruit tracking in frugivorous-insectivorous birds may be largely explained by species-specific responses to changes in the availability of fruits and alternative resources. 5. In agreement with our prediction, more accurate measurements of interaction strength

  11. Effect of Fresh Fruit Availability at Worksites on the Fruit and Vegetable Consumption of Low-Wage Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Desiree; Gonzaga, Gian; Sugerman, Sharon; Francis, Dona; Cook, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of fresh fruit availability at worksites on the fruit and vegetable consumption and related psychosocial determinants of low-wage employees. Design: A prospective, randomized block experimental design. Setting: Seven apparel manufacturing and 2 food processing worksites. Participants: A convenience sample of 391…

  12. FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CONSUMPTION BY ECOLOGICAL ZONE AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS IN GHANA.

    PubMed

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi

    2015-09-01

    The disease burden in both developed and developing countries is moving towards higher proportions of chronic diseases, and diseases such as cancers are now considered to be of public health concern. In sub-Saharan Africa, healthy behaviours such as fruit and vegetable consumption are recommended to reduce the chances of onset of chronic diseases. This paper examines the determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption in Ghana with particular emphasis on consumption by ecological zone. Data were from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (n=4916 females; n=4568 males). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using basic descriptive and Poisson regression. The main independent variable was ecological zone and the dependent variables were levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. The mean number of fruits and vegetables consumed in a week was higher among females (fruits: 7.5, 95% CI=7.3-7.7; vegetables: 8.1, 95% CI=7.8-8.3) than males (fruits: 6.2, 95% CI=6.0-6.4; vegetables: 7.9, 95% CI=7.7-8.2). There were significant differences in consumption by ecological zone. Respondents in the Savannah zone consumed less fruit than those in the Coastal and Forest zones, but the differences in fruit and vegetable consumption between the Coastal and Savannah zones were not consistent, especially for vegetable consumption. The findings suggest that one of the key interventions to improve fruit and vegetable consumption could lie in improving distribution systems since their consumption is significantly higher in the Forest zone, where the production of fruit and vegetables is more developed than in the Savannah and Coastal zones. The findings relating to household wealth challenge conventional knowledge on fruit and vegetable consumption, and rather argue for equal consideration of spatial differences in critical health outcomes.

  13. The relationship between the food environment and fruit and vegetable intake of adolescents living in Residential Children's Homes.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alexandra; Dowda, Marsha; Saunders, Ruth; Buck, Jacquelynn; Hastings, Lauren; Kenison, Kelli

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between food environments and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption of adolescents (n=246) living in Residential Children's Homes (RCHs) in North and South Carolina, USA. Administrators of 21 RCHs completed the Physical Activity and Dietary Environmental Assessment (PADEA), an instrument assessing FV-related environmental variables of RCHs: (i) policies, (ii) availability, (iii) social environment, (iv) community collaboration and (v) administrative support. Two different approaches using mixed-effects regression models were used to compare FV consumption of adolescents living in RCHs with more conducive food environments compared with adolescents living in RCHs with less conducive environments. Using one approach, PADEA variables were analyzed as categorical data and in the second approach, PADEA variables were analyzed as continuous data. Results indicated greater FV consumption among adolescents residing in RCHs with more conducive food environments compared with less conducive RCHs. Specifically, adolescents living in RCHs with higher levels of administrative support and more FV policies reported greater FV intake compared with adolescents living in RCHs with less support and fewer policies. Food environments are related to adolescents' dietary behaviors and interventions targeting FV consumption should include strategies to increase administrative support and the development of FV-related policies.

  14. Association between parenting styles and own fruit and vegetable consumption among Portuguese mothers of school children.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Bela; Poínhos, Rui; Klepp, Knut-Inge; de Almeida, Maria Daniel Vaz

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between parenting styles and own fruit and vegetable consumption among Portuguese mothers of school children. A cross-sectional study was performed in Portugal as part of the Pro Children cross-sectional European survey. Portuguese mothers (n 1601) of 11-13-year-old school children were included in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was developed to assess fruit and vegetable consumption as well as the parenting styles. Fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed by a validated FFQ. Parenting styles based on two dimensions - strictness and involvement - were classified into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful. The higher mean intakes of fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetables were observed for mothers classified as indulgent, whereas the lower mean intakes were observed for mothers classified as neglectful. Differences in intake among parenting styles were significant for fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetables. When partial correlations were calculated between the two dimensions, strictness and involvement (controlled one for the other), and intakes, only involvement was positively associated with fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetable intake. Findings from the present study show that fruit and vegetable consumption of Portuguese mothers of school children seems to be related to their own parenting styles, especially with the dimension involvement. Future interventions to promote fruit and vegetable intake should take into account these variables.

  15. Cancer incidence attributable to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption in Alberta in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Anne; Poirier, Abbey E.; Khandwala, Farah; McFadden, Alison; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Brenner, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sufficient fruit and vegetable consumption (≥ 5 servings/d) has been associated with a probable decreased risk for cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach and lung (fruit only). The purpose of this study was to estimate the proportion and absolute number of cancer cases in Alberta in 2012 that were attributable to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods: The numbers and proportions of cancers attributable to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption were estimated using the population attributable risk. Relative risks were obtained from international collaborative panels and peer-reviewed literature. Prevalence data for insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption in Alberta were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2003, 2004, 2005, 2007/08). Age-, site- and sex-specific cancer incidence data for 2012 were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry. Results: The proportion of men consuming 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day ranged from 25.9%-30.4% across age groups; the range among women was 46.8%-51.5% across age groups. The proportion of cancers attributable to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption in Alberta was highest for esophageal cancer (40.0%) and lowest for lung cancer (3.3%). Overall, 290 cancer cases (1.8%) in Alberta in 2012 were attributable to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption. Interpretation: Almost 2% of cancers in Alberta can be attributed to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has benefits for the prevention of cancer and other chronic diseases; thus, increasing the proportion of Albertans who meet cancer prevention guidelines for fruit and vegetable consumption is a priority. PMID:28018892

  16. Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. Testing an intervention based on the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kothe, E J; Mullan, B A; Butow, P

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) based intervention to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. The extent to which fruit and vegetable consumption and change in intake could be explained by the TPB was also examined. Participants were randomly assigned to two levels of intervention frequency matched for intervention content (low frequency n=92, high frequency n=102). Participants received TPB-based email messages designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, messages targeted attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Baseline and post-intervention measures of TPB variables and behaviour were collected. Across the entire study cohort, fruit and vegetable consumption increased by 0.83 servings/day between baseline and follow-up. Intention, attitude, subjective norm and PBC also increased (p<.05). The TPB successfully modelled fruit and vegetable consumption at both time points but not behaviour change. The increase of fruit and vegetable consumption is a promising preliminary finding for those primarily interested in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. However, those interested in theory development may have concerns about the use of this model to explain behaviour change in this context. More high quality experimental tests of the theory are needed to confirm this result.

  17. The pattern of fruit and vegetable consumption among Saudi university students.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Hala Hazam

    2013-12-24

    The positive benefits of consumption fruit and vegetable are well documented in studies of health and body weight maintain. A cross sectional study was conducted utilized street based survey among 960 female students at King Faisal University in AL-Hasa, Saudi Arabia, to investigate the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and the psychosocial factors related to the consumption. Seventy-eight percent of students consuming <5 servings/day of fruit and vegetable with only 22% of them consuming >=5 servings/day, majority of them are in the normal BMI category. For psychosocial factors the higher consumption group more knowledgeable about the daily consumption of fruit and vegetable, and had more confidence in eating fruit and vegetables under difficult circumstances with significant differences between the groups (P=0.000, P=0.045; respectively). Self efficacy was significantly predictor for recommended daily fruit and vegetable consumption (?=0.303, SE=0.023, P=0.000), but perceived barriers and knowledge not predictor for recommended daily consumption. The results of this study can be useful to design an intervention to promote fruit and vegetable intake among this target group.

  18. ERICA: patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; França-Santos, Debora; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We investigated adolescents who participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This is a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, which surveyed adolescents of 1,247 schools from 124 Brazilian municipalities. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire with a section on alcoholic beverages consumption. Measures of relative frequency (prevalence), and their 95% confidence intervals, were estimated for the following variables: use of alcohol beverages in the last 30 days, frequency of use, number of glasses or doses consumed in the period, age of the first use of alcohol, and most consumed type of drink. Data were estimated for country and macro-region, sex, and age group. The module survey of the Stata program was used for data analysis of complex sample. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents, who accounted for 72.9% of eligible students. About 1/5 of adolescents consumed alcohol at least once in the last 30 days and about 2/3 in one or two occasions during this period. Among the adolescents who consumed alcoholic beverages, 24.1% drank it for the first time before being 12 years old, and the most common type of alcoholic beverages consumed by them were drinks based on vodka, rum or tequila, and beer. CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents, as well as their early onset of alcohol use. We also identified a possible change in the preferred type of alcoholic beverages compared with previous research. PMID:26910550

  19. ERICA: patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; França-Santos, Debora; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We investigated adolescents who participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This is a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, which surveyed adolescents of 1,247 schools from 124 Brazilian municipalities. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire with a section on alcoholic beverages consumption. Measures of relative frequency (prevalence), and their 95% confidence intervals, were estimated for the following variables: use of alcohol beverages in the last 30 days, frequency of use, number of glasses or doses consumed in the period, age of the first use of alcohol, and most consumed type of drink. Data were estimated for country and macro-region, sex, and age group. The module survey of the Stata program was used for data analysis of complex sample. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents, who accounted for 72.9% of eligible students. About 1/5 of adolescents consumed alcohol at least once in the last 30 days and about 2/3 in one or two occasions during this period. Among the adolescents who consumed alcoholic beverages, 24.1% drank it for the first time before being 12 years old, and the most common type of alcoholic beverages consumed by them were drinks based on vodka, rum or tequila, and beer. CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents, as well as their early onset of alcohol use. We also identified a possible change in the preferred type of alcoholic beverages compared with previous research.

  20. Association between flavonoid-rich fruit and vegetable consumption and total serum bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Mahoney, Sara E

    2015-03-01

    Emerging work demonstrates that serum bilirubin is a novel biomarker implicated in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, we have a limited understanding of the influence of flavonoid-rich fruit and vegetable consumption on bilirubin levels, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination survey were used (n = 1783; 18-85 years of age), with analyses performed in 2014. Total serum bilirubin was measured from a blood sample. Using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), a flavonoid index variable was created summing the frequency of consumption of flavonoid-rich foods. After adjustments, greater consumption of flavonoid-rich fruits and vegetables was positively associated with bilirubin levels. Our findings suggest an association between flavonoid-rich fruit and vegetable consumption and bilirubin levels. If confirmed by prospective and experimental studies, then regular consumption of flavonoid-rich fruits and vegetables should be promoted to increase levels of bilirubin.

  1. Differences in fruit and vegetable exposure and preferences among adolescents receiving free fruit and vegetable snacks at school.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathleen B; Konarik, Melanie

    2009-06-01

    Low fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes are associated with excess body weight. The United States Department of Agriculture sponsors a Free Fruit and Vegetable Program in schools whereby students receive free FV snacks daily. This study assessed whether the program improved student exposure to and preferences for FV in a Houston high school in 2006-2007. Anonymous, post-intervention only FV exposure and preference surveys were completed by 2000 intervention school students and 1600 students in a comparison school during May, 2007. Differences in FV exposure and preferences were assessed, as well as differences in preferences between those students who tasted the item for the first time at school compared to those who had tasted the item before. The comparison school average scores for prior FV exposure and vegetable preferences were significantly higher than the intervention school scores. Intervention school students who had tasted the item previously reported significantly higher preferences than students who had tasted it for the first time at school. Access to the Free Fruit and Vegetable Program did not appear to improve high school student reported FV exposure and preferences. Future research should investigate the connection between food exposure, preferences and consumption in adolescents.

  2. Predictors of Adolescent Breakfast Consumption: Longitudinal Findings from Project EAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Meg; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of breakfast consumption among adolescents. Methods: Five-year longitudinal study Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Baseline surveys were completed in Minneapolis-St. Paul schools and by mail at follow-up by youth (n = 800) transitioning from middle to high school. Linear regression models examined associations…

  3. Do Alcohol Consumption Patterns of Adolescents Differ by Beverage Type?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley; Jobli, Edessa C.; Moore, Michele J.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Heather, Dore S.; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2006-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to explore the alcohol consumption patterns of adolescents by beverage type. A total of 705 primarily 9th grade students were recruited to participate in this study in the spring of 2002. Alcoholic beverage use differed significantly across gender and ethnicity on a number of beverage-specific drinking…

  4. Increasing children's consumption of fruit and vegetables: does the type of exposure matter?

    PubMed

    Osborne, Chelsea L; Forestell, Catherine A

    2012-06-06

    This study sought to determine how eight days of home exposure to information about healthful foods and eating behaviors in the form of children's books and a variety of fruit and vegetables interacted to affect 4- to 8-year-old children's (N=59) consumption of fruit and vegetables. Before and after the home exposure, children participated in a task in which their consumption of a variety of fruit and vegetables that ranged in familiarity was measured. Results indicated that exposure to food and books were both effective at increasing consumption of fruit, but not vegetables. Additionally, children who were exposed to books consumed more of an infrequently consumed fruit presented during the post-test, but only if they had not been exposed to food during the home exposure. Overall, children's fruit consumption increased more if their mothers did not pressure them to eat, and those who were less neophobic were more likely to try a novel fruit or vegetable during the post-test. These findings suggest that information and food variety both can be effective for increasing acceptance of fruit, and highlight the need for more research that investigates the efficacy of intervention strategies that promote vegetable consumption in young children.

  5. Tropical Secondary Forest Management Influences Frugivorous Bat Composition, Abundance and Fruit Consumption in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H’) was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests’ structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats. PMID:24147029

  6. Tropical secondary forest management influences frugivorous bat composition, abundance and fruit consumption in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H') was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests' structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats.

  7. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and the Incidence of Hypertension in Three Prospective Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Borgi, Lea; Muraki, Isao; Satija, Ambika; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Forman, John P

    2016-02-01

    Increased fruit and vegetable intake lowers blood pressure in short-term interventional studies. However, data on the association of long-term intake of fruits and vegetables with hypertension risk are scarce. We prospectively examined the independent association of whole fruit (excluding juices) and vegetable intake, as well as the change in consumption of whole fruits and vegetables, with incident hypertension in 3 large longitudinal cohort studies: Nurses' Health Study (n=62 175), Nurses' Health Study II (n=88 475), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n=36 803). We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for fruit and vegetable consumption while controlling for hypertension risk factors. Compared with participants whose consumption was ≤4 servings/week, the pooled hazard ratios among those whose intake was ≥4 servings/day were 0.92(0.87-0.97) for total whole fruit intake and 0.95(0.86-1.04) for total vegetable intake. Similarly, compared with participants who did not increase their fruit or vegetable consumption, the pooled hazard ratios for those whose intake increased by ≥7 servings/week were 0.94(0.90-0.97) for total whole fruit intake and 0.98(0.94-1.01) for total vegetable. Analyses of individual fruits and vegetables yielded different results. Consumption levels of ≥4 servings/week (as opposed to <1 serving/month) of broccoli, carrots, tofu or soybeans, raisins, and apples was associated with lower hypertension risk. In conclusion, our results suggest that greater long-term intake and increased consumption of whole fruits may reduce the risk of developing hypertension.

  8. FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CONSUMPTION AND THE INCIDENCE OF HYPERTENSION IN THREE PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Borgi, Lea; Muraki, Isao; Satija, Ambika; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Forman, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Increased fruit and vegetable intake lowers blood pressure in short-term interventional studies. However, data on the association of long-term intake of fruits and vegetables with hypertension risk are scarce. We prospectively examined the independent association of whole fruit (excluding juices) and vegetable intake, as well as the change in consumption of whole fruits and vegetables, with incident hypertension in three large longitudinal cohort studies: Nurses’ Health Study (n=62,175), Nurses’ Health Study II (n=88,475), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n =36,803). We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for fruit and vegetable consumption while controlling for hypertension risk factors. Compared with participants whose consumption was ≤4servings/week, the pooled hazard ratios among those whose intake was ≥4servings/day were 0.92(0.87–0.97) for total whole fruit intake and 0.95(0.86–1.04) for total vegetable intake. Similarly, compared with participants who did not increase their fruit or vegetable consumption, the pooled hazard ratios for those whose intake increased by ≥7servings/week were 0.94(0.90–0.97) for total whole fruit intake and 0.98(0.94–1.01) for total vegetable. Analyses of individual fruits and vegetables yielded different results. Consumption levels of ≥4servings/per week (as opposed to <1serving/month) of broccoli, carrots, tofu or soybeans, raisins and apples was associated with lower hypertension risk. In conclusion, our results suggest that greater long-term intake and increased consumption of whole fruits may reduce the risk of developing hypertension. PMID:26644239

  9. Promoting consumption of fruit in elementary school cafeterias. The effects of slicing apples and oranges.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Mark; Branscum, Adam; Nakayima, Peace Julie

    2009-10-01

    We examined how slicing apples and oranges affected elementary students' selection and consumption of fruit. Slicing increased the percentage of children selecting and consuming oranges, while a similar effect was not found for apples. The impact of slicing fruit was greatest among younger students. These findings suggest that school cafeterias can increase accessibility and consumption of foods through simple, inexpensive food preparation techniques, with the impact of such measures varying by foods and student characteristics.

  10. Impact of the USDA Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program on Children's Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamelske, Eric M.; Bica, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The United States Department of Agriculture initiated its Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) in 2002. This study investigates the impact of the FFVP on children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods: Participants were fourth- and fifth- graders from two program schools (n = 124) and two control schools (n = 134) in…

  11. Increased vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss effort correlates with increased weight and fat loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recommendations to increase vegetable and fruit consumption often accompany guidelines for weight loss. A previous study indicated that people who were instructed to count calories lost more weight than those simply instructed to increase vegetable and fruit intake. The objective was to determine if...

  12. Vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss is positively correlated with weight and fat loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Recommendations to increase vegetable and fruit consumption often accompany guidelines for weight loss. A previous study indicated that people who were instructed to count calories lost more weight than those simply instructed to increase vegetable and fruit intake. Objective: The object...

  13. School Gardens as a Strategy for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxenham, Erin; King, Amber D.

    2010-01-01

    School gardens as a form of nutrition education have become widespread. It is well known that children fall short of the daily recommended intake of fruit and vegetables. School-garden based programs show promise as a method of hands-on learning that promotes and increases fruit and vegetable consumption among school-aged children. There is little…

  14. Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption during Elementary School Snack Periods Using Incentives, Prompting and Role Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bica, Lori A.; Jamelske, Eric M.; Lagorio, Carla H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: American children's consumption of fruits and vegetables (FVs) does not meet current recommendations. Hence, several federally funded, school-based programs have been initiated over the last several years. One such program is the United States Department of Agriculture Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP), which provides…

  15. Picky Eaters: Relating Parental Perceptions in Fruit and Vegetables Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worobey, Harriet S.; Cohen, Sherry; Kempner, Carol; Worobey, John

    Although consuming five servings each day of fruits and vegetables has been designed as a national nutritional goal, there have been few studies of fruit and vegetable intake among 3- to 5-year-olds, even though this age group may benefit from nutrition intervention and education. This study examined the views of 55 Head Start families and 75…

  16. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    PubMed Central

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life. PMID:27136572

  17. Fight for Your Right to Fruit: Psychosocial Outcomes of a Manga Comic Promoting Fruit Consumption in Middle-School Youth.

    PubMed

    Leung, May May; Green, Melanie C; Tate, Deborah F; Cai, Jianwen; Wyka, Katarzyna; Ammerman, Alice S

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to a manga comic (Japanese comic art) with messages promoting fruit consumption influenced psychosocial variables associated with increased fruit intake in middle-school youth. A three-group, randomized, single-session study was conducted in two public middle schools in central North Carolina. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) comic (manga comic promoting fruit consumption, (b) newsletter (newsletter about fruit), or (c) attention-control (newsletter about ancient Greece). Participants included N = 263 youth, with a mean age of 13.18 years (SD = 1.12). Outcome expectations, self-efficacy, and knowledge related to fruit intake were measured at baseline and immediately after reading. Secondary outcomes included transportation (degree to which participants are immersed in their media) and enjoyment, measured at posttest. Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Comic group participants tended to have greater change in outcome expectations related to fruit intake compared to the attention-control group and greater transportation and enjoyment than the newsletter and attention-control groups. Study results are promising and suggest that manga comics may be a useful format to promote positive health beliefs in youth.

  18. Association between Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Mothers and Children in Low-Income, Urban Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Hanley, James; Paradis, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    To understand factors influencing fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in children, the authors studied the association between F&V consumption in mothers and children in a sample of 1,106 boys and girls in Grades 4-6 in 24 elementary schools in low-income, multiethnic neighborhoods in Montreal, Canada. Approximately 10% of girls and 19%…

  19. Increasing Primary School Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: A Review of the Food Dudes Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Charlotte; Upton, Penney; Upton, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the evidence base of the Food Dudes healthy eating programme, specifically the short- and long-term effectiveness of the intervention for consumption of fruit and vegetables both at school and at home and displacement of unhealthy snack consumption. Design/Methodology/Approach: Articles were…

  20. Validity of a Competing Food Choice Construct regarding Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Urban College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Ming-Chin; Matsumori, Brandy; Obenchain, Janel; Viladrich, Anahi; Das, Dhiman; Navder, Khursheed

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents the reliability and validity of a "competing food choice" construct designed to assess whether factors related to consumption of less-healthful food were perceived to be barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption in college freshmen. Design: Cross-sectional, self-administered survey. Setting: An urban public college…

  1. Consumption of nutritional supplements among adolescents: usage and perceived benefits.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2003-02-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain rich qualitative data about the type of nutritional supplements and drinks consumed by adolescents, and the reasons for their consumption, with particular emphasis on the perceived benefits of nutritional supplementation. Semi-structured focus group interviews (n = 16) were conducted among 78 adolescents aged 11-18 years from a co-educational government high school. Participants reported consuming sports drinks, vitamin and mineral supplements, energy drinks, herbal supplements, guarana, creatine, high protein milk supplements, and coenzyme Q10. Reasons for supplement use included perceived short-term health benefits, prevention of illness, improved immunity, parental supply of supplements, taste, energy boost, better sports performance and to rectify a poor diet. Results suggest that some adolescents consume nutritional supplements, sports drinks and energy drinks for their perceived physiological benefits, and that they may not be aware of any potential risks. Health educators should be aware that adolescents seek specific health benefits from nutritional supplements and drinks, which may be better achieved through appropriate consumption of a nutritious diet. Health education programmes should incorporate the perceptions, aspirations and motivations of young people into the planning of interventions and activities in order to make them most relevant and effective.

  2. Symptoms Attributed to Consumption of Caffeinated Beverages in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sojar, Sakina H.; Shrier, Lydia A.; Ziemnik, Rosemary E.; Sherritt, Lon; Spalding, Allegra L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Pediatric caffeine use has become increasingly prevalent. The American Academy of Pediatrics discourages caffeine use by children and adolescents due to its adverse impact on sleep and blood pressure. The objective of this study was to measure prevalence of physical and emotional symptoms related to caffeine consumption among adolescents receiving primary care. Methods: A convenience sample of patients (N = 179; 73% female) aged 12–17 presenting for routine primary care completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Substance Abuse Module questionnaire, which included questions regarding use of caffeine. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize prevalence of caffeine use and caffeine-related symptoms. Associations of number of caffeine-related symptoms with age, gender, and race/ethnicity were also analyzed. Results: Sixty-seven percent of participants (n = 120) reported past 30-day caffeinated beverage consumption. Of those, 68% (n = 82) reported at least one symptom or problem attributed to caffeine use or withdrawal, including caffeine cravings, 24% (n = 29); frequent urination, 21% (n = 25); difficulty falling asleep, 18% (n = 22); and feeling anxious, 3.3% (n = 4). Conclusions: In our sample, caffeinated beverage consumption by adolescents was frequently associated with physical and emotional symptoms, as well as problems attributed to use. PMID:26649254

  3. Social defeat in adolescent mice increases vulnerability to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Arias, Marta; Navarrete, Francisco; Blanco-Gandia, Maria Carmen; Arenas, Maria Carmen; Bartoll-Andrés, Adrián; Aguilar, Maria A; Rubio, Gabriel; Miñarro, José; Manzanares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This study employs an oral operant conditioning paradigm to evaluate the effects of repeated social defeat during adolescence on the reinforcing and motivational actions of ethanol in adult OF1 mice. Social interaction, emotional and cognitive behavioral aspects were also analyzed, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments were performed to study gene expression changes in the mesocorticolimbic and hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal (HHA) axis. Social defeat did not alter anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze or cognitive performance in the passive avoidance and Hebb-Williams tests. A social interaction test revealed depression-like symptoms and social subordination behavior in defeated OF1 mice. Interestingly, social defeat in adolescence significantly increased the number of effective responses, ethanol consumption values and motivation to drink. Finally, real-time PCR analyses revealed that social defeat significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase and corticotropin-releasing hormone in the ventral tegmental area and paraventricular nucleus, respectively. In contrast, mu-opioid receptor gene expression was decreased in the nucleus accumbens of socially defeated mice. In summary, these findings suggest that exposure to social defeat during adolescence increases vulnerability to the rewarding effects of ethanol without affecting emotional or cognitive performance. The gene expression alterations we have observed in the mesocorticolimbic and HHA axis systems of defeated mice could be related with their increased ethanol consumption. These results endorse future research into pharmacological strategies that modulate these systems for the treatment of social stress-related alcohol consumption problems.

  4. Peer effects, fast food consumption and adolescent weight gain.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to control for common environment at the network level and to solve the simultaneity (reflection) problem. Our second equation is a panel dynamic weight production function relating an individual's Body Mass Index z-score (zBMI) to his fast food consumption and his lagged zBMI, and allowing for irregular intervals in the data. Results show that there are positive but small peer effects in fast food consumption among adolescents belonging to a same friendship school network. Based on our preferred specification, the estimated social multiplier is 1.15. Our results also suggest that, in the long run, an extra day of weekly fast food restaurant visits increases zBMI by 4.45% when ignoring peer effects and by 5.11%, when they are taken into account.

  5. Epidemiologic confirmation that fruit consumption influences mercury exposure in riparian communities in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Sousa Passos, Carlos Jose Mergler, Donna; Fillion, Myriam; Lemire, Melanie; Mertens, Frederic; Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee; Philibert, Aline

    2007-10-15

    Since deforestation has recently been associated with increased mercury load in the Amazon, the problem of mercury exposure is now much more widespread than initially thought. A previous exploratory study suggested that fruit consumption may reduce mercury exposure. The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of fruit consumption on the relation between fish consumption and bioindicators of mercury (Hg) exposure in Amazonian fish-eating communities. A cross-sectional dietary survey based on a 7-day recall of fish and fruit consumption frequency was conducted within 13 riparian communities from the Tapajos River, Brazilian Amazon. Hair samples were collected from 449 persons, and blood samples were collected from a subset of 225, for total and inorganic mercury determination by atomic absorption spectrometry. On average, participants consumed 6.6 fish meals/week and ate 11 fruits/week. The average blood Hg (BHg) was 57.1{+-}36.3 {mu}g/L (median: 55.1 {mu}g/L), and the average hair-Hg (HHg) was 16.8{+-}10.3 {mu}g/g (median: 15.7 {mu}g/g). There was a positive relation between fish consumption and BHg (r=0.48; P<0.0001), as well as HHg (r=0.34; P<0.0001). Both fish and fruit consumption entered significantly in multivariate models explaining BHg (fish: {beta}=5.6, P<0.0001; fruit: {beta}=-0.5, P=0.0011; adjusted model R{sup 2}=36.0%) and HHg levels (fish: {beta}=1.2, P<0.0001; fruit: {beta}=-0.2, P=0.0002; adjusted model R{sup 2}=21.0%). ANCOVA models showed that for the same number of fish meals, persons consuming fruits more frequently had significantly lower blood and HHg concentrations. For low fruit consumers, each fish meal contributed 9.8 {mu}g/L Hg increase in blood compared to only 3.3 {mu}g/L Hg increase for the high fruit consumers. In conclusion, fruit consumption may provide a protective effect for Hg exposure in Amazonian riparians. Prevention strategies that seek to maintain fish consumption while reducing Hg exposure in fish

  6. Promoting consumption of fruit and vegetables for better health. Have campaigns delivered on the goals?

    PubMed

    Rekhy, Reetica; McConchie, Robyn

    2014-08-01

    Daily intake of fruits and vegetables worldwide remains well below the recommended WHO levels, despite the established health benefits associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. A diversity of policy interventions designed to increase consumption have been conducted in the developed economies around the globe for over a decade, involving significant monetary outlays. The impact of these initiatives remains at best, modest to low, in effecting a significant increase in daily consumption on a sustained basis. Several factors have been identified in both promoting and impeding the increase in fruit and vegetable consumption, including the effects of consumer behaviour. This paper reviews several of the major promotional campaigns from around the world and provides analysis of their level of success, with a view to developing novel approaches for formulating more effective marketing and promotional interventions that will prompt significant change.

  7. Do 'food deserts' influence fruit and vegetable consumption?--A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Tim; Russell, Jean; Campbell, Michael J; Barker, Margo E

    2005-10-01

    Lack of access to affordable healthy foods has been suggested to be a contributory factor to poor diet. This study investigated associations between diet and access to supermarkets, transport, fruit and vegetable price and deprivation, in a region divergent in geography and socio-economic indices. A postal survey of 1000 addresses (response rate 42%) gathered information on family demographics, supermarket and shop use, car ownership, mobility and previous day's fruit and vegetable intake. Postcode information was used to derive road travel distance to nearest supermarket and deprivation index. Fruit and vegetable prices were assessed using a shopping basket survey. Generalised linear regression models were used to ascertain predictors of fruit and vegetable intake. Male grocery shoppers ate less fruit than female grocery shoppers. Consumption of vegetables increased slightly with age. Deprivation, supermarket fruit and vegetable price, distance to nearest supermarket and potential difficulties with grocery shopping were not significantly associated with either fruit or vegetable consumption. These data suggest that the three key elements of a food desert, fruit and vegetable price, socio-economic deprivation and a lack of locally available supermarkets, were not factors influencing fruit or vegetable intake. We suggest that food policies aimed at improving diet should be orientated towards changing socio-cultural attitudes towards food.

  8. Consumption of whole grains in French children, adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Bellisle, France; Hébel, Pascale; Colin, Justine; Reyé, Béatrice; Hopkins, Sinead

    2014-11-28

    The consumption of whole grain foods is associated with many nutritional, health and weight control benefits. The present study assessed whole grain intake in France on the basis of a 7 d dietary survey in a representative sample of children, adolescents and adults (Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France 2010 survey). Special care was taken to identify and assess the intake of all whole grains. All foods consumed were considered, with no lower limit on whole grain content. For the majority of foods, details regarding the whole grain contents were obtained from brand information and quantitative nutrient declarations on food labels. Over half of the respondents reported never consuming any whole grain. In participants who did, consumption levels were very low (about 9·1 g/d in children and 14·4 g/d in adults). The main food sources of whole grains were breakfast cereals in children and adolescents and bread in adults. Consumers of whole grains had higher daily intakes of fibre and several vitamins and minerals than non-consumers. In adults but not in children, the OR for overweight/obesity decreased significantly as the level of whole grain consumption increased. Although a majority of French consumers comply with the national recommendation to consume a starchy food with each meal, they do so with minimal consumption of whole grain foods.

  9. Goal Setting Is Differentially Related to Change in Fruit, Juice, and Vegetable Consumption among Fourth-Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Zakeri, Issa; Pryor, Erin W.; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Watson, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    The impact of goal attainment in a dietary change program to increase fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable consumption was assessed among fourth-grade students. At each session, the students were given goals related to increasing fruit, juice, and vegetable consumption. Baseline consumption and postconsumption were assessed with up to 4 days of…

  10. Let's move salad bars to schools: a public-private partnership to increase student fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Harris, Diane M; Seymour, Jennifer; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Cooper, Ann; Collins, Beth; DiSogra, Lorelei; Marshall, Andrew; Evans, Nona

    2012-08-01

    Few school-age youth consume the recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables, and increasing fruit and vegetable intake in children and adolescents is an important public health goal to maintain long-term good health and to decrease risk of chronic disease and obesity. School salad bars are an important tool to promote fruit and vegetable consumption among schoolchildren. Studies show that introduction of school salad bars increases the amount and variety of fruits and vegetables consumed by children in schools. However, many schools cannot afford the capital investment in the salad bar equipment. In 2010, the National Fruit & Vegetable Alliance (NFVA), United Fresh Produce Association Foundation, the Food Family Farming Foundation, and Whole Foods Market launched Let’s Move Salad Bars to Schools (LMSB2S) in support of First Lady Michelle Obama’s Let’s Move! initiative. The goal of LMSB2S is to place 6000 salad bars in schools over 3 years. As of June, 2012, over 1400 new salad bar units have been delivered to schools across the United States, increasing access to fruits and vegetables for over 700,000 students. Any K through 12 school district participating in the National School Lunch Program is eligible to submit an application at www.saladbars2schools. org/. Requests for salad bar units ($2625 each unit) are fulfilled through grassroots fund raising in the school community and through funds raised by the LMSB2S partners from corporate and foundation sources. LMSB2S is a model for coalition-building across many government, nonprofit, and industry partners to address a major public health challenge.

  11. Prospective Effects of Possible Selves on Alcohol Consumption in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F.; Park, Chang G.; Finnegan, Lorna; McCreary, Linda L.

    2014-01-01

    Possible selves, cognitions about the self that reflect hopes, fears, and expectations for the future, are reliable predictors of health risk behaviors but have not been explored as predictors of adolescents’ alcohol use. In a secondary analysis of data from 137 adolescents, we examined the influence of possible selves assessed in eighth grade on alcohol consumption (yes/no and level of use) in ninth grade. Having a most important feared possible self related to academics in eighth grade predicted alcohol abstinence in ninth grade. Among those who reported alcohol use, having many hoped-for possible selves and a most important hoped-for possible self related to academics in eighth grade predicted lower level of alcohol consumption in ninth grade. Interventions that foster the personal relevance and importance of academics and lead to the development of hoped-for possible selves may reduce adolescents’ alcohol consumption. PMID:25545451

  12. New School Meal Regulations Increase Fruit Consumption and Do Not Increase Total Plate Waste

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Kathryn E.; Read, Margaret; Danna, Nicole; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The 2010 Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act required the USDA to update the nutrition standards of the National School Lunch Program. New policies were implemented in the 2012–2013 school year. These changes were followed by anecdotal reports of increased food waste. Empirical research is needed to reliably measure student intake and plate waste before and after this policy change. Methods: Food consumption and waste was collected annually from a cohort of middle school students in 12 schools in an urban, low-income school district before (spring 2012) and after (spring 2013 and 2014) policy changes. Generalized linear regression was used to compare pre- versus postpolicy selection and consumption of entrées, fruits, vegetables, and milk. Results: Comparing 2012 to 2014, the percentage of students choosing fruit significantly increased from 54% to 66% and fruit consumption remained high at 74%. Student selection of fruit increased by 9% for each additional type of fruit offered with the meal. The proportion of students who chose a vegetable dropped from 68% to 52%, but students selecting vegetables ate nearly 20% more of them, effectively lowering vegetable waste. Entrée consumption increased significantly from 71% to 84%, thereby also decreasing waste. Conclusions: Students responded positively to the new lunches. They consumed more fruit, threw away less of the entrees and vegetables, and consumed the same amount of milk. Overall, the revised meal standards and policies appear to have significantly lowered plate waste in school cafeterias. PMID:25734372

  13. [Barriers and facilitators to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables in six countries in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Olavarría, Susana; Zacarías, Isabel

    2011-06-01

    Low intake of fruits and vegetables is among the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and some cancers. The countries have implemented policies to promote food consumption. Identifying the barriers perceived by people to consume it helps to recognize the resources that would be willing to exchange for benefits. The objectives of this study are to determine what factors are facilitators and barriers to increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables in six countries in Latin America, and a possible relationship between the 5 a day program and the food based dietary guidelines. This is a qualitative and field study. Techniques used were group interviews with health professionals and the media, and interviews with experts in food policy. The outstanding facilitators were television advertising campaigns promoting their use, and the existence of fruits and vegetables markets in the neighborhoods. Highlighted those obstacles were lack of public policies of advertising regulations and trade hooks of food, of self-sustainability, of funding for related programs, and of sociological research of the topic. The main barrier to the consumption of fruits and vegetables in these countries was the lack of policy support and related public policy, being a good advertising campaign vital to the success of programs that encourage consumption. The main relationship between the Dietary Guidelines and the 5 A Day Program is to both promote the consumption of vegetables and fruits.

  14. Consumption of Fruit or Fiber-Fruit Decreases the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in a Mediterranean Young Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Díez-Espino, Javier; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefania

    2017-01-01

    Fiber and fiber-rich foods have been inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the evidence is scarce in young and Mediterranean cohorts. We used Cox regression models to assess the association between quintiles of total fiber and fiber from different sources, and the risk of CVD adjusted for the principal confounding factors in a Mediterranean cohort of young adults, the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra, Follow-up) cohort. After a median follow-up of 10.3 years, we observed 112 cases of CVD among 17,007 participants (61% female, mean age 38 years). We observed an inverse association between fiber intake and CVD events (p for trend = 0.024) and also between the highest quintile of fruit consumption (hazard ratio (HR) 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27–0.95) or whole grains consumption (HR 0.43 95% CI 0.20–0.93) and CVD compared to the lowest quintile, and also a HR of 0.58 (95% CI 0.37–0.90) for the participants who ate at least 175 g/day of fruit. Only the participants in the highest quintile of fruit-derived fiber intake had a significantly lower risk of CVD (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.28–0.97). The participants who ate at least one serving per week of cruciferous vegetables had a lower risk than those who did not (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.30–0.89). In conclusion, high fruit consumption, whole grain consumption, or consumption of at least one serving/week of cruciferous vegetables may be protective against CVD in young Mediterranean populations. PMID:28304346

  15. Consumption of Fruit or Fiber-Fruit Decreases the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in a Mediterranean Young Cohort.

    PubMed

    Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Díez-Espino, Javier; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefania

    2017-03-17

    Fiber and fiber-rich foods have been inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the evidence is scarce in young and Mediterranean cohorts. We used Cox regression models to assess the association between quintiles of total fiber and fiber from different sources, and the risk of CVD adjusted for the principal confounding factors in a Mediterranean cohort of young adults, the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra, Follow-up) cohort. After a median follow-up of 10.3 years, we observed 112 cases of CVD among 17,007 participants (61% female, mean age 38 years). We observed an inverse association between fiber intake and CVD events (p for trend = 0.024) and also between the highest quintile of fruit consumption (hazard ratio (HR) 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27-0.95) or whole grains consumption (HR 0.43 95% CI 0.20-0.93) and CVD compared to the lowest quintile, and also a HR of 0.58 (95% CI 0.37-0.90) for the participants who ate at least 175 g/day of fruit. Only the participants in the highest quintile of fruit-derived fiber intake had a significantly lower risk of CVD (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.28-0.97). The participants who ate at least one serving per week of cruciferous vegetables had a lower risk than those who did not (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.30-0.89). In conclusion, high fruit consumption, whole grain consumption, or consumption of at least one serving/week of cruciferous vegetables may be protective against CVD in young Mediterranean populations.

  16. Consumption of fruits and vegetables in Malaysia: profiling the daily and nondaily consumers.

    PubMed

    Yen, Steven T; Tan, Andrew K G; Feisul, Mustapha I

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the sociodemographic factors associated with daily fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in Malaysia. Based on a cross-sectional sample of 2447 individuals from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1, a multivariate sample selection system is developed and estimated, to accommodate high frequencies of daily FV consumption and the days of servings among nondaily consumers. Results indicate that the authors' attempt to account for endogenous sample selectivity and cross-equation correlations is justified. There exist positive correlations between FV consumption likelihoods and longer work hours, higher levels of education, high income, female gender, nonsmoking status, and being from East Malaysia. Among nondaily consumers, those with longer work hours, singles, and people with diabetes are less inclined to eat fruits on more days. Overall, higher-educated, affluent people, nonsmokers, and East Malaysians display more days of FV consumption. Based on these outcomes, several policy implications are recommended vis-à-vis FV consumption patterns in Malaysia.

  17. USDA Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program Creates Positive Change in Children's Consumption and Other Behaviors Related to Eating Fruit and Vegetables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bica, Lori A.; Jamelske, Eric M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the 2009-2010 USDA Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) on fruit intake and other behaviors related to fruit and vegetable consumption among Wisconsin fourth- and fifth-grade students. Methods: Participants were fourth- and fifth-grade from one FFVP school (n = 51)…

  18. Food Consumption Patterns in Mediterranean Adolescents: Are There Differences between Overweight and Normal-Weight Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Brussee, Sandra E.; Drichoutis, Andreas C.; Kalea, Anastasia Z.; Yiannakouris, Nikolaos; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To quantify food consumption (based on food group classification) during several time periods in a sample of adolescents and to identify potential differences in food patterns between normal-weight and overweight participants. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants were classified as normal weight and overweight/obese. Dietary…

  19. Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

  20. Daily Consumption of a Fruit and Vegetable Smoothie Alters Facial Skin Color.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok Wei; Graf, Brigitte A; Mitra, Soma R; Stephen, Ian D

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dietary carotenoids or carotenoid supplements can alter the color (yellowness) of human skin through increased carotenoid deposition in the skin. As fruit and vegetables are the main dietary sources of carotenoids, skin yellowness may be a function of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. However, most previous studies have used tablets or capsules to supplement carotenoid intake, and less is known of the impact of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on skin color. Here, we examined skin color changes in an Asian population (Malaysian Chinese ethnicity) over a six week dietary intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie. Eighty one university students (34 males, 47 females; mean age 20.48) were assigned randomly to consuming either a fruit smoothie (intervention group) or mineral water (control group) daily for six weeks. Participants' skin yellowness (CIELab b*), redness (a*) and luminance (L*) were measured at baseline, twice during the intervention period and at a two-week follow-up, using a handheld reflectance spectrophotometer. Results showed a large increment in skin yellowness (p<0.001) and slight increment in skin redness (p<0.001) after 4 weeks of intervention for participants in the intervention group. Skin yellowness and skin redness remained elevated at the two week follow up measurement. In conclusion, intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie is associated with increased skin redness and yellowness in an Asian population. Changes in the reflectance spectrum of the skin suggest that this color change was caused by carotenoid deposition in the skin.

  1. Estimation of cancer risks and benefits associated with a potential increased consumption of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Richard; Johnston, Jason; Tucker, Kevin; DeSesso, John M; Keen, Carl L

    2012-12-01

    The current paper provides an analysis of the potential number of cancer cases that might be prevented if half the U.S. population increased its fruit and vegetable consumption by one serving each per day. This number is contrasted with an upper-bound estimate of concomitant cancer cases that might be theoretically attributed to the intake of pesticide residues arising from the same additional fruit and vegetable consumption. The cancer prevention estimates were derived using a published meta-analysis of nutritional epidemiology studies. The cancer risks were estimated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methods, cancer potency estimates from rodent bioassays, and pesticide residue sampling data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The resulting estimates are that approximately 20,000 cancer cases per year could be prevented by increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, while up to 10 cancer cases per year could be caused by the added pesticide consumption. These estimates have significant uncertainties (e.g., potential residual confounding in the fruit and vegetable epidemiologic studies and reliance on rodent bioassays for cancer risk). However, the overwhelming difference between benefit and risk estimates provides confidence that consumers should not be concerned about cancer risks from consuming conventionally-grown fruits and vegetables.

  2. Psychosocial and demographic predictors of fruit, juice and vegetable consumption among 11-14-year-old Boy Scouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psychosocial and demographic correlates of fruit, juice, and vegetable (FJV) consumption were investigated to guide how to increase FJV intake. Experimental design consisted of hierarchical multiple regression analysis of FJV consumption on demographics and psychosocial variables. Subjects were boys...

  3. Phytonutrient intakes in relation to European fruit and vegetable consumption patterns observed in different food surveys.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R; Davidson, Julia; Day, Andrea J

    2014-10-14

    Fruit and vegetables make an important contribution to health, partly due to the composition of phytonutrients, such as carotenoids and polyphenols. The aim of the present study was to quantify the intake of fruit and vegetables across different European countries using food consumption data of increasing complexity: food balance sheets (FBS); the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Comprehensive Database; individual food consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). Across Europe, the average consumption of fruit and vegetables ranged from 192 to 824 g/d (FBS data). Based on EFSA data, nine out of fourteen countries consumed < 400 g/d (recommended by the WHO), although even in the highest-consuming countries such as Spain, 36 % did not reach the target intake. In the UK, the average consumption of fruit and vegetables was 310 g/d (NDNS data). Generally, phytonutrient intake increased in accordance with fruit and vegetable intake across all European countries with the exception of lycopene (from tomatoes), which appeared to be higher in some countries that consumed less fruit and vegetables. There were little differences in the average intake of flavanols, flavonols and lycopene in those who did or did not meet the 400 g/d recommendation in the UK. However, average intakes of carotenoid, flavanone, anthocyanidin and ellagic acid were higher in those who consumed >400 g/d of fruit and vegetables compared with those who did not. Overall, intakes of phytonutrients are highly variable, suggesting that while some individuals obtain healthful amounts, there may be others who do not gain all the potential benefits associated with phytonutrients in the diet.

  4. Increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables in the school cafeteria: the influence of active choice.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Sharon M; Meissen, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated a setting-level intervention designed to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables among low-socioeconomic status elementary and middle school students participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). The NSLP provides students with access to fruits and vegetables; however, food served does not necessarily equal food consumed. High rates of waste, especially of fruits and vegetables, are well documented. The current, low-cost intervention altered the choice architecture of the cafeteria by introducing an active, forced choice into the school lunch service. Consumption was measured by observing (n=2,064) and weighing (n=84) student plate waste over two 10-day periods pre-intervention and during implementation. Results show an average daily 15% increase in consumption of both fruits and vegetables during the intervention period. These findings suggest that local schools can actively encourage students to take advantage of fruits and vegetables offered through the NSLP by implementing setting-level changes to the cafeteria environment.

  5. Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Preschoolers: Evaluation of "Color Me Healthy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Kendra E.; Dunn, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether "Color Me Healthy" (CMH), an interactive nutrition and physical activity program for preschool children, increases fruit and vegetable consumption. Design: Intervention study. Data were collected at baseline, 1 week post-intervention, and 3 months post-intervention. Setting: Child care centers. Participants: Preschool…

  6. Preschool Children's Self-Reports of Fruit and Vegetable Knowledge, Preference, and Messages Encouraging Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Andrew R.; Alfonso, Moya L.; Hackney, Amy A.; Luque, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) is associated with a reduced risk of diabetes, obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Only one third of children aged 4-8?years consume the recommended 5 servings a day. Studies involving school-aged children (6-11?years) demonstrate that positive outcome expectancies can mediate FVC. There…

  7. Offer versus Serve or Serve Only: Does Service Method Affect Elementary Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goggans, Margaret Harbison; Lambert, Laurel; Chang, Yunhee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of the Offer versus Serve (OVS) provision in the National School Lunch Program would result in a significant difference in fruit and vegetable consumption by fourth and fifth grade elementary students, and in plate waste cost. Methods: Weighed and visual plate waste data…

  8. Family Influence: Key to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Susan M.; Pollock, Elizabeth Davenport; Braun, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess social and familial environmental influences on fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption of fourth- and fifth-graders living in a culturally diverse, urban setting. Design: In 2006, students from 9 fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms from a public school in the Washington-Baltimore Metropolitan Region were recruited as part of the…

  9. The Effect of Nutrition Education on Improving Fruit and Vegetable Consumption of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Linda; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Concern with the high cancer rate in a Colorado town led to a nutrition education program for grades K-6, emphasizing five servings of fruit/vegetables per day. Workshops for parents on nutrition and cancer were also held. Of 193 children, 158 in the treatment group increased consumption by one-half serving per day; there was no change for 35…

  10. A Randomized School Trial of Environmental Strategies to Encourage Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Bishop, Donald B.; Taylor, Gretchen L.; Davis, Marsha; Story, Mary; Gray, Clifton; Bishop, Susan C.; Mays, Rita A. Warren; Lytle, Leslie A.; Harnack, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The Cafeteria Power Plus project examined whether a cafeteria-based intervention would increase the fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption of children. Twenty-six schools were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control condition. Baseline lunch observations of a sample (N = 1668) of first- and third-grade students occurred in the spring…

  11. Oral transmission of Chagas disease by consumption of açaí palm fruit, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Aglaêr A; Garcia, Marcio H; Tatto, Erica; Obara, Marcos T; Costa, Elenild; Sobel, Jeremy; Araujo, Wildo N

    2009-04-01

    In 2006, a total of 178 cases of acute Chagas disease were reported from the Amazonian state of Pará, Brazil. Eleven occurred in Barcarena and were confirmed by visualization of parasites on blood smears. Using cohort and case-control studies, we implicated oral transmission by consumption of açaí palm fruit.

  12. California Adults Increase Fruit and Vegetable Consumption from 1997-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugerman, Sharon; Foerster, Susan B.; Gregson, Jennifer; Linares, Amanda; Hudes, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether fruit and vegetable consumption among California adults significantly increased from 1997-2007. Design: Biennial telephone surveillance surveys of California adults' dietary practices. Participants: California adults (n = 9,105 total all 6 surveys). Intervention: Surveillance data reporting. Main Outcome Measures:…

  13. Association of Awareness, Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Factors, and Stage of Dietary Change with Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Duyn, Mary Ann S.; Kristal, Alan R.; Dodd, Kevin; Campbell, Marci K.; Subar, Amy F.; Stables, Gloria; Nebeling, Linda; Glanz, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Used national telephone survey data to examine associations between adults' fruit and vegetable consumption and awareness of "5 A Day for Better Health," stage of change, taste preferences, self-efficacy, and perceived benefits, barriers, threats, social support, and norms regarding fruit and vegetable consumption. Strong associations…

  14. Farmers’ market use is associated with fruit and vegetable consumption in diverse southern rural communities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While farmers’ markets are a potential strategy to increase access to fruits and vegetables in rural areas, more information is needed regarding use of farmers’ markets among rural residents. Thus, this study’s purpose was to examine (1) socio-demographic characteristics of participants; (2) barriers and facilitators to farmers’ market shopping in southern rural communities; and (3) associations between farmers’ market use with fruit and vegetable consumption and body mass index (BMI). Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted with a purposive sample of farmers’ market customers and a representative sample of primary household food shoppers in eastern North Carolina (NC) and the Appalachian region of Kentucky (KY). Customers were interviewed using an intercept survey instrument at farmers’ markets. Representative samples of primary food shoppers were identified via random digit dial (RDD) cellular phone and landline methods in counties that had at least one farmers’ market. All questionnaires assessed socio-demographic characteristics, food shopping patterns, barriers to and facilitators of farmers’ market shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption and self-reported height and weight. The main outcome measures were fruit and vegetable consumption and BMI. Descriptive statistics were used to examine socio-demographic characteristics, food shopping patterns, and barriers and facilitators to farmers’ market shopping. Linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between farmers’ market use with fruit and vegetable consumption and BMI, controlling for age, race, education, and gender. Results Among farmers’ market customers, 44% and 55% (NC and KY customers, respectively) reported shopping at a farmers’ market at least weekly, compared to 16% and 18% of NC and KY RDD respondents. Frequently reported barriers to farmers’ market shopping were market days and hours, “only come when I need something”, extreme

  15. Adolescent Consumption of Sports and Energy Drinks: Linkages to Higher Physical Activity, Unhealthy Beverage Patterns, Cigarette Smoking, and Screen Media Use

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole; DeWolfe, Jessica; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of adolescent sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and identify behavioral correlates. Design Data were drawn from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study. Setting Adolescents from 20 middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota completed classroom-administered surveys. Participants 2,793 adolescents (53.2% girls) in grades 6–12. Variables Measured Beverage patterns; breakfast frequency; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); media use; sleep; and cigarette smoking. Analysis Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between health behaviors and SED consumption, adjusting for demographics. Results Over a third of adolescents consumed sports drinks and 14.7% consumed energy drinks at least once a week. Among boys and girls, both sports and energy drink consumption were related to higher video game use; sugar-sweetened beverage and fruit juice intake; and smoking (P<0.05). Sports drink consumption was also significantly related to higher MVPA and organized sport participation for both genders (P<0.01). Conclusions and Implications Although sports drink consumption was associated with higher MVPA, adolescents should be reminded of recommendations to consume these beverages only following vigorous, prolonged activity. There is also a need for future interventions designed to reduce SED consumption to address the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. PMID:24809865

  16. The Role of Personality Traits in Young Adult Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Tamlin S.; Thompson, Laura M.; Knight, Rachel L.; Flett, Jayde A. M.; Richardson, Aimee C.; Brookie, Kate L.

    2017-01-01

    This project investigated how individual differences in the big-five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness) predicted plant-food consumption in young adults. A total of 1073 participants from two samples of young adults aged 17–25 reported their daily servings of fruits, vegetables, and two unhealthy foods for comparison purposes using an Internet daily diary for 21 or 13 days (micro-longitudinal, correlational design). Participants also completed the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) measure of personality, and demographic covariates including gender, age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Analyses used hierarchical regression to predict average daily fruit and vegetable consumption as separate dependent variables from the demographic covariates (step 1) and the five personality traits (step 2). Results showed that young adults higher in openness and extraversion, and to some extent conscientiousness, ate more fruits and vegetables than their less open, less extraverted, and less conscientious peers. Neuroticism and agreeableness were unrelated to fruit and vegetable consumption. These associations were unique to eating fruit and vegetables and mostly did not extend to unhealthy foods tested. Young adult women also ate more fruit and vegetables than young adult men. Results suggest that traits associated with greater intellect, curiosity, and social engagement (openness and extraversion), and to a lesser extent, discipline (conscientiousness) are associated with greater plant-food consumption in this population. Findings reinforce the importance of personality in establishing healthy dietary habits in young adulthood that could translate into better health outcomes later in life. PMID:28223952

  17. [School-based education strategies to promote fruit and vegetable consumption: the Pro Children Project].

    PubMed

    Pérez Rodrigo, C; Aranceta, J; Brug, H; Wind, M; Hildonen, Ch; Klepp, K I

    2004-06-01

    Available population data suggest that a high proportion of European children and young people eat less fruit and vegetables than desirable. School based health promotion strategies fostering healthy eating practices and regular physical activity has the potential for a major impact on health and wellbeing during childhood and later stages in life. The aim of Pro-Children project is to estimate the consumption of fruit and vegetables as well as its main determinants among 11 year old European children and their families. It also aims to develop and assess the effectiveness of a school-based intervention program to promote adequate consumption levels of fruit and vegetables among school children. In the first phase of the project, cross-sectional studies were carried out on random population samples in nine European countries. The study protocol included assessment of fruit and vegetable consumption and a questionnaire to ascertain key determinants. A school-based intervention program was designed based on the Attitude, Social Influence and Self-Efficacy model (ASE). Theoretically similar but culturally relevant interventions were designed to be tested in Norway, The Netherlands and Spain during two school years. Each intervention site follows-up 10 intervention schools implementing the program and 10 control schools. Intervention planning and design followed an intervention mapping procedure. Key behaviours and determinants to be addressed through the intervention were identified in order to develop a matrix of educational objectives. The provision of fruit and vegetables in the school is an outstanding element. Program activities include guided classroom activities, computer tailored messages for children, activities to be completed at home with the family and family targeted specific actions. Additionally, optional components for community reinforcement include mass media, school health services participation and implication of grocery stores in the project

  18. Evaluation of fruit intake and its relation to body mass index of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ham, Eunah; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2014-07-01

    Diets high in fruits and vegetables are recommended to maintain health. However, accurate fruit intake evaluation is hard and high sugar content in most of the fruits suggest possible negative relationships with health indices. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the fruit intake status of adolescents and to examine the relationship between fruit intake and body mass index (BMI). For this, 400 middle and high school students were surveyed for their fruit eating attitude, preference, and intake level for fruit along with the evaluation of their relationship with anthropometric measures. As for fruit preference, the most frequent answer was 'like very much' (60.0%) and the preference of fruit was significantly higher in females than in males (p < 0.01). The highest answer to the reason to like fruits was 'delicious' (67.0%). The highest proportion of subjects replied that the amount of fruit intake was similar in both school meals and at home (39.3%) and unlikable feeling of fruits was 'sour' (47.0%). The favorite fruit was the apple followed by oriental melon, grape, Korean cherry, cherry, tangerine/orange, hallabong, plum, mango, persimmon, peach, pear/kiwi, apricot, Japanese apricot, and fig in order. As for the number of serving sizes per person were 2.9 times/day for male students and 3.0 times/day for female students showing no significant difference. The frequency of eating fruits in the evening showed a significant positive correlation with body weight (p < 0.05) and BMI (p < 0.01), respectively. In summary of these study findings, it was found that the fruit preference of adolescents was relatively high and their fruit intake level satisfied the recommended number of intake. The number of evening fruit intake had a significantly positive correlation with body weight and BMI. Further studies are required to examine the relationship between fruit intake and health indicators.

  19. Alcohol Consumption and Injury among Canadian Adolescents: Variations by Urban-Rural Geographic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xuran; Li, Dongguang; Boyce, William; Pickett, William

    2008-01-01

    Context: The impact of alcohol consumption on risks for injury among rural adolescents is an important and understudied public health issue. Little is known about whether relationships between alcohol consumption and injury vary between rural and urban adolescents. Purpose: To examine associations between alcohol and medically attended injuries by…

  20. Appealing to vanity: could potential appearance improvement motivate fruit and vegetable consumption?

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Ross D; Ozakinci, Gozde; Stephen, Ian D; Perrett, David I

    2012-02-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is inadequate among adults in the United States; this contributes to preventable morbidity and mortality. More effective dietary intervention strategies are needed. Recently, interventions that advertise the consequences of behavior for appearance have been successful in modifying sun-exposure habits and tobacco use. Such an approach might also facilitate dietary improvement. Consumption of carotenoid-rich fruit and vegetables positively affects skin color, which influences perceptions of health and attractiveness, and promoting such an effect may motivate target audiences to increase consumption of this important food group. This approach represents a novel direction for the field and is potentially suitable for cost-effective, population-level dissemination through the visual media.

  1. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

  2. Vegetable and fruit consumption and prostate cancer risk: a cohort study in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, A G; Goldbohm, R A; Dorant, E; van den Brandt, P A

    1998-08-01

    The association between 21 vegetables and eight fruits and prostate cancer risk was assessed in the Netherlands Cohort Study among 58,279 men of ages 55-69 years at baseline in 1986. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 610 cases with complete vegetable data and 642 cases with complete fruit data were available for analysis. In multivariate case-cohort analyses, the following rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for vegetable consumption were found (comparing highest versus lowest quintile): total vegetables (RR, 0.80; CI, 0.57-1.12); prepared vegetables (RR, 0.85; CI, 0.61-1.19); and raw vegetables (RR, 0.96; CI, 0.69-1.34). For vegetables categorized in botanical groups, no associations were found except for consumption of pulses (RR, 0.71; CI, 0.51-0.98; P for trend, 0.01). The RRs for total fruit and citrus fruit were 1.31 (CI, 0.96-1.79) and 1.27 (CI, 0.93-1.73), respectively; the corresponding Ps for trend were 0.02 and 0.01, respectively. In a continuous model, no association for total fruit was observed. Individual vegetables and fruits were evaluated as continuous variables (g/day). Nonsignificant inverse associations (RRs per increment of 25 g/day) were found for consumption of kale (RR, 0.74), raw endive (RR, 0.72), mandarins (RR, 0.75), and raisins or other dried fruit (RR, 0.49). Observed positive associations were significant for consumption of leek (RR, 1.38) and oranges (RR, 1.07) and nonsignificant for sweet peppers (RR, 1.60) and mushrooms (RR, 1.49). Results in subgroups of cases were more or less consistent with the overall results. From our study, we cannot conclude that vegetable consumption is important in prostate cancer etiology, but for certain vegetables or fruits, an association cannot be excluded.

  3. Planning and self-efficacy can increase fruit and vegetable consumption: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kreausukon, Pimchanok; Gellert, Paul; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2012-08-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption represents a nutritional goal to prevent obesity and chronic illness. To change dietary behaviors, people must be motivated to do so, and they must translate their motivation into actual behavior. The present experiment aims at the psychological mechanisms that support such changes, with a particular focus on dietary self-efficacy and planning skills. A randomized controlled trial compared a theory-based psychological intervention with a health education session in 114 participants. Dependent variables were fruit and vegetable consumption, intention to consume more fruit and vegetables, planning to consume more, and dietary self-efficacy, assessed before the intervention, 1 week afterwards, and at 6-week follow up. Significant group by time interactions for all four dependent variables documented superior treatment effects for the psychological intervention group, with substantially higher scores at posttest and follow-up for the experimental group, although all students benefited from participation. To identify the contribution of the main intervention ingredients (self-efficacy and planning), regression analyses yielded mediator effects for these two factors. A social-cognitive intervention to improve fruit and vegetable consumption was superior to a knowledge-based education session. Self-efficacy and planning seem to play a major role in the mechanisms that facilitate dietary changes.

  4. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Special School Students with Mild Intellectual Disability in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Mok, W. K.; Ling, T. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to predict the fruit and vegetable consumption intention of students with mild intellectual disability in Hong Kong by the application of Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour. Methods: 50 students with mild intellectual disability (30 male and 20 female), ranging in age from 15 to 38 years, were participated in this study. By means of face-to-face interviews, demographic data, Food Preference and variables of Theory of Planned Behaviour, such as Attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control were measured. Results: 20%, 28% and 10% students with mild intellectual disability were rated to be overweight, obese and severely obese respectively. The rest of 10% were classified to be underweight. Regarding the daily intake of fruit and vegetable, 96% students with mild intellectual disability failed to consume sufficient amount. The variables of Theory of Planned Behaviour explained 47.7% of fruit and vegetable consumption intention with significant factors of Attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control. Food Preference was found to be a useful construct and further improve the prediction by about 7% after incorporating into the model. Conclusions: Results of this study indicated that Theory of Planned Behaviour is a useful model to predict dietary intention of students with mild intellectual disability in Hong Kong. Food Preference was a significant predictor to model the intention of fruit and vegetable consumption among students other than Attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control. PMID:27045396

  5. Alcohol consumption as self-medication against blood-borne parasites in the fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Milan, Neil F; Kacsoh, Balint Z; Schlenke, Todd A

    2012-03-20

    Plants and fungi often produce toxic secondary metabolites that limit their consumption, but herbivores and fungivores that evolve resistance gain access to these resources and can also gain protection against nonresistant predators and parasites. Given that Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly larvae consume yeasts growing on rotting fruit and have evolved resistance to fermentation products, we decided to test whether alcohol protects flies from one of their common natural parasites, endoparasitoid wasps. Here, we show that exposure to ethanol reduces wasp oviposition into fruit fly larvae. Furthermore, if infected, ethanol consumption by fruit fly larvae causes increased death of wasp larvae growing in the hemocoel and increased fly survival without need of the stereotypical antiwasp immune response. This multifaceted protection afforded to fly larvae by ethanol is significantly more effective against a generalist wasp than a wasp that specializes on D. melanogaster. Finally, fly larvae seek out ethanol-containing food when infected, indicating that they use alcohol as an antiwasp medicine. Although the high resistance of D. melanogaster may make it uniquely suited to exploit curative properties of alcohol, it is possible that alcohol consumption may have similar protective effects in other organisms.

  6. Correspondence of physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption among prostate cancer survivors and their spouses.

    PubMed

    Myers Virtue, S; Manne, S L; Kashy, D; Heckman, C J; Zaider, T; Kissane, D W; Kim, I; Lee, D; Olekson, G

    2015-11-01

    A healthy diet and physical activity are recommended for prostate cancer survivors. Interdependence theory suggests that the spousal relationship influences those health behaviours and the degree of correspondence may be an indicator of this influence. This study evaluated the correspondence between prostate cancer survivors and spouses regarding physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption. Baseline data from an ongoing randomised control trial were utilised. Men who had been treated for prostate cancer within the past year and their partners (N = 132 couples) completed self-report measures of physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, relationship satisfaction and support for partner's healthy diet and physical activity. Couples reported similar fruit/vegetable consumption and physical activity as indicated by high levels of correspondence. Greater fruit/vegetable correspondence was related to higher relationship satisfaction (F = 4.14, P = 0.018) and greater patient (F = 13.29, P < 0.001) and spouse-rated support (F = 7.2, P < 0.001). Greater physical activity correspondence was related to greater patient (F = 3.57, P = 0.028) and spouse-rated support (F = 4.59, P = 0.031). Prostate cancer survivors and spouses may influence each other's diet and exercise behaviours. Couple-based interventions may promote healthy behaviours among this population.

  7. Social Norms and the Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables across New York City Neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Donglan; Pagán, José A

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of developing many chronic health conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While five or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day are recommended, only 50 % of New York City (NYC) residents consume two or more servings per day. In addition, there is wide variation in dietary behaviors across different neighborhoods in NYC. Using a validated agent-based model and data from 34 NYC neighborhoods, we simulate how a mass media and nutrition education campaign strengthening positive social norms about food consumption may potentially increase the proportion of the population who consume two or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day in NYC. We found that the proposed intervention results in substantial increases in daily fruit and vegetable consumption, but the campaign may be less effective in neighborhoods with relatively low education levels or a relatively high proportion of male residents. A well-designed, validated agent-based model has the potential to provide insights on the impact of an intervention targeting social norms before it is implemented and shed light on the important neighborhood factors that may affect the efficacy of the intervention.

  8. Eat Smart, Live Strong intervention increases fruit and vegetable consumption among low-income older adults.

    PubMed

    Hersey, James C; Cates, Sheryl C; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Kosa, Katherine M; Santiago Rivera, Olga J; Contreras, Dawn A; Long, Valerie A; Singh, Anita; Berman, Danielle A

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a four-session interactive nutrition education program-Eat Smart, Live Strong (ESLS)-on the consumption of fruit and vegetables by low-income older adults. A pre-post quasi-experimental design study was conducted with a longitudinal sample of 614 low-income Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants and those eligible for SNAP, aged 60 to 80 years, in 17 intervention and 16 comparison senior centers in Michigan. The study compared participants' self-reports of their consumption of fruit and vegetables using a modified version of the University of California Cooperative Extension Food Behavior Checklist. ESLS increased participants' average daily consumption of fruit by 0.2 cups (P < 0.05) and vegetables by 0.31 cups (P < 0.01). ESLS, a four-session, cognitive-behavioral nutrition education program is an effective curriculum for helping low-income older adults eat more fruit and vegetables.

  9. Conscientiousness and fruit and vegetable consumption: exploring behavioural intention as a mediator.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Antonia E; O'Connor, Daryl B; Lawton, Rebecca; Hill, Patrick L; Roberts, Brent W

    2015-10-22

    Clear associations have emerged between conscientiousness and health behaviours, such that higher levels of conscientiousness are predictive of beneficial health behaviours. This study investigated the conscientiousness-fruit and vegetable consumption relationship and whether behavioural intention mediated this relationship. A large sample of adults (N = 2136) completed an online battery of questionnaires measuring conscientiousness, behavioural intentions to consume fruit and vegetables, together with self-reported behaviour. Correlation analysis revealed that conscientiousness and each of its facets were positively associated with behavioural intention and self-reported behaviour. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that after controlling for age, gender and education, total conscientiousness, and the facets of responsibility, industriousness, order and virtue predicted self-reported behaviour. Further analysis revealed that in line with the Theory of Planned Behaviour, behavioural intention fully mediated the conscientiousness-fruit and vegetable behaviour relationship. In conclusion, low levels of conscientiousness were found to be associated with lower fruit and vegetable intentions, with the latter also associated with fruit and vegetable consumption.

  10. Daily Consumption of a Fruit and Vegetable Smoothie Alters Facial Skin Color

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kok Wei; Graf, Brigitte A.; Mitra, Soma R.; Stephen, Ian D.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dietary carotenoids or carotenoid supplements can alter the color (yellowness) of human skin through increased carotenoid deposition in the skin. As fruit and vegetables are the main dietary sources of carotenoids, skin yellowness may be a function of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. However, most previous studies have used tablets or capsules to supplement carotenoid intake, and less is known of the impact of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on skin color. Here, we examined skin color changes in an Asian population (Malaysian Chinese ethnicity) over a six week dietary intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie. Eighty one university students (34 males, 47 females; mean age 20.48) were assigned randomly to consuming either a fruit smoothie (intervention group) or mineral water (control group) daily for six weeks. Participants’ skin yellowness (CIELab b*), redness (a*) and luminance (L*) were measured at baseline, twice during the intervention period and at a two-week follow-up, using a handheld reflectance spectrophotometer. Results showed a large increment in skin yellowness (p<0.001) and slight increment in skin redness (p<0.001) after 4 weeks of intervention for participants in the intervention group. Skin yellowness and skin redness remained elevated at the two week follow up measurement. In conclusion, intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie is associated with increased skin redness and yellowness in an Asian population. Changes in the reflectance spectrum of the skin suggest that this color change was caused by carotenoid deposition in the skin. PMID:26186449

  11. Prevalence and determinants of sufficient fruit and vegetable consumption among primary school children in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Piaseu, Noppawan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Low consumption of fruit and vegetable is frequently viewed as an important contributor to obesity risk. With increasing childhood obesity and relatively low fruit and vegetable consumption among Thai children, there is a need to identify the determinants of the intake to promote fruit and vegetable consumption effectively. SUBJECTS/METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted at two conveniently selected primary schools in Nakhon Pathom. A total of 609 students (grade 4-6) completed questionnaires on personal and environmental factors. Adequate fruit and vegetable intakes were defined as a minimum of three servings of fruit or vegetable daily, and adequate total intake as at least 6 serves of fruit and vegetable daily. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS The proportion of children with a sufficient fruit and/or vegetable intakes was low. Covariates of child's personal and environmental factors showed significant associations with sufficient intakes of fruit and/or vegetable (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analyses showed that the following factors were positively related to sufficient intake of vegetable; lower grade, a positive attitude toward vegetable, and fruit availability at home; and that greater maternal education, a positive child's attitude toward vegetable, and fruit availability at home were significantly associated with sufficient consumption of fruits and total fruit and vegetable intake. CONCLUSIONS The present study showed that personal factors like attitude toward vegetables and socio-environmental factors, such as, greater availability of fruits were significantly associated with sufficient fruit and vegetable consumption. The importance of environmental and personal factors to successful nutrition highlights the importance of involving parents and schools. PMID:28386386

  12. Beauty salon health intervention increases fruit and vegetable consumption in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Latasha T; Ralston, Penny A; Jones, Ethel

    2010-06-01

    African Americans, especially women, have low fruit and vegetable consumption, which is related to higher rates of obesity, morbidity, and mortality in comparison to whites. Community-based approaches are recommended to address this problem, including beauty salons, which are conducive environments for health information dissemination. The purpose of this pilot study, conducted in 2007, was to determine the effectiveness of a 6-week beauty salon-based health intervention, Steps for a New You, in improving diet, physical activity, and water consumption behaviors in African-American women using a quasiexperimental design. A random sample of 20 African-American women was selected from a list of regular clients at two beauty salons (n=10 each for treatment and comparison salons) located in a Southern rural community. The intervention included scripted motivational sessions between the cosmetologist and clients, information packets, and a starter kit of sample items. Data were collected using pre- and posttest questionnaires. The results showed that mean intake of fruit and vegetables was significantly higher at posttest for the treatment group but not for the comparison group. These findings suggest that the intervention may have had a positive effect on fruit and vegetable consumption by treatment group participants. However, further work is needed to refine the methodology, especially strengthening the intervention to increase physical activity and water consumption.

  13. Associations of Social-Environmental and Individual-Level Factors with Adolescent Soft Drink Consumption: Results from the SMILE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Vries, Hein; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is positively associated with soft drink consumption. We investigated the association of social-environmental and individual-level factors with soft drink consumption in a Dutch adolescent sample. Data were gathered in a longitudinal Dutch adolescent sample (n = 208, 62% girls). Soft drink consumption, social cognitions from the…

  14. [Tobacco consumption in pre-adolescent and adolescent school children in Spain: gender differences].

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Ramón; López Pérez, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence of tobacco consumption among pre-adolescent and adolescent school children in Spain at the start of the 21st century. The data were collected within the framework of the "Estilos de Vida de los Adolescentes Escolarizados" (EVAE) project, a nationwide cross-sectional study on the lifestyles of adolescent school children. In this study, a random sample of 8429 students aged from 10 to 18 years old (49.9% boys and 50.1% girls) was selected. The school children filled in an anonymous questionnaire in their classrooms. Among the 12-year-old age group, there are a significantly higher number of boys than girls who have ever smoked tobacco. Figures are higher for girls in the 14-year-old or older age groups. Between the 12 and the 14-year-old age groups, there is an increase of 40 percentage points for girls who have ever smoked tobacco. The prevalence of daily smoking exceeds 10% among the 14-year-old or older age groups, with significantly higher rates for girls than for boys among the 15-year-old group and older students. Among the 17-year-old group, 25% of boys and 35% of girls report that they smoke daily. The recent experience of Spain and other countries shows that it is possible to significantly reduce the prevalence of tobacco consumption among school children within a few years. The primary prevention of tobacco consumption among adolescents can be highly effective and should constitute a priority for the health system, the education system and other sectors involved.

  15. Excessive fruit consumption during the second trimester is associated with increased likelihood of gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wu-Qing; Lu, Ying; Xu, Ming; Huang, Jing; Su, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between fruit consumption during the second trimester and the occurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A prospective study with 772 female participants was conducted in China from April 2013 to August 2014. Dietary intake was assessed in face-to-face and telephone interviews using a 3-day food record. GDM was ascertained using a standard 75 g 2 hour oral glucose tolerance test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for various confounders. Of the 772 participants, 169 were diagnosed with GDM during the period under study. Greater total fruit consumption during the second trimester was associated with a higher likelihood of GDM (highest vs. lowest quartile: adjusted OR4.82, 95% CI 2.38 to 9.76). Fruits with a moderate or high glycaemic index (GI) were positively associated with the occurrence of GDM. Fruit subgroups were also categorised by polyphenol content, and tropical-fruit and citrus-fruit consumption was found to be positively related to the occurrence of GDM. These findings suggest that the excessive consumption of fruit, especially fruit with moderate or high GI values, tropical-fruit and citrus-fruit, increases the likelihood of GDM. PMID:28272552

  16. The role of action control and action planning on fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangyu; Gan, Yiqun; Miao, Miao; Hamilton, Kyra; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Globally, fruit and vegetable intake is lower than recommended despite being an important component to a healthy diet. Adopting or maintaining a sufficient amount of fruit and vegetables in one's diet may require not only motivation but also self-regulatory processes. Action control and action planning are two key volitional determinants that have been identified in the literature; however, it is not fully understood how these two factors operate between intention and behavior. Thus, the aim of the current study was to explore the roles of action control and action planning as mediators between intentions and dietary behavior. A longitudinal study with three points in time was conducted. Participants (N = 286) were undergraduate students and invited to participate in a health behavior survey. At baseline (Time 1), measures of intention and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed. Two weeks later (Time 2), action control and action planning were assessed as putative sequential mediators. At Time 3 (two weeks after Time 2), fruit and vegetable consumption was measured as the outcome. The results revealed action control and action planning to sequentially mediate between intention and subsequent fruit and vegetable intake, controlling for baseline behavior. Both self-regulatory constructs, action control and action planning, make a difference when moving from motivation to action. Our preliminary evidence, therefore, suggests that planning may be more proximal to fruit and vegetable intake than action control. Further research, however, needs to be undertaken to substantiate this conclusion.

  17. Interventions for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged 5 years and under

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenden, Luke; Wyse, Rebecca J; Britton, Ben I; Campbell, Karen J; Hodder, Rebecca K; Stacey, Fiona G; McElduff, Patrick; James, Erica L

    2014-01-01

    Background Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Objectives To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit and/or vegetables amongst children aged five years and under. Search methods The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2010, MEDLINE (1950 to 2010 April week 4), EMBASE (1947 to 2010 week 18), CINAHL (up to 12 May 2010), PsycINFO (up to 12 May 2010) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (up to February 2011) were searched to identify eligible trials, as well as electronic trial registers (also up to February 2011). The reference lists of included trials were reviewed and handsearches of three international nutrition journals were also performed. Authors of all included trials were contacted in order to identify further potentially relevant trials. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-randomised controlled trials, of any intervention primarily targeting fruit and/or vegetable consumption among children aged five years and under and incorporating a biochemical or dietary assessment of fruit and/or vegetable consumption. Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of identified papers. A third review author with expertise in review methodology resolved any disagreements regarding study eligibility. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. A third reviewer resolved disagreements between review authors. Fixed-effect models were used to perform meta-analysis for the primary review outcomes where a sufficient number of trials with suitable data and homogeneity were identified. Main results Five trials, with 13 trial arms and 3967 participants were included in

  18. Stress during Adolescence Alters Palatable Food Consumption in a Context-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Handy, Christine; Yanaga, Stephanie; Reiss, Avery; Zona, Nicole; Robinson, Emily; Saxton, Katherine B

    2016-01-01

    Food consumption and preferences may be shaped by exposure to stressful environments during sensitive periods in development, and even small changes in consumption can have important effects on long term health. Adolescence is increasingly recognized as a sensitive period, in which adverse experiences can alter development, but the specific programming effects that may occur during adolescence remain incompletely understood. The current study seeks to explore the effects of stress during late adolescence on consumption of a palatable, high-fat, high-sugar food in adulthood-under basal conditions, as well following acute stress. Male Long-Evans rats were exposed to a regimen of variable stress for seven days in late adolescence (PND 45-51). During the stress regimen, stressed animals gained significantly less weight than control animals, but weight in adulthood was unaffected by adolescent stress. Palatable food consumption differed between experimental groups, and the direction of effect depended on context; stressed rats ate significantly more palatable food than controls upon first exposure, but ate less following an acute stressor. Leptin levels and exploratory behaviors did not differ between stressed and non-stressed groups, suggesting that other factors regulate preference for a palatable food. Altered food consumption following adolescent stress suggests that rats remain sensitive to stress during late adolescence, and that adult feeding behavior may be affected by previous adverse experiences. Such programming effects highlight adolescence as a period of plasticity, with the potential to shape long term food consumption patterns and preferences.

  19. Perceived realism moderates the relation between sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes in Dutch adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Doornwaard, Suzan M; Rommes, Els; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined whether the development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes would be more strongly interrelated when adolescents perceived sexualized media images as highly realistic. We used data from a three-wave longitudinal sample of 444 Dutch adolescents aged 13-16 years at baseline. Results from parallel process latent growth modeling multigroup analyses showed that higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were associated with higher initial level of permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, increases of sexualized media consumption over time were associated with increases of permissive sexual attitudes over time. Considering the moderation by perceived realism, we found these effects only for those who perceived sexualized media as more realistic. Findings for male and female adolescents were similar except for the relations between initial levels and subsequent development. Among male adolescents who perceived sexualized media images to be realistic, higher initial levels of permissive sexual attitudes were related to subsequent less rapid development of sexualized media consumption. For male adolescents who perceived sexualized media to be less realistic, higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were related to a subsequent less rapid development of permissive sexual attitudes. These relations were not found for female adolescents. Overall, our results suggest that, in male and female adolescents, those with a high level of perceived realism showed a correlated development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes. These findings point to a need for extended information on how to guide adolescents in interpreting and handling sexualized media in everyday life.

  20. Stress during Adolescence Alters Palatable Food Consumption in a Context-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Handy, Christine; Yanaga, Stephanie; Reiss, Avery; Zona, Nicole; Robinson, Emily; Saxton, Katherine B.

    2016-01-01

    Food consumption and preferences may be shaped by exposure to stressful environments during sensitive periods in development, and even small changes in consumption can have important effects on long term health. Adolescence is increasingly recognized as a sensitive period, in which adverse experiences can alter development, but the specific programming effects that may occur during adolescence remain incompletely understood. The current study seeks to explore the effects of stress during late adolescence on consumption of a palatable, high-fat, high-sugar food in adulthood—under basal conditions, as well following acute stress. Male Long-Evans rats were exposed to a regimen of variable stress for seven days in late adolescence (PND 45–51). During the stress regimen, stressed animals gained significantly less weight than control animals, but weight in adulthood was unaffected by adolescent stress. Palatable food consumption differed between experimental groups, and the direction of effect depended on context; stressed rats ate significantly more palatable food than controls upon first exposure, but ate less following an acute stressor. Leptin levels and exploratory behaviors did not differ between stressed and non-stressed groups, suggesting that other factors regulate preference for a palatable food. Altered food consumption following adolescent stress suggests that rats remain sensitive to stress during late adolescence, and that adult feeding behavior may be affected by previous adverse experiences. Such programming effects highlight adolescence as a period of plasticity, with the potential to shape long term food consumption patterns and preferences. PMID:26872268

  1. Determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among 11-year-old schoolchildren in a country of traditionally low fruit and vegetable consumption

    PubMed Central

    Kristjansdottir, Asa G; Thorsdottir, Inga; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Due, Pernille; Wind, Marianne; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2006-01-01

    Background Fruit and vegetable consumption is traditionally low in Iceland. The results of the Pro Children cross-Europe survey showed that the consumption was lowest among children in Iceland. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among 11-year-old schoolchildren in Iceland. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed in Iceland in the autumn of 2003 as a part of the Pro Children cross-Europe survey. The survey was designed to provide information on actual consumption levels of vegetables and fruits by 11-year-old school children and to assess potential determinants of consumption patterns. A total of 1235 Icelandic children (89%) from 32 randomly chosen schools participated. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to determine the explained variance of the children's fruit and vegetable intake. In these analyses socio-demographic background variables were entered as a first block, perceived physical-environmental variables as a second block, perceived socio-environmental variables as a third block and personal variables as a fourth block. Results 64% of the children ate fruit less than once a day, and 61% ate vegetables less than once a day. Respectively, 31% and 39% of the variance in children's fruit and vegetable intake was explained by the determinants studied. About 7% and 13% of the variance in fruit and vegetable intake was explained by the perceived physical-environmental determinants, mainly by availability at home. About 18% and 16% of the variance in fruit and vegetable intake was explained by the personal determinants. For both fruit and vegetable intake, the significant personal determinants were preferences, liking, knowledge of recommendations and self-efficacy. Conclusion Interventions to increase fruit and vegetable intake among children should aim at both environmental factors such as greater availability of fruit and vegetables, and personal factors as self-efficacy and knowledge levels

  2. Adolescent caffeine consumption increases adulthood anxiety-related behavior and modifies neuroendocrine signaling.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Casey E; Newsom, Ryan J; Stafford, Jacob; Scott, Talia; Archuleta, Solana; Levis, Sophia C; Spencer, Robert L; Campeau, Serge; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2016-05-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used psychoactive substance and consumption by children and adolescents continues to rise. Here, we examine the lasting effects of adolescent caffeine consumption on anxiety-related behaviors and several neuroendocrine measures in adulthood. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed caffeine (0.3g/L) for 28 consecutive days from postnatal day 28 (P28) to P55. Age-matched control rats consumed water. Behavioral testing for anxiety-related behavior began in adulthood (P62) 7 days after removal of caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption enhanced anxiety-related behavior in an open field, social interaction test, and elevated plus maze. Similar caffeine consumption in adult rats did not alter anxiety-related behavior after caffeine removal. Characterization of neuroendocrine measures was next assessed to determine whether the changes in anxiety were associated with modifications in the HPA axis. Blood plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT) were assessed throughout the caffeine consumption procedure in adolescent rats. Adolescent caffeine consumption elevated plasma CORT 24h after initiation of caffeine consumption that normalized over the course of the 28-day consumption procedure. CORT levels were also elevated 24h after caffeine removal and remained elevated for 7 days. Despite elevated basal CORT in adult rats that consumed caffeine during adolescence, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and CORT response to placement on an elevated pedestal (a mild stressor) was significantly blunted. Lastly, we assessed changes in basal and stress-induced c-fos and corticotropin-releasing factor (Crf) mRNA expression in brain tissue collected at 7 days withdrawal from adolescent caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption increased basal c-fos mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Adolescent caffeine consumption had no other effects on the basal or stress-induced c-fos mRNA changes. Caffeine consumption during adolescence increased

  3. Executive functions and consumption of fruits/ vegetables and high saturated fat foods in young adults.

    PubMed

    Limbers, Christine A; Young, Danielle

    2015-05-01

    Executive functions play a critical role in regulating eating behaviors and have been shown to be associated with overeating which over time can result in overweight and obesity. There has been a paucity of research examining the associations among healthy dietary behaviors and executive functions utilizing behavioral rating scales of executive functioning. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations among fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of foods high in saturated fat, and executive functions using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version. A total of 240 university students completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version, the 26-Item Eating Attitudes Test, and the Diet subscale of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with two separate models in which fruit and vegetable consumption and saturated fat intake were the outcomes. Demographic variables, body mass index, and eating styles were controlled for in the analysis. Better initiation skills were associated with greater intake of fruits and vegetables in the last 7 days (standardized beta = -0.17; p < 0.05). Stronger inhibitory control was associated with less consumption of high fat foods in the last 7 days (standardized beta = 0.20; p < 0.05) in the multiple linear regression analysis. Executive functions that predict fruit and vegetable consumption are distinct from those that predict avoidance of foods high in saturated fat. Future research should investigate whether continued skill enhancement in initiation and inhibition following standard behavioral interventions improves long-term maintenance of weight loss.

  4. A randomised controlled trial of a theory of planned behaviour to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Fresh Facts.

    PubMed

    Kothe, Emily J; Mullan, Barbara A

    2014-07-01

    Young adults are less likely than other adults to consume fruit and vegetables. Fresh Facts is a theory of planned behaviour based intervention designed to promote fruit and vegetable consumption. The present study sought to evaluate Fresh Facts using a randomised controlled trial. Australian young adults (n = 162) were allocated to the Fresh Facts intervention or to the control group in 2011. Intervention participants received automated email messages promoting fruit and vegetable consumption every 3 days over the course of the 1 month intervention. Messages targeted attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. Theory of planned behaviour variables and fruit and vegetable intake were measured at baseline and post-intervention (Day 30). Significant increases in attitude and subjective norm relative to control were found among Fresh Facts participants. However, intention, perceived behavioural control and fruit and vegetable consumption did not change as a result of the intervention. Changes in intention reported by each participant between baseline and follow-up were not correlated with corresponding changes in fruit and vegetable consumption. Fresh Facts was not successful in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. Current evidence does not support the use of the theory of planned behaviour in the design of interventions to increase fruit and vegetable intake in this population.

  5. The effect of education plus access on perceived fruit and vegetable consumption in a rural African American community intervention

    PubMed Central

    Barnidge, E. K.; Baker, E. A.; Schootman, M.; Motton, F.; Sawicki, M.; Rose, F.

    2015-01-01

    African Americans have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease partly due to low fruit and vegetable consumption. This article reports the results of an intervention to provide nutrition education and access to fruits and vegetables through community gardens to change dietary behaviors among African Americans in rural Missouri. Cross-sectional surveys evaluated the intervention effect on blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and perceived fruit and vegetable consumption in this quasi-experimental study with a comparison group. Hypertension (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.38–0.71) and BMI (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.52–1.02) were lower in the intervention county at mid-intervention. Participation in nutrition education (OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.63–4.40) and access to fruits and vegetables from a community garden (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.20–3.15) were independently associated with perceived fruit and vegetable consumption. The strongest effect on perceived fruit and vegetable consumption occurred with high participation in nutrition education and access to community gardens (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.24–3.81). Those with access but without education had a reduced likelihood of consuming recommended servings of fruits and vegetables (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34–0.95). Education plus access interventions may be best at increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables in a rural African American population. PMID:26338985

  6. Evolution of Well-Being and Happiness After Increases in Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Mujcic, Redzo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To explore whether improvements in psychological well-being occur after increases in fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods. We examined longitudinal food diaries of 12 385 randomly sampled Australian adults over 2007, 2009, and 2013 in the Household, Income, and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. We adjusted effects on incident changes in happiness and life satisfaction for people’s changing incomes and personal circumstances. Results. Increased fruit and vegetable consumption was predictive of increased happiness, life satisfaction, and well-being. They were up to 0.24 life-satisfaction points (for an increase of 8 portions a day), which is equal in size to the psychological gain of moving from unemployment to employment. Improvements occurred within 24 months. Conclusions. People’s motivation to eat healthy food is weakened by the fact that physical health benefits accrue decades later, but well-being improvements from increased consumption of fruit and vegetables are closer to immediate. Policy implications. Citizens could be shown evidence that “happiness” gains from healthy eating can occur quickly and many years before enhanced physical health. PMID:27400354

  7. Are the Dietary Guidelines for Meat, Fat, Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Appropriate for Environmental Sustainability? A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Christian John; Buckley, Jonathan David; Weinstein, Philip; Boland, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the current literature around the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations. The focus of the review is on collating evidence relating to environmental impacts of the dietary advice found in the World Health Organisation guidelines, and environmental impact literature: reducing the consumption of fat, reducing the consumption of meat-based protein and animal-based foods, and increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables. The environmental impact of reducing dietary fat intake is unclear, although reducing consumption of the food category of edible fats and oils appears to have little impact. However most, but not all, studies support environmental benefits of a reduced consumption of animal-based foods and increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. In general, it appears that adhering to dietary guidelines reduces impact on the environment, but further study is required to examine the environmental impacts of animal-based foods, and fruit and vegetable intake in depth. PMID:24926526

  8. Are the dietary guidelines for meat, fat, fruit and vegetable consumption appropriate for environmental sustainability? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Christian John; Buckley, Jonathan David; Weinstein, Philip; Boland, John

    2014-06-12

    This paper reviews the current literature around the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations. The focus of the review is on collating evidence relating to environmental impacts of the dietary advice found in the World Health Organisation guidelines, and environmental impact literature: reducing the consumption of fat, reducing the consumption of meat-based protein and animal-based foods, and increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables. The environmental impact of reducing dietary fat intake is unclear, although reducing consumption of the food category of edible fats and oils appears to have little impact. However most, but not all, studies support environmental benefits of a reduced consumption of animal-based foods and increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. In general, it appears that adhering to dietary guidelines reduces impact on the environment, but further study is required to examine the environmental impacts of animal-based foods, and fruit and vegetable intake in depth.

  9. [Daily consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among adolescents in the northeast of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Zanini, Roberta de Vargas; Muniz, Ludmila Correa; Schneider, Bruna Celestino; Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; Feitosa, Wallacy Milton do Nascimento; González-Chica, David Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    A school-based cross-sectional study in 2007 evaluated the prevalence and associated factors of daily consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among adolescents (15 to 20 years of age) in public schools in Caruaru in the state of Pernambuco. To evaluate the factors associated with the daily consumption of the above foods, a multivariate and hierarchical analysis was conducted using Poisson regression, with social and demographic variables at the first hierarchical level, behavioral variables at the second level and dietary standards at the third level. Consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods at least once a week was declared by 90.9%, 95.4% and 89.6% of the adolescents, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of the daily consumption of these items was 30.2%, 42% and 28.3%. The daily consumption of sweets was 21% higher among girls and 25% higher among adolescents who ate rice and beans daily. With respect to fried foods, girls mentioned 37% greater consumption than boys. Adolescents who consumed meat every day admitted a 43% higher daily consumption of fried foods. The consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among the adolescents from Caruaru was high and showed a homogeneous consumption standard for most variables analyzed.

  10. Consumption of fresh fruit rich in vitamin C and wheezing symptoms in children

    PubMed Central

    Forastiere, F.; Pistelli, R.; Sestini, P.; Fortes, C.; Renzoni, E.; Rusconi, F.; Dell'Orco, V.; Ciccone, G.; Bisanti, L.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—A beneficial effect of fresh fruit consumption on lung function has been observed in several studies. The epidemiological evidence of the effect on respiratory symptoms and asthma is limited. The consumption of fruit rich in vitamin C was examined in relation to wheezing and other respiratory symptoms in cross sectional and follow up studies of Italian children.
METHODS—Standardised respiratory questionnaires were filled in by parents of 18 737 children aged 6-7 years living in eight areas of Northern and Central Italy. The winter intake of citrus fruit and kiwi fruit by the children was categorised as less than once per week, 1-2 per week, 3-4 per week, and 5-7 per week. A subset of 4104 children from two areas was reinvestigated after one year using a second parental questionnaire to record the occurrence of wheezing symptoms over the intervening period.
RESULTS—In the cross sectional analysis, after controlling for several confounders (sex, study area, paternal education, household density, maternal smoking, paternal smoking, dampness or mould in the child's bedroom, parental asthma), intake of citrus fruit or kiwi fruit was a highly significant protective factor for wheeze in the last 12 months (odds ratio (OR) = 0.66, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.55 to 0.78, for those eating fruit 5-7 times per week compared with less than once per week), shortness of breath with wheeze (OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.84), severe wheeze (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.85), nocturnal cough (OR = 0.73,95% CI 0.65 to 0.83), chronic cough (OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.88), and non-coryzal rhinitis (OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.83). In the follow up study fruit intake recorded at baseline was a strong and independent predictor of all symptoms investigated except non-coryzal rhinitis. In most cases the protective effect was evident even among children whose intake of fruit was only 1-2 times per week and no clear dose-response relationship was found. The effect was

  11. Ethanol Sensitization during Adolescence or Adulthood Induces Different Patterns of Ethanol Consumption without Affecting Ethanol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Carrara-Nascimento, Priscila F.; Hoffmann, Lucas B.; Contó, Marcos B.; Marcourakis, Tania; Camarini, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    In previous study, we demonstrated that ethanol preexposure may increase ethanol consumption in both adolescent and adult mice, in a two-bottle choice model. We now questioned if ethanol exposure during adolescence results in changes of consumption pattern using a three-bottle choice procedure, considering drinking-in-the-dark and alcohol deprivation effect as strategies for ethanol consumption escalation. We also analyzed aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity as a measurement of ethanol metabolism. Adolescent and adult Swiss mice were treated with saline (SAL) or 2.0 g/kg ethanol (EtOH) during 15 days (groups: Adolescent-SAL, Adolescent-EtOH, Adult-SAL and Adult-EtOH). Five days after the last injection, mice were exposed to the three-bottle choice protocol using sucrose fading procedure (4% + sucrose vs. 8%–15% ethanol + sucrose vs. water + sucrose) for 2 h during the dark phase. Sucrose was faded out from 8% to 0%. The protocol was composed of a 6-week acquisition period, followed by four withdrawals and reexposures. Both adolescent and adult mice exhibited ethanol behavioral sensitization, although the magnitude of sensitization in adolescents was lower than in adults. Adolescent-EtOH displayed an escalation of 4% ethanol consumption during acquisition that was not observed in Adult-EtOH. Moreover, Adult-EtOH consumed less 4% ethanol throughout all the experiment and less 15% ethanol in the last reexposure period than Adolescent-EtOH. ALDH activity varied with age, in which older mice showed higher ALDH than younger ones. Ethanol pretreatment or the pattern of consumption did not have influence on ALDH activity. Our data suggest that ethanol pretreatment during adolescence but not adulthood may influence the pattern of ethanol consumption toward an escalation in ethanol consumption at low dose, without exerting an impact on ALDH activity. PMID:28386220

  12. Predicting fruit consumption: the role of habits, previous behavior and mediation effects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study assessed the role of habits and previous behavior in predicting fruit consumption as well as their additional predictive contribution besides socio-demographic and motivational factors. In the literature, habits are proposed as a stable construct that needs to be controlled for in longitudinal analyses that predict behavior. The aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence for the inclusion of either previous behavior or habits. Methods A random sample of 806 Dutch adults (>18 years) was invited by an online survey panel of a private research company to participate in an online study on fruit consumption. A longitudinal design (N = 574) was used with assessments at baseline and after one (T2) and two months (T3). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to assess the differential value of habit and previous behavior in the prediction of fruit consumption. Results Eighty percent of habit strength could be explained by habit strength one month earlier, and 64% of fruit consumption could be explained by fruit consumption one month earlier. Regression analyses revealed that the model with motivational constructs explained 41% of the behavioral variance at T2 and 38% at T3. The addition of previous behavior and habit increased the explained variance up to 66% at T2 and to 59% at T3. Inclusion of these factors resulted in non-significant contributions of the motivational constructs. Furthermore, our findings showed that the effect of habit strength on future behavior was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior. Conclusions Both habit and previous behavior are important as predictors of future behavior, and as educational objectives for behavior change programs. Our results revealed less stability for the constructs over time than expected. Habit strength was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior and our results do not strongly suggest a need for the inclusion of both constructs. Future research needs to assess

  13. Regular energy drink consumption is associated with the risk of health and behavioural problems in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2017-02-22

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular and frequent among adolescents across Europe. Previous research showed that regular consumption of these drinks was associated with several health and behavioural problems. The aim of the present study was to determine the socio-demographic groups at risk for regular energy drink consumption and to explore the association of regular energy drinks consumption with health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences in adolescents. Data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study conducted in 2014 in Slovakia were analysed. We assessed socio-demographic characteristics, energy drink consumption, health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences based on self-reports from 8977 adolescents aged 11-15 years (mean age/standard deviation 13/1.33; 50.0% boys). The prevalence of regular energy drink consumption in the present sample was 20.6% (95%CI: 20%-21%). Regular energy drink consumption was more frequent among boys and older adolescents. Adolescents with a medium-level family affluence were less likely to drink energy drinks regularly. Adolescents who consumed energy drinks regularly had more health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences.

  14. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption of U.S. Youth, 2009-2010. NCHS Data Brief. Number 156

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Samara Joy; Rossen, Lauren M.; Harris, Diane M.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), 2010 encourage Americans, including youth, to increase their consumption of fruits and vegetables. Individuals are encouraged to "eat a variety of vegetables, especially dark-green and red and orange vegetables." Fruits and vegetables are sources of many under-consumed nutrients and consuming…

  15. The Effect of Education plus Access on Perceived Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in a Rural African American Community Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnidge, E. K.; Baker, E. A.; Schootman, M.; Motton, F.; Sawicki, M.; Rose, F.

    2015-01-01

    African Americans have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease partly due to low fruit and vegetable consumption. This article reports the results of an intervention to provide nutrition education and access to fruits and vegetables through community gardens to change dietary behaviors among African Americans in rural Missouri. Cross-sectional…

  16. Fruit and Vegetables Consumption: A Pointer for Cholangiocarcinoma Prevention in Northeast Thailand, the Highest Incidence Area in the World.

    PubMed

    Songserm, Nopparat; Woradet, Somkiattiyos; Charoenbut, Pattaraporn

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) caused by opisthorchiasis is a specific public health problem in the Greater Mekong subregional countries. The Northeast Thailand is considered a world's prime area of CCA. Many epidemiological studies found the association between fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA, but their results were inconclusive. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to investigate the relationship between fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA prevention in the Northeast Thailand. The authors conducted a comprehensive search of scholarships on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS published during 1990 and 2015. Selected studies about fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA were analyzed. The fixed-effect model was used to estimate pool odds ratios for the consumption vs. nonconsumption. Based on a meta-analysis, consumption of mixed fruit [odds ratio (OR) = 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.96], mixed vegetables (OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.50-0.75), and combined fruit and vegetables (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.57-0.80) was associated with the reduction of CCA risk statistically. These findings support that fruit and vegetables consumption is associated with CCA risk reduction. If implemented in a larger geographical area, the study will shed light on possibilities to future reduction of CCA. Educators can replicate the study to solve CCA or other types of cancer and discover the best practice.

  17. Condom use and alcohol consumption in adolescents and youth

    PubMed Central

    Mola, Rachel; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Barbosa, Sháyra Anny Moura; Almeida, Layane Sá; de Sousa, Mayara Ruth Marinho; Pio, Wellypâmela Pauliny de Lima; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the association between not using the male condom and alcohol consumption in adolescents and schoolchildren. Methods An epidemiological study, with a cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlation design carried out from March to July 2014. The sample consisted of students in public primary and secondary education, aged between 12 and 24 years. The social and demographic survey and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire were used. Results The study included 1,275 students, of these; 37.0% reported having had sexual relations. The prevalent age of sexual initiation was 14-16 years 55.7% and 65.6% used condom in the last sexual intercourse. Regarding the lack of condom use at the last intercourse, girls showed an association with drunkenness in the previous 30 days (2.19; 95%CI: 1.06-4.54). Conclusion In females, the non-use of condoms was associated with drunkenness in the previous 30 days. PMID:27462887

  18. Short communication: Patterns of dairy consumption in free-living children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Green, Benjamin P; Turner, Louise; Stevenson, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-06-01

    According to national survey data, dairy food consumption has fallen in recent years and declines further with age, especially from childhood to adolescence. Dietary surveys typically rely on retrospective dietary assessment methods and use broad age groupings (4-10 yr; 11-18 yr), making it challenging to differentiate between middle-childhood and adolescence. Consequently, there is a need to assess dairy food consumption during middle-childhood and adolescence using more robust dietary assessment tools. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe and compare patterns of dairy consumption throughout middle-childhood and adolescence. Dairy food consumption was assessed during school term-time over 4 consecutive days, including 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days, in a sample of free-living children (9-11 yr, n=40) and adolescents (15-18 yr, n=35). For children, free-living dairy intake was evaluated through parental-weighed food records, and for adolescents, a combined weighed self-reported food record and 24-h dietary recall technique was utilized. Food records were explored to determine types, amounts, and frequency of dairy food consumption, and were analyzed for differences between middle-childhood and adolescence using a between group 2×2 (age×sex) ANOVA. Descriptive data suggested that milk was the most popular dairy product consumed by both children and adolescents. Statistical analysis revealed a main effect for sex on total milk consumption (mL) and number of daily milk portions consumed. No interaction or main effect was present for any other variable. The present study indicates that independent of age, boys consumed greater amounts of milk compared with girls. Contrary to existing literature, findings suggest no difference in milk-based dairy consumption between middle-childhood and adolescence.

  19. Consumption of Sexual Dialogue and Content on Television and Adolescent Sexual Outcomes: Multiethnic Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Tynan, Joshua J.

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine group differences in sexual media consumption and to explore how well adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior can be explained by viewing of sexually suggestive dialogue (SD) and explicit sexual content (SC) in television media. Participants were 473 male and female high school adolescents who were…

  20. Fruit and vegetable consumption and psychological distress: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses based on a large Australian sample

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Binh; Ding, Ding; Mihrshahi, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Growing evidence suggests a link between diet and mental health. This study aimed to investigate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and the prevalence and incidence of psychological distress in middle-aged and older Australians. Design Cross-sectional and prospective. Setting New South Wales, Australia. Methods A sample of 60 404 adults aged ≥45 years completed baseline (2006–2008) and follow-up (2010) questionnaires. Psychological distress was assessed at baseline and follow-up using the validated Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), a 10-item questionnaire measuring general anxiety and depression. Psychological distress was defined as the presence of high-to-very high levels of distress (K10 score ≥22). Usual fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed using short validated questions. The association between baseline fruit and vegetable consumption and the prevalence or incidence of psychological distress was examined using logistic regression models. Results At baseline, 5.6% reported psychological distress. After a mean 2.7 years of follow-up, 4.0% of those who did not report distress at baseline reported distress at follow-up. Baseline fruit and vegetable consumption considered separately or combined, was associated with a lower prevalence of psychological distress even after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle risk factors. Baseline fruit and vegetable consumption, measured separately or combined, was associated with a lower incidence of psychological distress in minimally adjusted models. Most of these associations remained significant at medium levels of intake but were no longer significant at the highest intake levels in fully adjusted models. Conclusions Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption may help reduce psychological distress in middle-aged and older adults. However, the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with the incidence of psychological distress

  1. Improved nutrient intake and diet quality with 100% fruit juice consumption in children: NHANES 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit juice (FJ) consumption has recently been viewed as a sweetened beverage with little regard to its nutrient contribution to the diet. NHANES, 2003–2006, data were used to examine the association of 100% FJ consumption, with nutrient intake and diet quality in children ages 2–5 y (n equals 1,665...

  2. School-Level Factors Associated with Increased Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Students in California Middle and High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosliner, Wendi

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study assessed associations between selective school-level factors and students' consumption of fruits and vegetables at school. Better understanding of school factors associated with increased produce consumption is especially important, as students are served more produce items at school. Methods: This cross-sectional study…

  3. Low Frequency of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Canadian Youth: Findings from the 2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minaker, Leia; Hammond, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: Frequent fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption is protective against some cancers, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. This study explores self-reported frequency of FV consumption in a nationally generalizable sample of Canadian youth in grades 6-12. Methods: Data from grades 6-12 students who participated in the…

  4. Psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among students in a New Zealand university. Results of focus group interviews.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Hilde; Wadsworth, Daniel P; Penny, Suzi; van Assema, Patricia; Page, Rachel

    2013-06-01

    The '5+ a day' fruit and vegetable servings recommendation was introduced in New Zealand in 1994, but consumption has remained low in young adults ever since. This study aimed to identify psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among New Zealand university students approximately a decade after the guidelines' introduction. Twenty-nine students, aged 18-24 years, took part in focus group interviews. Important determinants included taste and health awareness/knowledge. Flatmates and partners had the greatest social influence. Cost and availability were major barriers to consumption. To improve consumption participants suggested: cooking sessions providing quick/easy recipes; more-varied nutritional information; 'made-to-measure' interventions; increasing awareness of cheap sources of fruit/vegetables; and increasing campus availability of fruit. Determinants including a negative attitude, a lack of self-efficacy and an unawareness of dietary guidelines/health consequences should be considered when developing interventions for this group, whilst a variety of different delivery channels should be used. Participants in the study were not representative of all university students, who generally have a different lifestyle to other young adults and specific determinants for fruit/vegetable consumption. Consequently, additional research is required among other young adults and university students with lower fruit and vegetable intake, so that promotional strategies can be specifically targeted.

  5. Fruit consumption and seed dispersal of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae) by the lowland tapir in the cerrado of Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bizerril, M X A; Rodrigues, F H G; Hass, A

    2005-08-01

    Fruit phenology observations and consumption of Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae) were analyzed during seven months in an area of cerrado stricto sensu. We analysed 81 fecal samples collected at six different places of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in central Brazilian cerrado. In addition, from the feces of five tapirs at the Brasília Zoo to which fruit had been offered, seeds were collected and used in germination tests. The results suggest that the tapir is an important fruit consumer and a potential seed disperser of D. mollis. In the field, however, fruit consumption was found to be very low, probably because of both fruit palatability and the low density of frugivores, especially tapirs. The possibility that the original dispersal agents of D. mollis seeds belonged to the South American Pleistocene megafauna is discussed.

  6. Local food environment and fruit and vegetable consumption: An ecological study.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Mariana Carvalho; Costa, Bruna Vieirade Lima; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2017-03-01

    Ecological studies are essential for understanding the environment-diet relationship. The purpose of this study was to describe environmental conditions and their relationship with fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among Brazilian public health service users in the city of Belo Horizonte. We evaluated food stores contained within 1600 m buffer zones at 18 Health Academy Programme sites, from 2013 to 2014. Variables at the community (density, proximity and type) and the consumer (sectional location of FV; availability, quality, variety, price and advertising of FV and ultra-processed foods) nutrition environment were measured by direct observation, while aggregate data from users (income and FV consumption) were obtained by interview. Data were analysed using the Kernel intensity estimator, average nearest neighbour value and Local Moran's Index for local spatial autocorrelation. We interviewed 3414 users and analysed 336 food stores. Major geographical variations in the FV consumption were identified. Average consumption was higher (site 2A: 410.5 ± 185.7 g vs. site 4B: 311.2 ± 159.9 g) in neighbourhoods with higher income and concentration of food stores, and better index of access to healthy foods. Sites with poor FV consumption had the most stores with poor access to healthy foods (index in the first tertile, ≤ 10). In conclusion, negative characteristics of the food environment, as seen in the present study, may contribute to low FV consumption, suggesting the need for the development and consolidation of public policies aimed at creating healthy environments through built environment interventions that increase access to and consumption of healthy foods like FV.

  7. A cluster randomized controlled trial of a telephone-based parent intervention to increase preschoolers’ fruit and vegetable consumption123

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenden, Luke; Campbell, Elizabeth; Campbell, Karen J; Wiggers, John; Brennan, Leah; Fletcher, Amanda; Bowman, Jenny; Heard, Todd R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with increased chronic disease risk and represents a considerable global health burden. Despite evidence that dietary habits track from early childhood, there are few published trials of interventions attempting to increase preschoolers’ fruit and vegetable consumption. Objective: The Healthy Habits trial aimed to assess the efficacy of a telephone-based intervention for parents to increase the fruit and vegetable consumption in their 3–5-y-old children. Design: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted involving 394 parents of children aged 3–5 y recruited through local preschools. Parents allocated to the intervention received printed resources plus four 30-min telephone calls targeting aspects of the home food environment associated with children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Parents allocated to the control group received generic printed nutrition information. Children's fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed by using the Fruit and Vegetable Subscale of the Children's Dietary Questionnaire, which was administered via telephone interview at baseline and 2 and 6 mo later. Results: Analysis of all available data showed that children's fruit and vegetable scores were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group at 2 mo (P < 0.001) and at 6 mo (P = 0.021). Sensitivity analysis using baseline observation carried forward showed an intervention effect at 2 mo (P = 0.008) but not at 6 mo (P = 0.069). Conclusions: Telephone-delivered parent interventions may be an effective way of increasing children's fruit and vegetable consumption in the short term. Further investigation to determine whether the intervention effect is maintained in the longer term is recommended. This trial was registered at http://www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12609000820202. PMID:22623749

  8. [Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables by university students in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil: prevalence and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Dalamaria, Tatiane; Souza, Orivaldo Florencio de

    2012-07-01

    This cross-sectional study with university students examined the prevalence of regular consumption of fruits and vegetables and associated factors among students at a Federal university in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil. 863 undergraduates were interviewed in 2010. Overall prevalence of regular consumption of fruits and vegetables was 14.8%. Factors associated with regular consumption of fruits and vegetables were: socioeconomic classes A and B (PR = 1.70; 95%CI: 1.10-2.62), living with a partner (PR = 1.53; 95%CI: 1.02-2.29), regular physical activity (PR = 1.69; 95%CI: 1.11-2.56), and consumption of fast food twice a week or less (PR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.04-2.13). A minority of the students met the recommendation to consume fruits and vegetables 5 or more days a week. Regular fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with socioeconomic status and healthy habits such as physical exercise and low consumption of fast food.

  9. Validation of a Milk Consumption Stage of Change Algorithm among Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Darren; Gerfen, Elissa; Mosher, Revonda B.; Shad, Aziza T.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the construct validity of a milk consumption Stages of Change (SOC) algorithm among adolescent survivors of childhood cancer ages 11 to 21 years (n = 75). Methods: Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate a health behavior intervention were analyzed. Assessments included a milk consumption SOC…

  10. Association between perceived food environment and self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable consumption among US adults, 2007.

    PubMed

    Erinosho, Temitope O; Oh, April Y; Moser, Richard P; Davis, Kia L; Nebeling, Linda C; Yaroch, Amy L

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of diets high in fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases, and self-efficacy and the food environment influence consumption of fruits and vegetables. We analyzed data from 3,021 non-Hispanic white (n = 2,187) and non-Hispanic black (n = 834) US adults who responded to National Cancer Institute's 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey to assesss self-efficacy and perception of the food environment. Adults who perceived that it was easy to obtain fruits and vegetables when they ate out reported greater self-efficacy to consume fruits and vegetables than did participants who did not have this perception (odds ratio [OR] = 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.97). However, adults who perceived that fruits were not available at restaurants where they ate out (OR = 0.65, 95% CI, 0.50-0.86) or that other (ie, non-fast food) restaurants offered enough choices of fruits and vegetables on their menus (OR = 0.76, 95% CI, 0.61-0.97) reported lower self-efficacy to consume fruits and vegetables than did participants who did not have these perceptions. Findings suggest that perceptions about availability of fruits and vegetables in restaurants are important to promote self-efficacy for consuming fruits and vegetables among adults.

  11. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity and fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2000-2006 at the county level. We used 2006 Census Zip Code Business Patterns data to compute population-weighted mean distance to supermarket at the county level for different sizes of supermarket. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to test whether population-weighted mean distance to supermarket was associated with both obesity and F/V consumption and to determine whether these relationships varied for urban (metropolitan) versus rural (nonmetropolitan) areas. Results Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. The odds of obesity increased and odds of consuming F/V five times or more per day decreased as distance to supermarket increased in metropolitan areas for most store size categories. In nonmetropolitan areas, however, distance to supermarket had no associations with obesity or F/V consumption for all supermarket size categories. Conclusions Obesity prevalence increased and F/V consumption decreased with increasing distance to supermarket in metropolitan areas, but not in nonmetropolitan areas. These results suggest that there may be a threshold distance in nonmetropolitan areas beyond which distance to supermarket no longer impacts obesity and F/V consumption. In addition, obesity and food environments in nonmetropolitan areas are likely driven by a more complex set of social, cultural, and physical factors than a single

  12. Influences on consumption of soft drinks and fast foods in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Crawford, David; Dobbins, Timothy; Hardy, Louise; Okely, Anthony D

    2009-01-01

    Soft drink and fast food are energy dense foodstuffs that are heavily marketed to adolescents, and are likely to be important in terms of risk of obesity. This study sought to examine the influences on soft drink and fast food consumption among adolescents as part of a cross-sectional survey of 2,719 adolescents (aged 11-16) from 93 randomly selected schools in New South Wales, Australia. Students provided information on soft drink and fast food consumption, and responded to statements examining influences over consumption. Over half of the boys and more than one third of the girls reported drinking soft drink daily, and consumption peaked in Grade 8 students. A quarter of students reported choosing soft drinks instead of water or milk, and around 40% agreed that soft drink was usually available in their homes. Availability in the home and drinking soft drinks with meals was most strongly associated with consumption in all age groups. Fast food consumption was higher among boys than girls in all age groups. Convenience and value for money yielded the strongest associations with fast food consumption in boys, while preferring fast food to meals at home and preferring to "upsize" meals were most strongly associated with consumption in girls. Interventions to reduce consumption of soft drinks should target availability in both the home and school environment by removing soft drinks and replacing them with more nutritive beverages. Fast food outlets should be encouraged to provide a greater range of healthy and competitively priced options in reasonable portions.

  13. [Benefits and barriers perceived by Mexican adolescents for consuming fruit and vegetables].

    PubMed

    López-Guevara, San Juana; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Avila-Alpirez, Hermelinda; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther C; Benavides-Torres, Raquel A; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M

    2009-06-01

    The objectives of this descriptive study were to establish the benefits and barriers perceived by adolescents for consuming fruit and vegetables, and to determine gender differences. A random sample of 829 adolescents attending public secondary schools in Matamoros, Tamaulipas was recruited (398 were males, and 431) with a mean age of 13.11 +/- 0.93 years. A scale of benefits and barriers for consuming fruit and vegetables was used. The most important perceived benefits for males were: "I'd take care of my health eating more fruit and vegetables" (4.24 +/- 0.99), "I like the taste of fruit" (4.21 +/- 1.06), and "eating fruit and vegetables would give me more vitamins and minerals (4.20 +/- 1.07). For females the perceived benefits were: "I like the taste of fruits" (4.48 +/- 0.81), and "I'd take care of my health eating more fruit and vegetables" (4.41 +/- 0.91). Adolescents of both genders, pointed out as barrier pesticides in fruit and vegetables (3.14 +/- 1.31 for males and 2.97+1.22 for females). Findings showed that perceived benefits and barriers have differences by gender. Females perceive higher benefits 24.25+9.15 (p = 0.001). Males perceived higher barriers 24.94 +/- 7.28 (p = 0.001). In conclusion, benefits and barriers are different by gender. Given the great cultural diversity in Mexico, these findings in students residing in this border city must be validated with similarly designed studies.

  14. Community Food Environment, Home Food Environment, and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F.; Norman, Gregory J.; Saelens, Brian E.; Harris, Sion Kim; Kerr, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Dori; Durant, Nefertiti; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) reliability of new food environment measures; (2) association between home food environment and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake; and (3) association between community and home food environment. Methods: In 2005, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with readministration to assess test-retest reliability. Adolescents,…

  15. Validity of Cognitive Predictors of Adolescent Sugar Snack Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astrom, Anne Nordrehaug

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the applicability of an extended version of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting self-perceived sugar intake among adolescents in Uganda. Method: Two questionnaires were completed involving 1146 and 372 secondary school adolescents. Confirmatory factor and path analyses were performed using Amos software.…

  16. Consequences of Adolescent Ethanol Consumption on Risk Preference and Orbitofrontal Cortex Encoding of Reward.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Matthew Stephen; Amodeo, Leslie Renee; Roitman, Jamie Donahey

    2016-04-01

    Critical development of the prefrontal cortex occurs during adolescence, a period of increased independence marked by decision making that often includes engagement in risky behaviors, such as substance use. Consumption of alcohol during adolescence has been associated with increased impulsivity that persists across the lifespan, an effect which may be caused by long-term disruptions in cortical processing of rewards. To determine if alcohol consumption alters cortical encoding of rewards of different sizes and probabilities, we gave rats limited access to alcohol in gelatin during adolescence only. In adulthood, we recorded the electrophysiological activity of individual neurons of the orbitofrontal cortex while rats performed a risk task that varied the level of risk from day-to-day. Rats that had consumed higher levels of alcohol showed increased risk preference in the task compared with control and low alcohol-consuming rats. Patterns of neuronal responses were identified using principal component analysis. Of the multiple patterns observed, only one was modulated by adolescent alcohol consumption and showed strongest modulation after reward receipt. This subpopulation of neurons showed blunted firing rates following rewards in alcohol-consuming rats, suggesting a mechanism through which adolescent alcohol exposure may have lasting effects on reward processing in the context of decision making. The differences in OFC responses between high alcohol consumers and control animals not given access to alcohol support the idea that, regardless of potential variability in innate alcohol preferences, voluntary consumption of alcohol during adolescence biases choice patterns longitudinally through alterations in cortical function.

  17. Fruit and Vegetable Distribution Program versus a Multicomponent Program to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: Which Should Be Recommended for Implementation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinaerts, Evelien B. M.; de Nooijer, Jascha; de Vries, Nanne K.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Two primary school-based interventions were implemented, aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption by children, both with proven effectiveness: (1) a free daily F&V distribution scheme for all primary school children and (2) a multicomponent, age-specific program consisting of a classroom curriculum, parental…

  18. Alcohol consumption in men is influenced by qualitatively different genetic factors in adolescence and adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A. C.; Kendler, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is influenced by genetic factors. Previous studies have examined the heritability of alcohol consumption, or related phenotypes, from adolescence into adulthood, frequently finding that total heritability changes over time. However, it remains unclear whether the same genes underlie liability to alcohol consumption across development versus whether novel risk genes become important over time. Method A population-based study of adult male twins (n=1790) born in Virginia, USA, retrospectively reported on their average monthly alcohol consumption from early adolescence through adulthood. We used twin modeling methods to explore genetic and environmental influences on alcohol consumption over time. Results One latent genetic factor accounted for the majority of the heritability in alcohol consumption during mid-to late adolescence, but its influence declined thereafter ; from young adulthood forward, heritability was largely attributable to a second genetic factor. The total heritability of alcohol consumption increased from 0 at ages 12–14 years to 0.40 by ages 18–21 years. Shared environmental factors declined in influence over time. Conclusions The heritability of alcohol consumption over time is dynamic both quantitatively and qualitatively. These results have important implications for gene identification endeavors. Furthermore, these findings could inform efforts to elucidate developmentally dynamic behaviors, such as antisocial behavior. PMID:23282961

  19. Relevance of fruits, vegetables and flavonoids from fruits and vegetables during early life, mid-childhood and adolescence for levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and its binding proteins IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Danika; Remer, Thomas; Penczynski, Katharina J; Bolzenius, Katja; Wudy, Stefan A; Buyken, Anette E

    2016-02-14

    The growth hormone (GH) insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis has been linked to insulin metabolism and cancer risk. Experimental evidence indicates that the GH-IGF axis itself can be influenced by dietary flavonoids. As fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is a major source of flavonoid consumption, FV's beneficial health effects may be explained via flavonoids' influence on the GH-IGF axis, but observational evidence is currently rare. We used data from Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study participants to analyse prospective associations between FV, fruit intake and flavonoid intake from FV (FlavFV) with IGF-1 and its binding proteins IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3. Subjects needed to provide a fasting blood sample in adulthood (18-39 years) and at least two 3-d weighed dietary records in early life (0·5-2 years, n 191), mid-childhood (3-7 years, n 265) or adolescence (girls: 9-15 years, boys: 10-16 years, n 261). Additional analyses were conducted among those providing at least three 24-h urine samples in adolescence (n 236) to address the predictor urinary hippuric acid (HA), a biomarker of polyphenol intake. Higher fruit intake in mid-childhood and adolescence was related to higher IGFBP-2 in adulthood (P=0·03 and P=0·045). Comparable trends (P=0·045-0·09) were discernable for FV intake (but not FlavFV) in all three time windows. Similarly, higher adolescent HA excretion tended to be related (P=0·06) to higher adult IGFBP-2 levels. Regarding IGFBP-3, a marginal (P=0·08) positive association was observed with FlavFV in mid-childhood only. None of the investigated dietary factors was related to IGF-1. In conclusion, higher fruit and FV intakes during growth may be relevant for adult IGFBP-2, but probably not for IGFBP-3 or IGF-1.

  20. Food prices and fruit and vegetable consumption among young American adults.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Zhao, Zhenxiang; Wang, Youfa

    2009-12-01

    Multivariate negative binomial count models were estimated to examine associations between young adults' fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and the prices of FV, other food at home grocery items, and fast food and the availability of restaurants and food stores. This study used the 2002 wave of data collected from US young adults aged 18-23 years in the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged by geocode identifiers with food prices and restaurant and food store availability. The results showed that higher levels of FV consumption were associated with lower FV prices (price elasticity of -0.32) and that this own-price effect was robust to the inclusion of other food prices and food outlet availability. Lower income and lower educated young adults and those with lower educated mothers and middle-income parents were found to be most price sensitive. No statistically significant cross-price effects on FV consumption were found with other grocery food (meat, dairy and bread) prices or fast food prices. Fiscal policy instruments such as FV subsidies may help to increase FV intake, particularly among young adults of lower socioeconomic status.

  1. Associations between socioeconomic, parental and home environment factors and fruit and vegetable consumption of children in grades five and six in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption has been associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Evidence from adults shows a social gradient in FV consumption. Evidence from pre-adolescent children varies and there is little Canadian data. This study assessed the FV intake of school children in British Columbia (BC), Canada to determine whether socio-economic status (SES), parental and the home environment factors were related to FV consumption. Methods As part of the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutrition Program, 773 British Columbia fifth-and sixth-grade school children (Mean age 11.3 years; range 10.3-12.5) and their parents were surveyed to determine FV consumption and overall dietary intake. Students completed a web-based 24-hour dietary food recall, and a student measure of socio-economic status (The Family Affluence Scale). Parents completed a self-administered survey about their education, income, home environment and perceptions of their neighbourhood and children’s eating habits. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine the association between SES, parental and home environment factors and FV consumption. Results Approximately 85.8% of children in this study failed to meet minimum Canadian guidelines for FV intake (6 servings). Parent income and education were not significantly associated with child FV consumption but were associated with each other, child-reported family affluence, neighbourhood environment, access to FV, and eating at the table or in front of the television. Significant positive associations were found between FV consumption and child-reported family affluence, meal-time habits, neighbourhood environment and parent perceptions of the healthiness of their child’s diet; however, these correlations were weak (ranging from .089-.115). Multiple regression analysis showed that only child-reported family affluence significantly predicted FV consumption (std-β = 0.096 95% CI = 0.01 to 0

  2. Adolescence and the consumption of psychoactive substances: the impact of the socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Pratta, Elisângela Maria Machado; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have pointed that it is necessary to define the impact of specific dimensions of the social-economic context that can work as risk factors regarding drug addiction. This study aimed to verify potential relationships between the drug addiction during adolescence and the social-economic level. A total of 568 adolescents participated in this study answering an anonymous self-filled questionnaire. The analyses involved the description of the variable distribution in the sample and statistical analyzes to determine the differences found. Contrary to the common sense, adolescents from the higher social classes presented a significant higher perceptual of alcohol, tobacco, weed and solvent consumption when compared to their counterparts from lower social classes. These data suggest the importance of studies that seek to clarify the possible influences of the social-economic status on the consumption of drugs among adolescents.

  3. Diet of stoats ( Mustela erminea) in an Alpine habitat:The importance of fruit consumption in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinoli, Adriano; Preatoni, Damiano G.; Chiarenzi, Barbara; Wauters, Luc A.; Tosi, Guido

    2001-02-01

    The diet of stoat, Mustela erminea, in the Italian Alps was studied from May to October 1996 and 1997 through faecal analysis. Scats were collected along twenty transects and near dens within a 10-km 2 study area. In the same area, seasonal variation in the available biomass of different prey types was estimated using capture-mark-recapture (small rodents), pitfall trap grids (insects), and fruit counts. About 60 % of scats ( n = 734) contained small rodents, indicating that they were the main prey for stoat. However, the frequency of occurrence of fruits in the diet increased significantly in August, after rodent biomass had dropped by more than 50 % in July, but increased again to previous August levels. Fruit consumption decreased in September and October, although available biomass of fruits remained constant. Thus stoat included a large amount of alternative food in their diet when fruits were mature and their availability, and probably their profitability, increased. We were, however, unable to measure absolute consumption of prey. We conclude that primary prey, rodents, is always harvested, suggesting that the costs of harvesting rodents, abundant throughout spring-autumn, are never high. The consumption of alternative prey is independent of its availability, and increases only when relative benefits of harvesting alternative prey (fruits) increases, which is consistent with optimal foraging theory.

  4. Impact of 100% Fruit Juice Consumption on Diet and Weight Status of Children: An Evidence-based Review.

    PubMed

    Crowe-White, Kristi; O'Neil, Carol E; Parrott, J Scott; Benson-Davies, Sue; Droke, Elizabeth; Gutschall, Melissa; Stote, Kim S; Wolfram, Taylor; Ziegler, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of 100% fruit juice remains controversial for its potential adverse impact on weight and displacement of essential foods in the diets of children. A systematic review of the literature published from 1995-2013 was conducted using the PubMed database to evaluate associations between intake of 100% fruit juice and weight/adiposity and nutrient intake/adequacy among children of 1 to 18 years of age. Weight status outcome measures included body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, ponderal index, obesity, weight gain, adiposity measures, and body composition. Nutrient outcome measures included intake and adequacy of shortfall nutrients. Data extraction and analysis was conducted according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process. Twenty-two studies on weight status provided evidence that did not support an association between 100% fruit juice consumption and weight/adiposity in children after controlling for energy intake. Limited evidence from eight studies suggests that children consuming 100% fruit juice have higher intake and adequacy of dietary fiber, vitamin C, magnesium, and potassium. Differences in methodology and study designs preclude causal determination of 100% fruit juice as sole influencer of weight status or nutrient intake/adequacy of shortfall nutrients. In context of a healthy dietary pattern, evidence suggests that consumption of 100% fruit juice may provide beneficial nutrients without contributing to pediatric obesity.

  5. Effect of alcohol consumption in prenatal life, childhood, and adolescence on child development.

    PubMed

    Foltran, Francesca; Gregori, Dario; Franchin, Laura; Verduci, Elvira; Giovannini, Marcello

    2011-11-01

    The effects of alcohol consumption in adults are well described in the literature, while knowledge about the effects of alcohol consumption in children is more limited and less systematic. The present review shows how alcohol consumption may negatively influence the neurobiological and neurobehavioral development of humans. Three different periods of life have been considered: the prenatal term, childhood, and adolescence. For each period, evidence of the short-term and long-term effects of alcohol consumption, including neurodevelopmental effects and associations with subsequent alcohol abuse or dependence, is presented.

  6. The associations between adolescents' consumption of pornography and music videos and their sexting behavior.

    PubMed

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel

    2014-12-01

    Several scholars have argued that adolescents' sexting behavior might be influenced by their media use. However, to date, empirical evidence of the link between media socialization and engagement in sexting behavior remains scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether music video and pornography consumption are able to predict a range of sexting behaviors among a sample of 329 adolescents with a mean age of 16.71 years (SD=0.74). The results demonstrate that sexting behaviors were significantly associated with the consumption of pornography, when controlling for age, gender, school track, and Internet use. Taking into account the gender of the adolescents, the significant relationship between engagement in the four types of sexting behavior and pornography use held true for both boys and girls. Music video consumption was only significantly associated with asking someone for a sexting message and having received a sexting message. Further analyses revealed that these significant relationships only held for boys.

  7. Consumption of fresh fruit juice: how a healthy food practice caused a national outbreak of Salmonella Panama gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Noël, Harold; Hofhuis, Agnetha; De Jonge, Rob; Heuvelink, Annet E; De Jong, Aarieke; Heck, Max E O C; De Jager, Carolien; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2010-04-01

    In spring 2008, 15 Salmonella Panama laboratory-confirmed cases were reported within 2 weeks, twice the average annual number of reported cases of this infrequent serotype in The Netherlands. To identify the source responsible for this national outbreak, we carried out an epidemiological, microbiological, and trace-back investigation. In total, 33 cases were reported, and a matched case-control study (23 cases/24 controls) identified consumption of fresh (unpasteurized) fruit juice purchased from a large retailer (X) as the only significant risk factor for illness (matched odds ratio: 7.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.5-37.2). Though the bacterium could not be isolated from fruit juice, the minimal pH value for growth of the causative strain of the outbreak (3.4) was compatible with survival in fruit juice from X. The outbreak strain showed acid resistance and adaptive properties that may explain how it could have caused infection through fresh orange juice. To our knowledge, this is the first documented outbreak related to fresh fruit juice consumption in western Europe since 1922. A growing number of consumers who are seeking healthy food practices are exposed to the infectious risks related to unpasteurized fresh fruit juice. Labeling regulations should be adapted to properly indicate to the consumers that unpasteurized fresh fruit juices remain vulnerable to microbial contamination. Frequent microbiological screening and strict compliance with food safety procedures should reduce the infectious hazards of fresh fruit juices.

  8. Forbidden friends as forbidden fruit: parental supervision of friendships, contact with deviant peers, and adolescent delinquency.

    PubMed

    Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Hawk, Skyler T; Schwartz, Seth J; Frijns, Tom; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Spending leisure time with deviant peers may have strong influences on adolescents' delinquency. The current 3-wave multi-informant study examined how parental control and parental prohibition of friendships relate to these undesirable peer influences. To this end, annual questionnaires were administered to 497 Dutch youths (283 boys, mean age = 13 years at baseline), their best friends, and both parents. Cross-lagged panel analyses revealed strong longitudinal links from contacts with deviant peers to adolescent delinquency, but not vice versa. Parent-reported prohibition of friendships positively predicted contacts with deviant peers and indirectly predicted higher adolescent delinquency. Similar indirect effects were not found for parental control. The results suggest that forbidden friends may become "forbidden fruit," leading to unintended increases in adolescents' own delinquency.

  9. Family correlates of breakfast consumption among children and adolescents. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Natalie; Biddle, Stuart J H; Gorely, Trish

    2009-02-01

    Regular breakfast consumption can have a multitude of positive health benefits, yet young people are more likely to skip breakfast than any other meal. Given the evidence that dietary behaviours established in childhood and adolescence track into adulthood along with evidence that breakfast skipping increases with age, identifying correlates of children's and adolescent's breakfast behaviours is imperative. The family environment is an important influence on the dietary behaviours of young people, and therefore we systematically reviewed the literature on family correlates of children and adolescent's breakfast consumption. From the 24 papers reviewed, 6 studied children and 19 studied adolescents. Few studies have examined the same specific family correlates of breakfast consumption, limiting the possibilities of drawing strong or consistent conclusions. Research in this area is relatively new and this review has identified areas for further investigation. Parental breakfast eating and living in two-parent families were the correlates supported by the greatest amount of evidence in association with adolescent's breakfast consumption. The results suggest that parents should be encouraged to be positive role models to their children by targeting their own dietary behaviours and that family structure should be considered when designing programmes to promote healthy breakfast behaviours.

  10. Dairy products, yogurt consumption, and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luis A; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba; Bueno, Gloria

    2015-08-01

    The high prevalence of obesity in children is a global health issue. Obesity in children and adolescents can result in hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic inflammation, and hyperinsulinemia, increasing the risk of death, as children grow into adulthood, and raising public health concerns. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents is a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Dairy consumption may have a protective effect against the development of CVD, but there is scarce evidence of this in children and adolescents. Within the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between dairy consumption and CVD risk factors in a sample of adolescents (aged 12.5-17.5 years) from 8 European cities. Overall, dairy products emerged as the food group that best identified adolescents at low CVD risk. Higher consumption of milk and yogurt and of milk- and yogurt-based beverages was associated with lower body fat, lower risk for CVD, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness.

  11. Alcohol drinking during adolescence increases consumptive responses to alcohol in adulthood in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Amodeo, Leslie R; Kneiber, Diana; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-03-01

    Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol-use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study, we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model, we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Further, we also sought to investigate whether differences in alcohol-related drinking behaviors were specific to exposure in adolescence versus exposure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were given a 2-bottle choice between 20% ethanol and water in one group and between two water bottles in another group during their adolescence (Postnatal Day [PD] 26-59) to model voluntary drinking in adolescent humans. As young adults (PD85), rats were trained in a paradigm that provided free access to 20% alcohol for 25 min after completing up to a fixed-ratio (FR) 16 lever press response. A set of young adult male Wistar rats was exposed to the same paradigm using the same time course, beginning at PD92. The results indicate that adolescent exposure to alcohol increased consumption of alcohol in adulthood. Furthermore, when investigating differences between adolescent high and low drinkers in adulthood, high consumers continued to drink more alcohol, had fewer FR failures, and faster completion of FR schedules in adulthood, whereas the low consumers were no different from controls. Rats exposed to ethanol in young adulthood also increased future intake, but there were no differences in any other components of drinking behavior. Both adolescent- and adult-exposed rats did not exhibit an increase in lever pressing during the appetitive challenge session. These data indicate that adolescent and early

  12. A preliminary study on the effects of star fruit consumption on antioxidant and lipid status in elderly Thai individuals

    PubMed Central

    Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Yankai, Araya; Pinkaew, Decha; Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Laskin, James J; Bloomer, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this preliminary study were to evaluate the antioxidant and lipid status before and after star fruit juice consumption in healthy elderly subjects, and the vitamins in star fruit extracts. Methods A preliminary designated protocol was performed in 27 elderly individuals with a mean (±SD) age of 69.5±5.3 years, by planning a 2-week control period before 4 weeks of consumption of star fruit twice daily. Oxidative stress parameters such as total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, malondialdehyde, protein hydroperoxide, multivitamins such as l-ascorbic acid (Vit C), retinoic acid (Vit A), and tocopherol (Vit E), and the lipid profile parameters such as cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were analyzed. Moreover, Vit C, Vit A, and Vit E levels were evaluated in the star fruit extracts during the 4-week period. Results In the 2-week control period, all parameters showed no statistically significant difference; after 4 weeks of consumption, significant improvement in the antioxidant status was observed with increased total antioxidant capacity and reduced malondialdehyde and protein hydroperoxide levels, as well as significantly increased levels of Vit C and Vit A, when compared to the two-time evaluation during the baseline periods. However, glutathione and Vit E showed no statistical difference. In addition, the HDL-C level was higher and the LDL-C level was significantly lower when compared to both baseline periods. But the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol showed no difference. Vit C and Vit A were identified in small quantities in the star fruit extract. Conclusion This preliminary study suggested that consumption of star fruit juice twice daily for 1 month improved the elderly people’s antioxidant status and vitamins, as well as improved the lipoproteins related to Vit C and Vit A in the star fruit extract. PMID:27621606

  13. The global burden of disease attributable to low consumption of fruit and vegetables: implications for the global strategy on diet.

    PubMed Central

    Lock, Karen; Pomerleau, Joceline; Causer, Louise; Altmann, Dan R.; McKee, Martin

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We estimated the global burden of disease attributable to low consumption of fruit and vegetables, an increasingly recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cancer, and compared its impact with that of other major risk factors for disease. METHODS: The burden of disease attributable to suboptimal intake of fruit and vegetables was estimated using information on fruit and vegetable consumption in the population, and on its association with six health outcomes (ischaemic heart disease, stroke, stomach, oesophageal, colorectal and lung cancer). Data from both sources were stratified by sex, age and by 14 geographical regions. FINDINGS: The total worldwide mortality currently attributable to inadequate consumption of fruit and vegetables is estimated to be up to 2.635 million deaths per year. Increasing individual fruit and vegetable consumption to up to 600 g per day (the baseline of choice) could reduce the total worldwide burden of disease by 1.8%, and reduce the burden of ischaemic heart disease and ischaemic stroke by 31% and 19% respectively. For stomach, oesophageal, lung and colorectal cancer, the potential reductions were 19%, 20%, 12% and 2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study shows the potentially large impact that increasing fruit and vegetable intake could have in reducing many noncommunicable diseases. It highlights the need for much greater emphasis on dietary risk factors in public health policy in order to tackle the rise in noncommunicable diseases worldwide, and suggests that the proposed intersectoral WHO/FAO fruit and vegetable promotion initiative is a crucial component in any global diet strategy. PMID:15744402

  14. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  15. Adolescent Overweight and Obesity: Links to Socioeconomic Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intakes.

    PubMed

    You, Jihyun; Choo, Jina

    2016-03-09

    Whether adolescent overweight/obesity is linked to socioeconomic status (SES) and fruit and vegetable (F/V) intakes has not been confirmed. We aimed to determine whether there is an association between SES and adolescent overweight/obesity and to test the mediating effect of F/V intakes. This cross-sectional study included the data of 63,111 adolescents extracted from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 85th percentile, while F/V intakes were categorized as high (recommended levels: ≥ 1 fruit serving and ≥ 3 vegetable servings per day) versus low. Among girls, low SES (beta = 0.50, p < 0.001) and F/V intakes (beta = -0.17, p = 0.038) were both significantly associated with overweight/obesity; the former association was significantly mediated by F/V intakes (Sobel test: z = 2.00, p = 0.046). Among boys, neither SES nor F/V intakes was significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Adolescent overweight/obesity was significantly linked to low SES and F/V intakes among girls only; low SES indirectly increased the risk of overweight/obesity via low F/V intakes. Therefore, promoting F/V intakes for socially disadvantaged girls should be prioritized as a population-based strategy for preventing adolescent overweight/obesity in South Korea.

  16. Attitudes Toward Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Farmers’ Market Usage Among Low-Income North Carolinians

    PubMed Central

    LEONE, LUCIA A.; BETH, DIANE; ICKES, SCOTT B.; MACGUIRE, KATHLEEN; NELSON, ERICA; SMITH, ROBERT ANDREW; TATE, DEBORAH F.; AMMERMAN, ALICE S.

    2013-01-01

    Low fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption is associated with higher rates of obesity and chronic disease among low-income individuals. Understanding attitudes towards F&V consumption and addressing policy and environmental changes could help improve diet and reduce disease risk. A survey of North Carolinians receiving government assistance was used to describe benefits, barriers, and facilitators of eating F&V and shopping at farmers’ markets in this population. A total of 341 eligible individuals from 14 counties completed the survey. The most commonly cited barriers to eating F&V were cost (26.4%) and not having time to prepare F&V (7.3%). Facilitators included access to affordable locally grown F&V (13.5%) and knowledge to quickly and easily prepare F&V (13.2%). Among people who did not use farmers’ markets, common barriers to shopping there were not being able to use food assistance program benefits (35.3%) and not knowing of a farmers’ market in their area (28.8%); common facilitators included transportation (24.8%) and having more information about farmers’ market hours (22.9%). In addition to breaking down structural/environmental barriers to farmers’ market usage, there is a need to disseminate promotional information about farmers’ markets, including hours, location, and accepted forms of payment. PMID:24098314

  17. Outcomes of a High School Program to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: Gimme 5--A Fresh Nutrition Concept for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Myers, Leann; Farris, Rosanne P.; Cunningham, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Describes the effectiveness of the Gimme 5 intervention to increase high school students' fruit and vegetable consumption. Intervention included media campaigns, classroom workshops, school meal modification, and parental support. After two years, daily servings increased more in the intervention group. Control students, who received Gimme 5…

  18. Fruit juice consumption decreases the proportion of children with inadequate intakes of key nutrients: NHANES 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit juice (FJ) consumption has been under scrutiny despite its nutrient profile. NHANES (2003–2006) data were used to compare the proportion of children ages 2–18 years with intakes of selected vitamins/minerals below recommended levels among consumers (n = 3,976; 51% females) and non-consumers (n...

  19. Intentions and Trait Self-Control Predict Fruit and Vegetable Consumption during the Transition to First-Year University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasone, Jennifer R.; Meikle, Natasha; Bray, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the independent and combined effects of Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) variables and trait self-control (TSC) in the prediction of fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) among first-year university students. Participants: Seventy-six first-year undergraduate university students. Methods: In their first week of class…

  20. Evaluation of a School-Based Multicomponent Nutrition Education Program to Improve Young Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelip, Michael; Kinsler, Janni; Thai, Chan Le; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Slusser, Wendelin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of a multicomponent nutrition education program on student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to consumption of fruits and vegetables (FVs). Design: Quasi-experimental pretest/posttest research design; 3 study conditions (Intervention+, Intervention, Comparison). Setting: Six schools from the Los Angeles…

  1. Effect of Nutrition Intervention Using a General Nutrition Course for Promoting Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Eun-Jeong; Caine-Bish, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of implementing nutrition intervention using a general nutrition class to promote consumption of fruits and vegetables in college students. Design: 3-day food records were collected, verified, and analyzed before and after the intervention. Setting: A midwestern university. Participants: 80 college…

  2. A Model to Increase Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables by Implementing the "5-A-Day" Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Kweethai; Allensworth, Diane D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes how schools can use the eight components of a comprehensive school health program to initiate a 5-a-Day program (initiative launched by the National Cancer Institute and Produce for Better Health Foundation to increase Americans' fruit and vegetable consumption). Specific strategies to implement each component of the comprehensive school…

  3. Need for Affect, Need for Cognition, and the Intention-Fruit Consumption Relationship: An Action-Control Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Keer, Mario; van den Putte, Bas; Neijens, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Predictors of action-control profiles are useful targets for health behaviour change interventions, but action-control research has not focused on fruit consumption and has not yet included need for affect and need for cognition, despite the demonstrated usefulness of these variables in a broad range of research. The role of these…

  4. Effects of a School-Based Nutrition Program Diffused throughout a Large Urban Community on Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behaviors Related to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelip, Michael; Slusser, Wendelin; Thai, Chan L.; Kinsler, Janni; Erausquin, Jennifer T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Obesity among US children has increased in recent years. Although increased fruit and vegetable consumption has not been directly linked to obesity prevalence, it has been posited that more fruits and vegetables (FV) could reduce the consumption of high-fat, energy-dense foods and may protect against childhood illnesses including…

  5. Food consumption patterns of Balearic Islands' adolescents depending on their origin.

    PubMed

    Llull, Rosa; Bibiloni, Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade, the immigrant population of the Balearic Islands archipelago (Spain), in the Mediterranean, has risen to 22% of its total population. The aim of this study was to assess food consumption patterns among Balearic Islands' adolescents depending on their origin. A population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands (2007-2008; n = 1,231; 12-17 years old). Dietary assessment was based on a 145-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Food consumption differences between the adolescents' point of origin and time of arrival were been studied, as well as average daily meals and snacks. The adolescents' origin and number of years living in the Balearic Islands were also assessed. Native adolescents and immigrants from other Mediterranean countries showed healthier food consumption patterns than their peers from non-Mediterranean countries. Immigrant adolescents adapted their eating patterns to native dietary patterns increasingly, the longer they lived in the Balearic Islands.

  6. Improving Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Low-Income Customers at Farmers Markets: Philly Food Bucks, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Aquilante, Jennifer L.; Solomon, Sara; Colby, Lisa; Kawinzi, Mukethe A.; Uy, Nicky; Mallya, Giridhar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We evaluated whether Philly Food Bucks, a bonus incentive program at farmers markets, is associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) sales at farmers markets in low-income areas. Methods A convenience sample of 662 customers at 22 farmers markets in low-income neighborhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was surveyed via face-to-face interviews. Questions addressed shopping characteristics, self-reported change in fruit and vegetable consumption, whether customers tried new fruits or vegetables, use of Philly Food Bucks, and demographic information. Market-level SNAP sales and Philly Food Bucks redemption data were also collected to monitor sales patterns. Results Philly Food Bucks users were significantly more likely than nonusers to report increasing fruit and vegetable consumption (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6–3.7; P < .001) and to report trying new fruits or vegetables (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2–2.7; P = .006). At the market level, average SNAP sales more than doubled at farmers markets in low-income areas in the first 2 years of the Philly Food Bucks program. At the city’s largest farmers market in a low-income area, the program was associated with an almost 5-fold higher increase in annual SNAP sales compared with baseline. Conclusion Results from this study demonstrate that a bonus incentive program tied to SNAP was associated with self-reported increases in fruit and vegetable consumption and increased SNAP sales at participating farmers markets in low-income communities. More research is warranted to evaluate the long-term impact of bonus incentives on farmers market use, dietary behaviors, and health outcomes. PMID:24135390

  7. A Consumer Way of Thinking: Linking Consumer Socialization and Consumption Motivation Perspectives to Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Soyeon; Serido, Joyce; Barber, Bonnie L.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of Internet technology and rapidly changing consumer environments, the societal role played by today's adolescents is significantly increasing. They are becoming more influential, not merely as consumers of products and services but also as coproducers in the marketplace. In this paper, we contend that consumption is central to the…

  8. Adolescents and Music Media: Toward an Involvement-Mediational Model of Consumption and Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistler, Michelle; Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; Power, Thomas; Austin, Erica Weintraub; Hill, Laura Griner

    2010-01-01

    Using social cognitive theory and structural regression modeling, we examined pathways between early adolescents' music media consumption, involvement with music media, and 3 domains of self-concept (physical appearance, romantic appeal, and global self-worth; N=124). A mediational model was supported for 2 domains of self-concept. Music media…

  9. Associations of Truancy, Perceived School Performance, and Mental Health with Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtes, Muriel; Bannink, Rienke; Joosten-van Zwanenburg, Evelien; van As, Els; Raat, Hein; Broeren, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined associations of truancy, perceived school performance, and mental health with adolescents' week, weekend, and binge drinking. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1167 secondary school students of Dutch ethnicity (mean age, 15.9 years, SD?=?0.69). Alcohol consumption, truancy, perceived school…

  10. Factors Influencing Fast-Food Consumption Among Adolescents in Tehran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Askari Majabadi, Hesamedin; Solhi, Mahnaz; Montazeri, Ali; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Nejat, Saharnaz; Khalajabadi Farahani, Farideh; Djazayeri, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    Background: The consumption of different types of fast food is increasingly growing in all parts of the world, both in developed and developing countries. Because of the changes and transitions in the lifestyle and dietary habits of people, an increasing number of people from different age groups, particularly adolescents and young adults, are inclined toward consuming fast food. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the factors influencing fast-food consumption among adolescents in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods: The present qualitative study was conducted in 2012 - 2013 in Tehran, the capital of Iran. To achieve the objective of this study, 42 adolescents were enrolled in this study through a purposive sampling method, and the required data was collected via individual semi-structured in-depth interviews. Data collection and analysis were carried out simultaneously, and the collected data was analyzed via a thematic content analysis and using MAXQDA 10 software. Results: In this study after coding the transcribed interviews, the findings were categorized into three main themes as follows: personal views, social factors, and family factors. Each theme included several categories and subcategories, and the coded sentences and phrases were placed under each category and subcategory. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the number of factors promoting fast-food consumption appeared to be more than the inhibiting factors and that the diverse factors at the individual and social level influenced fast-food consumption among adolescents. PMID:27247793

  11. Food Consumption Patterns of Nigerian Adolescents and Effect on Body Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumakaiye, M. F.; Atinmo, Tola; Olubayo-Fatiregun, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Association between nutritional status of adolescents and food consumption pattern. Design: Data on number of meals and snacks consumed daily were collected using structured questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed as weight-for-age body mass index score less than fifth percentile of the National Center for Health…

  12. Low-fat Milk Consumption among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2007-2008

    MedlinePlus

    ... the type of milk usually consumed ( Figure 2 ). Boys and girls did not differ significantly in low-fat milk ... adolescents aged 2–19 years, 77.7% of boys and 67.4% of girls reported daily consumption of milk. Fewer than 10% ...

  13. Perceived Parenting Style and Practices and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages by Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Horst, Klazine; Kremers, Stef; Ferreira, Isabel; Singh, Amika; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire…

  14. Alcohol Consumption of Matched and Unmatched Adolescents in a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichman, Meir; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined adolescent (n=1,900) alcohol use. Found that subjects (n=454) who dropped out of study consumed alcoholic beverages at rates higher than those found among matched subjects. Found significant differences between dropouts and matched subjects in sociodemographic background. In spite of differences in alcohol consumption, sensation seeking,…

  15. Barriers, Benefits, and Behaviors Related to Breakfast Consumption among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Mary O.; Shanafelt, Amy; Wang, Qi; Leduc, Robert; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We sought to determine if perceived barriers, benefits, and modifiable behaviors support or interfere with breakfast consumption in a racially and economically diverse rural high school population. Methods: The participants were 832 Minnesota adolescents from 16 rural high schools. We used baseline data from a group randomized trial…

  16. Brief report: Compensatory health beliefs are negatively associated with intentions for regular fruit and vegetable consumption when self-efficacy is low.

    PubMed

    Storm, Vera; Reinwand, Dominique; Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; De Vries, Hein; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-28

    Compensatory health beliefs (the beliefs that an unhealthy behaviour can be compensated by a healthy behaviour) can interfere with adherence to fruit and vegetable consumption recommendations. Fruit and vegetable consumption, social cognitive variables and compensatory health beliefs were investigated via self-report at baseline (T0) and 8-week follow-up (T1) in N = 790 participants. Self-efficacy predicted fruit and vegetable consumption intentions. Planning mediated between intentions and T1 fruit and vegetable consumption. Compensatory health beliefs negatively predicted intentions at low self-efficacy levels only. The results propose the use of self-efficacy interventions to diminish the negative effects of compensatory health beliefs when forming fruit and vegetable consumption intentions and foster planning to translate intentions into behaviour.

  17. A gender-specific analysis of adolescent dietary caffeine, alcohol consumption, anger, and violent behavior.

    PubMed

    James, Jack E; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported dietary caffeine and alcohol consumption were examined in relation to anger and violent behavior in Icelandic tenth-graders. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate direct and indirect effects of measured and latent variables in the population sample of 3,670, controlling for parental financial standing, family structure, ADHD, and peer delinquency. Gender differences were observed that have not been reported previously, especially in relation to anger as a possible mediator of violent behavior against a background of caffeine and alcohol consumption. Study findings suggest the need to take account of caffeine consumption in relation to adolescent anger and violence.

  18. The Boost study: design of a school- and community-based randomised trial to promote fruit and vegetable consumption among teenagers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the Boost study was to produce a persistent increase in fruit and vegetable consumption among 13-year-olds. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a school-and community-based, multi-component intervention guided by theory, evidence, and best practice. Methods/design We used the Intervention Mapping protocol to guide the development of the intervention. Programme activities combined environmental and educational strategies and focused on increasing access to fruit and vegetables in three settings: School: Daily provision of free fruit and vegetables; a pleasant eating environment; classroom curricular activities; individually computer tailored messages; one-day-workshop for teachers. Families: school meeting; guided child-parent activities; newsletters. Local community: guided visits in grocery stores and local area as part of classroom curriculum; information sheets to sports-and youth clubs. The Boost study employed a cluster-randomised controlled study design and applied simple two-stage cluster sampling: A random sample of 10 municipalities followed by a random sample of 4 schools within each municipality (N = 40 schools). Schools were randomised into a total of 20 intervention-and 20 control schools. We included all year 7 pupils except those from school classes with special needs. Timeline: Baseline survey: August 2010. Delivery of intervention: September 2010-May 2011. First follow-up survey: May/June 2011. Second follow-up survey: May/June 2012. Primary outcome measures: Daily mean intake of fruit and vegetables and habitual fruit and vegetable intake measured by validated 24-hour recall-and food frequency questionnaires. Secondary outcome measures: determinants of fruit and vegetable intake, positive side-effects and unintended adverse effects. Implementation was monitored by thorough process evaluation. Discussion The baseline data file included 2,156 adolescents (95%). There was baseline equivalence

  19. Relationships between parenting style, feeding style and feeding practices and fruit and vegetable consumption in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Blissett, Jackie

    2011-12-01

    Despite substantial evidence suggesting that a diet high in fruit and vegetables (FV) is associated with reduced risk of cancer, only 21% of children in the UK consume the recommended 5 portions of fruit or vegetables a day. This review examines the role of parenting style, feeding style and feeding practices in FV consumption in early childhood. Whilst inconsistencies in concepts and terminology cloud this literature, overall the evidence suggests that the context of an authoritative parenting and feeding style is associated with better FV consumption in the childhood years. This context is typified by emotional warmth but high expectations for children's dietary adequacy and behaviour, accompanied by specific feeding practices such as modeling consumption of FV, making FV available within the home, covertly restricting unhealthy alternative snack foods, and encouraging children to try FV. Further longitudinal and intervention studies are required to determine the efficacy of modification of parenting style and feeding practice on children's FV intake.

  20. ERICA: use of screens and consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Brunken, Gisela Soares; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the length of exposure to screens and the prevalence of consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents in front of screens. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 12 to 17-year old adolescents from 1,247 schools in 124 Brazilian municipalities. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Its segment regarding nutrition contained questions about using TV, computers, and video game systems, having meals while watching TV, and consuming snacks in front of screens. Consumption of meals and snacks in front of screens was analyzed according to the following variables: geographical region, gender, age range, type of school (public or private), and school shift. The prevalences and their respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated under a complex sampling design. RESULTS A great deal of the adolescents (73.5%, 95%CI 72.3-74.7) reported spending two or more hours a day in front of screens. That habit was more frequent among male adolescents, private school students, morning shift students, and students from Brazil’s South region. More than half of the adolescents (56.6%, 95%CI 55.4-57.8) reported almost always or always having meals in front of TV, and 39.6% (95%CI 38.8-40.5) of them said they consumed snacks in front of screens exactly as often. Both situations were the most prevalent ones among the girls, who attended public schools and were from Brazil’s Midwest region. CONCLUSIONS Length of exposure to screens and consumption of meals and snacks almost always or always in front of screens are high among Brazilian adolescents. It is necessary to develop strategies aiming to reduce the length of screen use, considering the media reality that children and adolescents have been experiencing from earlier and earlier ages. That context must therefore be analyzed in an indissociable way. PMID:26910539

  1. ERICA: use of screens and consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Brunken, Gisela Soares; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the length of exposure to screens and the prevalence of consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents in front of screens. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 12 to 17-year old adolescents from 1,247 schools in 124 Brazilian municipalities. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Its segment regarding nutrition contained questions about using TV, computers, and video game systems, having meals while watching TV, and consuming snacks in front of screens. Consumption of meals and snacks in front of screens was analyzed according to the following variables: geographical region, gender, age range, type of school (public or private), and school shift. The prevalences and their respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated under a complex sampling design. RESULTS A great deal of the adolescents (73.5%, 95%CI 72.3-74.7) reported spending two or more hours a day in front of screens. That habit was more frequent among male adolescents, private school students, morning shift students, and students from Brazil's South region. More than half of the adolescents (56.6%, 95%CI 55.4-57.8) reported almost always or always having meals in front of TV, and 39.6% (95%CI 38.8-40.5) of them said they consumed snacks in front of screens exactly as often. Both situations were the most prevalent ones among the girls, who attended public schools and were from Brazil's Midwest region. CONCLUSIONS Length of exposure to screens and consumption of meals and snacks almost always or always in front of screens are high among Brazilian adolescents. It is necessary to develop strategies aiming to reduce the length of screen use, considering the media reality that children and adolescents have been experiencing from earlier and earlier ages. That context must therefore be analyzed in an indissociable way.

  2. [Sociology and epidemiology of consumption of psychoactive substances in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Beck, F; Legleye, S

    2009-12-01

    Epidemiological monitoring of drug use among adolescents or young adults is a major concern for public policy makers. This surveillance requires the use of adapted methodological solutions. This article presents how far epidemiological surveillance is a useful tool for monitoring drug use at adolescence. It also presents the results of the French general population surveys among adolescents or young adults, and the trends in the last decade. It relies on a survey among 17 years old adolescents and a general population survey among adults (analysis is restricted to people aged 18-25). A European school survey among 16 years old is also presented to compare the French situation to other European countries levels of use. The use of psychoactive substance increases fast with age during adolescence however results vary from one substance to another. Since year 2000, tobacco use is decreasing when alcohol use frequency appears stable between 2003 and 2005, although drunkenness has increased from 2000 to 2005. The frequency of lifetime or occasional use of cannabis appears stable since 2000. Among 17 years old, the proportion of regular users of cannabis has been stable between 2000 and 2005. Finally, the prevalence of ecstasy and cocaine increased during this period of time, despite being less than 4%, but the levels of the other illicit substances are low and stable. The results on alcohol variables and tobacco use in France are rather close to the European average. Four out of five 16 years old students had drunk alcohol during the past 12 months and 36 percent had been drunk during this period (vs 39% in the average European country). About one-third of the students had smoked cigarettes during the past 30 days (close to the 29% in the average European country). The use of cannabis, however, is clearly more prevalent in France. Almost one-third (31%) of the students had already used cannabis (vs 19% in the average European country). The use of inhalants was reported

  3. Atrial fibrillation in healthy adolescents after highly caffeinated beverage consumption: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Energy drinks and highly caffeinated drinks comprise some of the fastest growing products of the beverage industry, often targeting teenagers and young adults. Cardiac arrhythmias in children related to high caffeine consumption have not been well described in the literature. This case series describes the possible association between the consumption of highly caffeinated drinks and the subsequent development of atrial fibrillation in the adolescent population. Case presentations We report the cases of two Caucasian adolescent boys of 14 and 16 years of age at the time of presentation, each without a significant cardiac history, who presented with palpitations or vague chest discomfort or both after a recent history of excessive caffeine consumption. Both were found to have atrial fibrillation on electrocardiogram; one patient required digoxin to restore a normal sinus rhythm, and the other self-converted after intravenous fluid administration. Conclusion With the increasing popularity of energy drinks in the pediatric and adolescent population, physicians should be aware of the arrhythmogenic potential associated with highly caffeinated beverage consumption. It is important for pediatricians to understand the lack of regulation in the caffeine content and other ingredients of these high-energy beverages and their complications so that parents and children can be educated about the risk of cardiac arrhythmias with excessive energy drink consumption. PMID:21247417

  4. Consumption of Soft Drinks and Hyperactivity, Mental Distress, and Conduct Problems Among Adolescents in Oslo, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Lars; Lien, Nanna; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Thoresen, Magne; Bjertness, Espen

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether high levels of consumption of sugar-containing soft drinks were associated with mental distress, hyperactivity, and conduct problems among adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted with 10th-grade students in Oslo, Norway (n = 5498). We used the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to assess mental health outcomes. Results. There was a J-shaped dose–response relationship between soft drink consumption and mental distress, conduct problems, and total mental health difficulties score; that is, adolescents who did not consume soft drinks had higher scores (indicating worse symptoms) than those who consumed soft drinks at moderate levels but lower scores than those with high consumption levels. The relationship was linear for hyperactivity. In a logistic regression model, the association between soft drink consumption and mental health problems remained significant after adjustment for behavioral, social, and food-related variables. The highest adjusted odds ratios were observed for conduct problems among boys and girls who consumed 4 or more glasses of sugar-containing soft drinks per day. Conclusions. High consumption levels of sugar-containing soft drinks were associated with mental health problems among adolescents even after adjustment for possible confounders. PMID:17008578

  5. The Reciprocal Relation Between Adolescents' School Engagement and Alcohol Consumption, and the Role of Parental Support.

    PubMed

    Roebroek, Lukas; Koning, Ina M

    2016-02-01

    While school engagement and the use of alcohol are subject to change during the course of adolescence, studies have shown that being engaged in school equates with a later onset of alcohol consumption. Cross-sectional studies also indicate that alcohol use correlates to school engagement, but the reciprocal nature of these factors has never been investigated. This study examines the reciprocal relation between school engagement and alcohol consumption during adolescence. Further, the moderating effect of perceived parental support in this reciprocal relation between school engagement and alcohol consumption is tested. Data were obtained from Dutch high school students (n = 906, 52.5% boys, mean age = 12.19 years) who annually completed a digital questionnaire over 4 years (age 12 to 15). A cross-lagged autoregressive model was applied in AMOS. Results showed that more school engagement at ages 12 and 14 predicted lower levels of alcohol use 1 year later. In addition, more alcohol consumption at ages 12 and 14 predicted lower levels of school engagement 1 year later. Higher school engagement at age 13 predicted less alcohol use at age 14, whereas no significant effect of alcohol use on school engagement was found at this age period. Furthermore, a reciprocal relation was found only for adolescents who perceived high parental support. The reciprocal nature of school engagement and alcohol consumption should be a consideration in future research and prevention program development.

  6. Peanut consumption in adolescents is associated with improved weight status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have shown an association between nut consumption and health benefits in adults, such as lower lipid levels, lower body mass indices, and reduced risk of coronary artery disease. Few studies have demonstrated these health benefits in children. To determine the association between peanut cons...

  7. Mechanisms involved in the neurotoxic, cognitive, and neurobehavioral effects of alcohol consumption during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Guerri, Consuelo; Pascual, María

    2010-02-01

    Studies over the last decade demonstrate that adolescence is a brain maturation period from childhood to adulthood. Plastic and dynamic processes drive adolescent brain development, creating flexibility that allows the brain to refine itself, specialize, and sharpen its functions for specific demands. Maturing connections enable increased communication among brain regions, allowing greater integration and complexity. Compelling evidence has shown that the developing brain is vulnerable to the damaging effects of ethanol. It is possible to infer, therefore, that alcohol exposure during the critical adolescent developmental stages could disrupt the brain plasticity and maturation processes, resulting in behavioral and cognitive deficits. Recent neuroimaging studies have provided evidence of the impact of human adolescent drinking in brain structure and functions. Findings in experimental animals have also given new insight into the potential mechanisms of the toxic effects of ethanol on both adolescent brain maturation and the short- and long-term cognitive consequences of adolescent drinking. Adolescence is also characterized by the rapid maturation of brain systems mediating reward and by changes in the secretion of stress-related hormones, events that might participate in the increasing in anxiety and the initiation pattern of alcohol and drug consumption. Studies in human adolescents demonstrate that drinking at early ages can enhance the likelihood of developing alcohol-related problems. Experimental evidence suggests that early exposure to alcohol sensitizes the neurocircuitry of addiction and affects chromatin remodeling, events that could induce abnormal plasticity in reward-related learning processes that contribute to adolescents' vulnerability to drug addiction. In this article, we review the potential mechanisms by which ethanol impacts brain development and lead to brain impairments and cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions as well as the neurobiological

  8. Reciprocal Associations Between Cigarette Consumption and DSM-IV Nicotine Dependence Criteria in Adolescent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Mei-Chen; Griesler, Pamela C.; Wall, Melanie M.; Kandel, Denise B.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the interrelationships between cigarette consumption and DSM-IV nicotine dependence (ND) criteria from smoking onset in adolescence up to seven years later, adjusting for alcohol consumption and DSM-IV alcohol dependence (AD) criteria. Design A cohort drawn from grades 6-10 in an urban school system was interviewed five times at 6-month intervals (Waves 1-5) and 4.5 years later (Wave 6). A parent was interviewed three times. Setting Chicago, Illinois. Participants Recent smokers (n=409). Measurements Structured household interviews ascertained number of cigarettes smoked, DSM-IV ND symptoms, drinks consumed, DSM-IV AD symptoms, and selected covariates. Analysis Reciprocal prospective associations between number of cigarettes smoked and ND criteria, controlling for time-varying alcohol consumption and dependence criteria, were examined with cross-lagged models. Findings Reciprocal associations between number of cigarettes smoked and ND criteria were both significant. Cigarette consumption had stronger associations with later ND (β=0.25, 95% CI=0.17-0.32) than dependence had with later cigarette consumption (β=0.09, 95% CI=0.01-0.16). Alcohol and cigarette consumption influenced each other; AD scores were associated with later ND scores but not the reverse. Reports of pleasant initial experiences from smoking were positively associated with cigarette consumption and ND the first year after smoking onset; later smoking onset was negatively associated with cigarette consumption the seventh year after onset; parental ND predicted cigarette consumption and ND throughout. Conclusions In adolescent smokers, higher cigarette consumption predicts later severity of DSM-IV nicotine dependence more than the reverse. Smoking and drinking also influence each other mutually over time. PMID:24845775

  9. Increased Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables Is Related to a Reduced Risk of Cognitive Impairment and Dementia: Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xian; Huang, Jiang; Song, Daqiang; Deng, Ru; Wei, Jicheng; Zhang, Zhuo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables has been shown to be associated with a reduced risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in many epidemiological studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the strength of this association in a meta-analysis. Methods: We identified relevant studies by searching Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library electronic databases (from 1970 to January 2016). Study were included if they reported relative risks and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cognitive impairment and dementia with respect to frequency of fruit and vegetable intake. Results: Nine studies (five cohort studies and four cross-sectional studies) met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. There were a total of 31,104 participants and 4,583 incident cases of cognitive impairment and dementia. The meta-analysis showed that an increased consumption of fruit and vegetables was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia (OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.71–0.89). Subgroup analysis indicated this inverse association was only found among participants with mean age over 65 years and combined sexes. Dose–response meta-analysis showed that an increment of 100 g per day of fruit and vegetable consumption was related to an approximately 13% (OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.77–0.99) reduction in cognitive impairment and dementia risk. There was no potential publication bias in the meta-analysis and the dose–response meta-analysis. Conclusion: The increased consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. PMID:28223933

  10. Acculturation, physical activity, and fast-food consumption among Asian-American and Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Unger, Jennifer B; Reynolds, Kim; Shakib, Sohaila; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sun, Ping; Johnson, C Anderson

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies have implicated acculturation to the US as a risk factor for unhealthy behaviors among Hispanic and Asian-American adolescents, including substance use, violence, and unsafe sex. This study examined the association between acculturation and obesity-related behaviors-physical activity and fast-food consumption-among 619 Asian-American and 1385 Hispanic adolescents in Southern California. Respondents completed surveys in 6th and 7th grade. The 6th grade survey assessed acculturation with the AHIMSA acculturation scale and a measure of English language usage. The 7th grade survey assessed frequency of moderate-to-intense physical activity and frequency of eating fast-food. Multiple regression analyses included acculturation and demographic covariates as predictors of physical activity and fast-food consumption. Acculturation to the US, assessed in 6th grade, was significantly associated with a lower frequency of physical activity participation and a higher frequency of fast-food consumption in 7th grade. The significant associations persisted after controlling for covariates and were consistent across gender and ethnic groups. Results suggest that acculturation to the US is a risk factor for obesity-related behaviors among Asian-American and Hispanic adolescents. Health promotion programs are needed to encourage physical activity and healthy diets among adolescents in acculturating families.

  11. Peanut consumption in adolescents is associated with improved weight status.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jennette Palcic; Johnston, Craig A; El-Mubasher, Abeer A; Papaioannou, Maria A; Tyler, Chermaine; Gee, Molly; Foreyt, John P

    2013-07-01

    Studies have shown an association between nut consumption and health benefits in adults such as lower lipid levels, lower body mass indices, and reduced risk of coronary artery disease. Few studies have demonstrated these health benefits in children. To determine the association between peanut consumption and weight, intake of nutrients of concern, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and cholesterol in Mexican American children, baseline data from 262 sixth-grade students (48% female) in a school-based weight management program were analyzed to compare differences between peanut and non-peanut eaters. It was hypothesized that Mexican American children who consume peanuts will be less overweight and have a better nutrient and lipid profile when compared to those who do not eat peanuts. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire as a baseline dietary assessment before beginning the program. Children were identified as either a peanut consumer (n = 100) or non-peanut consumer (n = 162). Body mass index measurements were taken on all participants. A smaller sample of participants submitted blood for lipid analysis. Analyses revealed that children in the peanut consumer group were less likely to be overweight or obese than children in the non-peanut consumer group (χ(2) = 13.9, P = .001), had significantly higher intakes of several vitamins and micronutrients (i.e., magnesium, vitamin E), and had lower low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels. These results illustrate that consumption of peanuts and/or peanut butter is associated with lower weight status, improved diet, and lipid levels among Mexican American children. Future research is needed to clarify the role of peanut consumption in children's overall health.

  12. Long-lasting reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis by alcohol consumption in adolescent nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Taffe, Michael A; Kotzebue, Roxanne W; Crean, Rebecca D; Crawford, Elena F; Edwards, Scott; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2010-06-15

    Binge alcohol consumption in adolescents is increasing, and studies in animal models show that adolescence is a period of high vulnerability to brain insults. The purpose of the present study was to determine the deleterious effects of binge alcohol on hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent nonhuman primates. Heavy binge alcohol consumption over 11 mo dramatically and persistently decreased hippocampal proliferation and neurogenesis. Combinatorial analysis revealed distinct, actively dividing hippocampal neural progenitor cell types in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus that were in transition from stem-like radial glia-like cells (type 1) to immature transiently amplifying neuroblasts (type 2a, type 2b, and type 3), suggesting the evolutionary conservation of milestones of neuronal development in macaque monkeys. Alcohol significantly decreased the number of actively dividing type 1, 2a, and 2b cell types without significantly altering the early neuronal type 3 cells, suggesting that alcohol interferes with the division and migration of hippocampal preneuronal progenitors. Furthermore, the lasting alcohol-induced reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis paralleled an increase in neural degeneration mediated by nonapoptotic pathways. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the hippocampal neurogenic niche during adolescence is highly vulnerable to alcohol and that alcohol decreases neuronal turnover in adolescent nonhuman primate hippocampus by altering the ongoing process of neuronal development. This lasting effect, observed 2 mo after alcohol discontinuation, may underlie the deficits in hippocampus-associated cognitive tasks that are observed in alcoholics.

  13. The density of alcohol outlets and adolescent alcohol consumption: An Australian longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Rowland, B; Evans-Whipp, Tracy; Hemphill, Sheryl; Leung, Rachel; Livingston, M; Toumbourou, J W

    2016-01-01

    Higher density of alcohol outlets has been linked to increased levels of adolescent alcohol-related behaviour. Research to date has been cross-sectional. A longitudinal design using two waves of annual survey data from the Australian arm of the International Youth Development Study was used. The sample comprised 2835 individuals with average age at wave 2 of 14 years (SD=1.67; range=11-17 years). GSEM was used to examine how absolute levels of alcohol outlet density was associated with student-reported alcohol use one year later, while controlling for prior alcohol use, risk factors at wave one and changes in density over the 2 years. Adolescents' perception of alcohol availability and friends' alcohol use were tested as potential mediators of the association between alcohol outlet density and adolescent alcohol use. Elasticity modelling identified a 10% increase in overall density at wave one was associated with an approximately 17% increase in odds of adolescent alcohol consumption at wave two. Living in areas with a higher density of outlets was associated with a statistically significant increase in the likelihood of adolescents developing early age alcohol consumption.

  14. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

    2015-01-01

    Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.

  15. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    PubMed Central

    ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  16. Effect of localizing fruit and vegetable consumption on greenhouse gas emissions and nutrition, Santa Barbara County.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, David A; Radka, Corie N; Müller, Nora M; Watson, Tyler D; Rekstein, Nicole J; Wright, Hannah Van M; Hollingshead, Sydney E

    2011-05-15

    The US agrifood system is very productive, but highly centralized and resource intensive with very weak links between production and consumption. This contributes to high levels of malnutrition and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). A popular approach to improvement is localization-reducing direct transport (farm to retail distance, or "food miles"). We examined Santa Barbara County (SBC) California, which mirrors the high production, nutritional and environmental problems, and growing localization movement of California. SBC ranks in the top 1% of US counties in value of agricultural products, and >80% of this value is produce (fruits and vegetables). We calculated the amount of produce grown in and consumed in SBC and estimated that >99% of produce grown in SBC is exported from the county, and >95% of produce consumed in SBC is imported. If all produce consumed in SBC was grown in the county (100% localization), it would reduce GHGE from the agrifood system <1%, and not necessarily affect nutrition. While food miles capture only a portion of the environmental impact of agrifood systems, localization could be done in ways that promote synergies between improving nutrition and reducing GHGE, and many such efforts exist in SBC.

  17. SCHOOL-BASED PROMOTION OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CONSUMPTION IN MULTICULTURALLY DIVERSE, URBAN SCHOOLS

    PubMed Central

    BLOM-HOFFMAN, JESSICA

    2009-01-01

    Rates of childhood overweight1 have reached epidemic proportions (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), and schools have been called on to play a role in the prevention of this medical condition. This article describes a multiyear health promotion effort—the Athletes in Service fruit and vegetable (F&V) promotion program—which is based on social learning theory for urban, elementary school children in kindergarten through third grade. Children participate in the program for a period of 3 years. The goals of the program are to increase opportunities for children to be more physically active during the school day and to help students increase their F&V consumption. This article describes the F&V promotion components of the program that were implemented in year 1, including implementation integrity and treatment acceptability data. Year 1 evaluation data demonstrated that the program is acceptable from the perspective of school staff and was implemented by school staff with high levels of integrity. Hallmarks of the program’s successful implementation and high acceptability include (a) having a school-based program champion; (b) designing the program to include low-cost, attractive, interactive materials; (c) including many school staff members to facilitate a culture of healthy eating in the school; and (d) spreading out implementation responsibilities among the multiple staff members so that each individual’s involvement is time efficient. PMID:19834582

  18. When condition trumps location: seed consumption by fruit-eating birds removes pathogens and predator attractants

    PubMed Central

    Fricke, Evan C; Simon, Melissa J; Reagan, Karen M; Levey, Douglas J; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Carlo, Tomás A; Tewksbury, Joshua J

    2013-01-01

    Seed ingestion by frugivorous vertebrates commonly benefits plants by moving seeds to locations with fewer predators and pathogens than under the parent. For plants with high local population densities, however, movement from the parent plant is unlikely to result in ‘escape’ from predators and pathogens. Changes to seed condition caused by gut passage may also provide benefits, yet are rarely evaluated as an alternative. Here, we use a common bird-dispersed chilli pepper (Capsicum chacoense) to conduct the first experimental comparison of escape-related benefits to condition-related benefits of animal-mediated seed dispersal. Within chilli populations, seeds dispersed far from parent plants gained no advantage from escape alone, but seed consumption by birds increased seed survival by 370% – regardless of dispersal distance – due to removal during gut passage of fungal pathogens and chemical attractants to granivores. These results call into question the pre-eminence of escape as the primary advantage of dispersal within populations and document two overlooked mechanisms by which frugivores can benefit fruiting plants. PMID:23786453

  19. Cash and in-kind transfers in poor rural communities in Mexico increase household fruit, vegetable, and micronutrient consumption but also lead to excess energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Jef L; Gadsden, Paola; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; de Cossío, Teresa González

    2010-03-01

    Conditional transfer programs are increasingly popular, but the impact on household nutrient consumption has not been studied. We evaluated the impact of the Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), a cash and in-kind transfer program, on the energy and nutrient consumption of poor rural households in Mexico. The program has been shown to reduce poverty. Beneficiary households received either a food basket (including micronutrient-fortified milk) or cash. A random sample of 206 rural communities in Southern Mexico was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: a monthly food basket with or without health and nutrition education, a cash transfer with a cost to the government equivalent to the food basket (14 USD/mo) with education, or control. The impact after 14 mo of exposure was estimated in a panel of 5823 households using a double difference regression model with household fixed effects. PAL was associated with increases (P < 0.01) in the consumption of total energy (5-9%), energy from fruits and vegetables (24-28%), and energy from animal source foods (24-39%). It also affected iron, zinc, and vitamin A and C consumption (P < 0.05). The consumption of energy and all nutrients was greater in the food basket group (P < 0.05). Cash and in-kind transfers in populations that are not energy-deficient should be carefully redesigned to ensure that pulling poor families out of poverty leads to improved micronutrient intake but not to increased energy consumption.

  20. Decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in the rural adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Delpier, Terry; Giordana, Sheri; Wedin, Bitsy M

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased drastically with detrimental effects such as weight gain, weakened bones, dental caries, and associated higher levels of type II diabetes in this population. While in the clinical setting, rural family nurse practitioner (FNP) students, using Kellogg-funded Smart Phones, screened adolescents aged 13 to 17 years for SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Adolescents initially were provided with a pamphlet and related oral teaching concerning SSBs by the FNP students, as well as a water bottle to encourage healthy fluid intake. Screening SSB information was loaded onto Smart Phones, which resulted in immediate access by the primary investigator sometimes even hundreds of miles distant. After 30 days, FNP students completed follow-up phone interviews to reassess SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Results concerning decreased SSB consumption were statistically significant. Additionally, Smart Phones were instrumental in high-speed data transfer. Both advantages and disadvantages were encountered when using this evolving technology.

  1. Randomised controlled trial of effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma concentrations of lipids and antioxidants.

    PubMed Central

    Zino, S.; Skeaff, M.; Williams, S.; Mann, J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which plasma antioxidant concentrations in people with habitual low intake of fruit and vegetables respond to increased intakes of these foods. To examine whether advice to increase fruit and vegetables will result in reduction of concentrations of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial in which intervention and control groups were followed up for eight weeks. The intervention group was asked to consume eight servings of fruit and vegetables a day. SETTING: Dunedin, New Zealand. SUBJECTS: Eighty seven subjects with normal lipid concentrations who ate three or fewer servings of fruit and vegetables daily. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Plasma concentrations of vitamin C, retinol, alpha and beta carotene, alpha tocopherol, lipids, and lipoproteins. Dietary intake assessed with diet records over four days. RESULTS: The mean plasma vitamin C, alpha carotene, and beta carotene concentrations increased in parallel with increased dietary intake of fruit and vegetables in the intervention group. Concentrations of retinol, alpha tocopherol, lipids, and lipoproteins remained unchanged despite some increase in dietary vitamin E and a small reduction in saturated fat intake. CONCLUSIONS: Following a recommendation to increase fruit and vegetable consumption produces change in plasma concentrations of vitamin C, alpha carotene, and beta carotene likely to reduce incidence of cancer. More specific dietary advice to modify fat intake may be necessary to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease mediated by lipoprotein and vitamin E. PMID:9224079

  2. A fresh fruit and vegetable program improves high school students' consumption of fresh produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low fruit and vegetable intake may be associated with overweight. The United States Department of Agriculture implemented the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program in 2006-2007. One Houston-area high school was selected and received funding to provide baskets of fresh fruits and vegetables daily for eac...

  3. Adolescent caffeine consumption and self-reported violence and conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Frost, Stephanie S; James, Jack E

    2013-07-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world and currently the only one legally available to children and adolescents. The sale and use of caffeinated beverages has increased markedly among adolescents during the last decade. However, research on caffeine use and behaviors among adolescents is scarce. We investigate the relationship between adolescent caffeine use and self-reported violent behaviors and conduct disorders in a population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,747 10th grade students (15-16 years of age, 50.2 % girls) who were enrolled in the Icelandic national education system during February 2012. Through a series of multiple regression models, while controlling for background factors, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and current medication and peer delinquency, and including measures on substance use, our findings show robust additive explanatory power of caffeine for both violent behaviors and conduct disorders. In addition, the association of caffeine to the outcomes is significantly stronger for girls than boys for both violent behaviors and conduct disorders. Future studies are needed to examine to what extent, if at all, these relationships are causal. Indication of causal connections between caffeine consumption and negative outcomes such as those reported here would call into question the acceptability of current policies concerning the availability of caffeine to adolescents and the targeting of adolescence in the marketing of caffeine products.

  4. Friend's drinking behaviour and adolescent alcohol consumption: the moderating role of friendship characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bot, Sander M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Knibbe, Ronald A; Meeus, Wim H J

    2005-06-01

    Friends are presumed to exert a substantial influence on young people's drinking patterns. The current study focused on the effects of the best friend's drinking behaviour on the alcohol consumption of 12-14-year-old adolescents. Furthermore, we hypothesized friendship characteristics (i.e., reciprocity and sociometric status differences) to moderate the extent in which adolescents had been influenced by their best friends. Longitudinal data of 1276 adolescents and their best friends were used to examine whether the adolescent's friend's drinking behaviour, reciprocity of the friendship, and status differences between friends affected the magnitude of change in the adolescent's drinking behaviour. The findings showed that best friend's drinking behaviour is related to adolescent's drinking both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Cross-sectionally, this association was particularly strong between mutual friends and friends with lower status. In longitudinal analyses, a different picture emerged. Respondents were most likely to adopt their friend's drinking behaviour when it was a unilateral friend with a higher status.

  5. Analysis of Consumption of Energy Drinks by a Group of Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drinks (EDs) have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of factors influencing consumption, and risks associated with EDs and EDs mixed with alcohol (AmEDs). Methods: The study involved a specially designed questionnaire, which was completed by 707 students, 14.3 years of age on average, attending secondary sports schools. Results: EDs were consumed by 69% of the young athletes, 17% of whom drank EDs quite often: every day or 1–3 times a week. Most respondents felt no effects after drinking EDs, but some reported symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety, tachycardia, nervousness and irritability. The major determinant of the choice of EDs was taste (47%), followed by price (21%). One in ten respondents admitted to consumption of AmEDs. Among the consequences reported were: abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, amnesia, headache, and hangover. Conclusions: EDs consumption among adolescent athletes was relatively high. Considering the habit of AmEDs and literature data, it is worth emphasizing that it may lead to health problems in the near future, alcohol- or drug-dependence, as well as other types of risk behaviour. PMID:27483299

  6. Does the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change Provide a Useful Basis for Interventions to Promote Fruit and Vegetable Consumption?

    PubMed Central

    Horwath, Caroline C.; Schembre, Susan M.; Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Nigg, Claudio R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether Transtheoretical Model (TTM) constructs differ between individuals making successful versus unsuccessful stage transitions for consumption of five or more servings of fruit and vegetables each day and thus provide a useful basis for designing health promotion interventions. Design Longitudinal, observational study. A randomly selected, multiethnic cohort of adults assessed at 6-month intervals over 2 years. Setting General community, Hawaii. Subjects There were 700 participants (62.6% female; mean = 47 ± 17.1 years; 31.1% Asian, 22.1% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 35.0% Caucasian; 25.1% participation rate). Measures Stage of readiness, experiential and behavioral processes of change, pros, cons, self-efficacy, and self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption. Analysis The study used t-tests to determine which TTM variable scores differed consistently between those making “successful” versus “unsuccessful” stage transitions from precontemplation, preparation, and maintenance. Sample sizes for contemplation and action prohibited similar analyses. Results Compared to those remaining in precontemplation, individuals successfully progressing from precontemplation showed significantly greater use of behavioral processes (collectively and self-liberation) and consciousness raising (p < .001). However, only self-liberation demonstrated significant differences consistently over time. Conclusion This longitudinal investigation reveals that TTM behavioral processes, particularly self-liberation, predict successful transition out of precontemplation for adult fruit and vegetable consumption, suggesting that public health messages tailored according to these TTM variables may be effective for this group. However, for adults prepared to adopt or maintain fruit and vegetable consumption, tailoring based on variables from other theories is needed. PMID:23398135

  7. Perceived barriers mediate the association between self-efficacy and fruit and vegetable consumption among students attending alternative high schools.

    PubMed

    Bruening, Meg; Kubik, Martha Y; Kenyon, Denyelle; Davey, Cynthia; Story, Mary

    2010-10-01

    Compared to students attending regular high schools, alternative high school students are more likely to be racial/ethnic minorities, have higher levels of poverty, and higher rates of risky and poor health behaviors, including weight-related behaviors like limited fruit and vegetable intake. However, little is known about fruit/vegetable intake among alternative high school students. This study examined whether perceived barriers to healthy eating mediated the association between self-efficacy to eat healthy foods and fruit/vegetable consumption among alternative high school students. The cross-sectional study population consisted of students (N=145) attending six alternative high schools in the St Paul-Minneapolis, MN, area who were participants in an obesity prevention pilot study and completed a baseline survey during fall 2006. Mixed model linear regression, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, was used to test a series of regression models performed according to mediation analysis procedures. Students' mean age was 17.3 years; 52% were male, 63% were low-income, and 61% were from racial/ethnic minorities. Students reported a mean fruit/vegetable intake of 3.6 servings per day, mean self-efficacy to eat healthy score of 22.2 (range 3 to 35), and mean barriers to eating healthy score of 6.9 (range 3 to 13). Perceived barriers to healthy eating fully mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and fruit/vegetable consumption (Sobel test statistic 2.7, P=0.007). Interventions targeting the dietary practices of alternative high school students should include components to decrease perceived barriers as a way to increase self-efficacy and ultimately fruit/vegetable intake.

  8. [Household purchase of sodas and cookies reduces the effect of an intervention to promote the consumption of fruits and vegetables].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fabio da Silva; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de

    2017-04-03

    This study examines the influence of increasing household availability of sodas and cookies on the effects of an intervention to promote the consumption of fruits and vegetables. The study analyzed data from 70 families living in low-income communities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, selected in a stratified probabilistic sample, and who completed a 30-day food record before and after the intervention. The intervention contributed to a significant increase in the household availability of fruit and vegetables (+2.7 p.p.; 95%CI: 1.5; 4.0), contrary to the trend towards stagnation of such availability in the general population in Brazil. Meanwhile, the purchase of sodas and cookies, which was not the intervention's target, mirrored the upward trend in the consumption of these products (+5.8 p.p.; 95%CI: 3.3; 8.4). Families that increased their purchase of sodas and cookies showed lower increases, or even decreases, in the purchase of fruits and vegetables (p < 0.05), and had nearly fourfold lower odds of experiencing any increase in the household availability of fruits and vegetables.

  9. Dietary and activity correlates of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ranjit, Nalini; Evans, Martin H.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Evans, Alexandra E.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the dietary and activity correlates of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in middle and high-school children. METHODS Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 15,283 middle and high school children in Texas, USA. Consumption of sodas and consumption of non-carbonated flavored and sports beverages (FSB) were examined separately for their associations with level of (a) unhealthy foods (fried meats, fries, desserts) and (b) healthy foods (vegetables, fruit, and milk) (c) physical activity including usual vigorous physical activity, and participation in organized physical activity, and (d) sedentary activity, including hours spent on TV, the computer, and videogames. RESULTS In both sexes, consumption of soda and FSB were systematically associated with a number of unhealthy dietary practices, as well as with sedentary behaviors. However, consumption of flavored and sports beverages showed significant positive graded associations with several healthy dietary practices and level of physical activity, while soda consumption showed no such associations with healthy behaviors. CONCLUSIONS Consumption of flavored and sports beverages coexists with healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors, suggesting popular misperception of these beverages as consistent with a healthy lifestyle. Assessment and obesity-prevention efforts targeting SSB need to distinguish between flavored and sports beverages from sodas. PMID:20876172

  10. Multicontextual correlates of energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack food consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicole; Miller, Jonathan M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Watts, Allison W; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-05-01

    Frequent consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack foods is an eating behavior of public health concern. This study was designed to inform strategies for reducing adolescent intake of energy-dense snack foods by identifying individual and environmental influences. Surveys were completed in 2009-2010 by 2540 adolescents (54% females, mean age = 14.5 ± 2.0, 80% nonwhite) in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota schools. Daily servings of energy-dense snack food was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire that asked about consumption of 21 common snack food items, such as potato chips, cookies, and candy. Data representing characteristics of adolescents' environments were collected from parents/caregivers, friends, school personnel, Geographic Information System sources, and a content analysis of favorite television shows. Linear regression was used to examine relationships between each individual or environmental characteristic and snack food consumption in separate models and also to examine relationships in a model including all of the characteristics simultaneously. The factors found to be significantly associated with higher energy-dense snack food intake represented individual attitudes/behaviors (e.g., snacking while watching television) and characteristics of home/family (e.g., home unhealthy food availability), peer (friends' energy-dense snack food consumption), and school (e.g., student snack consumption norms) environments. In total, 25.5% of the variance in adolescents' energy-dense snack food consumption was explained when factors from within each context were examined together. The results suggest that the design of interventions targeting improvement in the dietary quality of adolescents' snack food choices should address relevant individual factors (e.g., eating while watching television) along with characteristics of their home/family (e.g., limiting the availability of unhealthy foods), peer (e.g., guiding the efforts of a peer leader in

  11. Action planning as predictor of health protective and health risk behavior: an investigation of fruit and snack consumption

    PubMed Central

    van Osch, Liesbeth; Beenackers, Mariëlle; Reubsaet, Astrid; Lechner, Lilian; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2009-01-01

    Background Large discrepancies between people's intention to eat a healthy diet and actual dietary behavior indicate that motivation is not a sufficient instigator for healthy behavior. Research efforts to decrease this 'intention - behavior gap' have centered on aspects of self-regulation, most importantly self-regulatory planning. Most studies on the impact of self-regulatory planning in health and dietary behavior focus on the promotion of health protective behaviors. This study investigates and compares the predictive value of action planning in health protective behavior and the restriction of health risk behavior. Methods Two longitudinal observational studies were performed simultaneously, one focusing on fruit consumption (N = 572) and one on high-caloric snack consumption (N = 585) in Dutch adults. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate and compare the predictive value of action planning in both behaviors, correcting for demographics and the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The nature of the influence of action planning was investigated by testing mediating and moderating effects. Results Action planning was a significant predictor of fruit consumption and restricted snack consumption beyond the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The strength of the predictive value of action planning did not differ between the two behaviors. Evidence for mediation of the intention - behavior relationship was found for both behaviors. Positive moderating effects of action planning were demonstrated for fruit consumption, indicating that individuals who report high levels of action planning are significantly more likely to translate their intentions into actual behavior. Conclusion The results indicate that the planning of specific preparatory actions predicts the performance of healthy dietary behavior and support the application of self-regulatory planning in both health protective and health risk behaviors. Future

  12. Contribution of take-out food consumption to socioeconomic differences in fruit and vegetable intake: a mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kyoko; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin

    2011-10-01

    Lower fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups has been well documented, and may be a consequence of a higher consumption of take-out foods. This study examined whether, and to what extent, take-out food consumption mediated (explained) the association between socioeconomic position and F/V intake. A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted among 1,500 randomly selected adults aged 25 to 64 years in Brisbane, Australia, during 2009 (response rate 63.7%, N=903). A food frequency questionnaire assessed usual daily servings of F/V (0 to 6), overall take-out consumption (times per week), and the consumption of 22 specific take-out items (never to once per day or more). These specific take-out items were grouped into "less healthy" and "healthy" choices and indexes were created for each type of choice (0 to 100). Socioeconomic position was ascertained by education. The analyses were performed using linear regression, and a bootstrap resampling approach estimated the statistical significance of the mediated effects. Mean daily servings of F/V were 1.89±1.05 and 2.47±1.12, respectively. The least educated group members were more likely to consume fewer servings of fruit (β= -.39, P<0.001) and vegetables (β= -.43, P<0.001) compared with members of the highest educated group. The consumption of "less healthy" take-out food partly explained (mediated) education differences in F/V intake; however, no mediating effects were observed for overall and "healthy" take-out consumption. Regular consumption of "less healthy" take-out items may contribute to socioeconomic differences in F/V intake, possibly by displacing these foods.

  13. Predicting physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents: a test of the information, motivation, behavioral skills model.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Stephanie; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Belyea, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Most adolescents do not meet national recommendations regarding physical activity and/or the intake of fruits and vegetables. The purpose of this study was to explore whether variables in the information, motivation, behavioral skills (IMB) model of health promotion predicted physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake in 404 adolescents from 2 high schools in the Southwest United States using structural equation modeling (SEM). The SEM models included theoretical constructs, contextual variables, and moderators. The theoretical relationships in the IMB model were confirmed and were moderated by gender and race. Interventions that incorporate cognitive-behavioral skills building may be a key factor for promoting physical activity as well as fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents.

  14. A Qualitative Study of Perceived Barriers to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Low-Income Populations, North Carolina, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Sarah E.; Wheeler, Stephanie B.; Leone, Lucia A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is the leading preventable cause of illness and a major contributor to chronic disease. Eating fresh fruits and vegetables can help manage and prevent weight gain and reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Low-income communities often lack stores that sell fresh fruit and vegetables and have instead stores that sell foods low in nutritional value. The objective of this study was to understand perceived community-level barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption among low-income people. Methods We conducted 8 focus groups involving 68 low-income participants in 2 North Carolina counties, from May 2011 through August 2011. The socioecological model of health guided data analysis, and 2 trained researchers coded transcripts and summarized findings. Four focus groups were conducted in each county; 1 was all male, 5 all female, and 2 mixed sexes. Most participants were black (68%), most were women (69.1%), and most had a high school education or less (61.8%). Almost half received support from either the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program or another government assistance program. Results We identified 6 major community-level barriers to access to fruits and vegetables: cost, transportation, quality, variety, changing food environment, and changing societal norms on food. Conclusion Policymakers should consider supporting programs that decrease the cost and increase the supply of high-quality fruits and vegetables in low-income communities. PMID:23489639

  15. Factors related to fruit, vegetable and traditional food consumption which may affect health among Alaska Native People in Western Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer S.; Nobmann, Elizabeth D.; Asay, Elvin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Determine intake of fruits, vegetables and traditional foods (TF), availability of foods, and attitudes towards increasing their consumption. Study design Establish community baseline through a cross-sectional sample of residents who were weighed, measured and interviewed. Village stores were surveyed for food availability, price and quality. Methods Eighty-eight respondents self-identified as the household member primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking were surveyed in 3 Western Alaska Native villages using a food frequency questionnaire, and village stores were evaluated using food environment surveys. Results Overweight (BMI[kg/m2] >25) was present in 68% of participants. Fruit and vegetable intake (3.3 median servings/day) was low in comparison to recommended intakes of 5–9 servings/d. Seventy-two per cent were eating less than 5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables combined. Thirty-four per cent of respondents were trying to eat more vegetables; 41% were trying to eat more fruits. The median number of servings of TF was 3.2/d (mean 4.3/d). Seventy-seven per cent of respondents reported that they ate enough TF. Conclusion Recommendations to continue use of TF and increase intake of fruits and vegetables are consistent with local attitudes. Our findings indicate that increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables would be well received. Information from this study provides a basis for nutrition education and food supplement programs that is responsive to the needs and perceptions of the residents. Continued TF intake and increased fruit and vegetable intake have the potential to benefit the health of rural residents. PMID:22456043

  16. The impact of a school-based gardening intervention on intentions and behaviour related to fruit and vegetable consumption in children.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Eyre, Emma; Bryant, Elizabeth; Clarke, Neil; Birch, Samantha; Staples, Victoria; Sheffield, David

    2015-06-01

    A total of 77 children (34 boys, 43 girls, mean age ± standard deviation = 9 ± 1 years) participated in this study; 46 children (intervention) undertook a 12-week school gardening programme and 31 children acted as controls. Measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and fruit and vegetable consumption were taken pre- and post-intervention. Repeated measures analysis of variance and hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the intervention group increased daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and increased intentions, attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control related to fruit and vegetable consumption. Attitudes, norms and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted changes in fruit and vegetable consumption.

  17. Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in different lifestyle groups: Recommendations for program development based on behavioral research and consumer media data

    PubMed Central

    DeJoy, David M.; Lance, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption impacts the etiology of cardiovascular disease as well as many different types of cancers. Still, Americans' consumption of fruit and vegetables is low. This article builds on initial research that assessed the validity of using a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation in tandem with the theory of planned behavior to explain differences among individuals' consumption of fruit and vegetables. In this article, we integrate the findings from our initial analyses with media and purchase data from each audience segment. We then propose distinct, tailored program suggestions for reinventing social marketing programs focused on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in each segment. Finally, we discuss the implications of utilizing a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation versus more traditional readiness-to-change social marketing segmentation. Differences between these two segmentation strategies, such as the ability to access media usage and purchase data, are highlighted and discussed. PMID:18935880

  18. Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in different lifestyle groups: recommendations for program development based on behavioral research and consumer media data.

    PubMed

    Della, Lindsay J; DeJoy, David M; Lance, Charles E

    2008-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption affects the etiology of cardiovascular disease as well as many different types of cancers. Still, Americans' consumption of fruit and vegetables is low. This article builds on initial research that assessed the validity of using a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation in tandem with the theory of planned behavior to explain differences among individuals' consumption of fruit and vegetables. In this article, we integrate the findings from our initial analyses with media and purchase data from each audience segment. We then propose distinct, tailored program suggestions for reinventing social marketing programs focused on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in each segment. Finally, we discuss the implications of utilizing a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation versus a more traditional readiness-to-change social marketing segmentation. Differences between these two segmentation strategies, such as the ability to access media usage and purchase data, are highlighted and discussed.

  19. A survey of sports drinks consumption among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Broughton, D; Fairchild, R M; Morgan, M Z

    2016-06-24

    Background Sports drinks intended to improve performance and hydrate athletes taking part in endurance sport are being marketed to children, for whom these products are not intended. Popularity among children has grown exponentially. Worryingly they consume them socially, as well as during physical activity. Sports drinks are high in sugar and are acidic. Product marketing ignores the potential harmful effects of dental caries and erosion.Objective To investigate the use of sports drinks by children.Method One hundred and eighty-three self-complete questionnaires were distributed to four schools in South Wales. Children in high school years 8 and 9 (aged 12-14) were recruited to take part. Questions focused on use of sports drinks, type consumed, frequency of and reason for consumption and where drinks were purchased.Results One hundred and sixty children responded (87% response rate): 89.4% (143) claimed to drink sports drinks, half drinking them at least twice a week. Lucozade Sport(™) was the most popular brand. The main reason for consuming the drinks was attributed to the 'nice taste' (90%, 129/143). Most respondents purchased the drinks from local shops (80.4%, 115) or supermarkets (54.5%, 78). More boys claimed to drink sports drinks during physical activity (77.9% versus 48.6% girls, P <0.001). Whereas more girls claimed to drink them socially (51.4% versus 48.5% boys, NS).Conclusion A high proportion of children consumed sports drinks regularly and outside of sporting activity. Dental health professionals should be aware of the popularity of sports drinks with children when giving health education advice or designing health promotion initiatives.

  20. Relationships between milk consumption and academic performance, learning motivation and strategy, and personality in Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES A healthy diet has been reported to be associated with physical development, cognition and academic performance, and personality during adolescence. This study was performed to investigate the relationships among milk consumption and academic performance, learning motivation and strategies, and personality among Korean adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was divided into two parts. The first part was a survey on the relationship between milk consumption and academic performance, in which intakes of milk and milk products and academic scores were examined in percentiles among 630 middle and high school students residing in small and medium-sized cities in 2009. The second part was a survey on the relationships between milk consumption and learning motivation and strategy as well as personality, in which milk consumption habits were collected and Learning Motivation and Strategy Test (L-MOST) for adolescents and Total Personality Inventory for Adolescents (TPI-A) were conducted in 262 high school students in 2011. RESULTS In the 2009 survey, milk and milk product intakes of subjects were divided into a low intake group (LM: ≤ 60.2 g/day), medium intake group (MM: 60.3-150.9 g/day), and high intake group (HM: ≥ 151.0 g/day). Academic performance of each group was expressed as a percentile, and performance in Korean, social science, and mathematics was significantly higher in the HM group (P < 0.05). In the 2011 survey, the group with a higher frequency of everyday milk consumption showed significantly higher "learning strategy total," "testing technique," and "resources management technique" scores (P < 0.05) in all subjects. However, when subjects were divided by gender, milk intake frequency, learning strategy total, class participation technique, and testing technique showed significantly positive correlations (P < 0.05) in boys, whereas no correlation was observed in girls. Correlations between milk intake frequency and each item of

  1. [Stages of change related to fruit and vegetables consumption, physical activity, and weight control in Chilean university students].

    PubMed

    Mardones H, María Angélica; Olivares C, Sonia; Araneda F, Jacqueline; Gómez F, Nelly

    2009-09-01

    In order to design effective health promotion interventions, nutritional status and the stages of change related to the consumption of fruit and vegetables, physical activity, and weight control were determined in 955 students of both genders at the University of Bio-Bio, Chile. The sample was randomly selected by campus, faculty, and career, with a level of confidence of 95% and a maximum error of 3%. Beside the descriptive analysis, to evaluate the association among nutritional status, fruit and vegetables consumption, physical activity and weight control, Chi2 test was applied. Nutritional status was determined by Body Mass Index and WHO reference standards for adults. A questionnaire previously validated by INTA was applied to evaluate the stages of change. The prevalence of overweight and obesity reached 48.2% in men and 25.5% in women (p<0.0001). Only 3.1% of men and 7.3% of women consumed the 5 recommended daily servings of fruit and vegetables. The majority consumed 1 or 2 daily servings (69.5% men and 54.3% women), and the rest 3 to 4 servings (18.2% and 34.7%, respectively) (p<0.0001). 58% of men and 43% of women carried out physical activity regularly (p<0.0001). 73.1% of men and 79.3% of women were trying to reduce or not to increase their weight (p<0.0002). It is concluded that students require specific interventions and appropriate conditions to increase their fruit and vegetables consumption, and physical activity.

  2. The USDA Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program: A Case Study of Implementation and Consumption in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamelske, Eric M.; Bica, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The US Department of Agriculture created its Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) to address poor nutrition and rising obesity among children. The FFVP allocates funding for selected elementary schools with at least 50% free/reduced price school meal enrollments to provide free fresh fruit and vegetable snacks to students.…

  3. Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Middle School Students: Implementing the 5-a-Day Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoon, Mary Dodds; Benedict, Jamie; Leontos, Carolyn; Krelle-Zepponi, Natalie

    1998-01-01

    Based on Social Learning Theory, the Take Five program was taught to middle school students in two Nevada schools. Students' attitudes about the acceptability of eating fruits and vegetables improved significantly. Students demonstrated a high level of knowledge of the health benefits of eating fruits and vegetables on the pretest with no…

  4. Early substance consumption and problematic use of video games in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Coëffec, Adélaïde; Romo, Lucia; Cheze, Nathalie; Riazuelo, Hélène; Plantey, Sophie; Kotbagi, Gayatri; Kern, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Substance use as well as use of video games is frequent among young people. The purpose of this research was to study the links between the use of video games and the consumption of various substances such as alcohol, tobacco or cannabis at adolescence. In order to do so, 1423 students from middle and high schools filled an auto-questionnaire that included questions on age, gender, year of study, use of video games and consumptions of alcohol (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Short version, AUDIT-C), tobacco (Heaviness of Smoking Index, HSI), and cannabis (Cannabis Abuse Screening Test, CAST). We found that 92.1% of teens use video games and 17.7% have a problematic use of video games (PUVG). Furthermore, results show that substance consumption seems frequent with 19.8 and 8.3% of participants having hazardous alcohol and cannabis consumptions respectively and 5.2% having a moderate to high tobacco dependence. Video gamers consumed significantly more alcohol and gamers with PUVG started their substance consumption (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis) earlier. PUVG was found to be negatively correlated to age at first substance consumption, but positively correlated to the time spent playing video games. However, it was not correlated to risks of substance dependence (scores of AUDIT-C, HSI, and CAST). Finally, our results are consistent with the literature, in regard to frequency of substance use and use of video games in adolescence. These data will allow for a better consideration of prevention strategies and future care in this particular field.

  5. Early substance consumption and problematic use of video games in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Coëffec, Adélaïde; Romo, Lucia; Cheze, Nathalie; Riazuelo, Hélène; Plantey, Sophie; Kotbagi, Gayatri; Kern, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Substance use as well as use of video games is frequent among young people. The purpose of this research was to study the links between the use of video games and the consumption of various substances such as alcohol, tobacco or cannabis at adolescence. In order to do so, 1423 students from middle and high schools filled an auto-questionnaire that included questions on age, gender, year of study, use of video games and consumptions of alcohol (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Short version, AUDIT-C), tobacco (Heaviness of Smoking Index, HSI), and cannabis (Cannabis Abuse Screening Test, CAST). We found that 92.1% of teens use video games and 17.7% have a problematic use of video games (PUVG). Furthermore, results show that substance consumption seems frequent with 19.8 and 8.3% of participants having hazardous alcohol and cannabis consumptions respectively and 5.2% having a moderate to high tobacco dependence. Video gamers consumed significantly more alcohol and gamers with PUVG started their substance consumption (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis) earlier. PUVG was found to be negatively correlated to age at first substance consumption, but positively correlated to the time spent playing video games. However, it was not correlated to risks of substance dependence (scores of AUDIT-C, HSI, and CAST). Finally, our results are consistent with the literature, in regard to frequency of substance use and use of video games in adolescence. These data will allow for a better consideration of prevention strategies and future care in this particular field. PMID:25972826

  6. Why do some socioeconomically disadvantaged women eat better than others? An investigation of the personal, social and environmental correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lauren; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the contribution of individual, social and environmental factors to predicting fruit and vegetable consumption among women of low socioeconomic position (SEP). An Australian community sample of 355 women of low SEP provided survey data on sociodemographic information, diet (fruit and vegetable consumption), and various cognitive, behavioural, social and perceived environmental influences on healthy eating. Information on the availability and accessibility of major chain supermarkets and fruit and vegetable stores from participant's residence was collected through objective audits. Women who were older, dieting to lose weight, had a greater taste preference for fruit and perceived the cost of fruit to be lower were more likely to be high fruit consumers. Women who had a high BMI were more likely to be high vegetable consumers. Women who perceived a greater availability of healthy foods in their neighbourhoods were more likely to be high fruit and vegetable consumers. Strategies aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among low SEP women should focus on modifying perceptions about the cost, availability and taste of fruits and vegetables. Tailoring nutrition interventions to accommodate differences in age, weight-control practices and weight status may also prove beneficial.

  7. Consumption of added sugar among U.S. children and adolescents, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Ervin, R Bethene; Kit, Brian K; Carroll, Margaret D; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2012-03-01

    Approximately 16% of children and adolescents’ total caloric intakes came from added sugars. Boys consumed more added sugars than girls. Preschool-aged children consumed the fewest calories from added sugars. Although girls consumed a smaller absolute amount of calories from added sugars than boys, their intakes were not that different from boys when the amounts are expressed as a percentage of total caloric intakes. Non-Hispanic white children and adolescents consumed a larger percentage of their calories from added sugars than Mexican-American children and adolescents. Also, Non-Hispanic black girls consumed a larger percentage of their calories from added sugars than Mexican-American girls. There was very little difference in added sugar consumption based on PIR. More of the added sugars calories came from foods as opposed to beverages. Previous research has demonstrated that sodas are the single leading food source of added sugars intakes among children, adolescents, and adults (2,4). Our results showed a little more than 40% of calories from added sugars came from beverages. Poti and Popkin (5) have suggested that eating location impacts daily energy intake in children and adolescents and that foods prepared away from home, are contributing to their increased total energy intake. Our results showed that more of the added sugars calories were consumed at home rather than away from home. A substantial percentage of calories in the diets of children and adolescents between 2005 and 2008 came from added sugars. According to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines "reducing the consumption of these sources of added sugars will lower the caloric content of the diet, without compromising its nutrient adequacy (3)." This strategy could play an important role in reducing the high prevalence of obesity in the United States (6) without compromising adequate nutrition.

  8. Let them eat fruit! The effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on psychological well-being in young adults: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Anitra C.; Mainvil, Louise A.; Vissers, Margreet C. M.

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the psychological benefits of a 14-day preregistered clinical intervention to increase fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in 171 low-FV-consuming young adults (67% female, aged 18–25). Participants were randomly assigned into a diet-as-usual control condition, an ecological momentary intervention (EMI) condition involving text message reminders to increase their FV consumption plus a voucher to purchase FV, or a fruit and vegetable intervention (FVI) condition in which participants were given two additional daily servings of fresh FV to consume on top of their normal diet. Self-report outcome measures were depressive symptoms and anxiety measured pre- and post-intervention, and daily negative and positive mood, vitality, flourishing, and flourishing behaviors (curiosity, creativity, motivation) assessed nightly using a smartphone survey. Vitamin C and carotenoids were measured from blood samples pre- and post-intervention, and psychological expectancies about the benefits of FV were measured post-intervention to test as mediators of psychological change. Only participants in the FVI condition showed improvements to their psychological well-being with increases in vitality, flourishing, and motivation across the 14-days relative to the other groups. No changes were found for depressive symptoms, anxiety, or mood. Intervention benefits were not mediated by vitamin C, carotenoids, or psychological expectancies. We conclude that providing young adults with high-quality FV, rather than reminding them to eat more FV (with a voucher to purchase FV), resulted in significant short-term improvements to their psychological well-being. These results provide initial proof-of-concept that giving young adults fresh fruit and vegetables to eat can have psychological benefits even over a brief period of time. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12615000183583 PMID:28158239

  9. Consumption of Added Sugar among U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2005-2008. NCHS Data Brief. No. 87

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, R. Bethene; Kit, Brian K.; Carroll, Margaret D.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of added sugars, which are sweeteners added to processed and prepared foods, has been associated with measures of cardiovascular disease risk among adolescents, including adverse cholesterol concentrations. Although the percent of daily calories derived from added sugars declined between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008, consumption of…

  10. Associations between the school food environment, student consumption and body mass index of Canadian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing attention has been paid to the school food environment as a strategy to reduce childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between the school food environment, students’ dietary intake, and obesity in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods In 2007/08, principal responses about the school environment (N = 174) were linked to grades 7-12 students (N = 11,385) from corresponding schools, who participated in the BC Adolescent Health Survey. Hierarchical mixed-effect regression analyses examined the association between the school food environment and student’s intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), food consumption, and body mass index. Analyses controlled for school setting, neighborhood education level and student’s age and sex. Results School availability of SSBs was positively associated with moderate (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.02-1.30) and high (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.13-1.80) SSB intake as were less healthful school nutrition guidelines for moderate SSB consumers only (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.48-0.88). Availability of SSBs at school and its consumption were positively associated with student obesity (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.12-2.01 and OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.19-2.34, respectively) but not with overweight. In contrast, consumption of less healthful food was positively associated with overweight (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.06). Conclusions The results of this study provide further evidence to support the important role of schools in shaping adolescents’ dietary habits. Availability and consumption of SSBs, but not less healthful foods, at school were associated with higher adolescent obesity highlighting that other environments also contribute to adolescent obesity. PMID:24666770

  11. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Risk of Distal Gastric Cancer in the Shanghai Women's and Men's Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Epplein, Meira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Chow, Wong-Ho; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong-Lan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Results from case-control and cohort studies of the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and gastric cancer risk have been inconsistent. Cases for the current study consisted of incident distal gastric cancers identified between 1996 and 2007 among members of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (n = 206) and the Shanghai Men's Health Study (n = 132). Intakes of fruits, vegetables, and select micronutrients were assessed on the basis of validated food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate-adjusted hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by Cox proportional hazards regression. For women, no associations were found between gastric cancer risk and the highest intake of fruits (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68, 1.54; Ptrend = 0.87) or vegetables (HR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.60, 1.31; Ptrend = 0.32). For men, increased fruit intake was associated with decreased risk of distal gastric cancer (for the highest quartile of intake, HR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.84; Ptrend = 0.004), but no association was seen with increased intake of vegetables (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.59, 1.68; Ptrend = 0.87). The inverse association with fruit intake for men was more evident among ever smokers (Ptrend = 0.001) than never smokers (Ptrend = 0.67). No associations between dietary intakes of select antioxidant micronutrients were seen for men or women. Fruit intake is inversely associated with distal gastric cancer risk among men in Shanghai, China. PMID:20647333

  12. Oral consumption of pomegranate fruit extract inhibits growth and progression of primary lung tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naghma; Afaq, Farrukh; Kweon, Mee-Hyang; Kim, Kyungmann; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2007-04-01

    To develop novel mechanism-based preventive approaches for lung cancer, we examined the effect of oral consumption of a human achievable dose of pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) on growth, progression, angiogenesis, and signaling pathways in two mouse lung tumor protocols. Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] and N-nitroso-tris-chloroethylurea (NTCU) were used to induce lung tumors, and PFE was given in drinking water to A/J mice. Lung tumor yield was examined on the 84th day and 140 days after B(a)P dosing and 240 days after NTCU treatment. Mice treated with PFE and exposed to B(a)P and NTCU had statistically significant lower lung tumor multiplicities than mice treated with carcinogens only. Tumor reduction was 53.9% and 61.6% in the B(a)P + PFE group at 84 and 140 days, respectively, compared with the B(a)P group. The NTCU + PFE group had 65.9% tumor reduction compared with the NTCU group at 240 days. Immunoblot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to determine effect on cell survival pathways and markers of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis. PFE treatment caused inhibition of (a) activation of nuclear factor-kappaB and IkappaBalpha kinase, (b) degradation and phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, (c) phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1/2, and p38), (d) phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (p85 and p110), (e) phosphorylation of Akt at Thr(308), (f) activation of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, (g) phosphorylation of c-met, and (h) markers of cell proliferation (Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and angiogenesis (inducible nitric oxide synthase, CD31, and vascular endothelial growth factor) in lungs of B(a)P- and NTCU-treated mice. Thus, our data show that PFE significantly inhibits lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice and merits investigation as a chemopreventive agent for human lung cancer.

  13. Psychosocial Determinants of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in a Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-Hong; Kogashiwa, Michiko; Mori, Naoko; Yamashita, Shikibu; Fujii, Wakako; Ueda, Nobuo; Homma, Hiroto; Suzuki, Hisao; Masuoka, Noriyoshi

    2016-01-01

    There is limited evidence in Japan regarding the psychosocial determinants of fruit/vegetable intake. We performed a cross-sectional study of people aged 18 years or older in four regions of Japan; 2308 (men: 1012, women: 1296) individuals who completed the questionnaires were included. We found that 24.8% of people were aware of the current recommendations for vegetables and 13.2% for fruit and that “ability to design meals” and “availability when eating outside of the home” were the most important factors related to self-efficacy and barriers to fruit and vegetable intake, respectively. People with high self-efficacy (OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 2.17, 4.60 for fruit; OR: 4.52; 95% CI: 3.08, 6.64 for vegetables) were more likely to consume more fruit and vegetables. People with high scores on attitude (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.24) and social support (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.27) were more likely to consume more fruit. People with high perceived barriers (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.98) were less likely to consume fruit. This study suggests a need to increase the general population’s awareness of the fruit and vegetable intake recommendations; facilitating positive attitudes, self-efficacy, and social support for individuals and strengthening the ability of individuals to design meals with more vegetables and fruit might be useful intervention programs. PMID:27527198

  14. Analysis of Kimchi, vegetable and fruit consumption trends among Korean adults: data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Ha, Ae-Wha; Choi, Eun-Ok

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to analyze daily kimchi, vegetable and fruit consumption by general characteristics and vegetable and fruit consumption from 1998 to 2012 by the Korean population based on the data of the KNHANES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). SUBJECTS/METHODS This study is based on the 1998-2012 KNHNES. Analysis data on 54,700 subjects aged 19 years and older were obtained from health behavior interviews and the 24-hour dietary recall method. RESULTS Daily kimchi consumption and portion size of kimchi decreased significantly from 1998 to 2012 (adjusted P for trend < 0.0001). Meanwhile, daily consumption of both non-salted vegetable and fruit with and without kimchi did not significantly change between 1998 and 2012. Reduced consumption of kimchi, non-salted vegetable, and fruit was observed for both genders as well as daily meal episodes and cooking locations. Male and female subjects with insufficient non-salted vegetable and fruit intake were increased 1.4 times and 1.3 times, respectively, in 2012 than 1998. All subjects consumed at least 400 g/day of non-salted vegetable, fruit, and kimchi in each survey year, although they consumed insufficient amounts (< 400 g/day) of non-salted vegetable and fruit without kimchi. CONCLUSIONS Since Koreans generally consume high amounts of fermented vegetables, including kimchi, total vegetables and fruit. Consumption of these foods by the Korean adult population reached 400 g, which is the recommended intake of the WCRF/AICR. Based on this result, it is necessary to promote consumption of kimchi in the Korean population and research the development of low sodium kimchi in the future. PMID:27087903

  15. Prevalence, comorbidities, and cofactors associated with alcohol consumption among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Mala A; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta B; Abdul Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Bt; Kamaruddin, Rozanim Bt; Sabtu, Mohd Yusoff B

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol is deleterious to physical and mental health as well as social well-being. This study aims to examine the prevalence of alcohol consumption and factors associated with its use among school-going Malaysian adolescents. The Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 employed 2-stage clustering design to Malaysian secondary school respondents aged 12 to 17 years. The prevalence of current alcohol usage was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8-10.07) overall, 11.2% (95% CI: 9.80-12.80) among males, and 23.4 (95% CI: 21.40-25.50) among Chinese students. Multivariate logistic regression showed that adolescents who had used alcohol were more likely to have used substance (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.39; 95% CI: 2.33-4.99), experienced injury (aOR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.20-1.95), and engaged in sexual behaviors (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.12-1.79), and fights (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.08-1.41). The current national policies on alcohol should be strengthened to curb alcohol consumption among adolescents.

  16. [Association between physical violence, consumption of alcohol and other drugs, and bullying among Brazilian adolescents].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Silvania Suely Caribé de Araújo; Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; Sá, Naíza Nayla Bandeira de; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Araújo, Wildo Navegantes de; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to identify the association between alcohol and drug consumption and bullying on the one hand and involvement in situations of physical violence among adolescents 13 to 15 years in public and private schools in State capitals and the Federal District of Brazil. The study analyzed data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE) for the year 2009. Data analysis used logistic regression. Prevalence of involvement in physical violence was 12.9% more common in boys than girls. Both genders showed associations between physical violence or being a victim of bullying and use of illegal drugs, plus the heightened effect of the combined consumption of alcohol and other drugs. In boys, alcohol consumption showed a significant association with physical violence. Having the father or both parents living at home was inversely associated with physical violence in girls. Knowledge of factors associated with physical violence among adolescents is important for supporting health promotion strategies and a culture of peace, thereby counteracting the idea of taking teenage violence for granted.

  17. Body weight and food consumption scores in adolescents from northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Augusto Cesar; de Andrade, Maria Izabel Siqueira; Lima, Vera Lúcia de Menezes; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of excess weight and analyze eating habits in relation to cardiovascular disease in adolescents from the city of Vitória de Santo Antão, state of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with male and female students (10-19 years old) enrolled at public and private schools in Vitória de Santo Antão. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle variables were collected. Food consumption was evaluated using a Food Frequency Questionnaire and subsequently converted to monthly intake pattern scores, obtaining the intake distribution for a group of foods associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and for a group of protective foods. The significance level for the statistical tests was set at 5.0%. Results: The sample consisted of 2866 students. The female gender accounted for 54.2% of the sample, and median age was 14 years (interquartile range: 12-16 years). The food intake scores showed greater dispersion in the group of protective foods (51.1%). Higher median scores for consumption of risk foods were found among adolescents whose mothers had more than 9 years of schooling (p<0.001). Conclusions: Excess weight was prevalent among the students analyzed. The consumption of risk foods was only associated with maternal schooling, which shows the need for nutritional interventions directed at families, regardless of socioeconomic status. PMID:26113308

  18. Pesticide residues intake of French adults under increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables--a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Barnat, Saida; Boisset, Michel; Casse, Francine; Catteau, Michel; Lecerf, Jean-Michel; Veschambre, Daniel; Periquet, Alain

    2010-02-01

    The increase of fresh vegetable and fruit (FVF) intake could contribute to the prevention of obesity and several major pathologies and thus represents a major public health goal in industrial countries. Nutritional recommendations for increased consumption of FVF could lead to ingestion of unwanted amounts of pesticides. This study was undertaken to evaluate theoretical exposure of French adults to pesticide residues under increasing amounts of FVF intake. Balanced menus with 200 - 400 - 600 - 800 and 1200 g FVF/day were established. Amounts of active substances brought by every FVF vector, at the maximum residue level (MRL) were summed up to determine the intake for each active substance. Values were compared to the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) to point out any potential over exposure. A maximalistic approach was adopted and no reducing factor due to processing was taken into account. It was found that under minimal recommended consumption of fruit and vegetables (400 g/d), no active substance reached the ADI, but 18 vs 144 were over 10% of the ADI. Raising FVF to 600 g/d increased the number of active substances over 10 % of the ADI to 24, but again in no case was the ADI exceeded. Doubling the intake to 800 g/d gives values over the ADI for 2 active substances only (cyhexatin and thirame). It was concluded that the increase in fruit and vegetables up to 800 g per day should not expose adults over the ADIs for a majority of authorized pesticides. In this regard, residues levels of ten active substances in fruit and vegetables should deserve particular attention.

  19. Measurement Properties of Psychosocial and Environmental Measures Associated with Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Middle School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granner, Michelle L.; Evans, Alexandra E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the measurement properties of several scales modified or created to assess factors related to fruit and vegetable intake within a young adolescent population. Design: Cross-sectional with data collected via self-report. Setting: Data were collected in regularly scheduled classes in the school setting. Participants: African…

  20. Relationship between adolescents' and their friends' eating behaviors: breakfast, fruit, vegetable, whole-grain, and dairy intake.

    PubMed

    Bruening, Meg; Eisenberg, Marla; MacLehose, Richard; Nanney, Marilyn S; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-10-01

    We examined associations between adolescents' and their friends' healthy eating behaviors, specifically breakfast, fruit, vegetable, whole-grain, and dairy food intake as reported by both adolescents and their friends. Data for this study were drawn from EAT-2010 (Eating and Activity among Teens), a population-based study examining multilevel factors of eating, physical activity, and weight-related outcomes among adolescents (80% racial/ethnic minority) in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, during the 2009-2010 academic year. In-class surveys were completed by 2,043 adolescents in 20 schools. Adolescents identified friends from a class roster; friends' survey data were then linked to each participant. Generalized estimating equation linear regression models were used to examine associations between adolescents' healthy eating behaviors and these behaviors from their friends (friend group and best friends), adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Significant positive associations were found for breakfast eating between adolescents and their friend groups and best friends (friend groups β=.26, P<0.001; best friends β=.19, P=0.004), as well was for whole-grain intake (friend groups β=.14, P<0.001; best friends β=.13, P=0.003) and dairy food intake (friend groups β=.08, P=0.014; best friends β=.09, P=0.002). Adolescents' and their best friends' vegetable intake were also significantly related (β=.09, P=0.038). No associations were seen among friends for fruit intake. Findings from our study suggest that adolescent friends exhibit similarities in healthy eating patterns. Registered dietitians and health professionals may consider developing strategies to engage friends to promote adolescents' healthy dietary behaviors.

  1. Consumption of alcoholic beverages in adolescence and adulthood and risk of testicular germ cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Mary L; Doody, David R; Trabert, Britton; Starr, Jacqueline R; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M

    2016-12-01

    The etiology of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) remains obscure and accumulating evidence suggests that postnatal environmental or lifestyle factors may play a role. To investigate whether consumption of alcoholic beverages during adolescence or adulthood is associated with TGCT risk, we analyzed data from a USA population-based case-control study of 540 18-44 year-old TGCT cases and 1,280 age-matched controls. Participants were queried separately about consumption of beer, wine and liquor during grades 7-8, grades 9-12 and the 5 years before reference date (date of diagnosis for cases and corresponding date for controls). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of TGCT risk with alcoholic beverage consumption during the different periods, both total and by specific beverage types and separately for seminomas and nonseminomas. Compared with nondrinkers in the 5 years before reference date, the OR (95% CI) for 1-6, 7-13 and ≥14 drinks per week were 1.20 (0.85, 1.69), 1.23 (0.81, 1.85) and 1.56 (1.03, 2.37), respectively (p-trend = 0.04). The corresponding results for alcohol consumption in grades 9-12 were 1.39 (1.06, 1.82), 1.07 (0.72, 1.60), 1.53 (1.01, 2.31) (p-trend = 0.05). Alcohol consumption in grades 7-8 was uncommon and no statistically significant associations with TGCT were observed. Associations with alcohol consumption in the 5 years before reference date appeared stronger for nonseminomas than for seminomas, but the differences were not statistically significant (p≥0.10). Associations were similar across different alcoholic beverage types. Consumption of alcoholic beverages may be associated with an increased TGCT risk.

  2. Consumption of fruit and vegetables reduces risk of pancreatic cancer: evidence from epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi-Jun; Wu, Lang; Zheng, Li-Qiang; Xu, Xin; Ji, Chao; Gong, Ting-Ting

    2016-05-01

    Observational studies have reported inconsistent results on the association between fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. We carried out a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to summarize available evidence. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science databases for relevant studies published until the end of January 2015. Fixed-effects and random-effects models were used to estimate the summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. A total of 15 case-control studies, eight prospective studies, and one pooled analysis fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The summary RR for the highest versus the lowest intake was 0.73 (95% CI=0.53-1.00) for fruit and vegetables, 0.73 (95% CI=0.63-0.84) for fruit, and 0.76 (95% CI=0.69-0.83) for vegetables, with significant heterogeneities (I=70.5, 55.7, and 43.0%, respectively). Inverse associations were observed in the stratified analysis by study design, although the results of prospective studies showed borderline significance, with corresponding RR=0.90 (95% CI=0.77-1.05) for fruit and vegetable intake, 0.93 (95% CI=0.83-1.03) for fruit intake, and 0.89 (95% CI=0.80-1.00) for vegetable intake. Besides, significant inverse associations were observed in the majority of other subgroup analyses by study quality, geographic location, exposure assessment method, and adjustment for potential confounders. Findings from the present meta-analysis support that fruit and vegetable intake is associated inversely with the risk of pancreatic cancer. However, study design may play a key role in the observed magnitude of the aforementioned association. Future well-designed prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  3. Chronic alcohol consumption from adolescence to adulthood in mice--hypothalamic gene expression changes in insulin-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Song, Huaiguang; Jin, Meilei; Xiao, Huasheng; Zhao, Guoping; Zou, Hong; Yu, Lei

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a developmental stage vulnerable to alcohol drinking-related problems, and alcohol exposure during adolescence may lead to long-lasting consequences. The hypothalamus is a key brain region for food and water intake regulation as well as weight control, and is one of the alcohol-sensitive brain regions. However, it is not known what the alcohol effect is on the hypothalamus following adolescent alcohol intake, chronically over adolescent development, at moderate levels. We employed a model of chronic moderate alcohol intake from adolescence to adulthood in mice, and analyzed the effect of alcohol on growth and weight gain, as well as hypothalamic gene expression patterns. The results indicated that chronic alcohol consumption during adolescence, even at moderate levels, led to both a reduction in weight gain in mice, and considerable gene expression changes in the hypothalamus. Pathway analysis and real-time PCR identified the type II diabetes mellitus and the insulin-signaling pathways as being the hypothalamic pathways affected by chronic alcohol. Our findings from the mouse alcohol consumption study therefore serve as a potential warning against alcohol consumption during adolescence, such as in teens and college students.

  4. Patulin and its dietary intake by fruit juice consumption in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Rezapoor Jeiran, Masoome

    2015-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin (PAT) from fruit juices consumed in Iran. PAT content was determined using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection in 161 samples of fruit juices including apple, pineapple, pear, peach, pomegranate and white and red grape juices. Results revealed the presence of PAT in 16.1% of the samples examined, ranging from 5 to 190.7 µg/kg. Average and median PAT content in positive samples was 34.5 and 18.5 µg/kg, respectively. PAT concentration in 2.5% of the samples was higher than the maximum limit as set by European regulations for PAT in fruit products (50 µg/kg). Estimated daily intake of PAT by fruit juice was 16.4, 45.9 and 74.6 ng/kg bw/day for Iranian adults, children and babies, respectively. The results of this study showed that PAT does not seem to be a problem in fruit-based drinks commercialised in Iran, except for apple juice.

  5. Comparison of maximal oxygen consumption between obese black and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Andreacci, Joseph L; Robertson, Robert J; Dubé, John J; Aaron, Deborah J; Dixon, Curt B; Arslanian, Silva A

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) differed between clinically obese black and white children and if a difference existed to determine whether it was related to hematological profiles and/or physical activity/inactivity levels. Twenty-three black and 21 white adolescents were matched for age, BMI, and Tanner stage (II-V). Body composition was determined by DEXA and CT scan. Daily physical activity/inactivity was assessed by questionnaire. VO2max was assessed using the Bruce treadmill protocol. Black participants had significantly lower VO2max and VO2maxFFM values when compared with white adolescents (26.1 +/- 4.2 versus 29.9 +/- 3.1 mL . kg(-1) . min(-1); 48.3 +/- 8.8 versus 55.6 +/- 5.2 mL . kgFFM(-1) . min(-1), respectively). Black adolescents also had significantly lower Hb concentrations ([Hb]) than white children (12.7 +/- 1.3 versus 13.4 +/- 0.7 g/dL). Black adolescents were more physically inactive than their white peers. VO2max correlated with [Hb] for the combined groups. Obese black adolescents had lower VO2max compared with white children and this difference was explained, in part, by the lower [Hb] observed in the black participants. Further investigations should study Hb flow rate (a function of [Hb] . maximal cardiac output) and physical activity/inactivity patterns in obese black and white children as it relates to VO2max.

  6. The relation between intra- and interpersonal factors and food consumption level among Iranian adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Zahraei, Nafisehsadat Nekuei; Nazarian, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poor nutrition habits in adolescent girls endanger their health and are followed by serious systemic diseases in adulthood and negative effects on their reproductive health. To design health promotion programs, understanding of the intra- and interpersonal associated factors with treatment is essential, and this was the aim of this study. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 193 adolescent girls of age 11-15 years. Random cluster selection was used for sample selection. Food group consumption pattern was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Also, perceived susceptibility/severity and nutritional attitude as intrapersonal factors and social support as interpersonal factor were assessed. The relationship between food group consumption level and nutritional attitude and perceived treat (susceptibility/severity) as intrapersonal factors and perceived social support as interpersonal factor were assessed by linear multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Results showed that the level of sweetmeat food consumption was related to perceived social support (P = 0.03) and nutritional attitude (P = 0.01) negatively. In addition, an inverse and significant association was found between the level of junk food intake and informational perceived social support (P = 0.004). The association between the level of fast food intake and the perceived parental social support for preparation of healthy food was negatively significant (P = 0.03). Breakfast consumption was related to nutritional attitude (P = 0.03), social support (P = 0.03), and perceived severity (P = 0.045). Conclusions: Results revealed that perceived social support and nutritional attitude are the important and related factors in dietary intake among girls, and promotion of social support and modification of nutritional attitude may lead to healthy nutritional behaviors among them. PMID:27095987

  7. Portrayal of Alcohol Consumption in Movies and Drinking Initiation in Low-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, James D.; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Mathis, Federica; Florek, Ewa; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol consumption in movies affects the likelihood that low-risk adolescents will start to drink alcohol. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 2346 adolescent never drinkers who also reported at baseline intent to not to do so in the next 12 months (mean age 12.9 years, SD = 1.08). Recruitment was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in 112 state-funded schools in Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland. Exposure to movie alcohol consumption was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country in the years 2004 to 2009. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions assessed the relationship between baseline exposure to movie alcohol consumption and initiation of trying alcohol, and binge drinking (≥ 5 consecutive drinks) at follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, 40% of the sample initiated alcohol use and 6% initiated binge drinking by follow-up. Estimated mean exposure to movie alcohol consumption was 3653 (SD = 2448) occurrences. After age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics, and drinking behavior of peers, parents, and siblings were controlled for, exposure to each additional 1000 movie alcohol occurrences was significantly associated with increased relative risk for trying alcohol, incidence rate ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.08; P = .003), and for binge drinking, incidence rate ratio = 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.20; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Seeing alcohol depictions in movies is an independent predictor of drinking initiation, particularly for more risky patterns of drinking. This result was shown in a heterogeneous sample of European youths who had a low affinity for drinking alcohol at the time of exposure. PMID:24799536

  8. Ethnic differences in BMI among Dutch adolescents: what is the role of screen-viewing, active commuting to school, and consumption of soft drinks and high-caloric snacks?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amika S; Chinapaw, Mai JM; Brug, Johannes; Kremers, Stef PJ; Visscher, Tommy LS; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Background The threats posed by the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity on public health have been widely acknowledged. Several population groups, which deserve special attention because of their higher prevalence rates, have been identified. These include adolescents and ethnic sub-groups. The aim of the present study was twofold: (1) to assess ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and in behaviours that are related to both energy intake and energy expenditure, and (2) to examine whether these behaviours explain the relationship between ethnicity and BMI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional data analysis among 957 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 12.7 years). Body height and weight were measured using a standardized protocol. Adolescents completed a questionnaire on screen-viewing behaviour, physical activity, consumption of sugar-containing beverages, and consumption of high-caloric snacks. Results In our study sample 121 adolescents (= 13%) were of Non-Western origin. BMI was significantly higher in Non-Western adolescents (boys: 19.9 kg/m2, SD = 3.0, girls: 20.9 kg/m2, SD = 3.8) compared to Dutch adolescents (boys: 18.4 kg/m2, SD = 2.8, girls: 19.0 kg/m2, SD = 3.0). Our results show that time spent on television viewing, active commuting to school, and consumption of fruit juices partially mediated the association between BMI and ethnicity. Conclusion Behaviours related to both energy expenditure and energy intake may contribute to the ethnic differences in BMI in adolescents and should be considered when tailoring overweight prevention programs to ethnic subpopulations. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN87127361 PMID:19383136

  9. The Relationship between Habitual Breakfast Consumption Frequency and Academic Performance in British Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Dye, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Breakfast has been shown to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, there is a paucity of studies which examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and academic performance and a complete absence of studies in UK school children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine the association between habitual breakfast consumption frequency and Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) performance, a reasoning test routinely used in UK schools. Adolescents aged 11-13 years (n = 292; males: 53.8%) completed a questionnaire to report usual weekly breakfast intake frequency. Breakfast was subjectively defined by the participants. Habitual weekly breakfast consumption frequency was categorized as rare (0-2 days), occasional (3-4 days), or frequent (5-7 days). Participants' CAT performance was used as a proxy measure of academic performance. The CAT has three components: verbal, non-verbal, and quantitative reasoning. Normative standard age scores (SAS) for verbal, non-verbal, quantitative reasoning, and overall mean SAS were obtained from school records and hierarchical linear regression models were applied, adjusting for the confounders: gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status, English as an Additional Language, and body mass index. Habitual breakfast consumption frequency did not significantly predict any CAT SAS in all models (crude and adjusted). However, methodological considerations which could account for this disagreement with previous research, were identified. These included the isolation of school-day breakfast consumption, use of a standard definition of breakfast, and measurement of actual academic performance. The findings of the current study suggest more comprehensive ways in which future studies might investigate the relationship between habitual breakfast consumption and academic performance.

  10. Increasing fruit, vegetable and water consumption in summer day camps--3-year findings of the healthy lunchbox challenge.

    PubMed

    Beets, Michael W; Tilley, Falon; Weaver, Robert G; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Moore, Justin B

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the 3-year outcomes (2011-2013) from the healthy lunchbox challenge (HLC) delivered in the US-based summer day camps (SDC) (8-10 hours day(-1), 10-11 weeks summer(-1), SDC) to increase children and staff bringing fruit, vegetables and water (FVW) each day. A single group pre- with multiple post-test design was used in four large-scale SDCs serving more than 550 children day(-1) (6-12 years). The percentage of foods/beverages brought by children/staff, staff promotion of healthy eating and children's consumption of FVW was assessed via direct observation over 98 days across three summers. For children (3308 observations), fruit and vegetables (>11-16%) increased; no changes were observed for FVW for staff (398 observations). Reductions in unhealthy foods/beverages (e.g. soda/pop and chips) were observed for both children and staff (minus -10% to 38%). Staff role modeling unhealthy eating/drinking initially decreased but increased by 2013. The majority of children who brought fruit/vegetables consumed them. The HLC can influence the foods/beverages brought to SDCs. Enhancements are required to further increase FVW brought and consumed.

  11. Fruit, vegetable, and fish consumption and heart rate variability: the VA Normative Aging Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher intakes of antioxidants (vitamins C and E, carotenoids) found in fruit and vegetables, and omega-3 fatty acids from fish, may prevent cardiovascular disease. We examined whether higher intake of such antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids reduced effects of particles less than 2.5 µm in aerodyn...

  12. Analysis of the Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks among Polish Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Background: Energy drinks (EDs) are extremely popular among adults and adolescents. Regular intake of EDs may lead to an overdose of caffeine, loss of bone mass, overweight, hypertension and, in older age, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Some people mix EDs with alcohol, which adversely affects their health. The objective of this study was to analyze the consumption of EDs by adolescents. Methods: The study consisted of a questionnaire surveying amounts of drinks, preferences and product awareness among younger consumers. The study was carried out in junior and senior high schools in Poland (n = 2629). Results: EDs were consumed by 67% of students (quite frequently by 16%). Students who practiced sports were more willing to drink EDs. Also, boys drank them more often than girls. When selecting a particular ED, young people looked at the taste, price and effect. Most respondents consumed one ED (250 mL) daily, although there were individuals consuming two or more drinks daily. Most respondents knew the ingredients of EDs, and 24% admitted to mixing EDs with alcohol. Conclusions: EDs are extremely popular among adolescents. Young people drinking EDs every day are potentially at risk of taking an overdose of caffeine. PMID:26184263

  13. Effects of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption on Risk of Asthma, Wheezing and Immune Responses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Banafshe; Berthon, Bronwyn S; Wark, Peter; Wood, Lisa G

    2017-03-29

    Abstract: Evidence suggests that reduced intake of fruit and vegetables may play a critical role in the development of asthma and allergies. The present review aimed to summarize the evidence for the association between fruit and vegetable intake, risk of asthma/wheeze and immune responses. Databases including PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL and EMBASE were searched up to June 2016. Studies that investigated the effects of fruit and vegetable intake on risk of asthma/wheeze and immune responses were considered eligible (n = 58). Studies used cross-sectional (n = 30), cohort (n = 13), case-control (n = 8) and experimental (n = 7) designs. Most of the studies (n = 30) reported beneficial associations of fruit and vegetable consumption with risk of asthma and/or respiratory function, while eight studies found no significant relationship. Some studies (n = 20) reported mixed results, as they found a negative association between fruit only or vegetable only, and asthma. In addition, the meta-analyses in both adults and children showed inverse associations between fruit intake and risk of prevalent wheeze and asthma severity (p < 0.05). Likewise, vegetable intake was negatively associated with risk of prevalent asthma (p < 0.05). Seven studies examined immune responses in relation to fruit and vegetable intake in asthma, with n = 6 showing a protective effect against either systemic or airway inflammation. Fruit and vegetable consumption appears to be protective against asthma.

  14. Correlation between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids consumption and BDNF peripheral levels in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although several studies have reported an association between mental disorders and serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), this association is still poorly understood. The study of factors associated with both BDNF levels and mental disorders, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), may help to elucidate the mechanisms mediating the relationship between the two variables. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate whether the intake n-3 PUFAs correlates with serum levels of BDNF. Findings This study involved 137 adolescents drawn from a community sample, including a group with high levels of anxiety, assessed using the Screen for Children and Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. Blood samples were collected and serum BDNF levels were measured. n-3 PUFAs were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire for adolescents. Correlations were performed to assess the association between n-3 PUFAs intake and BDNF levels. Effects of potential confounders (total fat consumption, age, gender and anxiety) were examined using linear regression models. There was a direct correlation between n-3 PUFAs consumption and serum BDNF levels, which remained significant even after accounting for potential confounders. Conclusions We were able to detect a correlation between n-3 PUFAs intake and peripheral BDNF levels. Our study was limited by its small sample size, and our external validity may be restricted by the oversampling of anxious adolescents. Our findings may help determine the nature of the association between mental disorders and serum levels of BDNF. However, more studies are needed to elucidate the possible mechanisms by which n-3 PUFAs intake affects BDNF levels, and how this may lead to an increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. PMID:24593295

  15. Using Virtual Pets to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Children: A Technology-Assisted Social Cognitive Theory Approach.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sun Joo Grace; Johnsen, Kyle; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Biersmith, Melanie; Ball, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    A virtual pet in the form of a mid-sized dog was developed based on the framework of social cognitive theory and tested as a vehicle for promoting fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in children. Three groups of children (N = 68) between the ages of 7 and 13 years were studied: baseline (no treatment), computer only, and virtual dog. Children in the virtual dog condition interacted with the virtual dog for 3 days, setting F&V consumption goals and receiving evaluation and reinforcement based on whether they met their self-set goals. Children vicariously experienced future health outcomes of F&V consumption by seeing, hearing, and feeling their virtual dog's physical and mental health improve or deteriorate based on their F&V consumption in the physical world. Children in the computer only condition interacted with a computer system that presented equivalent features, but without the virtual dog. Children in the baseline condition did not receive any experimental treatment. Results indicated that children in the virtual dog condition chose to be served significantly more F&V than those in the computer only or baseline conditions did. However, children in the virtual dog condition were unable to consume significantly more F&V than those in the computer only condition, although children in those two conditions consumed more F&V than the baseline condition. Food preferences did not differ significantly across the three conditions before and after the experimental treatments. Theoretical and practical potentials of using a virtual pet to promote F&V consumption systematically in children are discussed.

  16. [Initiation and consumption of psychoactive substances among adolescents and young adults in an Anti-Drug Psychosocial Care Center].

    PubMed

    Silva, Carolina Carvalho; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Carvalho, Rosely Cabral; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis; Cruz, Nilma Lázara de Almeida; da Silva, Mariana Rocha

    2014-03-01

    The study seeks to characterize the initiation and consumption pattern of psychoactive substances among adolescents and young adults enrolled in an Alcohol and Drug Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS-AD). This study was conducted with records of attendance and the consumption pattern was classified in accordance with WHO: infrequent use (lifetime use, per year or up to five days per month); frequent use (6 to 19 times in the past 30 days); heavy use (≥ 20 times in the last 30 days). In the age group comparison, the test for proportion and association analysis was used and the prevalence and prevalence ratio was calculated with a significance level of 5% and 95% confidence interval. Of the total of adolescents and young adults treated between 2003 and 2008 (475), most were male, single, poorly educated, live with relations and have psychic symptoms. Statistical significance was found for age at initiation of use: adolescents compared to young adults started earlier (≤ 14 years): tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, crack and other SPA consumption. Among adolescents, significant results were found for the less frequent consumption of tobacco, more frequent use of alcohol, and heavy consumption of marijuana. These findings may contribute to the preventive and therapeutic CAPS-AD programs.

  17. Feasibility of Using a Community-Supported Agriculture Program to Improve Fruit and Vegetable Inventories and Consumption in an Underresourced Urban Community

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis, Janae; Fish, Caitlin; D’Agostino, Ralph B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Direct-to-consumer marketing efforts, such as community-supported agriculture (CSA), have been proposed as a solution for disparities in fruit and vegetable consumption. Evaluations of such efforts have been limited. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a CSA intervention to increase household inventory of fruits and vegetables and fruit and vegetable consumption of residents of an underresourced community. Methods For this randomized, controlled feasibility study, we recruited 50 low-income women with children. Intervention (n = 25) participants were offered 5 educational sessions and a box of fresh produce for 16 weeks; control participants were not offered the sessions nor were they included in the produce delivery. We collected data on participants’ home inventory of fruits and vegetables and on their consumption of fruits and vegetables at baseline (May 2012) and postintervention (August and September 2012). Results Of 55 potential participants, 50 were enrolled and 44 were reached for follow-up. We observed a significant increase in the number of foods in the household inventory of fruits and vegetables in the intervention group compared with the control group. The intervention group reported greater increases in fruit and vegetable consumption; however, these did not reach significance. Intervention participants picked up produce 9.2 (standard deviation = 4.58) of 16 weeks; challenges included transportation and work schedules. Most participants (20 of 21) expressed interest in continued participation; all stated a willingness to pay $10 per week, and some were willing to pay as much as $25 per week. Conclusion CSA is a feasible approach for providing fresh fruits and vegetables to an underresourced community. Future studies should evaluate the impact of such a program in a larger sample and should take additional steps to facilitate participation. PMID:23948337

  18. The Effect of Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption on Overall Diet: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Sharon L; McKinley, Michelle C; Young, Ian S; Cardwell, Chris R; Woodside, Jayne V

    2016-01-01

    Increasing fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption is associated with reduced risk of major diseases. However, it is unclear if health benefits are related to increased micronutrient intake or to improvements in overall diet profile. This review aimed to assess if increasing FV consumption had an impact on diet profile. In the systematic review, 12 studies revealed increases in micronutrient intakes, whilst the meta-analysis confirmed macronutrient findings from the systematic review showing no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in energy (kcals) in seven studies (mean difference = 1 kcals [95% CI = -115, 117]; p = 0.98), significant decreases in total fat (% energy) in five studies (Mean difference = -4% [95% CI = -5, -3]; p = < 0.00001) and significant increases in fiber in six studies (Mean difference = 5.36 g [95% CI = 4, 7]; p = < 0.00001) and total carbohydrate (% energy) in four studies (Mean = 4% [95% CI= 2, 5]; p = < 0.00001). In conclusion, results indicate that increased FV consumption increases micronutrient, carbohydrate and fiber intakes and possibly reduces fat intake, with no overall effect on energy intake. Therefore health benefits may act through an improvement in overall diet profile alongside increased micronutrient intakes.

  19. Availability of, access to and consumption of fruits and vegetables in a peri-urban area in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Faber, Mieke; Laubscher, Ria; Laurie, Sunette

    2013-07-01

    Availability and consumption of fruits and vegetables were assessed in peri-urban households in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Caregivers of 400 randomly selected grade 6 and 7 learners were interviewed using a questionnaire that included unquantified food frequency questions. Using a repeated 24-h dietary recall, dietary intake was quantified for learners, caregivers and 2- to 5-year-old children in the household. Usual household fruit and vegetable consumption was expressed over three Living Standard Measure (LSM) categories. Average per capita intake of fruit and/or vegetables was 99 g for 2- to 5-year-old children and 124 g for caregivers. For consumers, fruits and/or vegetables contributed towards total dietary intake of fibre (16-21%), calcium (13-21%), vitamin A (27-31%) and vitamin C (47-62%). For households not consuming fruits (n = 297) and vegetables (n = 178) daily, cost was the major constraint (≥75%). Of all households, 52% had fruit trees and 25% had a vegetable garden. Animals destroying vegetables was the major constraint to 59% of vegetable growers. Household consumption of fruits and vegetables increased over the LSM categories. Caregivers in the higher LSM group more likely used printed material for information on healthy eating, had fruit trees, were confident about vegetable gardening and sold some of their produce. To enable peri-urban populations of low socio-economic status to consume more frequently a bigger variety of fruits and vegetables, the cost of purchasing these food items needs to be addressed by government and business sector. Households should further receive support to overcome constraints which hamper the success of home gardens.

  20. Initiation and Continuation of Best Friends and Adolescents' Alcohol Consumption: Do Self-Esteem and Self-Control Function as Moderators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Helle; Overbeek, Geertjan; Vermulst, Ad A.; Granic, Isabela; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    In this three-wave longitudinal survey, we investigated bi-directional longitudinal associations between best friends and adolescents' alcohol consumption. Additionally, since the relation between best friends and adolescents' drinking may be stronger if adolescents have not consumed alcohol yet, we examined this relation not only with regard to…

  1. Associations of quality of life with physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity in a free living, multiethnic population in Hawaii: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction High intake of fruit and vegetables and being physically active are associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. In the current study, we examined the associations of physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and TV/video watching (indicator for physical inactivity) with perceived quality of life (QOL) in a sample of free living adults. Methods A cohort (N = 139) from a random, multi-ethnic sample of 700 adults living in Hawaii was evaluated at 3-month intervals for the first year and 6-month intervals for the second year. QOL was assessed from self-reports of mental or physical health at the end of the study. Results Overall, the cohort participants appeared to maintain relatively constant levels of physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and TV/video watching. Physical activity was positively related to mental health (p-values < 0.05), but not physical health, at all time points regardless of participants' fruit and vegetable consumption and hours of TV/video watching. Neither mental nor physical health was associated with fruit and vegetable intake or TV/video watching. Conclusion Our study supports that physical activity is positively associated with mental health. Fruit and vegetable consumption and TV/video watching may be too specific to represent an individual's overall nutritional status and physical inactivity, respectively. PMID:21092223

  2. Belgian and Spanish consumption data and consumer handling practices for fresh fruits and vegetables useful for further microbiological and chemical exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Jacxsens, L; Ibañez, I Castro; Gómez-López, V M; Fernandes, J Araujo; Allende, A; Uyttendaele, M; Huybrechts, I

    2015-04-01

    A consumer survey was organized in Spain and Belgium to obtain consumption data and to gain insight into consumer handling practices for fresh vegetables consumed raw or minimally processed (i.e., heads of leafy greens, bell peppers, tomatoes, fresh herbs, and precut and packed leafy greens) and fruits to be consumed without peeling (i.e., apples, grapes, strawberries, raspberries, other berries, fresh juices, and precut mixed fruit). This information can be used for microbiological and/or chemical food safety research. After extensive cleanup of rough databases for missing and extreme values and age correction, information from 583 respondents from Spain and 1,605 respondents from Belgium (18 to 65 years of age) was retained. Daily intake (grams per day) was calculated taking into account frequency and seasonality of consumption, and distributions were obtained that can be used in quantitative risk assessment for chemical hazards with chronic effects on human health. Data also were recalculated to obtain discrete distributions of consumption per portion and the corresponding frequency of consumption, which can be used in acute microbiological risk assessment or outbreak investigations. The ranked median daily consumption of fruits and vegetables was similar in Spain and Belgium: apple > strawberry > grapes > strawberries and raspberries; and tomatoes > leafy greens > bell peppers > fresh herbs. However, vegetable consumption was higher (in terms of both portion and frequency of consumption) in Spain than in Belgium, whereas the opposite was found for fruit consumption. Regarding consumer handling practices related to storage time and method, Belgian consumers less frequently stored their fresh produce in a refrigerator and did so for shorter times compared with Spanish consumers. Washing practices for lettuce heads and packed leafy greens also were different. The survey revealed differences between these two countries in consumption and consumer handling practices

  3. Understanding barriers and facilitators of fruit and vegetable consumption among a diverse multi-ethnic population in the USA.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ming-Chin; Ickes, Scott B; Lowenstein, Lisa M; Shuval, Kerem; Ammerman, Alice S; Farris, Rosanne; Katz, David L

    2008-03-01

    A diet high in fruits and vegetables (F&V) has been associated with a decreased risk of certain cancers, reduced morbidity and mortality from heart disease, and enhanced weight management. Yet to date, most of the US population does not consume the recommended amount of F&V despite numerous interventions and government guidelines to promote consumption. Research has found various impediments to F&V consumption, such as high costs, an obesogenic environment and low socio-economic status. However, studies have not sufficiently focused on barriers and enablers to F&V intake among adult multi-ethnic populations. The present qualitative study examines 147 focus group participants' perceptions of impediments and enablers to F&V consumption. Twelve focus groups were conducted among African American, Hispanic and Caucasian men and women in North Carolina and Connecticut. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo Software. Text data were systematically analyzed by investigators to identify recurrent themes both within and across groups and states. Focus group results indicate that most participants were aware of the health benefits associated with a diet rich in F&V. Yet many admitted not adhering to the Health and Human Service's recommendations. Individual impediments consisted of the high costs of F&V and a perceived lack of time. Early home food environment was perceived as affecting F&V consumption later in life. Other barriers reported were ethnic-specific. The African American participants reported limited access to fresh produce. This finding is consistent with numerous studies and must be addressed through health promotion intervention. Both the church and primary care clinics were described by African Americans as appropriate settings for health behavior interventions; these findings should be considered. Hispanic participants, mostly immigrants, cited inhibiting factors encountered in their adopted US environment. There is a

  4. Do Emotional Appeals in Public Service Advertisements Influence Adolescents' Intention to Reduce Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages?

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Amy; Jordan, Amy B; Hennessy, Michael; Glanz, Karen; Strasser, Andrew; Vaala, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Mass media campaigns are a commonly used approach to reduce sugary drink consumption, which is linked to obesity in children and adolescents. The present study investigated the direct and mediated effects of emotional appeals in public service advertisements (PSAs) that aired between 2010 and 2012 on adolescents' intention to reduce their sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. An online randomized experiment was conducted with a national sample of adolescent respondents ages 13 to 17 years old (N = 805). Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions. Three experimental conditions represented PSAs with different emotional appeals: humor, fear, and nurturance, plus a fourth control condition. The outcome was adolescents' intention to cut back on SSBs. The direct effect of fear appeals on intention was mediated through adolescents' perception of the PSAs' argument strength; perceived argument strength was also the key mediator for the indirect effects of humor and nurturance on intention. Several hypothesized mediators influenced by the appeals were not associated with intention. This is the first study to test the effect of persuasive emotional appeals used in SSB-related PSAs. The perceived strength of the PSAs' arguments is important to consider in the communication of messages designed to reduce SSB consumption.

  5. Fresh Kids: the efficacy of a Health Promoting Schools approach to increasing consumption of fruit and water in Australia.

    PubMed

    Laurence, S; Peterken, R; Burns, C

    2007-09-01

    The Fresh Kids programme utilized the Health Promoting Schools (HPSs) framework to design a whole-of-school, multifaceted intervention targeting specific behaviours to promote healthy eating and reduce the risk factors associated with childhood obesity. The aim of the programme was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HPS framework to increase fruit and water consumption among primary school-aged children over a 2-year period. The study design was an interrupted time series. Four primary schools in the inner west of Melbourne, Australia, participated in the programme intervention. Baseline data were collected using a lunch box audit to assess the frequency of children with fresh fruit, water and sweet drinks, either brought from home or selected from canteen lunch orders. The lunch box audit was repeated periodically for up to 2 years following programme implementation to assess the sustainability of dietary changes. Across all participating schools, significant increases between 25 and 50% were observed in the proportion of children bringing fresh fruit. Similarly, all schools recorded increases between 15 and 60% in the proportion of students bringing filled water bottles to school and reductions between 8 and 38% in the proportion of children bringing sweet drinks. These significant changes in dietary patterns were sustained for up to 2 years following programme implementation. Targeting key nutrition behaviours and using the HPS framework is an effective and simple approach which could be readily implemented in similar childhood settings. Effective strategies include facilitating organizational change within the school; integrating curriculum activities; formalizing school policy and establishing project partnerships with local community nutrition and dietetic services.

  6. Whole grain consumption and body weight measures in children and adolescents: Results from NHANES 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of whole grain (WG) consumption and anthropometric measures in children and adolescents using a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 in children and 6-12 y (n=3,868) ...

  7. Cross-National Comparisons of the Association between Alcohol Consumption and Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Ystgaard, Mette; Hawton, Keith; Madge, Nicola; van Heeringen, Kees; de Wilde, Erik Jan; DeLeo, Diego; Fekete, Sandor; Morey, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    How differences in drinking patterns may affect the impact of alcohol consumption on deliberate self-harm among adolescents is explored in this international comparative study. Schools in Australia, Belgium, England, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, and Norway (N = 30,532) were surveyed. In all countries the risk of deliberate self-harm was…

  8. US adolescents and MyPyramid: Associations between fast-food consumption and lower likelihood of meeting recommendations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals of this study were to determine the effect of fast food consumption on adolescents’ food group intakes and likelihood of meeting recommendations outlined in USDA’s MyPyramid Food Guidance System. Two days of 24-hour recall data from 1,956 adolescents 12-19 years of age collected in What W...

  9. Influence of Family Communication Structure and Vanity Trait on Consumption Behavior: A Case Study of Adolescent Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Wei-Lung; Liu, Hsiang-Te; Lin, Tai-An; Wen, Yung-Sung

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the relationship between family communication structure, vanity trait, and related consumption behavior. The study used an empirical method with adolescent students from the northern part of Taiwan as the subjects. Multiple statistical methods and the SEM model were used for testing the hypotheses. The…

  10. Texting Your Way to Healthier Eating? Effects of Participating in a Feedback Intervention Using Text Messaging on Adolescents' Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a feedback intervention employing text messaging during 11 weeks on adolescents' behavior, self-efficacy and outcome expectations regarding fruit and vegetable intake. A pre- and post-survey was completed by 1488 adolescents school-wise randomly allocated to a control group and two experimental groups. Both…

  11. Are milk and alternatives and fruit and vegetable intakes during adolescence associated with cortical and trabecular bone structure, density, and strength in adulthood?

    PubMed

    Z Movassagh, E; Kontulainen, S; Baxter-Jones, A D G; Whiting, S; Szafron, M; Papadimitropoulos, M; Vatanparast, H

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the impact of food group intake during adolescence on bone structure and strength during adulthood. In females, we found a beneficial effect of adolescent milk and alternatives and fruit and vegetable intake on adult radius shaft and distal tibia bone structure, respectively. No association was observed in males.

  12. Alterations of Blood Pressure and ECG following Two-Week Consumption of Berberis integerrima Fruit Extract

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Naser

    2014-01-01

    In light of the popularity and also the various nutritional and medicinal properties of Berberis integerrima, this study was conducted to assess the influence of its aqueous extract on hemodynamic and electrocardiogram (ECG) indices of rat. Animals were divided to control (CTL), B50, B100, and B200 groups that orally received tap water, aqueous extracts of B. integerrima fruit 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively, for two weeks and on day 15, data were recorded. Different doses of barberry fruit extract had no significant effect on blood pressure, heart rate, RR interval, P duration, and Q wave amplitude of electrocardiogram. Extract administration was associated with an incremental trend in PR interval that was not statistically significant. Higher doses (100 and 200 mg/kg) of extract significantly increased the QRS interval (P < 0.01 versus CTL and B50 groups) but decreased the QTc interval (P < 0.01 versus CTL group and P < 0.001 versus B50 group), the JT interval, and TpTe interval (P < 0.001 versus CTL and B50 groups). The results suggest that high doses of barberry extract definitely prolong the depolarization phase and shorten the repolarization phase of ventricular muscle and hence induce alteration in heart electrical conductivity. PMID:27351000

  13. A Serious Video Game to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Elementary Aged Youth (Squire’s Quest! II): Rationale, Design, and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Riddhi; Cullen, Karen; Baranowski, Janice; Baranowski, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Background Youths eat fewer fruits and vegetables than recommended. Effective methods are needed to increase and maintain their fruit and vegetable consumption. Goal setting has been an effective behavior change procedure among adults, but has had limited effectiveness among youths. Implementation intentions are specific plans to facilitate goal attainment. Redefining goal setting to include implementation intentions may be an effective way to increase effectiveness. Video games offer a controlled venue for conducting behavioral research and testing hypotheses to identify mechanisms of effect. Objective This report describes the protocol that guided the design and evaluation of Squire’s Quest! II, a video game aimed to increase child fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods Squire’s Quest! II is a 10-episode videogame promoting fruit and vegetable consumption to 4th and 5th grade children (approximately 9-11 year old youths). A four group randomized design (n=400 parent/child dyads) was used to systematically test the effect of two types of implementation intentions (action, coping) on fruit and vegetable goal attainment and consumption of 4th and 5th graders. Data collection occurred at baseline, immediately post game-play, and 3 months later. Child was the unit of assignment. Three dietary recalls were collected at each data collection period by trained interviewers using the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR 2009). Psychosocial and process data were also collected. Results To our knowledge, this is the first research to explore the effect of implementation intentions on child fruit and vegetable goal attainment and consumption. Conclusions This intervention will contribute valuable information regarding whether implementation intentions are effective with elementary age children. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01004094 PMID:23612366

  14. Media as social influence: racial differences in the effects of peers and media on adolescent alcohol cognitions and consumption.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Pomery, Elizabeth A; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Wills, Thomas A; Kingsbury, John; Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen

    2010-12-01

    Racial differences in the effects of peer and media influence on adolescents' alcohol cognitions and consumption were examined in a large-scale panel study. With regard to peer influence, results from cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the relation between perceived peer drinking and own drinking was significant for both Black and White adolescents, but it was stronger for the White adolescents. With regard to media influence, structural modeling analyses indicated that exposure to drinking in movies was associated with more alcohol consumption 8 months and 16 months later. These effects were mediated by increases in the favorability of the adolescents' drinker prototypes, their willingness to drink, and their tendency to affiliate with friends who were drinking. Multiple group analyses indicated that, once again, the effects (both direct and indirect) were much stronger for White adolescents than for Black adolescents. The results suggest media influence works in a similar manner to social influence and that Whites may be more susceptible to both types of influence.

  15. Associations between Consumption of Dairy Foods and Anthropometric Indicators of Health in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nezami, Manijeh; Segovia-Siapco, Gina; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Sabaté, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a greater chance of a lifetime of obesity. Evidence suggests dairy at recommended levels could be beneficial in maintaining normal weight and body composition. We assessed whether dairy consumption is associated with anthropometric indicators of health (z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ); height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index (BMIZ); waist-to-height ratio (WHtR); fat-free mass (FFM); and fat mass (FM)) in adolescents. In a cross-sectional study, 536 males and females ages 12–18 completed a 151-item semi-quantitative web-based food frequency questionnaire that included 34 dairy-containing foods. Dairy foods were categorized into milk, cheese, sweetened dairy, and total dairy. Anthropometrics were measured during school visits. Total dairy intake was associated with WAZ (β = 0.25 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.49), p = 0.045) and HAZ (β = 0.28 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.52), p = 0.021). In boys, total dairy was associated with WHtR (β = 0.02 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.04), p = 0.039), FFM (β = 4.83 (95% CI: 1.79, 7.87), p = 0.002), and FM (β = 3.89 (95% CI: 0.58, 7.21), p = 0.021), and cheese was associated with FFM (β = 4.22 (95% CI: 0.98, 7.47), p = 0.011). Dairy consumption seems to influence growth in both genders, and body composition and central obesity in boys. Prospective studies are needed to identify how types of dairy relate to growth, body composition, and central obesity of adolescents. PMID:27420094

  16. Associations between Consumption of Dairy Foods and Anthropometric Indicators of Health in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nezami, Manijeh; Segovia-Siapco, Gina; Beeson, W Lawrence; Sabaté, Joan

    2016-07-13

    Childhood obesity is associated with a greater chance of a lifetime of obesity. Evidence suggests dairy at recommended levels could be beneficial in maintaining normal weight and body composition. We assessed whether dairy consumption is associated with anthropometric indicators of health (z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ); height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index (BMIZ); waist-to-height ratio (WHtR); fat-free mass (FFM); and fat mass (FM)) in adolescents. In a cross-sectional study, 536 males and females ages 12-18 completed a 151-item semi-quantitative web-based food frequency questionnaire that included 34 dairy-containing foods. Dairy foods were categorized into milk, cheese, sweetened dairy, and total dairy. Anthropometrics were measured during school visits. Total dairy intake was associated with WAZ (β = 0.25 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.49), p = 0.045) and HAZ (β = 0.28 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.52), p = 0.021). In boys, total dairy was associated with WHtR (β = 0.02 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.04), p = 0.039), FFM (β = 4.83 (95% CI: 1.79, 7.87), p = 0.002), and FM (β = 3.89 (95% CI: 0.58, 7.21), p = 0.021), and cheese was associated with FFM (β = 4.22 (95% CI: 0.98, 7.47), p = 0.011). Dairy consumption seems to influence growth in both genders, and body composition and central obesity in boys. Prospective studies are needed to identify how types of dairy relate to growth, body composition, and central obesity of adolescents.

  17. Breakfast consumption is positively associated with nutrient adequacy in Canadian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Barr, Susan I; DiFrancesco, Loretta; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-10-28

    Although breakfast is associated with more favourable nutrient intake profiles in children, limited data exist on the impact of breakfast on nutrient adequacy and the potential risk of excessive intakes. Accordingly, we assessed differences in nutrient intake and adequacy among breakfast non-consumers, consumers of breakfasts with ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) and consumers of other types of breakfasts. We used cross-sectional data from 12,281 children and adolescents aged 4-18 years who took part in the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey, 2004. Mean nutrient intakes (obtained using a multiple-pass 24 h recall method) were compared among the breakfast groups using covariate-adjusted regression analysis. Usual nutrient intake distributions, generated using the National Cancer Institute method, were used to determine the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy or the potential risk of excessive intakes from food sources alone and from the combination of food plus supplements. Of these Canadian children, 10% were breakfast non-consumers, 33% were consumers of RTEC breakfasts and 57% were consumers of other types of breakfasts. Non-consumption of breakfast increased with age (4-8 years: 2%; 9-13 years: 9%; 14-18 years: 18%). Breakfast consumers had higher covariate-adjusted intakes of energy, many nutrients and fibre, and lower fat intakes. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy for vitamin D, Ca, Fe and Mg (from food alone or from the combination of food plus supplements) was highest in breakfast non-consumers, intermediate in consumers of other types of breakfasts and lowest in consumers of RTEC breakfast. For vitamin A, P and Zn, breakfast non-consumers had a higher prevalence of nutrient inadequacy than both breakfast groups. The potential risk of excessive nutrient intakes was low in all groups. Efforts to encourage and maintain breakfast consumption in children and adolescents are warranted.

  18. Adolescent oxytocin exposure causes persistent reductions in anxiety and alcohol consumption and enhances sociability in rats.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Michael T; Carson, Dean S; Spiro, Adena; Arnold, Jonathon C; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that administration of oxytocin (OT) can have modulatory effects on social and anxiety-like behavior in mammals that may endure beyond the time of acute OT administration. The current study examined whether repeated administration of OT to male Wistar rats (n = 48) during a key developmental epoch (early adolescence) altered their physiology and behavior in later-life. Group housed rats were given intraperitoneal injections of either 1 mg/kg OT or vehicle during early adolescence (post natal-days [PND] 33-42). OT treatment caused a transient inhibition of body weight gain that recovered quickly after the cessation of treatment. At PND 50, the rats pre-treated with OT displayed less anxiety-like behavior on the emergence test, while at PND 55 they showed greater levels of social interaction. A subgroup of OT pre-treated rats examined at PND 63 showed a strong trend towards increased plasma OT levels, and also displayed significantly increased OT receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus. Rats pre-treated with OT and their controls showed similar induction of beer intake in daily 70 min test sessions (PND 63 onwards) in which the alcohol concentration of beer was gradually increased across days from 0.44% to 4.44%. However, when given ad libitum access to beer in their home cages from PND 72 onwards (early adulthood), consumption of beer but not water was significantly less in the OT pre-treated rats. A "booster" shot of OT (1 mg/kg) given after 25 days of ad libitum access to beer had a strong acute inhibitory effect on beer intake without affecting water intake. Overall these results suggest that exogenous OT administered during adolescence can have subtle yet enduring effects on anxiety, sociability and the motivation to consume alcohol. Such effects may reflect the inherent neuroplasticity of brain OT systems and a feed-forward effect whereby exogenous OT upregulates endogenous OT systems.

  19. Oxidative stress-related genotypes, fruit and vegetable consumption and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Li, Yulin; Ambrosone, Christine B; McCullough, Marjorie J; Ahn, Jiyoung; Stevens, Victoria L; Thun, Michael J; Hong, Chi-Chen

    2009-05-01

    Dietary antioxidants may interact with endogenous sources of pro- and antioxidants to impact breast cancer risk. A nested case-control study of postmenopausal women (505 cases and 502 controls) from the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort was conducted to examine the interaction between oxidative stress-related genes and level of vegetable and fruit intake on breast cancer risk. Genetic variations in catalase (CAT) (C-262T), myeloperoxidase (MPO) (G-463A), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) (G894T) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) [(GT)(n) dinucleotide length polymorphism] were not associated with breast cancer risk. Women carrying the low-risk CAT CC [odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-1.11], NOS3 TT (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.26-1.12, P-trend = 0.10) or HO-1 S allele and MM genotype (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.37-0.55), however, were found to be at non-significantly reduced breast cancer risk among those with high vegetable and fruit intake (> or = median; P-interactions = 0.04 for CAT, P = 0.005 for NOS3 and P = 0.07 for HO-1). Furthermore, those with > or = 4 putative low-risk alleles in total had significantly reduced risk (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32-0.88, P-interaction = 0.006) compared with those with < or = 2 low-risk alleles. In contrast, among women with low vegetable and fruit intake (< median), the low-risk CAT CC (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 0.89-1.99), NOS3 TT (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.38-6.22) and MPO AA (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 0.73-5.95) genotypes appeared to be associated with raised breast cancer risk, with significantly increased risks observed in those with > or = 4 low-risk alleles compared with participants with < or = 2 low-risk alleles (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05-2.99, P-interaction = 0.006). Our results support the hypothesis that there are joint effects of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants.

  20. Fat practices and consumption among African-American adolescent Boy Scouts: the impact of meal source.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Bishop, Reyna G; de Moor, Carl

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the fat consumption and dietary fat practices of 183 African-American Boy Scouts, members of urban (low socioeconomic status [SES]) and church-affiliated (middle SES) troops by meal source. The scouts completed 2 24-hour dietary recalls. Total kilocalories (kcal), % kcal from fat and saturated fat, and high and low fat practices were calculated by meal location (home, school, restaurant). About 50% of all meals were eaten at home, 35% at school, and 15% in restaurants. Scouts consumed greater than the recommended amounts of total kcal from fat and saturated fat at all meal locations. Low SES scouts reported more school meals, and fewer home and restaurant meals compared with middle SES scouts. For all scouts, restaurant meals were associated with less healthy dietary fat behaviors and higher kcal consumption. Scouts consuming 2 school meals reported more low fat practices compared to those eating one school meal. Interventions targeting African-American adolescents should focus on building skills for choosing low-fat foods at all meal locations, particularly restaurants.

  1. Consumption of 100% fruit juice is associated with better nutrient intake and diet quality but not with weight status in children: NHANES 2007-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the impact of various levels of 100% fruit juice (FJ) consumption on intake of nutrients, diet quality, and weight in children using the more recent national data. We conducted a cross-sectional study examining the data from children 2-18 years of age (n=6,090). Intake of nutrien...

  2. Development of a School-Based Intervention to Promote Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: Exploring Perceptions among 4-to-12-Year Old Children and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinaerts, Evelien; de Nooijer, Jascha; van de Kar, Angelique; de Vries, Nanne

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore individual and social factors that are associated with children's F&V (fruit and vegetable) intake in order to develop a school-based intervention to increase their F&V consumption. Design/methodology/approach: Group interviews were conducted with ten groups of Dutch children (n=104),…

  3. Pertinence of the recent school-based nutrition interventions targeting fruit and vegetable consumption in the United States:a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, Christopher R.; Shockey, Taylor A.; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Knight, Kathy B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schools are the major locations for implementing children’s dietary behavior related educational or interventional programs. Recently, there has been an increase in school-based nutrition interventions. The objective of this systematic review was to overview the evidence for the effectiveness of school-based nutrition intervention on fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods: PubMed was used to search for articles on school-based nutrition interventions that measured students’ fruit and vegetable consumption. Our search yielded 238 articles.The article was included if published in a peer-reviewed journal, written in English language,administered in the United States, and conducted among a population-based sample of children in Kindergarten through eighth grade. A total of 14 publications met the inclusion criteria. Results: Eight articles successfully showed the positive effect on increasing fruit and or vegetable consumption while the other six did not. Several factors, including (but not limited to) intervention duration, type of theory used, style of intervention leadership, and positively affecting antecedents of fruit and vegetable consumption were compared; however, no dominant factor was found to be shared among the studies with significant findings. Given that the criteria for selection were high, the lack of consistency between interventions and positive outcomes was surprising. Conclusion: With high levels of scrutiny and budget constraints on school nutrition, it is imperative that more research be conducted to identify the effective intervention components. PMID:27123430

  4. Improvement in fruit and vegetable consumption associated with more favorable energy density and nutrient and food group intake, but not kilocalories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children generally do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables (F/V). Eating more F/V can improve energy density and overall diet quality. Our aim was to investigate whether improvements in F/V consumption were associated with improvements in energy density, total calories, and dietary ...

  5. School Gardens: An Experiential Learning Approach for a Nutrition Education Program to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Knowledge, Preference, and Consumption among Second-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmer, Sondra M.; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill; Shannon, David; Struempler, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a school garden on children's fruit and vegetable knowledge, preference, and consumption. Design: Self-report questionnaires, interview-style taste and rate items, lunchroom observations. Setting: An elementary school. Participants: Second-grade students (n = 115). Intervention: Participants were assigned to…

  6. Case-control study on beneficial effect of regular consumption of apples on colorectal cancer risk in a population with relatively low intake of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Popiela, Tadeusz; Kulig, Jan; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta; Pac, Agnieszka; Sowa, Agata; Musial, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory in-vitro studies and animal experiments showing the potential health benefits from apples raises the question to what extent the regular consumption of apples in humans may have a beneficial effect on colorectal cancer risk. A total of 592 incident cases of colorectal cancer have been enrolled in a hospital-based case-control study. The comparison group included 765 controls chosen from the patients of the same hospital without history of cancer and admitted for treatment of nonneoplastic conditions. Interviews of both cases and controls were conducted in the hospital setting by trained interviewers. The median intake of fruits among cases was lower than in controls (9.5 vs. 11 servings/week) and the difference was statistically significant. Apples were the most frequent fruit consumed by the study participants and about 80% of variability in the total fruit consumption resulted from the intake of apples. We did not observe any significant statistical differences in consumption of berries, citrus, or stone fruits and other kinds of fruits across cases and controls. The adjusted estimates of colorectal cancer risk related to the daily consumption of apples (in quintiles) were based on the unconditional multivariate logistic model, which considered the set of potential confounding variables such as demographic characteristics of participants (age, gender, place of residency, marital status, tobacco smoking), total energy intake, intake of vegetables and fruits without apples. The results of the logistic analysis showed that the adjusted risk of colorectal cancer inversely correlated with daily number of apple servings. The reduced risk of colorectal cancer of border significance level was already observed at the consumption of at least one apple a day (odds ratio=0.65, 95% CI: 0.39-1.09), but at the intake of more than one apple a day the risk was reduced by about 50% (odds ratio=0.53, 95% CI: 0.35-0.79). Neither the consumption of vegetables nor other

  7. Fruit and vegetable consumption is inversely associated with blood pressure in a Mediterranean population with a high vegetable-fat intake: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Study.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Alvaro; de la Fuente, Carmen; Martín-Arnau, Ana M; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez, J Alfredo; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel

    2004-08-01

    There is evidence that a diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces blood pressure (BP). Characteristically, the Mediterranean diet is rich in plant-derived foods and also in fat, but studies conducted in Mediterranean countries to relate diet to BP are scarce. We studied the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and BP in a cross-sectional analysis of 4393 participants in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Study, an ongoing dynamic cohort study in Spain. Diet was measured using a food-frequency questionnaire previously validated in Spain. Fat represented more than 37 % total energy intake. Subjects were considered to have undiagnosed hypertension if they reported systolic BP > or = 140 mmHg or diastolic BP > or = 90 mmHg, and not a medical diagnosis of hypertension. The adjusted prevalence odds ratio of undiagnosed hypertension (upper v. lowest quintile) was 0.58 (95 % CI 0.36, 0.91; P for trend 0.01) for vegetable consumption and 0.68 (95 % CI 0.43, 1.09; P for trend 0.10) for fruit consumption. Comparing those in the highest quintile of both fruit and vegetable consumption with those in the lowest quintile of both food groups, the prevalence odds ratio was 0.23 (95 % CI 0.10, 0.55; P = 0.001), after adjusting for risk factors for hypertension and other dietary exposures. In a Mediterranean population with an elevated fat consumption, a high fruit and vegetable intake is inversely associated with BP levels.

  8. Psychosocial mediation of fruit and vegetable consumption in the body and soul effectiveness trial.

    PubMed

    Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Mâsse, Louise C; Yaroch, Amy L; Resnicow, Ken; Campbell, Marci Kramish; Carr, Carol; Wang, Terry; Williams, Alexis

    2006-07-01

    In this study the authors examined psychosocial variables as mediators for fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in a clustered, randomized effectiveness trial conducted in African American churches. The study sample included 14 churches (8 intervention and 6 control) with 470 participants from the intervention churches and 285 participants from the control churches. The outcome of FV intake and the proposed mediators were measured at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Structural equation modeling indicated that the intervention had direct effects on social support, self-efficacy, and autonomous motivation; these variables also had direct effects on FV intake. Applying the M. E. Sobel (1982) formula to test significant mediated effects, the authors confirmed that social support and self-efficacy were significant mediators but that autonomous motivation was not. Social support and self-efficacy partially mediated 20.9% of the total effect of the intervention on changes in FV intake. The results support the use of strategies to increase social support and self-efficacy in dietary intervention programs.

  9. Adolescents' attitudes about and consumption of low-fat foods: associations with sex and weight-control behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; French, Simone A; Story, Mary

    2004-02-01

    The objective of the study was to examine adolescents' attitudes about and consumption of low-fat foods by sex and weight-control behaviors. Ninth- to 12th-grade students (n=1,083) in 20 Minnesota high schools completed mail surveys (response rate=74%) as part of baseline measurements (Fall 2001) in a randomized controlled trial (TACOS: Trying Alternative Cafeteria Options in Schools). Linear models examined attitudes and consumption of low-fat foods by sex and weight-control behaviors. Girls were more likely than boys to report positive attitudes and consumption of low-fat foods (all P<.01). Weight-control practices were associated with more positive attitudes about and higher consumption of low-fat foods. Promoting low-fat snacks to adolescents who are interested in weight control may be an effective component of nutrition intervention programs because these students have more positive attitudes about low-fat foods. Dietitians' efforts to educate adolescents about the benefits and healthfulness of low-fat foods would aid intervention programs.

  10. Voluntary exercise decreases ethanol preference and consumption in C57BL/6 adolescent mice: sex differences and hippocampal BDNF expression.

    PubMed

    Gallego, X; Cox, R J; Funk, E; Foster, R A; Ehringer, M A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of high vulnerability for alcohol use and abuse. Early alcohol use has been shown to increase the risk for alcohol-related problems later in life; therefore effective preventive treatments targeted toward adolescents would be very valuable. Many epidemiological and longitudinal studies in humans have revealed the beneficial effects of exercise for prevention and treatment of alcohol addiction. Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that access to a running wheel leads to decreased voluntary alcohol consumption in adult mice, hamsters, and rats. However, age and sex may also influence the effects of exercise on alcohol use. Herein, we studied male and female C57BL/6 adolescent mice using a 24-hour two-bottle choice paradigm to evaluate 21 days of concurrent voluntary exercise on alcohol consumption and preference. Given previously known effects of exercise in increasing the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and its role in regulating the reward system, BDNF mRNA and protein levels were measured at the end of the behavioral experiment. Our results demonstrate sex differences in the efficacy of voluntary exercise and its effects on decreasing alcohol consumption and preference. We also report increased BDNF expression after 21 days of voluntary exercise in both male and female mice. Interestingly, the distance traveled played an important role in alcohol consumption and preference in female mice but not in male mice. Overall, this study demonstrates sex differences in the effects of voluntary exercise on alcohol consumption in adolescent mice and points out the importance of distance traveled as a limiting factor to the beneficial effects of wheel running in female mice.

  11. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

  12. Voluntary Exercise Decreases Ethanol Preference and Consumption in C57BL/6 Adolescent Mice: Sex Differences and Hippocampal BDNF Expression

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, X.; Cox, R.J.; Funk, E.; Foster, R.A.; Ehringer, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of high vulnerability for alcohol use and abuse. Early alcohol use has been shown to increase the risk for alcohol-related problems later in life; therefore effective preventive treatments targeted toward adolescents would be very valuable. Many epidemiological and longitudinal studies in humans have revealed the beneficial effects of exercise for prevention and treatment of alcohol addiction. Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that access to a running wheel leads to decreased voluntary alcohol consumption in adult mice, hamsters, and rats. However, age and sex may also influence the effects of exercise on alcohol use. Herein, we studied male and female C57BL/6 adolescent mice using a 24-h two bottle choice paradigm to evaluate 21 days of concurrent voluntary exercise on alcohol consumption and preference. Given previously known effects of exercise in increasing the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and its role in regulating the reward system, BDNF mRNA and protein levels were measured at the end of the behavioral experiment. Our results demonstrate sex differences in the efficacy of voluntary exercise and its effects on decreasing alcohol consumption and preference. We also report increased BDNF expression after 21 days of voluntary exercise in both male and female mice. Interestingly, the distance travelled played an important role in alcohol consumption and preference in female mice but not in male mice. Overall, this study demonstrates sex differences in the effects of voluntary exercise on alcohol consumption in adolescent mice and points out the importance of distance travelled as a limiting factor to the beneficial effects of wheel running in female mice. PMID:25447477

  13. Witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pabayo, Roman; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Witnessing violence has been linked to maladaptive coping behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. However, more research is required to identify mechanisms in which witnessing violence leads to these behaviors. The objectives of this investigation were to examine the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents, to identify whether exhibiting depressive symptoms was a mediator within this relationship, and to determine if those who had adult support in school were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors. Data were collected from a sample of 1,878 urban students, from 18 public high schools participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. In 2012, we used multilevel log-binomial regression models and propensity score matching to estimate the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. Analyses indicated that girls who witnessed a violent death were more likely to use marijuana (relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.17), and tended towards a higher likelihood to smoke (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.13) and consume alcohol (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.97, 1.18). Among boys, those who witnessed a violent death were significantly more likely to smoke (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.29), consume alcohol (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.17, 1.45) and use marijuana (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.46). When exhibiting depressive symptoms was included, estimates were not attenuated. However, among girls who witnessed a violent death, having an adult at school for support was protective against alcohol consumption. When we used propensity score matching, findings were consistent with the main analyses among boys only. This study adds insight into how witnessing violence can lead to adoption of adverse health behaviors.

  14. Individual, behavioural and home environmental factors associated with eating behaviours in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Natalie; Griffiths, Paula; Biddle, Stuart J H; Johnston, Julie P; Haycraft, Emma

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to examine individual, behavioural and home environmental factors associated with frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables and energy-dense snacks among adolescents. Adolescents aged 11-12 years (n = 521, 48% boys) completed a paper-based questionnaire during class-time which included a Food Frequency Questionnaire assessing their consumption of fruit, vegetables, and energy-dense (ED) snacks, and items assessing habits, self-efficacy, eating at the television (TV), eating with parents, parenting practices, and home availability and accessibility of foods. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that eating fruit and vegetables while watching TV and home availability and accessibility of fruit and vegetables were positively associated with frequency of fruit consumption and vegetable consumption, while home accessibility of ED snack foods was negatively associated with frequency of fruit consumption. Habit for eating ED snack foods in front the TV, eating ED snack foods while watching TV, and home availability of ED snacks were positively associated with frequency of ED snack consumption. This study has highlighted the importance of a healthy home environment for promoting fruit and vegetable intake in early adolescents and also suggests that, if snacking while TV viewing occurs, this could be a good opportunity for promoting fruit and vegetable intake. These findings are likely to be useful for supporting the development of multi-faceted interventions and aid us in knowing what advice to give to parents to help them to help their young adolescents to develop and maintain healthy eating habits.

  15. Chronic alcohol consumption from adolescence-to-adulthood in mice - hypothalamic gene expression changes in the dilated cardiomyopathy signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a developmental stage vulnerable to alcohol drinking-related problems and the onset of alcoholism. Hypothalamus is a key brain region for food and water intake regulation, and is one of the alcohol-sensitive brain regions. However, it is not known what would be the alcohol effect on hypothalamus following adolescent alcohol intake, chronically over the adolescent development, at moderate levels. Results We employed a paradigm of chronic moderate alcohol intake from adolescence-to-adulthood in mice, and analyzed the alcohol effect on both behavioral and hypothalamic gene expression changes. A total of 751 genes were found and subjected to pathway analysis. The dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) pathway was identified. The changes of ten genes under this pathway were further verified using RT-PCR. Chronic alcohol consumption during adolescence, even at moderate levels, led to a decrease of motor activity in mice, and also a concerted down regulation of signaling pathway initiating factor (SPIF) genes in the DCM signaling pathway, including β1-adrenergic receptor (Adrb1), Gs protein (Gnas), adenylyl cyclase 1 (Adcy1), and dihydropyridine receptor/L-type calcium channel (Cacna1d). Conclusions These findings suggest that adolescent alcohol intake may trigger gene expression changes in the CNS that parallel those found in the dilated cardiomyopathy signaling pathway. If such effects also take place in humans, our findings would serve as a warning against alcohol intake in youth, such as by teens and/or college students. PMID:24884436

  16. Energy Drink and Coffee Consumption and Psychopathology Symptoms Among Early Adolescents: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations.

    PubMed

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2016-06-01

    Background: Little is known about possible links between energy drink use and psychopathology among youth. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy drink consumption and psychopathology among early adolescents. In addition, associations between psychopathology and coffee consumption were examined to assess whether findings were specific to energy drinks or also applied to another commonly used caffeinated beverage. Methods: One hundred forty-four youth who participated in the Camden Youth Development Study (72 males; mean age 11.9 at wave 1; 65% Hispanic, 30% African American) were assessed using self-report measures of frequency of energy drink and coffee consumption and depression, anxiety, conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, and teacher reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Youth (92%) were reassessed 16 months later. Results: Concurrently, energy drink and coffee consumption were associated with similar psychopathology symptoms; when the other beverage was adjusted for, energy drinks remained associated with CD and coffee remained associated with panic anxiety. Initial energy drink consumption predicted increasing ADHD and CD over time, though the association with CD dropped to a trend level of significance when coffee was adjusted for. Initial levels of hyperactive ADHD predicted increasing coffee consumption over time; this association remained when energy drinks were controlled. Social anxiety was associated with less increase in energy drink consumption over time, controlling for coffee. Conclusion: Energy drink and coffee consumption among early adolescents are concurrently associated with similar psychopathology symptoms. Longitudinally, the associations between these beverages and psychopathology differ, indicating that these substances have differing implications for development over time.

  17. Co-Existent Fruit Machine Addiction and Solvent Abuse in Adolescence: A Cause for Concern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Data from study of gambling cross-addictions highlighted 16 agencies reporting that fruit machine gambling was specifically associated with some form of psychoactive substance abuse. Largest subgroup was cross-addictions involving solvent abuse and fruit machine gambling. Concluded that co-existence of fruit machine addiction and solvent abuse…

  18. Alcohol consumption among rural African American and White adolescents: The role of religion, parents, and peers.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Danielle D; Jackman, Danielle M; Stanley, Linda R; Swaim, Randall C; Chavez, Ernest L

    2016-05-31

    Although studies have examined ethnic differences in psychosocial factors and adolescent alcohol use, most have not examined these relationships for rural adolescents. The Community Drug and Alcohol Survey (CDAS) was completed by 23,163 rural adolescents attending African American secondary schools. Multilevel analysis tested the hypothesis of stronger relationships of peer use and religiosity with alcohol use and a weaker relationship for parental permissiveness and alcohol use for White compared to African American adolescents. Results suggested that peer use, religiosity, and parental permissiveness were more strongly associated with changes in alcohol use for White adolescents. Findings provide insight for alcohol prevention among rural adolescents.

  19. From the Garden of Eden to the land of plenty. Restriction of fruit and sweets intake leads to increased fruit and sweets consumption in children.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Esther; Mulkens, Sandra; Emond, Yvette; Jansen, Anita

    2008-11-01

    Overweight is increasing rapidly in children, compelling researchers to seek for determinants of adverse food intake. In a previous experiment it was found that manipulating the restriction of attractive snacks increased the desirability and intake of these snacks. In the present study, we tested whether this paradoxical restricting effect is also seen in relatively less attractive but healthy food, i.e. fruit. Will fruit become more desirable through restriction, and will children eat more forbidden fruit than non-forbidden fruit? Two groups of young children were forbidden to eat fruits and sweets, respectively, whereas a control group was invited to eat everything. Desire for sweets remained high in the sweets-prohibition condition, whereas it decreased in the fruit-prohibition and no-prohibition conditions. No group differences were found regarding the desire for fruit. With respect to intake, children in both the fruit- and the sweets-prohibition condition consumed more of the formerly forbidden food during a taste session as compared to the no-prohibition condition. In addition, total food intake was higher in the two prohibition conditions than in the no-prohibition condition. These data indicate that the adverse effects of restriction apply to both attractive unhealthy and relatively less attractive but healthy food.

  20. Serum salicylic acid and fruit and vegetable consumption in obese and normal-weight children: a pilot-study.

    PubMed

    Lassandro, Carlotta; Banderali, Giuseppe; Mariani, Benedetta; Battezzati, Alberto; Diaferio, Lucia; Miniello, Vito Leonardo; Radaelli, Giovanni; Verduci, Elvira

    2016-11-02

    Salicylic acid (SA), a phenolic compound produced by plants, may play a beneficial role on health. This pilot study evaluated whether there might be an association between serum SA and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in obese and normal-weight children. Thirty-four obese children (17 boys and 17 girls) and 34 normal-weight children were recruited. Dietary intake was evaluated by the 7-day dietary record. Serum SA was measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. FV intake in obese and normal-weight children was not different between groups (175.00 (97.66) g versus 192.29 (90.54) g, p = .455). Obese children had lower serum SA than normal-weight children [mean difference, -0.025; 95% CI (-0.044; -0.006) μmol/L]. Serum SA was not associated with daily intake of FV in obese (p = .111) and normal-weight (p = .092) children. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of FV on serum SA, taking into account also the quantity and the type.

  1. Food prices are associated with dietary quality, fast food consumption, and body mass index among U.S. children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, May A; Powell, Lisa M; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Youfa

    2011-02-01

    Food prices are expected to affect dietary intakes, however, previous findings are mixed and few are based on nationally representative data. We examined the associations of price indices of fast foods (FF-PI) and fruits and vegetables (FV-PI) with dietary intakes and BMI among U.S. children and adolescents using data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII; 1994-1998) for 6759 children (2-9 y) and 1679 adolescents (10-18 y). FF-PI and FV-PI were linked to individuals' CSFII dietary data through city-level geocodes. Main outcomes included intakes of selected nutrients and food groups, a fast food consumption index (FF-CI), diet quality using the 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and BMI. Among children (2-9 y), a higher FF-PI (by $1) was associated with intakes of lower FF-CI (β ± SE: -0.9 ± 0.3 count/d), higher HEI (6.6 ± 2.5), higher intakes of fiber (2.7 ± 0.7 g/d), calcium (225.7 ± 52.3 mg/d), dairy (172.5 ± 36.2 g/d), and fruits and vegetables (113.3 ± 23.4 cup equivalents/d). FV-PI was inversely related to fiber intake (β ± SE: -3.3 ± 1.5 g/d) and positively associated with BMI (4.3 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)). Less consistent findings were ascribed to FV-PI and among adolescents (10-18 y). Significant associations were almost equally balanced between low and high family income groups, with some significant interactions between food prices and family income observed, particularly among children (2-9 y). Our findings suggest that among U.S. children aged 2-9 y, higher FF-PI is associated with better dietary quality, whereas higher FV-PI is linked to higher BMI and lower fiber intake. Associations varied by family income in children for many dietary intake variables.

  2. Barriers, benefits and behaviors related to breakfast consumption among rural adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shanafelt, Amy; Wang, Qi; Leduc, Robert; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to determine if perceived barriers, benefits, and modifiable behaviors support or interfere with breakfast consumption in a racially and economically diverse rural high school population. Methods The participants were 832 Minnesota adolescents from 16 rural high schools. We used baseline data from a group randomized trial aimed at increasing school breakfast participation through policy and environmental-level school changes. Students completed an online survey asking about demographics, breakfast eating behaviors, and the barriers and benefits of eating as it relates to school performance. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression, accounting for clustering by school, was performed using SAS. Each scale was modeled independently. Results Participants were 9th and 10th grade students, 36% free/reduced price lunch (FRL), 30% non-white and 55% female. Breakfast skippers compared to non-breakfast skippers reported fewer school related benefits and beliefs and more barriers to eating breakfast (p < .01). Adjusted models revealed students reported more positive beliefs (OR= 0.78, 95%CI=0.73-0.83), more benefits (OR=0.95, 95% CI=0.93-0.97) and fewer barriers (OR=0.85, 95%CI=0.82-0.87) and were less likely to skip breakfast. Conclusions Future intervention research should focus on alleviating barriers and enhancing education around the school related benefits of eating breakfast. PMID:26830505

  3. Dutch adolescent private drinking places: prevalence, alcohol consumption, and other risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    van Hoof, Joris J; Mulder, Joost; Korte, Jojanneke; Postel, Marloes G; Pieterse, Marcel E

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the increasingly popular Dutch health phenomenon of 'gathering in private peer group settings (barracks)', with a focus on the prevalence and characteristics of barracks, alcohol consumption, and other (risk) behaviors of their visitors. Three studies were conducted. The first consisted of field research in which 51 barracks were visited and group-interviews were held. The second was an Internet study in which 442 barracks' websites were analyzed using content analysis. The third consisted of a questionnaire completed by 1457 adolescents, aged 15-17, in order to explore differences in behavior between barracks visitors and non-visitors. There was wide variation in barracks' characteristics and culture. Barracks' members and visitors also organize diverse activities that are publicly shown on the websites. Barracks are associated with various legal issues, such as alcohol sales to minors, lack of parental supervision, and illicit drug use. Barracks' visitors drink alcohol more frequently, drink more alcohol per occasion (up to fifteen bottles of beer a night), and have been drunk more frequently than non-visitors. Policymakers must be aware of the barracks phenomenon and use their powers in adjacent political and legal areas (such as in binge drinking, illicit drug use, and public safety) to intervene and create solid, responsible, and tailor-made policies.

  4. Media as Social Influence: Racial Differences in the Effects of Peers and Media on Adolescent Alcohol Cognitions and Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Pomery, Elizabeth A.; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D.; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Wills, Thomas A.; Kingsbury, John; Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E.; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen

    2010-01-01

    Racial differences in the effects of peer and media influence on adolescents’ alcohol cognitions and consumption were examined in a large-scale panel study. With regard to peer influence, results from cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the relation between perceived peer drinking and own drinking was significant for both Black and White adolescents, but it was stronger for the White adolescents. With regard to media influence, structural modeling analyses indicated that exposure to drinking in movies was associated with more alcohol consumption 8 months and 16 months later. These effects were mediated by increases in: the favorability of the adolescents’ drinker prototypes, their willingness to drink, and their tendency to affiliate with friends who were drinking. Multiple group analyses indicated that, once again, the effects (both direct and indirect) were much stronger for White adolescents than for Black adolescents. The results suggest media influence works in a similar manner to social influence, and that Whites may be more susceptible to both types of influence. PMID:21198226

  5. Effectiveness of Fresh to You, a Discount Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Market in Low-Income Neighborhoods, on Children’s Fruit and Vegetable Consumption, Rhode Island, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Gorham, Gemma; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Risica, Patricia Markham; Mello, Jennifer; Papandonatos, George; Nunn, Amy; Gorham, Sara; Roberson, Mya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Eating fruits and vegetables is associated with lowered risk for many chronic diseases. However, most Americans, especially members of low-income and minority populations, do not eat adequate amounts. Fresh to You is a public–private partnership program that brings discount fresh produce markets into low-income neighborhoods. We conducted a mixed-methods evaluation of Fresh to You to assess the effect of the program on children’s consumption of fruits and vegetables. Methods A local produce distributor brought the Fresh to You markets to 6 community organizations serving low-income families in Rhode Island. The markets, held weekly for 5 months at each site, sold fresh produce at below-retail prices. Parents (N = 480) of children aged 3 to 13 years were recruited at the markets to participate in a 5-month cohort study. The primary outcome was change in children’s fruit and vegetable intake, measured by a validated screener. We also conducted postintervention focus groups at each site with parents and qualitative interviews with site contacts to collect feedback about Fresh to You. Results From baseline to 5 months, there was a significant increase in children’s daily fruit and vegetable consumption of 0.48 cups (t = 4.16, P < .001). Data from follow-up parent surveys, focus groups, and site contact interviews provided positive feedback about Fresh to You and recommendations for improvement. Conclusion Fresh to You was effective at increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables among racially and ethnically diverse low-income children aged 3 to 13 years whose parents shopped at the markets. The intervention could serve as a model program for replication in other cities. Refinements and a more rigorous evaluation are needed. PMID:26469949

  6. Adolescent Caffeine Consumption and Self-Reported Violence and Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Frost, Stephanie S.; James, Jack E.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world and currently the only one legally available to children and adolescents. The sale and use of caffeinated beverages has increased markedly among adolescents during the last decade. However, research on caffeine use and behaviors among adolescents is scarce. We investigate the…

  7. High consumption of vegetable and fruit colour groups is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei-Ping; Fang, Yu-Jing; Lu, Min-Shan; Zhong, Xiao; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-04-14

    The colour of the edible portion of vegetables and fruit reflects the presence of specific micronutrients and phytochemicals. No existing studies have examined the relationship between the intake of vegetable and fruit colour groups and the risk of colorectal cancer. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate these associations in a Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted between July 2010 and July 2014 in Guangzhou, China, in which 1057 consecutively recruited cases of colorectal cancer were frequency-matched to 1057 controls by age (5-year interval), sex and residence (rural/urban). A validated FFQ was used to collect dietary information during face-to-face interviews. Vegetables and fruit were classified into four groups according to the colour of their primarily edible parts: green; orange/yellow; red/purple; white. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI. A higher consumption of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit was inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, with adjusted OR of 0·16 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·22) for orange/yellow, 0·23 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) for red/purple and 0·53 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·70) for white vegetables and fruit when the highest and lowest quartiles were compared. Total vegetable intake and total fruit intake have also been found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the intake of green vegetable and fruit was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. The results of the present study, therefore, suggest that a greater intake of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer.

  8. Adolescent screen-viewing behaviour is associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages: the role of habit strength and perceived parental norms.

    PubMed

    Kremers, Stef P J; van der Horst, Klazine; Brug, Johannes

    2007-05-01

    The association between adolescent screen-viewing behaviour (i.e., television viewing and computer use) and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was studied in a Dutch sample of adolescents (N=383) using self-administered questionnaires. In particular, the previously understudied role of habit and perceived parental norms in the execution of these behaviours was investigated. Results showed that screen-viewing behaviour was associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (r=.32). Habit strength of both behaviours correlated with a large effect size (r=.50). The interaction between both behaviours was underlined by the finding that consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was explained by perceived parental norms regarding screen-viewing behaviour (beta=.12; adjusted for the behaviour and perceived parental norm regarding sugar-sweetened beverage consumption). Consequences of the identified role of habit and parental norms in the interplay between sedentary behaviour and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among adolescents are discussed.

  9. [Tobacco consumption and its relationship to the level of regular physical activity and physical fitness in adolescents from the region of Murcia (Spain)].

    PubMed

    García-Cantó, Eliseo; Rodríguez García, Pedro Luis; Pérez-Soto, Juan José; López Villalba, Francisco José; Rosa-Guillamón, Andrés

    2015-12-01

    This study looks at the relationship between tobacco consumption and the physical activity and fitness levels of adolescents. In a sample of 533 adolescents, both a questionnaire to obtain information regarding tobacco consumption and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for information on physical activity were implemented; a battery of tests to assess physical fitness were also applied. Tobacco consumption was significantly higher in females (32.5%) than in males (25.7%). Levels of physical activity in both males and females were significantly associated with tobacco consumption (p<0.0005). Moreover, subjects who consumed tobacco showed lower overall averages in physical fitness tests than those who did not (4.26 vs. 5.77 in males and 4.54 vs. 6.71 in females). Tobacco consumption is therefore shown to be related to lower levels of physical activity and physical fitness in adolescents.

  10. African American and Latino Low Income Families’ Food Shopping Behaviors: Promoting Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Use of Alternative Healthy Food Options

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Caitlin A.; Brown, Jonisha R.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Minority families often reside in neighborhoods with few supermarkets or alternative healthy food options (e.g., farmers markets, community gardens), making fresh produce difficult to obtain. This qualitative study identified factors influencing fruit and vegetable shopping and use of alternative healthy food options. Methods Forty-eight minority women with children completed interviews regarding food shopping habits and use of and attitudes toward alternative healthy food options. Interviews were subjected to thematic analysis. Results Produce shopping was motivated by costs and family preferences. For African American women, poor cooking skills restricted the variety of fruits and vegetables purchased. Latinas were receptive to alternative healthy food options, but did not use them because these sources were inconvenient. African American women were not receptive to them. Conclusion Improving cooking skills and perceptions of acceptable foods may be as important as increased access to promote greater consumption of fruits and vegetables. PMID:24293075

  11. African American and Latino low income families' food shopping behaviors: promoting fruit and vegetable consumption and use of alternative healthy food options.

    PubMed

    Fish, Caitlin A; Brown, Jonisha R; Quandt, Sara A

    2015-04-01

    Minority families often reside in neighborhoods with few supermarkets or alternative healthy food options (e.g., farmers markets, community gardens), making fresh produce difficult to obtain. This qualitative study identified factors influencing fruit and vegetable shopping and use of alternative healthy food options. Forty-eight minority women with children completed interviews regarding food shopping habits and use of and attitudes toward alternative healthy food options. Interviews were subjected to thematic analysis. Produce shopping was motivated by costs and family preferences. For African American women, poor cooking skills restricted the variety of fruits and vegetables purchased. Latinas were receptive to alternative healthy food options, but did not use them because these sources were inconvenient. African American women were not receptive to them. Improving cooking skills and perceptions of acceptable foods may be as important as increased access to promote greater consumption of fruits and vegetables.

  12. The relationship between vegetable/fruit consumption and gallbladder/bile duct cancer: A population-based cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Makiuchi, Takeshi; Sobue, Tomotaka; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Ishihara, Junko; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-03-01

    Vegetable and fruit consumption may have a protective effect against several types of cancers. However, the effect on biliary cancers is unclear. We investigated the association of vegetable/fruit consumption with the risks of gallbladder cancer (GBC), intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC) and extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC) in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model, and the exposure level was categorized into quartiles, with the lowest group used as the reference. A total of 80,371 people aged 45 to 74 years were enrolled between 1995 and 1999, and followed up for 1,158,632 person-years until 2012, during which 133 GBC, 99 IHBDC, and 161 EHBDC cases were identified. Increased consumption of total vegetable and fruit was significantly associated with a decreased risk of EHBDC (HR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.29-0.81 for the highest group; p trend = 0.005). From the analysis of relevant nutrients, significantly decreased risk of EHBDC was associated with folate and insoluble fiber (HR = 0.48, 0.53; 95% CI: 0.28-0.85, 0.31-0.88 for the highest group; p trend = 0.010, 0.023; respectively), and a significant trend of decreased EHBDC risk associated with vitamin C was observed (p trend = 0.029). No decreased risk of GBC and IHBDC was found. Our findings suggest that increased vegetable/fruit consumption may decrease a risk of EHBDC, and folate, vitamin C, and insoluble fiber might be key contributors to the observed protective effect.

  13. [Association between consumption of soft drinks, fruit juice, and milk and body mass index among public school students in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Fernanda de Albuquerque Melo; Sichieri, Rosely

    2009-12-01

    The association between consumption of soft drinks, fruit juice, and milk and body mass index (BMI) was evaluated in 1,423 students 9 to 16 years of age from public schools in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Beverage intake was measured using 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Weight and height were measured to calculate BMI. Regression analyses took into account the cluster (classes) effect. Analyses were stratified by gender and adjusted for physical activity and age. The results showed a positive association between soft drink intake and age (p = 0.05) and a negative association between milk and age (p = 0.004). For girls only, there was a significant association between frequent fruit juice intake and BMI (beta = 0.02; p = 0.03). For the other beverages, there were no significant associations between BMI and frequent consumption in either gender. Soft drinks and juices accounted for 20% of mean daily energy intake. The results showed that efforts to reduce energy intake from beverages should include consumption of fruit juice.

  14. Effect of the peels of two Citrus fruits on endothelium function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Khosravi, Elham; Ghannadi, Alireza; Hashemipour, Mahin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity induces endothelial dysfunction even in the pediatric age group. The possible protective effects of fruits and herbal products on the endothelial dysfunction of obese children remain to be determined. This study aims to investigate the effects of lemon and sour orange peels on endothelial function of adolescents with excess weight. Materials and Methods: This triple-masked, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted for 1-month among 90 overweight and obese participants, aged 6-18 years. They were randomly assigned into three groups of equal number receiving daily oral capsules containing lemon or sour orange powder or placebo. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was compared between three groups by using analysis of covariance. Results: Overall, 30 participants in the lemon group, 27 in the sour orange group and 29 in the control group completed the trial. After the trial, mean FMD was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the lemon group (11.99 ± 4.05) and in the sour orange group (12.79 ± 5.47) than in the placebo group (6.45 ± 2.79). FMD percent change was 145.02 ± 24.34 in the lemon group, 142.04 ± 16.11 in the sour orange group, and 46.73 ± 5.16 in controls (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This trial showed that consumption of extracts of lemon and sour orange peels, which contain plenty amounts of antioxidants, flavonoids, pectin, and vitamin C, might have significant benefits on endothelial function in children and adolescents with excess weight. Trial registry code: IRCT201311201434N10. PMID:26664417

  15. Low consumption of fruits and dairy foods is associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults from outpatient clinics in and near Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Song, SuJin; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Soyoung; Shin, Sangah; Song, YoonJu; Baik, Hyun Wook; Joung, Hyojee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and food consumption by the presence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS Study subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from four outpatient clinics in and near the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea between 2006 and 2012. A total of 668 subjects (413 men and 255 women) aged ≥ 30 y were included in the final data analyses. For each subject, daily nutrient intake and food consumption were calculated using three days of dietary intake data obtained from a combination of 24-hour recalls and dietary records. To evaluate food consumption, mean number of servings consumed per day and percentages of recommended number of servings for six food groups were calculated. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The general linear model was performed to examine differences in nutrient intake and food consumption by sex and the presence of metabolic syndrome after adjustment for potential confounding variables. RESULTS Nutrient intake did not differ by the presence of metabolic syndrome in both men and women. Men with metabolic syndrome had lower consumption and percentage of the recommendation for fruits compared with those without metabolic syndrome (1.6 vs. 1.1 servings/day, P-value = 0.001; 63.5 vs. 49.5%, P-value = 0.013). Women with metabolic syndrome showed lower consumption and percentage of the recommendation for dairy foods than those without metabolic syndrome (0.8 vs. 0.5 servings/day, P-value = 0.001; 78.6 vs. 48.9%, P-value = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Low intakes of fruits and dairy foods might be associated with the risk of having metabolic syndrome among Korean adults. Dietary advice on increasing consumption of these foods is needed to prevent and attenuate the risk of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26425287

  16. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors. PMID:27472357

  17. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min

    2016-07-27

    Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors.

  18. Global, Regional, and National Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Fruit Juices, and Milk: A Systematic Assessment of Beverage Intake in 187 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G.; Engell, Rebecca E.; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Background Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fruit juice, and milk are components of diet of major public health interest. To-date, assessment of their global distributions and health impacts has been limited by insufficient comparable and reliable data by country, age, and sex. Objective To quantify global, regional, and national levels of SSB, fruit juice, and milk intake by age and sex in adults over age 20 in 2010. Methods We identified, obtained, and assessed data on intakes of these beverages in adults, by age and sex, from 193 nationally- or subnationally-representative diet surveys worldwide, representing over half the world’s population. We also extracted data relevant to milk, fruit juice, and SSB availability for 187 countries from annual food balance information collected by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to account for measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modeling uncertainty, and to combine and harmonize nationally representative dietary survey data and food availability data. Results In 2010, global average intakes were 0.58 (95%UI: 0.37, 0.89) 8 oz servings/day for SSBs, 0.16 (0.10, 0.26) for fruit juice, and 0.57 (0.39, 0.83) for milk. There was significant heterogeneity in consumption of each beverage by region and age. Intakes of SSB were highest in the Caribbean (1.9 servings/day; 1.2, 3.0); fruit juice consumption was highest in Australia and New Zealand (0.66; 0.35, 1.13); and milk intake was highest in Central Latin America and parts of Europe (1.06; 0.68, 1.59). Intakes of all three beverages were lowest in East Asia and Oceania. Globally and within regions, SSB consumption was highest in younger adults; fruit juice consumption showed little relation with age; and milk intakes were highest in older adults. Conclusions Our analysis highlights the enormous spectrum of beverage intakes worldwide, by country, age, and sex. These data are

  19. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project

    PubMed Central

    Rüütel, Erik; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W.; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar A.; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children. PMID:25493392

  20. Effect of energy drink and caffeinated beverage consumption on sleep, mood, and performance in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Owens, Judith A; Mindell, Jodi; Baylor, Allison

    2014-10-01

    The increasing availability of highly caffeinated beverages, including energy drinks, in the United States has resulted in a rise in consumption by children and adolescents. In addition, there is mounting evidence that these products are often consumed by youth for their perceived fatigue-mitigating and mood- or performance-enhancing effects. Although such perceptions by children and adolescents about the potential consequences of caffeine consumption are highly likely to influence decision making regarding the use of such products, there is still a relative paucity of studies that focus on the effect of caffeinated beverages on sleep, mood, and performance in the pediatric population. This review summarizes the following aspects of this topic, as derived from the information currently available: 1) the perception, among youth, of caffeine's risks and benefits and the sources of information about caffeine, particularly with regard to sleep, mood, and performance; 2) the bidirectional effect of caffeine on sleep in children and adolescents and the association of caffeine with other sleep-related practices, and 3) the evidence that supports caffeine as a performance and mood enhancer as well as a countermeasure to sleepiness in the pediatric population. Finally, gaps in knowledge are identified, and a direction for future research is outlined.

  1. Evaluating the validity and utility of scaling alcohol consumption indices alongside AUD symptoms in treatment-seeking adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Current initiatives to update diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have stimulated dialogue about the usefulness of indicators of alcohol consumption in the diagnosis of AUDs. Methods This study used Rasch model analyses to examine the properties of alcohol consumption descriptors and AUD symptoms among 3,382 treatment-seeking adolescents, aged 12–18 years, in the DATOS-A (USDHHS, 1993–1995) baseline assessment, and evaluated the predictive validity of different scoring methods (with and without alcohol consumption) for 12-month alcohol involvement. Results Rasch model analyses supported the unidimensionality of indices of alcohol consumption and AUD symptoms. Test information functions showed that adding consumption items provides further information at all points of the alcohol involvement severity spectrum. Combining AUD symptoms with indices of alcohol consumption provided better prediction of alcohol involvement after treatment than either AUD symptoms counts or DSM-IV dependence diagnosis alone. Differential item functioning (DIF), however, was observed for select items. Generally, indices of drinking “too much too fast” were more severe for females, African Americans and Hispanics, while the opposite was true for items measuring “too much too often”. For age, “too much too often” items were more severe for the younger (12–14yrs) age group, and AUD symptoms were more severe for the older (15–18yrs) age group. Conclusions Indices of alcohol consumption can be validly scaled along with AUD symptoms in this population, and their inclusion provides statistical measurement advantages. Nevertheless, caution is necessary in using consumption items in measuring alcohol involvement due to DIF observed across sex, race and age. PMID:21146941

  2. The reinforcing properties of ethanol are quantitatively enhanced in adulthood by peri-adolescent ethanol, but not saccharin, consumption in female alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Toalston, Jamie E; Deehan, Gerald A; Hauser, Sheketha R; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol drinking during adolescence is associated in adulthood with heavier alcohol drinking and an increased rate of alcohol dependence. Past research in our laboratory has indicated that peri-adolescent ethanol consumption can enhance the acquisition and reduce the rate of extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood. Caveats of the past research include reinforcer specificity, increased oral consumption during peri-adolescence, and a lack of quantitative assessment of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. The current experiments were designed to determine the effects of peri-adolescent ethanol or saccharin drinking on acquisition and extinction of oral ethanol self-administration and ethanol seeking, and to quantitatively assess the reinforcing properties of ethanol (progressive ratio). Ethanol or saccharin access by alcohol-preferring (P) rats occurred during postnatal day (PND) 30-60. Animals began operant self-administration of ethanol or saccharin after PND 85. After 10 weeks of daily operant self-administration, rats were tested in a progressive ratio paradigm. Two weeks later, self-administration was extinguished in all rats. Peri-adolescent ethanol consumption specifically enhanced the acquisition of ethanol self-administration, reduced the rate of extinction for ethanol self-administration, and quantitatively increased the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. Peri-adolescent saccharin consumption was without effect. The data indicate that ethanol consumption during peri-adolescence results in neuroadaptations that may specifically enhance the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. This increase in the reinforcing properties of ethanol could be a part of biological sequelae that are the basis for the effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the increase in the rate of alcoholism during adulthood.

  3. [Motivation and barriers in the consumption of five daily servings of fruit and vegetables by mothers of school age children and primary school teachers].

    PubMed

    Olivares, Sonia; Lera, Lydia; Mardones, María Angélica; Araneda, Jacqueline; Olivares, María Antonieta; Colque, Maria Ester

    2009-06-01

    As a baseline for the promotion of health and the design of educational interventions, the benefits, barriers and stages of change related to the consumption of five daily servings of fruit and vegetables were studied in 463 mothers of school age children from different socioeconomic levels (SEL) and 412 primary school teachers in 3 cities in Chile. These groups were selected because of their influence over children's eating habits. For the evaluation of stages changes, a questionnaire designed by the American Institute for Cancer Research was adapted and applied. The questionnaire was answered voluntarily by the participants. 58% of the mothers and 60% of the teachers ate 1-2 servings of fruit and vegetables daily; 29.4 and 32.3% ate 3-4 servings and only 10 and 4% respectively ate 5 servings. Benefits reported from fruit and vegetable consumption in both groups were pleasure, wellness, a sense of well being and weight management. Barriers mentioned were forgetfulness, time constraints, nonsatisfaction of appetite and lack of motivation. The price of fruit and vegetables was considered high by 15.1% of mothers of medium high SEL and by 26.4% of medium low SEL (p < 0.002). Among teachers, 25.4% of men and 11.7% of women also considered price as a barrier (p < 0.002). Such results show that both mothers and teachers need specific interventions to improve their own motivation for eating more fruit and vegetables and to thus support this healthy eating habit in children.

  4. Simultaneous prenatal ethanol and nicotine exposure affect ethanol consumption, ethanol preference and oxytocin receptor binding in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah K; Cox, Elizabeth T; McMurray, Matthew S; Fay, Emily E; Jarrett, Thomas M; Walker, Cheryl H; Overstreet, David H; Johns, Josephine M

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol consumption and smoking during pregnancy are common, despite the known adverse effects on the fetus. The teratogenicity of each drug independently is well established; however, the effects of concurrent exposure to ethanol and nicotine in preclinical models remain unclear. This study examined the impact of simultaneous prenatal exposure to both ethanol and nicotine on offspring ethanol preference behaviors and oxytocin system dynamics. Rat dams were given liquid diet (17% ethanol derived calories (EDC)) on gestational day (GD) 5 and 35% EDC from GD 6-20 and concurrently an osmotic minipump delivered nicotine (3-6mg/kg/day) from GD 4-postpartum day 10. Offspring were tested for ethanol preference during adolescence (postnatal day (PND) 30-43) and again at adulthood (PND 60-73), followed by assays for oxytocin mRNA expression and receptor binding in relevant brain regions. Prenatal exposure decreased ethanol preference in males during adolescence, and decreased consumption and preference in females during adulthood compared to controls. Oxytocin receptor binding in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus was increased in adult prenatally exposed males only. Prenatal exposure to these drugs sex-specifically decreased ethanol preference behavior in offspring unlike reports for either drug separately. The possible role of oxytocin in reduction of ethanol consumption behavior is highlighted.

  5. A risk analysis model of the relationship between beverage consumption from school vending machines and risk of adolescent overweight.

    PubMed

    Forshee, Richard A; Storey, Maureen L; Ginevan, Michael E

    2005-10-01

    Risk analysis is a widely used tool to understand problems in food safety policy, but it is seldom applied to nutrition policy. We propose that risk analysis be applied more often to inform debates on nutrition policy, and we conduct a risk assessment of the relationship of regular carbonated soft drink (RCSD) consumption in schools and body mass index (BMI) as a case study. Data for RCSD consumption in schools were drawn from three data sets: the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals 1994-1996, 1998 (CSFII), the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000 (NHANES), and the National Family Opinion (NFO) WorldGroup Share of Intake Panel (SIP) study. We used the largest relationship between RCSD and BMI that was published by prospective observational studies to characterize the maximum plausible relationship in our study. Consumption of RCSD in schools was low in all three data sets, ranging from 15 g/day in NFO-SIP to 60 g/day in NHANES. There was no relationship between RCSD consumption from all sources and BMI in either the CSFII or the NHANES data. The risk assessment showed no impact on BMI by removing RCSD consumption in school. These findings suggest that focusing adolescent overweight prevention programs on RCSD in schools will not have a significant impact on BMI.

  6. Exposure to nicotine increases nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the reward pathway and binge ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J adolescent female mice.

    PubMed

    Locker, Alicia R; Marks, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 80% of adult smokers begin smoking during adolescence. Binge alcohol consumption is also common during adolescence. Past studies report that nicotine and ethanol activate dopamine neurons in the reward pathway and may increase synaptic levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation. Activation of the reward pathway during adolescence through drug use may produce neural alterations affecting subsequent drug consumption. Consequently, the effect of nicotine exposure on binge alcohol consumption was examined along with an assessment of the neurobiological underpinnings that drive adolescent use of these drugs. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice (postnatal days 35-44) were exposed to either water or nicotine (200μg/ml) for ten days. On the final four days, ethanol intake was examined using the drinking-in-the-dark paradigm. Nicotine-exposed mice consumed significantly more ethanol and displayed higher blood ethanol concentrations than did control mice. Autoradiographic analysis of nAChR density revealed higher epibatidine binding in frontal cortical regions in mice exposed to nicotine and ethanol compared to mice exposed to ethanol only. These data show that nicotine exposure during adolescence increases subsequent binge ethanol consumption, and may affect the number of nAChRs in regions of the brain reward pathway, specifically the frontal cortex.

  7. Adolescent intake of caffeinated energy drinks does not affect adult alcohol consumption in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Robins, Meridith T; DeFriel, Julia N; van Rijn, Richard M

    2016-08-01

    The rise in marketing and mass consumption of energy drink products by adolescents poses a largely unknown risk on adolescent development and drug reward. Yet, with increasing reports of acute health issues present in young adults who ingest large quantities of energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol, the need to elucidate these potential risks is pressing. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine and sucrose; therefore, exposure to energy drinks may lead to changes in drug-related behaviors since caffeine and sucrose consumption activates similar brain pathways engaged by substances of abuse. With a recent study observing that adolescent caffeine consumption increased cocaine sensitivity, we sought to investigate how prolonged energy drink exposure in adolescence alters alcohol use and preference in adulthood. To do so, we utilized three different energy drink exposure paradigms and two strains of male mice (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) to monitor the effect of caffeine exposure via energy drinks in adolescence on adult alcohol intake. These paradigms included two models of volitional consumption of energy drinks or energy drink-like substances and one model of forced consumption of sucrose solutions with different caffeine concentrations. Following adolescent exposure to these solutions, alcohol intake was monitored in a limited-access, two-bottle choice between water and increasing concentrations of alcohol during adulthood. In none of the three models or two strains of mice did we observe that adolescent 'energy drink' consumption or exposure was correlated with changes in adult alcohol intake or preference. While our current preclinical results suggest that exposure to large amounts of caffeine does not alter future alcohol intake, differences in caffeine metabolism between mice and humans need to be considered before translating these results to humans.

  8. Consumption of mixed fruit-juice drink and vitamin C reduces postprandial stress induced by a high fat meal in healthy overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Villano, Debora V; Roberts, Susan A; Cesqui, Eleonora; Raguzzini, Anna; Borges, Gina; Crozier, Alan; Catasta, Giovina; Toti, Elisabetta; Serafini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial stress induced by acute consumption of meals with a high fat content results in an increase of markers of cardiometabolic risk. Repeated acute dietary stress may induce a persistent low-grade inflammation, playing a role in the pathogenesis of functional gut diseases. This may cause an impairment of the complex immune response of the gastrointestinal mucosa, which results in a breakdown of oral tolerance. We investigated the effect of ingestion of a fruit-juice drink (FJD) composed by multiple fruit juice and extracts, green tea extracts and vitamin C on postprandial stress induced by a High Fat Meal (HFM) in healthy overweight subjects. Following a double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over design, 15 healthy overweight subjects were randomized to a HFM providing 1334 Kcal (55% fat, 30% carbohydrates and 15% proteins) in combination with 500 mL of a placebo drink (HFM-P) or a fruit-juice drink (HFM-FJD). Ingestion of HFM-P led to an increase in circulating levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of HFM-FJD significantly reduced plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, decreasing inflammatory response mediated by TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of a fruit-juice drink reduce markers of postprandial stress induced by a HFM.

  9. The effects of strain and prenatal nicotine exposure on ethanol consumption by adolescent male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Berger, David F; Lombardo, John P; Peck, Joshua A; Faraone, Stephen V; Middleton, Frank A; Youngetob, Steven L

    2010-07-11

    Two studies of variables affecting voluntary ethanol consumption by adolescent male and female rats are reported. Sprague-Dawley (SD) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were compared in Experiment 1. Starting on postnatal day 30 all had 24-h access to 2%, then 4%, and then 6% ethanol, followed by 1-h access to the 6% until intake stabilized. During the 1-h access SHR females consumed more ethanol than all other groups. In Experiment 2, the same procedure was used to compare SD groups prenatally exposed to nicotine, with controls. Nicotine-exposed females consumed more ethanol during 1-h access than both nicotine-exposed and control males; but after using water intake as a covariate, the differences were not significant. These data show that deprivation conditions need to be considered when generalizing the results of voluntary consumption studies, and that estrogens may be a modulator of addictive behavior.

  10. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Fumiaki; O'Connor, Laura; Ye, Zheng; Mursu, Jaakko; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Forouhi, Nita G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prospective associations between consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice with type 2 diabetes before and after adjustment for adiposity, and to estimate the population attributable fraction for type 2 diabetes from consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in the United States and United Kingdom. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources and eligibility PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge for prospective studies of adults without diabetes, published until February 2014. The population attributable fraction was estimated in national surveys in the USA, 2009–10 (n=4729 representing 189.1 million adults without diabetes) and the UK, 2008–12 (n=1932 representing 44.7 million). Synthesis methods Random effects meta-analysis and survey analysis for population attributable fraction associated with consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Results Prespecified information was extracted from 17 cohorts (38 253 cases/10 126 754 person years). Higher consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, by 18% per one serving/day (95% confidence interval 9% to 28%, I2 for heterogeneity=89%) and 13% (6% to 21%, I2=79%) before and after adjustment for adiposity; for artificially sweetened beverages, 25% (18% to 33%, I2=70%) and 8% (2% to 15%, I2=64%); and for fruit juice, 5% (−1% to 11%, I2=58%) and 7% (1% to 14%, I2=51%). Potential sources of heterogeneity or bias were not evident for sugar sweetened beverages. For artificially sweetened beverages, publication bias and residual confounding were indicated. For fruit juice the finding was non-significant in studies ascertaining type 2 diabetes objectively (P for heterogeneity=0.008). Under specified assumptions for population attributable fraction, of 20.9 million events of type 2 diabetes predicted to occur over 10 years in the USA (absolute event rate 11.0%), 1.8 million

  11. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Laura; Ye, Zheng; Mursu, Jaakko; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Forouhi, Nita G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prospective associations between consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice with type 2 diabetes before and after adjustment for adiposity, and to estimate the population attributable fraction for type 2 diabetes from consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in the United States and United Kingdom. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources and eligibility PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge for prospective studies of adults without diabetes, published until February 2014. The population attributable fraction was estimated in national surveys in the USA, 2009-10 (n=4729 representing 189.1 million adults without diabetes) and the UK, 2008-12 (n=1932 representing 44.7 million). Synthesis methods Random effects meta-analysis and survey analysis for population attributable fraction associated with consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Results Prespecified information was extracted from 17 cohorts (38 253 cases/10 126 754 person years). Higher consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, by 18% per one serving/day (95% confidence interval 9% to 28%, I2 for heterogeneity=89%) and 13% (6% to 21%, I2=79%) before and after adjustment for adiposity; for artificially sweetened beverages, 25% (18% to 33%, I2=70%) and 8% (2% to 15%, I2=64%); and for fruit juice, 5% (−1% to 11%, I2=58%) and 7% (1% to 14%, I2=51%). Potential sources of heterogeneity or bias were not evident for sugar sweetened beverages. For artificially sweetened beverages, publication bias and residual confounding were indicated. For fruit juice the finding was non-significant in studies ascertaining type 2 diabetes objectively (P for heterogeneity=0.008). Under specified assumptions for population attributable fraction, of 20.9 million events of type 2 diabetes predicted to occur over 10 years in the USA (absolute event rate 11.0%), 1.8 million

  12. Consumption Frequency of Foods Away from Home Linked with Higher Body Mass Index and Lower Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Aggarwal, Anju; Vermeylen, Francoise; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Consumption of foods prepared away from home (FAFH) has grown steadily since the 1970s. We examined the relationship between FAFH and body mass index (BMI) and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. Methods. Frequency of FAFH, daily FV intake, height and weight, and sociodemographic data were collected using a telephone survey in 2008-2009. Participants included a representative sample of 2,001 adult men and women (mean age 54 ± 15 years) residing in King County, WA, with an analytical sample of 1,570. Frequency of FAFH was categorized as 0-1, 2–4, or 5+ times per week. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. We examined the relationship between FAFH with FV consumption and BMI using multivariate models. Results. Higher frequency of FAFH was associated with higher BMI, after adjusting for age, income, education, race, smoking, marital status, and physical activity (women: p = 0.001; men: p = 0.003). There was a negative association between frequency of FAFH and FV consumption. FAFH frequency was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among males than females (43.1% versus 54.0% eating out 0-1 meal per week, resp.). Females reported eating significantly (p < 0.001) more FV than males. Conclusion. Among adults, higher frequency of FAFH was related to higher BMI and less FV consumption. PMID:26925111

  13. [Binge drinking among 12-year-old adolescent schoolchildren and its association with sex, socioeconomic factors and alcohol consumption by best friends and family members].

    PubMed

    Paiva, Paula Cristina Pelli; Paiva, Haroldo Neves de; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; César, Carlos Augusto Santos; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria

    2015-11-01

    This is a cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 101 twelve-year-old adolescents enrolled in public and private schools in the city of Diamantina in the State of Minas Gerais. The scope was to evaluate the prevalence of binge drinking among 12-year-old schoolchildren and its association with gender, socioeconomic status and alcohol consumption by family members and best friends. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire entitled the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) and the consumption of alcoholic beverages by friends and family. Parents/guardians answered the form on sociodemographic questions. Descriptive analyses and association tests were performed (p < 0.05). The prevalence of binge drinking was 24.8%. Alcoholic beverage consumption began at the age of 10 (16.8%), though sex was not associated with binge drinking by adolescents. However, attending a public school (0.005) and alcohol consumption by best friends (p < 000.1) were associated with binge drinking by adolescents in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of binge drinking was high and was associated with low socioeconomic status and alcohol consumption by the best friend. No association between sex and alcohol consumption by the family members of adolescents was detected.

  14. Associations between access to farmers’ markets and supermarkets, shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, USA

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, Stephanie B Jilcott; Wu, Qiang; McGuirt, Jared T; Crawford, Thomas W; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ammerman, Alice S

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined associations between access to food venues (farmers’ markets and supermarkets), shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, USA. Design Access to food venues was measured using a Geographic Information System incorporating distance, seasonality and business hours, to quantify access to farmers’ markets. Produce consumption was assessed by self-report of eating five or more fruits and vegetables daily. BMI and blood pressure were assessed by clinical measurements. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for dichotomous outcomes and multiple linear regression was used for continuous outcomes. As the study occurred in a university town and university students are likely to have different shopping patterns from non-students, we stratified analyses by student status. Setting Eastern North Carolina. Subjects Low-income women of reproductive age (18–44 years) with valid address information accessing family planning services at a local health department (n 400). Results Over a quarter reported ever shopping at farmers’ markets (114/400). A larger percentage of women who shopped at farmers’ markets consumed five or more fruits and vegetables daily (42·1%) than those who did not (24·0%; P<0·001). The mean objectively measured distance to men reported shopping was 11·4 (SD 9·0) km (7·1 (SD 5·6) miles), while the mean distance to the farmers’ market closest to the residence was 4·0 (SD 3·7) km (2·5 (SD 2·3) miles). Conclusions Among non-students, those who shopped at farmers’ markets were more likely to consume five or more servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Future research should further explore potential health benefits of farmers’ markets. PMID:23701901

  15. Determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in low-income children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-09-01

    Although low-income youth are likely to have low or less frequent fruit and vegetable intake, current understanding of the influences on intake in youth is limited. A systematic review of quantitative research on determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among low-income youth (i.e., persons aged <20 years) was conducted. The aims were to identify which determinants have been studied and which are consistently associated with intake. Fifty-eight papers published between 2003 and August 2013 were included. Across studies, 85 unique determinants were identified. Those best supported by evidence were race/ethnicity (with intake consistently higher among Hispanic as compared with African American and white youth), fruit and vegetable preferences, and maternal fruit and vegetable intake. For many potential determinants, the consistency of evidence could not be examined because of a lack of studies. Findings highlight racial/ethnic differences in fruit and vegetable intake and influences on intake that should be considered when designing dietary interventions for low-income youth. Further research on intake determinants in this at-risk population is needed to establish an evidence base to guide interventions.

  16. Self-esteem discrepancies and identity-expressive consumption: Evidence from Norwegian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Burak

    2016-01-24

    Prior research established that simultaneously holding discrepant explicit (deliberate, controlled) and implicit (automatic, uncontrolled) self-esteem gives rise to self-enhancing behaviours. Given that individuals tend to enhance their self-concepts with brands that are associated with positive identities, this study examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was related to the extent to which individuals developed connections with brands that are associated with their in-groups. Findings from an adolescent sample (ages 16-18) indicated that adolescents with larger discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem were more likely to construct their self-concepts using in-group-linked brands.

  17. Metabolic impact of 100% fruit juice consumption on antioxidant/oxidant status and lipid profiles of adults: An Evidence-Based review.

    PubMed

    Crowe-White, Kristi; Parrott, J Scott; Stote, Kim S; Gutschall, Melissa; Benson-Davies, Sue; Droke, Elizabeth; O'Neil, Carol E; Wolfram, Taylor; Ziegler, Paula

    2017-01-02

    One hundred percent fruit juice (FJ) contains bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity. As such, this fruit form has the potential to improve antioxidant status and mediate outcomes influenced by redox status. A systematic review of the literature published between 1995 and 2013 was conducted using PubMed database to evaluate associations between intake of 100% FJ and markers of antioxidant/oxidant status and blood lipid levels in healthy, free-living adults ≥18 years. Data extraction and analysis was conducted according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process. Limited evidence from ten clinical trials meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria suggests potential improvements in a variety of antioxidant or oxidants biomarkers postconsumption of 100% FJ. Weak evidence from five studies suggests that one or more blood lipid measures may be positively influenced by consumption of 100% FJ. Heterogeneity in study methodology including biomarkers, 100% FJ type, dosage, and intervention duration precludes the ability to make evidence-based recommendations regarding a specific dose-duration-juice effect. Key characteristics in study designs were identified which must either be controlled or statistically adjusted for in future investigations in order to obtain a more accurate understanding of the complex relationship between metabolic outcomes and consumption of 100% FJ in context of a healthy dietary pattern.

  18. Dietary Diversity and Vegetable and Fruit Consumption of Households in a Resource-Poor Peri-Urban South Africa Community Differ by Food Security Status.

    PubMed

    Faber, Mieke; Wenhold, Friede A M; Laurie, Sunette M

    2017-01-01

    Sociodemographic, living standard measure, consumption of vegetables and fruit, and dietary diversity in relation to household food security were assessed. Using a hunger score, households were categorized as food secure (n = 125) or food insecure (n = 273). Food secure respondents had a higher mean dietary diversity score (3.98; 95%CI [3.79, 4.18] versus 3.65; 95% [CI 3.53, 3.77]), were more likely to eat vitamin A-rich foods (OR 1.15; 95% CI [1.05, 1.26]), a more varied diet (DDS ≥ 4, OR 1.90; 95% CI [1.19, 3.13]), and vegetables daily (OR 3.37; 95% CI [2.00, 5.76]). Cost limited daily vegetable/fruit consumption in food insecure households. Respondents with ≥ 8 years of schooling were more likely (OR 2.07; 95% CI [1.22, 3.53]) and households receiving social grants were less likely (OR 0.37; 95% CI [0.19, 0.72]) to be food secure. Results highlight the association between dietary diversity and household food security.

  19. The unique contribution of attitudes toward non-alcoholic drinks to the prediction of adolescents' and young adults' alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Roek, Marion A E; Spijkerman, Renske; Poelen, Evelien A P; Lemmers, Lex; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-06-01

    Attitudes toward alternative behaviors, such as drinking soda instead of alcohol, might contribute to the prediction of young people's drinking behavior. The current study explored the associations between late adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks and their alcohol consumption, and whether these associations were moderated by participants' sex, age and education level. Cross-sectional data were collected among 1012 15 to 25-year-olds. Participants completed an online questionnaire on attitudes toward alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks, binge drinking and monthly alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed by employing structural equation modeling in Mplus. After controlling for the shared variance in both attitudes, attitudes toward alcoholic drinks were positively related and attitudes toward non-alcoholic drinks were negatively related to participants' monthly alcohol use and binge drinking. Relations between attitudes towards alcoholic drinks and monthly alcohol consumption were stronger for boys than for girls and stronger for participants with intermediate education background. Relations between both attitudes and binge drinking were strongest for high educated participants. According to our data, non-alcohol attitudes provide a unique contribution to the prediction of alcohol use.

  20. Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables in Middle School Students Following the Implementation of a School District Wellness Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Kathleen D.; Snelling, Anastasia; Maroto, Maya; Young, Katherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: In 2010, a large urban school district implemented a district-wide school wellness policy that addressed childhood obesity by requiring schools to increase health and physical education contact hours for students and to improve the nutritional standards of school meals. Schools were required to serve a different fruit and…

  1. Incentivizing Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: Results of a United States Pilot Study of the "Food Dudes" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wengreen, Heidi J.; Madden, Gregory J.; Aguilar, Sheryl S.; Smits, Rochelle R.; Jones, Brooke A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preliminary evaluation in the United States (US) of a school-based fruit and vegetable (F/V) intervention, known as the "Food Dudes" (FD) program, developed in the United Kingdom. Methods: Over 16 days (Phase 1), elementary-school children (n = 253) watched short videos featuring heroic peers (the FD) eating F/V and received a…

  2. In-Classroom Fruit and Vegetable Tastings Offer Potential for Increasing Consumption among Third through Sixth Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirignano, Sherri M.; Fitzgerald, Nurgul; Hughes, Luanne J.; Savoca, LeeAnne; Morgan, Kathleen; Grenci, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of coordinated in-classroom education and taste-testing activities on fruit and vegetable acceptance in a state-wide sample of third through sixth grade children. Methods: Two taste-testing sessions were a part of six nutrition lessons that were implemented in nine elementary…

  3. Self-efficacy and norm measures for lunch fruit and vegetable consumption are reliable and valid among fifth grade students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability and validity of a questionnaire measuring fruit and vegetable (FV) self-efficacy and social norms during school lunch among 5th graders. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, students completed lunch food records and a psychosocial questionnaire measuring sch...

  4. Fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a multi-centre, European cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bamia, C; Lagiou, P; Jenab, M; Aleksandrova, K; Fedirko, V; Trichopoulos, D; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Olsen, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Kvaskoff, M; Katzke, V A; Kühn, T; Boeing, H; Nöthlings, U; Palli, D; Sieri, S; Panico, S; Tumino, R; Naccarati, A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB(as); Peeters, P H M; Weiderpass, E; Skeie, G; Quirós, J R; Agudo, A; Chirlaque, M-D; Sanchez, M-J; Ardanaz, E; Dorronsoro, M; Ericson, U; Nilsson, L M; Wennberg, M; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N; Key, T J; Travis, R C; Ferrari, P; Stepien, M; Duarte-Salles, T; Norat, T; Murphy, N; Riboli, E; Trichopoulou, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vegetable and/or fruit intakes in association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been investigated in case–control studies conducted in specific European countries and cohort studies conducted in Asia, with inconclusive results. No multi-centre European cohort has investigated the indicated associations. Methods: In 486 799 men/women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition, we identified 201 HCC cases after 11 years median follow-up. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence for sex-specific quintiles and per 100 g d−1 increments of vegetable/fruit intakes. Results: Higher vegetable intake was associated with a statistically significant, monotonic reduction of HCC risk: HR (100 g d−1 increment): 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71–0.98. This association was consistent in sensitivity analyses with no apparent heterogeneity across strata of HCC risk factors. Fruit intake was not associated with HCC incidence: HR (100 g d−1 increment): 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92–1.11. Conclusions: Vegetable, but not fruit, intake is associated with lower HCC risk with no evidence for heterogeneity of this association in strata of important HCC risk factors. Mechanistic studies should clarify pathways underlying this association. Given that HCC prognosis is poor and that vegetables are practically universally accessible, our results may be important, especially for those at high risk for the disease. PMID:25742480

  5. An intervention to increase fruit and vegetable consumption using audio communications: in-store public service announcements and audiotapes.

    PubMed

    Connell, D; Goldberg, J P; Folta, S C

    2001-01-01

    Consumers make an estimated 70% of their food purchase decisions as they shop. Effective presentation of information about healthier food selections at the point-of-purchase should have an impact on their decisions. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two audio formats on knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about fruits and vegetables and on intake of these foods. Participants identified as "regular shoppers" (n = 374) in three intervention stores were recruited as they entered. They provided baseline demographic data, answered questions about their knowledge and beliefs about fruits and vegetables, and completed a checklist to assess fruit and vegetable intake. They were given two one-hour audiotapes and asked to play them within the next four weeks. In-store public service announcements (PSAs) with information about fruits and vegetables were rotated every 30 minutes for four weeks. A control group (n = 378), recruited in three other stores matched by demographic characteristics, provided the same information. They received an audiotape with stress reduction information. At posttest, the original series of questionnaires were readministered in telephone interviews with 87.7% of the original intervention group and 93.7% of the original control group. Knowledge scores in the intervention group increased significantly over baseline and as compared with the control group. Self-reported fruit and vegetable intake increased significantly in both groups, perhaps in part because of a seasonal effect. The increase from baseline was significantly higher in the intervention group and compared with controls. These findings support the further exploration of the use of audiotapes in nutrition education interventions.

  6. Enjoyment and Consumption of Defiant Rock Music as a Function of Adolescent Rebelliousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleich, Susan; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of adolescent rebelliousness highlights a study of high school students that explored the relationship between rebelliousness as a personality trait and the enjoyment of defiant rock music. Hypotheses tested are discussed, the use of MTV concept music videos is explained, gender differences are considered, and further research is…

  7. Alcohol consumption among Chilean adolescents: Examining individual, peer, parenting and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study examined whether adolescents from Santiago, Chile who had never drunk alcohol differed from those who had drunk alcohol but who had never experienced an alcohol-related problem, as well as from those who had drunk and who had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem on a number of variables from four domains - individual, peers, parenting, and environmental. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Community based sample. Participants 909 adolescents from Santiago, Chile. Measurements Data were analyzed with multinomial logistic regression to compare adolescents who had never drunk alcohol (non-drinkers) with i) those that had drunk but who had experienced no alcohol-related problems (non-problematic drinkers) and ii) those who had drunk alcohol and had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem (problematic drinkers). The analyses included individual, peer, parenting, and environmental factors while controlling for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Findings Compared to non-drinkers, both non-problematic and problematic drinkers were older, reported having more friends who drank alcohol, greater exposure to alcohol ads, lower levels of parental monitoring, and more risk-taking behaviors. In addition, problematic drinkers placed less importance on religious faith to make daily life decisions and had higher perceptions of neighborhood crime than non-drinkers. Conclusions Prevention programs aimed at decreasing problematic drinking could benefit from drawing upon adolescents’ spiritual sources of strength, reinforcing parental tools to monitor their adolescents, and improving environmental and neighborhood conditions. PMID:24465290

  8. [Nutritional habits in children and adolescents practicing fencing. Part 1. Meal consumption].

    PubMed

    Radzimirska-Graczyk, Monika; Chalcarz, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess habits related to eating meals in children and adolescents who attended sports schools. The days with training and the days free of training were analysed separately. The questionnaires on the number and frequency of eating meals were filled in by 141 children and adolescents who practised fencing and attended sports classes in primary and secondary schools. The influence of gender and age on the number and frequency of eating meals was analysed by means of the SPSS 12.0 PL for Windows computer programme. The studied children's and adolescents' habits related to eating meals were highly unfavourable, especially in females from secondary school, mainly due to a very low percentage of students who ate meals regularly, lunch in particular. Boys ate more meals than girls. Especially disconcerting was a very low number of meals eaten by females from secondary school, which may imply a risk of anorexia. Children and adolescents who attend sports schools should be educated on nutrition and the relation between food habits, nutritional status and achieving success in sport. Females from secondary schools should be informed about the danger of anorexia.

  9. Personal and Social Correlates of Alcohol Consumption among Mid-Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, John; Boys, Annabel; Farrell, Michael; Stillwell, Garry; Hutchings, Kevin; Hillebrand, Jennifer; Griffiths, Paul

    2005-01-01

    A prospective, cohort survey of 540 mid-adolescent students was conducted to identify personal, family and social correlates of alcohol use. A structured questionnaire recorded alcohol involvement, other substance use, perceived parental alcohol use and related factors, alcohol-related attitudes and beliefs, psychological well-being, social and…

  10. Differential improvements in student fruit and vegetable selection and consumption in response to the new National School Lunch Program regulations: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Karen W.; Chen, Tzu-An; Dave, Jayna M.; Jensen, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigated changes in student food selection and consumption in response to the new National School Lunch Program meal patterns during fall, 2011. Design Eight elementary and four intermediate schools in one Houston area school district were matched on free/reduced price (FRP) meal eligibility and randomized into control or intervention conditions. Intervention Both intervention and control school cafeterias served the same menu. The intervention school cafeterias posted the new meal pattern daily; students could select one fruit and two vegetable servings per reimbursable meal. Control school students could only select the previous meal pattern: a total of two fruit and vegetable servings per meal. Main outcome measures Students were observed during lunch: gender, foods selected/consumed were recorded. Diet analysis software was used to calculate energy/food groups selected/consumed. Statistical analyses performed Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square tests examined differences in the percent of students selecting each meal component by condition, controlling for gender, grade, and school FRP. ANCOVA assessed differences in amount of energy/food groups selected and consumed, and differences in percent of food groups consumed. Results Observations were conducted for 1149 elementary and 427 intermediate students. Compared with students in the control schools, significantly more intervention elementary and intermediate school students selected total (P<0.001, P<0.05) and starchy vegetables (P<0.001; P<0.01); more intervention intermediate school students selected fruit (P<0.001), legumes (P<0.05), and protein foods (P<0.01). There were significantly greater amounts of these foods selected and consumed, but no differences in the proportion of the foods consumed by condition. Fewer calories were consumed by elementary and intermediate school intervention students. Conclusions More intervention students selected fruit and vegetables at lunch, and

  11. Community-based interventions for enhancing access to or consumption of fruit and vegetables among five to 18-year olds: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Low fruit and vegetable ( FV) consumption is a key risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Consumption of FV is limited by a lack of access to FV. Enhanced understanding of interventions and their impact on both access to and consumption of FV can provide guidance to public health decision-makers. The purpose of this scoping review is to identify and map literature that has evaluated effects of community-based interventions designed to increase FV access or consumption among five to 18-year olds. Methods The search included 21 electronic bibliographic databases, grey literature, targeted organization websites, and 15 key journals for relevant studies published up to May 2011. Retrieved citations were screened in duplicate for relevance. Data extracted from included studies covered: year, country, study design, target audience, intervention setting, intervention strategies, interventionists, and reported outcomes. Results The search located 19,607 unique citations. Full text relevance screening was conducted on 1,908 studies. The final 289 unique studies included 30 knowledge syntheses, 27 randomized controlled trials, 55 quasi-experimental studies, 113 cluster controlled studies, 60 before-after studies, one mixed method study, and three controlled time series studies. Of these studies, 46 included access outcomes and 278 included consumption outcomes. In terms of target population, 110 studies focused on five to seven year olds, 175 targeted eight to 10 year olds, 192 targeted 11 to 14 year olds, 73 targeted 15 to 18 year olds, 55 targeted parents, and 30 targeted teachers, other service providers, or the general public. The most common intervention locations included schools, communities or community centres, and homes. Most studies implemented multi-faceted intervention strategies to increase FV access or consumption. Conclusions While consumption measures were commonly reported, this review identified a small yet important subset of literature

  12. The Amount of Time to Eat Lunch is Associated with Children’s Selection and Consumption of School Meal Entrée, Fruits, Vegetable, and Milk

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Juliana F.W.; Jahn, Jaquelyn L.; Richardson, Scott; Cluggish, Sarah A.; Parker, Ellen; Rimm, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    Background There are currently no national standards for school lunch period lengths and little is known about the association between the amount of time students have to eat and school food selection and consumption. Objectives To examine plate waste measurements from students in the control arm from the MEALS study (2011-2012 school year) for the association of the amount of time to eat with school meal selection and consumption. Design Prospective study using up to six repeated measures among students over the school year. Participants/Setting 1001 students in grades 3-8 attending 6 participating elementary/middle schools in an urban, low-income school district where lunch period lengths varied from 20-30 minutes. Main Outcome Measures School food selection and consumption were collected using plate waste methodology. Statistical Analyses Performed Logistic regression and mixed-model ANOVA was used to examine food selection and consumption. Results Compared with meal component selection when students had at least 25 minutes to eat, students were significantly less likely to select a fruit (44% vs. 57%; p=0.0001) compared with when students had fewer than 20 minutes to eat. There were no significant differences in entrée, milk, or vegetable selection. Among those who selected a meal component, students with fewer than 20 minutes to eat consumed 13% less of their entrée (p<0.0001), 10% less of their milk (p<0.0001), and 12% less of their vegetable (p=0.0002) compared to when students had at least 25 minutes to eat. Conclusions Over the school year, a substantial number of students had insufficient time to eat, which was associated with significantly decreased entrée, milk, and vegetable consumption compared with students who had more time to eat. School policies that encourage lunches with at least 25 minutes of seated time may reduce food waste and improve dietary intake. PMID:26372337

  13. Adolescent smoking and tertiary education: opposing pathways linking socio‐economic background to alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Leyland, Alastair H.; Sweeting, Helen; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims If socio‐economic disadvantage is associated with more adolescent smoking, but less participation in tertiary education, and smoking and tertiary education are both associated with heavier drinking, these may represent opposing pathways to heavy drinking. This paper examines contextual variation in the magnitude and direction of these associations. Design Comparing cohort studies. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Participants were from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS58; n = 15 672), the British birth cohort study (BCS70; n = 12 735) and the West of Scotland Twenty‐07 1970s cohort (T07; n = 1515). Measurements Participants self‐reported daily smoking and weekly drinking in adolescence (age 16 years) and heavy drinking (> 14/21 units in past week) in early adulthood (ages 22–26 years). Parental occupational class (manual versus non‐manual) indicated socio‐economic background. Education beyond age 18 was coded as tertiary. Models were adjusted for parental smoking and drinking, family structure and adolescent psychiatric distress. Findings Respondents from a manual class were more likely to smoke and less likely to enter tertiary education (e.g. in NCDS58, probit coefficients were 0.201 and –0.765, respectively; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents from a non‐manual class. Adolescent smokers were more likely to drink weekly in adolescence (0.346; P < 0.001) and more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.178; P < 0.001) than adolescent non‐smokers. Respondents who participated in tertiary education were more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.110 for males, 0.182 for females; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents with no tertiary education. With some variation in magnitude, these associations were consistent across all three cohorts. Conclusions In Britain, young adults are more likely to drink heavily both if they smoke and participate in tertiary education (college

  14. The classification of Spanish adolescents based on substance consumption patterns and the analysis of the relationships within their social developmental contexts.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Pilar; Moreno, Carmen; Rivera, Francisco; López, Ana

    2011-11-01

    This research is part of the 2006 edition of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The data presented were composed of a sample of 15942 Spanish adolescents ranging from 13 to 18 years of age. The instruments used included a variety of questions related to substance consumption among adolescents, their bio-psycho-social adjustment and developmental contexts, all of which are part of the HBSC study instrument bank. Through classification analysis, as well as significance and effect size tests, we obtained relevant information about the current epidemiology of substance consumption among Spanish adolescents. These results are representative of the Spanish adolescent population which allows the typical risk profile attributed to young people to be clarified. A gradual adjustment can be seen in terms of substance consumption levels in youth and that same level in their friends. Likewise, the analysis of the developmental context (family, friends and school) provides important information when it comes to preventing substance consumption, thus showing the advantages that coherence and connection have between the different environments where youth live, grow up and develop.

  15. Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–...

  16. Consumption of whole grains is associated with improved diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of consumption of whole grains (WG) with diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents by a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. The 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to study children ...

  17. Increasing Fruit, Vegetable and Water Consumption in Summer Day Camps-3-Year Findings of the Healthy Lunchbox Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Tilley, Falon; Weaver, Robert G.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Moore, Justin B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the 3-year outcomes (2011-2013) from the healthy lunchbox challenge (HLC) delivered in the US-based summer day camps (SDC) (8-10 hours day-1, 10-11 weeks summer-1, SDC) to increase children and staff bringing fruit, vegetables and water (FVW) each day. A single group pre- with multiple post-test design…

  18. Estimated dietary exposure of Canadians to perchlorate through the consumption of fruits and vegetables available in Ottawa markets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongwen; Forsyth, Don; Lau, Benjamin P-Y; Pelletier, Luc; Bronson, Roni; Gaertner, Dean

    2009-10-14

    There has been increasing concern over the contamination of drinking water and food with perchlorate. Studies have reported perchlorate in a variety of foods, including lettuce, milk, fruits, and juices. In this study, 150 food samples were analyzed by ion chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS) to determine the concentrations of perchlorate in imported and domestic fruits and vegetables available from retail outlets in Ottawa, Canada. Perchlorate was found in most of the tested food types with concentrations appearing to vary by commodity and country of origin. Levels ranged from nondetectable to 536 microg/kg, with Guatemalan cantaloupes (156 +/- 232 microg/kg), United States spinach (133 +/- 24.9 microg/kg), Chilean green grapes (45.5 +/- 13.3 microg/kg), and United States Romaine lettuce (29.1 +/- 10.5 microg/kg) having the highest concentrations. Dietary exposure to perchlorate from analyzed fruits and vegetables was estimated to be approximately 36.6 and 41.1 ng/kg bw/day for toddlers (1-4 yrs) and children (5-11yrs), respectively.

  19. Western High-Fat Diet Consumption during Adolescence Increases Susceptibility to Traumatic Stress while Selectively Disrupting Hippocampal and Ventricular Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Kalyan-Masih, Priya; Vega-Torres, Julio David; Haddad, Elizabeth; Rainsbury, Sabrina; Baghchechi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Psychological trauma and obesity co-occur frequently and have been identified as major risk factors for psychiatric disorders. Surprisingly, preclinical studies examining how obesity disrupts the ability of the brain to cope with psychological trauma are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine whether an obesogenic Western-like high-fat diet (WD) predisposes rats to post-traumatic stress responsivity. Adolescent Lewis rats (postnatal day 28) were fed ad libitum for 8 weeks with either the experimental WD diet (41.4% kcal from fat) or the control diet (16.5% kcal from fat). We modeled psychological trauma by exposing young adult rats to a cat odor threat. The elevated plus maze and the open field test revealed increased psychological trauma-induced anxiety-like behaviors in the rats that consumed the WD when compared with control animals 1 week after undergoing traumatic stress (p < 0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging showed significant hippocampal atrophy (20% reduction) and lateral ventricular enlargement (50% increase) in the animals fed the WD when compared with controls. These volumetric abnormalities were associated with behavioral indices of anxiety, increased leptin and FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) levels, and reduced hippocampal blood vessel density. We found asymmetric structural vulnerabilities to the WD, particularly the ventral and left hippocampus and lateral ventricle. This study highlights how WD consumption during adolescence impacts key substrates implicated in post-traumatic stress disorder. Understanding how consumption of a WD affects the developmental trajectories of the stress neurocircuitry is critical, as stress susceptibility imposes a marked vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27844058

  20. Salt intake is related to soft drink consumption in children and adolescents: a link to obesity?

    PubMed

    He, Feng J; Marrero, Naomi M; MacGregor, Graham A

    2008-03-01

    Dietary salt is a major determinant of fluid intake in adults; however, little is known about this relationship in children. Sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption is related to childhood obesity, but it is unclear whether there is a link between salt and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption. We analyzed the data of a cross-sectional study, the National Diet and Nutrition Survey for young people in Great Britain. Salt intake and fluid intake were assessed in 1688 participants aged 4 to 18 years, using a 7-day dietary record. There was a significant association between salt intake and total fluid, as well as sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption (P<0.001), after adjusting for potential confounding factors. A difference of 1 g/d in salt intake was associated with a difference of 100 and 27 g/d in total fluid and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption, respectively. These results, in conjunction with other evidence, particularly that from experimental studies where only salt intake was changed, demonstrate that salt is a major determinant of fluid and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption during childhood. If salt intake in children in the United Kingdom was reduced by half (mean decrease: 3 g/d), there would be an average reduction of approximately 2.3 sugar-sweetened soft drinks per week per child. A reduction in salt intake could, therefore, play a role in helping to reduce childhood obesity through its effect on sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption. This would have a beneficial effect on preventing cardiovascular disease independent of and additive to the effect of salt reduction on blood pressure.

  1. CONSUMPTION PATTERNS OF SUGAR SWEETENED BEVERAGES IN THE UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    Han, Euna; Powell, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Few previous studies investigated consumption distributions of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) over time and individual-level associations despite recent interest in SSBs regarding obesity control. Objective To assess consumption patterns and individual-level associations. Design Trend and cross-sectional analyses of 24-hour dietary recall data and demographic characteristics and socioeconomic status (SES) drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2000, 2001–2002, 2003–2004, 2005–2006, and 2007–2008). Participants/setting Children (2–11 years, N=8,627), adolescents (12–19 years, N=8,922), young adults (20–34 years, N=5,933), and middle-aged and elder adults (≥35 years, N=16,456). Statistical analyses performed Age-stratified regression analyses for SSBs overall and by subtypes. Results The prevalence of heavy total SSB consumption (≥500 kcal/day) increased among children (4% to 5%) although it decreased among adolescents (22% to 16%) and young adults (29% to 20%). Soda was the most heavily-consumed SSB in all age groups except for children. Prevalence of soda consumption decreased, whereas heavy sports/energy drink consumption tripled (4% to 12%) among adolescents. Black children and adolescents showed a higher odds of heavy fruit drink consumption (OR=1.71 and 1.67) than whites. Low-income children had a higher odds of heavy total SSB consumption (OR=1.93) and higher caloric intake from total SSBs and fruit drinks (by 23 and 27 kcal/day) than high-income children. Adolescents with low- versus high-educated parents had a higher odds of heavy total SSB consumption (OR=1.28) and higher caloric intake from total SSBs and soda (by 27 and 21 kcal/day). Low- versus high-SES was associated with a higher odds of heavy consumption of total SSBs, soda, and fruit drinks among adults. Conclusions Prevalence of soda consumption fell but non-traditional SSBs rose. Heterogeneity of heavy consumption by SSB types across

  2. Unique Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects Induced by Repeated Adolescent Consumption of Caffeine-Mixed Alcohol in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Meridith T.; Lu, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The number of highly caffeinated products has increased dramatically in the past few years. Among these products, highly caffeinated energy drinks are the most heavily advertised and purchased, which has resulted in increased incidences of co-consumption of energy drinks with alcohol. Despite the growing number of adolescents and young adults reporting caffeine-mixed alcohol use, knowledge of the potential consequences associated with co-consumption has been limited to survey-based results and in-laboratory human behavioral testing. Here, we investigate the effect of repeated adolescent (post-natal days P35-61) exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol in C57BL/6 mice on common drug-related behaviors such as locomotor sensitivity, drug reward and cross-sensitivity, and natural reward. To determine changes in neurological activity resulting from adolescent exposure, we monitored changes in expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the dopaminergic reward pathway as a sign of long-term increases in neuronal activity. Repeated adolescent exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure induced significant locomotor sensitization, desensitized cocaine conditioned place preference, decreased cocaine locomotor cross-sensitivity, and increased natural reward consumption. We also observed increased accumulation of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens following repeated adolescent caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure compared to alcohol or caffeine alone. Using our exposure model, we found that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence causes unique behavioral and neurochemical effects not observed in mice exposed to caffeine or alcohol alone. Based on similar findings for different substances of abuse, it is possible that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence could potentially alter or escalate future substance abuse as means to compensate for these behavioral and neurochemical alterations. PMID:27380261

  3. Unique Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects Induced by Repeated Adolescent Consumption of Caffeine-Mixed Alcohol in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Robins, Meridith T; Lu, Julie; van Rijn, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    The number of highly caffeinated products has increased dramatically in the past few years. Among these products, highly caffeinated energy drinks are the most heavily advertised and purchased, which has resulted in increased incidences of co-consumption of energy drinks with alcohol. Despite the growing number of adolescents and young adults reporting caffeine-mixed alcohol use, knowledge of the potential consequences associated with co-consumption has been limited to survey-based results and in-laboratory human behavioral testing. Here, we investigate the effect of repeated adolescent (post-natal days P35-61) exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol in C57BL/6 mice on common drug-related behaviors such as locomotor sensitivity, drug reward and cross-sensitivity, and natural reward. To determine changes in neurological activity resulting from adolescent exposure, we monitored changes in expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the dopaminergic reward pathway as a sign of long-term increases in neuronal activity. Repeated adolescent exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure induced significant locomotor sensitization, desensitized cocaine conditioned place preference, decreased cocaine locomotor cross-sensitivity, and increased natural reward consumption. We also observed increased accumulation of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens following repeated adolescent caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure compared to alcohol or caffeine alone. Using our exposure model, we found that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence causes unique behavioral and neurochemical effects not observed in mice exposed to caffeine or alcohol alone. Based on similar findings for different substances of abuse, it is possible that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence could potentially alter or escalate future substance abuse as means to compensate for these behavioral and neurochemical alterations.

  4. Social capital in relation to alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social capital has lately received much attention in public health research. However, few studies have examined the influence of social capital on alcohol consumption, smoking and drug use which have strong influence on public health. The present cross-sectional study investigated whether two measures of social capital were related to substance use in a large population of Swedish adolescents. Methods A total of 7757 13–18 year old students (participation rate: 78.2%) anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2008 which included questions on sociodemographic background, neighbourhood social capital, general social trust, alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Results Individuals within the group with low neighbourhood social capital had an approximately 60% increased odds of high alcohol consumption, more than three times increased odds of smoking and more than double the odds of having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high neighbourhood social capital. Individuals within the group with low general social trust had approximately 50% increased odds of high alcohol consumption and double the odds of smoking and having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high general social trust. However, social capital at the contextual level showed very weak effects on alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions Social capital may be an important factor in the future development of prevention programs concerning adolescent substance use. However, further replications of the results as well as identifications of direction of causality are needed. PMID:23688242

  5. Blame it on the alcohol: the influence of alcohol consumption during adolescence, the transition to adulthood, and young adulthood on one-time sexual hookups.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew David; Chen, Jiawen

    2015-01-01

    Using public-use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 3,733) and the life-span developmental perspective, the current study sought to determine whether global reports of alcohol use, binge drinking, and drunkenness are best represented as indicators of a latent alcohol consumption construct during adolescence, the transition to adulthood, and young adulthood. We also examined the predictive power of alcohol consumption during each developmental period on the total number of one-time sexual hookups reported in young adulthood. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed alcohol use, binge drinking, and drunkenness are consistent indicators of a latent alcohol consumption variable over time, although the mean levels of the indicators were significantly lower during adolescence. Structural equation modeling analyses found alcohol consumption during the transition to adulthood and young adulthood predicted one-time sexual hookups in young adulthood, but alcohol consumption during the transition to adulthood exhibited the strongest association with hooking up. Implications for research, theory, and practice are discussed.

  6. Gender differences in the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yue; Hong, Lingyao; Guo, Lan; Gao, Xue; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among adolescents, with a particular focus on gender differences. A total of 19,578 middle and high school students in Chongqing Province were surveyed. Self-reported cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and family- and school-related factors were assessed. A total of 8.8% adolescents reported smoking cigarettes. Tobacco use by boys (16.5%) was significantly higher than by girls (1.9%). Approximately 23.5% of adolescents reported alcohol consumption. Consumption in boys (31.5%) was significantly higher than in girls (16.2%). Depressive symptoms were prevalent in 9.1% of the sample. Girls reported significantly more symptoms (10.4%) than boys (7.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the association between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms was stronger among girls (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.8–2.5) than boys (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4–2.1). A significant association (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6–3.4) between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms was revealed in girls only. The significant gender differences found above may provide a basis for the early identification of individuals at high risk for depression. PMID:26639938

  7. The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has increased by 300% in the past 20 years, and 56-85% of children in school consume at least one soft drink daily. The odds ratio of becoming obese among children increases 1.6 times for each additional can or glass of sugar-sweetened drink consumed beyond their usual daily intake of the beverage. Soft drinks currently…

  8. Understanding Reduced-Fat Milk Consumption among Male Adolescents Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassem, Nada O.; Lee, Jerry W.

    2005-01-01

    This study identifies factors that influences reduced-fat milk consumption among 560 male students, ages 13-18 years, attending North Los Angeles County public high schools. Participants completed a group-administered Theory of Planned Behavior-based questionnaire. The majority of the participants, 94.8%, reported that they currently drank some…

  9. Peer-Led, School-Based Nutrition Education for Young Adolescents: Feasibility and Process Evaluation of the TEENS Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the feasibility of the peer leader component of a school-based nutrition intervention for young adolescents designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and lower fat consumption. Results from a multicomponent process evaluation involving participant feedback, observation, and teacher ratings and interviews indicated that…

  10. A store-based intervention to increase fruit and vegetable consumption: The El Valor de Nuestra Salud cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Baquero, Barbara; Pickrel, Julie L.; Mayer, Joni; Belch, George; Rock, Cheryl L.; Linnan, Laura; Gittelsohn, Joel; Sanchez-Flack, Jennifer; Elder, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Most evidence-based interventions to improve fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption target individual behaviors and family systems; however, these changes are difficult to sustain without environmental support. This paper describes an innovative social and structural food store-based intervention to increase availability and accessibility of FVs in tiendas (small-to medium-sized Latino food stores) and purchasing and consumption of FVs among tienda customers. Methods Using a cluster randomized controlled trial with 16 tiendas pair-matched and randomized to an intervention or wait-list control condition, this study will evaluate a 2-month intervention directed at tiendas, managers, and employees followed by a 4-month customer-directed food marketing campaign. The intervention involves social (e.g., employee trainings) and structural (e.g., infrastructure) environmental changes. Three hundred sixty-nine customers (approximately 23 per tienda) serve on an evaluation cohort and complete assessments (interviews and measurements of weight) at 3 time points: baseline, 6-months post-baseline, and 12-months post-baseline. The primary study outcome is customer-reported daily consumption of FVs. Manager interviews and monthly tienda audits and collection of sales data will provide evidence of tienda-level intervention effects, our secondary outcomes. Process evaluation methods assess dose delivered, dose received, and fidelity. Results Recruitment of tiendas, managers, employees, and customers is complete. Demographic data shows that 30% of the customers are males, thus providing a unique opportunity to examine the effects of a tienda-based intervention on Latino men. Conclusions Determining whether a tienda-based intervention can improve customers’ FV purchasing and consumption will provide key evidence for how to create healthier consumer food environments. PMID:25924592

  11. ShopSmart 4 Health – Protocol of a skills-based randomised controlled trial promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a need for evidence on the most effective and cost-effective approaches for promoting healthy eating among groups that do not meet dietary recommendations for good health, such as those with low incomes or experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage. This paper describes the ShopSmart 4 Health study, a randomised controlled trial conducted by Deakin University, Coles Supermarkets and the Heart Foundation, to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a skill-building intervention for promoting increased purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables amongst women of low socioeconomic position (SEP). Methods/design ShopSmart 4 Health employed a randomised controlled trial design. Women aged 18–60 years, holding a Coles store loyalty card, who shopped at Coles stores within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods and met low-income eligibility criteria were invited to participate. Consenting women completed a baseline survey assessing food shopping and eating habits and food-related behaviours and attitudes. On receipt of their completed survey, women were randomised to either a skill-building intervention or a wait-list control condition. Intervention effects will be evaluated via self-completion surveys and using supermarket transaction sales data, collected at pre- and post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Process evaluation will be undertaken to identify perceived value and effects of intervention components. Discussion This study will provide data to address the currently limited evidence base regarding the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of skill-building intervention strategies aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women, a target group at high risk of poor diets. Trial registration Current

  12. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals. Samples were washed, oven-dried at 70–80°C for 24 h and powdered. Samples were digested with perchloric acid and nitric acid. Metals were analysed with Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in Ohaji exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for agricultural soil as recommended by EU. Lead, Cd, and Ni in the food crops were highest in Oryza sativa, Glycine max, and Pentabacta microfila respectively. Highest levels of Pb, Cd, and Ni, in fruits were detected in Canarium schweinfurthii, Citrus reticulata, Ananas comosus respectively. The true lead and cadmium intake for the rice based meal were 3.53 and 0.034 g/kg respectively. Whereas the true intake of lead and cadmium for the cassava based meal were 19.42 and 0.049 g/kg respectively. Conclusion Local food stuff commonly available in South Eastern Nigeria villages may contribute to the body burden of heavy metal. This is of public health importance. PMID:22853175

  13. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection in a healthy adolescent following consumption of caffeinated "energy drinks".

    PubMed

    Polat, Nihat; Ardıç, Idris; Akkoyun, Murat; Vuruşkan, Ertan

    2013-12-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare and uncommon case of sudden cardiac death and acute coronary syndrome. Herein, we present a 13-year-old boy with chest pain who was diagnosed with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction associated with SCAD, possibly caused by the consumption of an energy drink, which has not been reported previously in the pediatric age group. On coronary angiography, the left anterior descending artery showed extensive dissection from the distal part of the vessel. Based on the morphology of the vessel with a dissection and TIMI flow grade III, it was decided to manage this patient conservatively with close follow-up. The aim of this report is to highlight the risks associated with the consumption of caffeinated energy drinks in children.

  14. Presence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents and University students in Crete (Greece), according to different levels of snack consumption.

    PubMed

    Vergetaki, Anna; Linardakis, Manolis; Papadaki, Angeliki; Kafatos, Anthony

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) risk factors in adolescents and University students in Crete (Greece), according to different levels of snack consumption. 237 adolescents (14.2-16.3 years) and 196 University students (19.5-31.5 years) participated during 2002/3 and 2004/5. Dietary intake (24-h dietary recalls), cardiorespiratory fitness, smoking habits, time spent watching television, anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were assessed in all subjects. Adolescents consumed snacks more often than University students (62% vs. 49.5%, P < 0.05) and had significantly higher total energy intake (8629 vs. 7641 kJ, P < 0.05) and energy intake from snacks (2537 vs. 1767 kJ, P < 0.001). Snack consumers had higher energy intake than non-consumers in both groups. No relationship was found between snack consumption and MetSyn risk factors, cardiorespiratory fitness and smoking. However, University students who consumed snacks had 15.36 times higher risk of having ≥ 2 MetSyn risk factors than adolescent snack consumers, had considerably higher LDL-cholesterol levels, total: HDL-cholesterol ratio and watched more television than non-consumers. These findings emphasize the need for developing effective nutrition interventions to promote healthier snack choices in adolescents and young adults with characteristics similar to our sample, in order to prevent cardiovascular risk later in adulthood.

  15. The Association between Self-Reported Grocery Store Access, Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption, and Obesity in a Racially Diverse, Low-Income Population

    PubMed Central

    Gase, Lauren Nichol; DeFosset, Amelia Rose; Smith, Lisa V.; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between self-reported time and distance to the nearest retail grocery store, healthy and unhealthy food consumption, and objectively measured body mass index (BMI). We conducted a survey with 1,503 racially diverse, low-income residents at five public health centers in Los Angeles County. Most participants reported shopping at a supermarket (86.7%) and driving (59.9%) to their usual source for groceries. Over half reported living less than a mile from (58.9%) and traveling 5 min or less to reach (50.3%) the nearest grocery store. In the multivariable regression models, neither self-reported distance nor time to the nearest grocery store was consistently associated with fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, or BMI. Results suggest that the need to consider access and quality as well as urban planning and transportation, when examining the relationship between the retail food environment and health outcomes. PMID:25426485

  16. Sugar Consumption and Changes in Dental Caries from Childhood to Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Peres, M A; Sheiham, A; Liu, P; Demarco, F F; Silva, A E R; Assunção, M C; Menezes, A M; Barros, F C; Peres, K G

    2016-04-01

    There are no prospective studies investigating the effects of sugar-related feeding practices on changes in dental caries from early childhood to young adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess whether sugar-related feeding practices affect dental caries between the ages of 6 and 18 y. This birth cohort study was initiated in 1993 in Pelotas, Brazil. There were 3 dental clinical assessments; at ages 6 y (n = 359), 12 y (n = 339), and 18 y (n = 307). Sugar-related feeding practices were assessed at ages 4, 15, and 18 y. Covariates included sex and life course variables, such as family income, breast-feeding, mother's education, regularity of dental visit, and child's toothbrushing habits. Group-based trajectory analysis was performed to characterize trajectories of time-varying independent variables that had at least 3 time points. We fitted a generalized linear mixed model assuming negative binomial distribution with log link function on 3-time repeated dental caries assessments. One in 5 participants was classified as "high" sugar consumers, and nearly 40% were "upward consumers." "Low consumers" accounted for >40% of the sample. High and upward sugar consumers had higher dental caries prevalence and mean DMFT in all cohort waves when compared with low sugar consumers. Caries occurred at a relatively constant rate over the period of study, but in all sugar consumption groups, the increment of dental caries was slightly higher between ages 6 and 12 y than between 12 and 18 y. Adjusted analysis showed that dental caries increment ratio between ages 6 and 18 y was 20% and 66% higher in upward and high sugar consumer groups as compared with low consumers. The higher the sugar consumption along the life course, the higher the dental caries increment. Even the low level of sugar consumption was related to dental caries, despite the use of fluoride.

  17. The Effects of a School-Based Nutrition Intervention on Fruit and Vegetable Preferences, Self-Efficacy, and Consumption among Low-Income, Hispanic and White Middle-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Erin; Wolff, Cindy; Bianco-Simeral, Stephanie; Crozier, Joseph; Goto, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study examined the effect of the Harvest of the Month (HOTM) nutrition education intervention program on middle-school students' fruit and vegetable preferences, self-efficacy and attitudes, and self-reported consumption. Perceptions of socio-environmental factors and demographic characteristics were also compared to…

  18. A randomized controlled trial of nutrition education to promote farmers' market fruit and vegetable purchases and consumption among women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a theory-driven, web-based lesson to promote farmers' market fruit and vegetable (FV) purchases and consumption among women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). Designed t...

  19. Socioeconomic Status and Tobacco Consumption Among Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis of Argentina’s Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Raul; Ferrante, Daniel; De Maio, Fernando G.; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The relationship between poverty and tobacco consumption among adolescents has not been extensively studied, and what evidence exists has come almost entirely from developed countries. Moreover, the impact of contextual factors—such as school-level poverty—remains unclear. Methods: We obtained information about smoking behavior from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in Argentina in 2007. School-level characteristics were derived by matching schools to census areas from the 2001 Census. Additional school-level information was obtained from the Ministry of Education. Random intercept models were used to evaluate the associations of school-level variables (poverty in the census area of the school, school receipt of social assistance, and public or private status) with current smoking, intention to quit, secondhand smoke exposure outside the home, support for smoke-free laws, purchase of single cigarettes among smokers, and susceptibility to smoking in 5 years among nonsmokers. Results: After controlling for age and sex, students attending schools receiving social assistance were more likely to smoke (odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% CI 1.02–1.80) and to purchase loose cigarettes (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.08–2.54), whereas school poverty was significantly associated with secondhand smoke exposure (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.58). Conclusion: This study shows that an association exists between unfavorable contextual school characteristics and tobacco consumption and related measures among youth in Argentina. Efforts to prevent smoking may need to address the school-level factors that place youth at higher risk. PMID:22394595

  20. A frequency survey of sugary foods and drinks consumption in school children and adolescents in a West Indian island--Antigua.

    PubMed

    Vignarajah, S

    1997-10-01

    In 1991, the pattern of sugar consumption in samples of 172 12-year-old children and 231 15-19-year-old adolescents was studied. Twenty-four hour dietary records of five consecutive days were obtained from each subject. The frequency of total sugary food and drink episodes for children was 3.16 and 3.71 for adolescents. This was mainly accounted for by the consumption of sugary items at meals for both age groups. Students mostly consumed sweetened drinks at meals, especially at breakfast and ate sugary foods between meal times, particularly between lunch and dinner. Sweetened tea and juice were the most popular drinks and confectionery was the most popular snack food.

  1. Effects of chronic and acute consumption of fruit- and vegetable-puree-based drinks on vasodilation, risk factors for CVD and the response as a result of the eNOS G298T polymorphism.

    PubMed

    George, Trevor W; Niwat, Chutamat; Waroonphan, Saran; Gordon, Michael H; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2009-05-01

    The average UK adult consumes less than three portions of fruit and vegetables daily, despite evidence to suggest that consuming five portions daily could help prevent chronic diseases. It is recommended that fruit juice should only count as one of these portions, as juicing removes fibre and releases sugars. However, fruit juices contain beneficial compounds such as vitamin C and flavonoids and could be a useful source of dietary phytochemicals. Two randomised controlled cross-over intervention studies investigating the effects of chronic and acute consumption of commercially-available fruit- and vegetable-puree-based drinks (FVPD) on bioavailability, antioxidant status and CVD risk factors are described. Blood and urine samples were collected during both studies and vascular tone was measured using laser Doppler imaging. In the chronic intervention study FVPD consumption was found to significantly increase dietary carotenoids (P=0.001) and vitamin C (P=0.003). Plasma carotenoids were increased (P=0.001), but the increase in plasma vitamin C was not significant. There were no significant effects on oxidative stress, antioxidant status and other CVD risk factors. In the acute intervention study FVPD were found to increase total plasma nitrate and nitrite (P=0.001) and plasma vitamin C (P=0.002). There was no effect on plasma lipids or uric acid, but there was a lower glucose and insulin peak concentration after consumption of the FVPD compared with the sugar-matched control. There was a trend towards increased vasodilation following both chronic and acute FVPD consumption. All volunteers were retrospectively genotyped for the eNOS G298T polymorphism and the effect of genotype on the measurements is discussed. Overall, there was a non-significant trend towards increased endothelium-dependent vasodilation following both acute and chronic FVPD consumption. However, there was a significant time x treatment effect (P<0.05) of acute FVPD consumption in individuals with

  2. Salt intake of children and adolescents in South London: consumption levels and dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods.

  3. Absorption Profile of (Poly)Phenolic Compounds after Consumption of Three Food Supplements Containing 36 Different Fruits, Vegetables, and Berries.

    PubMed

    Bresciani, Letizia; Martini, Daniela; Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Calani, Luca; Brigati, Giacomo; Brighenti, Furio; Holasek, Sandra; Malliga, Daniela-Eugenia; Lamprecht, Manfred; Del Rio, Daniele

    2017-02-26

    The market of plant-based nutraceuticals and food supplements is continuously growing due to the increased consumer demand. The introduction of new products with relevant nutritional characteristics represents a new way of providing bioactive compounds and (poly)phenols to consumers, becoming a strategy to ideally guarantee the health benefits attributed to plant foodstuffs and allowing the increase of daily bioactive compound intake. A paramount step in the study of nutraceuticals is the evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism of their putatively active components. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the absorption profile of the (poly)phenolic compounds contained in three different plant-based food supplements, made of 36 different plant matrices, which were consumed by 20 subjects in an open one-arm study design. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 2, 5, and 10 h after capsule intake. Twenty quantifiable metabolites deriving from different (poly)phenolic compounds were identified. Results showed that the consumption of the three capsules allowed the effective absorption of several (poly)phenolic compounds and metabolites appearing at different times in plasma, thereby indicating different absorption profiles. The capsules thus ensured potential health-promoting molecules to be potentially available to target tissues and organs.

  4. Absorption Profile of (Poly)Phenolic Compounds after Consumption of Three Food Supplements Containing 36 Different Fruits, Vegetables, and Berries

    PubMed Central

    Bresciani, Letizia; Martini, Daniela; Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Calani, Luca; Brigati, Giacomo; Brighenti, Furio; Holasek, Sandra; Malliga, Daniela-Eugenia; Lamprecht, Manfred; Del Rio, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    The market of plant-based nutraceuticals and food supplements is continuously growing due to the increased consumer demand. The introduction of new products with relevant nutritional characteristics represents a new way of providing bioactive compounds and (poly)phenols to consumers, becoming a strategy to ideally guarantee the health benefits attributed to plant foodstuffs and allowing the increase of daily bioactive compound intake. A paramount step in the study of nutraceuticals is the evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism of their putatively active components. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the absorption profile of the (poly)phenolic compounds contained in three different plant-based food supplements, made of 36 different plant matrices, which were consumed by 20 subjects in an open one-arm study design. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 2, 5, and 10 h after capsule intake. Twenty quantifiable metabolites deriving from different (poly)phenolic compounds were identified. Results showed that the consumption of the three capsules allowed the effective absorption of several (poly)phenolic compounds and metabolites appearing at different times in plasma, thereby indicating different absorption profiles. The capsules thus ensured potential health-promoting molecules to be potentially available to target tissues and organs. PMID:28245627

  5. Five-year longitudinal and secular shifts in adolescent beverage intake: findings from project EAT (Eating Among Teens)-II.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Melissa C; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary

    2009-02-01

    Detailed research examining concurrent longitudinal and secular changes in adolescent beverage intake is not currently available, particularly since the year 2000. This study's objective was to evaluate these trends in beverage intake in a large, diverse adolescent cohort. Project EAT (Eating Among Teens)-II is a 5-year longitudinal study (n=2,516) including two cohorts, which allows for the observation of longitudinal changes from early to mid-adolescence (junior high to high school) and from mid- to late adolescence (high school to post high school). Project EAT-II also examined secular trends in adolescent health behavior from 1999-2004 in mid-adolescence. Daily beverage servings were assessed using the Youth and Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire. Longitudinal findings indicate that intake of soda and sugar-sweetened beverages (including soda, sweetened iced teas, and fruit drinks) increased significantly among younger males, and alcohol increased across all groups (P<0.01). Consumption of certain beverages decreased with age: fruit juice (among all males and older females, P< or =0.02), milk (older adolescents, P<0.01), other milk beverages (all females and older males, P<0.01), diet soda (younger adolescents, P<0.01), and coffee/tea (all males and younger females, P<0.01). Significant secular decreases were observed in fruit juice and coffee/tea for males and females (P< or =0.05). Overall, these findings reflect recent secular and longitudinal shifts in adolescent beverage consumption during the critical transition period from early to mid-adolescence and mid- to late adolescence. Although additional research is needed to better understand nuances in adolescent consumption patterns, registered dietitians and other health care practitioners working with adolescents should address the importance of limiting sugar-sweetened beverages with low nutrient density.

  6. Effect of milk and milk products consumption on physical growth and bone mineral density in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among the current status of calcium intake from milk and milk products, physical growth and bone mineral density in 664 male and female middle school and high school students aged 15-17 years. In the study, the current status of calcium intake from milk and milk products was analyzed, and the height, body composition, and bone mineral density of the right heel bone (calcaneus) were measured. The daily calcium intake of milk and milk products was calculated as the 'dairy equivalent of calcium', which is the calcium content in 200 mL of white milk. The cutoffs of tertiles of the dairy equivalent of calcium were calculated and then the subjects were categorized into 3 groups according to the tertiles, Q1 group (lower intake group), Q2 group (middle intake group) and Q3 group (upper intake group). The daily calcium intake of milk and milk products in Q1, Q2 and Q3 groups was 16.2 mg, 99.7 mg, and 284.0 mg, respectively, and the ratio of milk and milk product consumption to the daily total calcium intake was 5.4%, 27.4%, and 49.7%, respectively. The ratio of total calcium intake to the daily recommended intake in study subjects was 30.5% in Q1, 42.3% in Q2, and 60.7% in Q3, with significant differences (P < 0.05). Height, body weight, BMI, and % of body fat in three tertile groups (Q1, Q2 and Q3) were not significantly different. However, the T scores for bone mineral density in female students in three tertile groups (Q1, Q2 and Q3) was significantly different (P < 0.05). The study showed that the intake of milk and milk products in adolescents, particularly in girls, can improve the bone mineral density without increasing body weight, and thus confirmed that milk intake is important in adolescence.

  7. Beneficial effects of the RESMENA dietary pattern on oxidative stress in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome with hyperglycemia are associated to dietary TAC and fruit consumption.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Celada, Paloma; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Martinez, J Alfredo; Zulet, M Angeles

    2013-03-27

    Hyperglycemia and oxidative stress are conditions directly related to the metabolic syndrome (MetS), whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a new weight-loss dietary pattern on improving the oxidative stress status on patients suffering MetS with hyperglycemia. Seventy-nine volunteers were randomly assigned to two low-calorie diets (-30% Energy): the control diet based on the American Health Association criteria and the RESMENA diet based on a different macronutrient distribution (30% proteins, 30% lipids, 40% carbohydrates), which was characterized by an increase of the meal frequency (seven-times/day), low glycemic load, high antioxidant capacity (TAC) and high n-3 fatty acids content. Dietary records, anthropometrical measurements, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed before and after the six-month-long study. The RESMENA (Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra) diet specifically reduced the android fat mass and demonstrated more effectiveness on improving general oxidative stress through a greater decrease of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) values and protection against arylesterase depletion. Interestingly, oxLDL values were associated with dietary TAC and fruit consumption and with changes on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass and triacilglyceride (TG) levels. In conclusion, the antioxidant properties of the RESMENA diet provide further benefits to those attributable to weight loss on patients suffering Mets with hyperglycemia.

  8. Beneficial Effects of the RESMENA Dietary Pattern on Oxidative Stress in Patients Suffering from Metabolic Syndrome with Hyperglycemia Are Associated to Dietary TAC and Fruit Consumption

    PubMed Central

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Celada, Paloma; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Zulet, M. Angeles

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia and oxidative stress are conditions directly related to the metabolic syndrome (MetS), whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a new weight-loss dietary pattern on improving the oxidative stress status on patients suffering MetS with hyperglycemia. Seventy-nine volunteers were randomly assigned to two low-calorie diets (−30% Energy): the control diet based on the American Health Association criteria and the RESMENA diet based on a different macronutrient distribution (30% proteins, 30% lipids, 40% carbohydrates), which was characterized by an increase of the meal frequency (seven-times/day), low glycemic load, high antioxidant capacity (TAC) and high n-3 fatty acids content. Dietary records, anthropometrical measurements, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed before and after the six-month-long study. The RESMENA (Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra) diet specifically reduced the android fat mass and demonstrated more effectiveness on improving general oxidative stress through a greater decrease of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) values and protection against arylesterase depletion. Interestingly, oxLDL values were associated with dietary TAC and fruit consumption and with changes on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass and triacilglyceride (TG) levels. In conclusion, the antioxidant properties of the RESMENA diet provide further benefits to those attributable to weight loss on patients suffering Mets with hyperglycemia. PMID:23535332

  9. Emotional, external, restrained eating and overweight in Dutch adolescents.

    PubMed

    Snoek, Harriëtte M; van Strien, Tatjana; Janssens, Jan M A M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how emotional, external and restrained eating behavior and other health-related lifestyle factors were associated with being overweight in adolescents. Moreover, demographic and ethnic differences in eating behavior have been examined. The respondents were 10,087 Dutch adolescents aged 11-16 years (M= 13.0, SD= 0.8). Self-reported eating behavior was measured with the DEBQ. Health-related lifestyle was determined by physical activity, breakfasting, fruit consumption and snacking. High restrained, and low external eating were positively associated with being overweight, whereas no significant association between emotional eating and being overweight was found for girls, and a negative association for boys. Adolescents who ate breakfast on a daily basis were less likely to be overweight than those who ate breakfast irregularly or never. Being overweight was positively associated with fruit consumption for girls and negatively with physical activity for boys.

  10. Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach.

    PubMed

    Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, P<0.001) and a quadratic trend (β=0.02, P<0.01) over time, but no group difference (β=-0.23, P=0.08). Analysis of the 365 days of self-reported body weight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (β=-0.01, P<0.01). Overall compliance to daily tracking was 76%±5%. Daily self-monitoring of weight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits.

  11. A clustered randomised trial examining the effect of social marketing and community mobilisation on the age of uptake and levels of alcohol consumption by Australian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John Winston; Osborn, Amber; Smith, Rachel; Hall, Jessica Kate; Kremer, Peter; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne; Leslie, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Throughout the world, alcohol consumption is common among adolescents. Adolescent alcohol use and misuse have prognostic significance for several adverse long-term outcomes, including alcohol problems, alcohol dependence, school disengagement and illicit drug use. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether randomisation to a community mobilisation and social marketing intervention reduces the proportion of adolescents who initiate alcohol use before the Australian legal age of 18, and the frequency and amount of underage adolescent alcohol consumption. Method and analysis The study comprises 14 communities matched with 14 non-contiguous communities on socioeconomic status (SES), location and size. One of each pair was randomly allocated to the intervention. Baseline levels of adolescent alcohol use were estimated through school surveys initiated in 2006 (N=8500). Community mobilisation and social marketing interventions were initiated in 2011 to reduce underage alcohol supply and demand. The setting is communities in three Australian states (Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia). Students (N=2576) will complete school surveys in year 8 in 2013 (average age 12). Primary outcomes: (1) lifetime initiation and (2) monthly frequency of alcohol use. Reports of social marketing and family and community alcohol supply sources will also be assessed. Point estimates with 95% CIs will be compared for student alcohol use in intervention and control communities. Changes from 2006 to 2013 will be examined; multilevel modelling will assess whether random assignment of communities to the intervention reduced 2013 alcohol use, after accounting for community level differences. Analyses will also assess whether exposure to social marketing activities increased the intervention target of reducing alcohol supply by parents and community members. Trial registration ACTRN12612000384853. PMID:23355674

  12. Friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol consumption: The moderating role of performance-based peer influence susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Hanneke A; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Spijkerman, Renske; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol use is moderated by performance-based peer influence susceptibility. Seventy-three male adolescents (M = 17 years) from three schools in the Netherlands were exposed to the drinking norms of "peers" (electronic confederates) in a chat room experiment. These peers were either popular or unpopular, and conveyed pro- or anti-alcohol norms. Peer influence susceptibility was defined as the change in adolescents' answers before and after exposure to the peer norms. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that the relationship between friends' drinking norms and adolescents' alcohol use (assessed during eight weekends) was moderated by susceptibility to the pro-alcohol norms of popular peers. This relationship was stronger for adolescents who were highly susceptible. These findings suggest that a behavioral measure of peer influence susceptibility could be useful in alcohol prevention programs to select adolescents at risk for negative peer socialization.

  13. Consumption of Less Than 10% of Total Energy From Added Sugars is Associated With Increasing HDL in Females During Adolescence: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Alexandra K.; Binongo, José Nilo G.; Chowdhury, Ritam; Stein, Aryeh D.; Gazmararian, Julie A.; Vos, Miriam B.; Welsh, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic changes associated with dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular disease risk are believed to begin in childhood. While previous studies have linked added sugars consumption to low high‐density lipoprotein (HDL), little is known about the long‐term impact of this consumption. This study aims to assess the association between added sugars intake and HDL cholesterol levels during adolescence, and whether this association is modified by obesity. Methods and Results We used data from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's Growth and Health Study, a 10‐year cohort study of non‐Hispanic Caucasian and African‐American girls (N=2379) aged 9 and 10 years at baseline recruited from 3 sites in 1987‐1988 with biennial plasma lipid measurement and annual assessment of diet using a 3‐day food record. Added sugars consumption was dichotomized into low (0% to <10% of total energy) and high (≥10% of total energy). In a mixed model controlling for obesity, race, physical activity, smoking, maturation stage, age, and nutritional factors, low compared with high added sugar consumption was associated with a 0.26 mg/dL greater annual increase in HDL levels (95% CI 0.48 to 0.04; P=0.02). Over the 10‐year study period, the model predicted a mean increase of 2.2 mg/dL (95% CI 0.09 to 4.32; P=0.04) among low consumers, and a 0.4 mg/dL decrease (95% CI −1.32 to 0.52; P=0.4) among high consumers. Weight category did not modify this association (P=0.45). Conclusion Low added sugars consumption is associated with increasing HDL cholesterol levels throughout adolescence. PMID:24572253

  14. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence. PMID:26635714

  15. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence.

  16. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit butter. 150.110 Section 150.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products § 150.110 Fruit butter. (a) The fruit...

  17. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fruit butter. 150.110 Section 150.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products § 150.110 Fruit butter. (a) The fruit...

  18. A new measure of dietary social support among African American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate a measure of social support for fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents. Focus groups (N = 30) and pilot testing procedures (N = 17) were used to develop and pretest questionnaire item...

  19. Trends from 2002 to 2010 in Daily Breakfast Consumption and its Socio-Demographic Correlates in Adolescents across 31 Countries Participating in the HBSC Study.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Niclasen, Birgit; Pammolli, Andrea; Vereecken, Carine; Rasmussen, Mette; Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Kelly, Colette

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the day and children and adolescents can benefit from breakfast consumption in several ways. The purpose of the present study was to describe trends in daily breakfast consumption (DBC) among adolescents across 31 countries participating in the HBSC survey between 2002 to 2010 and to identify socio-demographic (gender, family affluence and family structure) correlates of DBC. Cross-sectional surveys including nationally representative samples of 11-15 year olds (n = 455,391). Multilevel logistic regression analyses modeled DBC over time after adjusting for family affluence, family structure and year of survey. In all countries, children in two-parent families were more likely to report DBC compared to single parent families. In most countries (n = 19), DBC was associated with family affluence. Six countries showed an increase in DBC (Canada, Netherland, Macedonia, Scotland, Wales, England) from 2002. A significant decrease in DBC from 2002 was found in 11 countries (Belgium Fr, France, Germany, Croatia, Spain, Poland, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania and Norway), while in 5 countries (Portugal, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden) no significant changes were seen. Frequency of DBC among adolescents in European countries and North America showed a more uniform pattern in 2010 as compared to patterns in 2002. DBC increased significantly in only six out of 19 countries from 2002 to 2010. There is need for continued education and campaigns to motivate adolescents to consume DBC. Comparing patterns across HBSC countries can make an important contribution to understanding regional /global trends and to monitoring strategies and development of health promotion programs.

  20. Social norms and diet in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lally, Phillippa; Bartle, Naomi; Wardle, Jane

    2011-12-01

    We hypothesized that adolescents misperceive social norms for food consumption, and aimed to test this, and examine associations between perceived norms and dietary behaviours. School pupils (n=264) in the UK, aged 16-19 years, completed a questionnaire about their own attitudes to, and intake of, fruits and vegetables, unhealthy snacks and sugar-sweetened drinks, and their perceptions of their peers' attitudes to (injunctive norms), and intake of (descriptive norms), the same foods. Misperceptions were calculated from differences between perceived norms and median self-reports of peer groups. Respondents overestimated their peers' intake of snacks by 1.8 portions a week, and sugar-sweetened drinks by 5.2 portions, and overestimated how positive their peers' attitudes were towards these behaviours. They underestimated their peers' consumption of fruits and vegetables by 3.2 portions per week and how positive their peers' attitudes were towards fruit and vegetables. Descriptive norms were strongly associated with intake of fruit and vegetables, sugar-sweetened drinks, and unhealthy snacks, explaining between 17% and 22% of the variance in consumption. There was no association between injunctive norms and intake. Descriptive norms indicated that misperceptions of peers' food intake were associated with respondents' own intake. Interventions to correct misperceptions have the potential to improve adolescents' diets.

  1. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-05-28

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany.

  2. Effects of adolescent onset voluntary drinking followed by ethanol vapor exposure on subsequent ethanol consumption during protracted withdrawal in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Criado, Jose R; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that heavy drinking and alcohol abuse and dependence peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood. The objective of the present study was to determine whether a model of early onset adolescent ethanol drinking exposure that is followed by an ethanol vapor regimen during late adolescence and young adulthood leads to an increase in drinking in adulthood. In this model, initiation of voluntary ethanol drinking in adolescence, using a sweetened solution, was followed by an 8-wk intermittent ethanol vapor regimen in Wistar rats. A limited-access two-bottle choice paradigm was then used to measure intake of a 10% (w/v) ethanol solution. No differences in water intake (g/kg), total fluid intake (ml/kg) and body weight (g) were observed between air-exposed and ethanol-vapor exposed groups during the pre-vapor and post-vapor phases. The 8 weeks of ethanol vapor exposure was found to produce only a modest, but statistically significant, elevation of ethanol intake during the protracted withdrawal period, compared to air-exposed rats. A significant increase in ethanol preference ratio was also observed in ethanol-vapor exposed rats during the sucrose-fading phase, but not during the protracted withdrawal period. The findings from the present study suggest that in addition to alcohol exposure, environmental variables that impact appetitive as well as consumptive behaviors may be important in developing robust drinking effects that model, in animals, the increased risk for alcohol dependence seen in some human adolescents who begin drinking at an early age.

  3. Successes and Challenges in Using Group-Level Incentives to Increase Children's Aggregate Fruit and Vegetable Consumption for Lunch in One Wisconsin Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinchanachokchai, Sydney; Jamelske, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Existing research has investigated the effects of using individual incentives and positive reinforcements to influence children to eat more fruits and vegetables for lunch and snack during school. This study explored using group-level incentives to motivate children in a Wisconsin elementary school to eat more fruits and…

  4. Evaluating the impact of the Smart Bodies School-Based Intervention Program to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in elementary school students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to evaluate the impact of a comprehensive school-based nutrition intervention on nutrition knowledge, self-reported intakes of fruits and vegetables, opinions, outcome expectations, social norms, and self-efficacy related to fruit and vegetables among elementary school children. Evid...

  5. Associations between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and fast food restaurant frequency among adolescents and their friends

    PubMed Central

    Bruening, Meg; MacLehose, Richard; Eisenberg, Marla E; Nanney, Marilyn S.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between adolescents and their friends with regard to sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB)/diet soda intake, and fast food (FF) restaurant visits. Design Population-based, cross-sectional survey study with direct measures from friends. Setting Twenty Minneapolis/St. Paul schools during 2009–2010. Participants Adolescents (n=2,043; mean age=14.2±1.9; 46.2% female; 80% non-white). Main outcome measures Adolescent SSB/diet soda intake and FF visits. Analysis Generalized estimating equation logistic models were used to examine associations between adolescents’ SSB/diet soda intake and FF visits and similar behaviors in nominated friends (friend groups, best friends). School-level (middle vs. high school) interactions were assessed. Results Significant associations were found between adolescents and friends behaviors for each of the beverages assessed (P<0.05), but varied by friendship type and school level. Five of six models of FF visits (including all FF visits) were significantly associated (P <0.05) among adolescents and their friends. Significant interactions by school level were present among adolescents’ and friends’ FF visits, with associations generally for high school participants compared to middle school participants (P <0.05). Conclusions and implications Findings suggest for many beverages and FF restaurant types, friends’ behaviors are associated, especially FF visits for older adolescents. Nutrition education efforts may benefit by integrating the knowledge of the impact of adolescents’ friends on FF visits. PMID:24735768

  6. Nutritional intakes in community-dwelling older Japanese adults: high intakes of energy and protein based on high consumption of fish, vegetables and fruits provide sufficient micronutrients.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Reiko; Hanamori, Kiyoko; Kadoya, Hiroko; Nishimuta, Mamoru; Miyazaki, Hideo

    2004-06-01

    acid, potassium and dietary fiber, phosphorus and vitamin B2, phosphorus and pantothenic acid, iron and folic acid, zinc and vitamin B12, and copper and vitamin B12. From these results, it is evident that age is not an important determinant of dietary intake among apparently healthy elderly Japanese people aged 74 y. In addition, the high intake of energy and protein in the Japanese dietary pattern, based upon high consumption of fish and/or shellfish, vegetables, and fruits, provide sufficient minerals and vitamins.

  7. Impact of early life stress on alcohol consumption and on the short- and long-term responses to alcohol in adolescent female rats.

    PubMed

    Van Waes, V; Darnaudéry, M; Marrocco, J; Gruber, S H; Talavera, E; Mairesse, J; Van Camp, G; Casolla, B; Nicoletti, F; Mathé, A A; Maccari, S; Morley-Fletcher, S

    2011-08-01

    We examined the interaction between early life stress and vulnerability to alcohol in female rats exposed to prenatal restraint stress (PRS rats). First we studied the impact of PRS on ethanol preference during adolescence. PRS slightly increased ethanol preference per se, but abolished the effect of social isolation on ethanol preference. We then studied the impact of PRS on short- and long-term responses to ethanol focusing on behavioral and neurochemical parameters related to depression/anxiety. PRS or unstressed adolescent female rats received 10% ethanol in the drinking water for 4 weeks from PND30 to PND60. At PND60, the immobility time in the forced-swim test did not differ between PRS and unstressed rats receiving water alone. Ethanol consumption had no effect in unstressed rats, but significantly reduced the immobility time in PRS rats. In contrast, a marked increase in the immobility time was seen after 5 weeks of ethanol withdrawal only in unstressed rats. Hippocampal levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and mGlu1a metabotropic glutamate receptors were increased at the end of ethanol treatment only in unstressed rats. Ethanol treatment had no effect on levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the hippocampus, striatum, and prefrontal cortex of both groups of rats. After ethanol withdrawal, hippocampal levels of mGlu1 receptors were higher in unstressed rats, but lower in PRS rats, whereas NPY and CRH levels were similar in the two groups of rats. These data indicate that early life stress has a strong impact on the vulnerability and responsiveness to ethanol consumption during adolescence.

  8. Is soy intake related to age at onset of menarche? A cross-sectional study among adolescents with a wide range of soy food consumption

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early onset of menarche may negatively influence the future health of adolescent girls. Several factors affect the timing of menarche but it is not clear if soy foods consumption around pubertal years plays a role; thus, we examined its relation to age at onset of menarche (AOM) in a high soy-consuming population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on 339 girls ages 12–18 years attending middle and high schools near two Seventh-day Adventist universities in California and Michigan using a web-based dietary questionnaire and physical development tool. Soy consumption (categorized as total soy, meat alternatives, tofu/traditional soy, and soy beverages) was estimated from the questionnaire, while AOM was self-reported. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, Cox proportional hazards ratios, Kaplan-Meier curves and Poisson regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results Mean (SD) intakes were: total soy,12.9 (14.4) servings/week; meat alternatives, 7.0 (8.9) servings/week; tofu/traditional soy foods, 2.1 (3.8) servings/week; soy beverages, 3.8 (6.3) servings/week. Mean AOM was 12.5 (1.4) y for those who reached menarche. Consumption of total soy and the 3 types of soy foods was not significantly associated with AOM and with the odds for early- or late-AOM. Adjustment for demographic and dietary factors did not change the results. Conclusion Soy intake is not associated with AOM in a population of adolescent girls who have a wide range of, and relatively higher, soy intake than the general US population. Our finding suggests that the increasing popularity of soy in the US may not be associated with AOM. PMID:24889551

  9. [Fruits and vegetables].

    PubMed

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    Fruits and vegetables are particularly interesting for health for their content in minerals, antioxidant vitamins, phytochemicals and dietary fiber. All these substances are related to lower risk for the development of health probems, such as certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity, constipation or diverticolsys. The sound basis of scientific evidence led European and American scientific organizations and societies to recommend an intake up to 150-200 g of vegetables every day; ie. 2 or more portions daily and 3 or more portions of fruit; five portions of fruit and vegetables all together. According to the consumer panel from the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, between the late 80s and the end of the 90s. consumption of fruit and vegetables decreased. However, in late years this trend has slow down and even reversed. Results from food consumption studies based on individual level assessment in Spain estimate an average consumption of fruit and vegetables of 154 g/per person/day in adults aged 25-60 yr. Prevalence of inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables is high among children and young people. In this age group above 70% of the population consume less than 3 portions of fruit every day on average. Reorientation of prevailing food patterns nowadays require investment in measures aimed at increasing the consumption of plant foods and estimulate healthy food habits in families.

  10. [New caffeinated beverages. A pilot survey of familiarity and consumption by adolescents in North-Rhine Westphalia and Berlin and considerations of consumer protection].

    PubMed

    Viell, B; Gräbner, L; Früchel, G; Boczek, P

    1996-12-01

    It was the aim of the present study to evaluate how adolescents in Germany accept and consume the new caffeinated drinks (NCD), which can now be legally marketed in Germany. In summer and fall 1994, three surveys were carried out at different schools in Germany, (Aachen, Cologne, Wuppertal, Berlin-West and Berlin-Ost). 1,265 boys and girls were asked for acquaintance with NCD (module I) and 875 of them about consumption (module II). With 727 pupils a third question (module III) was applied by which consumption of Cola drinks compared to that of NCD could be quantified. In total, 93.6% of the young people indicated to know about the NCD, and 53.3% to have tasted these new drinks. Consumption was reported as sometimes (< 1 can/week) from 23% and as repeatedly (1-7 cans/week) from 3%. Acquaintance and consumption were clearly related to age and gender, but even the youngest group (10-13 years old) indicated to have tasted the NCD (30.7% in females and 50% in males) and to drink them sometimes (5.2% in females and 23.1% in males). In the series with question module III 9.5% reported not to drink cola, 36.6% to drink cola "sometimes", 30.9% "repeatedly", 8.6% "often" and 11.6% "frequently" (> 2 cans/day). The corresponding figures for the NCD were 69.9% (non-drinkers), 23.3% "sometimes", 3.3% "repeatedly", 0.3% ten nd 0.6% "frequently". The results suggest that all young people in Germany know about the NCD but actually consume these new drinks moderately. They prefer cola drinks. The observation, however, that a small group may consume extreme amounts and that even very young pupils consume the NCD regularly should give rise to have a close look at the consumption pattern in the near future.

  11. Influence of School Beverage Environment on the Association of Beverage Consumption With Physical Education Participation Among US Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsin-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association of adolescents’ beverage consumption with physical activity and studied how their school beverage environment influences the association. Methods. We used nationally representative data from the 2007 Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Cohort (n = 8850). We examined nonlinear associations of eighth graders’ self-report of beverage consumption (milk, 100% juices, soft drinks) with moderate to vigorous physical activity and physical education (PE) participation using piecewise linear regression models. Results. We found a nonlinear association of participation in PE class with beverage consumption, especially in schools with vending machines and those selling soft drinks. For students participating in PE less than 3 days per week, beverage consumption was not significantly associated with participation in PE class frequency. For students participating in PE 3 to 5 days per week, 1 more day of participation in PE class was associated with 0.43 (SE = 0.14; P = .002) more times per week of soft drink consumption and 0.41 (SE = 0.17; P = .021) fewer glasses per week of milk consumption. Conclusions. The more soft drink and less milk consumption related to high participation in PE class might be prevented by improving the beverage environment in schools. Systematic environmental interventions are needed to prevent such potential unintended consequences of promoting physical activity. PMID:24028221

  12. Adolescents who perceive their diet as healthy consume more fruits, vegetables and milk and fewer sweet drinks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed whether adolescents' perception of the healthfulness of their diet was related to dietary behaviors over the past week, controlling for demographic characteristics. Participants (n=391) completed an online survey on the frequency of specific dietary behaviors over the past week a...

  13. Happiness and health behaviour in Iranian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Fararouei, M; Brown, I J; Akbartabar Toori, M; Estakhrian Haghighi, R; Jafari, J

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association of happiness in adolescent females with leisure time and health related behaviours namely diet, physical activity and first or second hand smoking. Using a self-administered questionnaire, data were collected from 8159 female high school students ages 11-19 years. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed statistically significant associations between happiness and weight, regular exercise, exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, daily fruit or vegetable consumption and the way participants spent their leisure time. Happiness was associated with lower BMI, regular physical activity, absence of exposure to second-hand smoke, higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, and spending leisure time with family (all P < 0.005). These exploratory findings suggest that encouraging children and adolescents to adopt healthy behaviours, providing family time and a smoke-free environment may make them not only healthier but also happier.

  14. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  15. The Influence of Dating Anxiety on Normative Experiences of Dating, Sexual Interactions, and Alcohol Consumption among Canadian Middle Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Andrea M.; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents tend to consume alcohol and find romantic and sexual partners in mixed-group settings that are unmonitored by adults. Relatively little is known about the influence that dating anxiety may have with these social interactions. A sample of 163 high school students (aged 14-17 years) completed online surveys assessing dating, sex, and…

  16. Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy: Associations with Alcohol Consumption in a Sample of Adolescents in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael T.; Sumnall, Harry R.; Cole, Jon C.; Percy, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have reported equivocal findings regarding the association between self-esteem, self-efficacy and adolescent alcohol use. Data were collected from a sample of 11-16-year olds in Northern Ireland (n = 4088) over two consecutive academic years measuring global self-esteem, academic, social and emotional…

  17. Consumption of fruits and vegetables and associations with risk factors for non-communicable diseases in the Yangon region of Myanmar: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Htet, Aung Soe; Stigum, Hein; Hla, Ne Yi; Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Khaine, Ei Kay; Khaing, Win; Khant, Aung Kyaw; Khin, Naw Ohn Khin; Mauk, Kay Khine Aye; Moe, Ei Ei; Moe, Hla; Mon, Kyawt Kyawt; Mya, Kyaw Swa; Myint, Chomar Kaung; Myint, Cho Yi; Myint, Maung Maung; Myint, Ohnmar; New, Aye Aye; Oo, Ei Sanda; Oo, Khin Sandar; Pyone, Zin Zin; Soe, Yin Yin; Wai, Myint Myint; Win, Nilar; Bjertness, Espen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the intake of fruits and vegetables in the Yangon region, Myanmar, and to describe associations between intake of fruits and vegetables (FV) and established risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Design 2 cross-sectional studies, using the STEPs methodology. Setting Urban and rural areas of the Yangon region of Myanmar. Participants 1486, men and women, 25–74 years, were recruited through a multistage cluster sampling method. Institutionalised people, military personnel, Buddhist monks and nuns were not invited. Physically and mentally ill people were excluded. Results Mean intake of fruit was 0.8 (SE 0.1) and 0.6 (0.0) servings/day and of vegetables 2.2 (0.1) and 1.2 (0.1) servings/day, in urban and rural areas, respectively. Adjusted for included confounders (age, sex, location, income, education, smoking and low physical activity), men and women eating ≥2 servings of fruits and vegetables/day had lower odds than others of hypertriglyceridaemia (OR 0.72 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.94)). On average, women eating at least 2 servings of fruits and vegetables per day had cholesterol levels 0.28 mmol/L lower than the levels of other women. When only adjusted for sex and age, men eating at least 2 servings of fruits and vegetables per day had cholesterol levels 0.27 mmol/L higher than other men. Conclusions A high intake of FV was associated with lower odds of hypertriglyceridaemia among men and women. It was also associated with cholesterol levels, negatively among women and positively among men. PMID:27566634

  18. Pattern of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and fish consumption and retinal vascular caliber in children and adolescents: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Moshtaghian, Hanieh; Flood, Victoria M.; Louie, Jimmy C. Y.; Liew, Gerald; Burlutsky, George; Mitchell, Paul

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether fish and long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCn-3 PUFA) consumption changed appreciably during adolescence. We also assessed whether these dietary variables are associated with retinal microvascular signs (possible markers of future cardiovascular disease risk). 633 children had dietary data at ages 12 and 17. Fish and LCn-3 PUFA [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Retinal vessel caliber was quantified from digital photographs using computer software. Mean energy-adjusted intakes (mg/day) of total LCn-3 PUFA, EPA, and DHA at age 12 were 297.1±261.1; 102.5±106.9; and 129.7±137.7, respectively; and this increased significantly at age 17 to: 347.0±324.0 (p<0.0001); 122.5±132.7 (p = 0.0001); and 160.3±171.4 (p <0.0001), respectively. Increasing quartiles of LCn-3PUFA intake were associated with widening of mean retinal arteriolar caliber among 17-year old girls ~3.9 μm (multivariable-adjusted P-trend = 0.001). Girls who consumed ≥2 serves of fish/week versus those who did not had ~2.1 μm wider retinal arterioles (p = 0.03). No associations were observed among boys or with retinal venules. Mean dietary intakes of LCn-3 PUFA increased during adolescence, but are still below recommended levels of consumption. These results suggest that LCn-3 PUFA and fish intake might have a beneficial influence. PMID:28192538

  19. Beverage consumption and individual-level associations in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few previous studies investigated consumption distributions of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) over time and individual-level associations in Asia despite the recent interest in SSBs regarding obesity control. This study aimed to provide recent evidence on beverage consumption trends from 2001 to 2009 for overall and subtypes of SSBs and for milk as a comparable healthy beverage in South Korea, as well as associations with individual-level socioeconomic status (SES). Methods The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2001 to 2009 were used. Consumption prevalence and average caloric intake by SSB type were examined. Associations of SES with consumption were assessed in a multivariate logistic regression model (consumption prevalence) and in a multivariate two-part regression model (overall caloric intake adjusting for consumption probability). Results SSB consumption prevalence increased to 38%, 69%, 70%, and 50% by 2009 up from 31%, 66%, 63%, and 32% in 2001 among adolescents, young adults, adults, and the elderly, respectively. Miscellaneous SSBs (sports/energy drinks, coffee/tea products, flavored milk, and others) were the most prevalent and their prevalence increased among adults (from 62% to 69%) and the elderly (from 30% to 47%) between 2001 and 2009. Adolescents consumed the most calories from miscellaneous SSBs among all beverage types although its prevalence was lower than regular soda and milk in both 2001 and 2009. Women (top- income group only) and men in higher income groups showed higher odds of consuming total SSBs (OR = 1.18-1.25), soda (OR = 1.18, men only), fruit drinks (OR = 1.18, the top-income only for both genders), and miscellaneous SSBs (OR = 1.1-1.2). Men with higher-education showed higher odds of total SSB consumption (OR = 1.14-1.20), and all subtypes of SSBs (OR = 1.18, 1.29, 1.19 for soda, fruit drinks, and miscellaneous SSBs, respectively for the top-education group only

  20. Diet quality is positively associated with 100% fruit juice consumption in children and adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred percent fruit juice (100% FJ) has been viewed by some as a sweetened beverage with concerns about its effect on weight. Little regard has been given to the contribution of 100% FJ to diet quality. In this study data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were...