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Sample records for adolescent gender groups

  1. Perspective Taking Explains Gender Differences in Late Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Disadvantaged Groups.

    PubMed

    Smith, Colin Tucker; Shepperd, James A; Miller, Wendi A; Graber, Julia A

    2016-07-01

    Adolescents' attitudes toward disadvantaged groups are surprisingly understudied. What we know from these few studies is that adolescents' attitudes tend to become more favorable over time and that adolescent girls display more favorable attitudes than do adolescent boys. However, researchers have not offered explanations for why these effects occur. We proposed that changes in social-cognitive abilities that accompany adolescent development increase perspective taking and that the increased perspective taking facilitates more favorable attitudes toward disadvantaged groups. Because girls develop social-cognitive abilities earlier than boys, girls should show greater perspective taking and thus more positive attitudes toward disadvantaged groups than should boys. Importantly, we propose that these more positive attitudes are explained better by perspective taking than by gender. Participants were late adolescents (n = 803, 53.3 % female, ages 15-19) from high schools in north-central Florida (United States) participating in an ongoing, multi-wave study. Participants completed a measure of perspective-taking and reported their attitudes toward three disadvantaged groups (Black, gay, and poor people) during their third year of high school and, again, 6 months later during their fourth year of high school. Our findings provided strong support for our theorizing. Girls generally reported warmer attitudes than did boys toward disadvantaged groups, with the gender differences in warmth tending to diminish across time. Similarly, girls were higher than boys in perspective-taking abilities at both time points, although boys increased over time whereas girls did not. Crucially, perspective taking mediated observed gender differences in attitudes, suggesting that perspective taking is a mechanism for improving attitudes toward disadvantaged groups during late adolescence. PMID:26519366

  2. Gender-Role Identity and Perceived Peer Group Acceptance among Early Adolescents in Belgian Mixed and Single-Sex Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brutsaert, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on survey data, this paper explores the association between early adolescents' gender-role identity and sense of peer group acceptance, and how this association may vary as a function of the gender context of the school. Two indicators of gender-role identity were included in the analysis: in one measure the items reflect features of…

  3. Adolescent Adjustment in a Nationally Collected Sample: Identifying Group Differences by Adoption Status, Adoption Subtype, Developmental Stage and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow, Anthony L.; Tubman, Jonathan G.; Finley, Gordon E.

    2004-01-01

    The current study investigated group differences in adolescent adjustment by adoption status and adoption subtype in a national sample, in contrast to group differences based on developmental stage or gender. Secondary analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were performed to describe group differences in a broad range of…

  4. Gender and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  5. Body Talk and Body Ideals among Adolescent Boys and Girls: A Mixed-Gender Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandbu, Åse; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how body ideals are discussed among adolescent boys and girls in 5 mixed-gender focus groups (n = 37). The ways in which boys and girls talk about bodies differed clearly within the focus group conversations as well as in the everyday situations described in the interviews. The boys were more concrete in their description of…

  6. Racial group regard, barrier socialization, and African American adolescents' engagement: patterns and processes by gender.

    PubMed

    Smalls, Ciara; Cooper, Shauna M

    2012-08-01

    The current study examined gendered processes via 1) profiles of racial barrier socialization, regard for one's racial group (private regard), and behavioral engagement and grades and, 2) gender and private regard as a moderator in the link between barrier messages and academic engagement outcomes. One-hundred and twenty-five African American adolescents (ages 10-14, M = 12.39, SD = 1.07) completed measures of socialization, private regard, grades and behavioral engagement. Latent Profile Analysis revealed a 2-cluster solution fit the data best - 1) High Engagement-Race Salient (HERS) cluster and 2) Low Engagement-Non-Salient cluster (LENS). Girls had higher representation in the HERS cluster. When private regard was examined as a moderator, girls' grades were unrelated to barrier socialization and private regard. In contrast, barrier socialization was associated with lower grades for low private regard boys. Findings are discussed in the context of gendered racial school contexts that African American youth must navigate to be academically successful.

  7. Group-Based Preference Assessment for Children and Adolescents in a Residential Setting: Examining Developmental, Clinical, Gender, and Ethnic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volz, Jennifer L. Resetar; Cook, Clayton R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines developmental, clinical, gender, and ethnic group differences in preference in residentially placed children and adolescents. In addition, this study considers whether residentially placed youth prefer stimuli currently being used as rewards as part of a campuswide token economy system and whether youth would identify preferred…

  8. Gender norms affect adolescents.

    PubMed

    Barnett, B

    1997-01-01

    Gender roles of men and women are determined by the society they live in. Many organizations that work with adolescents and young adults are incorporating a gender perspective into sex education, service delivery, and provider training programs in order to improve the reproductive health of their target groups. Many societies place a higher value on males than females. In sub-Saharan African countries girls are expelled from school if they become pregnant. In Egypt 86% of 2300 women interviewed believed the beatings by husband are justified under some circumstances, and 31% reported being beaten during pregnancy. A study of 128 adolescents in Peru and 108 in Columbia found that 60% of them had been sexually abused within the previous year. Female circumcision jeopardizes reproductive health, yet some 2 million girls undergo the procedure annually. In Thailand, among more than 100 factory workers 15-24 years old, the majority of men said premarital intercourse was accepted, while young women said premarital intercourse was unacceptable. Many programs that incorporate gender have begun projects that empower girls. Better Life Options administered by the Center for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) provides information about sexuality, reproductive health, family planning and communication skills. The Young Men's Clinic, located in New York, aims to provide reproductive health services for men while also doing screening for tuberculosis or sickle-cell anemia. A report from the United Nations Population Fund states that men's services can be provided by minor adaptations to existing facilities. In Argentina the Foundation for Study and Research on Women offers education sessions on family planning and STDs to 50-100 secondary school students. In Gujarat, India, the Center for Health Education, Training and Nutrition Awareness incorporates gender into its health education workshops for young people ages 11-18. In these programs more equality in gender roles

  9. Differential Functioning of the Chinese Version of Beck Depression Inventory-II in Adolescent Gender Groups: Use of a Multiple-Group Mean and Covariance Structure Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pei-Chen

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to investigate whether items of the Chinese version of Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II-C; "Chinese Behavioral Science Corporation" in "Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II" [in Chinese]. The Chinese Behavioral Science Corporation, Taiwan, 2000) exhibited DIF across adolescent gender groups, in…

  10. Racial Group Regard, Barrier Socialization, and African American Adolescents' Engagement: Patterns and Processes by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalls, Ciara; Cooper, Shauna M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined gendered processes via 1) profiles of racial barrier socialization, regard for one's racial group (private regard), and behavioral engagement and grades and, 2) gender and private regard as a moderator in the link between barrier messages and academic engagement outcomes. One-hundred and twenty-five African American…

  11. Position statement: Gender dysphoria in childhood and adolescence. Working Group on Gender Identity and Sexual Development of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (GIDSEEN).

    PubMed

    Esteva de Antonio, Isabel; Asenjo Araque, Nuria; Hurtado Murillo, Felipe; Fernández Rodríguez, María; Vidal Hagemeijer, Ángela; Moreno-Pérez, Oscar; Lucio Pérez, María Jesús; López Siguero, Juan Pedro

    2015-10-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) in childhood and adolescence is a complex condition where early detection and comprehensive treatment are essential to improve quality of life, decrease mental comorbidity, and improve GD. In this position statement, the Working Group on Gender Identity and Sexual Development of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (GIDSEEN), consisting of specialists in Endocrinology, Psychology, Psychiatry, Pediatrics and Sociology, sets out recommendations for evaluation and treatment of GD in children and adolescents. Interdisciplinary management of GD should be carried out at specialized units (UTIGs), considering that any clinical intervention should follow the principles of scientific rigor, experience, ethical and deontological principles, and the necessary caution in front of chronic, aggressive, and irreversible treatments. PMID:25935352

  12. Position statement: Gender dysphoria in childhood and adolescence. Working Group on Gender Identity and Sexual Development of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (GIDSEEN).

    PubMed

    Esteva de Antonio, Isabel; Asenjo Araque, Nuria; Hurtado Murillo, Felipe; Fernández Rodríguez, María; Vidal Hagemeijer, Ángela; Moreno-Pérez, Oscar; Lucio Pérez, María Jesús; López Siguero, Juan Pedro

    2015-10-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) in childhood and adolescence is a complex condition where early detection and comprehensive treatment are essential to improve quality of life, decrease mental comorbidity, and improve GD. In this position statement, the Working Group on Gender Identity and Sexual Development of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (GIDSEEN), consisting of specialists in Endocrinology, Psychology, Psychiatry, Pediatrics and Sociology, sets out recommendations for evaluation and treatment of GD in children and adolescents. Interdisciplinary management of GD should be carried out at specialized units (UTIGs), considering that any clinical intervention should follow the principles of scientific rigor, experience, ethical and deontological principles, and the necessary caution in front of chronic, aggressive, and irreversible treatments.

  13. Gender ideology, same-sex peer group affiliation and the relationship between testosterone and dominance in adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, J M; Vincke, J; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2010-07-01

    Although the role of testosterone in the aetiology of social dominance is often suggested, surprisingly few studies have addressed the relationship between sex steroid hormones and dominance as a personality trait. In this paper, the relationship between testosterone and dominance is studied in a sample of adolescent boys and girls, taking into account the moderating role of gender ideology and same-sex peer group orientation. A direct association between free testosterone (FT) and dominance was found in girls but not in boys. In boys, masculine ideology moderated the relationship between FT and dominance, while in girls the relationship between FT and dominance was moderated by same-sex peer group affiliation.

  14. Cortisol Responses to a Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents: Variations by Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; McQuillan, Mollie T.; Mirous, Heather J.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N = 191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of 5 adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  15. Older adolescents' motivations for social network site use: the influence of gender, group identity, and collective self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Barker, Valerie

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed motives for social network site (SNS) use, group belonging, collective self-esteem, and gender effects among older adolescents. Communication with peer group members was the most important motivation for SNS use. Participants high in positive collective self-esteem were strongly motivated to communicate with peer group via SNS. Females were more likely to report high positive collective self-esteem, greater overall use, and SNS use to communicate with peers. Females also posted higher means for group-in-self, passing time, and entertainment. Negative collective self-esteem correlated with social compensation, suggesting that those who felt negatively about their social group used SNS as an alternative to communicating with other group members. Males were more likely than females to report negative collective self-esteem and SNS use for social compensation and social identity gratifications.

  16. Gender dysphoria in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, Scott; de Vries, Annelou L C

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents presenting with gender-related concerns are increasingly seeking support from providers from a variety of disciplines within health care settings across the world. For those treating young people who meet the criteria for the DSM 5 diagnosis of gender dysphoria (GD), complex decisions in clinical care are common. Defining best practice with this population with respect to interventions that span mental health, physical, and surgical domains can be challenging, given a relative dearth of empirical data available; yet practice guidelines have emerged from different professional organizations which can aid with this. For this review paper, a broad literature search was performed to identify relevant studies pertaining to the care of adolescents with GD. In addition, an overview of trends in clinical practice, including shifts in conceptualization of how clinicians and patients define care that is considered affirming when working with this population, is described. This paper explores the characteristics of referral patterns to specialized clinics, provides a brief overview of gender identity development in adolescence, and then describes the phenomenology of known aetiological factors and co-occurring psychiatric issues in adolescents with GD. Additionally, clinical management considerations that detail assessment aims and common treatment interventions across disciplines will be explored. PMID:26828376

  17. Ethnicity and gender in late childhood and early adolescence: group identity and awareness of bias.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christia Spears; Alabi, Basirat O; Huynh, Virginia W; Masten, Carrie L

    2011-03-01

    The current study examined awareness of gender and ethnic bias and gender and ethnic identity in 350 African American, White/European American, and Latino/Hispanic students (Mage = 11.21 years, SD = 1.59) from the 4th, 6th, and 8th grades of diverse middle and elementary schools. The study collected (a) qualitative data to best capture the types of bias that were most salient to children and (b) daily diaries and individual measures to examine the multiple components of children's gender and ethnic identities. Results revealed ethnic, gender, and grade-level differences in awareness of ethnic and gender bias. Overall, more children were aware of gender bias than ethnic bias. This effect was most pronounced among White/European American youths. Among those in 4th grade, African American and Latino youths were more likely to be aware of ethnic bias than were White/European American youths. Analyses also examined how awareness of bias was related to gender and ethnic identity. For example, children who had a salient and important gender identity, and a devalued ethnic identity, were less likely than other children to be aware of ethnic bias.

  18. Ethnicity and Gender in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence: Group Identity and Awareness of Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears; Alabi, Basirat O.; Huynh, Virginia W.; Masten, Carrie L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined awareness of gender and ethnic bias and gender and ethnic identity in 350 African American, White/European American, and Latino/Hispanic students (M[subscript age] = 11.21 years, SD = 1.59) from the 4th, 6th, and 8th grades of diverse middle and elementary schools. The study collected (a) qualitative data to best capture…

  19. Gender Segregation in Pre-Adolescent Peer Groups as a Matter of Class: Results from Two German Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaff, Nicolle

    2010-01-01

    This study examines social class differences in the gender segregation of children and pre-adolescents and draws upon data from two recent German studies. Based on longitudinal quantitative data from a representative children's survey, the first analysis suggests that in comparison to children from upper-class families, lower-class children tend…

  20. Gender identity development in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Steensma, Thomas D; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; de Vries, Annelou L C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This article aims to provide an outline of what is currently known on trajectories, and contributing factors to gender identity development in adolescence. We give a historical overview of the concept of gender identity, and describe general identity development in adolescence, gender identity development in the general population and in gender variant youth. Possible psychosocial (such as child and parental characteristics) and biological factors (such as the effects of prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones and the role of genetics) contributing to a gender variant identity are discussed. Studies focusing on a number of psychosocial and biological factors separately, indicate that each of these factors influence gender identity formation, but little is known about the complex interplay between the factors, nor about the way individuals themselves contribute to the process. Research into normative and gender variant identity development of adolescents is clearly lagging behind. However, studies on persons with gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development, show that the period of adolescence, with its changing social environment and the onset of physical puberty, seems to be crucial for the development of a non-normative gender identity.

  1. Girls, Media, and the Negotiation of Sexuality: A Study of Race, Class, and Gender in Adolescent Peer Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Meenakshi Gigi

    1999-01-01

    Examines how peer-group activity and social context affect middle-school girls' mass-media interactions. Shows emergent gender identity was consolidated via constant reference to acceptable sociocultural standards (which differed according to race and class) of femininity and sexuality. Concludes interventions such as media-literacy efforts must…

  2. The relationships of adolescent school-related deviant behaviour and victimization with psychological distress: testing a general model of the mediational role of parents and teachers across groups of gender and age.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Juan; Estévez, Estefanía; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2006-10-01

    Deviant behaviour and victimization at school have been consistently related to poor psychological adjustment in adolescents. This research explores the mediating role that parents and teachers have in adolescent psychological distress in 973 Spanish students aged 11-16 years old. Structural equation analyses results showed that adolescent deviant behaviour and victimization were positively related to psychological distress as seen by the total effects. However, while victimization was directly related to psychological distress, the association of deviant behaviour and psychological distress was mediated by adolescent-parent communication and adolescent-teacher relationships. Multigroup analyses showed that relationships among variables were not significantly different for groups of age and gender. PMID:16263163

  3. The relationships of adolescent school-related deviant behaviour and victimization with psychological distress: testing a general model of the mediational role of parents and teachers across groups of gender and age.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Juan; Estévez, Estefanía; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2006-10-01

    Deviant behaviour and victimization at school have been consistently related to poor psychological adjustment in adolescents. This research explores the mediating role that parents and teachers have in adolescent psychological distress in 973 Spanish students aged 11-16 years old. Structural equation analyses results showed that adolescent deviant behaviour and victimization were positively related to psychological distress as seen by the total effects. However, while victimization was directly related to psychological distress, the association of deviant behaviour and psychological distress was mediated by adolescent-parent communication and adolescent-teacher relationships. Multigroup analyses showed that relationships among variables were not significantly different for groups of age and gender.

  4. Exploring gender-specific trends in underage drinking across adolescent age groups and measures of drinking: is girls' drinking catching up with boys'?

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hua; Schwartz, Jennifer

    2010-08-01

    Underage drinking is among the most serious of public health problems facing adolescents in the United States. Recent concerns have centered on young women, reflected in media reports and arrest statistics on their increasing problematic alcohol use. This study rigorously examined whether girls' alcohol use rose by applying time series methods to both arrest data, Uniform Crime Reports, and self-report data from Monitoring the Future, a nationally representative long-term survey gathered independently of crime control agents. All self-reported drinking behaviors across all age groups show declining or unchanged female rates and no significant change in the gender gap, while the official source displays a steady narrowing gender gap and some increase of female arrest rates for liquor law violations. Results indicate that social control measures applied to underage drinking have shifted to target young women's drinking patterns, but their drinking has not become more widespread/problematic. Girls' increased alcohol use and abuse is a socially constructed problem, rather than the result of normalization of drinking or more strain in girls' lives. Future underage drinking policies and practices that apply legal intervention strategies to less chronic adolescent drinking behaviors will increase the visibility of girls' drinking.

  5. [Gender dysphoria in adolescents: difficulties in treatment].

    PubMed

    Meyenburg, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    In many children and adolescents with gender dysphoria only minor or no psychopathology is found. 43% of patients seen in the Frankfurt University Gender Identity Clinic for children and adolescents suffer from major psychopathology. To demonstrate difficulties in treatment of these patients courses of treatment in four such patients are presented. In two natal females major psychopathology made decision for reassignment very difficult. Two natal males were in addition not able to follow recommended treatment steps, in these patients diagnostic doubts arose.

  6. Cultural and Gender Differences in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, M. Lee

    1993-01-01

    Examines recent research on cultural and gender differences among early adolescents, focusing on friendship patterns, identity development, social expectations, self-esteem, learning styles, health concerns, achievement aspirations, and sex role attitudes and behaviors. Young adolescents benefit when middle-level educators provide opportunities…

  7. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Gender Dysphoric Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Annelou L. C.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Steensma, Thomas D.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examined psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with a gender identity disorder (GID). We focused on its relation to gender, type of GID diagnosis and eligibility for medical interventions (puberty suppression and cross-sex hormones). Methods: To ascertain DSM-IV diagnoses, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children…

  8. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Possible Selves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Michele; Funk, Jeanne; Elliott, Robert; Bush Ellen Greene

    2000-01-01

    Examined gender differences in global self-esteem at adolescence by investigating the content of and gender differences within high school students' possible selves. Students completed questionnaires on hoped for and feared possible selves and on self-perception. Students were able to access and report a vast array of possible selves. Gender…

  9. School Talk: Gender and Adolescent Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eder, Donna; And Others

    This book reports the findings of a study of adolescent culture and language in eighth graders. The books consists of ten chapters including discussions of the following topics: (1) "Remember When?" a theoretical framework; (2) "Gender, Talk, and School Culture," an interpretive and a dialectic approach to the study of gender, talk, and…

  10. Demographic group differences in adolescents' time attitudes.

    PubMed

    Andretta, James R; Worrell, Frank C; Mello, Zena R; Dixson, Dante D; Baik, Sharon H

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African Americans and Asian Americans reported higher scores for negative time attitudes and lower scores for positive time attitudes than European Americans and Latinos, with medium sizes. Adolescents in the low socioeconomic status group reported a less favorable evaluation of their past than middle and high SES peers, but there were no meaningful differences in time attitudes by gender. Findings indicate that middle SES adolescents, high school juniors and seniors, Latinos, and European Americans had higher representation in positive time attitude clusters (i.e., Positives and Balanced) than high SES adolescents, high school freshmen and sophomores, and African Americans.

  11. Understanding gender variance in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Simons, Lisa K; Leibowitz, Scott F; Hidalgo, Marco A

    2014-06-01

    Gender variance is an umbrella term used to describe gender identity, expression, or behavior that falls outside of culturally defined norms associated with a specific gender. In recent years, growing media coverage has heightened public awareness about gender variance in childhood and adolescence, and an increasing number of referrals to clinics specializing in care for gender-variant youth have been reported in the United States. Gender-variant expression, behavior, and identity may present in childhood and adolescence in a number of ways, and youth with gender variance have unique health needs. For those experiencing gender dysphoria, or distress encountered by the discordance between biological sex and gender identity, puberty is often an exceptionally challenging time. Pediatric primary care providers may be families' first resource for education and support, and they play a critical role in supporting the health of youth with gender variance by screening for psychosocial problems and health risks, referring for gender-specific mental health and medical care, and providing ongoing advocacy and support. PMID:24972420

  12. Understanding gender variance in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Simons, Lisa K; Leibowitz, Scott F; Hidalgo, Marco A

    2014-06-01

    Gender variance is an umbrella term used to describe gender identity, expression, or behavior that falls outside of culturally defined norms associated with a specific gender. In recent years, growing media coverage has heightened public awareness about gender variance in childhood and adolescence, and an increasing number of referrals to clinics specializing in care for gender-variant youth have been reported in the United States. Gender-variant expression, behavior, and identity may present in childhood and adolescence in a number of ways, and youth with gender variance have unique health needs. For those experiencing gender dysphoria, or distress encountered by the discordance between biological sex and gender identity, puberty is often an exceptionally challenging time. Pediatric primary care providers may be families' first resource for education and support, and they play a critical role in supporting the health of youth with gender variance by screening for psychosocial problems and health risks, referring for gender-specific mental health and medical care, and providing ongoing advocacy and support.

  13. Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development: the role of adolescents' gender and nativity and parents' gender role attitudes.

    PubMed

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A

    2014-12-01

    Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican-American adolescents (N = 246; 51 % female), using four phases of longitudinal data across 8 years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers' and fathers' gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents' nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males' attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers', fathers', and adolescents' gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers' and adolescents' gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers' more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters', but not sons', more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective.

  14. Muscle strength and hormonal levels in adolescents: gender related differences.

    PubMed

    Ramos, E; Frontera, W R; Llopart, A; Feliciano, D

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study muscle strength in adolescents and its relationship to serum levels of testosterone and growth hormone in both genders. Thirty active adolescents (15 boys; age range 11 -12 y/o) participated in the first study. Isokinetic muscle strength of the dominant knee extensors (KE) was determined at 0, 12, 20, 30, 120, 180 and 240 deg/sec using a Cybex 340 dynamometer. The assessment of pubertal status was accomplished using the criteria of Tanner. Serum levels of total testosterone (T) and growth hormone (GH) were determined using radioimmunoassay techniques. Boys had higher (p< 0.001) T levels but no differences in muscle strength were detected between genders. Fifty-seven additional subjects representing three age groups (11-12 y/o, n=18; 13-14, n=21; 17-18, n=18) participated in the second study. A significant increase in peak torque (absolute and corrected for body weight) with age was observed in both genders. There were no significant gender differences in strength for the two youngest age groups, but boys were stronger than girls in the oldest age group (group 3). Testosterone and GH levels increased with age in boys but not in girls. Gender related differences in T were found in groups 2 and 3. A positive correlation (r=0,64 boys; r=0.46 girls) between testosterone levels and absolute muscle strength was seen in both genders. Our results suggest that increases in anabolic hormones precede muscle strength gains in adolescent males. In addition, gender related differences in muscle strength during adolescents cannot be explained solely on the basis of difference in body size or T levels. PMID:9877143

  15. Socialization of Physical and Social Aggression in Early Adolescents' Peer Groups: High-Status Peers, Individual Status, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…

  16. Gender minority social stress in adolescence: disparities in adolescent bullying and substance use by gender identity.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Greytak, Emily A; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Ybarra, Michele L

    2015-01-01

    Bullying and substance use represent serious public health issues facing adolescents in the United States. Few large-sample national studies have examined differences in these indicators by gender identity. The Teen Health and Technology Study (N = 5,542) sampled adolescents ages 13 to 18 years old online. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models investigated disparities in substance use and tested a gender minority social stress hypothesis, comparing gender minority youth (i.e., who are transgender/gender nonconforming and have a gender different from their sex assigned at birth) and cisgender (i.e., whose gender identity or expression matches theirs assigned at birth). Overall, 11.5% of youth self-identified as gender minority. Gender minority youth had increased odds of past-12-month alcohol use, marijuana use, and nonmarijuana illicit drug use. Gender minority youth disproportionately experienced bullying and harassment in the past 12 months, and this victimization was associated with increased odds of all substance use indicators. Bullying mediated the elevated odds of substance use for gender minority youth compared to cisgender adolescents. Findings support the use of gender minority stress perspectives in designing early interventions aimed at addressing the negative health sequelae of bullying and harassment.

  17. Gender Minority Social Stress in Adolescence: Disparities in Adolescent Bullying and Substance Use by Gender Identity

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Greytak, Emily A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Ybarra, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Bullying and substance use represent serious public health issues facing adolescents in the U.S. Few large-sample national studies have examined differences in these indicators by gender identity. The Teen Health and Technology Study (N=5,542) sampled adolescents 13–18 years-old online. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models investigated disparities in substance use and tested a gender minority social stress hypothesis, comparing gender minority youth (i.e., who are transgender/gender nonconforming and have a gender different from their sex assigned at birth) and cisgender (i.e., whose gender identity or expression matches one’s sex assigned at birth). Overall, 11.5% of youth self-identified as gender minority. Gender minority youth had increased odds of past-12 month alcohol use, marijuana use, and non-marijuana illicit drug use. Gender minority youth disproportionately experienced bullying and harassment in the past 12 months, and this victimization was associated with increased odds of all substance use indicators. Bullying mediated the elevated odds of substance use for gender minority youth compared to cisgender adolescents. Findings support the use of gender minority stress perspectives in designing early interventions aimed at addressing the negative health sequelae of bullying and harassment. PMID:24742006

  18. Gendered Opportunity? School-Based Adolescent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Pamela; Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Fisher, Bonnie S.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have shown that criminal opportunity significantly predicts school-based adolescent victimization. However, little is known about the extent to which opportunity for school-based victimization might be gendered. In this study, the authors drew from criminal opportunity and feminist research and extended the principle of homogamy to…

  19. Gender Differences in Victimized Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Kouzekanani, Kamiar

    2006-01-01

    Most of what we know about sexual abuse comes from efforts to examine female children victimized by men. Although some researchers have identified similarities between male and female victims of sexual abuse, few studies have examined gender-specific factors associated with sexual health practices among homeless adolescents. The aim of this study…

  20. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Autobiographical Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…

  1. Measuring Gender Dysphoria: A Multicenter Examination and Comparison of the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale and the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Catharina; Cerwenka, Susanne; Nieder, Timo O; Briken, Peer; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; De Cuypere, Griet; Haraldsen, Ira R; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-04-01

    This study examined two instruments measuring gender dysphoria within the multicenter study of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI). The Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS) and the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (GIDYQ-AA) were examined for their definitions of gender dysphoria and their psychometric properties, and evaluated for their congruence in assessing the construct. The sample of 318 participants consisted of 178 male-to-females (MtF) and 140 female-to-males (FtM) who were recruited from the four ENIGI gender clinics. Both instruments were significantly correlated in the group of MtFs. For the FtM group, there was a trend in the same direction but smaller. Gender dysphoria was found to be defined differently in the two instruments, which led to slightly different findings regarding the subgroups. The UGDS detected a difference between the subgroups of early and late onset of gender identity disorder in the group of MtFs, whereas the GIDYQ-AA did not. For the FtM group, no significant effect of age of onset was found. Therefore, both instruments seem to capture not only similar but also different aspects of gender dysphoria. The UGDS focusses on bodily aspects, gender identity, and gender role, while the GIDYQ-AA addresses subjective, somatic, social, and sociolegal aspects. For future research, consistency in theory and definition of gender dysphoria is needed and should be in line with the DSM-5 diagnosis of gender dysphoria in adolescents and adults.

  2. Cross-gender hormone therapy in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Steever, John

    2014-06-01

    Many transgender youth experience significant amounts of emotional distress regarding the incongruence between their internal gender identity and their physical body. Cross-gender hormonal medical treatments, as managed by a multidisciplinary medical/mental health team, assist patients in transitioning to their desired gender by aligning the physical body to match the gender identity. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health Standards of Care and the Endocrine Society's Clinical Practice Guidelines provide a basic road map for practitioners. Expectations of the youth and the concerns of the family must be addressed and the youth psychologically supported during the transition period. Issues around future fertility should be explored as well. The goal of this article is to introduce the general pediatrician to cross-gender hormone treatments, their management, monitoring laboratory tests and clinical effects, and the issues surrounding their use in adolescents.

  3. [Characteristics of children and adolescents with gender dysphoria referred to the Hamburg Gender Identity Clinic].

    PubMed

    Becker, Inga; Gjergji-Lama, Voltisa; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing demand for counselling in gender dysphoria in childhood in Germany, there is a definite need for empirical data on characteristics and developmental trajectories of this clinical group. This study aimed to provide a first overview by assessing demographic characteristics and developmental trajectories of a group of gender variant boys and girls referred to the specialised Gender Identity Clinic in Hamburg. Data were extracted from medical charts, transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis methods. Categories were set up by inductive-deductive reasoning based on the patients' parents' and clinicians' information in the files. Between 2006 and 2010, 45 gender variant children and adolescents were seen by clinicians; 88.9% (n = 40) of these were diagnosed with gender identity disorder (ICD-10). Within this group, the referral rates for girls were higher than for boys (1:1.5). Gender dysphoric girls were on average older than the boys and a higher percentage of girls was referred to the clinic at the beginning of adolescence (> 12 years of age). At the same time, more girls reported an early onset age. More girls made statements about their (same-sex) sexual orientation during adolescence and wishes for gender confirming medical interventions. More girls than boys revealed self-mutilation in the past or present as well as suicidal thoughts and/or attempts. Results indicate that the presentation of clinically referred gender dysphoric girls differs from the characteristics boys present in Germany; especially with respect to the most salient age differences. Therefore, these two groups require different awareness and individual treatment approaches.

  4. Adolescent Gender-Role Identity and Mental Health: Gender Intensification Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priess, Heather A.; Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    Gender intensification, an increased pressure for adolescents to conform to culturally sanctioned gender roles, has been posited as an explanation for the emergence of the gender difference in depression. This longitudinal study assessed whether 410 individuals became more stereotypical in their gender-role identity across adolescence and whether…

  5. Cultural and Gender Convergence in Adolescent Drunkenness

    PubMed Central

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuntsche, Sandra; Knibbe, Ronald; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Farhat, Tilda; Hublet, Anne; Bendtsen, Pernille; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate time-trend changes in the frequency of drunkenness among European and North American adolescents. Design Cross-sectional surveys in the 1997/1998 and 2005/2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC). Setting High schools in 23 countries. Participants A sample of 77 586 adolescents aged 15 years was analyzed by means of hierarchical linear modeling. Main Outcome Measure The frequency of drunkenness. Results We observed a significant increase of about 40% in the mean frequency of drunkenness in all 7 participating Eastern European countries. This increase was evident among both genders, but most consistently among girls. Meanwhile, it declined in 13 of 16 Western countries, about 25% on average. Declines in Western countries were particularly notable among boys and in North America, Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, and Ireland. Despite this gender convergence, with few exceptions (Greenland, Norway, United Kingdom) boys continued to have a higher frequency of drunkenness in 2005/2006 than girls. Conclusions The confirmed cultural convergence implies that adoption and implementation of evidence-based measures to mitigate the frequency of adolescent drunkenness such as tax increases and restricting alcohol access and advertisement should get the same priority in Eastern European countries as in Western countries. Policy measures that might facilitate decreases in drunkenness such as server training and the promotion of alcohol-free leisure-time activities should be reinforced in Western countries. The gender convergence implies that prevention policy should be less exclusively focused on male adolescents. PMID:20921343

  6. Wanting to See People Like Me? Racial and Gender Diversity in Popular Adolescent Television.

    PubMed

    Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Bleakley, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Media are one source for adolescent identity development and social identity gratifications. Nielsen viewing data across the 2014-2015 television season for adolescents ages 14-17 was used to examine racial and gender diversity in adolescent television exposure. Compared to US Census data, mainstream shows under represent women, but the proportion of Black characters is roughly representative. Black adolescents watch more television than non-Black adolescents and, after taking this into account, shows popular with Black adolescents are more likely than shows popular with non-Black adolescents to exhibit racial diversity. In addition, shows popular with female adolescents are more likely than shows popular with males to exhibit gender diversity. These results support the idea that adolescents seek out media messages with characters that are members of their identity groups, possibly because the characters serve as tools for identity development and social identity gratifications.

  7. [Unequal gender relations in the speech of adolescents].

    PubMed

    Reis, Cássia Barbosa; Santos, Nayana Rosa Dos

    2011-10-01

    Adolescence is a phase of life in which individuals experience rapid physical, emotional and intellectual change. In the midst of all these changes, distorted or incomplete information that adolescents receive on sexuality, including STD/AIDS, exposes them more readily to these diseases and early pregnancy. The scope of this work was to identify gender relations between adolescents. The method used was an analytical study with a qualitative approach based on social representations that examine values, beliefs, habits, attitudes and opinions in order to encompass the target group thoroughly. In analysis of the discourse, inequality was swiftly apparent with decidedly macho overtones. Despite the amount of information currently available on sexuality, many adolescents have precious little knowledge of the subject and a lack of adequate communication with their parents, their schools and the media.

  8. Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social Context.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future.

  9. Gender-role attitudes among Egyptian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mensch, Barbara S; Ibrahim, Barbara L; Lee, Susan M; el-Gibaly, Omaima

    2003-03-01

    Using nationally representative survey data, this study explores gender-role attitudes among unmarried adolescents aged 16-19 in Egypt, a society characterized by distinct and often segregated roles for men and women. Adolescents' views about desirable qualities in a spouse as well as more direct indicators of gender-role attitudes are examined, including opinions about whether wives should defer to their husbands, share in household decision making, and have the responsibility for performing domestic tasks. The findings regarding spousal characteristics reflect strong gender differentiation. Girls and boys provide divergent profiles of an ideal spouse, profiles that reflect traditional gender roles. Girls are significantly less likely than boys to favor educational inequality between spouses, however. Neither boys nor girls have egalitarian gender-role attitudes, although girls are significantly more likely to express less traditional attitudes. Multivariate analyses indicate that girls' and boys' attitudes do not vary consistently and significantly by socioeconomic background; in particular, increased schooling does not always promote egalitarian attitudes. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. [Gender dysphoria in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Möller, Birgit; Georg, Romer

    2014-01-01

    Despite rising demand for treatment, far too few specialist services for gender dysphoric children and adolescents exist. Due to complex issues related to indication of physical treatment with lifelong consequences a thorough interdisciplinary treatment service with development-related evaluation is necessary. The aim of this paper is to outline the professional and social tension, in which the practitioner works, as well as to provide insight into the diversity of developmental trajectories and difficult decisions or dilemmas. PMID:25296506

  11. How to Improve Adolescents' Sun Protection Behavior? Age and Gender Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Christine; Tzelepis, Flora; Parfitt, Nicholas; Girgis, Afaf

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore adolescents' self-reported reasons for sun protection, as adolescents as a group continue to have poor sun protection practices. Methods: Seventeen age- and gender-segregated focus groups were conducted in Australian high schools. Results: Reasons for using sun protection included personal comfort, appearance, policies, fear…

  12. Adolescents' Relationships with Father, Mother, and Same-Gender Friend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayseless, Ofra; Wiseman, Hadas; Hai, Ilan

    1998-01-01

    This study examined age differences in autonomy and relatedness in adolescents' relationship with parents, and same-gender friend. Questionnaire responses of 205 Israeli adolescents indicated that older adolescents had greater autonomy in relationships with parents than did younger adolescents. No age differences were reported in closeness and…

  13. Puppets on a String? How Young Adolescents Explore Gender and Health in Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begoray, Deborah L.; Banister, Elizabeth M.; Wharf Higgins, Joan; Wilmot, Robin

    2015-01-01

    This article presents qualitative research on young adolescents' abilities in communicating and evaluating health messages in advertising especially how they understand and create gendered identities. A group of grade 6-8 students learned about media techniques and movie making. In groups divided by gender, they created iMovie advertisements for…

  14. Cross-Gender Violence Perpetration and Victimization among Early Adolescents and Associations with Attitudes toward Dating Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael; Mrug, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in cross-gender violence perpetration and victimization (ranging from mild, e.g., push, to severe, e.g., assault with a knife or gun) and attitudes toward dating conflict, among an urban sample of 601 early adolescents (78% African-American). Comparisons across gender groups for cross-gender (e.g.,…

  15. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  16. The role of gender and friends' gender on peer socialization of adolescent drinking: a prospective multilevel social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Arielle R; Steinley, Douglas; Slutske, Wendy S

    2014-09-01

    Although socializing effects of friends' drinking on adolescent drinking behavior have been firmly established in previous literature, study results on the importance of gender, as well as the specific role that gender may play in peer socialization, are very mixed. Given the increasing importance of gender in friendships (particularly opposite-sex friendships) during adolescence, it is necessary to better understand the nuanced roles that gender can play in peer socialization effects on alcohol use. In addition, previous studies focusing on the interplay between individual gender and friends' gender have been largely dyadic; less is known about potential gendered effects of broader social networks. The current study sought to further investigate potential effects of gender on friends' influence on adolescent drinking behavior with particular emphasis on the number of same-sex and opposite-sex friends within one's friendship network, as well as closeness to these friends. Using Waves I and II of the saturated sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), adolescent friendship networks were used to calculate the mean drinking behaviors of adolescent friends. Multi-level models estimated the effects of individual drinking behaviors, friend drinking behaviors, and school-level drinking behaviors on adolescent drinking 1 year later, as well as moderating effects of gender composition of friendship groups and male and female friend closeness on the relationship between friends' drinking behaviors and adolescent drinking behavior. Results documented that gender composition of friendship groups did not influence the effect of friends' drinking on individual drinking 1 year later. However, closeness to friends did influence this relationship. As closeness to male friends decreased, the influence of their drinking behavior increased, for both boys and girls. A similar effect was found for female friends, but only for boys. Female friend

  17. Gender, Peer Relations, and Challenges for Girlfriends and Boyfriends Coming Together in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how girls' and boys' different peer cultures in middle childhood may set the stage for challenges in emerging heterosexual romantic relationships in adolescence. Two theoretical frameworks are presented for understanding gender differences in children's same-gender friendships and peer groups in middle childhood: the two…

  18. Gender Differences in Reasons to Quit Smoking among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struik, Laura L.; O'Loughlin, Erin K.; Dugas, Erika N.; Bottorff, Joan L.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed…

  19. Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

  20. Developmental Changes and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Perceptions of Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This five-wave study aims to investigate the development of adolescents' perceptions of support, negative interaction, and power in best friendships from ages 12 to 20 years. Furthermore, gender differences and linkages between the three dimensions are explored. A total of 593 early adolescents (53.6% boys) and 337 middle adolescents (43.3% boys)…

  1. Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adolescent Care: Psychosocial and Medical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Guss, Carly; Shumer, Daniel; Katz-Wise, Sabra L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Transgender individuals display incongruence between their assigned birth sex and their current gender identity, and may identify as male, female or elsewhere on the gender spectrum. Gender nonconformity describes an individual whose gender identity, role, or expression are not typical for individuals in a given assigned sex category. This update highlights recent literature pertaining to the psychosocial and medical care of transgender and gender nonconforming (TGN) adolescents with applications for the general practitioner. Recent findings The psychological risks and outcomes of TGN adolescents are being more widely recognized. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that social and medical gender transition reduces gender dysphoria, defined as distress that accompanies the incongruence between one’s birth sex and identified gender. Unfortunately, lack of education about TGN adolescents in medical training persists. Summary Recent literature highlights increased health risks in TGN adolescents and improved outcomes following gender dysphoria treatment. It is important for clinicians to become familiar with the range of treatment options and referral resources available to TGN adolescents in order to provide optimal and welcoming care to all adolescents. PMID:26087416

  2. Schizotypy in adolescence: the role of gender and age.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Muñiz, José; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Campillo-Alvarez, Angela

    2008-02-01

    Schizotypy is a multidimensional personality construct that appears to indicate psychosis proneness. Supposedly, schizotypal traits behave differently depending on a person's age and gender, but few studies have examined this relationship. In our study we used the Thinking and Perceptual Style Questionnaire and the Junior Schizotypy Scales. The sample was made up of 321 students (169 males) with an age range of 12 to 17 years. The results show significant differences in gender and age groups. Males score higher than females on Physical Anhedonia, Social Anhedonia, and Impulsive Non-Conformity scales, while females score higher or Positive Symptoms, Negative Evaluation, and Social Paranoia scales. Significant differences were also found among age groups: Unusual experiences, self-referent ideation, social paranoia, thought disorder, and negative evaluation were more frequent in later stages of adolescence. However, the meaning of this difference could be interpreted in terms of emotional turbulence rather than as a direct indicator of vulnerability to psychosis. PMID:18277226

  3. [Resilience, gender and family during adolescence].

    PubMed

    Rozemberg, Laila; Avanci, Joviana; Schenker, Miriam; Pires, Thiago

    2014-03-01

    This article seeks to investigate the family factors that influence the resilience potential of male and female adolescent students. It is a cross-sectional study with data derived from an epidemiological survey with the participation of 889 randomly selected adolescents in the 9th year of public and private schools in a municipality in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Social and demographic variables indicate that family violence factors such as a difficult relationship with the mother or stepmother and a lack of family supervision, the presence of depression and low use of active and supportive coping strategies for distraction are associated with a low resilience potential. Tests of association between variables and resilience were made, considering a significance level of 5%. Variables like living in a confined space and having a difficult relationship with siblings only appear harmful to the resilience potential of girls. Public policies and programs need to work with families to understand the needs of adolescents, as a way of preventing mental health problems and promoting health in this population from a gender standpoint.

  4. Self-Esteem Changes in the Middle School Years: A Study of Ethnic and Gender Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Sue K.; Kuhn, Jennifer; Rhodes, Jean

    2006-01-01

    The current study investigated how ethnicity and gender affect changes in the self-esteem of early adolescents during the middle school years. Self-report data were collected from more than 4,000 early adolescents from three ethnic groups: European American, African American, and Hispanic and analyzed using a consecutive three-year cross-sectional…

  5. Stress and Illness in Adolescence: Issues of Race and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Debora R.; Harris, Shanette M.; Chambliss, Lana N.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the role of individual differences (gender and race) on the stress-illness relationship among adolescents. Results based on 119 participants reveal that stress and anxiety were positively correlated with reported illness. Race and gender differences did emerge, although no gender differences were found with regard to the experience of…

  6. Gender Development and Heterosexual Romantic Relationships During Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, Campbell; Anderson, Kristin J.

    1997-01-01

    Examines same-gender and cross-gender friendships as potential contexts for development of preferences and skills that may influence the quality of adolescent dating relationships and adult marriages. Considers how children's traditionally gender-segregated peer relationships contribute to miscommunications and power asymmetries in later…

  7. Visual attention in mixed-gender groups

    PubMed Central

    Amon, Mary Jean

    2015-01-01

    A basic principle of objectification theory is that a mere glance from a stranger represents the potential to be sexualized, triggering women to take on the perspective of others and become vigilant to their appearance. However, research has yet to document gendered gaze patterns in social groups. The present study examined visual attention in groups of varying gender composition to understand how gender and minority status influence gaze behavior. One hundred undergraduates enrolled in psychology courses were photographed, and an additional 76 participants viewed groupings of these photographs while their point of gaze was recorded using a remote eye-tracking device. Participants were not told that their gaze was being recorded. Women were viewed more frequently and for longer periods of time than men in mixed-gender groups. Women were also more likely to be looked at first and last by observers. Men spent more time attending to pictures of women when fewer women were in the group. The opposite effect was found for pictures of men, such that male pictures were viewed less when fewer pictures of men were in the group. Female observers spent more time looking at men compared to male observers, and male observers spent more time looking at women than female observers, though both female and male observers looked at women more than men overall. Consistent with objectification theory, women's appearance garners more attention and interest in mixed-gender social groups. PMID:25628589

  8. Openness to Gender Atypical Occupations in Youth: Do Peer Groups and School Classes Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Susanne; Bäckman, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses aspects of gender composition and social dominance in peer groups and school classes and their effects on the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations in young adolescents. The data set used contains information for some 13,000 girls and boys living in Stockholm in the early 1960s. Results from multi-level regressions…

  9. Gender differences in youths' political engagement and participation. The role of parents and of adolescents' social and civic participation.

    PubMed

    Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna; Fournier, Bernard; Gavray, Claire; Born, Michel

    2012-06-01

    Research examining youths' political development mostly focused on young people as a general group; comparatively less attention has been devoted to the examination of gender pathways toward citizenship. Two studies were conducted addressing (a) the role of parents' participation and the moderating role of adolescent gender and age group (n = 1419) and (b) the role of adolescent social and civic participation and the moderating role of adolescent gender and type of school (n = 1871). Results confirmed the gender gap in political interest and in the use of the Internet for political participation, while no differences emerged for political activity and voting intentions. Adolescents' political engagement and participation are influenced by parents' participation (especially among girls) and by adolescents' social and civic participation (especially among boys). The impact of adolescents' social and civic participation on conventional participation (voting intentions) is partially mediated by sense of community and institutional trust.

  10. A multicultural assessment of adolescent connectedness: testing measurement invariance across gender and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Karcher, Michael J; Sass, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    Counselors, psychologists, and evaluators of intervention programs for youth increasingly view the promotion of connectedness as an important intervention outcome. When evaluating these programs, researchers frequently test whether the treatment effects differ across gender and ethnic or racial groups. Doing so necessitates the availability of culturally and gender-invariant measures. We used the Hemingway: Measure of Adolescent Connectedness to estimate the factor structure invariance and equality of means across gender and 3 racial/ethnic groups with a large sample of middle school adolescents. From a practical perspective, the 10-scale model suggested factor structure invariance across gender and racial or ethnic (i.e., African American, Caucasian, and Latina/o) groups of adolescents. However, tests for partial invariance revealed some group difference on the factor loadings and intercepts between gender and ethnic/racial groups. When testing for mean equivalence, girls reported higher connectedness to friends, siblings, school, peers, teachers, and reading but lower connectedness to their neighborhoods. Caucasians reported higher connectedness to their neighborhoods and friends but lower connectedness to siblings than African Americans and Latinos. African Americans reported the highest connectedness to self (present and future) but lowest connectedness to teachers. Latinos reported the lowest connectedness to reading, self-in-the-present, and self-in-the-future. Overall, this study reveals racial/ethnic and gender mean differences on several connectedness subscales and suggests the Hemingway subscales are, from a practical perspective, invariant across gender and ethnicity and therefore appropriate for most assessment and evaluation purposes.

  11. Attributions of Fathering Behaviors Among Adolescents: The Role of Gender, Ethnicity, Family Structure, and Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Andrea K; Cookston, Jeffrey T; Saenz, Delia S; Baham, Melinda E; Parke, Ross D; Fabricius, William; Braver, Sanford

    2014-03-01

    Little attention has been paid to how early adolescents make attributions for their fathers' behavior. Guided by symbolic interaction theory, we examined how adolescent gender, ethnicity, family structure, and depressive symptoms explained attributions for residential father behavior. 382 adolescents, grouped by ethnicity (European American, Mexican American) and family structure (intact, stepfamilies), reported attributions for their fathers' positive and negative behaviors. Results indicated that for positive events girls made significantly more stable attributions, whereas boys made more unstable attributions. Mexican American adolescents tended to make more unstable attributions for positive events than European Americans, and adolescents from intact families made more stable attributions for positive events than adolescents from stepfamilies. Implications are discussed for the role of attributions in father-adolescent relationships as prime for intervention in families. PMID:24855327

  12. Attributions of Fathering Behaviors Among Adolescents: The Role of Gender, Ethnicity, Family Structure, and Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Andrea K; Cookston, Jeffrey T; Saenz, Delia S; Baham, Melinda E; Parke, Ross D; Fabricius, William; Braver, Sanford

    2014-03-01

    Little attention has been paid to how early adolescents make attributions for their fathers' behavior. Guided by symbolic interaction theory, we examined how adolescent gender, ethnicity, family structure, and depressive symptoms explained attributions for residential father behavior. 382 adolescents, grouped by ethnicity (European American, Mexican American) and family structure (intact, stepfamilies), reported attributions for their fathers' positive and negative behaviors. Results indicated that for positive events girls made significantly more stable attributions, whereas boys made more unstable attributions. Mexican American adolescents tended to make more unstable attributions for positive events than European Americans, and adolescents from intact families made more stable attributions for positive events than adolescents from stepfamilies. Implications are discussed for the role of attributions in father-adolescent relationships as prime for intervention in families.

  13. Gender monitoring and gender reassignment of children and adolescents with a somatic disorder of sex development.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L

    2011-10-01

    Individuals born with a somatic disorder of sex development (DSD) have high rates of gender-atypical behavior, gender uncertainty, gender dysphoria, and patient-initiated gender change in childhood, adolescence,and adulthood. This article addresses the issues a mental health services provider has to consider in evaluating and assisting such patients and provides examples of assessment-method batteries. To date, the World Professional Association for Transgender Health's Standards of Care, 6th version, for non-DSD patients with gender dysphoria, may be cautiously used for guidance, taking into account the considerable differences in presentation and medical context between gender dysphoric patients with and without a DSD.

  14. Adolescent Drinking and Delinquent Activities: Associations and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curcio, Angela L.; Mak, Anita S.

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of adolescent drinking and delinquent behaviour is required in order to implement early prevention and intervention programs in schools. Broadly based on the common cause model of adolescent deviance, this study investigated and compared, across genders, the prevalence and inter-relationships of various indicators of…

  15. Gender Differences in Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Sil

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in the rate, type, and relevant variables underlying delinquent behavior among South Korean adolescents. Although female delinquency is increasing and becoming more violent in South Korea, the rate of delinquent behavior was found to be much lower among female than among male adolescents and female…

  16. The Roles of Sex, Gender, and Coping in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Cindy Ellen; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Froh, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of coping and masculinity in higher rates of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls, as compared to boys. A model was designed and tested through path analysis, which involved the variables of sex, gender, problem-focused coping, rumination, and distraction. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale and the Bem…

  17. Gender, Age, and Behavior Differences in Early Adolescent Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen L.; Teufel, James A.; Birch, David A.; Kancherla, Vijaya

    2006-01-01

    Early adolescents in the United States are increasingly exposed to a culture of worrisome messages. A degree of adolescent worry is normal, but the likelihood of a young person being anxious or depressed increases with the perceived number of worries. This study examined the effect of age, gender, and worry behavior on frequency of 8 adolescent…

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Gender Dysphoric Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Annelou L. C.; Noens, Ilse L. J.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; Doreleijers, Theo A.

    2010-01-01

    Only case reports have described the co-occurrence of gender identity disorder (GID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined this co-occurrence using a systematic approach. Children and adolescents (115 boys and 89 girls, mean age 10.8, SD = 3.58) referred to a gender identity clinic received a standardized assessment during which…

  19. Peer Influence on Gender Identity Development in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornienko, Olga; Santos, Carlos E.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Granger, Kristen L.

    2016-01-01

    During adolescence, gender identity (GI) develops through a dialectic process of personal reflection and with input from the social environment. Peers play an important role in the socialization of gendered behavior, but no studies to-date have assessed peer influences on GI. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine peer influences on…

  20. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah P.; St Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in adolescents' academic motivation and classroom behaviour and gender differences in the extent to which motivation was associated with, and predicted, classroom behaviour. Seven hundred and fifty students (384 boys and 366 girls) aged 11--16 (M age?=?14.0, 1.59 SD) completed a questionnaire…

  1. Understanding Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Sexual Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents' attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by…

  2. Gender Socialization of Adolescents in the Home: Research and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, John F.

    1994-01-01

    Analyzed male and female adolescents' perceptions of parental behavior in allowances, gifts, use of family car, curfew, and chores. Gender-equal behavior, as evinced by allowances and gift giving toward sons and daughters, was less evident in curfews and chores. Subjects' perspectives indicate that parents perpetuate stereotypical gender roles.…

  3. Mathematically Gifted Adolescent Females' Mixed Sentiment toward Gender Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Chen-yao

    2015-01-01

    There has been a paucity of research on gifted individuals' perceptions of gender stereotypes. The purpose of this study was to explore mathematically gifted adolescent females' perceptions of gender stereotypes through a research design of the qualitative multiple case study involving the constant comparison and the Three C's analysis scheme.…

  4. Gender Segregation of Adolescent Science Career Plans in 50 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikora, Joanna; Pokropek, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Program for International Student Assessment 2006 surveys for 50 countries, this paper explores gender segregation of adolescent science career plans. We ask whether, in different cultures, bridging the male-female gap in science self-concept could reduce gender disparities in students' career preferences. Bringing together the…

  5. Exploring Gender-Specific Trends in Underage Drinking across Adolescent Age Groups and Measures of Drinking: Is Girls' Drinking Catching up with Boys'?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Hua; Schwartz, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Underage drinking is among the most serious of public health problems facing adolescents in the United States. Recent concerns have centered on young women, reflected in media reports and arrest statistics on their increasing problematic alcohol use. This study rigorously examined whether girls' alcohol use rose by applying time series methods to…

  6. Gender Differences in Youths' Political Engagement and Participation. The Role of Parents and of Adolescents' Social and Civic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna; Fournier, Bernard; Gavray, Claire; Born, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Research examining youths' political development mostly focused on young people as a general group; comparatively less attention has been devoted to the examination of gender pathways toward citizenship. Two studies were conducted addressing (a) the role of parents' participation and the moderating role of adolescent gender and age group (n =…

  7. Gender differences in reasons to quit smoking among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Struik, Laura L; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Bottorff, Joan L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires in 2010-2011 from 113 female and 83 male smokers aged 14-19 years participating in AdoQuest, a longitudinal cohort study of the natural course of the co-occurrence of health-compromising behaviors in children. Overall, the findings indicate that reasons to quit in boys and girls appear to be generally similar, although this finding may relate to a lack of gender-oriented items in the ARFQ scale. There is a need for continued research to develop and test reasons to quit scales for adolescents that include gender-oriented items.

  8. Gendered pathways in school burnout among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tynkkynen, Lotta

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine differences in student burnout by gender, time status with two time points before and after an educational transition, and educational track (academic vs. vocational). The definition of burnout is based on three components: exhaustion due to school demands, a disengaged and cynical attitude toward school, and feelings of inadequacy as a student (Salmela-Aro, Kiuru, Leskinen, & Nurmi, 2009). A total of 770 Finnish adolescents (M age = 16) were examined at the beginning of their last year in comprehensive school, and three times annually during their secondary education both on academic and vocational tracks. Among boys on the academic track, overall school burnout and its three components, exhaustion, cynicism and inadequacy, increased, whereas among boys on the vocational track, no changes in school burnout emerged. Among girls on the academic track, overall school burnout and inadequacy increased, whereas among girls on the vocational track, cynicism decreased. Finally, school burnout was highest among girls on the academic track, but increased most among boys on the academic track. PMID:22300678

  9. Mexican-American Adolescents' Gender-Typed Characteristics: The Role of Sibling and Friend Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Schaefer, David R

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the role of sibling and friend characteristics in Mexican-American youth's gender-typed characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests, and leisure activities) in early versus middle adolescence using a sibling design. Mexican-American 7th graders (M = 12.51 years; SD = .58) and their older siblings (M = 15.48 years; SD = 1.57) from 246 families participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Results revealed that younger/early adolescent siblings reported more traditional gender role attitudes than their older/middle adolescent siblings and older brothers were more traditional in their attitudes than older sisters. When comparing siblings' gender-typed interests and leisure activities, boys reported more masculine orientations than girls and girls reported more feminine orientations than boys. Older brothers' gender-typed characteristics were associated with the amount of time spent with and gender characteristics of their friendship group, but for younger brothers, sibling characteristics were associated with their gender-typed characteristics. In contrast, both sibling and friendship characteristics were significantly associated with older and younger sisters' gender-typed characteristics. The discussion addressed the different correlates of older and younger sisters' and brothers' gender-typed characteristics.

  10. Maternal and adolescent distress tolerance: the moderating role of gender.

    PubMed

    Daughters, Stacey B; Gorka, Stephanie M; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mayes, Linda C

    2014-04-01

    Distress tolerance is defined behaviorally as the ability to maintain goal-directed behavior while experiencing physical or psychological distress. Distress tolerance is closely related to emotion regulation and is a clinically relevant construct contributing to psychopathology across adults and adolescents, yet limited research has examined the development of this construct. A number of studies suggest the importance of parenting in the emergence of emotion regulation capacities in childhood and adolescence. In the current study, we utilize a behavioral measure of distress tolerance to examine whether maternal distress tolerance is related to adolescent distress tolerance, and whether this association differs as a function of gender. We also examine the influence of family emotional climate, namely maternal response to adolescent distress and adolescent attachment. Results indicate a significant maternal distress tolerance by adolescent gender interaction, such that maternal distress tolerance predicts adolescent distress tolerance in daughters, but not sons. The family emotional climate variables were unrelated to maternal or adolescent distress tolerance. Taken together, data indicate that maternal distress tolerance is significantly related to the distress tolerance of adolescent daughters and indicates the potential utility of addressing maternal distress tolerance in clinical work with adolescents. PMID:24364854

  11. Gender Differences in the Correlates of Adolescents' Cannabis Use

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Andrew W.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Johnson, Joy L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents' gender-specific cannabis use rates and their correlates were examined. Data were obtained via a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 in British Columbia, Canada, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. School districts were invited to participate, and schools within consenting districts were recruited. In total, 8,225 students (50% male)from Grades 7 to 12 participated. About 73% were “White” and 47% had used cannabis in their lifetime. Cannabis users were grouped according to their frequency of use: “never users” “frequent users” or “heavy users” Male heavy cannabis users (14.3% of boys) were more likely to be in Grade 9 or higher; be Aboriginal; report poorer economic status; never feel like an outsider; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with family, friends, and school compared with boys that never used. Female heavy users (8.7% of girls) were more likely to be in a higher grade; report poorer economic status, mental health, and academic performance; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with their school compared with female never users. Three important gender differences in the multivariate analysis of the correlates of cannabis use were noted: school grade (for boys only), Aboriginal status (for boys only), and mental health (for girls only). Despite the limitations of relying on self-reports, a subset of youth appears to be at risk for excessive cannabis use that may impair life opportunities and health. The gender differences may be important in the design and implementation of prevention or treatment programs for adolescents. PMID:18696378

  12. "Sexuality? A million things come to mind": reflections on gender and sexuality by Chilean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Anna K-J; Montero Vega, Adela R; Sagbakken, Mette

    2015-11-01

    Although Chile is a traditionally conservative country, considerable legal advances in sexual and reproductive rights over the past decade have brought discourses on sexuality into mainstream political, social and media agendas. In light of these changes it is important to explore how adolescents conceptualize sexuality, which in turn influences their understanding of sexual rights. This study is based on four focus group discussions and 20 semi-structured interviews with adolescents, and seven interviews with key informants in Santiago, Chile. Findings indicate that adolescent conceptualizations of sexuality are diverse, often expressed as attitudes or observations of their social context, and primarily shaped by peers, parents and teachers. Attitudes towards individuals with non-heterosexual orientations ranged from support to rejection, and conceptualizations of sexual diversity were also influenced by media, medicalization and biological explanations. Gender differences in sexual expression were described through gendered language and behaviour, in particular observations of gender stereotypes, censored female sexuality and discourses highlighting female risk. Many adolescents described social change towards greater equality regarding gender and sexuality. To optimize this change and help bridge the gap between legal and social recognition of sexual rights, adolescents should be encouraged to reflect critically on issues of gender equality and sexual diversity in Chile. PMID:26719000

  13. "Sexuality? A million things come to mind": reflections on gender and sexuality by Chilean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Anna K-J; Montero Vega, Adela R; Sagbakken, Mette

    2015-11-01

    Although Chile is a traditionally conservative country, considerable legal advances in sexual and reproductive rights over the past decade have brought discourses on sexuality into mainstream political, social and media agendas. In light of these changes it is important to explore how adolescents conceptualize sexuality, which in turn influences their understanding of sexual rights. This study is based on four focus group discussions and 20 semi-structured interviews with adolescents, and seven interviews with key informants in Santiago, Chile. Findings indicate that adolescent conceptualizations of sexuality are diverse, often expressed as attitudes or observations of their social context, and primarily shaped by peers, parents and teachers. Attitudes towards individuals with non-heterosexual orientations ranged from support to rejection, and conceptualizations of sexual diversity were also influenced by media, medicalization and biological explanations. Gender differences in sexual expression were described through gendered language and behaviour, in particular observations of gender stereotypes, censored female sexuality and discourses highlighting female risk. Many adolescents described social change towards greater equality regarding gender and sexuality. To optimize this change and help bridge the gap between legal and social recognition of sexual rights, adolescents should be encouraged to reflect critically on issues of gender equality and sexual diversity in Chile.

  14. Effective Communication in Adolescent Group Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azima, Fern J.

    This paper defines a useful strategy for therapists working with adolescents which includes: (1) a general model of the group leader's responsibilities and (2) a cataloguing of some of the specific impediments for both adolescent peers and the therapist that prevent effective communication. The goal of the group therapy is to identify the specific…

  15. [Gender identity in adolescents of the lower classes].

    PubMed

    De Alonso, A R

    1993-12-01

    This reflection on gender identity among lower class adolescent females begins with a discussion of concepts. The specific sociocultural context strongly influences gender identity, which depends largely on social definitions of the female or male. Adolescence is the phase of life from around ten to 18 years during which the individual assumes an adult personality and life plans. The lower class or marginal sector, by whatever term it is called, denotes the group forming the base of the socioeconomic structure. This profoundly heterogeneous group experiences restricted conditions of material and spiritual survival. High proportions are in-migrants from rural areas with little education who earn meager livelihoods in the informal sector. The symbolic configuration of their communities of origin entails a view of submission, dependence, and sacrifice as the dominant characteristics of the female role. Urban residence exposes the population to messages on the value of education, consumption, the modern woman, and family planning, values contradicting traditional female role expectations. Families are large and live in poor and crowded housing with few services. The sexual division of labor places heavy burdens on girls from an early age. Alcoholism, domestic violence, or drug addiction may affect psychoaffective development. The quality of education available to these population sectors is very low. School abandonment is common. Most who continue their studies will be frustrated by a lack of available employment. The less educated will be concentrated in poorly paid jobs in the domestic and personal services, without social security and subject to abuse and exploitation by the employer. Some 50% of the women are in union by age 18. Unmarried motherhood and frequent changes of sexual partners are common. Legal mechanisms to protect the rights of mothers and those of their children are almost completely lacking. Most of the problems suffered by this group result from

  16. [Gender identity in adolescents of the lower classes].

    PubMed

    De Alonso, A R

    1993-12-01

    This reflection on gender identity among lower class adolescent females begins with a discussion of concepts. The specific sociocultural context strongly influences gender identity, which depends largely on social definitions of the female or male. Adolescence is the phase of life from around ten to 18 years during which the individual assumes an adult personality and life plans. The lower class or marginal sector, by whatever term it is called, denotes the group forming the base of the socioeconomic structure. This profoundly heterogeneous group experiences restricted conditions of material and spiritual survival. High proportions are in-migrants from rural areas with little education who earn meager livelihoods in the informal sector. The symbolic configuration of their communities of origin entails a view of submission, dependence, and sacrifice as the dominant characteristics of the female role. Urban residence exposes the population to messages on the value of education, consumption, the modern woman, and family planning, values contradicting traditional female role expectations. Families are large and live in poor and crowded housing with few services. The sexual division of labor places heavy burdens on girls from an early age. Alcoholism, domestic violence, or drug addiction may affect psychoaffective development. The quality of education available to these population sectors is very low. School abandonment is common. Most who continue their studies will be frustrated by a lack of available employment. The less educated will be concentrated in poorly paid jobs in the domestic and personal services, without social security and subject to abuse and exploitation by the employer. Some 50% of the women are in union by age 18. Unmarried motherhood and frequent changes of sexual partners are common. Legal mechanisms to protect the rights of mothers and those of their children are almost completely lacking. Most of the problems suffered by this group result from

  17. The association between engaging in romantic relationships and Mexican adolescent substance use offers: exploring gender differences.

    PubMed

    Booth, Jaime M; Marsiglia, Flavio F; Nuňo-Gutiérrez, Bertha L; Perez, Maria Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Gender differences in alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs use in Mexico are rapidly disappearing. This study explores the possible relationship between engaging in romantic relationships on substance use offers and the moderating effects of gender among a group of adolescents (N = 432) living in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. The data used to test these relationships were collected through self-administered surveys in 2010. OLS regressions were estimated, predicting substance offers. The results demonstrate an association between having been in a relationship and receiving substance use offers in the previous 12 months. Having had a boyfriend/girlfriend had a significant influence on the offers received by adolescent females, but not for males.

  18. Adolescent females between tradition and modernity: gender role socialization in South Asian immigrant culture.

    PubMed

    Talbani, A; Hasanali, P

    2000-10-01

    The study examines the social and cultural experiences of adolescent female belonging to various south Asian immigrant groups in Canada. Applying qualitative research method, the authors interviewed 22 adolescent girls of Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin in Montreal. Like other immigrant communities, south Asian families undergo acculturation stress. South Asians tend to integrate secular European cultural elements with their culture; however, family and community structure remain male dominated. The study showed that gender roles were maintained through gender segregation, control over social activities of girls and arranged marriage. Interviewees felt that their parents and communities have more stringent rules for female socialization than any other community in Canada. The study also found that adolescent girls perceived high social cost attached to protest and dissent, therefore, they accept prevalent conditions and expect to change social situation gradually. Some adolescents undergo stress resulting in behavioral problems.

  19. Relations among Sadness Regulation, Peer Acceptance, and Social Functioning in Early Adolescence: The Role of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Parrish, Carisa; Zeman, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Using a multi-informant approach, this study examined emotion regulation within the social context of White and Black adolescent peer groups by assessing two aspects of sadness expression management (i.e., inhibition, disinhibition) and their linkages to peer acceptance and social functioning as a function of gender and ethnicity. Seventh- and…

  20. "Guys, She's Humongous!": Gender and Weight-Based Teasing in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nicole L.

    2011-01-01

    Ethnographic research, including individual interviews, focus groups, and participant observation, was conducted to examine how adolescents defined and negotiated the boundaries between normal/acceptable weight and overweight through direct and indirect teasing. In particular, this article focuses on gender differences in weight-based teasing and…

  1. Latino Adolescents' Academic Success: The Role of Discrimination, Academic Motivation, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfaro, Edna C.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.; Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Zeiders, Katharine H.

    2009-01-01

    Guided by the academic resilience perspective, the current longitudinal study examined whether academic motivation mediated the relation between Latino adolescents' (N = 221) experiences with discrimination and their academic success. The potential moderating role of gender was also examined. Using multiple group analysis in structural equation…

  2. Talking Books: Gender and the Responses of Adolescents in Literature Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Rachel Malchow

    2006-01-01

    The use of student-led discussions, or literature circles, offers the potential to engage all students through a more democratic, dialogic approach. The central goal of this research was to understand how adolescents practise literacy within the context of a peer reading group, and how gender impacts these practices. Transcripts of student-led…

  3. Learning To Be Violent: The Role of the School in Developing Adolescent Gendered Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Fiona

    2003-01-01

    Examines role of schools and peer group culture in constructing male and female identity among adolescents in the context of gender violence. Discusses a United Kingdom Department for International Development funded study of abuse of girls in Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Ghana. Reveals contemplative sexual socialization processes in which male violence…

  4. "Girls Are Retarded When They're Stoned." Marijuana and the Construction of Gender Roles among Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jessica; Weber, Timothy R.; Albanez, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Uses data from 122 male and 110 female focus-group participants to study why adolescent females use less marijuana than adolescent males, focusing on normative boundaries that restrict females in access to and use of marijuana. Results suggest the limiting effects of traditional gender roles on marijuana use. (SLD)

  5. Guidelines for pubertal suspension and gender reassignment for transgender adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hembree, Wylie C

    2011-10-01

    Pubertal suppression at Tanner stage 2 should be considered in adolescents with persistent gender identity disorder (GID). Issues related to achievement of adult height, timing of initiating sex steroid treatment, future fertility options, preventing uterine bleeding, and required modifications of genital surgery remain concerns. Concerns have been raised about altering neuropsychological development during cessation of puberty and reinitiation of puberty by the sex steroid opposite those determined by genetic sex. Collaborative assessment and treatment of dysphoric adolescents with persistent GID resolves these concerns and deepens our understanding of gender development.

  6. Gender identification and sex role attribution in sexually abused adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Aiosa-Karpas, C J; Karpas, R; Pelcovitz, D; Kaplan, S

    1991-03-01

    An exploratory study of the association between child sexual abuse and subsequent gender identification and sex role attribution was conducted with 93 adolescent females. Victims of intrafamilial sexual abuse with a history of psychotherapeutic treatment were compared with nonabused subjects with a history of treatment and nonabused control subjects with no treatment history. Measures of gender identity found that sexually abused and nonabused treatment groups differed significantly from the no-treatment controls. Distinct patterns of gender identification emerged for the sexually abused victims. Hypothesized differences in sex role attribution were not found. Potential directions for future research are proposed and implications and recommendations for treatment are discussed.

  7. [Assessment and management of gender dysphoria in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Martinerie, L; Le Heuzey, M-F; Delorme, R; Carel, J-C; Bargiacchi, A

    2016-06-01

    Gender dysphoria, originally called gender identity disorder, is characterized by the dissociation between one's expressed gender and the gender of rearing as assigned at birth, which generates significant clinical distress and social, academic, and other important forms of isolation. This state is also known as transgender or transsexualism and is recognized as a medical disease. Adults with gender dysphoria can benefit from psychological, medical, and surgical care. However, gender dysphoria rarely occurs in adulthood but rather emerges in childhood or adolescence, generating deep social and academic difficulties, especially at puberty. For the last 10years, the management of gender dysphoria in children and adolescents has developed in several countries, specifically in Europe, but remains under-recognized in France. Since 2013, several pediatric psychiatry and endocrinology departments have initiated a multidisciplinary evaluation and management approach for these patients. This article reviews the clinical criteria helping diagnose gender dysphoria and presents the different steps in the assessment and management of these patients in accordance with international guidelines. PMID:27117996

  8. [School coexistence and learning in adolescence from a gender perspective].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Aguado Jalón, María José; Martín Seoane, Gema

    2011-04-01

    This article reviews recent research about academic learning and school coexistence in adolescence from a gender perspective. It focuses on the research developed by the Preventive Psychology research group (UCM), specially the results from the Spanish National Study of School Coexistence using a sample of 22,247 secondary school students. Research shows that girls are overrepresented in positive indicators whereas boys are in negative indicators, not only in academic adjustment but also in school coexistence. Girls' better academic achievement can be explained by their higher tendency to overcome sexism: they identify with traditional masculinity values (such as success orientation) without giving up traditional femininity values (such as empathy). Based on this, the following conclusions are reached: 1) to extend the advantages of equality also to men; 2) to emphasize that sharing academic contexts and activities is necessary but sufficient to construct equality; and lastly, 3) to improve school coexistence, it is necessary to adopt a integrative gender approach to prevent any kind of violence, including violence against women.

  9. Effects of Learning about Gender Discrimination on Adolescent Girls' Attitudes toward and Interest in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgram, Erica S.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2007-01-01

    Gender discrimination has contributed to the gender imbalance in scientific fields. However, research on the effects of informing adolescent girls about gender discrimination in these fields is rare and controversial. To examine the consequences of learning about gender-based occupational discrimination, adolescent girls (n= 158, ages 11 to 14)…

  10. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents: factorial invariance and latent mean differences across gender and age in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ingles, Candido J; La Greca, Annette M; Marzo, Juan C; Garcia-Lopez, Luis J; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M

    2010-12-01

    Little is known about the factorial invariance across gender and age for self-report measures of social anxiety in adolescence. This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) across gender and age groups in 1570 Spanish adolescents (54% girls), ranging in age from 14 to 17 years. Equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Measurement invariance for the correlated three-factor model of the SAS-A was found across gender and age samples. Analyses of latent mean differences revealed that girls exhibited higher means than boys on two SAS-A subscales, Fear of Negative Evaluation and Social Avoidance and Distress-New (SAD-New). In addition, on the SAD-New subscale, the structured means significantly diminished from 14-year olds to 16- and 17-year olds and from 15-year olds to 17-year olds. Findings are discussed in terms of the use of the SAS-A with Spanish adolescents.

  11. Influence of gender on psychomotor vigilance task performance by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beijamini, F; Silva, A G T; Peixoto, C A T; Louzada, F M

    2008-08-01

    During adolescence, the sleep phase delay associated with early school times increases daytime sleepiness and reduces psychomotor performance. Some studies have shown an effect of gender on psychomotor performance in adults and children. Males present faster reaction times (RT) compared with females. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of gender on Palm psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance in adolescents. Thirty-four adolescents (19 girls, 13 to 16 years old) attending morning school classes of a public school in Curitiba, PR, Brazil, participated in the study. Sleep patterns were measured using actigraphy and sleepiness data were accessed with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). KSS and PVT measurements were collected at two times in the morning (8:00 and 11:00 h). The data were compared using one-way ANOVA, considering gender as a factor. ANOVA indicated that gender did not affect sleep patterns and subjective somnolence; however, a statistically significant effect of gender was detected for PVT performance. Boys presented faster RT (RT-PVT1: 345.51 ms, F = 6.08, P < 0.05; RT-PVT2: 343.30 ms, F = 6.35, P < 0.05) and fewer lapses (lapses-PVT1: 8.71, F = 4.45, P < 0.05; lapses-PVT2: 7.82, F = 7.06, P < 0.05) compared with girls (RT-PVT1: 402.96; RT-PVT2: 415.70; lapses-PVT1: 16.33; lapses-PVT2: 17.80). These results showed that this effect of gender, already reported in adults and children, is also observed in adolescents. The influence of gender should be taken into account in studies that use Palm PVT to evaluate psychomotor performance in this age range. PMID:18797710

  12. Influence of gender on psychomotor vigilance task performance by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beijamini, F; Silva, A G T; Peixoto, C A T; Louzada, F M

    2008-08-01

    During adolescence, the sleep phase delay associated with early school times increases daytime sleepiness and reduces psychomotor performance. Some studies have shown an effect of gender on psychomotor performance in adults and children. Males present faster reaction times (RT) compared with females. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of gender on Palm psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance in adolescents. Thirty-four adolescents (19 girls, 13 to 16 years old) attending morning school classes of a public school in Curitiba, PR, Brazil, participated in the study. Sleep patterns were measured using actigraphy and sleepiness data were accessed with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). KSS and PVT measurements were collected at two times in the morning (8:00 and 11:00 h). The data were compared using one-way ANOVA, considering gender as a factor. ANOVA indicated that gender did not affect sleep patterns and subjective somnolence; however, a statistically significant effect of gender was detected for PVT performance. Boys presented faster RT (RT-PVT1: 345.51 ms, F = 6.08, P < 0.05; RT-PVT2: 343.30 ms, F = 6.35, P < 0.05) and fewer lapses (lapses-PVT1: 8.71, F = 4.45, P < 0.05; lapses-PVT2: 7.82, F = 7.06, P < 0.05) compared with girls (RT-PVT1: 402.96; RT-PVT2: 415.70; lapses-PVT1: 16.33; lapses-PVT2: 17.80). These results showed that this effect of gender, already reported in adults and children, is also observed in adolescents. The influence of gender should be taken into account in studies that use Palm PVT to evaluate psychomotor performance in this age range.

  13. Adolescent Internet usage in Taiwan: exploring gender differences.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Yu, Shu-Fen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in gender differences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent form of major media in the world, it has become the second most important medium as perceived by boys and girls. No gender difference was found in adolescents' motives for using the Internet. The ranking of relative importance of motives for adolescents going online was searching for information, followed by socializing, and boredom avoidance for both boys and girls. However, a gender difference in online activities seems to persist. Searching for homework information and playing games were the most popular online activities for all adolescents. However, while girls tended to view the Internet more as a means of searching for information and e-mailing friends, boys tended to use it more for playing games and down-loading software.

  14. Empathy and Peer Violence among Adolescents: Moderation Effect of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bojana, Dinic M.; Jasmina, Kodžopeljic S.; Valentina, Sokolovska T.; Ilija, Milovanovic Z.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between empathy and peer violence among adolescents, along with gender as a moderator in these associations. Thereby, multidimensionality of empathy (affective and cognitive empathy) and different forms of violence (physical, verbal, and relational) were considered. The participants were 646 high school…

  15. Gender, Race, and Grade Differences in Gifted Adolescents' Coping Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.

    1998-01-01

    The Adolescent Coping Scale was administered to 749 gifted students attending two different summer enrichment programs. Results indicate little evidence of gender or grade differences but found racial differences on the Seek Spiritual Support scale (African and Hispanic students had the highest scores), the Self-Blame scale, and the Worry scale.…

  16. Group Intervention With Adolescent Vietnamese Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Alice M.; Sammons, Morgan T.

    1988-01-01

    Describes group intervention model, based on primary prevention schemes, for work with adolescent Vietnamese refugees. Addresses special cultural and therapeutic issues and concerns. Notes that while group therapies are generally difficult to implement with Vietnamese participants, group intervention work is feasible if clinicians modify…

  17. The effect of gynecomastia on body image perception and gender roles in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Esenboğa, Saliha; Akgül, Sinem; Kanbur, Nuray; Tüzün, Zeynep; Derman, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of gynecomastia on body image perception and gender roles in adolescents. Forty-seven adolescents with gynecomastia and 63 healthy adolescents were enrolled in the study. The Body Image Perception Scale (BIPS) and the Bem Gender Role Inventory (BGRI) were administered to the study group after the first evaluation and also one month later. The percentage of adolescents with a BIPS score lower than the median was higher in the study group than in the control group, although there was no significant difference. Additionally, considering the single item "my breasts," it was observed that body image perception disturbance existed mostly, if not entirely, in relation to this body part. After detailed information regarding gynecomastia was given during the first clinical session, the BIPS score improved at the one-month follow-up, emphasizing the importance of informing and educating patients regarding this condition. BGRI results showed that gender roles of patients with gynecomastia are not influenced in the feminine direction.

  18. Considering the factors of gender and body weight in the promotion of healthy behavior among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Yen; Chou, Chuan-Chiang; Yang, Rea-Jane

    2005-09-01

    Obesity among adolescents is increasing in both developed and developing countries. However, previous studies have paid little attention to the roles that gender and body weight variables play in health-related behavior. This article examines the effects of these two variables on health-related behavior in Taiwanese adolescents. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used with three body weight categories (underweight, average and overweight) and two gender categories (female and male). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Student's t test, and one-way ANOVA with Scheffe's post hoc test. The results showed that average weight adolescents scored significantly higher than their overweight peers in the three dimensions of social support, health responsibility, and exercise behavior. Average weight adolescents also scored higher than the underweight group in the dimension of health responsibility. Girls scored significantly better than boys in five out of the total six health-related behavior - scoring lower only in the exercise dimension. These findings should sound an alarm for all public health professionals to take heed to what is happening to our youth. School and family health promotion counseling should be encouraged for overweight adolescents to improve their exercise and lifestyle habits. Based on the findings, school health promotion programs should focus on gender differences. Girls, in particular, need encouragement to improve their exercise habits.

  19. 'THEY LIGHT THE CHRISTMAS TREE IN OUR TOWN': Reflections on Identity, Gender, and Adolescent Sports.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kathleen E

    2009-12-01

    Sport occupies a prominent space in the public lives and private identities of US adolescents. Using the retrospective reflections of college students, this analysis explores two questions about sport-related identities during high school: Are 'athletes' and 'jocks' distinctly separate identities? Are these identities explicitly gendered? In four gender-segregated focus groups conducted in early 2005, 32 student-athletes from two upstate New York colleges discussed their high school experiences of sport, status, gender, and identity. Three primary themes developed with regard to differences between the 'jock' and 'athlete' archetypes: academic focus, teamwork, and cockiness/aggression. Examining the intersection of gender, high-status/high-profile sport, and identity in both popular cultural imagery and the personal experiences of the focus group discussants provided support for the thesis of a 'toxic jock' phenomenon. PMID:20835368

  20. 'THEY LIGHT THE CHRISTMAS TREE IN OUR TOWN': Reflections on Identity, Gender, and Adolescent Sports.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kathleen E

    2009-12-01

    Sport occupies a prominent space in the public lives and private identities of US adolescents. Using the retrospective reflections of college students, this analysis explores two questions about sport-related identities during high school: Are 'athletes' and 'jocks' distinctly separate identities? Are these identities explicitly gendered? In four gender-segregated focus groups conducted in early 2005, 32 student-athletes from two upstate New York colleges discussed their high school experiences of sport, status, gender, and identity. Three primary themes developed with regard to differences between the 'jock' and 'athlete' archetypes: academic focus, teamwork, and cockiness/aggression. Examining the intersection of gender, high-status/high-profile sport, and identity in both popular cultural imagery and the personal experiences of the focus group discussants provided support for the thesis of a 'toxic jock' phenomenon.

  1. Gender-related Differences in Inhibitory Control and Sustained Attention among Adolescents with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure.

    PubMed

    Banz, Barbara C; Wu, Jia; Crowley, Michael J; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence and prenatal cocaine exposure can impact risk-taking. In this study, we evaluated risk-taking and gender-related differences in adolescents with prenatal cocaine exposure in terms of electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory control and sustained attention. No differences related to gender were found within measures of risk-taking, or electrophysiological response relating to risk-taking. Greater responses during inhibition versus attention trials support previous studies, with boys showing the largest responses. Gender-related differences were found when comparing the trials before and after frustration was induced, with greater initial attention indices for girls in both trial types and greater sustained attention for both genders during inhibition trials and for boys during attention trials. These data suggest neural correlates of response inhibition show important gender-related differences in this population. Considering these relationships allows us to further understand underlying processes among adolescents who, as a group, tend to be more inclined toward greater risk behaviors. PMID:27354841

  2. Gender-related Differences in Inhibitory Control and Sustained Attention among Adolescents with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Banz, Barbara C.; Wu, Jia; Crowley, Michael J.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence and prenatal cocaine exposure can impact risk-taking. In this study, we evaluated risk-taking and gender-related differences in adolescents with prenatal cocaine exposure in terms of electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory control and sustained attention. No differences related to gender were found within measures of risk-taking, or electrophysiological response relating to risk-taking. Greater responses during inhibition versus attention trials support previous studies, with boys showing the largest responses. Gender-related differences were found when comparing the trials before and after frustration was induced, with greater initial attention indices for girls in both trial types and greater sustained attention for both genders during inhibition trials and for boys during attention trials. These data suggest neural correlates of response inhibition show important gender-related differences in this population. Considering these relationships allows us to further understand underlying processes among adolescents who, as a group, tend to be more inclined toward greater risk behaviors. PMID:27354841

  3. Gender Development in Indonesian Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Disorders of Sex Development.

    PubMed

    Ediati, Annastasia; Juniarto, Achmad Zulfa; Birnie, Erwin; Drop, Stenvert L S; Faradz, Sultana M H; Dessens, Arianne B

    2015-07-01

    In most Western countries, clinical management of disorders of sex development (DSD), including ambiguous genitalia, begins at diagnosis soon after birth. For many Indonesian patients born with ambiguous genitalia, limited medical treatment is available. Consequently, affected individuals are raised with ambiguous genitalia and atypical secondary sex characteristics. We investigated gender identity and gender role behavior in 118 Indonesian subjects (77 males, 41 females) with different types of DSD in comparison with 118 healthy controls matched for gender, age, and residential setting (rural, suburban, or urban). In Study 1, we report on methodological aspects of the investigation, including scale adaptation, pilot testing, and determining reliability and validity of measures. In Study 2, we report on gender development in 60 children (42 boys, 18 girls), 24 adolescents (15 boys, 9 girls), and 34 adults (19 men, 15 women) with DSD. The majority of participants with DSD never received any medical or surgical treatment prior to this study. We observed a gender change in all age groups, with the greatest incidence in adults. Among patients who changed, most changed from female to male, possessed a 46,XY karyotype, and had experienced significant masculinization during life. Gender identity confusion and cross-gender behavior was more frequently observed in children with DSD raised as girls compared to boys. Puberty and associated masculinization were related to gender problems in individuals with 46,XY DSD raised female. An integrated clinical and psychological follow-up on gender outcome is necessary prior to puberty and adulthood.

  4. Gendered dimensions of obesity in childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen N

    2008-01-01

    Background The literature on childhood and adolescent obesity is vast. In addition to producing a general overview, this paper aims to highlight gender differences or similarities, an area which has tended not to be the principal focus of this literature. Methods Databases were searched using the terms 'obesity' and 'child', 'adolescent', 'teenager', 'youth', 'young people', 'sex', 'gender', 'masculine', 'feminine', 'male', 'female', 'boy' and 'girl' (or variations on these terms). In order to limit the potential literature, the main focus is on other reviews, both general and relating to specific aspects of obesity. Results The findings of genetic studies are similar for males and females, and differences in obesity rates as defined by body mass index are generally small and inconsistent. However, differences between males and females due to biology are evident in the patterning of body fat, the fat levels at which health risks become apparent, levels of resting energy expenditure and energy requirements, ability to engage in certain physical activities and the consequences of obesity for the female reproductive system. Differences due to society or culture include food choices and dietary concerns, overall physical activity levels, body satisfaction and the long-term psychosocial consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. Conclusion This review suggests differences between males and females in exposure and vulnerability to obesogenic environments, the consequences of child and adolescent obesity, and responses to interventions for the condition. A clearer focus on gender differences is required among both researchers and policy makers within this field. PMID:18194542

  5. Adolescents' Gender Mistrust: Variations and Implications for the Quality of Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Nomaguchi, Kei M; Giordano, Peggy C; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A

    2011-10-01

    Recent research demonstrates that perceptions of gender mistrust are implicated in lower marriage rates among low-income populations. Yet few quantitative studies have examined the factors predicting gender mistrust during adolescence and whether it influences the quality of subsequent nonmarital romantic relationships. Analysis of three waves of data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (N = 1,106) indicates that in addition to neighborhood poverty rates, parents' own gender mistrust and parent-child relationship quality are related to adolescents' gender mistrust, suggesting that parents play an important role in influencing adolescents' developing feelings of gender mistrust. Perceptions of gender mistrust are not related to whether adolescents are involved in dating relationships, but are linked to higher levels of jealousy and verbal conflict in adolescents' subsequent romantic relationships, albeit only for male adolescents.

  6. Jocks, Gender, Binge Drinking, and Adolescent Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathleen E.; Melnick, Merrill J.; Farrell, Michael P.; Sabo, Donald F.; Barnes, Grace M.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has suggested a link between athletic involvement and elevated levels of adolescent violence outside the sport context. The present study expanded on this literature by positing differences in the sport-violence relationship across dimensions of athletic involvement (athletic participation vs. jock identity), type of violence…

  7. Gender, Parenting, and Adolescent Functioning in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sunita Mahtani; Bond, Michael Harris; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M.; Ma, Stefan S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined associations of self-esteem, relationship harmony, and academic achievement with perceptions of parents' styles and supervisory practices among 212 adolescents in Islamic Bangladesh. Found that parental supervisory practices were associated with a warm parental style for girls and parental dominating control for boys. Girls' (but not…

  8. Sand Tray Group Counseling with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Kay; Ritter, Kelli B.; Willingham, Elizabeth U.

    2003-01-01

    Sand tray group counseling with adolescents is an activity-based intervention designed to help participants address specific intrapersonal concerns, learn important skills of socialization, and develop a caring community. The main focus of the group is building small worlds with miniature figures in individual trays of sand and having an…

  9. Gender differences in adolescent coping behaviors and suicidal ideation: findings from a sample of 73,238 adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Trksak, George H; Lee, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    Suicide among adolescents is an emerging global public health problem as well as a socioeconomic problem. Stress-coping strategies have been shown to be associated with suicidal ideation. We examined coping behaviors related to suicidal ideation and gender differences in adolescents using the data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ages 12-19 years; N = 73,238). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between suicidal ideation and specific coping behaviors while controlling for potentially confounding variables. In both male and female groups, the coping behavior "drinking alcoholic beverages" and "smoking cigarettes" were positively associated with suicidal ideation. "Watching TV," "playing online/mobile games," and "sleeping" were negatively associated with suicidal ideation in both groups. In males, "engaging in sports" was negatively related to suicidal ideation. In females, "venting by talking to others" and "eating" were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the effects of coping behaviors on adolescent suicidal ideation, and that developing adaptive coping strategies may function to reduce suicidality. Future studies are needed to examine whether improving coping skills can reduce suicidal ideation in a gender-specific manner.

  10. The Relationship Between Parental Psychopathology and Adolescent Psychopathology: An Examination of Gender Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley Ohannessian, Christine; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Schuckit, Mark A.; Nurnberger, John I.

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the relationship between parental psychopathology (specifically, alcohol dependence and depression) and adolescent psychopathology, by the gender of the adolescent and the gender of the parent. The sample included 426 13- to 17-year-old adolescents and their parents. All participants were administered…

  11. Gendered Pathways in School Burnout among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tynkkynen, Lotta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine differences in student burnout by gender, time status with two time points before and after an educational transition, and educational track (academic vs. vocational). The definition of burnout is based on three components: exhaustion due to school demands, a disengaged and cynical attitude toward school, and…

  12. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: The Contributions of Weight-Related Concerns and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Christine A.; Halpern, Carolyn T.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence was evaluated using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The theoretical model under examination was primarily informed by the gender-additive model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence…

  13. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Gender: Patterns of Prevalence, Methods, and Locations among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sornberger, Michael J.; Heath, Nancy L.; Toste, Jessica R.; McLouth, Rusty

    2012-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents is a growing concern. However, little is known about gender and features of this behavior. Gender differences in NSSI among a sample of 7,126 adolescents were investigated, 1,774 of whom reported having engaged in NSSI. Gender differences in prevalence, method, and location of NSSI were examined.…

  14. NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT AND THE GENDER GAP IN ADOLESCENT VIOLENT CRIME*

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Gregory M.; Messner, Steven F.

    2011-01-01

    Although researchers consistently demonstrate that females engage in less criminal behavior than males across the life course, research on the variability of the gender gap across contexts is sparse. To address this issue, we examine the gender gap in self-reported violent crime among adolescents across neighborhoods. Multilevel models using data from the Project of Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) indicate that the gender gap in violent crime decreases as levels of neighborhood disadvantage increase. Further, the narrowing of the gender gap is explained by gender differences in peer influence on violent offending. Neighborhood disadvantage increases exposure to peer violence for both sexes, but peer violence has a stronger impact on violent offending for females than for males, producing the reduction in the gender gap at higher levels of disadvantage. We also find that the gender difference in the relationship between peer violence and offending is explained, in part, by (1) the tendency for females to have more intimate friendships than males, and (2) the moderating effect of peer intimacy on the relationship between peer violence and self-reported violent behavior. PMID:21709751

  15. Singaporean gifted adolescents under scrutiny: The gender factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Patrick C. F.

    1993-05-01

    Research on the sex-role problems of gifted adolescents rarely lifts its sight beyond Western developed countries, making generalizations to the Third World suspect. The present study, by exploring the relationship between gender and adjustment among gifted adolescents in Singapore, hopes to extend the consideration of developmental sex-role issues to a society different from the West. Specifically, it reports that Singaporean gifted girls, like some of their Western counterparts, had difficulty in reconciling their giftedness with societal notions of femininity. Conceivably, this conflict placed them on the threshold of stress, leaving them more vulnerable than the gifted boys to adjustment problems. In addition, having internalized the gender stereotypic view that academic excellence was less important to them than to the boys, the gifted girls might inadvertently put ceilings on their own achievements. The paper concludes with several remedies for educators, counsellors, and parents to help gifted girls embark upon their road to self-fulfilment.

  16. [Violence against adolescents: differentials by gender and living conditions strata].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro da Costa, Inês Eugênia; Ludemir, Ana Bernarda; Avelar, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    An ecological study was conducted in order to analyze differences in mortality rates among adolescents by gender and living conditions strata in Recife from1998 to 2004. The average mortality coefficient for violence during this period was calculated by gender for the city and by living conditions strata. This analysis demonstrated a higher risk of death by violence for male adolescents in Stratum III (poorest living conditions). The mortality rates by violence for men and women were 10.89 (Recife); 10.90 (Stratum I); 11.70 (Stratum II) and 10.30 (Stratum III). The findings show that although males are at the highest risk, it is also quite clear that living conditions influence the distribution of the mortality rate due to violence.

  17. Individual, family, and group therapy for adolescents.

    PubMed

    McCann, Christina M; le Roux, Pieter

    2006-02-01

    The three main psychotherapeutic treatment modalities include individual,family, and group therapies. Many theoretic orientations guide psychotherapists as they try to help adolescents with mental health problems. PCPs play a critical role in initial assessment of mental health symptoms, in addition to coordinating treatment needs. There is a need for increased education regarding mental health treatment for health care providers to help them connect adolescents and their families to appropriate mental health care providers. Integrative approaches that involve more than one treatment modality are often needed to provide the best treatment for adolescents. Better collaborative care not only improves physician understanding of mental health treatment but also improves the mental health provider's understanding of the medical system [30]. This emerging con-text of increased mutual collaborative care builds a better system that serves the adolescent.Web-based resources related to psychotherapy for adolescents American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry http://www.AACAP.org American Association for Marriage & Family Therapy http://www.AAMFT.org American Psychological Association http://www.APA.org American Psychiatric Association http://www.psych.org National Mental Health Association http://www.NMHA.org National Alliance for the Mentally Ill http://www.NAMI.org

  18. Sibling sex ratio and birth order in early-onset gender dysphoric adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schagen, Sebastian E E; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Blanchard, Ray; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2012-06-01

    Several sibship-related variables have been studied extensively in sexual orientation research, especially in men. Sibling sex ratio refers to the ratio of brothers to sisters in the aggregate sibships of a group of probands. Birth order refers to the probands' position (e.g., first-born, middle-born, last-born) within their sibships. Fraternal birth order refers to their position among male siblings only. Such research was extended in this study to a large group of early-onset gender dysphoric adolescents. The probands comprised 94 male-to-female and 95 female-to-male gender dysphoric adolescents. The overwhelming majority of these were homosexual or probably prehomosexual. The control group consisted of 875 boys and 914 girls from the TRAILS study. The sibling sex ratio of the gender dysphoric boys was very high (241 brothers per 100 sisters) compared with the expected ratio (106:100). The excess of brothers was more extreme among the probands' older siblings (300:100) than among their younger siblings (195:100). Between-groups comparisons showed that the gender dysphoric boys had significantly more older brothers, and significantly fewer older sisters and younger sisters, than did the control boys. In contrast, the only notable finding for the female groups was that the gender dysphoric girls had significantly fewer total siblings than did the control girls. The results for the male probands were consistent with prior speculations that a high fraternal birth order (i.e., an excess of older brothers) is found in all homosexual male groups, but an elevated sibling sex ratio (usually caused by an additional, smaller excess of younger brothers) is characteristic of gender dysphoric homosexual males. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain unknown.

  19. Gender-age environmental associates of adolescent low back pain.

    PubMed

    Grimmer, K; Williams, M

    2000-08-01

    This paper describes adolescent low back pain and tests its associations with environmental features of backpack load, time spent carrying loads, time sitting, and time playing sport, using data from 1269 adolescents in twelve volunteer high schools in Adelaide, South Australia. Backpacks were the preferred method of load carrying, two-thirds of wearers preferring to carry the load over two shoulders. The average load weighed 5.3 kg (approximating 10% of body weight). The youngest students carried approximately the same amount as the oldest students. Girls were more likely than boys to report recent low back pain, and there were gender- and age-specific associations between recent low back pain, the amount of time spent sitting, the backpack load and time spent carrying it, and time playing sport. Body mass was not a confounder of any association. These findings support ongoing concerns regarding environmental contributions to adolescent low back pain. PMID:10975661

  20. Ethnic Conflict, Group Polarization, and Gender Attitudes in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunovich, Robert M.; Deitelbaum, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    We examine the sources of traditional gender attitudes during a period of social conflict and change. Using survey data from Croatia (Center for the Investigation of Transition and Civil Society, 1996; N=2,030) we explore the relationships between war-related experiences, in-group and out-group polarization, and two dimensions of gender attitudes:…

  1. Influence of gender on Tourette syndrome beyond adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lichter, D G; Finnegan, S G

    2015-02-01

    Although boys are disproportionately affected by tics in Tourette syndrome (TS), this gender bias is attenuated in adulthood and a recent study has suggested that women may experience greater functional interference from tics than men. The authors assessed the gender distribution of adults in a tertiary University-based TS clinic population and the relative influence of gender and other variables on adult tic severity (YGTSS score) and psychosocial functioning (GAF score). We also determined retrospectively the influence of gender on change in global tic severity and overall TS impairment (YGTSS) since adolescence. Females were over-represented in relation to previously published epidemiologic surveys of both TS children and adults. Female gender was associated with a greater likelihood of tic worsening as opposed to tic improvement in adulthood; a greater likelihood of expansion as opposed to contraction of motor tic distribution; and with increased current motor tic severity and tic-related impairment. However, gender explained only a small percentage of the variance of the YGTSS global severity score and none of the variance of the GAF scale score. Psychosocial functioning was influenced most strongly by tic severity but also by a variety of comorbid neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25193042

  2. Gender-based education during clerkships: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    van Leerdam, Lotte; Rietveld, Lianne; Teunissen, Doreth; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives One of the goals of the medical master’s degree is for a student to become a gender-sensitive doctor by applying knowledge of gender differences in practice. This study aims to investigate, from the students’ perspective, whether gender medicine has been taught in daily practice during clerkship. Methods A focus group study was conducted among 29 medical students from Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, who had just finished either their internal medicine or surgical clerkships. Data were analyzed in line with the principles of constant comparative analysis. Results Four focus groups were conducted with 29 participating students. Clinical teachers barely discuss gender differences during students’ clerkships. The students mentioned three main explanatory themes: insufficient knowledge; unawareness; and minor impact. As a result, students feel that they have insufficient competencies to become gender-sensitive doctors. Conclusion Medical students at our institution perceive that they have received limited exposure to gender-based education after completing two key clinical clerkships. All students feel that they have insufficient knowledge to become gender-sensitive doctors. They suppose that their clinical teachers have insufficient knowledge regarding gender sensitivity, are unaware of gender differences, and the students had the impression that gender is not regarded as an important issue. We suggest that the medical faculty should encourage clinical teachers to improve their knowledge and awareness of gender issues. PMID:24600301

  3. Consciousness-raising in a gender conflict group.

    PubMed

    Joel, Daphna; Yarimi, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the main processes and themes in consciousness-raising gender conflict groups for undergraduate students who study in parallel a course on gender and psychology. The main theme of the course is that gender is a classification system that influences individuals, interactions between individuals, and social institutions. The aim of the groups is to provide students with a safe environment to discuss their thoughts and feelings following the encounter of these ideas. Group leading is based on a combination of principles derived from consciousness-raising groups from the 1970s and a model for working with groups in conflict.

  4. Self-esteem and emotional health in adolescents--gender and age as potential moderators.

    PubMed

    Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A

    2012-12-01

    The present paper investigates possible gender and age differences on emotional states (depression and anxiety) and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and emotional states. The cross-sectional sectional sample consists of 1,209 adolescents 13-18 years from public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway. The results showed that girls reported higher scores on state anxiety and state depression, whereas boys consistently scored higher on self-esteem in all age groups. Self-esteem was strongly and inversely associated with both state depression and state anxiety. An interaction effect of gender by self-esteem was found on state depression, where the association was stronger for girls than for boys. The associations found give support for the positive role of self-esteem in relation to adolescents' emotional health and well-being.

  5. Gender Issues in Addictions Research: The Report of the Task Group on Gender-Focused Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto (Ontario).

    The Task Group on Gender-Focused Research was established to raise awareness and interest in gender as a variable in addictions research at the Addiction Research Foundation (ARF) in Ontario (Canada). Recognizing that much of the research on substance abuse has focused on males, the Task Group was charged with providing a basis for the development…

  6. Adolescents' unconditional acceptance by parents and teachers and educational outcomes: A structural model of gender differences.

    PubMed

    Makri-Botsari, Evi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect gender specific patterns in the network of relations between unconditionality of parental and teacher acceptance in the form of unconditional positive regard and a range of educational outcomes, as indexed by academic self-perception, academic intrinsic motivation, and academic achievement. To test the role of gender as a moderator, a multi-group analysis was employed within the framework of structural equation modelling with increasing restrictions placed on the structural paths across genders. The results on a sample of 427 adolescents in grades 7-9 showed that conditionality of acceptance undermined level of perceived acceptance for both social agents. Moreover, unconditionality of teacher acceptance exerted stronger influences on students' educational outcomes than unconditionality of parental acceptance, with effect sizes being larger for girls than for boys. PMID:26057875

  7. Adolescents' unconditional acceptance by parents and teachers and educational outcomes: A structural model of gender differences.

    PubMed

    Makri-Botsari, Evi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect gender specific patterns in the network of relations between unconditionality of parental and teacher acceptance in the form of unconditional positive regard and a range of educational outcomes, as indexed by academic self-perception, academic intrinsic motivation, and academic achievement. To test the role of gender as a moderator, a multi-group analysis was employed within the framework of structural equation modelling with increasing restrictions placed on the structural paths across genders. The results on a sample of 427 adolescents in grades 7-9 showed that conditionality of acceptance undermined level of perceived acceptance for both social agents. Moreover, unconditionality of teacher acceptance exerted stronger influences on students' educational outcomes than unconditionality of parental acceptance, with effect sizes being larger for girls than for boys.

  8. Peers' Perceptions of Gender Nonconformity: Associations with Overt and Relational Peer Victimization and Aggression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; Card, Noel A.; Casper, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study used reports from 318 early adolescents to examine the associations of peer-reported gender nonconformity with peer- and self-reported overt and relational victimization and aggression, and possible sex differences in these associations. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that higher levels of peer-reported…

  9. Gender-Specific HIV Prevention with Urban Early-Adolescent Girls: Outcomes of the Keepin' It Safe Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Schinke, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of Keepin' It Safe, a theory-based, gender-specific, CD-ROM-mediated HIV prevention program for urban, early adolescent girls. Intervention effects were examined in a randomized, pretest-posttest wait-list control-group design. Changes in HIV/AIDS knowledge, protective attitudes, and skills for reducing HIV…

  10. Anorexia nervosa and gender dysphoria in two adolescents.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Jennifer; Pindiprolu, Bharadwaj; Findlay, Sheri; Johnson, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Little has been published about the co-occurrence of gender dysphoria (GD) and eating disorders (ED) in adults, with no cases described in the adolescent population. The emphasis on body shape in both conditions suggests that there may be some overlap in symptomatology. We report two adolescent cases initially diagnosed with anorexia nervosa who later met criteria for GD. The drive for thinness for the 16-year-old male was associated with a wish to achieve a feminine physique whereas there was an emphasis for stunted breast growth and a desire for muscularity in the 13-year-old female. Complexities in presentation, evolution of symptoms over time, and the treatment of the two cases are discussed. Clinicians should inquire about sexual issues in the presentation of ED and should monitor for symptoms of GD, not only at initial presentation, but throughout treatment, especially as weight gain progresses.

  11. Birth order and sibling sex ratio of children and adolescents referred to a gender identity service.

    PubMed

    Vanderlaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    In adult male samples, homosexuality is associated with a preponderance of older brothers (i.e., the fraternal birth order effect). In several studies comparing gender dysphoric youth, who are likely to be homosexual in adulthood, to clinical or non-clinical control groups, the findings have been consistent with the fraternal birth order effect in males; however, less is known about unique sibship characteristics of gender dysphoric females. The current study investigated birth order and sibling sex ratio in a large sample of children and adolescents referred to the same Gender Identity Service (N = 768). Probands were classified as heterosexual males, homosexual males, or homosexual females based on clinical diagnostic information. Groups differed significantly in age and sibship size, and homosexual females were significantly more likely to be only children. Subsequent analyses controlled for age and for sibship size. Compared to heterosexual males, homosexual males had a significant preponderance of older brothers and homosexual females had a significant preponderance of older sisters. Similarly, the older sibling sex ratio of homosexual males showed a significant excess of brothers whereas that of homosexual females showed a significant excess of sisters. Like previous studies of gender dysphoric youth and adults, these findings were consistent with the fraternal birth order effect. In addition, the greater frequency of only children and elevated numbers of older sisters among the homosexual female group adds to a small literature on sibship characteristics of potential relevance to the development of gender identity and sexual orientation in females.

  12. [Gender and age differences in the cognitive, psychophysiological, and behavioral responses of social anxiety in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Inglés, Cándido J; Piqueras, José A; García-Fernández, José M; García-López, Luis J; Delgado, Beatriz; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze gender and age differences in adolescents' social anxiety in the factor scores of the Social Phobia subscale from the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SP-SPAI): Social Interactions, Focus of Attention, Cognitive and Somatic Symptoms and Avoidance and Escape Behaviors. The sample consisted of 2,543 students of Secondary Education between 12 and 17 years. Results are shown for the general sample (N= 2,543) and for the sample of adolescents classified as high social anxiety group (n= 317). Regarding the first group, girls obtained higher total scores on the Social Phobia scale and on all factors except for Avoidance and Escape (d= .32 - .35). Concerning the high anxiety group, the analyses revealed that boys avoid and escape from social situations more frequently than girls (d= .23). No age differences were found in the factor scores for any of the two samples.

  13. Gender Differences In Social And Developmental Factors Affecting Puerto Rican Adolescents During The Early Stage

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Cosme, Wanda I.; Miranda, Christine; Fernandez, Diana M.; Maysonet, Johanna; Ramon, Raul O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescence is associated with risky behaviors related with social and developmental factors. Objectives were to describe social and developmental factors affecting Puerto Rican early adolescent by gender and type of school at study entry. Methods Cross-sectional study design. The study group was composed by 168 seventh grade adolescents from private and public schools. Descriptive and non-parametric comparisons were performed. Results Significance differences among proportions for gender by type of school were found in the following variables: self-esteem and HIV/AIDS attitudes in public school and peer pressure and sensation seeking in private school Discussion Our study revealed that public school adolescents are characterized by males with higher self-esteem and less attitude for HIV/AIDS, while in private school the males has more peer pressure and seeking sensation than females. Future studies could analyze factors related with changes in developmental factors, this step is important to evaluate the effectiveness of ASUMA interventions. PMID:23875519

  14. Gender bias in the food insecurity experience of Ethiopian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Craig; Lindstrom, David; Tessema, Fasil; Belachew, Tefara

    2008-01-01

    Food insecurity is a pressing public health concern in many developing countries. Despite widespread interest in the sociocultural determinants of food insecurity, little is known about whether youths living in food insecure households experience food insecurity. The buffering hypothesis reviewed here assumes that, to the extent possible, adult members of households will buffer younger household members from the ill effects of food insecurity. A variant of the buffering hypothesis argues that only certain members of the households will enjoy the benefits of buffering. We hypothesize that within the context of Ethiopia, where girls have historically experienced discrimination, buffering is preferentially aimed at boys, especially as the household experiences greater levels of food stress. These hypotheses are tested using data from a population-based study of 2084 adolescents living in southwestern Ethiopia. Results indicate that boys and girls were equally likely to be living in severely food insecure households. Despite no differences in their households' food insecurity status, girls were more likely than boys to report being food insecure themselves. This gender difference was the largest in severely food insecure households. This same pattern was observed when comparing male-female sibling pairs living in the same household. These results are among the first to show that household level measures of food insecurity predict adolescent experiences of food insecurity, and that in the Ethiopian socio-cultural context, the relationship between household level food insecurity and adolescent food insecurity varies by gender. We also show that adolescent food insecurity is strongly associated with measures of general health and well-being.

  15. General and Specific Self-Esteem in Late Adolescent Students: Race x Gender x SES Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Charles L.; And Others

    Self-concept formation has long been considered the most significant developmental milestone of adolescence. To assess the effects of gender, race, and social class on the general and area-specific self-esteem of late adolescents, 195 eleventh grade students, divided according gender, race (black, white), and social class (low, middle, high) were…

  16. Adolescent Student Burnout Inventory in Mainland China: Measurement Invariance across Gender and Educational Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Bi; Wu, Yan; Wen, Zhonglin; Wang, Mengcheng

    2014-01-01

    This article assessed the measurement in variance of the Adolescent Student Burnout Inventory (ASBI) across gender and educational track, and investigated the main and interaction effects of gender and educational track on the facets of student burnout with a sample consisting of 2,216 adolescent students from China. Multigroup confirmatory factor…

  17. 'Rules' for boys, 'guidelines' for girls: Gender differences in symptom reporting during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Alice; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2010-02-01

    The emergence of higher reported morbidity in females compared with males is a feature of adolescent health in a large proportion of the world's industrialised countries. In this paper, qualitative data from twenty-five single-sex focus groups (90 participants in total) conducted with 10-, 13-, and 15-year olds in two Scottish schools is used to explore whether symptom reporting is influenced by perceived societal gender- and age-related expectations and the social context of symptom experiences. The degree to which these factors can help explain quantitative evidence of increases in gender differences in symptom reporting during adolescence is also examined. Accounts suggested gender-related expectations act as strict 'rules' for boys and less prohibitive 'guidelines' for girls. An unexpected finding was the extent of similarity between these 'rules' and 'guidelines'. Both boys and girls presented themselves as pressured to react to symptoms in stoic, controlled and independent ways, particularly when in the company of their peers, and both perceived that boys and girls could incur negative consequences if seen to have physical (e.g. stomach ache) or, especially, psychological symptoms (e.g. feeling like crying). These qualitative findings do not suggest that girls are simply more willing than boys to report their symptoms as they get older, which is one potential explanation for the quantitative evidence of increasing gender differences in symptom reporting in adolescence. Rather, the findings suggest a need to highlight both the potentially damaging effects of gender stereotypes which make boys reluctant to seek help for physical and, particularly, psychological symptoms, and the misconception that girls are not similarly reluctant to report illness. PMID:19931962

  18. Norms of German adolescents for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A.

    PubMed

    Peter, Burkhard; Geiger, Emilia; Prade, Tanja; Vogel, Sarah; Piesbergen, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) has not been explicitly tested on an adolescent population. In this study, the German version of the HGSHS:A was administered to 99 German adolescents aged 15 to 19. In contrast to other studies, the gender distribution was relatively balanced: 57% female and 43% male. Results were comparable to 14 earlier studies with regard to distribution, mean, and standard deviation. Some peculiarities in contrast to the 14 previous studies are pointed out. It is concluded that the HGSHS:A can be used as a valid and reliable instrument to measure hypnotic suggestibility in adolescent samples.

  19. Practice Parameter on Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual Sexual Orientation, Gender Nonconformity, and Gender Discordance in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medicus, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents who are growing up gay, lesbian, bisexual, gender nonconforming, or gender discordant experience unique developmental challenges. They are at risk for certain mental health problems, many of which are significantly correlated with stigma and prejudice. Mental health professionals have an important role to play in fostering…

  20. Does Felt Gender Compatibility Mediate Influences of Self-Perceived Gender Nonconformity on Early Adolescents' Psychosocial Adjustment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that self-perceived gender nonconformity is distressing to children because it undermines a confident sense of gender compatibility. Participants were 357 early adolescents (180 boys, M age = 12.68 years) in England who responded to questionnaires measuring friendship styles (preoccupied, avoidant), gender…

  1. Examination of Measurement Invariance across Culture and Gender on the RCMAS-2 Short Form among Singapore and U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Patricia A.; Ang, Rebecca P.

    2016-01-01

    Tests of measurement invariance were conducted across culture and gender on the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-Second Edition (RCMAS-2) Short Form in a sample of 1,003 Singapore and U.S. adolescents. The results of multi-group confirmatory factor analyses across culture and gender supported at least partial measurement invariance. ANOVA…

  2. Gender differences in Chinese adolescents' subjective well-being: the mediating role of self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ze-Wei; Zeng, Wei-Nan; Ye, Kai-Yin

    2015-02-01

    Although gender differences in self-efficacy and subjective well-being have been reported in previous studies, little published research has investigated the interrelationships between these variables in adolescents. 648 Chinese adolescents were administered a series of questionnaires to test the hypothesis that self-efficacy mediates the relationship between gender and subjective well-being. The results indicated that adolescent girls had lower general self-efficacy than adolescent boys, which explained girls' lower subjective well-being. The theoretical and practical implications may help parents and educators to strengthen adolescents' happiness. PMID:25650641

  3. Grade, Pubertal Status, and Gender Related Variations in Conflictual Issues among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; Savage, Catherine L.

    It is possible that conflicts in families with adolescents are linked to the transitions and individual development that occur during adolescence. A study was conducted to describe domains of conflictual issues associated with adolescent grade in school, pubertal status, and gender. The sample was comprised of 78 seventh graders, 115 ninth…

  4. Trajectories of Adolescent Alcohol Use by Gender and Early Initiation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolland, Kathleen A.; Bolland, John M.; Tomek, Sara; Devereaux, Randolph S.; Mrug, Sylvie; Wimberly, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    Within the adolescent risk behavior literature, questions remain about relationships among behaviors in early adolescence, gender, context, and negative social and health outcomes. Additionally, little attention has focused on trajectories of adolescent risk behavior among impoverished African American youth. Using data from the Mobile Youth…

  5. Gender Differences in Adolescent Sport Participation, Teasing, Self-Objectification and Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2011-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in adolescent participation in sport and physical activity, in teasing experiences specific to the physical activity domain, and the relationship between adolescent physical activity and body image. A sample of 714 adolescents (332 girls, 382 boys) aged between 12 and 16 years completed measures of…

  6. Adolescents' Definitions of Bullying: The Contribution of Age, Gender, and Experience of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Hollie; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dolphin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine adolescents' definitions of bullying in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Ireland. Definitions of bullying were examined according to age, gender, and bullying experiences. A sample of 4358 adolescents aged 12-19 years (M = 14.99 years, SD = 1.63) provided their definitions of…

  7. Cyberbullying among Adolescents: The Role of Affective and Cognitive Empathy, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Goh, Dion H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the association between affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and gender on cyberbullying among adolescents. Participants were 396 adolescents from Singapore with age ranging from 12 to 18 years. Adolescents responded to a survey with scales measuring both affective and cognitive empathy, and cyberbullying…

  8. The Immigrant Paradox in Sexual Risk Behavior among Latino Adolescents: Impact of Immigrant Generation and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarini, Tristan E.; Marks, Amy K.; Patton, Flannery; Coll, Cynthia Garcia

    2011-01-01

    This article contributes new evidence on the associations among immigrant generation, gender, and sexual risk behavior among Latino adolescents in the United States. Longitudinal data from 3,272 Latino adolescents (grades 7-12) who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were examined for evidence of the…

  9. Gender-Related Processes and Drug Use: Self-Expression with Parents, Peer Group Selection, and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razzino, Brian E.; Ribordy, Sheila C.; Grant, Kathryn; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Bowden, Blake S.; Zeisz, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences in communication with parents, peer group selection, and academic motivation as related to drug use among adolescents (290 girls, 237 boys; age range = 12-19 years). For girls, increased self-expression with parents was associated with greater academic motivation, more academically motivated friends,…

  10. Gender, Legitimation, and Identity Verification in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Peter J.; Stets, Jan E.; Cerven, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Drawing upon identity theory, expectation states theory, and legitimation theory, we examine how the task leader identity in task-oriented groups is more likely to be verified for persons with high status characteristics. We hypothesize that identity verification will be accomplished more readily for male group members and legitimated task leaders…

  11. Adolescent and Adult Reasoning about Gender Roles and Fairness in Benin, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conry-Murray, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This study examined reasoning about gender roles in a traditional society in Benin, West Africa. Ninety-seven male and female adolescents and adults evaluated conflicts between a husband and a wife over gender norms to determine whether gender norms, are judged to be moral or conventional. Although most attributed decision-making power to the…

  12. The Role of Gender in the Racial and Ethnic Socialization of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Linver, Miriam R.; Evans, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Scholars in the field of African American family studies recognize the influence of gender on socialization. However, few studies investigate how gender influences the racial and ethnic socialization of African American youth. To examine the role of gender (both caregiver and adolescent) in socialization practices, data were obtained from 218…

  13. A therapeutic group for parents of transgender adolescents.

    PubMed

    Menvielle, Edgardo J; Rodnan, Leslie A

    2011-10-01

    Therapy for transgender, transsexual, and gender variant persons has traditionally assisted individuals in the process of adjusting to their newly adopted gender role. Increasingly, younger gender variant patients,teens and preteens, present to the clinical consultation raising the need to develop therapeutic interventions that better address the psychosocial needs of minors. The Gender and Sexuality Development Program at Children's National Medical Center (CNMC) in Washington,DC (http://www.childrensnational.org/gendervariance), provides outpatient psychosocial evaluations and therapeutic services for children,adolescents, and their families.

  14. A therapeutic group for parents of transgender adolescents.

    PubMed

    Menvielle, Edgardo J; Rodnan, Leslie A

    2011-10-01

    Therapy for transgender, transsexual, and gender variant persons has traditionally assisted individuals in the process of adjusting to their newly adopted gender role. Increasingly, younger gender variant patients,teens and preteens, present to the clinical consultation raising the need to develop therapeutic interventions that better address the psychosocial needs of minors. The Gender and Sexuality Development Program at Children's National Medical Center (CNMC) in Washington,DC (http://www.childrensnational.org/gendervariance), provides outpatient psychosocial evaluations and therapeutic services for children,adolescents, and their families. PMID:22051009

  15. The Relationships of Adolescent School-Related Deviant Behaviour and Victimization with Psychological Distress: Testing a General Model of the Mediational Role of Parents and Teachers Across Groups of Gender and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrero, Juan; Estevez, Estefania; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01

    Deviant behaviour and victimization at school have been consistently related to poor psychological adjustment in adolescents. This research explores the mediating role that parents and teachers have in adolescent psychological distress in 973 Spanish students aged 11-16 years old. Structural equation analyses results showed that adolescent deviant…

  16. The Effects of Gender Variety and Power Disparity on Group Cognitive Complexity in Collaborative Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curseu, Petru Lucian; Sari, Kimzana

    2015-01-01

    This study sets up to test the extent to which gender variety moderates the impact of power disparity on group cognitive complexity (GCC) and satisfaction with the group in a collaborative learning setting. Using insights from gender differences in perceptions, orientations and conflict handling behavior in negotiation, as well as gender…

  17. Charisma, status, and gender in groups with and without gurus.

    PubMed

    Martin, John Levi; Van Gunten, Tod; Zablocki, Benjamin D

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have noted that small religious groups with charismatic leaders seem to have different gender dynamics than do groups without. We argue that the presence of such a leader changes what charisma “means” in such a group. Without such a leader, strong personalities may appear charismatic and lead to positions of high status—and such dynamics historically have tended to be associated with a positional advantage to males. With such a leader, however, charisma is more likely to be compatible with receptivity and decoupled from gender characteristics that tend to disadvantage women, leading charismatic women to have greater status than they would otherwise have.

  18. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in adolescents in Turkey: effects of gender, lifestyle and psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Baysoy, Gökhan; Güler-Baysoy, Nüket; Kesicioğlu, Aynur; Akın, Demet; Dündar, Tuğba; Pamukçu-Uyan, Ayten

    2014-01-01

    Scarce data exist concerning the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in adolescence. Changes in lifestyle, presence of stressors and psychological vulnerability during this stage of life place adolescents in the risk group for irritable bowel syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in adolescents who are about to begin their university studies and to identify lifestyle and psychological factors related to irritable bowel syndrome. All students newly enrolled at Abant Izzet Baysal University during the 2005-2006 academic year were recruited. Questionnaires including the Rome II questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were sent to the addresses of the eligible students before matriculation to the university. A total of 2217 students completed the questionnaires, of which 2038 (91.9%) were regarded as valid. Irritable bowel syndrome prevalence was 10.8% and was significantly higher in females than in males (14.0% vs. 7.1%, p<0.001). In logistic regression analyses, gender (OR=2.48, 95% CI=1.68-3.66) and depression (OR=1.08, 95% CI=1.04-1.12) were significantly linked to irritable bowel syndrome. The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in this adolescent population is similar to that reported in other studies. The association of irritable bowel syndrome with depression should guide preventive and therapeutic efforts for this specific age group. PMID:26388590

  19. Integrating Gender and Group Differences into Bridging Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Serkan; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to integrate gender and group effect into bridging strategy in order to assess the effect of bridging analogy-based instruction on sophomore students' misconceptions in Newton's Third Law. Specifically, the authors developed and benefited from anchoring analogy diagnostic test to merge the effect of group and gender…

  20. Gender and Leadership: The Implications of Small Group Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Linda Lyman

    1988-01-01

    Reviews selected literature from the small group communication research on gender and leadership emergence and suggests implications of this research for women seeking administrative positions. Hopes that, as men and women become sensitive to effects of sex-role stereotypes on group dynamics and leadership behaviors, there will be increase in…

  1. Gender-specific profiles of self-reported adolescent HIV risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Krantz, Steven R; Lynch, Daryl A; Russell, Jan M

    2002-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) identify behaviors that put adolescents at risk for HIV infection by retrospectively comparing a cohort of HIV positive and negative young adults and (b) determine gender-specific high-risk profiles. HIV-positive (n = 61) and HIV-negative (n = 124) individuals from two midwestern cities completed a survey tool prepared by the investigators examining six areas of behavior and activity identified in the literature as high risk. Alcohol use, drug use, and gang-related behaviors were not associated with HIV status in these young adults. Early, frequent, and unprotected sex with large numbers of partners were the predictive risk factors for HIV-seropositive status. Gender profiles, however, differed. Whereas the female profile suggested that early and unprotected sex were the only reliable predictors, HIV-positive male subjects had larger numbers of partners, engaged in more risky sexual behaviors, were more likely to have experienced sexual abuse before and during adolescence, and were more likely to have used cocaine during their adolescence. Conclusions include the confirmation of a resurgence of HIV among young males having sex with males and confirmation of females as the largest growing group of HIV-positive young adults. PMID:12469541

  2. Recent Findings on Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Farhat, Tilda

    2010-01-01

    This review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. Specifically, we examine the theoretical explanations for how social influence works with respect to adolescent smoking; discuss the association between peer and adolescent smoking;…

  3. Adiponectin moderates the relationship between adiposity and leptin in adolescents regardless of gender or race

    PubMed Central

    Bundy, Vanessa; Johnson, Maribeth; Gutin, Bernard; Zhu, Haidong; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger; Dong, Yanbin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine gender or race differences in associations between adiposity and leptin, and whether adiponectin moderates these relationships. Methods Subjects were 441 adolescents, 14–18 years old (44% black; 50% female). Percent body fat (%BF) from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Leptin and adiponectin were measured using immunoassays. Results Among the four groups (white boys, white girls, black boys and black girls), white girls had the highest adiponectin (p=0.0017) and black girls had the highest leptin (p=0.0164). Percent BF and leptin were positively correlated (p=0.0164). The %BF-leptin relationship was stronger in boys than girls (p<0.0001). Those with lower adiponectin had a stronger %BF-leptin relationship than those with high adiponectin in the entire sample (p=0.0220). Statistical models were adjusted for age, race, gender and the interaction between race and gender. Conclusion Our data suggest a protective metabolic interaction for adiponectin and lend additional support for obesity prevention strategies in adolescents. PMID:21648277

  4. Health-seeking behaviours by gender among adolescents in Soweto, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Otwombe, Kennedy; Dietrich, Janan; Laher, Fatima; Hornschuh, Stefanie; Nkala, Busisiwe; Chimoyi, Lucy; Kaida, Angela; Gray, Glenda E.; Miller, Cari L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents are an important age-group for preventing disease and supporting health yet little is known about their health-seeking behaviours. Objective We describe socio-demographic characteristics and health-seeking behaviours of adolescents in Soweto, South Africa, in order to broaden our understanding of their health needs. Design The Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Study was an interviewer-administered cross-sectional survey of 830 adolescents (14–19 years) conducted in Soweto from 2010 to 2012. Health-seeking behaviours were defined as accessing medical services and/or being hospitalised in the 6 months prior to the survey. Chi-square analysis tested for associations between gender, other socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and health-seeking behaviours. Results Of 830 adolescents, 57% were female, 50% were aged 17–19 years, 85% were enrolled in school, and 78% reported experiencing medium or high food insecurity. Males were more likely than females to report sexual debut (64% vs. 49%; p<0.0001) and illicit drug use (11% vs. 3%; p<0.0001). Approximately 27% (n=224) and 8% (n=65) reported seeking healthcare or being hospitalised respectively in the previous 6 months, with no significant differences by gender. Services were most commonly sought at medical clinics (75%), predominantly because of flu-like symptoms (32%), followed by concerns about HIV (10%). Compared to females, males were more likely to seek healthcare for condom breakage (8% vs. 2%; p=0.02). Relative to males, a significantly higher proportion of females desired general healthcare services (85% vs. 78%; p=0.0091), counselling (82% vs. 70%; p<0.0001), and reproductive health services (64% vs. 56%; p=0.02). Conclusions A quarter of male and female adolescents accessed health services in the 6 months prior to the interview. Adolescents reported a gap between the availability and the need for general, reproductive, and counselling services. Integrated adolescent

  5. Gender-heterogeneous working groups produce higher quality science.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lesley G; Mehtani, Siya; Dozier, Mary E; Rinehart, Janice

    2013-01-01

    Here we present the first empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that a gender-heterogeneous problem-solving team generally produced journal articles perceived to be higher quality by peers than a team comprised of highly-performing individuals of the same gender. Although women were historically underrepresented as principal investigators of working groups, their frequency as PIs at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis is now comparable to the national frequencies in biology and they are now equally qualified, in terms of their impact on the accumulation of ecological knowledge (as measured by the h-index). While women continue to be underrepresented as working group participants, peer-reviewed publications with gender-heterogeneous authorship teams received 34% more citations than publications produced by gender-uniform authorship teams. This suggests that peers citing these publications perceive publications that also happen to have gender-heterogeneous authorship teams as higher quality than publications with gender uniform authorship teams. Promoting diversity not only promotes representation and fairness but may lead to higher quality science. PMID:24205372

  6. [Gender differences of psychological, nutritional, and physical fitness variables influencing obesity/overweight in Austrian children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Ardelt-Gattinger, Elisabeth; Ring-Dimitriou, Susanne; Hofmann, Johannes; Paulmichl, Katharina; Zsoldos, Fanni; Weghuber, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Eating behavior and physical activity behavior are under the control of certain cognitive patterns. 6600 adults and 4400 children/adolescents (8-18 years) were tested with the Obesity Diagnostics and Evaluation System (AD-EVA). Potentially significant gender differences will be detailed for the entire juvenile cohort, the subgroup of obese children/adolescents as compared to the adult cohort in this article.Among all the subscales tested, obese girls primarily showed significantly higher values of (preclinical) eating disorders than boys. These data are relevant for both prevention and health promotion.No significant differences were found in regard to sports motivation. This warrants facilitation of physical activity for both genders. Further, a male predilection for "Snacks" and "High-fat food" that could be found in the total representative study group, could not be verified in the subgroup of obese girls and boys, thus suggesting a similarily unhealthy eating behavior in both genders of juvenility.

  7. Perceived Parent-Adolescent Relationship, Perceived Parental Online Behaviors and Pathological Internet Use among Adolescents: Gender-Specific Differences

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescents’ perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People’s Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents’ age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention. PMID:24098710

  8. [Gender relations and sexual initiation among adolescent women].

    PubMed

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela

    2007-12-01

    This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 222 15 to 19 year-old female adolescents who lived in the area of a family health unit in the East part of the city of São Paulo. The aim was to describe their motivation for starting sexual life or remaining virgin, as well as the associated factors to the onset of sexual life. The girls that had already initiated their sexual life were older, did not cohabitate with both parents, were out of school, lived in illegally-occupied houses and were dating in a higher proportion than the virgin ones. It was also observed a decrease in the value of virginity, but the first intercourse independently of marriage seemed to be acceptable only when there was a romantic relationship with the partner, showing that traditional gender relations continue to be the basis for those girls' sexual behavior.

  9. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): Factor Structure and Gender Equivalence in Norwegian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hysing, Mari; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Breivik, Kyrre

    2016-01-01

    Although frequently used with older adolescents, few studies of the factor structure, internal consistency and gender equivalence of the SDQ exists for this age group, with inconsistent findings. In the present study, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the five-factor structure of the SDQ in a population sample of 10,254 16–18 year-olds from the youth@hordaland study. Measurement invariance across gender was assessed using multigroup CFA. A modestly modified five-factor solution fitted the data acceptably, accounting for one cross loading and some local dependencies. Importantly, partial measurement non-invariance was identified, with differential item functioning in eight items, and higher correlations between emotional and conduct problems for boys compared to girls. Implications for use clinically and in research are discussed. PMID:27138259

  10. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): Factor Structure and Gender Equivalence in Norwegian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bøe, Tormod; Hysing, Mari; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Breivik, Kyrre

    2016-01-01

    Although frequently used with older adolescents, few studies of the factor structure, internal consistency and gender equivalence of the SDQ exists for this age group, with inconsistent findings. In the present study, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the five-factor structure of the SDQ in a population sample of 10,254 16-18 year-olds from the youth@hordaland study. Measurement invariance across gender was assessed using multigroup CFA. A modestly modified five-factor solution fitted the data acceptably, accounting for one cross loading and some local dependencies. Importantly, partial measurement non-invariance was identified, with differential item functioning in eight items, and higher correlations between emotional and conduct problems for boys compared to girls. Implications for use clinically and in research are discussed.

  11. Adolescents' attachment style and early experiences: a gender difference.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, N; Uji, M; Hiramura, H; Chen, Z; Shikai, N; Kishida, Y; Kitamura, T

    2006-01-01

    We examined gender differences in perceived rearing and adult attachment style in adolescents. A total of 3,912 senior college students (1,149 men and 2,763 women) ages 18-23 (men's M = 20.1 years, women's M = 20.0 years) were administered a set of questionnaires including Relationship Questionnaire (to measure adult attachment), the Parental Bonding Instrument (perceived rearing), and a list of early life events. In the men, positive adult total attachment style was predicted by the scores of paternal care and low scores on maternal overprotection in a hierarchical regression analysis. On the other hand, in the women, positive adult total attachment style was predicted by the scores of paternal and maternal care, and low score on maternal overprotection. Adult attachment was also predicted by fewer Peer Victimization experience as a child in both men and women. However, while men's adult attachment was predicted by Self Disease experiences, women's adult attachment was predicted by Top Star experiences and fewer Relocation experiences. The adult attachment style was predictable from early experiences but there existed some gender differences. PMID:16222424

  12. Effects of gender, media influences, and traditional gender role orientation on disordered eating and appearance concerns among Latino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Vera; Corona, Rosalie; Halfond, Raquel

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the main and interaction effects of gender, traditional gender role orientation, and media-influenced sociocultural values and ideals about appearance in a sample of 96 Latino adolescents controlling for age, country of origin, and BMI. Girls and less traditionally oriented youth reported significantly more disordered eating and appearance concerns than did boys and more traditionally oriented youth. Gender moderated the relationship between traditional gender role orientation and disordered eating and appearance concerns. Contrary to our hypothesis, media-influenced sociocultural values and ideals about appearance did not significantly predict disordered eating and appearance concerns. However, the interaction between gender and sociocultural values and ideals about appearance was significant. Our findings highlight the importance of continued research on gender, media, and cultural influences as they relate to disordered eating and appearance concerns among Latino youth.

  13. Effects of gender, media influences, and traditional gender role orientation on disordered eating and appearance concerns among Latino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Vera; Corona, Rosalie; Halfond, Raquel

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the main and interaction effects of gender, traditional gender role orientation, and media-influenced sociocultural values and ideals about appearance in a sample of 96 Latino adolescents controlling for age, country of origin, and BMI. Girls and less traditionally oriented youth reported significantly more disordered eating and appearance concerns than did boys and more traditionally oriented youth. Gender moderated the relationship between traditional gender role orientation and disordered eating and appearance concerns. Contrary to our hypothesis, media-influenced sociocultural values and ideals about appearance did not significantly predict disordered eating and appearance concerns. However, the interaction between gender and sociocultural values and ideals about appearance was significant. Our findings highlight the importance of continued research on gender, media, and cultural influences as they relate to disordered eating and appearance concerns among Latino youth. PMID:23849667

  14. School Violence, Depressive Symptoms, and Help-seeking Behavior: A Gender-stratified Analysis of Biethnic Adolescents in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In South Korea (hereafter Korea), the number of adolescent offspring of immigrants has rapidly increased since the early 1990s, mainly due to international marriage. This research sought to examine the association between the experience of school violence and mental health outcomes, and the role of help-seeking behaviors in the association, among biethnic adolescents in Korea. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data of 3627 biethnic adolescents in Korea from the 2012 National Survey of Multicultural Families. Based on the victim’s help-seeking behavior, adolescents who experienced school violence were classified into three groups: ‘seeking help’ group; ‘feeling nothing’ group; ‘not seeking help’ group. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to examine the associations between the experience of school violence and depressive symptoms for males and females separately. Results: In the gender-stratified analysis, school violence was associated with depressive symptoms in the ‘not seeking help’ (odds ratio [OR], 7.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.76 to 13.23) and the ‘seeking help’ group (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.73 to 4.44) among male adolescents after adjusting for potential confounders, including the nationality of the immigrant parent and Korean language fluency. Similar associations were observed in the female groups. However, in the ‘feeling nothing’ group, the association was only significant for males (OR, 8.34; 95% CI, 2.82 to 24.69), but not females (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.18 to 3.28). Conclusions: This study suggests that experience of school violence is associated with depressive symptoms and that the role of victims’ help-seeking behaviors in the association may differ by gender among biethnic adolescents in Korea. PMID:26841886

  15. Gender role attitudes across the transition to adolescent motherhood in Mexican-origin families.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Russell B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2015-06-01

    Using longitudinal data collected at four time points from 191 dyads of Mexican-origin adolescent first-time mothers and their mother figures, we examined changes in and socialization of traditional gender role attitudes across the transition to parenthood using latent growth curve modeling and actor-partner interdependence modeling. Longitudinal growth models indicated that, regardless of nativity status, adolescent mothers' and their foreign-born mother figures' gender role attitudes became more egalitarian across adolescents' transition to parenthood, spanning from the 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum. Furthermore, actor-partner interdependence modeling suggested that adolescents' and their mother figures' gender role attitudes during adolescents' third trimester of pregnancy equally contributed to subsequent increases in one another's gender role attitudes at 10 months postpartum. Importantly, this reciprocal socialization process was not moderated by adolescent mothers' nor by their mother figures' nativity status. Findings suggest that it is important to understand the cultural and intergenerational family processes that contribute to the development of gender role attitudes during the transition to parenthood for adolescent mothers and their mother figures in Mexican-origin families.

  16. Integrating Gender and Group Differences into Bridging Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, Serkan; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2010-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to integrate gender and group effect into bridging strategy in order to assess the effect of bridging analogy-based instruction on sophomore students' misconceptions in Newton's Third Law. Specifically, the authors developed and benefited from anchoring analogy diagnostic test to merge the effect of group and gender into the strategy. Newton's third law misconception test, attitude scale toward Newton's third law, and classroom observation checklists were the other measuring tools utilized throughout this quasi-experimental study. The researchers also developed or used several teaching/learning materials such as gender and group splitted concept diagrams, lesson plans, gender splitted frequency tables, make sense scales, PowerPoint slides, flash cards, and demonstrations. The convenience sample of the study chosen from the accessible population involved 308 students from two public universities. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that the bridging strategy had a significant effect on students' misconceptions in Newton's third law whereas it had no significant effect on students' attitudes toward Newton's third law.

  17. Adolescent Health Promotion Groups: A Primer for Milieu Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puskar, Kathryn; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Stark, Kirsti Hetager; Frazier, Leann

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents who are required to live away from their families of origin face many challenges that can affect mood and mental health. Milieu therapists (mental health associates) working with adolescents in a residential treatment center may be expected to provide group activities that promote mental health. It is important for new group leaders to…

  18. The Adolescent Peer Group Revisited: Turbulence or Adaptation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheidlinger, Saul

    1984-01-01

    Charges that although the potent influence of the peer group on the psychosocial development of adolescents is undisputed, most clinical writings portray it in a one-sided vein. Proposes a more balanced view of adolescent group life with emphasis on the adaptive and growth-promoting aspects. (JAC)

  19. Contributions of Music Video Exposure to Black Adolescents' Gender and Sexual Schemas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, L. Monique; Hansbrough, Edwina; Walker, Eboni

    2005-01-01

    Although music videos feature prominently in the media diets of many adolescents, little is known of their impact on viewers' conceptions of femininity and masculinity. Accordingly, this study examines the impact of both regular and experimental music video exposure on adolescent viewers' conceptions about gender. Across two testing sessions, 152…

  20. Media Use and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment: An Examination of Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2009-01-01

    This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the…

  1. Age and Gender Differences in Coping Style across Various Problems: Omani Adolescents' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Bahrani, Muna; Aldhafri, Said; Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali; Alzubiadi, Abdulqawi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines adolescents' coping styles, with relation to their gender and age and level, of six types of problems. The participants were 1843 adolescents (51.7% female and 48.3% male) from the Sultanate of Oman with a mean age of 15.75. Two scales examining general adaptive and maladaptive coping styles and levels of school, economic,…

  2. Gender Differences in Adolescent Drug Use: The Impact of Parental Monitoring and Peer Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Investigated gender differences in adolescent drug use in terms of parental monitoring and peer deviance. Surveys of Swedish adolescents indicated that girls were more highly monitored than boys, and boys were more exposed to deviant peers than girls. There was a significant interaction for parental monitoring and peer deviance for the sample as a…

  3. Examination of a Process Model of Adolescent Smoking Self-Change Efforts in Relation to Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Laura; Myers, Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Little information describes how adolescents change their smoking behavior. This study investigated the role of gender in the relationship of motivation and cognitive variables with adolescent smoking self-change efforts. Self-report and semi-structured interview data from a prospective study of smoking self-change efforts were examined among 98…

  4. Gender-Specific Development of Nonverbal Behaviours and Mild Depression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Beek, Yolanda; Van Dolderen, Marlies S. M.; Demon Dubas, Judith J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Individual differences in depressive symptoms have been linked with social skill deficits in adults and children, yet empirical studies on adolescents are lacking. The present research examines age and gender differences in nonverbal behaviour between mildly depressed and nondepressed (pre-) adolescents during conversations with an…

  5. Concepts of Family among Children and Adolescents: Effect of Cognitive Level, Gender, and Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Judith L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A total of 120 children, adolescents, and adults completed questionnaires and interviews to determine effects of age, cognitive level, gender, and family structure on their definitions of family, divorce, and adoption. Both children and adolescents most frequently mentioned affective ties in their definitions of family. Females were more likely…

  6. Pregnancy Resolution and Family Formation: Understanding Gender Differences in Adolescents' Preferences and Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsiglio, William; Menaghan, Elizabeth G.

    1990-01-01

    Examined gender differences in adolescents' personal views about pregnancy resolution and family formation. Surveyed adolescents (n=577) using vignette involving unplanned pregnancy. Findings showed similar percentages of males and females preferred abortion and adoption as strategies for handling pregnancy, but females were more likely to select…

  7. Measurement Invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale across Gender and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…

  8. Testing a Gender Additive Model: The Role of Body Image in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Stice, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence that adolescent girls are at greater risk of developing depression than adolescent boys, risk factor models that account for this difference have been elusive. The objective of this research was to examine risk factors proposed by the "gender additive" model of depression that attempts to partially explain the increased…

  9. Adolescents' Perceptions of Male Involvement in Relational Aggression: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Curt; Heath, Melissa Allen; Bailey, Benjamin M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Yamawaki, Niwako; Eggett, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared age and gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of male involvement in relational aggression (RA). After viewing two of four video clips portraying RA, each participating adolescent (N = 314; Grades 8-12) answered questions related to rationalizing bullying behaviors--specifically minimizing bullying, blaming…

  10. Gender and Ethnic Differences in Health-Promoting Behaviors of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rew, Lynn; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Horner, Sharon D.; Thompson, Sanna; Johnson, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Although much is known about health-risk behaviors of adolescents, less is known about their health-promoting behaviors. The purpose of this analysis was to compare health-promoting behaviors in adolescents in Grades 9-12 by gender and ethnicity and explore how these behaviors changed over time. Data were collected from 878 rural adolescents…

  11. Gifted Adolescents' Overexcitabilities and Self-Concepts: "An Analysis of Gender and Grade Level"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Candace M.; Rinn, Anne N.; Jamieson, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between gifted adolescents' overexcitabilities and self-concept, while also exploring gender and grade-level differences in overexcitabilities. Participants included 248 gifted adolescents who had completed the sixth through tenth grade during the previous academic year. Overexcitabllities were measured…

  12. Gender Differences in Two Decision-Making Tasks in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Van der Linden, Martial

    2006-01-01

    In adolescence, externalized problems such as risk taking and antisocial behavior are more frequent in boys. This suggests that there are differences in the way boys and girls evaluate risk and make decisions during this period. To explore decision making and highlight possible gender differences, 124 adolescents at a junior secondary school…

  13. Adolescents' compliance-resistance: effects of parents' compliance strategy and gender.

    PubMed

    White, K D; Pearson, J C; Flint, L

    1989-01-01

    This investigation determined choice of compliance-resisting behaviors on the basis of compliance-gaining strategy, gender of parent, and gender of adolescent. One hundred and eighteen 9th- through 12th-grade students identified resistance strategies they would use when confronted with five compliance-gaining attempts: manipulation, nonnegotiation, emotional appeal, personal rejection, and empathic understanding. Each compliance-gaining attempt was associated with a specific parent and a specific compliance-gaining strategy. The results demonstrate significant differences in resistance strategy selected on the basis of parent's gender, adolescent's gender, and compliance-gaining strategy. When mothers employed personal rejection or empathic understanding, the adolescent was most likely to use nonnegotiation. When the mother used an emotional appeal, adolescents used identity management. Fathers who employed manipulation by using an emotional appeal were resisted with justification. When fathers used nonnegotiation or personal rejection, adolescents used nonnegotiation. The father's use of empathic understanding was countered with identity management. Adolescents are more likely to use identity management with their mothers and justification with their fathers. Female adolescents are more likely to use identity management than are male adolescents, while males are more likely to use nonnegotiation and negotiation than are females. Nonnegotiation occurs most often from son to mother, followed by son to father, daughter to father, and daughter to mother.

  14. Beyond Same-Sex Attraction: Gender-Variant-Based Victimization Is Associated with Suicidal Behavior and Substance Use for Other-Sex Attracted Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peter Y.; Cigularov, Konstantin P.; Tomazic, Rocco G.

    2015-01-01

    Gender-variant-based victimization is victimization based on the way others perceive an individual to convey masculine, feminine, and androgynous characteristics through their appearance, mannerisms, and behaviors. Previous work identifies gender-variant-based victimization as a risk factor for health-risking outcomes among same-sex attracted youths. The current study seeks to examine this relationship among other-sex attracted youths and same-sex attracted youth, and determine if gender-variant-based victimization is similarly or differentially associated with poor outcomes between these two groups. Anonymous data from a school-based survey of 2,438 racially diverse middle and high school students in the Eastern U.S. was examined. For other-sex attracted adolescents, gender-variant-based victimization was associated with a higher odds of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, regular use of cigarettes, and drug use. When compared to same-sex attracted adolescents, the harmful relationship between gender-variant-based victimization and each of these outcomes was similar in nature. These findings suggest that gender-variant-based victimization has potentially serious implications for the psychological wellbeing and substance use of other-sex attracted adolescents, not just same-sex attracted adolescents, supporting the need to address gender expression as a basis for victimization separate from sexuality- or gender-minority status. The impact that gender-variant-based victimization has on all adolescents should not be overlooked in research and interventions aimed at addressing sexual orientation-based and gender-variant-based victimization, substance use, and suicide prevention. PMID:26068796

  15. Effects of Learning about Historical Gender Discrimination on Early Adolescents' Occupational Judgments and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahlke, Erin; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Green, Vanessa A.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the consequences of learning about gender discrimination, early adolescents (n = 121, aged 10-14) were randomly assigned to receive either (a) standard biographical lessons about historical figures (standard condition) or (b) nearly identical lessons that included information about gender discrimination (discrimination condition).…

  16. Stress and Emotional Reactivity as Explanations for Gender Differences in Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charbonneau, Anna M.; Mezulis, Amy H.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined whether certain types of stressful events and how individuals respond to these events would explain gender differences in depressive symptoms among adolescents. We hypothesized that certain stressful events would mediate the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. We also hypothesized that…

  17. Adolescents' Gender Mistrust: Variations and Implications for the Quality of Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that perceptions of gender mistrust are implicated in lower marriage rates among low-income populations. Yet few quantitative studies have examined the factors predicting gender mistrust during adolescence and whether it influences the quality of subsequent nonmarital romantic relationships. Analysis of three waves of…

  18. Gender Differences in Contextual Predictors of Urban, Early Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Moallem, B. Isabel; Vacek, Kimberly R.; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura D.; Gomez, Kenia L.; Lamp, Kristen; Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Luginbuhl, Paula; Mull, Megan K.; Telander, Kyle J.; Steele, J. Corey

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in predicting subjective well-being (SWB) were examined in 168 urban adolescents. School satisfaction predicted life satisfaction for boys; for girls, family satisfaction predicted life satisfaction and neighborhood satisfaction predicted negative affect. Self-esteem predicted positive affect for both genders, but friends…

  19. Processes and Content of Narrative Identity Development in Adolescence: Gender and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Kate C.; Breen, Andrea V.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined narrative identity in adolescence (14-18 years) in terms of narrative content and processes of identity development. Age- and gender-related differences in narrative patterns in turning point memories and gender differences in the content and functions for sharing those memories were examined, as was the relationship…

  20. Young Adolescents' Wellbeing and Health-Risk Behaviours: Gender and Socio-Economic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Manfred Max; Scott, Jacqueline

    2001-01-01

    Youth Surveys of the British Household Panel Study were used to examine the well being of adolescents. Well being is conceptualized as a multi-dimensional construct and models of gender and age differences were developed and tested. Confirmatory factor analysis found clear gender differences in self esteem, unhappiness, and worries. Many…

  1. Gender Differences in Achievement in a Large, Nationally Representative Sample of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiber, Caroline; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Hajovsky, Daniel B.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate developmental gender differences in academic achievement areas, with the primary focus on writing, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-21 years) of the "Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Second Edition, Brief Form," norming sample (N = 1,574). Path analytic models with gender,…

  2. Identifying Gender-Specific Developmental Trajectories of Nonviolent and Violent Delinquency from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yao; Cleveland, H. Harrington

    2013-01-01

    Most research examining gender differences in developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior does not consider subtypes of antisocial behavior and is difficult to generalize due to small non-representative samples. The current study investigated gender difference in developmental trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood while addressing…

  3. Adolescent Moral Motivations for Civic Engagement: Clues to the Political Gender Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malin, Heather; Tirri, Kirsi; Liauw, Indrawati

    2015-01-01

    This study explored gender differences in moral motivations and civic engagement among adolescents to add to existing explanations for the gender gap in political engagement in the US. We examined moral motivations for civic engagement in a sample of 1578 high school seniors, using a mixed-methods analysis of survey and interview data. Multiple…

  4. Age and Gender Differences in Depression across Adolescence: Real or "Bias"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…

  5. The co-construction of adolescent narrative identity: narrative processing as a function of adolescent age, gender, and maternal scaffolding.

    PubMed

    McLean, Kate C; Mansfield, Cade D

    2012-03-01

    The current study aimed to situate the development of adolescent narrative identity in the context of past-event conversations between adolescents and their mothers, extending work on conversational contexts in early childhood to adolescence. We examined a cross-section of 63 adolescents with 2 goals: (1) to examine how adolescent age and gender interacted with mothers' scaffolding behaviors and how those interactions were associated with adolescents' narrative processes of meaning-making, vulnerability, and resolution; (2) to examine mothers' behaviors in conversation and how the interactions between those behaviors and event type (important, sad, and happy themes) were associated with those narrative processes. We found that maternal behavior in the conversation was related to adolescent narrative processes, yet this link varied as a function of characteristics of the adolescent and type of event discussed. Overall results suggest that those with potentially less practice at narrating the self in elaborative ways--younger adolescents and boys--receive more supportive scaffolding, and that for those with likely more practice with elaborative narration--girls and older adolescents--mothers engage in more negation behavior. The role of these scaffolding behaviors in adolescent narrative identity development is discussed.

  6. Gender Roles and Substance Use Among Mexican American Adolescents: A Relationship Moderated by Acculturation?

    PubMed Central

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Nagoshi, Julie L.

    2012-01-01

    This research assesses the effects of adaptive/maladaptive gender roles and acculturation in predicting substance use in a 2007 sample of 1466 Mexican American seventh-grade adolescents from Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Multiple regression analyses found significant effects for both adaptive and maladaptive gender roles, as well as several gender-specific interactions between gender roles and linguistic acculturation that predicted substance use. Limitations of the research are noted, as well as implications for understanding the impact of acculturation on how gender roles differentially affect substance use in Mexican American boys versus girls. PMID:22136419

  7. Gender roles and substance use among Mexican American adolescents: a relationship moderated by acculturation?

    PubMed

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Nagoshi, Julie L

    2012-02-01

    This research assesses the effects of adaptive/ maladaptive gender roles and acculturation in predicting substance use in a 2007 sample of 1466 Mexican American seventh-grade adolescents from Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. Multiple regression analyses found significant effects for both adaptive and maladaptive gender roles, as well as several gender-specific interactions between gender roles and linguistic acculturation that predicted substance use. Limitations of the research are noted, as well as implications for understanding the impact of acculturation on how gender roles differentially affect substance use in Mexican American boys versus girls.

  8. Racial and gender identity among Black adolescent males: an intersectionality perspective.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Scott, Marc A; Way, Niobe

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of social identity research has focused on race and racial identity, while gender identity, particularly among Black adolescents, remains underexamined. The current study used survey data from 183 Black adolescent males (13-16 years old) to investigate the development and relation between racial and gender identity centrality and private regard, and how these identities impact adjustment over time. It was found that dimensions of racial and gender identity were strongly correlated. Levels of racial centrality increased over time while gender centrality, and racial and gender private regard declined. In addition, racial and gender identity uniquely contributed to higher levels of psychological well-being and academic adjustment. These findings are discussed within the context of existing identity theories and intersectionality theory.

  9. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  10. Adolescent pregnancies in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador: a rights and gender approach to adolescents' sexual and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Goicolea, Isabel

    2010-06-24

    In the Andean region of Latin America over one million adolescent girls get pregnant every year. Adolescent pregnancy (AP) has been associated with adverse health and social outcomes, but it has also been favorably viewed as a pathway to adulthood. AP can also be conceptualized as a marker of inequity, since it disproportionately affects girls from the poorest households and those who have not been able to attend school.Using results from a study carried out in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador, this paper explores APs and adolescents' sexual and reproductive health from a rights and gender approach. The paper points out the main features of a rights and gender approach, and how it can be applied to explore APs. Afterward it describes the methodologies (quantitative and qualitative) and main results of the study, framing the findings within the rights and gender approach. Finally, some implications that could be generalizable to global reserach on APs are highlighted.The application of the rights and gender framework to explore APs contributes to a more integral view of the issue. The rights and gender framework stresses the importance of the interaction between rights-holders and duty-bearers on the realization of sexual and reproductive rights, and acknowledges the importance of gender-power relations on sexual and reproductive decisions. A rights and gender approach could lead to more integral and constructive interventions, and it could also be useful when exploring other sexual and reproductive health matters.

  11. Facial Emotion Recognition in Adolescents With Disabilities: The Effects of Type of Disability and Gender.

    PubMed

    Memisevic, Haris; Mujkanovic, Edin; Ibralic-Biscevic, Inga

    2016-08-01

    Emotion recognition is very important for successful social interactions. This study compared adolescents with intellectual disability and adolescents with hearing impairment on a facial emotion recognition task. The sample for this study comprised 78 adolescents (46.2% females, 53.8% males; M age = 16.4, SD = 1.0) divided into three groups (N = 26) of adolescents with intellectual disability, adolescents with hearing impairment, and adolescents without disabilities. Emotion recognition abilities were measured using a computerized Emotion Recognition Test. Adolescents with intellectual disability achieved lower scores on Emotion Recognition Test in comparison with adolescents with hearing impairment and adolescents without disabilities. There were no significant differences on Emotion Recognition Test between adolescents with hearing impairment and adolescents without disabilities. Given the importance of emotion recognition in everyday functioning, it is of crucial importance to have emotional training programs as part of the school curriculum. PMID:27440764

  12. What will I be when I grow up? The impact of gender identity threat on adolescents' occupational preferences.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Samantha; Carlsson, Rickard

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the impact of gender identity threat on adolescents' occupational preferences. Two hundred and ninety-seven adolescents (45% girls, M age = 14.4, SD = .54) participated in the experiment. There were substantial differences between boys' and girls' occupational preferences. Importantly, adolescents who received a threat to their gender identity became more stereotypical in job preferences, suggesting a causal link between threatened gender identity and stereotypical preferences. A comparison threat to one's capability did not have this effect, indicating a unique effect of gender identity threat. Further, individual differences in gender identity concerns predicted gender stereotypical preferences, and this finding was replicated with an independent sample (N = 242). In conclusion, the results suggest that threats to adolescents' gender identity may contribute to the large gender segregation on the labor market.

  13. Gender effects on amygdala morphometry in adolescent marijuana users

    PubMed Central

    McQueeny, Tim; Padula, Claudia B.; Price, Jenessa; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Logan, Patrick; Tapert, Susan F.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent developments in limbic structures and the endogenous cannabinoid system suggest that teenagers may be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of marijuana use. This study examined the relationships between amygdala volume and internalizing symptoms in teenaged chronic marijuana users. Participants were 35 marijuana users and 47 controls ages 16–19 years. Exclusions included psychiatric (e.g., mood and anxiety) or neurologic disorders. Substance use, internalizing (anxiety/depression) symptoms and brain scans were collected after 28 days of monitored abstinence. Reliable raters manually traced amygdala and intracranial volumes on high-resolution magnetic resonance images. Female marijuana users had larger right amygdala volumes and more internalizing symptoms than female controls, after covarying head size, alcohol, nicotine and other substance use (p<0.05), while male users had similar volumes as male controls. For female controls and males, worse mood/anxiety was linked to smaller right amygdala volume (p<0.05), whereas more internalizing problems was associated with bigger right amygdala in female marijuana users. Gender interactions may reflect marijuana-related interruptions to sex-specific neuromaturational processes and staging. Subtle amygdala development abnormalities may underlie particular vulnerabilities to sub-diagnostic depression and anxiety in teenage female marijuana users. PMID:21664935

  14. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Behaviour during Adolescence: The Influence of Personality and Gender.

    PubMed

    Reniers, Renate L E P; Murphy, Laura; Lin, Ashleigh; Bartolomé, Sandra Para; Wood, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on adolescents' perception of risk and their risk-taking behaviour. Male and female participants (157 females: 116 males, aged 13-20) completed self-report measures on risk perception, risk-taking and personality. Male participants perceived behaviours as less risky, reportedly took more risks, were less sensitive to negative outcomes and less socially anxious than female participants. Path analysis identified a model in which age, behavioural inhibition and impulsiveness directly influenced risk perception, while age, social anxiety, impulsiveness, sensitivity to reward, behavioural inhibition and risk perception itself were directly or indirectly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Age and behavioural inhibition had direct relationships with social anxiety, and reward sensitivity was associated with impulsiveness. The model was representative for the whole sample and male and female groups separately. The observed relationship between age and social anxiety and the influence this may have on risk-taking behaviour could be key for reducing adolescent risk-taking behaviour. Even though adolescents may understand the riskiness of their behaviour and estimate their vulnerability to risk at a similar level to adults, factors such as anxiety regarding social situations, sensitivity to reward and impulsiveness may exert their influence and make these individuals prone to taking risks. If these associations are proven causal, these factors are, and will continue to be, important targets in prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:27100081

  15. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Behaviour during Adolescence: The Influence of Personality and Gender.

    PubMed

    Reniers, Renate L E P; Murphy, Laura; Lin, Ashleigh; Bartolomé, Sandra Para; Wood, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on adolescents' perception of risk and their risk-taking behaviour. Male and female participants (157 females: 116 males, aged 13-20) completed self-report measures on risk perception, risk-taking and personality. Male participants perceived behaviours as less risky, reportedly took more risks, were less sensitive to negative outcomes and less socially anxious than female participants. Path analysis identified a model in which age, behavioural inhibition and impulsiveness directly influenced risk perception, while age, social anxiety, impulsiveness, sensitivity to reward, behavioural inhibition and risk perception itself were directly or indirectly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Age and behavioural inhibition had direct relationships with social anxiety, and reward sensitivity was associated with impulsiveness. The model was representative for the whole sample and male and female groups separately. The observed relationship between age and social anxiety and the influence this may have on risk-taking behaviour could be key for reducing adolescent risk-taking behaviour. Even though adolescents may understand the riskiness of their behaviour and estimate their vulnerability to risk at a similar level to adults, factors such as anxiety regarding social situations, sensitivity to reward and impulsiveness may exert their influence and make these individuals prone to taking risks. If these associations are proven causal, these factors are, and will continue to be, important targets in prevention and intervention efforts.

  16. A review of parenting and adolescent sexual behavior: The moderating role of gender

    PubMed Central

    Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Sterrett, Emma; McKee, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the established link between parenting and adolescent sexual risk behavior, less is known about the role of adolescent gender as a potential moderator of this association. This literature review integrates findings from 24 studies to examine gender as a moderator of the link between parenting and youth sexual risk behavior. Despite the wide variability in methodology across the reviewed studies, findings suggest that monitoring may be more protective against sexual risk behavior for boys than girls, whereas parental warmth and emotional connection may be an especially salient factor for girls. The results of this review support further research on gender as an important factor in better understanding the role of parenting in the development of adolescent sexual behavior. Furthermore, the findings highlight the potential role of gender-specific, tailored family-focused prevention programs targeting sexual behavior. PMID:22366393

  17. Sexual harassment among adolescents of different sexual orientations and gender identities.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ybarra, Michele L; Korchmaros, Josephine D

    2014-02-01

    This article examines (a) variation in rates of sexual harassment across mode (e.g., in-person, online) and type of harassment, (b) the impact of sexual harassment (i.e., distressing vs. non-distressing), and (c) how sexual harassment is similarly and differently experienced across sexual orientation and gender identity groups. Data were collected as part of the Teen Health and Technology online survey of 5,907 13 to 18 year-old Internet users in the United States. Past year sexual harassment was reported by 23-72% of youth, depending upon sexual orientation, with the highest rates reported by lesbian/queer girls (72%), bisexual girls (66%), and gay/queer boys (66%). When examined by gender identity, transgender youth reported the highest rates of sexual harassment - 81%. Overall, the most common modes for sexual harassment were in-person followed by online. Distress in the form of interference with school, family, and/or friends; creating a hostile environment; or being very/extremely upset was reported by about half of the sexually harassed bisexual girls and lesbian/queer girls, 65% of the gender non-conforming/other gender youth, and 63% of the transgender youth. Youth with high social support and self-esteem were less likely to report sexual harassment. Findings point to the great importance of sexual harassment prevention for all adolescents, with particular emphasis on the unique needs and experiences of youth of different sexual orientations and gender identities. Socio-emotional programs that emphasize self-esteem building could be particularly beneficial for reducing the likelihood of victimization and lessen the impact when it occurs.

  18. Individuation among bedouin versus urban arab adolescents: ethnic and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Dwairy, Marwan

    2004-11-01

    Three scales assessing individuation (Objective Measure of Ego-Identity Status [OMEIS], Separation-Individuation Test of Adolescence [SITA], and Multigenerational Interconnectedness Scale [MIS]) were administered to 40 female and 38 male Bedouin Arab adolescents and to 39 female and 38 male urban Arab adolescents in Grade 12. It was hypothesized that Bedouin Arab adolescents and female adolescents would manifest less individuation than urban Arab adolescents and male adolescents, respectively. Results from the OMEIS revealed that the identity foreclosed mean of the Bedouin adolescents was higher than that of the urban adolescents. As for the SITA, significant differences were found between Bedouin and urban Arabs in terms of dependency denial, separation anxiety, teacher enmeshment, peer enmeshment, and rejection expectancy. Significant gender differences were found in regard to dependency denial, and a borderline difference was found for separation anxiety. Significant effects of ethnicity and gender were found on the financial interconnectedness subscale of the MIS. The results support the present hypotheses concerning ethnicity differences and indicate that urbanization seems to narrow the differences in individuation between male and female adolescents.

  19. Recent Findings on Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Farhat, Tilda

    2012-01-01

    This review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. Specifically, we examine the theoretical explanations for how social influence works with respect to adolescent smoking, discuss the association between peer and adolescent smoking; consider socialization and selection processes with respect to smoking; investigate the relative influence of best friends, close friends, and crowd affiliations; and examine parenting behaviors that could buffer the effects of peer influence. Our review indicates the following with respect to adolescent smoking: (1) substantial peer group homogeneity of smoking behavior; (2) support for both socialization and selection effects, although evidence is somewhat stronger for selection; (3) an interactive influence of best friends, peer groups and crowd affiliation; and (4) an indirect protective effect of positive parenting practices against the uptake of adolescent smoking. We conclude with implications for research and prevention programs. PMID:20614184

  20. Interracial Panjabi in a British Adolescent Peer Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampton, M. B. H.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration of the use of Panjabi by British Black adolescents and White adolescents in a mixed peer group, analyzing contexts of Panjabi occurrence and crossing, showed that Panjabi was important in managing the divisions that cross-cut youth community and in extending horizons beyond the confines of local neighborhood experience. (31…

  1. Gender differences in brain development in Chinese children and adolescents: a structural MRI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Yao, Li

    2008-03-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated gender differences in brain development through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 158 Chinese normal children and adolescents aged 7.26 to 22.80 years (mean age 15.03+/-4.70 years, 78 boys and 80 girls). Gender groups were matched for measures of age, handedness, education level. The customized brain templates, including T I-weighted image and gray matter (GM)/white matter (WM)/cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) prior probability maps, were created from all participants. Results showed that the total intracranial volume (TIV), global absolute GM and global WM volume in girls were significantly smaller than those in boys. The hippocampus grew faster in girls than that in boys, but the amygdala grew faster in boys than that in girls. The rate of regional GM decreases with age was steeper in the left superior parietal lobule, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, left precuneus, and bilateral supramarginal gyrus in boys compared to girls, which was possibly related to better spatial processing ability in boys. Regional GM volumes were greater in bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus in girls. Regional WM volumes were greater in the left temporal lobe, right inferior parietal and bilateral middle frontal gyrus in girls. The gender differences in the temporal and frontal lobe maybe be related to better language ability in girls. These findings may aid in understanding the differences in cognitive function between boys and girls.

  2. Physical aggression, spreading of rumors, and social prominence in early adolescence: reciprocal effects supporting gender similarities?

    PubMed

    Juvonen, Jaana; Wang, Yueyan; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2013-12-01

    There is a robust association between aggression and social prominence by early adolescence, yet findings regarding the direction of influence remain inconclusive in light of gender differences across various forms of aggressive behaviors. The current study examined whether physical aggression and spreading of rumors, as two gender-typed aggressive behaviors that differ in overt displays of power, promote and/or maintain socially prominent status for girls and boys during non-transitional grades in middle school. Peer nominations were used to assess physical aggression, spreading of rumors, and "cool" reputation (social prominence) during three time points between the spring of seventh grade and spring of eighth grade. Participants included 1,895 (54 % female) ethnically diverse youth: 47 % Latino, 22 % African-American, 11 % Asian, 10 % White and 10 % Other/Mixed ethnic background. Cross-lagged path analyses were conducted to test the directionality of the effects, and gender moderation was assessed by relying on multi-group analyses. The analyses revealed mainly reciprocal associations for each form of aggression, suggesting that boys, as well as girls, can both gain and maintain their status by spreading rumors about their peers, just as they do by physically fighting and pushing others in urban middle schools. The implications of the findings for interventions are discussed.

  3. Challenging Gender Stereotypes: Theory of Mind and Peer Group Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Rizzo, Michael T.; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the social cognitive skills related to challenging gender stereotypes, children (N = 61, 3-6 years) evaluated a peer who challenged gender stereotypic norms held by the peer’s group. Participants with false belief theory of mind (FB ToM) competence were more likely than participants who did not have FB ToM to expect a peer to challenge the group’s stereotypes and propose that the group engage in a non-stereotypic activity. Further, participants with FB ToM rated challenging the peer group more positively. Participants without FB ToM did not differentiate between their own and the group’s evaluation of challenges to the group’s stereotypic norms, but those with ToM competence asserted that they would be more supportive of challenging the group norm than would the peer group. Results reveal the importance of social-cognitive competencies for recognizing the legitimacy of challenging stereotypes, and for understanding one’s own and other group perspectives. PMID:26395753

  4. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Background Early adolescence (ages 10–14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents’ personal gender attitudes. Objectives To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. Methods A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984–2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Results Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents’ construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. Conclusions The findings from this

  5. Adolescent pregnancies in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador: a rights and gender approach to adolescents' sexual and reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Goicolea, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    In the Andean region of Latin America over one million adolescent girls get pregnant every year. Adolescent pregnancy (AP) has been associated with adverse health and social outcomes, but it has also been favorably viewed as a pathway to adulthood. AP can also be conceptualized as a marker of inequity, since it disproportionately affects girls from the poorest households and those who have not been able to attend school. Using results from a study carried out in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador, this paper explores APs and adolescents' sexual and reproductive health from a rights and gender approach. The paper points out the main features of a rights and gender approach, and how it can be applied to explore APs. Afterward it describes the methodologies (quantitative and qualitative) and main results of the study, framing the findings within the rights and gender approach. Finally, some implications that could be generalizable to global reserach on APs are highlighted. The application of the rights and gender framework to explore APs contributes to a more integral view of the issue. The rights and gender framework stresses the importance of the interaction between rights-holders and duty-bearers on the realization of sexual and reproductive rights, and acknowledges the importance of gender–power relations on sexual and reproductive decisions. A rights and gender approach could lead to more integral and constructive interventions, and it could also be useful when exploring other sexual and reproductive health matters. PMID:20596248

  6. Empowering adolescent girls: developing egalitarian gender norms and relations to end violence.

    PubMed

    Amin, Avni; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2014-01-01

    On the occasion of the International Day of the Girl Child (October 11), this commentary highlights the problem of violence against adolescent girls. It describes the nature and magnitude of violence faced by adolescent girls, what we know about factors that drive violence against women and against adolescent girls. It highlights the importance of promoting egalitarian gender norms, particularly during adolescence, and empowering women and girls in efforts to end such violence. Finally, it offers lessons learned from some promising interventions in this area. PMID:25335989

  7. Gender, Group Composition, and Task Type in Small Task Groups Using Computer-Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savicki, Victor; And Others

    1996-01-01

    To investigate gender effects on computer-mediated communication, undergraduate psychology students were put in small groups (males, females, or mixed) and were assigned feminine content (decision making) and masculine content (intellective) task types. Groups of females, regardless of task, sent more words per e-mail message, were more satisfied…

  8. [Tobacco consumption in pre-adolescent and adolescent school children in Spain: gender differences].

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Ramón; López Pérez, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence of tobacco consumption among pre-adolescent and adolescent school children in Spain at the start of the 21st century. The data were collected within the framework of the "Estilos de Vida de los Adolescentes Escolarizados" (EVAE) project, a nationwide cross-sectional study on the lifestyles of adolescent school children. In this study, a random sample of 8429 students aged from 10 to 18 years old (49.9% boys and 50.1% girls) was selected. The school children filled in an anonymous questionnaire in their classrooms. Among the 12-year-old age group, there are a significantly higher number of boys than girls who have ever smoked tobacco. Figures are higher for girls in the 14-year-old or older age groups. Between the 12 and the 14-year-old age groups, there is an increase of 40 percentage points for girls who have ever smoked tobacco. The prevalence of daily smoking exceeds 10% among the 14-year-old or older age groups, with significantly higher rates for girls than for boys among the 15-year-old group and older students. Among the 17-year-old group, 25% of boys and 35% of girls report that they smoke daily. The recent experience of Spain and other countries shows that it is possible to significantly reduce the prevalence of tobacco consumption among school children within a few years. The primary prevention of tobacco consumption among adolescents can be highly effective and should constitute a priority for the health system, the education system and other sectors involved. PMID:18173098

  9. Emergence of mixed-sex friendship groups during adolescence: Developmental associations with substance use and delinquency.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Lauren E; Gest, Scott D; Feinberg, Mark E; Osgood, D Wayne

    2014-11-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from over 14,000 youth residing in 28 communities in the rural United States were analyzed to examine the emergence of mixed-sex friendship groups in early adolescence. Youth were surveyed on 5 occasions between fall of 6th grade and spring of 9th grade. At each assessment, youth reported the names of up to 7 same-grade friends and described patterns of alcohol use, cigarette use, and delinquency. Approximately 800-900 friendship groups (M = 10.5 members) were identified at each assessment and categorized in terms of gender composition (all-girl, mostly-girl, mixed-sex, mostly-boy, all-boy). The proportion of groups categorized as mixed-sex increased with grade level (10% in 6th grade, 22% in 9th grade), but gender-homogenous groups predominated at all grade levels (76% in 6th grade, 51% in 9th grade). Mixed-sex groups were slightly larger than all-girl groups but the same size as all-boy groups. All-girl groups had the highest levels of tight-knittedness (i.e., density, reciprocity, and transitivity), with mixed-sex groups having the lowest levels and all-boy groups having intermediate levels. After controlling for demographic factors, future mixed-sex group membership was predicted by lower popularity, higher levels of delinquency, and lower levels of alcohol use; mixed-sex friendship group membership was associated with increased likelihood of cigarette use. Results are partially consistent with Dunphy's (1969) classic account of the emergence of mixed-sex groups in adolescence, but suggest that in early adolescence, mixed-sex group affiliation is significantly associated with deviant behavior and peripheral social status, not with popularity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Emergence of Mixed-Sex Friendship Groups during Adolescence: Developmental Associations with Substance Use & Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Lauren E.; Gest, Scott D.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from over 14,000 youth residing in 28 communities in the rural U.S. were analyzed to examine the emergence of mixed-sex friendship groups in early adolescence. Youth were surveyed on five occasions between fall of 6th grade and spring of 9th grade. At each assessment, youth reported the names of up to seven same-grade friends and described patterns of alcohol use, cigarette use and delinquency. Approximately 800 – 900 friendship groups (Mean = 10.5 members) were identified at each assessment and categorized in terms of gender composition (all-girl, mostly-girl, mixed-sex, mostly-boy, all-boy). The proportion of groups categorized as mixed-sex increased with grade level (10% in 6th grade, 22% in 9th grade), but gender-homogenous groups predominated at all grade levels (76% in 6th grade, 51% in 9th grade). Mixed-sex groups were slightly larger than all-girl groups but the same size as all-boy groups. All-girl groups had the highest levels of tightknittedness (i.e., density, reciprocity and transitivity), with mixed-sex groups having the lowest levels and all-boy groups having intermediate levels. After controlling for demographic factors, future mixed-sex group membership was predicted by lower popularity, higher levels of delinquency and lower levels of alcohol use; and mixed-sex friendship group membership was associated with increased likelihood of cigarette use. Results are partially consistent with Dunphy’s classic account of the emergence of mixed-sex groups in adolescence, but suggest that in early adolescence, mixed-sex group affiliation is significantly associated with deviant behavior and peripheral social status, not with popularity. PMID:25221839

  11. Mixed-Gender Co-Facilitation in Therapeutic Groups for Men Who Have Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence: Group Members' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Valerie; Lindsay, Jocelyn; Dallaire, Louis-Francois

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a study that explored the use of mixed-gender co-facilitation in intimate partner violence groups, especially regarding its potential for gender role socialization. Using an interpretive approach, interviews with men from different mixed-gender co-facilitated groups in Canada were analyzed, with a focus on the men's…

  12. Developmental Trajectories of Aggression from Late Childhood through Adolescence: Similarities and Differences across Gender

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongling; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Chen, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous investigations of overt aggressive and antisocial trajectories have been undertaken, there is a dearth of literature examining gender differences and similarities in trajectory patterns and their correlates. To address these gaps, we investigated gender differences in the prevalence rates, predictive validity during transition to adulthood, childhood risk factors, and adolescent correlates of different trajectories of teacher-reported overt aggression (i.e., fights, argues, gets in trouble) among 220 participants (116 girls and 104 boys) evaluated annually from grade 4 to grade 12. Four patterns of trajectories were identified: low, increasing (i.e., adolescent-onset), decreasing (i.e., childhood-limited), and high (i.e., childhood-onset). majority large proportion of youth, particularly girls, displayed low levels of aggression over time. A small proportion followed the childhood-onset trajectory. Across gender, the childhood-onset trajectory was associated with the highest rates of maladjustment during the transition to adulthood, the highest number of childhood risk factors, and multiple problems during adolescence. The adolescent-onset trajectory was associated with few childhood risk factors, but with high levels of independent status during adolescence. In contrast, the childhood-limited trajectory was associated with several childhood risk factors, but high levels of parental monitoring and school engagement during adolescence. Romantic involvement differentiated the adolescent-onset and childhood-limited trajectories among girls. PMID:21748751

  13. Demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual characteristics of adolescents with gender identity disorder or transvestic fetishism.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Bradley, Susan J; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Kibblewhite, Sarah J; Wood, Hayley; Singh, Devita; Choi, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study provided a descriptive and quantitative comparative analysis of data from an assessment protocol for adolescents referred clinically for gender identity disorder (n = 192; 105 boys, 87 girls) or transvestic fetishism (n = 137, all boys). The protocol included information on demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual measures. Gender identity disorder and transvestic fetishism youth had high rates of general behavior problems and poor peer relations. On the psychosexual measures, gender identity disorder patients had considerably greater cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did transvestic fetishism youth and other control youth. Male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a nonhomosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex) reported more indicators of transvestic fetishism than did male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a homosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex). The percentage of transvestic fetishism youth and male gender identity disorder patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation self-reported similar degrees of behaviors pertaining to transvestic fetishism. Last, male and female gender identity disorder patients with a homosexual sexual orientation had more recalled cross-gender behavior during childhood and more concurrent cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation. The authors discuss the clinical utility of their assessment protocol. PMID:22390530

  14. Demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual characteristics of adolescents with gender identity disorder or transvestic fetishism.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Bradley, Susan J; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Kibblewhite, Sarah J; Wood, Hayley; Singh, Devita; Choi, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study provided a descriptive and quantitative comparative analysis of data from an assessment protocol for adolescents referred clinically for gender identity disorder (n = 192; 105 boys, 87 girls) or transvestic fetishism (n = 137, all boys). The protocol included information on demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual measures. Gender identity disorder and transvestic fetishism youth had high rates of general behavior problems and poor peer relations. On the psychosexual measures, gender identity disorder patients had considerably greater cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did transvestic fetishism youth and other control youth. Male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a nonhomosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex) reported more indicators of transvestic fetishism than did male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a homosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex). The percentage of transvestic fetishism youth and male gender identity disorder patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation self-reported similar degrees of behaviors pertaining to transvestic fetishism. Last, male and female gender identity disorder patients with a homosexual sexual orientation had more recalled cross-gender behavior during childhood and more concurrent cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation. The authors discuss the clinical utility of their assessment protocol.

  15. Adolescent Gender Differences in HIV-Related Sexual Risk Acts, Social-Cognitive Factors and Behavioral Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Reid, Helen M.

    1998-01-01

    Assesses variations in perceived HIV risk, peer and partner social norms regarding safe sex, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and risk-reduction skills based on gender and sexual risk-level among 132 heterosexual, sexually active, inner-city adolescents. Results imply that adolescents' HIV-prevention programs must be tailored to gender and…

  16. Identity Groups with American Indian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerschlag, Carl A.

    The struggle for self discovery is the major task of adolescent development. That struggle can be magnified by certain psychosocial forces which retard such ego identity development. American Indians share a centuries old, psychohistorical experience of massive disenfranchisement, powerlessness, and enforced dependency. Its symptomatic legacy is…

  17. Reference Group Influence on Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, J. L.; Arndt, Stephan

    2002-01-01

    Study assessed relative influence of perceived level of support for adolescent's alcohol use by best friends, most students in school, live-in parents/guardians, and adults in neighborhood/community. Findings revealed some differences by sex and grade level, and the different kinds of drinking behavior. Prevention programs including all four…

  18. [Sexually transmitted diseases and gender: a cross-sectional study with adolescents in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Taquette, Stella R; de Vilhena, Marília Mello; de Paula, Mariana Campos

    2004-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are frequent in adolescence and contribute to the increase in the number of AIDS cases. Early sexual initiation, multiple sex partners, and lack of condom use are considered risk factors and are influenced by a male-dominated gender system. We interviewed 356 adolescent patients at the Adolescent Health Research Center in Rio de Janeiro State University to identify possible STD risk factors in adolescence. Young men reported more partners and early sexual initiation. Females used condoms less frequently and were more subject to sexual abuse. The results confirm a model sustained by traditional gender values that demarcate the male and female spheres, with male supremacy. We conclude that to achieve more effective STD control, it is necessary to expand the discussion on culturally constructed patterns of masculinity and femininity.

  19. Gender and family differences in adolescent's heavy alcohol use: the power-control theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, K

    2010-10-01

    According to the power-control theory, growing independence of adolescent girls, manifest in more prevalent problem behaviors, may be explained by changes in family structure (increasing level of authority gained in the workplace by mothers). To verify this hypothesis, self-report data from Warsaw adolescents (N = 3087, age 14-15 years, 50% boys) were used. Results indicate that parenting practices differ across child gender and structure of parents' work authority. Girls, especially in patriarchal households, spend more time with mothers and perceive stronger maternal control. In egalitarian families, fathers tend to be more involved with sons than with daughters. When parental control, support and adolescents' risk preferences are controlled, the gender-by-household type interaction effect is observed--girls in patriarchal families have the lowest risk of getting drunk. Study results provide support for power-control theory showing the relationship between parental work authority and adolescent's heavy alcohol use.

  20. Gender and family differences in adolescent's heavy alcohol use: the power-control theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, K

    2010-10-01

    According to the power-control theory, growing independence of adolescent girls, manifest in more prevalent problem behaviors, may be explained by changes in family structure (increasing level of authority gained in the workplace by mothers). To verify this hypothesis, self-report data from Warsaw adolescents (N = 3087, age 14-15 years, 50% boys) were used. Results indicate that parenting practices differ across child gender and structure of parents' work authority. Girls, especially in patriarchal households, spend more time with mothers and perceive stronger maternal control. In egalitarian families, fathers tend to be more involved with sons than with daughters. When parental control, support and adolescents' risk preferences are controlled, the gender-by-household type interaction effect is observed--girls in patriarchal families have the lowest risk of getting drunk. Study results provide support for power-control theory showing the relationship between parental work authority and adolescent's heavy alcohol use. PMID:20513655

  1. Determining gender differences in adolescent physical activity levels using IPAQ long form and pedometers.

    PubMed

    Vašíčková, Jana; Groffik, Dorota; Frömel, Karel; Chmelík, František; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The need to overcome gender differences in physical activity (PA) is an essential part of health and education policy. Adolescent girls display less PA than boys. The aim of the presented research was to determine whether 4-week monitoring with pedometers can influence differences between the level of PA amongst adolescent girls and boys. Four-week interventions using pedometers, motivational brochures and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), long version, and the possibility of using an Internet programme were carried out at 14 randomly selected schools. In total, 275 girls (15.8±0.9 years) and 220 boys (15.8±0.8 years) participated in the study, which was divided into intervention and control groups. The IPAQ questionnaire was applied in the pre-test as part of the ANEWS questionnaire. The IPAQ was solely used in the post-test. Significant differences in average daily steps were not observed in the intervention group for girls and boys (F=3.79; p<.05; ω(2) =.011), nor were differences in girls' average number of steps in school vs. weekend days observed (p=.82). The lowest amount of PA in boys was observed on Sunday (n=10,390±3,728 steps•day(-1)), while overall, boys had a larger amount of steps on school days than at weekends (p<.01). In contrast, girls walked more during the week following the intervention. The four-week intervention eliminated the difference in the overall PA of adolescent girls and boys, together with the difference between school and weekends among girls. The use of pedometers, motivational recording brochures and an Internet programme for maintaining PA for a longer period, supported the continuance for movement of an active and healthy lifestyle among girls significantly more than their use among boys. PMID:24364448

  2. Peer Group Socialization of Homophobic Attitudes and Behavior during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul

    2007-01-01

    A social developmental framework was applied to test for the socialization of homophobic attitudes and behavior within adolescent peer groups (Grades 7-11; aged 12-17 years). Substantial similarity within and differences across groups were documented. Multilevel models identified a group socializing contextual effect, predicting homophobic…

  3. Gender Differences in HIV/AIDS Preventive Self-Efficacy Among Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Cooksey-James, Tawna

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to understand gender differences in HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy among Taiwanese adolescents. Self-administered questionnaires were used to measure HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy and covariates (age, substance use, and sexual experiences). Data were collected from 734 Taiwanese high school adolescents aged 16 to 18 years. Descriptive statistic analyses, t-test, and ANCOVA were utilized to analyze data. The results indicate significant differences exist between genders in HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy among Taiwanese adolescents. Compared to the males, female adolescents were found having significantly higher HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy related to refusing sexual intercourse, condom use, and questioning potential sexual partners than those who are males. While controlling age, sexual experience, and substance use, female Taiwanese adolescents also had higher HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy than those who are males. The findings suggest the importance of addressing gender differences in HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy when developing HIV reduction programs for Taiwanese adolescents.

  4. Substance Use among Late Adolescent Urban Youths: Mental Health and Gender Influences

    PubMed Central

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.; Trent, Danielle N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores gender and mental health influences on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among late adolescent urban youths. Specifically, we examine whether rates of substance use differ by gender, whether mental health indices differ by gender and are predictive of substance use, and whether gender moderates the relationship between mental health and substance use. Data from our non-clinical sample of 400 youths were collected primarily online. Analysis of cross-sectional data revealed no differences in substance use by gender. Indices of mental health differed by gender, with girls reporting greater symptoms of depression and anxiety. Ratings of hostility were similar for boys and girls. Alcohol, tobacco, and drug use were associated with greater symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hostility; this relationship, however, was not moderated by gender. Study findings provide evidence that among late adolescent youths living in urban areas, poorer mental health status is associated with increased substance use. Evidence of a moderating effect of gender on the relationship between mental health and substance use was not significant. PMID:19716660

  5. The Role of Adolescents' Morality and Identity in Volunteering. Age and Gender Differences in a Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Goethem, Anne A. J.; van Hoof, Anne; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Boom, Jan; de Castro, Bram Orobio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explain adolescents' volunteering in terms of their morality and identity and to examine the moderation effect of gender and age in this process. Data were collected among 698 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 20 (M = 15.19; SD = 1.43). Adolescents' moral reasoning was positively associated with understanding moral issues…

  6. Adolescents' Selective Visual Attention for High-Status Peers: The Role of Perceiver Status and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Karremans, Johan C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that adolescents' attention for a peer is determined by the peer's status. This study examined how it is also determined by the status of the perceiving adolescent, and the gender of both parties involved (perceiver and perceived). Participants were 122 early adolescents (M age = 11.0 years) who completed…

  7. Multivariate Models of Parent-Late Adolescent Gender Dyads: The Importance of Parenting Processes in Predicting Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture important predictors in late adolescents' important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample…

  8. What Will I Be when I Grow up? The Impact of Gender Identity Threat on Adolescents' Occupational Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Samantha; Carlsson, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of gender identity threat on adolescents' occupational preferences. Two hundred and ninety-seven adolescents (45% girls, M age = 14.4, SD = 0.54) participated in the experiment. There were substantial differences between boys' and girls' occupational preferences. Importantly, adolescents who received a threat…

  9. Sex Differences in the Multidimensional Self-Concepts of African American Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Gender Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Nicole Renick; Zand, Debra H.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates whether the gender identities of African American adolescents mediate sex differences found in their multidimensional self-concepts. The sample included 174 African American adolescents who completed the 21-item Children's Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. Results…

  10. Body Perceptions, Weight Control Behavior, and Changes in Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being over Time: A Longitudinal Examination of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt Yuan, Anastasia S.

    2010-01-01

    This study used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to explore gender differences in the relationship between body perceptions and behavior and changes in adolescents' psychological well-being over a one-year time period. The sample included 12,814 adolescents (51% girls) aged 11-20 comprised of 68% Non-Hispanic White, 15% African…

  11. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Behaviour during Adolescence: The Influence of Personality and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Reniers, Renate L. E. P.; Murphy, Laura; Lin, Ashleigh; Bartolomé, Sandra Para; Wood, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on adolescents’ perception of risk and their risk-taking behaviour. Male and female participants (157 females: 116 males, aged 13–20) completed self-report measures on risk perception, risk-taking and personality. Male participants perceived behaviours as less risky, reportedly took more risks, were less sensitive to negative outcomes and less socially anxious than female participants. Path analysis identified a model in which age, behavioural inhibition and impulsiveness directly influenced risk perception, while age, social anxiety, impulsiveness, sensitivity to reward, behavioural inhibition and risk perception itself were directly or indirectly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Age and behavioural inhibition had direct relationships with social anxiety, and reward sensitivity was associated with impulsiveness. The model was representative for the whole sample and male and female groups separately. The observed relationship between age and social anxiety and the influence this may have on risk-taking behaviour could be key for reducing adolescent risk-taking behaviour. Even though adolescents may understand the riskiness of their behaviour and estimate their vulnerability to risk at a similar level to adults, factors such as anxiety regarding social situations, sensitivity to reward and impulsiveness may exert their influence and make these individuals prone to taking risks. If these associations are proven causal, these factors are, and will continue to be, important targets in prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:27100081

  12. Parenting practices and peer group affiliation in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Brown, B B; Mounts, N; Lamborn, S D; Steinberg, L

    1993-04-01

    Social scientists have often assumed that parental influence is sharply curtailed at adolescence because of the rising counterinfluence of peer groups, over which parents have little control. The present study tested a conceptual model that challenged this view by arguing that parents retain a notable but indirect influence over their teenage child's peer associates. Data from a sample of 3,781 high school students (ages 15-19) indicated that specific parenting practices (monitoring, encouragement of achievement, joint decision making) were significantly associated with specific adolescent behaviors (academic achievement, drug use, self-reliance), which in turn were significantly related to membership in common adolescent crowds (jocks, druggies, etc). Findings encourage investigators to assess more carefully parents' role in adolescents' peer group affiliations.

  13. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  14. [Gender identity disorder and related sexual behavior problems in children and adolescents: from the perspective of development and child psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The present paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on children and adolescents with gender identity disorder. The organizational framework underlying this review is one that presents gender behavior in children and adolescents as a continuum rather than as a dichotomy of normal versus abnormal categories. Theories of normative gender development, prevalence, assessment, developmental trajectories, and comorbidity were investigated. There is a greater fluidity and likelihood of change in the pre-pubertal period. It was reported that the majority of affected children had been eventually developing a homosexual orientation. As an approach to determine the prevalence of GID in clinical samples in our child psychiatry clinic, screening instruments that include items on cross-gender or cross-sex identification were used. We applied the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Of the 113 items in the Japanese version of the CBCL, there are two measures of cross-gender identification: "behaves like opposite sex" and "wishes to be opposite sex." Like the other items, they are scored on a 3-point scale of: 0-not true, 1- somewhat true, and 2-very true. Our study of 323 clinically-referred children aged 4-15 years reported that, among the boys, 9.6% assigned a score of 1 (somewhat true) or a score of 2 (very true) to the two items. The corresponding rates for the clinically-referred girls were 24.5%. The item of diagnosis of GID in our clinical sample was significantly higher than in non-referred children, reported as 2-5% using the same method. Two clinical case histories of screened children are also presented. Both of them were diagnosed with PDDNOS. Together with the literature review, most of the gender-related symptoms in autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) could be related to the behavioral and psychological characteristics of autism as shown in case histories. ASD subjects in adolescence can sometimes develop a unique confusion of identity that occasionally

  15. Inter-Group and Intra-Group Assertiveness: Adolescents' Social Skills Following Cultural Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korem, Anat; Horenczyk, Gabriel; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine intra-group and inter-group assertiveness among adolescents, and to compare these two domains of assertiveness between cultural groups in Israel. Measures of intra-group and inter-group assertiveness were developed, and questionnaires were administrated to 441 immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU),…

  16. The Gender Structure of Adolescent Peer Influence on Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaughan, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The interactions of adolescent peers are the subject of both parental angst and scholarly attention. Peer influence is the most consistent predictor of adolescent drinking patterns when controlling for other background characteristics. This study extends these findings to incorporate a theoretical argument derived from status characteristics…

  17. Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

    A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

  18. The Borderline Personality Diagnosis in Adolescents: Gender Differences and Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Rebekah; Zittel Conklin, Carolyn; Westen, Drew

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to identify personality features characterizing adolescent girls and boys with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and to see whether meaningful patterns of heterogeneity exist among adolescents diagnosed with the disorder. Methods: Two hundred and ninety-four randomly selected doctoral-level clinicians described…

  19. Adolescent Leisure Dimensions, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Gender Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham L.; Inglis, Brad C.

    2012-01-01

    Leisure provides the context for much of adolescent behaviour and development. While both theory and research point to the benefits of participation in leisure activities that are highly structured, the association between structured leisure and psychosocial adjustment is not uniformly high. This paper presents a model of adolescent leisure…

  20. Problem Solving in the Natural Sciences and Early Adolescent Girls' Gender Roles and Self-Esteem a Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis from AN Ecological Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavkin, Michael

    What impact do gender roles and self-esteem have on early adolescent girls' abilities to solve problems when participating in natural science-related activities? Bronfenbrenner's human ecology model and Barker's behavior setting theory were used to assess how environmental contexts relate to problem solving in scientific contexts. These models also provided improved methodology and increased understanding of these constructs when compared with prior research. Early adolescent girls gender roles and self-esteem were found to relate to differences in problem solving in science-related groups. Specifically, early adolescent girls' gender roles were associated with levels of verbal expression, expression of positive affect, dominance, and supportive behavior during science experiments. Also, levels of early adolescent girls self-esteem were related to verbal expression and dominance in peer groups. Girls with high self-esteem also were more verbally expressive and had higher levels of dominance during science experiments. The dominant model of a masculine-typed and feminine-typed dichotomy of problem solving based on previous literature was not effective in Identifying differences within girls' problem solving. Such differences in the results of these studies may be the result of this study's use of observational measures and analysis of the behavior settings in which group members participated. Group behavior and problem-solving approaches of early adolescent girls seemed most likely to be defined by environmental contexts, not governed solely by the personalities of participants. A discussion for the examination of environmental factors when assessing early adolescent girls' gender roles and self-esteem follows this discussion.

  1. Linking community, parenting, and depressive symptom trajectories: testing resilience models of adolescent agency based on race/ethnicity and gender.

    PubMed

    Williams, Amanda L; Merten, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Family stress models illustrate how communities affect youth outcomes through effects on parents and studies consistently show the enduring effects of early community context. The present study takes a different approach identifying human agency during adolescence as a potentially significant promotive factor mediating the relationship between community, parenting, and mental health. While agency is an important part of resilience, its longitudinal effects are unknown, particularly based on gender and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this research was to model the long-term effects of community structural adversity and social resources as predictors of adolescent depressive symptom trajectories via indirect effects of parental happiness, parent-child relationships, and human agency. Latent growth analyses were conducted with 1,796 participants (53% female; 56% White) across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health spanning adolescence (Wave 1) through adulthood (Wave 4). The results identified agency as an important promotive factor during adolescence with long-term mental health benefits, but only for White and male participants. For these individuals, community social resources and the quality of the parent-child relationship were related to higher levels of agency and more positive mental health trajectories. Although community social resources similarly benefitted parenting and agency among females and non-White participants, there were no significant links between agency and depressive symptoms for these youth. The results suggest that agency remains an important, but poorly understood concept and additional work is necessary to continue unpacking its meaning for diverse groups of youth. PMID:24907892

  2. Linking community, parenting, and depressive symptom trajectories: testing resilience models of adolescent agency based on race/ethnicity and gender.

    PubMed

    Williams, Amanda L; Merten, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Family stress models illustrate how communities affect youth outcomes through effects on parents and studies consistently show the enduring effects of early community context. The present study takes a different approach identifying human agency during adolescence as a potentially significant promotive factor mediating the relationship between community, parenting, and mental health. While agency is an important part of resilience, its longitudinal effects are unknown, particularly based on gender and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this research was to model the long-term effects of community structural adversity and social resources as predictors of adolescent depressive symptom trajectories via indirect effects of parental happiness, parent-child relationships, and human agency. Latent growth analyses were conducted with 1,796 participants (53% female; 56% White) across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health spanning adolescence (Wave 1) through adulthood (Wave 4). The results identified agency as an important promotive factor during adolescence with long-term mental health benefits, but only for White and male participants. For these individuals, community social resources and the quality of the parent-child relationship were related to higher levels of agency and more positive mental health trajectories. Although community social resources similarly benefitted parenting and agency among females and non-White participants, there were no significant links between agency and depressive symptoms for these youth. The results suggest that agency remains an important, but poorly understood concept and additional work is necessary to continue unpacking its meaning for diverse groups of youth.

  3. Gateway Polydrug Use among Puerto Rican and Dominican Adolescents Residing in New York City: The Moderating Role of Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jennifer A.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Diaz, Tracy

    2002-01-01

    Examines polydrug use among adolescents residing in an inner-city region by Hispanic ethnicity (Puerto Rican versus Dominican) and gender. Results indicate that in the first year of middle school, gender moderated the effect of Hispanic ethnicity on lifetime polydrug use. Concludes that both Hispanic ethnicity and gender mattered in determining…

  4. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Role of Gender-Typed Characteristics, Self-Esteem, Body Image, Stressful Life Events, and Pubertal Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Diane; Fortin, Laurier; Potvin, Pierre; Papillon, Myra

    2002-01-01

    In a study of French-speaking adolescents (n=547), five measures designed to examine psychological well being found that body image, self-esteem, and negative stressful life events mediate the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Further analysis of a subsample who recently transitioned to high school also found…

  5. Middle Level Team Scheduling: Appropriate Grouping for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Robert C.

    1992-01-01

    The interdisciplinary team organization allows teachers to allocate time to accommodate the curriculum and young adolescents' instructional needs. For maximum flexibility, several scheduling options may be considered: large-group instructional time, one less period daily, heterogeneous class grouping, and "top class" team scheduling. Advantages,…

  6. Individual Differences in Adolescent Health Symptoms: The Effects of Gender and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G.S.; Pritchard, M.E.; Revalee, B.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that adult men and women experience different types and severities of physical and psychological health symptoms. This study examined whether in the case of adolescents these reported gender differences in physical and psychological health symptoms could actually be the result of differences in coping styles. Five…

  7. Gender Differences in the Social Motivation and Friendship Experiences of Autistic and Non-Autistic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedgewick, Felicity; Hill, Vivian; Yates, Rhiannon; Pickering, Leanne; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined gender differences in the social motivation and friendship experiences of adolescent boys and girls with autism relative to those without autism, all educated within special education settings. Autistic girls showed similar social motivation and friendship quality to non-autistic girls, while autistic boys…

  8. Adolescents, the Internet, and the Politics of Gender: A Feminist Case Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Meenakshi Gigi

    2001-01-01

    Presents a feminist case analysis based on field observation of hands-on Internet sessions for low-income, minority, urban middle school students. Examination of the social dynamic within which Internet use occurred indicated that adolescents' social locations in terms of gender, race, and class worked to constrain Internet use to support dominant…

  9. Conflict Resolution in Mexican American Adolescents' Friendships: Links with Culture, Gender and Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Shawna M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Delgado, Melissa Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to describe the conflict resolution practices used in Mexican American adolescents' friendships, to explore the role of cultural orientations and values and gender-typed personality qualities in conflict resolution use, and to assess the connections between conflict resolution and friendship quality. Participants were 246…

  10. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…

  11. Gender Differences and Psychosocial Factors Associated with Alcohol Involvement and Dysphoria in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Thomas F.; Newcomb, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines correlations between Alcohol Involvement, Dysphoria, and their combined effects, with Social Conformity, Perceived Opportunity, Relationship Satisfaction, Parental Divorce, and Family Support/Bonding in a sample of late adolescents. Results revealed gender differences between Alcohol Involvement and Dysphoria. (Contains 74 references, 2…

  12. The Early Personality Context of Adolescent Dysthymia: A Prospective Study of Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjerde, Per F.; Block, Jack

    Adolescence has been identified as a period when appreciable gender differences begin to occur in the nature and frequency of depressive symptoms. Following puberty there is a sharp increase in the frequency of depression among girls and an apparent decrease in the frequency of depression in boys. The Block and Block longitudinally-followed sample…

  13. The Avid Adolescent Reader Revisited: Gender Differences and Their Association with Family Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Su-Yen; Lu, Luo

    2012-01-01

    As a follow-up study to a cross-sectional national study that established the linkage between gender as well as family factors and the likelihood of being Taiwanese adolescent readers, this study attempted to utilize the same data set with longitudinal data to explore whether the association between family factors and being an avid adolescent…

  14. Brief Report: Associations of Parental Warmth, Peer Support, and Gender with Adolescent Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Operario, Don; Tschann, Jeanne; Flores, Elena; Bridges, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of the associations among parental warmth, peer support, gender, and emotional distress in a sample of 308 adolescents in the United States. Parental warmth was associated with less emotional distress, whereas turning to peers for support during family conflict was associated with more emotional distress. Gender…

  15. The Relationship of Time Perspective to Age, Gender, and Academic Achievement among Academically Talented Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…

  16. Gender Differences in Food Preferences of School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…

  17. Developmental Changes in Gender Composition of Friendship Networks in Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin, Francois; Pedersen, Sara

    2007-01-01

    This article describes both normative changes and individual differences in the gender composition of girls' and boys' friendship networks across adolescence and predicts variations in these changes. It also examines changes in the characteristics (context, age difference, closeness, and support) of same- and other-sex friendships in the network.…

  18. Fighting Like a Girl Fighting Like a Guy: Gender Identity, Ideology, and Girls at Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lyn Mikel; Tappan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we explore the phenomenon of "girls fighting like guys" by listening to adolescent girls' justification for physical fighting with other girls. We argue that physical girlfighting is a particular kind of gendered performance--a performance of identity that expresses, at least in part, an answer to the question, "Who am I?"--that…

  19. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Taiwanese Adolescents' Mathematics Attitudes and Their Perceptions toward Virtual Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chun-Yi; Yuan, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    This study explored gender differences in the relationship between young people's mathematics attitudes and their perceptions toward virtual manipulatives. Seven hundred eighty junior high school adolescents who participated in the problem-solving activity using virtual manipulatives were selected for examination. The study found the male…

  20. Factors Associated with Gender Differences in Parent-Adolescent Relationships that Delay First Intercourse in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagamatsu, Miyuki; Saito, Hisako; Sato, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    Background: To determine the factors associated with gender differences in parent-adolescent relationships that delay first intercourse in Japan. Methods: Japanese high school students aged 15-18 years (female = 632 and male = 636) completed a questionnaire that evaluated the relationship with their parents. Logistic regression analyses were…

  1. Personality and Problem Behaviours as Predictors of Adolescents' Social Status: Academic Track and Gender as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubers, Mireille D.; Burk, William J.; Segers, Eliane; Kleinjan, Marloes; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent personality and problem behaviours as predictors of two types of social status: social preference and popularity. Academic track (college preparatory and vocational) and gender were expected to moderate these associations. The sample included 693 students (49.0% female; M = 15.46 years) attending classrooms in two…

  2. Physical Self-Concept in Adolescence: Generalizability of a Multidimensional, Hierarchical Model Across Gender and Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagger, Martin S.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; John Wang, C. K.

    2005-01-01

    This study tests the generalizability of the factor pattern, structural parameters, and latent mean structure of a multidimensional, hierarchical model of physical self-concept in adolescents across gender and grade. A children's version of the Physical Self-Perception Profile (C-PSPP) was administered to seventh-, eighth- and ninth-grade high…

  3. Young Adolescents' Gender-, Ethnicity-, and Popularity-Based Social Schemas of Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemans, Katherine H.; Graber, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Social schemas can influence the perception and recollection of others' behavior and may create biases in the reporting of social events. This study investigated young adolescents' (N = 317) gender-, ethnicity-, and popularity-based social schemas of overtly and relationally aggressive behavior. Results indicated that participants associated overt…

  4. Attachment and Self-Evaluation in Chinese Adolescents: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hairong; Thompson, Ross A.; Ferrer, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated age and gender differences in the quality of attachment to mothers, fathers, and peers, and the association of attachment with measures of self-evaluation in 584 Chinese adolescents in junior high, high school, and university. Their responses to the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment indexed attachment quality, and…

  5. An Investigation of Gender and Age Differences in Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah; St. Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated gender- and age-related differences in academic motivation and classroom behaviour in adolescents. Eight hundred and fifty-five students (415 girls and 440 boys) aged 11-16 ("M" age = 13.96, "SD" = 1.47) filled in a questionnaire that examined student academic motivation and teachers completed a…

  6. Self-Perceived Information Seeking Skills and Self-Esteem in Adolescents by Race and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson-Scott, Lynne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the correlation between self-perceived information seeking skills and self-esteem in adolescents and, further, to determine whether this correlation varied according to race and gender. Tenth-grade students from three public high schools in a Midwestern city were given two instruments. Self-perceived…

  7. Gender and Family as Moderators of the Relationship between Music Video Exposure and Adolescent Sexual Permissiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strouse, Jeremiah S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined family environment and gender as moderators of an hypothesized relationship between exposure to rock music videos and premarital sexual attitudes and behavior. Results of a survey of 214 adolescents revealed a stronger association between permissive sexual attitudes and behavior and reported exposure to music videos for females than for…

  8. Adolescents' Acceptance of Same-Sex Peers Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Staccy S.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated tenth- and twelfth-grade adolescents' (N less than or equal to 264) judgments about the acceptability of same-sex peers who varied in terms of their sexual orientation (straight, gay or lesbian) and their conformity to gender conventions or norms in regard to appearance and mannerisms or activity. Overall, the results of…

  9. Development of Mathematics Interest in Adolescence: Influences of Gender, Family, and School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenzel, Anne C.; Goetz, Thomas; Pekrun, Reinhard; Watt, Helen M. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents' developmental trajectories of mathematics interest and explored related effects of gender, family, and school context. Latent growth curve modeling was used to analyze longitudinal data of N = 3,193 students (51% female) from grades 5 to 9 from all 3 ability tracks of the German state school system. Annual…

  10. Early Adolescent Cross-Gender Friendship Influences on Substance Use Expectations and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malow-Iroff, Micheline

    This report details the results of a project that sought to understand the relationship between cross-gender friendships in early adolescence and substance use expectancies and behaviors. The data for this investigation came from a longitudinal investigation known as the Teen Attitude Survey which began in the fall of 1997 and tracked a sample of…

  11. Acculturation and Gender: Influence on Healthy Dietary Outcomes for Latino Adolescents in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Heather; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Montgomery, Susanne; Rea, Brenda; Backman, Desiree

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Examine acculturation and gender on intention to eat a healthful diet among Latino adolescents using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: Secondary analysis of data set and condensed version of the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (SASH). Setting: Data collected from 34 randomly selected high schools in San Bernardino, CA.…

  12. The Effects of Single versus Mixed Gender Treatment for Adolescent Girls with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babinski, Dara E.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Ross, J. Megan; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the social behavior of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in single and mixed gender treatment settings. We collected ratings of social behavior (i.e., prosocial peer interactions, assertiveness, self-management, compliance, physical aggression, relational aggression) during single and mixed…

  13. Gender Roles, Externalizing Behaviors, and Substance Use Among Mexican-American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    KULIS, STEPHEN; MARSIGLIA, FLAVIO F.; NAGOSHI, JULIE L.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 60 male and 91 female Mexican-American adolescents (age 13–18) were administered measures of positive (i.e., assertive masculinity, affective femininity) and negative (i.e., aggressive masculinity, submissive femininity) gender roles, internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors, peer substance use, and own substance use (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana). Negative gender roles were significantly correlated with internalizing and externalizing problems for both boys and girls, with aggressive masculinity also predicting peer substance use for both genders. Assertive masculinity significantly predicted lower alcohol use in boys, and this effect was not mediated by internalizing problems, externalizing problems, or peer substance use. Negative gender roles significantly predicted higher alcohol use in girls, but this effect was almost completely mediated by internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and peer substance use. Results are discussed in terms of gender role socialization among Mexican Americans. PMID:21031145

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WEIGHT PERCEPTION, GENDER, AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AMONG RURAL ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Puskar, Kathryn; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Fertman, Carl; Ren, Dianxu

    2009-01-01

    Research findings indicate a relationship between weight perception and depression in adolescents. This study explored the relationship between weight perception, gender, and depressive symptoms in rural adolescents. Among 623 rural adolescents who completed a health inventory and a depression scale, 75 participants (n = 62 females; n = 13 males) had depressive symptoms and were used in data analysis. A two-way ANOVA model was used to evaluate the effects of weight perception and gender on depressive symptoms in rural adolescents. Although the 2-way ANOVA was not significant, there was a statistical significant finding for females who reported perceived weight problems and depression. The interaction between gender and weight perception was of marginal statistical significance (p = 0.07). Females who perceived a problem with their weight had higher depressive scores compared to females who did not perceive a problem with their weight (p = 0.0002), however no difference was observed for males. Implications are for rural nurses to screen adolescents for depressive symptoms and their weight perception during health care visits, with emphasis on females. PMID:20556226

  15. Being Left Out: Rejecting Outsiders and Communicating Group Boundaries in Childhood and Adolescent Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunwolf; Leets, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Although communication scholars have examined adult group processes, they have paid little attention to the peer group experiences of children and adolescents. Successfully gaining entry to peer groups is significant, in that rejection in childhood affects self-concept, social skills, and school successes. Guided by a bona fide groups perspective,…

  16. Daily life with depressive symptoms: Gender differences in adolescents' everyday emotional experiences.

    PubMed

    Frost, Allison; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Chung, Alissa Levy; Adam, Emma K

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a prevalent and debilitating illness facing many adolescents, especially adolescent girls, whose risk for this disorder is approximately twice that of boys. Many studies have identified mechanisms that place girls at higher risk for depression during adolescence. Few, however, have examined differences in the everyday emotional experiences of boys and girls with varying levels of depressive symptoms. Using the Experience Sampling Method, this study investigated the roles of gender and depressive symptomatology in the emotional experiences of a community sample of youth (11-18 year-olds) from the Sloan 500 Family Study. Females with higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely than females with fewer depressive symptoms and all males to experience strong negative emotions and to attribute the cause of these emotions to other people. These results suggest that emotional reactivity in interpersonal contexts is especially important to understand gender differences in the daily experience of depressive symptoms. PMID:26107805

  17. Daily life with depressive symptoms: Gender differences in adolescents' everyday emotional experiences.

    PubMed

    Frost, Allison; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Chung, Alissa Levy; Adam, Emma K

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a prevalent and debilitating illness facing many adolescents, especially adolescent girls, whose risk for this disorder is approximately twice that of boys. Many studies have identified mechanisms that place girls at higher risk for depression during adolescence. Few, however, have examined differences in the everyday emotional experiences of boys and girls with varying levels of depressive symptoms. Using the Experience Sampling Method, this study investigated the roles of gender and depressive symptomatology in the emotional experiences of a community sample of youth (11-18 year-olds) from the Sloan 500 Family Study. Females with higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely than females with fewer depressive symptoms and all males to experience strong negative emotions and to attribute the cause of these emotions to other people. These results suggest that emotional reactivity in interpersonal contexts is especially important to understand gender differences in the daily experience of depressive symptoms.

  18. New perspectives in the hormonal treatment of gender dysphoria in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María; Guerra, Patricia; Díaz, Mónica; García-Vega, Elena; Álvarez-Diz, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    Hormonal treatments have been used in adolescents with gender dysphoria in the last decade. The professionals working in gender dysphoria treatment units cannot ignore this new demand. The evolution of care for such adolescents according to the last three versions of the Standards of Care (SC) of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health is described. Starting with the fifth version of the SC, hormonal treatment of adolescents has been contemplated. Recent protocols for hormonal intervention carried out by specialized clinics are analyzed. Finally, the pros and cons of hormonal treatment are debated. These hormonal interventions have major impact on the physical, social, and psychosexual development of patients and have ethical and moral implications for professionals. PMID:25665977

  19. Effects of group size, gender, and ability grouping on learning science process skills using microcomputers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berge, Zane L.

    What are the effects of group size (individuals, pairs, and quads of students), gender, and ability grouping of 245 seventh- and eighth-grade students on achievement within an environment that uses microcomputers as tools in learning science process skills? A split-plot, multivariate factorial design was used to analyze the above factors and interactions among the factors. Analyses indicated that the only statistically significant result was a main effect on ability for the two response variables measured in the study. Major conclusions included: (1) teams of two and four members working together solved problems as effectively as individuals, (2) the lessons and procedures implemented in the manner described generated a gender-neutral achievement outcome in science, and (3) microcomputer, using a file-management program and structured activities, can be used as a tool to promote student learning of science process skills.

  20. [Influence of the sex and gender in the sexual behavior of adolescents].

    PubMed

    García-Vega, Elena; Menéndez Robledo, Elena; García Fernández, Paula; Rico Fernández, Rosana

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relation between gender and sex with the sexual behavior of adolescents. The sample comprised 815 teenagers (M=15.65, Sd.=1.42). The assessment instruments were the BEM Sex Role Inventory, the Sexual Opinion Survey, the Questionnaire of Risk Perception of Bayés and a questionnaire designed for the study. The results revealed that the majority of adolescents do not match the traditional gender stereotypes, defining themselves as adrogynes (34.4%). The teenagers who are defined as adrogynes or masculine carry out more sexual behaviors, and who display more erotophilia. The need to include the variable "gender" as a category of analysis in research on sexual behavior is indicated.

  1. The management and expression of pride: Age and gender effects across adolescence.

    PubMed

    Webb, Lindsey; Stegall, Sheri; Mirabile, Scott; Zeman, Janice; Shields, Ashley; Perry-Parrish, Carisa

    2016-10-01

    Understanding of the role that positive emotions play in adolescent social development requires studying the normative development of these emotions. This research examined pride expression and management across adolescence, focusing on gender and developmental differences. Participants were 206 Caucasian youth (52.9% girls) in grades 5 (Mage = 11.10 years), 8 (Mage = 14.45), 11 (Mage = 17.26), and university (Mage = 19.61). Youth responded to two vignettes assessing reactions to pride-eliciting situations. Compared to boys, girls reported more intense pride experience and a higher likelihood of expressing pride. Increases across adolescence were found for self-efficacy in suppressing pride expression, and for expressing modesty in pride-eliciting situations. Older adolescents were less likely than younger adolescents to expect to receive a negative peer reaction when inhibiting pride. These results indicate the importance of gender-specific examinations of pride across adolescent development with implications for adaptive psychosocial functioning and positive psychology. PMID:27454777

  2. Parent and adolescent effects of a universal group program for the parenting of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chu, Joanna Ting Wai; Bullen, Pat; Farruggia, Susan P; Dittman, Cassandra K; Sanders, Matthew R

    2015-05-01

    There is growing support for the large-scale implementation of parenting programs for the prevention of child behavior disorders and child maltreatment in younger children. However, there is only limited evidence on the efficacy of parenting programs in modifying risk and protective factors relating to adolescent behavior problems. This study examined the efficacy of Group Teen Triple P (GTTP), an eight-session parenting program specifically designed for parents of young adolescents. Seventy-two families with adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years were randomly assigned to either GTTP (n = 35) or a care as usual (CAU) control condition (n = 37). Compared to CAU parents, parents who received GTTP reported significant improvements in parenting practices, parenting confidence, the quality of family relationships, and fewer adolescent problem behaviors at post-intervention. Several of the parent-reported effects were corroborated by reports from adolescents, including decreases in parent-adolescent conflict and increases in parental monitoring. Adolescents whose parents participated in GTTP also reported significantly fewer behavioral problems than adolescents in the CAU condition. Many of these improvements were maintained at 6-month follow-up.

  3. Gender Variance and Dysphoria in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Herbert J; Rosenthal, Stephen M

    2015-08-01

    Gender variant and transgender youth are seeking medical care at younger ages. Pediatricians and other primary care physicians are often the first professionals who encounter such youth and their families. The goals of this article are to provide information on the epidemiology and natural history of gender variant and transgender youth, current clinical practice guidelines regarding the use of puberty blockers and cross-sex hormones for transgender youth, and limitations and challenges to optimal care.

  4. Marijuana Use Among Latino Adolescents: Gender Differences in Protective Familial Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lac, Andrew; Unger, Jennifer B.; Basáñez, Tatiana; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Given the important contextual function of family dynamics and traditional gender roles in Latino cultures, parental influences on substance use among Latino adolescents may differ across genders. This study examined associations between family factors (parental monitoring, parent–child communication, family cohesion, and familism) and marijuana use among 1,369 Latino adolescents in Southern California. Students from seven schools completed surveys in 9th and 11th grades. Longitudinal hierarchical linear regression analyses evaluated the associations between family factors in 9th grade and lifetime marijuana use in 11th grade, as well as gender differences in these associations. Girls reported higher levels of parental monitoring, parental communication, and familism than boys did, but there were no gender differences in family cohesiveness. In a regression model controlling for covariates and previous marijuana use, parent–child communication and family cohesion in 9th grade were each uniquely predictive of lower levels of marijuana consumption in 11th grade. Gender was a statistical moderator, such that higher levels of parent–child communication predicted lower marijuana use among boys, whereas girls’ use was relatively low regardless of parent–child communication levels. Results are discussed in the light of the concurrent socialization processes of family and gender in Latino culture and its relation to preventing delinquent behaviors such as marijuana use. PMID:20977294

  5. Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions in children and adolescents with gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sarah M; Menks, Willeke M; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Klink, Daniel T; Bakker, Julie

    2014-11-01

    Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) are echo-like sounds that are produced by the inner ear in response to click-stimuli. CEOAEs generally have a higher amplitude in women compared to men and neonates already show a similar sex difference in CEOAEs. Weaker responses in males are proposed to originate from elevated levels of testosterone during perinatal sexual differentiation. Therefore, CEOAEs may be used as a retrospective indicator of someone's perinatal androgen environment. Individuals diagnosed with Gender Identity Disorder (GID), according to DSM-IV-TR, are characterized by a strong identification with the other gender and discomfort about their natal sex. Although the etiology of GID is far from established, it is hypothesized that atypical levels of sex steroids during a critical period of sexual differentiation of the brain might play a role. In the present study, we compared CEOAEs in treatment-naïve children and adolescents with early-onset GID (24 natal boys, 23 natal girls) and control subjects (65 boys, 62 girls). We replicated the sex difference in CEOAE response amplitude in the control group. This sex difference, however, was not present in the GID groups. Boys with GID showed stronger, more female-typical CEOAEs whereas girls with GID did not differ in emission strength compared to control girls. Based on the assumption that CEOAE amplitude can be seen as an index of relative androgen exposure, our results provide some evidence for the idea that boys with GID may have been exposed to lower amounts of androgen during early development in comparison to control boys.

  6. Leading Psychoeducational Groups for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides readers with direction on how to organize psychoeducational groups while helping them enhance skills for effectively leading such groups. Offering an applied approach, the author integrates research and practice to suggest leadership strategies while addressing special issues such as children of divorce, anger management,…

  7. Gender Differences in Adolescent Concerns and Emotional Well-Being: Perceptions of Singaporean Adolescent Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.

    2007-01-01

    Although much has been written about adolescent adjustment and coping in Western countries, relatively little is known about similar issues in Asia. The authors examined the emotional adjustment of young adolescents in Singapore. They report adolescent concerns and how they influence adaptive functioning and emotional well-being. Data were…

  8. Identification with social groups is associated with mental health in adolescents: Evidence from a Scottish community sample.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kirsty; Wakefield, Juliet R H; Sani, Fabio

    2015-08-30

    The promotion and maintenance of mental health is an increasingly important societal issue. Previous research has shown that identification with social groups is positively associated with adult mental wellbeing, with multiple group identifications being particularly beneficial. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the same is true for adolescents. 1111 Scottish secondary school students aged 13-17 completed a questionnaire investigating mental health symptoms and the extent of their identification with their family, school, and friendship groups. Higher identification with each group predicted better mental health. There was also an additive effect of group identification, with the odds of reporting psychiatric disturbance decreasing for every additional group with which participants identified strongly. These effects held even when age, gender, and group contact were controlled for. Our findings have implications for the prevention and treatment of mental problems, offering an alternative to traditional ways of viewing mental illness in adolescence and beyond.

  9. The effects of different gender groupings on middle school students' performance in science lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drab, Deborah D.

    Grouping students for labs in science classes is a common practice. This mixed methods quasi-experimental action research study examines homogeneous and heterogeneous gender grouping strategies to determine what gender grouping strategy is the most effective in a coeducational science classroom setting. Sixth grade students were grouped in same-gender and mixed-gender groups, alternating each quarter. Over the course of an academic year, data were collected from four sources. The teacher-researcher observed groups working during hands-on activities to collect data on student behaviors. Students completed post-lab questionnaires and an end-of-course questionnaire about their preferences and experiences in the different grouping strategies. Student scores on written lab assignments were also utilized. Data analysis focused on four areas: active engagement, student achievement, student perceptions of success and cooperative teamwork. Findings suggest that teachers may consider grouping students of different ability levels according to different gender grouping strategies to optimize learning.

  10. Gender, Race, and Justifications for Group Exclusion: Urban Black Students Bussed to Affluent Suburban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ispa-Landa, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Relational theories of gender conceptualize masculinity and femininity as mutually constitutive. Using a relational approach, I analyzed ethnographic and interview data from male and female black adolescents in Grades 8 through 10 enrolled in ''Diversify,'' an urban-to-suburban racial integration program ("n" = 38).…

  11. Understanding the gendered patterns of substance use initiation among adolescents living in rural, central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Stephanie; Marsiglia, Flavio; Hoffman, Steven; Urbaeva, Zhyldyz

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the age of initiation and gender differences in substance use among adolescents in rural, central Mexico. Methods The cross-sectional data were collected from students enrolled in the Videobachillerato (VIBA) (video high school) program in Guanajuato, Mexico. Questionnaires asked students about the age at which they had used alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana for the first time. Kaplan-Meier Survival Functions were used to estimate if males and females were significantly different in their cumulative probabilities of initiating substances over time. Results On average, alcohol is initiated at 14.7 years of age, cigarettes at 15.1 years of age, and marijuana at 16.5 years of age. Over time, males had a significantly higher probability of initiating alcohol (Kaplan-Meier Failure Curve: Χ2=26.35, p<0.001), cigarettes (Kaplan-Meier Failure Curve: Χ2=41.90, p<0.001), and marijuana (Kaplan-Meier Failure Curve: Χ2=38.01, p<0.001) compared to females. Conclusions These results highlight the gendered patterns of substance use initiation among adolescents in rural, central Mexico and underscore the need for gendered substance use prevention interventions with these adolescents. By putting forth efforts to understand substance use initiation patterns of adolescents living in rural, central Mexico, culturally specific and efficacious prevention efforts can be tailor-made to create lasting differences. PMID:22421555

  12. Differential Item Functioning due to Gender between Depression and Anxiety Items among Chilean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Kamata, Akihito

    2011-01-01

    Although much is known about the higher prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders among adolescent females, less is known about the differential item endorsement due to gender in items of commonly scales used to measure anxiety and depression. We conducted a study to examine if adolescent males and females from Chile differed on how they endorsed the items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) anxious/depressed problem scale. We used data from a cross-sectional sample consisting of 925 participants (Mean age = 14, SD=1.3, 49% females) of low to lower-middle socioeconomic status. A two-parameter logistic (2PL) IRT DIF model was fit. Results revealed differential item endorsement (DIF) by gender for six of the 13 items with adolescent females being more likely to endorse a depression item while males were found more likely to endorse anxiety items. Findings suggest that items found in commonly utilized measures of anxiety and depression symptoms may not equally capture true levels of these behavioral problems among adolescent males and females. Given the high levels of mental disorders in Chile and surrounding countries, further attention should be focused on increasing the number of empirical studies examining potential gender differences in the assessment of mental health problems among Latin American populations to better aid our understanding of the phenomenology and determinants of these problems in the region. PMID:21628359

  13. Collaborative Wellness Counseling with a Group of Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mary Ann; Williams, Michael A.

    A counseling group for eight black male adolescents in foster care used techniques associated with wellness counseling and holistic health (emphasis on strengths, self responsibility, and a collaborative approach). The counseling program was a joint venture undertaken by two psychologists and a community mental health center. Games, fun…

  14. Treating Social Anxiety in Adolescents: Ten Group Therapy Lesson Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur-Elmer, Alison; McBride, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents and concludes by offering a set of 10 group therapy lesson plans for SAD that therapists can use in their practice. The overview includes a description of social anxiety disorder and highlights various theories of anxiety. The…

  15. Changing Attitudes in Underprivileged Adolescents Participating in Group Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Julia

    Group psychotherapy was used with socio-economically deprived adolescents whose capacity for self-expression was promising. Non-psychotic acting out characters and passive inadequate personalities participated, and discussion, role playing, and psychodrama were the techniques utilized. After one year the following changes were seen: (1) increased…

  16. The interplay of parental support, parental pressure and test anxiety--Gender differences in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ringeisen, Tobias; Raufelder, Diana

    2015-12-01

    This study examined gender-specific relationships between adolescents' perceptions of school-related support/pressure from their parents and test anxiety. A sample of German students (N = 845; Mage = 15.32; SD = .49) completed questionnaires that measured their perceived parental support/pressure (for mother and father separately) as well as the four main components of test anxiety (worry, interference, lack of confidence, and emotionality). Gender-specific relations were identified using multigroup structural equation modeling: For girls, perceived maternal pressure was positively associated with emotionality and interference; for boys, perceived father pressure and father support were positively associated with interference and worry, respectively. For both genders, perceived mother pressure and support were related to lack of confidence. Our findings suggest that adolescents' perceptions of maternal attitudes are associated with students' self-confidence irrespective of the child's gender, whereas the remaining facets of test anxiety follow same-sex trajectories between perceived parental attitudes and adolescents' test anxiety.

  17. Peer attitudes effects on adolescent substance use: the moderating role of race and gender.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael J; Mennis, Jeremy; Linker, Julie; Bares, Cristina; Zaharakis, Nikola

    2014-02-01

    We examined the relationship between adolescents' perceptions of their close friends' attitudes about substance use, and their own use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Using data from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a multistage area probability sample sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (n = 17,865), we tested the direct and moderating effects of subgroups of race and gender on perceptions of adolescents' close friends on past month substance use. Significant effects were found on peer attitudes influencing substance use for all race and gender subgroups. Close friends' attitudes of indifference were associated with increased substance use and disapproval associated with reduced use, controlling for age, income, family structure, and adolescents' own attitudes of risk of substance use. Significant moderating effects of peer attitudes on cigarette and marijuana use were found for both gender and race moderators. Conditional effects of the moderation by race were also examined for gender subgroups. The moderating effect of race on close friends' attitudes impacting cigarette and marijuana use was stronger in magnitude and significance for females compared to males. Female marijuana and cigarette use was more influenced by close friends' attitudes than males, and whites were more influenced by their close friends than Hispanics and blacks. White females are more susceptible to close friends' attitudes on cigarette use as compared to white males and youth of other races. Implications for socially oriented preventive interventions are discussed.

  18. Family enmeshment, adolescent emotional dysregulation, and the moderating role of gender.

    PubMed

    Kivisto, Katherine Little; Welsh, Deborah P; Darling, Nancy; Culpepper, Christi L

    2015-08-01

    Enmeshment plays a key role in many families' dysfunctional interactions and may be especially detrimental for adolescents. Sixty-four adolescents completed ratings of family enmeshment, perceived distress tolerance, an interpersonal challenge task, and mood ratings before and immediately after the task. Before and during the challenge task, adolescents' respiratory sinus arrhythmia (an indicator of cardiac vagal tone) was recorded. Associations were tested between adolescents' perceptions of family enmeshment and 3 aspects of adolescent emotional dysregulation. Adolescents who perceived higher family enmeshment also demonstrated greater emotional dysregulation in several domains: negative global appraisals of distress tolerance, stronger increase in subjective negative mood from baseline to postchallenge, lower baseline vagal tone, and vagal augmentation during the challenge task. Gender differences also emerged, such that girls reported more negative distress appraisals overall and enmeshed boys showed greater emotional dysregulation across analyses. Findings are discussed in terms of how clinicians may dynamically assess and treat enmeshment and emotional dysregulation in families with male and female adolescents. PMID:26374939

  19. On Gender Differences in the Structure of Adolescent Self Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Barbara M.; Shavelson, Richard J.

    This study examined the structure of adolescent self-concept (SC) structure for males and females by using three different measures of each SC facet in a covariance structure analysis of the data. Specifically, the purposes of the study were to: (1) test the hypothesis of the invariance of a multidimensional, hierarchical SC structure for males…

  20. Gender, Values, and Occupational Interests among Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgram, Erica S.; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2010-01-01

    Work fulfills personal values, perhaps differently for males and females. Explored here was the role values play in shaping occupational interests. Study 1 examined children's, adolescents', and adults' (N = 313) occupational values (regarding money, power, family, altruism), occupational interests, and perceptions of values afforded by…

  1. Gender & Economic Status Matter in Mental Health of Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Namita; Dua, Radha

    2011-01-01

    Mental health is the ability to adjust oneself satisfactorily to the various strains of life. Mental health and Education are closely related to each other. Sound mental is prerequisite for the learner. In this era of severe competition to excel or to be on the top is pressurizing today's adolescents to the utmost. Besides a number of factors like…

  2. Gender-Specific Outcomes for Sexually Abused Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, and…

  3. Gender and Authority: Effects on Perceptions of Small Group Co-Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Les R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Studied the gender-linked reactions of small groups to co-leadership situations. Results showed female co-leaders at a group relations conference for college students could be liked, but they were not perceived as having task relevant attributes. Group members' associations to gender were more powerful than associations of formal authority. (JAC)

  4. Globalisation in the Lecture Room? Gender and Cultural Diversity in Work Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umans, Timurs

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the relationship between cultural and gender diversity and performance in groups of business students working on complex assignments. The study finds that gender diversity in student groups has a positive influence on group outcomes, while cultural diversity, irrespective of its conceptualisation, leads to…

  5. Adolescent sexuality in the light of group processes.

    PubMed

    Kernberg, O F

    1980-01-01

    Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet is used to illustrate several connected theses regarding the relation of the couple to its surrounding social group: these include a couple's oedipal rebellion, the unconscious longing for and hatred of the idealized couple by the large group, the denial of aggression within the couple and its projection onto the group, the impotence of rationality and the conventionalization of sexuality in the large group, and the pervading dynamics of aggression in group formation. Pertinent psychoanalytic theories are briefly summarized, and this combined analysis is applied to the psychoanalyst's attitude regarding adolescent patients' love life.

  6. Gender Related Differences in Response to “In Favor of Myself” Wellness Program to Enhance Positive Self & Body Image among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noa; Tamir, Snait

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program – “In Favor of Myself” – on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. Methods Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5) participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. Results Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to “In Favor of Myself”. Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain “thin”. At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. Conclusions Girls exhibited more gains than boys from ‘In Favor of Myself’ which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups vs

  7. Beyond talking groups: strategies for improving adolescent health education.

    PubMed

    Banister, Elizabeth; Begoray, Deborah

    2004-05-01

    In a study that focused on adolescent girls' health issues within their dating relationships, we found that nonstructured focus group conversation can be augmented with structured strategies to generate a nonthreatening environment in which participants are enabled to co-create an understanding of their experiences. The use of free writing, role playing, and body tracing helped raise participants' awareness and understanding of some of their health behaviors. We suggest that these strategies can be used in health care and educational contexts to promote the health of adolescents. By sharing strategies between education and health care professionals, both professions will benefit.

  8. [About the heterogeneity in adolescents with gender identity disorder: differential importance of psychiatric comorbidity and considerations of individual psychodynamics].

    PubMed

    Korte, Alexander; Beier, Klaus M; Vukorepa, Julia; Mersmann, Maik; Albiez, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID), gender dysphoria (GD) respectively, is considered a multifactorial disease whose etiology is subject to complex bio-psycho-social conditions, each with different weighting. As a result, therapists, who treat children and adolescents with GID/GD, have to deal with a very heterogeneous group with individually varying causes, differing psychopathology and varying disease progression. In addition to general psychiatric aspects of development, particularly psychiatric comorbidity, but also the different individual psychodynamics--i. e. the specific constellation of conflicts and possible ego deficits and structural deficits in the learning history of the person are of differential importance. In regard to the indication for gender reassignment measures this sometimes is relevant for the decision. The difficulties arising for decision making and the usefulness of a systematic evaluation of case reports as a basis for further optimization of the treatment recommendations are illustrated by two case reports. In the course of this, also the disadvantages and potential dangers of too early diagnostic definition and introduction of gender somato-medical and legal measures are shown exemplarily. PMID:25296512

  9. [About the heterogeneity in adolescents with gender identity disorder: differential importance of psychiatric comorbidity and considerations of individual psychodynamics].

    PubMed

    Korte, Alexander; Beier, Klaus M; Vukorepa, Julia; Mersmann, Maik; Albiez, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID), gender dysphoria (GD) respectively, is considered a multifactorial disease whose etiology is subject to complex bio-psycho-social conditions, each with different weighting. As a result, therapists, who treat children and adolescents with GID/GD, have to deal with a very heterogeneous group with individually varying causes, differing psychopathology and varying disease progression. In addition to general psychiatric aspects of development, particularly psychiatric comorbidity, but also the different individual psychodynamics--i. e. the specific constellation of conflicts and possible ego deficits and structural deficits in the learning history of the person are of differential importance. In regard to the indication for gender reassignment measures this sometimes is relevant for the decision. The difficulties arising for decision making and the usefulness of a systematic evaluation of case reports as a basis for further optimization of the treatment recommendations are illustrated by two case reports. In the course of this, also the disadvantages and potential dangers of too early diagnostic definition and introduction of gender somato-medical and legal measures are shown exemplarily.

  10. Gender Differences among Israeli Adolescents in Residential Drug Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The use of licit and illicit drugs is considered to be primarily a male problem. Numerous studies, however, question the extent of gender differences. This article reports on last 30 day drug use and related problem behaviour among male and female youth prior to residential treatment. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 95 male and…

  11. Adolescents: Differences in Friendship Patterns Related to Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mjaavatn, Per Egil; Frostad, Per; Pijl, Sip Jan

    2016-01-01

    Based on a survey of 123 Norwegian students aged 14-15 (grade 10) this article will discuss possible gender differences in peer relations, social position and friendship criteria. The students filled in a questionnaire that included sociometry and questions on friendship criteria, self-esteem and social support. We found significant gender…

  12. Nonviolent Tendencies of Adolescents across Gender and Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; Thompson, Danielle; Garrison, Tyler; Caswell, Rosi

    This research study was designed to present some comparative data on the Teenage Nonviolence Test (TNT) across grades and across gender. The sample for this descriptive study included a total of 837 seventh through twelfth graders from the rural northwestern section of the United States. Girls were significantly more nonviolent than boys for all…

  13. Gender-specific expression of the DRD4 gene on adolescent delinquency, anger and thrill seeking

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen; Ogunseitan, Oladele; Ding, Yuan-Chun

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in the associations between the DRD4 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism and adolescent delinquency, short temper and thrill seeking. We also explored whether the gender-specific expression of the DRD4 can be explained by gender differences in the exposure to psychosocial risks, such as poor parent–child relationship. Participants were 263 14- to 17-year olds (50% males) living in Russia. DNA was extracted from saliva samples and the VNTR DRD4 polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction. Participants reported on the extent of their delinquent behaviour, short temper, thrill seeking and exposure to psychosocial risk (i.e. poor parental monitoring of adolescent behaviour, exposure to violence and peer delinquency). Compared to individuals with the 4/4 genotype, males, but not females, with the 7-repeat allele (7R) had significantly higher delinquency, short temper and thrill seeking. This interaction effect, however, was completely explained by males’ higher exposure to psychosocial risk factors. When parental monitoring of youths’ activities and youth exposure to violence were included in the model, the 7R × gender interaction was no longer significant. Thus, social context plays an important role in explaining gender-specific phenotypic expression of the DRD4 gene. PMID:20203140

  14. Religious and national group identification in adolescence: a study among three religious groups in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ng Tseung-Wong, Caroline; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2013-01-01

    Religious group identification is an important but understudied social identity. The present study investigates religious group identification among adolescents of different faiths (Hindu, Muslim, Christian) living in multicultural Mauritius. It further explores how religious and national group identities come together among religious majority and minority adolescents. For three age groups (11 to 19 years, N = 2152) we examined the strength of adolescents' religious and national group identification, the associations between these two identities, and the relationships to global self-esteem. Across age and religious group, participants reported stronger identification with their religious group than with the nation. Identification with both categories declined with age, with the exception of Muslims, whose strong religious identification was found across adolescence. The association between religious and national identification was positive, albeit stronger for the majority group of Hindus and for early adolescents. We examined the manner in which religious and national identities come together using a direct self-identification measure and by combining the separate continuous measures of identification. Four distinct clusters of identification (predominant religious identifiers, dual identifiers, neutrals, and separate individuals) that were differently associated with global self-esteem were found. Dual identifiers reported the highest level of global self-esteem. The clusters of identification did not fully correspond to the findings for the direct self-identification measure. The results are discussed in terms of the meaning of dual identity and the positive manner in which adolescents can manage their multiple identities while taking into account the ideological framework in which those identities are played out. PMID:22822906

  15. Elevated depressive symptoms and adolescent injury: examining associations by injury frequency, injury type, and gender

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Key risk factors for adolescent injury have been well documented, and include structural, behavioural, and psychosocial indicators. While psychiatric distress has been associated with suicidal behaviour and related self-harm, very little research has examined the role of depression in shaping adolescent injury. This study examines the association of elevated depressive symptoms with injury, including total number of injuries and injury type. Gender differences are also considered. Methods Data were drawn in 2010–11 from a representative sample of 2,989 high school students (14 to18 years of age) from Nova Scotia, Canada. Self-reported injury outcomes were examined using the 17-item Adolescent Injury Checklist, which captures past six-month injuries. Elevated depressive symptoms were assessed using the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Associations of elevated depressive symptoms with total number of injuries were estimated with negative binomial regression, while associations with specific injury types were estimated with logistic regression. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results Adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms experienced a 40% increase in the total number of injury events occurring in the past six months. The association of elevated depressive symptoms with injury was consistent across injury type; violence-related (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.61 to 3.03), transport-related (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.13), and unintentional injuries (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.27). Gender differences were also observed. Conclusion Elevated depressive symptoms play a role in shaping adolescent injury. Interventions aimed at reducing adolescent injury should look to minimize psychosocial antecedents, such as poor mental health, that put adolescents at an elevated risk. PMID:24555802

  16. Family dynamics, gender differences and educational attainment in Filipino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hindin, Michelle J

    2005-06-01

    The relationship between parenting style, marital relationships and subsequent educational attainment is explored among 1428 Filipino adolescents attending school in 1994 and 1096 attending school in 1999. Girls in households where their fathers physically abused their mothers were significantly less likely to complete primary school, and girls who reported parental arguments completed fewer grades. In contrast, girls in households where parents made decisions jointly were more likely to finish secondary school and attain more grades. Boys attained more education if they reported being close to their mothers. Boys with authoritative mothers attained more grades and were more likely to complete secondary school as compared to boys with neglectful mothers. In this context, marital relationships and parent-child relationships are important for understanding adolescent educational attainment. PMID:15925683

  17. Proxemics and Kinesics of Adolescents in Dual-Gender Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terneus, Sandra K.; Malone, Yvonne

    2004-01-01

    Ethological research indicates that during courtship, men and women usually communicate their interests via body language and interpersonal space (kinesics and proxemics). Many studies have validated the usage of kinesics and the ebb and flow of proximity during the process of courtship. Although the majority of studies have focused on young…

  18. A model to explain at-risk/problem gambling among male and female adolescents: gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed at testing a model in which cognitive, dispositional, and social factors were integrated into a single perspective as predictors of gambling behavior. We also aimed at providing further evidence of gender differences related to adolescent gambling. Participants were 994 Italian adolescents (64% Males; Mean age = 16.57). Hierarchical logistic regressions attested the predictive power of the considered factors on at-risk/problem gambling - measured by administering the South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA) - in both boys and girls. Sensation seeking and superstitious thinking were consistent predictors across gender, while probabilistic reasoning ability, the perception of the economic profitability of gambling, and peer gambling behavior were found to be predictors only among male adolescents, whereas parental gambling behavior had a predictive power in female adolescents. Findings are discussed referring to practical implications for preventive efforts toward adolescents' gambling problems. PMID:23177386

  19. Peer acceptance among Chinese adolescents: the role of emotional empathy, cognitive empathy and gender.

    PubMed

    Huang, Heqing; Su, Yanjie

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have found mixed results on the relationship between empathy and peer acceptance. Emotional and cognitive components of empathy were hypothesised to play different roles in peer acceptance, and the relationship between empathy and peer acceptance differed across genders. In this study, 375 Chinese adolescents completed self-report measures of emotional and cognitive empathy. They also provided peer nominations that allowed for the determination of social preference and social impact scores. The results showed that a boy's cognitive empathy positively correlated with the extent to which he was liked by his male classmates, whereas a girl's cognitive empathy positively correlated with her social impact among her female classmates. This study suggests that empathy does not affect peer acceptance among adolescents uniformly; instead, gender plays a determinative role in the dialectics between social acceptance and empathy.

  20. To tweet, or not to tweet: gender differences and potential positive and negative health outcomes of adolescents' social internet use.

    PubMed

    Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa; Park, M Jane

    2010-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults are avid Internet users. Online social media, such as social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), blogs, status updating sites (e.g., Twitter) and chat rooms, have become integral parts of adolescents' and young adults' lives. Adolescents are even beginning to enter the world of online dating with several websites dedicated to "teenage online dating." This paper reviews recent peer-reviewed literature and national data on 1) adolescents use of online social media, 2) gender differences in online social media and 3) potential positive and negative health outcomes from adolescents' online social media use. We also examine parental monitoring of adolescents' online activities. Given that parental supervision is a key protective factor against adolescent risk-taking behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that unmonitored Internet use may place adolescents' at significant risk, such as cyberbullying, unwanted exposure to pornography, and potentially revealing personal information to sexual predators.

  1. Ethnic identity and gender as moderators of the association between discrimination and academic adjustment among Mexican-origin adolescents.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Dumka, Larry E

    2012-08-01

    Existing work has identified perceived discrimination as a risk factor that may contribute to the relatively poorer academic outcomes exhibited by Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. The current study examined the longitudinal associations among perceived discrimination and three indices of adolescent adjustment in the school setting (i.e., grade point average, teacher reports of externalizing, adolescents' deviant peer associations) among 178 Mexican-origin adolescents (53% female). Ethnic identity affirmation was examined as a protective factor expected to reduce the negative effects of discrimination on adolescents' adjustment, and gender was examined as a potential moderator of the associations of interest. Findings indicated that the deleterious effects of discrimination on adolescents' adjustment in school were particularly salient for Mexican-origin male adolescents. Importantly, ethnic identity affirmation emerged as a protective factor for Mexican-origin male adolescents by buffering the negative effects of discrimination on their externalizing behaviors in school.

  2. To tweet, or not to tweet: gender differences and potential positive and negative health outcomes of adolescents' social internet use.

    PubMed

    Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa; Park, M Jane

    2010-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults are avid Internet users. Online social media, such as social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), blogs, status updating sites (e.g., Twitter) and chat rooms, have become integral parts of adolescents' and young adults' lives. Adolescents are even beginning to enter the world of online dating with several websites dedicated to "teenage online dating." This paper reviews recent peer-reviewed literature and national data on 1) adolescents use of online social media, 2) gender differences in online social media and 3) potential positive and negative health outcomes from adolescents' online social media use. We also examine parental monitoring of adolescents' online activities. Given that parental supervision is a key protective factor against adolescent risk-taking behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that unmonitored Internet use may place adolescents' at significant risk, such as cyberbullying, unwanted exposure to pornography, and potentially revealing personal information to sexual predators. PMID:20164062

  3. Early Adolescent Age and Gender Differences in Patterns of Emotional Self-Disclosure to Parents and Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; And Others

    This study explored adolescent age and gender differences in patterns of emotional self-disclosure to parents and friends. An additional purpose was to describe how familial and individual developmental characteristics influence patterns of adolescent emotional disclosure. The sample consisted of 174 junior high school students between 12 and 15…

  4. Early Adolescent Age and Gender Differences in Patterns of Emotional Self-Disclosure to Parents and Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explored adolescent age and gender differences in patterns of emotional self-disclosure to parents and friends among 174 junior high school students. Found that girls exhibited greater emotional self-disclosure to parents and peers than did males, and that emotional self-disclosure to friends was greatest among older adolescents. (Author/NB)

  5. Being Mum's Confidant, a Boon or Bane? Examining Gender Differences in the Association of Maternal Disclosure with Adolescents' Depressive Feelings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Finkenauer, Catrin; van de Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal study investigating gender differences in the association between maternal disclosure and adolescents' depressive symptoms. Little research has examined the relationship of parental disclosure to adolescents' depressive symptoms and research on sex differences is particularly lacking. In a sample of 428…

  6. The Influence of Religiosity, Gender, and Language Preference Acculturation on Sexual Activity among Latino/a Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lisa M.; Fehring, Richard J.; Jarrett, Keyona M.; Haglund, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the main and interactive effects of religiosity, gender, and language preference acculturation on sexual activity among 570 Latino/a adolescents from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Results indicated that adolescents who viewed religion as very important, had frequent church attendance, and had…

  7. Parent-Youth Closeness and Youth's Suicidal Ideation: The Moderating Effects of Gender, Stages of Adolescence, and Race or Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ruth X.

    2005-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents studied at two points in time are used to examine gender-specific influence of parent-youth closeness on youth's suicidal ideation and its variations by stages of adolescence and race or ethnicity. Logistic regression analyses yielded interesting findings: (a) Closeness with fathers…

  8. Incarcerated Adolescents' Engagement in AIDS/HIV High-Risk Behaviors: Ethnic-Racial and Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Gary W.

    Incarcerated youth are a subgroup of adolescents who are at particularly high risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. This study explored ethnic-racial and gender differences in incarcerated adolescents' engagement in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)/HIV high-risk behaviors. All subjects for the study were residents of…

  9. The Factorial Invariance of the CES-D during Adolescence: Are Symptom Profiles for Depression Stable across Gender and Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Sawyer, Michael G.; Spence, Susan H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the factorial invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D) across gender and time during adolescence. The factor structure of the CES-D was compared at four annual measurement waves in a community sample of 2650 Australian adolescents. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the factor…

  10. Do Girls Profit More? Gender-Specific Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program against Alcohol Consumption in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichold, Karina; Brambosch, Anett; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a life skills program with regard to alcohol consumption, life skills, knowledge, and school bonding for young adolescents. The focus was on the moderating role of gender, based on the assumption that life skills programs may address specific needs of adolescent girls better than those of boys. The…

  11. Weight Status, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity: Are There Differences in Meeting Recommended Health Behavior Guidelines for Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minges, Karl E.; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from…

  12. Effects of Autistic Traits on Social and School Adjustment in Children and Adolescents: The Moderating Roles of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…

  13. A Model to Explain At-Risk/Problem Gambling among Male and Female Adolescents: Gender Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at testing a model in which cognitive, dispositional, and social factors were integrated into a single perspective as predictors of gambling behavior. We also aimed at providing further evidence of gender differences related to adolescent gambling. Participants were 994 Italian adolescents (64% Males; Mean age = 16.57).…

  14. The Effects of Gender and Family, Friend, and Media Influences on Eating Behaviors and Body Image during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.

    2007-01-01

    The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males…

  15. Predictors of Dating Violence among Chinese Adolescents: The Role of Gender-Role Beliefs and Justification of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao; Chiu, Marcus Yu-Lung; Gao, Jianxiu

    2012-01-01

    In Chinese societies, violence among adolescent dating partners remains a largely ignored and invisible phenomenon. The goal of this study is to examine the relationships among gender-role beliefs, attitudes justifying dating violence, and the experiences of dating-violence perpetration and victimization among Chinese adolescents. This study has…

  16. Gifted and Non-Gifted Lebanese Adolescents: Gender Differences in Self-Concept, Self-Esteem and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in self-concept, self-esteem, and depression among gifted (n = 68) and non-gifted (n = 174) adolescents in Lebanon. Participants were 242 adolescents (110 males and 132 females), with a mean age of 13.9 years. Four measures were used: DISCOVER assessment, Piers-Harris 2 self-concept…

  17. Intergroup Contact, Attitudes toward Homosexuality, and the Role of Acceptance of Gender Non-Conformity in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Kate L.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how contact with gay and lesbian persons affects adolescents' attitudes toward them, and whether this association is mediated or moderated by one's acceptance of gender non-conformity. We analyzed survey responses from 456 Dutch adolescents aged 12-15 who reported having no same-sex attractions. Data were collected in 2008 at 8…

  18. Differential Gender Effects of Exposure to Rap Music on African American Adolescents' Acceptance of Teen Dating Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assessed the effects of exposure to nonviolent rap videos on black adolescents' perceptions of teen dating violence. Results from 60 black adolescents and teenagers indicate a significant interaction between gender and video exposure: male acceptance of the use of violence was not a function of viewing the videos, whereas video-viewing females…

  19. Role of Ethnicity and Gender in Polydrug Use among a Longitudinal Sample of Inner-City Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jennifer A.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Diaz, Tracy

    1999-01-01

    Study seeks to determine if ethnic and gender differences in polydrug use exist among a cohort of inner-city adolescents during the three-year middle school period (N=2,354). Results of self-report questionnaires reveal that Asian and Black adolescents generally reported less polydrug use than White and Hispanic youth, and that boys engaged in…

  20. Gender Differences in the Relative Impact of Physical and Relational Bullying on Adolescent Injury and Weapon Carrying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Richard L.; Stein, Judith A.; Zane, Jazmin I.

    2010-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling, concurrent associations were assessed among physical bullying, relational bullying, physical victimization, relational victimization, injury and weapon carrying using data from the population of 1300 adolescent girls and 1362 adolescent boys in grades 7-12 in a Colorado school district. For both genders, being a…

  1. African-American Parents' Racial and Ethnic Socialization and Adolescent Academic Grades: Teasing out the Role of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Linver, Miriam R.; Evans, Melanie; DeGennaro, Donna

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of racial and ethnic socialization and academic achievement in a sample of 218 African American adolescents (grades 9-12; 52% girls) attending a public high school in the northeastern United States. Researchers were particularly interested in whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between racial…

  2. The Relationship between Anxiety Disorders and Substance Use among Adolescents in the Community: Specificity and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ping; Goodwin, Renee D.; Fuller, Cordelia; Liu, Xinhua; Comer, Jonathan S.; Cohen, Patricia; Hoven, Christina W.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 781 adolescents (ages 13-17, 52.8% male) from a community survey, this study examined gender differences in the co-occurrence of specific anxiety disorders with substance use in adolescents. The associations between anxiety disorders and substance use differed according to the particular anxiety disorders and forms of substance…

  3. [Puberty-delaying hormone therapy in adolescents with gender identity disorder].

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2013-01-01

    The guideline for the treatment of people with gender identity disorder (GID) of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology was revised in January 2012. The guideline eased restrictions for the endocrine treatment of transsexual adolescents. A medical specialist can start treating transsexual adolescents at the age of 15 after the diagnosis of GID. It recommends that transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2 [mainly 12-13 years of age]) are treated by endocrinologists to suppress puberty with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists until the age of 15 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. Female-to-male transsexuals do not necessarily want to start androgen therapy before presenting female secondary sexual characteristics because androgen can easily stop menstruation, cause beard growth, and lower the voice. On the contrary, male-to-female transsexuals want to start estrogen therapy before presenting male secondary sexual characteristics because estrogen cannot alter the beard and low voice. It is important to identify children with gender dysphoria in school and help them receive medical advice. However, approximately half of school teachers think that children with gender dysphoria are very rare and they do not know of the notification from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, JAPAN, which aims to help children with gender dysphoria. The revision of the guideline for the treatment of transsexual people and endocrine treatment of transsexual adolescents by medical specialists may prevent them from attempting suicide, being depressive, and refusing to attend school. Furthermore, the treatment may help avoid mental disorders, aid being employed with the desired sexuality, and, subsequently, getting married and having children.

  4. Gender differences in psychiatric disorders and clusters of self-esteem among detained adolescents.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Lore; Colins, Olivier F; Vanderplasschen, Wouter

    2014-12-30

    Detained minors display substantial mental health needs. This study focused on two features (psychopathology and self-esteem) that have received considerable attention in the literature and clinical work, but have rarely been studied simultaneously in detained youths. The aims of this study were to examine gender differences in psychiatric disorders and clusters of self-esteem, and to test the hypothesis that the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem have higher rates of psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was assessed in 440 Belgian, detained adolescents using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV. Self-esteem was assessed using the Self-perception Profile for Adolescents. Model-based cluster analyses were performed to identify youths with lower and/or higher levels of self-esteem across several domains. Girls have higher rates for most psychiatric disorders and lower levels of self-esteem than boys. A higher number of clusters was identified in boys (four) than girls (three). Generally, the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem had a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders. These results suggest that the detection of low levels of self-esteem in adolescents, especially girls, might help clinicians to identify a subgroup of detained adolescents with the highest prevalence of psychopathology.

  5. The Relation of Family and School Attachment to Adolescent Deviance in Diverse Groups and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornbusch, Sanford M.; Erickson, Kristan Glasgow; Laird, Jennifer; Wong, Carol A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether attachments to family and school reduced five forms of adolescent deviance (smoking, drinking, marijuana use, delinquency, and violent behavior). Found that adolescent attachments to family and school reduced overall frequency, prevalence, and intensity of deviant involvement, regardless of community context, gender, or ethnic…

  6. Gender Differences in Factors Influencing Alcohol Use and Drinking Progression Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Marya T.; Ramo, Danielle; Brown, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    While prevalence rates for alcohol use and related disorders differ widely between adult men and women, male and female adolescents do not exhibit the same disparity in alcohol consumption. Previous research and reviews do not address the emergence of differences in drinking patterns that occur during late adolescence. Therefore, a developmental perspective is presented for understanding how various risk and protective factors associated with problematic drinking affect diverging alcohol trajectories as youth move into young adulthood. This review examines factors associated with risk for developing an alcohol use disorder in adolescent girls and boys separately. Findings indicate that certain biological (i.e., genetic risk, neurological abnormalities associated with P300 amplitudes) and psychosocial (i.e., impact of positive drinking expectancies, personality characteristics, and deviance proneness) factors appear to impact boys and girls similarly. In contrast, physiological and social changes particular to adolescence appear to differentially affect boys and girls as they transition into adulthood. Specifically, boys begin to manifest a constellation of factors that place them at greater risk for disruptive drinking: low response to alcohol, later maturation in brain structures and executive function, greater estimates of perceived peer alcohol use, and socialization into traditional gender roles. On an individual level, interventions which challenge media-driven stereotypes of gender roles while simultaneously reinforcing personal values are suggested as a way to strengthen adolescent autonomy in terms of healthy drinking decisions. Moreover, parents and schools must improve consistency in rules and consequences regarding teen drinking across gender to avoid mixed messages about acceptable alcohol use for boys and girls. PMID:19592147

  7. Gender differences in factors influencing alcohol use and drinking progression among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Marya T; Ramo, Danielle; Brown, Sandra A

    2009-08-01

    While prevalence rates for alcohol use and related disorders differ widely between adult men and women, male and female adolescents do not exhibit the same disparity in alcohol consumption. Previous research and reviews do not address the emergence of differences in drinking patterns that occur during late adolescence. Therefore, a developmental perspective is presented for understanding how various risk and protective factors associated with problematic drinking affect diverging alcohol trajectories as youth move into young adulthood. This review examines factors associated with risk for developing an alcohol use disorder in adolescent girls and boys separately. Findings indicate that certain biological (i.e., genetic risk, neurological abnormalities associated with P300 amplitudes) and psychosocial (i.e., impact of positive drinking expectancies, personality characteristics, and deviance proneness) factors appear to impact boys and girls similarly. In contrast, physiological and social changes particular to adolescence appear to differentially affect boys and girls as they transition into adulthood. Specifically, boys begin to manifest a constellation of factors that place them at greater risk for disruptive drinking: low response to alcohol, later maturation in brain structures and executive function, greater estimates of perceived peer alcohol use, and socialization into traditional gender roles. On an individual level, interventions which challenge media-driven stereotypes of gender roles while simultaneously reinforcing personal values are suggested as a way to strengthen adolescent autonomy in terms of healthy drinking decisions. Moreover, parents and schools must improve consistency in rules and consequences regarding teen drinking across gender to avoid mixed messages about acceptable alcohol use for boys and girls.

  8. Gender differences in factors influencing alcohol use and drinking progression among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Marya T; Ramo, Danielle; Brown, Sandra A

    2009-08-01

    While prevalence rates for alcohol use and related disorders differ widely between adult men and women, male and female adolescents do not exhibit the same disparity in alcohol consumption. Previous research and reviews do not address the emergence of differences in drinking patterns that occur during late adolescence. Therefore, a developmental perspective is presented for understanding how various risk and protective factors associated with problematic drinking affect diverging alcohol trajectories as youth move into young adulthood. This review examines factors associated with risk for developing an alcohol use disorder in adolescent girls and boys separately. Findings indicate that certain biological (i.e., genetic risk, neurological abnormalities associated with P300 amplitudes) and psychosocial (i.e., impact of positive drinking expectancies, personality characteristics, and deviance proneness) factors appear to impact boys and girls similarly. In contrast, physiological and social changes particular to adolescence appear to differentially affect boys and girls as they transition into adulthood. Specifically, boys begin to manifest a constellation of factors that place them at greater risk for disruptive drinking: low response to alcohol, later maturation in brain structures and executive function, greater estimates of perceived peer alcohol use, and socialization into traditional gender roles. On an individual level, interventions which challenge media-driven stereotypes of gender roles while simultaneously reinforcing personal values are suggested as a way to strengthen adolescent autonomy in terms of healthy drinking decisions. Moreover, parents and schools must improve consistency in rules and consequences regarding teen drinking across gender to avoid mixed messages about acceptable alcohol use for boys and girls. PMID:19592147

  9. Ethnic and Gender Diversity, Process and Performance in Groups of Business Students in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umans, Timurs; Collin, Sven-Olof; Tagesson, Torbjorn

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the complex interrelation between ethnic and gender diversity, process and performance among groups of business students. The article is based on an empirical survey of business students working on a complex assignment in groups of two to five in a small Swedish university. The results indicate that gender diversity leads…

  10. Gender, Group Composition, Cooperation, and Self-Efficacy in Computer Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Tor

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study of Norwegian college students that investigated whether gender, group composition, or self-efficacy in computing has any impact on cooperation, giving or getting task-related help, and level of activity in student groups. Results confirms gender differences in self-efficacy in computing. (Author/LRW)

  11. Teaching Gender to Younger and Less Sexually Experienced Adolescents in the Context of HIV/STD Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Perry, Deidrea L.; Lolacono, Marni L.; Fryer, Craig S.; Adair, Elissa Schuler; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2005-01-01

    Gender beliefs affect adolescents' sexual motivations, perceptions, and actions (Moss, 1994) and can endanger sexual health (Haffner, 1998). We believe that teaching youth about gender norms will increase the efficacy of HIV/STD preventive interventions. We were funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to develop and…

  12. Gender Differences in the Effects of Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence on Adolescent Violence and Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Wright, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the long-term effects of exposure to intimate partner violence in the home on adolescent violence and drug use and gender differences in these relationships. Although the general relationship between exposure to IPV and negative outcomes for youth has been demonstrated in past research, gender differences in the…

  13. Portuguese adolescents' attitudes toward sexual minorities: transphobia, homophobia, and gender role beliefs.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro Alexandre; Davies, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men are common and widespread in Western societies. However, few studies have addressed attitudes toward transgender individuals. In addition, although research has shown that homophobic harassment and bullying is highly common among adolescents, little is known about adolescent's attitudes toward sexual minorities. This study aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge, by investigating adolescents' attitudes toward transgender individuals and possible attitudinal correlates of those attitudes. Participants (N = 188; 62 males and 126 females) were recruited in high schools in Lisbon, Portugal. Age ranged from 15 to 19 years (M = 17; SD = .96). Participants completed a questionnaire booklet measuring attitudes toward transgender individuals, lesbians, and gay men, and gender role beliefs. Results revealed that attitudes toward transgender individuals were significantly correlated with all attitude measures. Specifically, it was revealed that those participants who endorsed negative attitudes toward transgender individuals were also endorsing of negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and tended to adhere to traditional gender roles. A significant gender effect was found with males being more negative toward sexual minorities than females, but these negative attitudes were more extreme toward gay men than toward lesbian women. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Gender/Racial Differences in Jock Identity, Dating, and Adolescent Sexual Risk

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kathleen E.; Farrell, Michael P.; Barnes, Grace M.; Melnick, Merrill J.; Sabo, Don

    2005-01-01

    Despite recent declines in overall sexual activity, sexual risk-taking remains a substantial danger to US youth. Existing research points to athletic participation as a promising venue for reducing these risks. Linear regressions and multiple analyses of covariance were performed on a longitudinal sample of nearly 600 Western New York adolescents in order to examine gender- and race-specific relationships between “jock” identity and adolescent sexual risk-taking, including age of sexual onset, past-year and lifetime frequency of sexual intercourse, and number of sexual partners. After controlling for age, race, socioeconomic status, and family cohesion, male jocks reported more frequent dating than nonjocks but female jocks did not. For both genders, athletic activity was associated with lower levels of sexual risk-taking; however, jock identity was associated with higher levels of sexual risk-taking, particularly among African American adolescents. Future research should distinguish between subjective and objective dimensions of athletic involvement as factors in adolescent sexual risk. PMID:16429602

  15. Cyberbullying among adolescents: the role of affective and cognitive empathy, and gender.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Goh, Dion H

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the association between affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and gender on cyberbullying among adolescents. Participants were 396 adolescents from Singapore with age ranging from 12 to 18 years. Adolescents responded to a survey with scales measuring both affective and cognitive empathy, and cyberbullying behavior. A three-step hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used with cyberbullying scores as the dependent variable. Gender was dummy coded and both affective and cognitive empathy were centered using the sample mean prior to creating interaction terms and entering them into the regression equations. The testing, probing and interpretation of interaction effects followed established statistical procedures. Results from hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated a significant three-way interaction. At low affective empathy, both boys and girls who also had low cognitive empathy had higher scores on cyberbullying than those who had high cognitive empathy. This pattern of results was similarly found for boys at high affective empathy. However, for girls, high or low levels of cognitive empathy resulted in similar levels of cyberbullying. Implications of these findings include the need for empathy training and the importance of positive caregiver-child relationships in reducing cyberbullying behavior among adolescents.

  16. The Role of Peer Group Aggression in Predicting Adolescent Dating Violence and Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Chung-Hall, Janet; Dumas, Tara M.

    2013-01-01

    Past research has shown that adolescent peer groups make a significant contribution to shaping behavior but less is known about the role of peer groups in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study examined the contribution of aggressive peer group norms on relationship quality and dating violence among dating adolescents. At the…

  17. Gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmissible infections among adolescents in mental health treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Puja; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Braxton, Nikia D.; Crosby, Richard A.; Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents with a history of psychiatric disorder(s) are particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmissible infections (STIs) as a result of psychological and emotional states associated with higher rates of risky sexual behaviour. The present study examined gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and STI among adolescents in mental health treatment. Methods Three hundred and seventy nine sexually active adolescents, aged 13–18 years, from a larger multisite study, who received mental health treatment during the past year, completed an audio computer-assisted self interview assessing sociodemographics, psychiatric symptomatology and HIV/STI risk behaviours, and provided urine specimens tested for STI. Results After controlling for covariates, multivariate logistic regression models indicated that female adolescents were more likely to have had an HIV test (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.2, P = 0.0001), obtain their HIV test results (AOR = 2.9, P = 0.03), refuse sex out of fear for STI acquisition (AOR = 1.7, P = 0.04), or avoid a situation that might lead to sex (AOR = 2.4, P = 0.001), and were less likely to have a casual sex partner (AOR = 0.40, P = 0.002). Additionally, females were more likely to report inconsistent condom use (AOR = 2.60, P = 0.001) and have a STI (AOR = 9.1, P = 0.0001) than their male counterparts. Conclusions Female adolescents receiving mental health treatment were more than nine times as likely to have an STI and more likely to use condoms inconsistently. The standard of care for mental health practice for adolescents should include referrals for STI screening and treatment as well as assessment and discussion of risky sexual behaviours as part of the treatment plan when indicated. Effective programs should address gender-specific communication and behavioural skills. PMID:22697141

  18. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000

  19. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes.

    PubMed

    Casad, Bettina J; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  20. Gender differences and related factors affecting online gaming addiction among Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Sue-Huei; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which gender and other factors predict the severity of online gaming addiction among Taiwanese adolescents. A total of 395 junior high school students were recruited for evaluation of their experiences playing online games. Severity of addiction, behavioral characteristics, number of stressors, and level of satisfaction with daily life were compared between males and females who had previously played online games. Multiple regression analysis was used to explore gender differences in the relationships between severity of online gaming addiction and a number of variables. This study found that subjects who had previously played online games were predominantly male. Gender differences were also found in the severity of online gaming addiction and motives for playing. Older age, lower self-esteem, and lower satisfaction with daily life were associated with more severe addiction among males, but not among females. Special strategies accounting for gender differences must be implemented to prevent adolescents with risk factors from becoming addicted to online gaming.

  1. [Gender dysphoria in children and adolescents - treatment guidelines and follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Meyenburg, Bernd; Kröger, Anne; Neugebauer, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Treatment guidelines for transidentity in children and adolescents are presently under discussion. We present an overview of the various treatment modalities. Further, follow-up data on children and adolescents referred for gender-identity problems are presented. Of the 84 patients seen for the first time more than 3 years before follow-up, 37 mailed in the completed questionnaires. In addition, 33 patients agreed to answer some short follow-up questions. We assessed steps of treatment, gender role, psychopathology, and psychotherapy. We compared differences in psychopathology in patients with vs. without gender role change and in patients with intense vs. less intense psychotherapy. A total of 22 patients had completely changed gender role, and some had started hormonal treatment und sex reassignment surgery. Most patients were satisfied with the treatment results. All patients showed less psychopathology on follow-up, independent of role change or intensity of psychotherapy. In general, the patients reported little psychopathology. Our follow-up results support the present treatment approach. In patients with little psychopathology, low-frequency supportive treatment appears sufficient to obtain safe judgement on hormonal of surgical treatment.

  2. Effects of treating gender dysphoria and anorexia nervosa in a transgender adolescent: Lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Strandjord, Sarah E; Ng, Henry; Rome, Ellen S

    2015-11-01

    Patients with gender dysphoria and patients with eating disorders often experience discontent with their bodies. Several reports have recognized the co-occurrence of these two conditions, typically in adults who identify as transgender females and desire a more feminine physique. This case report, in contrast, describes a 16-year-old patient with a female sex assigned at birth who first presented with features consistent with anorexia nervosa and later revealed underlying gender dysphoria with a drive for a less feminine body shape. We discuss both the path to recognizing gender dysphoria in this patient as well as the impact of treatment on his eating disorder and overall well-being. This case is one of only a few reports describing a female-to-male transgender patient with an eating disorder and is the first to explore the effects of hormone and surgical intervention in an adolescent patient.

  3. Gender Differences in the Effects of Exposure to Violence on Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Wright, Emily M.; Fagan, Abigail A.

    2013-01-01

    To date, research exploring gender differences in the relationship between exposure to community violence and substance use has been limited. This study employs longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to assess the exposure to violence–substance use relationship and explore whether this relationship varies by gender. We find that the two forms of exposure to violence—direct (primary) and indirect (secondary)—independently increase the frequency of subsequent alcohol use, binge drinking, and marijuana use among males and females. One gender difference emerged, as females who had been directly victimized engaged in more frequent binge drinking than males who had been directly victimized. Across both sexes, the effect of each form of violence weakened when other predictors of substance use were included in the models. Future directions for this research are discussed, including policy recommendations to help adolescents cope with victimization experiences. PMID:23520836

  4. Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

  5. Gender identity in a group of retarded children.

    PubMed

    Abelson, G; Paluszny, M

    1978-12-01

    The Michigan Gender Identity Test (MGIT) was administered to 52 retarded and 36 normal children to assess the acquisition of gender identity. This instrument required the ability to sort and categorize photographs of boys and girls wearing conventional clothing and with conventional hair-styles. As part of the test, each child was expected to recognize a self-photo and to be able to categorize it as a boy or a girl. In general, a significant correlation was found between MGIT performance and mental age for the retarded children. The performance of the normal children correlated significantly with both chronological age and mental age.

  6. Gonadal suppressive and cross-sex hormone therapy for gender dysphoria in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine P; Madison, Christina M; Milne, Nikki M

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with gender dysphoria experience distress associated with incongruence between their biologic sex and their identified gender. Gender dysphoric natal males receive treatment with antiandrogens and estrogens to become feminized (transsexual females), whereas natal females with gender dysphoria receive treatment with androgens to become masculinized (transsexual males). Because of the permanence associated with cross-sex hormone therapy (CSHT), adolescents diagnosed with gender dysphoria receive gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs to suppress puberty. High rates of depression and suicide are linked to social marginalization and barriers to care. Behavior, emotional problems, depressive symptoms, and global functioning improve in adolescents receiving puberty suppression therapy. Gender dysphoria, psychological symptoms, quality of life, and sexual function improve in adults who receive CSHT. Within the first 6 months of CSHT, changes in transsexual females include breast growth, decreased testicular volume, and decreased spontaneous erections, and changes in transsexual males include cessation of menses, breast atrophy, clitoral enlargement, and voice deepening. Both transsexual females and males experience changes in body fat redistribution, muscle mass, and hair growth. Desired effects from CSHT can take between 3 and 5 years; however, effects that occur during puberty, such as voice deepening and skeletal structure changes, cannot be reversed with CSHT. Decreased sexual desire is a greater concern in transsexual females than in transsexual males, with testosterone concentrations linked to sexual desire in both. Regarding CSHT safety, bone mineral density is preserved with adequate hormone supplementation, but long-term fracture risk has not been studied. The transition away from high-dose traditional regimens is tied to a lower risk of venous thromboembolism and cardiovascular disease, but data quality is poor. Breast cancer has been reported in

  7. Gender, values, and occupational interests among children, adolescents, and adults.

    PubMed

    Weisgram, Erica S; Bigler, Rebecca S; Liben, Lynn S

    2010-01-01

    Work fulfills personal values, perhaps differently for males and females. Explored here was the role values play in shaping occupational interests. Study 1 examined children's, adolescents', and adults' (N = 313) occupational values (regarding money, power, family, altruism), occupational interests, and perceptions of values afforded by traditionally masculine and feminine occupations. Results revealed sex differences in occupational values and interests. Furthermore, participants' values predicted their own interests in culturally masculine and feminine occupations. Study 2 used novel jobs and experimentally manipulated prototypical sex of worker and value affordances to disentangle their effects on occupational interests. At all ages, participants' (N = 240) occupational interests were affected by the depicted sex of the workers and by the stated value affordances of the jobs. PMID:20573104

  8. Parent-adolescent communication in foster, inter-country adoptive, and biological Italian families: Gender and generational differences.

    PubMed

    Rosnati, Rosa; Iafrate, Raffaella; Scabini, Eugenia

    2007-02-01

    There is a paucity of studies aimed at comparing how parents and children in different family structures cope with the challenges posed by the adolescence transition; in particular, there are few studies aimed at comparing adoptive and foster families. In order to partially fill this gap, the principal aims of the present study were to verify whether there are differences in parent-child communication among foster, intercountry adoptive, and biological families according to the adolescents' gender, and to compare the perceptions of parents and adolescents concerning parent-child communication. Data were elaborated on two levels: a generational level (adolescent's and his/her parents' perceptions among the three family groups) and a dyadic level (mother-child and father-child perceptions). The sample was composed of 276 Italian families with adolescents aged between 11 and 17 (81 foster, 98 international adoptive, and 97 biological families). Subjects (mothers, fathers, and children) filled out a questionnaire including the Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale (Barnes & Olson, 1985 ). Results highlighted that in foster families, parent-child communication showed more difficulties from both the adolescent's and the parents' point of view. Adoptive adolescents, however, reported a more positive communication with both their parents than did their peers living in biological and foster families. At a dyadic level, some differences emerged among the three groups. In biological families, a more pronounced distance emerged between parents and children. In adoptive families, father and adolescent shared more similar perceptions, whereas a significant discrepancy emerged between mother and child. A higher level of perceptual congruence between adolescents and parents was found in foster families. Gender differences were also seen: Mothers experienced a more open communication with their children than did fathers, and adolescents, and above all females, communicated better

  9. Parent-adolescent communication in foster, inter-country adoptive, and biological Italian families: Gender and generational differences.

    PubMed

    Rosnati, Rosa; Iafrate, Raffaella; Scabini, Eugenia

    2007-02-01

    There is a paucity of studies aimed at comparing how parents and children in different family structures cope with the challenges posed by the adolescence transition; in particular, there are few studies aimed at comparing adoptive and foster families. In order to partially fill this gap, the principal aims of the present study were to verify whether there are differences in parent-child communication among foster, intercountry adoptive, and biological families according to the adolescents' gender, and to compare the perceptions of parents and adolescents concerning parent-child communication. Data were elaborated on two levels: a generational level (adolescent's and his/her parents' perceptions among the three family groups) and a dyadic level (mother-child and father-child perceptions). The sample was composed of 276 Italian families with adolescents aged between 11 and 17 (81 foster, 98 international adoptive, and 97 biological families). Subjects (mothers, fathers, and children) filled out a questionnaire including the Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale (Barnes & Olson, 1985 ). Results highlighted that in foster families, parent-child communication showed more difficulties from both the adolescent's and the parents' point of view. Adoptive adolescents, however, reported a more positive communication with both their parents than did their peers living in biological and foster families. At a dyadic level, some differences emerged among the three groups. In biological families, a more pronounced distance emerged between parents and children. In adoptive families, father and adolescent shared more similar perceptions, whereas a significant discrepancy emerged between mother and child. A higher level of perceptual congruence between adolescents and parents was found in foster families. Gender differences were also seen: Mothers experienced a more open communication with their children than did fathers, and adolescents, and above all females, communicated better

  10. Similarity of risk and protective behaviors among African-American pre- and early adolescent members of naturally occurring friendship groups.

    PubMed

    Fang, X; Stanton, B; Li, X; Romer, D; Galbraith, J; Feigelman, S

    1996-01-01

    To determine whether self-reported risk and protective behaviors, expectations, and attitudes are more similar among African-American early adolescents within a community-based friendship group than across groups, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 382 African-American youth 9 through 15 years of age forming 76 community-based groups of 3 through 10 same-gender friends. Each member of the friendship group reported his/her own past involvement in nine risk behaviors (sexual intercourse, substance abuse, drug-trafficking, and other delinquent activities) and two protective behaviors (high academic performance and regular church attendance) and their expectations and feelings regarding several of these behaviors. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated overall and by gender and age. Members were generally more similar within friendship groups than across groups with regard to several risk behaviors and expectations including sexual intercourse and drug-trafficking. Particularly striking was the similarity among members of "junior" friendship groups (e.g., median age of youth < 11 years) of both risk and protective behaviors and expectations. The finding of enhanced similarity of risk behaviors and expectations among members within groups suggests that intervention delivery through community-based friendship groups may be a useful approach for risk prevention efforts targeting pre-adolescent African-American youth living in low-income settings. PMID:8982522

  11. DELINQUENCY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ADOLESCENT PEER GROUPS.

    PubMed

    Kreager, Derek A; Rulison, Kelly; Moody, James

    2011-02-01

    Gangs and group-level processes were once central phenomena for criminological theory and research. By the mid-1970's, however, gang research was primarily displaced by studies of individual behavior using randomized self-report surveys, a shift that also removed groups from the theoretical foreground. In this project, we return to the group level to test competing theoretical claims about delinquent group structure. We use network-based clustering methods to identify 897 friendship groups in two ninth grade cohorts of 27 Pennsylvania and Iowa schools. We then relate group-level measures of delinquency and drinking to network measures of group size, friendship reciprocity, transitivity, structural cohesion, stability, average popularity, and network centrality. We find significant negative correlations between group delinquency and all of our network measures, suggesting that delinquent groups are less solidary and less central to school networks than non-delinquent groups. Further analyses, however, reveal that these correlations are primarily explained by other group characteristics, such as gender composition and socioeconomic status. Drinking behaviors, on the other hand, show net positive associations with most of the network measures, suggesting that drinking groups have higher status and are more internally cohesive than non-drinking groups. Our findings shed light on a longstanding criminological debate by suggesting that any structural differences between delinquent and non-delinquent groups may be attributable to other attributes coincidental with delinquency. In contrast, drinking groups appear to provide peer contexts of greater social capital and cohesion.

  12. DELINQUENCY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ADOLESCENT PEER GROUPS*

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Rulison, Kelly; Moody, James

    2010-01-01

    Gangs and group-level processes were once central phenomena for criminological theory and research. By the mid-1970's, however, gang research was primarily displaced by studies of individual behavior using randomized self-report surveys, a shift that also removed groups from the theoretical foreground. In this project, we return to the group level to test competing theoretical claims about delinquent group structure. We use network-based clustering methods to identify 897 friendship groups in two ninth grade cohorts of 27 Pennsylvania and Iowa schools. We then relate group-level measures of delinquency and drinking to network measures of group size, friendship reciprocity, transitivity, structural cohesion, stability, average popularity, and network centrality. We find significant negative correlations between group delinquency and all of our network measures, suggesting that delinquent groups are less solidary and less central to school networks than non-delinquent groups. Further analyses, however, reveal that these correlations are primarily explained by other group characteristics, such as gender composition and socioeconomic status. Drinking behaviors, on the other hand, show net positive associations with most of the network measures, suggesting that drinking groups have higher status and are more internally cohesive than non-drinking groups. Our findings shed light on a longstanding criminological debate by suggesting that any structural differences between delinquent and non-delinquent groups may be attributable to other attributes coincidental with delinquency. In contrast, drinking groups appear to provide peer contexts of greater social capital and cohesion. PMID:21572969

  13. The role of gender, values, and culture in adolescent bystanders' strategies.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Anni; Tulviste, Tiia

    2015-02-01

    We examined the relationship between adolescent bystanders' strategies for intervening in the bullying-like situation and their gender, values, and cultural origin. The sample consisted of 682 Estonian and Russian-Estonian adolescents (M age = 13.02 years). They were shown a video of a bullying-like situation with a non-intervening adult bystander and asked to describe what they would do if they, instead of the adult, witnessed that situation. Only 10% said that they would not intervene. Girls were more likely than boys to suggest multiple actions. Adolescents who valued conformity were less likely to propose using physical aggression. Doing nothing was less likely suggested by those who placed more importance on conformity and less on power. Estonian adolescents were more likely than their Russian-Estonian peers to suggest finding out what is going on, and less likely to say that they would do nothing. The findings suggest that although most adolescents express willingness to help the victim, they might not actually know how to intervene. PMID:24919991

  14. The role of gender, values, and culture in adolescent bystanders' strategies.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Anni; Tulviste, Tiia

    2015-02-01

    We examined the relationship between adolescent bystanders' strategies for intervening in the bullying-like situation and their gender, values, and cultural origin. The sample consisted of 682 Estonian and Russian-Estonian adolescents (M age = 13.02 years). They were shown a video of a bullying-like situation with a non-intervening adult bystander and asked to describe what they would do if they, instead of the adult, witnessed that situation. Only 10% said that they would not intervene. Girls were more likely than boys to suggest multiple actions. Adolescents who valued conformity were less likely to propose using physical aggression. Doing nothing was less likely suggested by those who placed more importance on conformity and less on power. Estonian adolescents were more likely than their Russian-Estonian peers to suggest finding out what is going on, and less likely to say that they would do nothing. The findings suggest that although most adolescents express willingness to help the victim, they might not actually know how to intervene.

  15. Gender differences in sociodemographic and behavioral influences of physical activity in Mexican-origin adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Larkin L; Anderson, Cheryl B; Miranda, Patricia Y; Bondy, Melissa L; Zhou, Renke; Etzel, Carol J; Spitz, Margaret R; Wilkinson, Anna V

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the factors that contribute to physical activity (PA) in Mexican-origin adolescents is essential to the design of effective efforts to enhance PA participation in this population. Methods Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic and behavioral correlates of self-reported PA in school and community settings in 1,154 Mexican-origin adolescents aged 12–17 years in Houston, TX. Results The majority of adolescents were born in the US (74%), approximately half (51%) were overweight or obese, and nearly three-quarters (73%) watched more than 2 hours of weekday television. Similarities and differences by setting and gender were observed in the relationships between sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics and PA. In boys, parental education and attending physical education (PE) were positively associated with PA across multiple PA outcomes. Adolescent linguistic acculturation was inversely associated with participation in community sports, whereas parental linguistic acculturation was positively associated with PA at school. In girls, PA in school and community settings was inversely associated with TV viewing and positively associated with PE participation. Conclusions These findings highlight similarities and differences in correlates of PA among boys and girls, and point towards potential sources of opportunities as well as disparities for PA behaviors in Mexican-origin adolescents. PMID:21952224

  16. Parenting Predictors of Early-Adolescents' Health Behaviors: Simultaneous Group Comparisons across Sex and Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E.; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth…

  17. Adolescents' responses to the gender valence of cigarette advertising imagery: the role of affect and the self-concept.

    PubMed

    Shadel, William G; Niaura, Raymond; Abrams, David B

    2004-12-01

    The studies presented in this manuscript evaluated the role that affect and the self-concept play in adolescent never smokers' reactions to the gender valence of cigarette advertising imagery. Study 1 (n=29; 59% female) revealed that adolescent females have more positive affective reactions to female-valenced cigarette advertising imagery compared to male-valenced cigarette advertising imagery. Study 2 (n=101; 56% female) revealed that adolescent females viewed female-valenced cigarette advertising imagery as more relevant to their self-concepts compared to male-valenced cigarette advertising imagery. Across both studies, male adolescents did not respond differently as a function of the gender valence of cigarette advertising imagery. Thus, female-valenced cigarette advertising imagery may have specific effects on never smoking female adolescents by enhancing positive affect and suggesting that women who smoke hold the same characteristics as do the young women themselves.

  18. [Adolescents with gender identity disorder: reconsideration of the age limits for endocrine treatment and surgery].

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2012-01-01

    The third versions of the guideline for treatment of people with gender identity disorder (GID) of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology does not include puberty-delaying hormone therapy. It is recommended that feminizing/masculinizing hormone therapy and genital surgery should not be carried out until 18 year old and 20 year old, respectively. On the other hand, the sixth (2001) and the seventh (2011) versions of the standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender nonconforming people of World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) recommend that transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2, [mainly 12-13 years of age]) are treated by the endocrinologists to suppress puberty with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists until age 16 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. A questionnairing on 181 people with GID diagnosed in the Okayama University Hospital (Japan) showed that female to male (FTM) transsexuals hoped to begin masculinizing hormone therapy at age of 15.6 +/- 4.0 (mean +/- S.D.) whereas male to female (MTF) transsexuals hoped to begin feminizing hormone therapy as early as age 12.5 +/- 4.0, before presenting secondary sex characters. After confirmation of strong and persistent cross-gender identification, adolescents with GID should be treated with cross-gender hormone or puberty-delaying hormone to prevent developing undesired sex characters. These treatments may prevent transsexual adolescents from attempting suicide, being depressive, and refusing to attend school. Subsequent early breast and genital surgery may help being employed in desired sexuality.

  19. Depression from childhood into late adolescence: Influence of gender, development, genetic susceptibility, and peer stress.

    PubMed

    Hankin, Benjamin L; Young, Jami F; Abela, John R Z; Smolen, Andrew; Jenness, Jessica L; Gulley, Lauren D; Technow, Jessica R; Gottlieb, Andrea Barrocas; Cohen, Joseph R; Oppenheimer, Caroline W

    2015-11-01

    Depression is a debilitating mental illness with clear developmental patterns from childhood through late adolescence. Here, we present data from the Gene Environment Mood (GEM) study, which used an accelerated longitudinal cohort design with youth (N = 665) starting in 3rd, 6th, and 9th grades, and a caretaker, who were recruited from the general community, and were then assessed repeatedly through semistructured diagnostic interviews every 6 months over 3 years (7 waves of data) to establish and then predict trajectories of depression from age 8 to 18. First, we demonstrated that overall prevalence rates of depression over time, by age, gender, and pubertal status, in the GEM study closely match those trajectories previously obtained in past developmental epidemiological research. Second, we tested whether a genetic vulnerability-stress model involving 5-HTTLPR and chronic peer stress was moderated by developmental factors. Results showed that older aged adolescents with SS/SL genotype, who experienced higher peer chronic stress over 3 years, were the most likely to be diagnosed with a depressive episode over time. Girls experiencing greater peer chronic stress were the most likely to develop depression. This study used repeated assessments of diagnostic interviewing in a moderately large sample of youth over 3 years to show that depression rates increase in middle to late adolescence, or postpubertally, and that the gender difference in depression emerges earlier in adolescence (age 12.5), or postpubertally. Additionally, genetically susceptible older adolescents who experience chronic peer stress were the most likely to become depressed over time. PMID:26595469

  20. Racial/Ethnic and Gender Differences in the Relationship between Uric Acid and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents: An Analysis of NHANES 1999–2006

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Mark D.; Dong, Lili; Gurka, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Among adolescents uric acid is associated with insulin resistance, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in adults high uric acid levels are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Objective Determine whether the relationship of uric acid with MetS varies in adolescents by race/ethnicity and gender. Methods We used linear regression to evaluate associations between uric acid and other MetS-associated clinical and laboratory measures among 3,296 non-Hispanic-white, non-Hispanic-black and Hispanic adolescents age 12–19y participating in the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (1999–2006). Results Overall, non-Hispanic-white males and females had the highest uric acid levels among the three racial/ethnic groups. In each racial/ethnic group there were higher uric acid levels for those adolescents with vs. without MetS. However, the extent of the MetS-related increase in uric acid level varied by race and gender. Among males, MetS was associated with the greatest increases in uric acid among non-Hispanic whites. However, among females, the MetS-related increase in uric acid was greatest among non-whites. Non-Hispanic-white females exhibited the lowest degrees of correlation between levels of uric acid and MetS-associated variables. Uric acid levels did not correlate with insulin levels in non-Hispanic-white females. Conclusions These data suggest the relationship between uric acid and MetS varies by race/ethnicity and gender. In particular, non-Hispanic-white males exhibit a strong relationship and non-Hispanic-white females exhibit a relatively poor correlation between uric acid and MetS-related factors. These data may have implications for the use of uric acid as a marker of future risk among adolescents. PMID:22000606

  1. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators.

    PubMed

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E; Hall, Jeffrey E

    2016-02-01

    Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n = 577; 14 % Black, 5 % other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach.

  2. Gender differences in caregiver-child relationship mediation of the association between violence exposure severity and adolescent behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Susan; Kobulsky, Julia M; Voith, Laura A; Steigerwald, Stacey; Holmes, Megan R

    2015-12-01

    The main objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between mild, moderate, and severe violence exposure in the home and behavior problems in adolescents; (2) the caregiver-child relationship as a potential mediator in this relationship; and (3) gender differences. A series of path analyses were conducted using a sample drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NCSAW-I) of 848 adolescents (ages 11-15) who had been reported to Child Protective Services for maltreatment and who remained in their homes. Exposure to violence and the caregiver-child relationship were reported by adolescents. Both caregiver ratings and adolescent self-reports were used to assess adolescents' behavior problems. Path analysis indicated that exposure to mild and severe violence was directly associated with higher levels of child-reported behavior problems. However, exposure to violence was not directly associated with caregiver ratings of adolescent behavior problems. The caregiver-child relationship mediated the relationship between mild and moderate violence on both caregiver and child-reported adolescent behavior problems. Gender differences also emerged; for girls, the caregiver-child relationship mediated the effects of mild and moderate violence, whereas for boys, it mediated the effects of severe violence on behavior problems. Study findings suggest caregiver-child relationships as a critical underlying mechanism in the association between violence exposure and adolescent behavior problems, highlighting the importance of adding the caregiver-child relationship factor to intervention efforts.

  3. Gender and age variations in the self-image of Jamaican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, D E; Muenchen, R A

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships among gender, age, and self-image of adolescents attending three secondary schools in Jamaica. The relatively few studies that have been done regarding self-perceptions of these youth are not only dated but have utilized a unidimensional conceptualization of the self. The Offer Self-Image Questionnaire which employs a multidimensional construct of the self was administered to a sample of 174 Jamaican adolescents ranging in age from 14 to 18 years (M = 15.90 years, SD = 1.21). Results revealed statistically significant effects for both gender and age. Gender was found to be significant on one self-image dimension: Morals, while age differences were evident on six dimensions: Social Relationships, Morals, Sexual Attitudes, Mastery of the External World, Vocational and Educational Goals, and Emotional Health. The results in some instances were contrary to those of past research. Discussion focused on cultural socialization and other factors affecting youth in Jamaican society.

  4. Gender Specific Effect of Psychological Stress and Cortisol Reactivity on Adolescent Risk Taking

    PubMed Central

    Daughters, Stacey B.; Gorka, Stephanie M.; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Anderson, Katelyn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how psychological stress, gender and cortisol response to stress relate to risk behavior among 132 14–18 year old adolescents. Participants completed a laboratory based risk task prior to and immediately after a computerized psychological stress task, and salivary cortisol was collected from pre-stress to 60 minutes following initial stress exposure. Results indicate that adolescent boys (n = 59) and girls (n = 73) demonstrate different patterns of risk taking (RT) in response to stress, such that boys evidenced an increase in RT following stress exposure, whereas girls evidenced a decrease in RT. In addition, a gender by cortisol interaction demonstrated that for boys, both a smaller total cortisol output (AUCg) and peak cortisol response to stress (PC) was associated with greater stress-induced RT. Both cortisol measures were unrelated to stress-induced RT among girls. Taken together, data suggest that among boys, a blunted cortisol response to stress underlies an increase in risk taking in the context of psychological stress. Further research with an additional behavioral stress task is needed prior to drawing conclusions regarding the relation between female gender, cortisol response to stress, and risk taking in the context of psychological stress. PMID:23338478

  5. Gender specific effect of psychological stress and cortisol reactivity on adolescent risk taking.

    PubMed

    Daughters, Stacey B; Gorka, Stephanie M; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Anderson, Katelyn

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how psychological stress, gender and cortisol response to stress relate to risk behavior among 132 14-18 year old adolescents. Participants completed a laboratory based risk task prior to and immediately after a computerized psychological stress task, and salivary cortisol was collected from pre-stress to 60 min following initial stress exposure. Results indicate that adolescent boys (n = 59) and girls (n = 73) demonstrate different patterns of risk taking (RT) in response to stress, such that boys evidenced an increase in RT following stress exposure, whereas girls evidenced a decrease in RT. In addition, a gender by cortisol interaction demonstrated that for boys, both a smaller total cortisol output (AUCg) and peak cortisol response to stress (PC) was associated with greater stress-induced RT. Both cortisol measures were unrelated to stress-induced RT among girls. Taken together, data suggest that among boys, a blunted cortisol response to stress underlies an increase in risk taking in the context of psychological stress. Further research with an additional behavioral stress task is needed prior to drawing conclusions regarding the relation between female gender, cortisol response to stress, and risk taking in the context of psychological stress. PMID:23338478

  6. Increased Marijuana Use and Gender Predict Poorer Cognitive Functioning in Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lisdahl, Krista M.; Price, Jenessa S.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to characterize neuropsychological functioning in MJ-using adolescents and emerging adults (ages 18–26) and to investigate whether gender moderated these effects. Data were collected from 59 teens and emerging adults including MJ users (n = 23, 56% female) and controls (n = 35, 50% female) aged 18–26 (M = 21 years). Exclusionary criteria included independent Axis I disorders (besides SUD), and medical and neurologic disorders. After controlling for reading ability, gender, subclinical depressive symptoms, body mass index, and alcohol and other drug use, increased MJ use was associated with slower psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .01), less efficient sustained attention (p< .05), and increased cognitive inhibition errors (p< .03). Gender significantly moderated the effects of MJ on psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .003) in that males had a more robust negative relationship. The current study demonstrated that MJ exposure was associated with poorer psychomotor speed, sustained attention and cognitive inhibition in a dose-dependent manner in young adults, findings that are consistent with other samples of adolescent MJ users. Male MJ users demonstrated greater cognitive slowing than females. Future studies need to examine the neural substrates underlying with these cognitive deficits and whether cognitive rehabilitation or exercise interventions may serve as a viable treatments of cognitive deficits in emerging adult MJ users. PMID:22613255

  7. Effects of Gender and Communication Content on Leadership Emergence in Small Task-Oriented Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Katherine W.

    A study examined the role played by gender and communication content in the leadership emergence process in small, task-oriented groups. Six hours of transcribed group interaction from a sample of the group deliberations of 6 mixed-sex groups of college students (n=27) engaged in a 4-month-long decision-making project served as the database for…

  8. Web-based support as an adjunct to group-based smoking cessation for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mermelstein, Robin; Turner, Lindsey

    2006-12-01

    Although group-based programs remain the most common treatment approach for adolescent smoking cessation, success rates for these programs have been relatively modest, and their reach may be limited. Web-based adjuncts may be one way to boost the efficacy and reach of group-based approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of enhancing the American Lung Association's Not on Tobacco program (NOT) with a Web-based adjunct (NOT Plus). Twenty-nine high schools were randomly assigned to either the NOT program alone or to the NOT Plus condition, which included access to a specially designed Web site for teens, along with proactive phone calls from the group facilitator to the participant. Self-reported smoking behavior was obtained at end-of-program and at a 3-month follow-up. Using hierarchical linear modeling, accounting for the clustering of students in schools, and controlling for student gender, grade, race, and baseline smoking rate, there was a marginally significant (p=.06) condition effect at end-of-treatment and a significant effect at 3-month follow-up (p<.05) favoring the NOT Plus condition. Approximately 57% of adolescents reported visiting the Web site, and among the NOT Plus condition, use of the Web site was associated with cessation significantly at end-of-program (p<.05), but not at 3 months. Adolescents in urban schools were more likely to access the Web site than those in rural schools. Participants who visited the Web site rated it positively on several dimensions. Reasons for not using the Web site will be discussed, as well as its value as an adjunct.

  9. Web-based support as an adjunct to group-based smoking cessation for adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mermelstein, Robin; Turner, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Although group-based programs remain the most common treatment approach for adolescent smoking cessation, success rates for these programs have been relatively modest, and their reach may be limited. Web-based adjuncts may be one way to boost the efficacy and reach of group-based approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of enhancing the American Lung Association’s Not on Tobacco program (NOT) with a Web-based adjunct (NOT Plus). Twenty-nine high schools were randomly assigned to either the NOT program alone or to the NOT Plus condition, which included access to a specially designed Web site for teens, along with proactive phone calls from the group facilitator to the participant. Self-reported smoking behavior was obtained at end-of-program and at a 3-month follow-up. Using hierarchical linear modeling, accounting for the clustering of students in schools, and controlling for student gender, grade, race, and baseline smoking rate, there was a marginally significant (p = .06) condition effect at end-of-treatment and a significant effect at 3-month follow-up (p < .05) favoring the NOT Plus condition. Approximately 57% of adolescents reported visiting the Web site, and among the NOT Plus condition, use of the Web site was associated with cessation significantly at end-of-program (p < .05), but not at 3 months. Adolescents in urban schools were more likely to access the Web site than those in rural schools. Participants who visited the Web site rated it positively on several dimensions. Reasons for not using the Web site will be discussed, as well as its value as an adjunct. PMID:17491173

  10. Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  11. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it.

  12. Ethnic Identity, Gender, and Adolescent Attitude toward School: Adaptive Perspectives in Diverse Settings

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin M.; Frey, Christopher J.; Gerard, Jean M.; Collet, Bruce; Bartimole, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between adolescent ethnic identity and attitudes toward school and school climate are investigated in a small, multiracial/multiethnic city in the Great Lakes region with ethnically diverse adolescents taught by primarily White teachers. The mixed methods investigation of 986 eighth through eleventh grade students during the 2010–2011 academic year suggests that the relationship between ethnic identity and attitude toward school is a complex interaction among individual characteristics of ethnicity/race, ethnic identity, gender, and ecological context. Quantitative results reveal that White female and Hispanic and African American male students exhibit strong ethnic identity that correlates positively with school attitude; however, qualitative results indicate very different paths in getting to those outcomes. Hispanic students appear to benefit from a strong ethnic identity that assists with positive relationships at school, while African American male students utilize parental cultural socialization as a protective function in school. The results emphasize the implications of positive school climates for all students. PMID:25866457

  13. A gender-specific analysis of adolescent dietary caffeine, alcohol consumption, anger, and violent behavior.

    PubMed

    James, Jack E; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported dietary caffeine and alcohol consumption were examined in relation to anger and violent behavior in Icelandic tenth-graders. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate direct and indirect effects of measured and latent variables in the population sample of 3,670, controlling for parental financial standing, family structure, ADHD, and peer delinquency. Gender differences were observed that have not been reported previously, especially in relation to anger as a possible mediator of violent behavior against a background of caffeine and alcohol consumption. Study findings suggest the need to take account of caffeine consumption in relation to adolescent anger and violence.

  14. Perceptions of fear in other children and adolescents: the role of gender and friendship status.

    PubMed

    Ollendick, T H; Yang, B; Dong, Q; Xia, Y; Lin, L

    1995-08-01

    Gender differences in fear were examined in 693 Chinese children and adolescents. Subjects were asked to rate their own fears, the fears of their best friends, and the fears of "other" classmates using the Fear Survey Schedule for Children--Revised (Ollendick, 1983). Consistent with previous investigations in Western and Eastern countries, girls rated themselves as more fearful than boys. In addition, both girls and boys rated their best friends as similar in number, content, and intensity of fears. However, girls rated their classmates as less fearful than themselves or their best friends, while boys rated their classmates as more fearful then themselves or their best friends. Findings are discussed in terms of gender role expectations and similarity-attraction hypotheses. PMID:7560555

  15. Intergroup contact, attitudes toward homosexuality, and the role of acceptance of gender non-conformity in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Collier, Kate L; Bos, Henny M W; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2012-08-01

    This study explored how contact with gay and lesbian persons affects adolescents' attitudes toward them, and whether this association is mediated or moderated by one's acceptance of gender non-conformity. We analyzed survey responses from 456 Dutch adolescents aged 12-15 who reported having no same-sex attractions. Data were collected in 2008 at 8 schools in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Preliminary analyses showed that contact with lesbian/gay persons outside of school was positively associated with attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Multilevel analyses showed that acceptance of gender non-conformity mediated rather than moderated the relationship between intergroup contact and sexual prejudice in males. The effect of intergroup contact on females' attitudes toward lesbian women was no longer significant in multilevel analyses. The findings suggest that attention to both intergroup contact and acceptance of gender non-conformity would enhance our understanding of attitudes toward homosexuality in adolescents.

  16. The Relationship Between Anxiety Disorders and Substance Use Among Adolescents in the Community: Specificity and Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Renee D.; Fuller, Cordelia; Liu, Xinhua; Comer, Jonathan S.; Cohen, Patricia; Hoven, Christina W.

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of 781 adolescents (ages 13–17, 52.8% male) from a community survey, this study examined gender differences in the co-occurrence of specific anxiety disorders with substance use in adolescents. The associations between anxiety disorders and substance use differed according to the particular anxiety disorders and forms of substance use being examined, as well as by gender. Social phobia was associated with cigarette smoking among boys only. For girls, social phobia appeared to be negatively associated with drug use. For the other anxiety disorders, the associations with substance use tended to be stronger among girls. These findings highlight the need to improve clinical recognition of the anxiety disorders and to improve treatment access for afflicted adolescents. Future studies based on longitudinal data could further elucidate the relationships among anxiety disorders, gender, and substance use. PMID:20084563

  17. The Role of Gender and Race in the Relation between Adolescent Distress Tolerance and Externalizing and Internalizing Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Daughters, Stacey B.; Gorka, Stephanie M.; Magidson, Jessica F.; MacPherson, Laura; Seitz-Brown, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Distress tolerance (DT) is an established construct contributing to the onset and maintenance of psychopathology in adulthood; however, few studies have examined the role of DT in older adolescent psychopathology. Emerging data suggest that gender and race may influence this relation. Therefore, the current study examined the relation between gender, race, and DT on parent-reported internalizing and externalizing DSM-oriented symptoms among a community sample of 128, 14 to 18 year old adolescents. Results indicated a moderating effect of gender on affective problems, such that females with low DT, but not males, displayed significantly greater affective problems. Findings also indicated a significant moderating effect of race, such that Caucasians with low DT, but not African Americans, displayed significantly higher somatic, oppositional defiant, and conduct problems. These findings suggest that DT is an important clinical variable in older adolescence, particularly among Caucasians and females. PMID:24215952

  18. Gender differences in knowledge, intentions, and behaviors concerning pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease prevention among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Leland, N L; Barth, R P

    1992-11-01

    Gender differences in knowledge, intentions, and behaviors regarding preventing pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases were studied. Data for the study were collected from 1,033 students in 13 California high schools. Females in this sample were more likely than males to have discussed sexuality topics with parents, to have engaged in sexual intercourse more frequently, to have experienced a pregnancy scare, to have used oral contraceptives during their last sexual encounter, to perceive that a larger proportion of their peers were engaging in sex and using birth control, to obtain birth control from health facilities, and to report intentions to abstain or use protection in hypothetical situations placing them at risk for unprotected sex. In contrast, males reported that they were more likely to have always used birth control, to have used birth control during their first sexual encounter, and to have used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Furthermore, males were more likely to obtain birth control from a store or a friend. Finally, males knew more about using condoms correctly and their role in preventing sexually transmitted diseases. The efficacy of interventions designed to reduce unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents may be increased by addressing these gender differences. Understanding gender differences may also facilitate an increased role for males in the overall prevention scheme. Further research is clearly needed to increase knowledge about these gender differences.

  19. How a Language Gender System Creeps into Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Examined the influence of language gender systems on perception. Spanish-speaking (with a gender system) and English-speaking (with a limited gender system) participants from three age groups assigned typical male or female names and attributes to objects. Language gender tags influenced Spanish adults' and early adolescents' choice of gender…

  20. African American Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease: Support Groups and Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Marilyn M.; Telfair, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Studied the impact of support groups on the psychological well-being of adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). Response of 79 adolescent SCD group members show that psychological well-being was best predicted by fewer physical symptoms and greater satisfaction with the group. Findings suggest the beneficial effects of SCD support groups. (SLD)

  1. Gender and Facebook motives as predictors of specific types of Facebook use: A latent growth curve analysis in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Frison, Eline; Eggermont, Steven

    2016-10-01

    Despite increasing evidence that specific types of Facebook use (i.e., active private, active public, and passive Facebook use) are differently related to adolescents' well-being, little is known how these types function over the course of adolescence and whether gender and Facebook motives may predict the initial level and changes in these types over time. To address these gaps, Flemish adolescents (ages 12-19) were questioned at three different time points, with six months in between (NTime1 = 1866). Latent growth curve models revealed that active private Facebook use increased over the course of adolescence, whereas public Facebook use decreased. Passive Facebook use, however, remained stable. In addition, gender and Facebook motives were related to initial levels of specific types of Facebook use, and predictive of dynamic change in specific types of Facebook use over time. The discussion focuses on the understanding and implications of these findings. PMID:27585534

  2. Gender and Facebook motives as predictors of specific types of Facebook use: A latent growth curve analysis in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Frison, Eline; Eggermont, Steven

    2016-10-01

    Despite increasing evidence that specific types of Facebook use (i.e., active private, active public, and passive Facebook use) are differently related to adolescents' well-being, little is known how these types function over the course of adolescence and whether gender and Facebook motives may predict the initial level and changes in these types over time. To address these gaps, Flemish adolescents (ages 12-19) were questioned at three different time points, with six months in between (NTime1 = 1866). Latent growth curve models revealed that active private Facebook use increased over the course of adolescence, whereas public Facebook use decreased. Passive Facebook use, however, remained stable. In addition, gender and Facebook motives were related to initial levels of specific types of Facebook use, and predictive of dynamic change in specific types of Facebook use over time. The discussion focuses on the understanding and implications of these findings.

  3. African-American parents' racial and ethnic socialization and adolescent academic grades: teasing out the role of gender.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tiffany L; Linver, Miriam R; Evans, Melanie; DeGennaro, Donna

    2009-02-01

    This study examined the relationship of racial and ethnic socialization and academic achievement in a sample of 218 African American adolescents (grades 9-12; 52% girls) attending a public high school in the northeastern United States. Researchers were particularly interested in whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between racial and ethnic socialization and academic grades. Results indicated that aspects of ethnic socialization, African American cultural values and African American heritage were linked to adolescent grades. Additionally, adolescent gender was found to moderate the association between these socialization variables and grades. The findings also suggest that socialization provided by paternal caregivers around African American cultural values and African American heritage may have differential effects for academic grades than the socialization messages provided by maternal caregivers. Information generated from this study broadens the understanding of socialization factors that can facilitate positive academic outcomes in African American youth and has practical implications for parents and educators.

  4. [The usual diet of a group of adolescents from Valencia].

    PubMed

    Farré Rovira, R; Frasquet Pons, I; Martínez Martínez, I; Romá Sánchez, R

    1999-01-01

    Adolescents are considered a high nutritional risk group because their nutritional needs are increased with respect to other age groups, and because this period of life coincides with changes in life style that affect, often negatively, their eating habits. Our overall goal is to study the usual eating pattern of Valencian adolescents together with their drink and tobacco consumption, but the first stage focuses on setting up, validating and correcting methods to be applied. The present study was therefore carried out in a sample composed of 64 adolescents, ranging from 16 to 20 years of age. A self administered survey developed in our Department was used to explore their food preferences, eating habits, smoking habits and alcohol and coffee intake. The following results were obtained: The number of daily meals was of 3.7 +/- 0.9. The 91% takes the breakfast daily (milk with cereals or sweet rolls) and the majority of the students eat a second mid-morning breakfast. Lunch is of the traditional type, consisting of two courses. The first is rice or pasta, followed by meat, fish or eggs usually accompanied by a side dish or salad. Fresh fruit is the dessert eaten, almost daily by the majority of the sample. The most usual drink is water. The 70% of the sample have one supplementary afternoon intake "merienda". All of the surveyed people like fruits, pasta and chicken meat. While, liver and legumes are disliked by the majority. The intakes of soft drinks, snacks, alcohol, coffee and tobacco are moderate, being, all these products mainly consumed during the weekend. The mean diet offers an excess of proteins and saturated fat, while complex carbohydrates and dietetic fiber are scarce. Nutritional intakes of iron, magnesium and zinc in girls, and magnesium, folates and vitamin A in boys are estimated insufficient to fulfil their needs.

  5. Gender Similarities and Differences in Preadolescent Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Hongling; Shi, Bing

    2009-01-01

    The Social Cognitive Mapping procedure was used to identify peer social groups in 26 fifth-grade classrooms from six elementary schools in a northeastern urban school district. Four group structural features were examined: size, the number of subcliques, cohesion, and salience hierarchy. Ethnic diversity index was calculated for each group. An…

  6. Socioeconomic and gender group differences in early literacy skills: a multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Julia Ai Cheng; Otaiba, Stephanie Al

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status and gender are important demographic variables that strongly relate to academic achievement. This study examined the early literacy skills differences between 4 sociodemographic groups, namely, boys ineligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL), girls ineligible for FRL, boys eligible for FRL, and girls eligible for FRL. Data on kindergarteners (N = 462) were analysed using multiple-group confirmatory factory analysis. Early literacy skill differences between boys and girls are more nuanced than previously reported; subsidy status and gender interact. Both boys and girls from high-poverty households performed significantly lower than the girls from low-poverty households in alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and spelling. There were gender gaps, with a female advantage, among children from high-poverty households in alphabet knowledge and spelling and among children from low-poverty households in alphabet knowledge. These results highlight the importance of employing methodologically sound techniques to ascertain group differences in componential early literacy skills. PMID:25750582

  7. Self-esteem: a comparative study of adolescents from mainstream and minority religious groups in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz; Ayub, Nadia

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the level of self-esteem among religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) by making a comparison with their dominant counterparts (Muslims) in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that adolescents of religious minorities would have lower level of self-esteem than their dominant counterparts. In the present study 320 adolescents participated, in which 160 adolescents belonged to minority religious groups (i.e. 76 Christians and 84 Hindus) and 160 adolescents belonged to dominant religious group i.e. Muslims. To assess self-esteem of the participants, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg in Society and the adolescent self image, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1965) was used. One Way Analysis of Variance reveals that religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) inclined to have lower self-esteem as compared to their dominant counterpart (Muslim adolescents). PMID:22699828

  8. Self-esteem: a comparative study of adolescents from mainstream and minority religious groups in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz; Ayub, Nadia

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the level of self-esteem among religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) by making a comparison with their dominant counterparts (Muslims) in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that adolescents of religious minorities would have lower level of self-esteem than their dominant counterparts. In the present study 320 adolescents participated, in which 160 adolescents belonged to minority religious groups (i.e. 76 Christians and 84 Hindus) and 160 adolescents belonged to dominant religious group i.e. Muslims. To assess self-esteem of the participants, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg in Society and the adolescent self image, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1965) was used. One Way Analysis of Variance reveals that religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) inclined to have lower self-esteem as compared to their dominant counterpart (Muslim adolescents).

  9. Research on same-gender grouping in eighth-grade science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Jennifer Ingrid

    This study examined two hypotheses related to same-gender grouping of eighth-grade science classes in a public middle-school setting in suburban Kansas City. The first hypothesis, male and female students enrolled in same-gender eighth-grade science classes demonstrate more positive science academic achievement than their male and female peers enrolled in mixed-gender science classes. The second hypothesis, same-gender grouping of students in eighth-grade science has a positive effect on classroom climate. The participants in this study were randomly assigned to class sections of eighth-grade science. The first experimental group was an eighth-grade science class of all-male students (n = 20) taught by a male science teacher. The control group used for comparison to the male same-gender class consisted of the male students (n = 42) in the coeducational eighth-grade science classes taught by the same male teacher. The second experimental group was an eighth-grade science class of all-female students (n = 23) taught by a female science teacher. The control group for the female same-gender class consisted of female students (n = 61) in the coeducational eighth-grade science classes taught by the same female teacher. The male teacher and the female teacher did not vary instruction for the same-gender and mixed-gender classes. Science academic achievement was measured for both groups through a quantitative analysis using grades on science classroom assessment and overall science course grades. Classroom climate was measured through qualitative observations and through qualitative and quantitative analysis of a twenty-question student survey administered at the end of each trimester grading period. The results of this study did not indicate support for either hypothesis. Data led to the conclusions that same-gender grouping did not produce significant differences in student science academic achievement, and that same-gender classes did not create a more positive

  10. Gonadal suppressive and cross-sex hormone therapy for gender dysphoria in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine P; Madison, Christina M; Milne, Nikki M

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with gender dysphoria experience distress associated with incongruence between their biologic sex and their identified gender. Gender dysphoric natal males receive treatment with antiandrogens and estrogens to become feminized (transsexual females), whereas natal females with gender dysphoria receive treatment with androgens to become masculinized (transsexual males). Because of the permanence associated with cross-sex hormone therapy (CSHT), adolescents diagnosed with gender dysphoria receive gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs to suppress puberty. High rates of depression and suicide are linked to social marginalization and barriers to care. Behavior, emotional problems, depressive symptoms, and global functioning improve in adolescents receiving puberty suppression therapy. Gender dysphoria, psychological symptoms, quality of life, and sexual function improve in adults who receive CSHT. Within the first 6 months of CSHT, changes in transsexual females include breast growth, decreased testicular volume, and decreased spontaneous erections, and changes in transsexual males include cessation of menses, breast atrophy, clitoral enlargement, and voice deepening. Both transsexual females and males experience changes in body fat redistribution, muscle mass, and hair growth. Desired effects from CSHT can take between 3 and 5 years; however, effects that occur during puberty, such as voice deepening and skeletal structure changes, cannot be reversed with CSHT. Decreased sexual desire is a greater concern in transsexual females than in transsexual males, with testosterone concentrations linked to sexual desire in both. Regarding CSHT safety, bone mineral density is preserved with adequate hormone supplementation, but long-term fracture risk has not been studied. The transition away from high-dose traditional regimens is tied to a lower risk of venous thromboembolism and cardiovascular disease, but data quality is poor. Breast cancer has been reported in

  11. When Does the Gender Difference in Rumination Begin? Gender and Age Differences in the Use of Rumination by Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Paul E.; Brown, Isobel

    2008-01-01

    A cross-sectional non-clinical sample of 1,218 adolescents, aged 10-17 years, completed measures of stress, rumination, and depression to allow tests of the response style theory of S. Nolen-Hoeksema [J Res Adolesc 4:519-534, 1994] in adolescents, in particular whether increasing levels of stress and rumination in early adolescence are predictive…

  12. The Role of Child Gender, Problem Behaviors, and the Family Environment on Maternal Depressive Symptoms: Findings from Mothers of Substance Abusing Runaway Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Xiamei; Slesnick, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescents' problem behaviors, moderated by adolescent gender, as well as the association between maternal depressive symptoms and the family environment characteristics above and beyond child variables. Data were collected from 137 mothers of runaway adolescents with…

  13. Examination of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 in a mixed-gender young-adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Wilksch, Simon M; Wade, Tracey D

    2012-06-01

    Thin-ideal (or media) internalization is an important eating disorder risk factor that has become a central target of many prevention programs. However, evidence for its valid assessment in young, mixed-gender, adolescent samples is limited, and the current study is the first to explore the psychometric properties of the 30-item Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3; J. Thompson, P. van den Berg, M. Roehrig, A. S. Guarda, & L. J. Heinberg, 2004) in a nonadult community sample. Two samples of Grade 8 students (M age = 13.68 years), totaling 680 girls (N = 332) and boys (N = 348) completed the SATAQ-3 and other measures, whereas a smaller sample (N = 123) of Grade 10 girls (M age = 15.01 years) served as a comparison group for supplementary analyses. Principal component analyses (PCA) with data from Sample 1 (N = 201) revealed 4 factors with eigenvalues > 1.0, similar to the original authors' structure but with some cross-loading occurring between the Pressures and Internalization-General scales. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted with data from Sample 2 (N = 479) on the factor solution found in the PCA. The model did not fit well, leading to further revisions based on removal of cross-loading items and CFA modification indices, resulting in a 19-item, 4-factor solution with acceptable fit. Examinations of validity and reliability were generally acceptable. The overall findings suggest that an abbreviated version of the SATAQ-3 might be more appropriate than the original version with young-adolescent, mixed-gender audiences. Further examinations of the psychometric properties of the SATAQ-3 with this demographic are indicated.

  14. ESCAP holds expert group meeting on population issues facing adolescents.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes the activities at the ESCAP Population Division Expert Group Meeting on Adolescents that was held during September-October 1997 in Bangkok, Thailand. The meeting was a follow-up to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The meeting considered 1) the ICPD recommendations; 2) the recommendations contained in the Jakarta Plan of Action on Human Resource Development; and 3) the Proposals for Action on Human Resources Development for Youth in Asia and the Pacific. Participants included about 25 people from Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The conference relied on 8 invited experts, two resource persons, advisors from the UNFPA Country Support Team for East and Southeast Asia, and representatives of UNFPA, the Population Council, and the East-West Center. A concern was the declining age of menarche of girls in the ESCAP region and the increasing age of marriage. During the time of menarche and marriage, girls are migrating and moving away from their family and community in rural areas. Family structure and relationships are changing. Increases are observed in adolescent premarital sexual activity, the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, substance abuse, teenage pregnancy, and abortion. The mass media and information technologies have both a positive and a negative influence on adolescents. Parent-child communication exchanges and teacher-student exchanges are "less than ideal." Old traditions and practices change slower than people change. Boys and girls are affected differently by the sociocultural and economic environment. The societal norms set expectations for behavior that may conflict with individual beliefs and practices. Changes brought by globalization and rapid economic growth provide greater opportunity for young girls and women to obtain employment and autonomy.

  15. Growing up in violent communities: do family conflict and gender moderate impacts on adolescents' psychosocial development?

    PubMed

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H; Casey, Patrick H; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; Barrett, Kathleen W

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of family conflict and gender on the relationship between community violence and psychosocial development at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program study of low-birth-weight, pre-term infants. In this sample, adolescent psychosocial outcomes were predicted by community violence differently for male and female children and based on their experiences of conflict at home. For male children, being in a high conflict family as a child exacerbated the negative effects of community violence such that internalizing problems (depression and anxiety) and risk-taking behaviors increased as community violence increased, while being in a low conflict family protected the child against the negative impacts of the community. For female adolescents, there were no moderating effects of family conflict on the relationship between community violence and externalizing problems. Moderating effects for internalizing problems demonstrated that being in low conflict families did not serve as protection against community violence for girls as was demonstrated for boys. These findings demonstrate the long-term effects of community violence on child development, highlighting the importance of gender and family context in the development of internalizing and externalizing problems.

  16. Gender modulates the development of theta event related oscillations in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Chorlian, David B; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K; Edenberg, Howard; Kuperman, Samuel; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-10-01

    The developmental trajectories of theta band (4-7 Hz) event-related oscillations (EROs), a key neurophysiological constituent of the P3 response, were assessed in 2170 adolescents and young adults ages 12 to 25. The theta EROs occurring in the P3 response, important indicators of neurocognitive function, were elicited during the evaluation of task-relevant target stimuli in visual and auditory oddball tasks. These tasks call upon attentional and working memory resources. Large differences in developmental rates between males and females were found; scalp location and task modality (visual or auditory) differences within males and females were small compared to gender differences. Trajectories of interregional and intermodal correlations between ERO power values exhibited increases with age in both genders, but showed a divergence in development between auditory and visual systems during ages 16 to 21. These results are consistent with previous electrophysiological and imaging studies and provide additional temporal detail about the development of neurophysiological indices of cognitive activity. Since measures of the P3 response has been found to be a useful endophenotypes for the study of a number of clinical and behavioral disorders, studies of its development in adolescents and young adults may illuminate neurophysiological factors contributing to the onset of these conditions. PMID:26102560

  17. Gender modulates the development of Theta Event Related Oscillations in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chorlian, David B.; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K.; Edenberg, Howard; Kuperman, Samuel; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    The developmental trajectories of theta band (4-7 Hz) event-related oscillations (EROs), a key neurophysiological constituent of the P3 response, were assessed in 2170 adolescents and young adults ages 12 to 25. The theta EROs occurring in the P3 response, important indicators of neurocognitive function, were elicited during the evaluation of task-relevant target stimuli in visual and auditory oddball tasks. These tasks call upon attentional and working memory resources. Large differences in developmental rates between males and females were found; scalp location and task modality (visual or auditory) differences within males and females were small compared to gender differences. Trajectories of interregional and intermodal correlations between ERO power values exhibited increases with age in both genders, but showed a divergence in development between auditory and visual systems during ages 16 to 21. These results are consistent with previous electrophysiological and imaging studies and provide additional temporal detail about the development of neurophysiological indices of cognitive activity. Since measures of the P3 response has been found to be a useful endophenotypes for the study of a number of clinical and behavioral disorders, studies of its development in adolescents and young adults may illuminate neurophysiological factors contributing to the onset of these conditions. PMID:26102560

  18. Gender modulates the development of theta event related oscillations in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Chorlian, David B; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K; Edenberg, Howard; Kuperman, Samuel; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-10-01

    The developmental trajectories of theta band (4-7 Hz) event-related oscillations (EROs), a key neurophysiological constituent of the P3 response, were assessed in 2170 adolescents and young adults ages 12 to 25. The theta EROs occurring in the P3 response, important indicators of neurocognitive function, were elicited during the evaluation of task-relevant target stimuli in visual and auditory oddball tasks. These tasks call upon attentional and working memory resources. Large differences in developmental rates between males and females were found; scalp location and task modality (visual or auditory) differences within males and females were small compared to gender differences. Trajectories of interregional and intermodal correlations between ERO power values exhibited increases with age in both genders, but showed a divergence in development between auditory and visual systems during ages 16 to 21. These results are consistent with previous electrophysiological and imaging studies and provide additional temporal detail about the development of neurophysiological indices of cognitive activity. Since measures of the P3 response has been found to be a useful endophenotypes for the study of a number of clinical and behavioral disorders, studies of its development in adolescents and young adults may illuminate neurophysiological factors contributing to the onset of these conditions.

  19. Understanding the Experience of Girls with EBD in a Gender-Responsive Support Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srsic, Amy; Rice, Elisabeth Hess

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of adolescent girls with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) who were participating in a support group. The focus of the study was to explore the perceptions of the girls' friendships, connectedness with others, ability to establish and maintain relationships, and self-perceptions within the group. The…

  20. Art therapy focus groups for children and adolescents with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Stafstrom, Carl E; Havlena, Janice; Krezinski, Anthony J

    2012-06-01

    Children with epilepsy are at risk for numerous psychological and social challenges. We hypothesized that art therapy focus groups would enhance the self-image of children and adolescents with epilepsy. Sixteen children with epilepsy, ages 7-18 years, were recruited from pediatric neurology clinics at the University of Wisconsin to participate in four art therapy sessions. Pre-group assessments included psychological screens (Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale; Childhood Attitude Toward Illness Scale; Impact of Childhood Neurologic Disability Scale) and art therapy instruments (Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale; Seizure Drawing Task; Levick Emotional and Cognitive Art Therapy Assessment). Developmental levels of drawings were significantly below age-expected standards. Following completion of focus groups, a repeat Childhood Attitude Toward Illness Scale showed no differences between pre- and post-test scores on any measure of this scale. However, subjects and parents were uniformly positive about their group experiences, suggesting a qualitative benefit from participation in art therapy focus groups.

  1. Sexual self-disclosure in Cyberspace among Taiwanese adolescents: gender differences and the interplay of Cyberspace and real life.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Wan, Chin-Sheng

    2006-02-01

    This study explored adolescents' sexual self-disclosure in real life and cyberspace, as well as gender differences of sexual self-disclosure in cyberspace. There were 115 male and 92 female adolescents who participated in this pretest and posttest survey. In general, the depth of sexual self-disclosure in real life was greater than in cyberspace, but the breadth of sexual selfdisclosure in both real life and cyberspace was equivalent. The cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that adolescents who were willing to self-disclose sexual topics in real life also selfdisclosed them more in cyberspace, and vice versa. Furthermore, sexual self-disclosure in both disclosing environments was mutually predicted by each other. The findings also indicated that cyberspace might not be a substitute channel of compensatory gratification for sexual self-disclosure in real life. As for gender differences, the breadth and depth of sexual self-disclosure in male adolescents were greater than in female adolescents, in both real life and cyberspace. Male adolescents tend to be more active in Internet sexuality than females. However, female adolescents' sexual emancipation in cyberspace is not evident in Taiwan. Possible reasons, implications, and limitations of the findings are discussed. PMID:16497117

  2. The effect of gender and level of vision on the physical activity level of children and adolescents with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakcı; Kitiş, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between 8 and 16 years participated in the study. The physical activity level of cases was evaluated with a physical activity diary (PAD) and one-mile run/walk test (OMR-WT). No difference was found between the PAD and the OMR-WT results of low vision and blind children and adolescents. The visually impaired children and adolescents were detected not to participate in vigorous physical activity. A difference was found in favor of low vision boys in terms of mild, moderate activities and OMR-WT durations. However, no difference was found between physical activity levels of blind girls and boys. The results of our study suggested that the physical activity level of visually impaired children and adolescents was low, and gender affected physical activity in low vision children and adolescents.

  3. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Clinical phenotype among a high-risk group of children and adolescents in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Seung; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Lee, Hae Kook; Chambers, Christina D

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and phenotype of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or spectrum disorders (FASD) in Korea. This study was performed to describe the distribution of alcohol-related physical features in a genetically homogeneous sample of children and adolescents in institutional settings in Korea. Children and adolescents receiving services in one of seven institutions in Seoul, Korea were screened for growth deficiency. Those who screened positive were assessed using a structured protocol for the key cardinal features of FAS, and for 11 additional alcohol-related dysmorphologic features. Based on these findings, children and adolescents were categorized as FAS, Deferred (some characteristic features of FAS), and No FAS. Groups were compared on the prevalence of specific additional features and number of additional features, stratified by gender and age. Of 307 children and adolescents screened, 87 received the dysmorphology evaluation. Thirteen were classified as FAS, 44 Deferred, and 30 No FAS. The frequency of 10 of the 11 additional alcohol-related features did not differ significantly by FAS category. Palmar crease abnormalities were more common in FAS (53.8%) than in the Deferred category (25.0%) or the No FAS category (6.7%) (P = 0.003). A high prevalence across all groups was found for midfacial hypoplasia and epicanthal folds, whereas only one child exhibited ptosis. This study suggests that an FASD phenotype variant related to ethnic differences in the range of defects specific to prenatal alcohol exposure may be present in the Korean population.

  4. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Clinical phenotype among a high-risk group of children and adolescents in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Seung; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Lee, Hae Kook; Chambers, Christina D

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and phenotype of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or spectrum disorders (FASD) in Korea. This study was performed to describe the distribution of alcohol-related physical features in a genetically homogeneous sample of children and adolescents in institutional settings in Korea. Children and adolescents receiving services in one of seven institutions in Seoul, Korea were screened for growth deficiency. Those who screened positive were assessed using a structured protocol for the key cardinal features of FAS, and for 11 additional alcohol-related dysmorphologic features. Based on these findings, children and adolescents were categorized as FAS, Deferred (some characteristic features of FAS), and No FAS. Groups were compared on the prevalence of specific additional features and number of additional features, stratified by gender and age. Of 307 children and adolescents screened, 87 received the dysmorphology evaluation. Thirteen were classified as FAS, 44 Deferred, and 30 No FAS. The frequency of 10 of the 11 additional alcohol-related features did not differ significantly by FAS category. Palmar crease abnormalities were more common in FAS (53.8%) than in the Deferred category (25.0%) or the No FAS category (6.7%) (P = 0.003). A high prevalence across all groups was found for midfacial hypoplasia and epicanthal folds, whereas only one child exhibited ptosis. This study suggests that an FASD phenotype variant related to ethnic differences in the range of defects specific to prenatal alcohol exposure may be present in the Korean population. PMID:26384109

  5. Early adolescents' psychosocial adjustment and weight status change: the moderating roles of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yiting; Halgunseth, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    According to many public health experts, obesity is the most serious health threat facing today's early adolescents. This study examined the relationship between psychosocial adjustment (i.e., internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, interpersonal skills) and weight status change during early adolescence and possible moderating roles of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation. Data came from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a US nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999 and were followed through eighth grade. The current study was initiated in the fifth grade (n = 6,860; 51 % female). At fifth grade, parents reported on household routines; children and teachers reported on indicators of psychosocial adjustment. At fifth and eighth grade, children's weight was measured. Girls' weight status stability and change was more likely than boys' to be associated with psychosocial adjustment, after accounting for household/child routines and demographic variables. Compared to non-Hispanic White, Hispanic girls who exhibited higher levels of externalizing behaviors at fifth grade were more likely to become or stay obese at eighth grade. Hispanic girls who exhibited higher levels of internalizing behaviors at fifth grade were more likely to become or stay at a healthy weight at eighth grade, especially if they reported lower levels of acculturation. Lastly, African American girls with better interpersonal skills at fifth grade were more likely to stay obese at eighth grade. Implications for obesity prevention programs with early adolescents are discussed in the contexts of gender, ethnicity and acculturation.

  6. Gender hierarchy and adolescent sexuality: the control of female reproduction in an Australian aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Burbank, V K

    1995-03-01

    Women can bear children; men cannot. The author explores why women fail to realize more power from their ability to procreate. An instance is considered in which the practice and resistance of female Australian Aboriginal adolescents created circumstances in which their sexuality and reproduction were largely uncontrolled. The products of women's reproductive ability, children, are socially appropriated, but not women's reproductive abilities. The author views gender as a system of power relations both generated and changed in the quotidian interactions between human males and females. Adolescent sexuality and reproduction in Mangrove, and culture, power, and reproduction are discussed. The author finds women's sexual and reproductive freedom, as it is currently experienced by adolescent girls in Mangrove, to be supported by the confluence of the following factors: the diminished force of ideologies which may circumscribe women's behavior, the control of male violence, and the appreciation of motherhood and of any child simply by virtue of its being a child. It is unclear how long this arrangement will persist. Changes which may presage diminished freedom for women can already be discerned. Women's sexual and reproductive freedom are clearly human possibilities, but they are possibilities which can easily be denied.

  7. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    PubMed

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented. PMID:24923876

  8. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    PubMed

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented.

  9. Socioeconomic and Gender Group Differences in Early Literacy Skills: A Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Julia Ai Cheng; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status and gender are important demographic variables that strongly relate to academic achievement. This study examined the early literacy skills differences between 4 sociodemographic groups, namely, boys ineligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL), girls ineligible for FRL, boys eligible for FRL, and girls eligible for FRL.…

  10. Gender-typed behaviors, achievement, and adjustment among racially and ethnically diverse boys during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carlos E; Galligan, Kathrine; Pahlke, Erin; Fabes, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the relations between adherence to gender-typed behaviors in boys' friendships, achievement, and self-esteem. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse adolescent boys in grade 8 (Mage  = 13.05; range = 12-14). The study was completed at a public junior high school that offered both single- and mixed-gender classes. Data were collected in 2 waves, the first wave in fall of 2010 and the second in spring of 2011. At each wave, participants completed assessments of gender concepts and self-esteem. Standardized tests scores from the end of the previous academic year and the end of the year of the study were utilized. Results revealed that the boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors in their friendships was negatively associated with math standardized test scores and self-esteem from Time I to Time II. Indirect effects analyses revealed a relation between boys' adherence to emotional stoicism behaviors in friendships and math achievement and self-esteem via boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors. Implications of these findings and the links between masculinity, boys' friendships, performance in school, and psychological adjustment are discussed.

  11. Effect of gender and school level on disordered eating behaviours and attitudes in Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mancilla-Díaz, J M; López-Aguilar, X; Franco-Paredes, K; Alvarez-Rayón, G; Vázquez-Arévalo, R; Trinidad Ocampo Téllez-Girón, M

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess eating behaviours and attitudes in a community sample of 615 adolescent Mexican students recruited at a middle school (192 boys and 226 girls; mean age +/- standard deviation 13.56+/-0.09) and high school (90 boys and 107 girls; mean age 16.04+/-0.12 years), who completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), the Bulimia Test (BULIT) and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Multiple analysis of variance revealed the significant effect of gender on the negative feelings, body dissatisfaction, drive of thinness and perceived social pressure subscales, and school level on the body dissatisfaction and food preoccupation subscales. Among the high school girls, the gender x school level interaction had a significant effect on negative feelings, body dissatisfaction, drive of thinness, food preoccupation and perceived social pressure subscales. These data support previous findings concerning gender, and also suggest that perceived social pressure in the case of girls and food preoccupation in the case of boys could be important factors in the natural development of eating disorders. PMID:20179402

  12. Views on social and cultural influence on sexuality and sexual health in groups of Ugandan adolescents.

    PubMed

    Råssjö, Eva-Britta; Kiwanuka, Robert

    2010-11-01

    Sexual problems such as forced and transactional sex are common among adolescents, especially in developing countries. The objective of the present study was to describe how young people respond to their social living conditions and why they marry early, have early pregnancies, experience forced sex and involve themselves in transactional sex. Young people, 15-24 years old, participated in focus group discussions that were tape recorded, translated into English, transcribed and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Six groups were mixed, with both women and men, while two groups had only men and one group only women as participants. The two study sites were located in a slum area in Kampala and in a village in Wakiso district, near a trading centre. The following topics were discussed: Forced sex, early marriage, contraception, teenage pregnancy and transactional sex. The participants described how young people are affected by harmful cultural practices, by power imbalance, especially due to gender-based inequity, and by lack of information and life skills. This study also showed that young people perceive themselves as a resource and are prepared to help other less advantaged youth to get knowledge about reproductive health issues. Enforcement of laws that can protect children and youth was suggested. Government and community should work against harmful traditional practices and introduce sexual education in primary school.

  13. Views on social and cultural influence on sexuality and sexual health in groups of Ugandan adolescents.

    PubMed

    Råssjö, Eva-Britta; Kiwanuka, Robert

    2010-11-01

    Sexual problems such as forced and transactional sex are common among adolescents, especially in developing countries. The objective of the present study was to describe how young people respond to their social living conditions and why they marry early, have early pregnancies, experience forced sex and involve themselves in transactional sex. Young people, 15-24 years old, participated in focus group discussions that were tape recorded, translated into English, transcribed and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Six groups were mixed, with both women and men, while two groups had only men and one group only women as participants. The two study sites were located in a slum area in Kampala and in a village in Wakiso district, near a trading centre. The following topics were discussed: Forced sex, early marriage, contraception, teenage pregnancy and transactional sex. The participants described how young people are affected by harmful cultural practices, by power imbalance, especially due to gender-based inequity, and by lack of information and life skills. This study also showed that young people perceive themselves as a resource and are prepared to help other less advantaged youth to get knowledge about reproductive health issues. Enforcement of laws that can protect children and youth was suggested. Government and community should work against harmful traditional practices and introduce sexual education in primary school. PMID:21122615

  14. Gender-Related Effects of Group Learning on Mathematics Achievement among the Rural Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Md. Anowar; Tarmizi, Rohani Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: Gender differences in the effects of group learning play a contested role in mathematics education. Several researchers concluded that male students perform better on mathematics than female students. Whilst on the other hand, others reported that female students perform best under the group learning setting whereas the male…

  15. Parent and Peer Predictors of Physical Dating Violence Perpetration in Early Adolescence: Tests of Moderation and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Sullivan, Terri; Orpinas, Pamela; Simon, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parenting and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration during early adolescence and tested moderation among these predictors and gender. Participants were 2,824 ethnically diverse sixth-grade students with a recent boyfriend/girlfriend who was part of a multisite, longitudinal investigation of the development…

  16. Adolescent Girls' Experiences and Gender-Related Beliefs in Relation to Their Motivation in Math/Science and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, Campbell; Farkas, Timea; Brown, Christia Spears

    2012-01-01

    Although the gender gap has dramatically narrowed in recent decades, women remain underrepresented in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This study examined social and personal factors in relation to adolescent girls' motivation in STEM (math/science) versus non-STEM (English) subjects. An ethnically diverse…

  17. Relationship between multiple sources of perceived social support and psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence: comparisons across gender.

    PubMed

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher, classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students. Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided psychometric support for the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (Malecki et al., A working manual on the development of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (2000). Unpublished manuscript, Northern Illinois University, 2003) across gender, and demonstrated gender differences in perceptions of support in early adolescence. In addition, there were significant associations between all sources of support with depressive symptoms, anxiety, self-esteem, and academic adjustment, but fewer significant unique effects of each source. Parental support was a robust unique predictor of adjustment for both boys and girls, and classmates' support was a robust unique predictor for boys. These results illustrate the importance of examining gender differences in the social experience of adolescents with careful attention to measurement and analytic issues.

  18. Gender Matters, Too: The Influences of School Racial Discrimination and Racial Identity on Academic Engagement Outcomes among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavous, Tabbye M.; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination…

  19. The Effects of Religion and Gender on Well-Being, Substance Use, and Academic Engagement among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milot, Alyssa S.; Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The effects of religious attendance, religious importance, and gender on well-being, substance use, and academic engagement were examined among early adolescents (N = 683) from rural schools. Results indicated that females viewed religion as more important than males, although the frequency of religious attendance did not differ for males and…

  20. "I Just Want to Be Myself": Adolescents with Disabilities Who Identify as a Sexual or Gender Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Laurie Gutmann; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with disabilities who identify as a sexual or gender minority are at high risk for negative school experiences and poor outcomes, including peer rejection, bullying, and dropping out. Using an intersectionality framework, this study examined how multiple marginalized identities influence sense of self and school experience for this…

  1. Predicting Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence as a Function of Hearing Status, Gender, and Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of…

  2. The Roles of Stress and Coping in Explaining Gender Differences in Risk for Psychopathology among African American Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Ginger Apling; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2008-01-01

    This study used self-report symptom inventories administered in school classrooms to examine relations among gender, psychological symptoms, stress, and coping in 1,200 low-income African American urban early adolescents. Girls reported more symptoms than boys, accounted for by higher internalizing symptoms. Boys reported more stress than girls,…

  3. Examination of the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 in a Mixed-Gender Young-Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilksch, Simon M.; Wade, Tracey D.

    2012-01-01

    Thin-ideal (or media) internalization is an important eating disorder risk factor that has become a central target of many prevention programs. However, evidence for its valid assessment in young, mixed-gender, adolescent samples is limited, and the current study is the first to explore the psychometric properties of the 30-item Sociocultural…

  4. Trajectories of Individual Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Gender and Family Relationships as Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Depressive syndrome and disorders increase substantially during adolescence. Little is known, however, about how individual symptoms of depression change over the course of this developmental period. The present study examined within-person changes in symptom severity of each individual symptom of depression, utilizing longitudinal data collected across six years of adolescence. Adolescent gender and family relationship variables were tested as predictors of the symptom trajectories (i.e., intercept and slope). Adolescents and their mothers (N = 240) were first evaluated when youth were in grade 6 (M = 11.86 years old; SD = 0.56; 54% female) and then annually through grade 12. Individual symptoms of depression were assessed by a clinical interviewer using the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R). Mothers and youth also completed measures about their relationship on the Children’s Report of Parent Behavior Inventory and the Family Environment Scale. Results showed that all depressive symptoms increased linearly over time except psychomotor disturbances and problems with concentration and decision making, which were best represented by a quadratic growth model. Sex differences were found such that significantly more rapid increases in worthlessness/guilt were found for girls than boys, and concentration/decision making problems decreased significantly for boys, but not girls. Poor family relationship quality (mother-reported) predicted a significantly faster rate of increase in adolescents’ symptoms of anhedonia, appetite/weight changes, and fatigue. High maternal psychological control (youth-reported) also predicted a faster rate of increase in anhedonia. Study limitations, future research directions, and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25329553

  5. Features of Groups and Status Hierarchies in Girls' and Boys' Early Adolescent Peer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Scott D.; Davidson, Alice J.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Moody, James; Welsh, Janet A.

    2007-01-01

    The near universality of gender segregation in middle childhood and early adolescence has stimulated extensive research on sex differences in peer relationship processes. Recent reviews of the literature suggest that although some claims of two-cultures theory have clear empirical support, such as strong preference for same-sex peers over…

  6. A Multicultural Assessment of Adolescent Connectedness: Testing Measurement Invariance across Gender and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karcher, Michael J.; Sass, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Counselors, psychologists, and evaluators of intervention programs for youth increasingly view the promotion of connectedness as an important intervention outcome. When evaluating these programs, researchers frequently test whether the treatment effects differ across gender and ethnic or racial groups. Doing so necessitates the availability of…

  7. Mechanisms Linking Violence Exposure and School Engagement Among African American Adolescents: Examining the Roles of Psychological Problem Behaviors and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Hunnicutt, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether the relationship between violence exposure and school engagement is mediated by psychological problem behaviors and whether such relationships are gendered. Five hundred and sixty-three high school African American adolescents (ages 13 to 19 years) completed questionnaires which assessed two types of violence exposure (community violence and marital conflict), psychological problem behaviors (e.g., PTSD symptoms, anxiety, withdrawal, and aggressive behaviors), and school engagement (i.e., student-teacher connectedness and grade point average [GPA] obtained from school records). For male adolescents, psychological problem behaviors collectively mediated the relationship between community violence exposure and student-teacher connectedness. For female adolescents, both community violence and marital conflict exposure were negatively related to both GPA and student-teacher connectedness via aggressive behavior. Findings suggest that the differential impact of type of violence exposure and its sequela based on gender should be considered when addressing low school engagement among African American youth. PMID:21219276

  8. Adolescent peer group identification and characteristics: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Pokhrel, Pallav; Ashmore, Richard D.; Brown, B. Bradford

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an exhaustive review of 44 peer-reviewed quantitative or qualitative data-based peer-reviewed studies completed on adolescent peer group identification. Adolescent peer group identification is one’s self-perceived or other-perceived membership in discrete teenage peer groups. The studies reviewed suggest that adolescent peer groups consist of five general categories differentiable by lifestyle characteristics: Elites, Athletes, Academics, Deviants, and Others. We found that the Deviant adolescent group category reported relatively greater participation in drug use and other problem behaviors across studies, whereas Academics and Athletes exhibited the least participation in these problem behaviors. Additional research is needed in this arena to better understand the operation of adolescent group labels. PMID:17188815

  9. Gender differences in early adolescence in factors related to outcome of healthy behaviours two years later.

    PubMed

    Berg-Kelly, K; Kullander, K

    1999-10-01

    In this study, 390 students comprising 89.7% of the student population answered a questionnaire on health and health behaviours, socioeconomic status (SES), school, family and peer relationships, and intentions regarding behaviours at 13.5 and 15.5 y of age. The aim was to investigate whether there were gender differences in predictors of outcome of behaviours with impact on health at 15.5 y of age. Outcome dealt with three domains: health habits, acquisition of adult lifestyles, and problem behaviours. The material was analysed for correlations. Significant results were entered into multiple regression stepwise procedures. As expected, having already initiated adult lifestyles or exhibiting problem behaviours at 13.5 y were the most important factors associated with such behaviours 2 y later. Further analyses were then limited to those students who had not started such lifestyles to see what factors kept them from doing so in a 2-y period and what gender differences existed, if any. Results differed for the genders, with more boys being more concrete and behaviour-oriented, representing a sample of boys with late to normal puberty. Girls more often expressed intentions regarding behaviour, which predicted positive outcomes. Both genders were prudent in most areas studied: they were well adapted at school, had positive self-esteem and were not moving in circles where smoking and drinking were abundant. The conclusion is that young adolescents who do not start risky behaviours between the ages of 13 and 15 y live in a supportive context, which allows for positive interactions. The next step would be to investigate if alternative strategies may be used to implement similar options for those who lack such support in their natural environment.

  10. Observations of Adolescent Peer Group Interactions as a Function of Within- and Between-Group Centrality Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Dumas, Tara M.; Mahdy, Jasmine C.; Wolfe, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of adolescent (n = 258; M age = 15.45) peer group triads (n = 86) were analyzed to identify conversation and interaction styles as a function of within-group and between-group centrality status. Group members' discussions about hypothetical dilemmas were coded for agreements, disagreements, commands, and opinions. Interactions during…

  11. Urban and Rural Chinese Adolescents' Judgments and Reasoning about Personal and Group Jurisdiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, Charles C.; Yang, Shaogang; Tan, Dingliang; Liu, Chunqiong; Shao, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    This research applied social domain theory to illuminate reasoning about the perceived legitimacy and limits of group decision making (majority rule) among adolescents from urban and rural China (N = 160). Study 1 revealed that adolescents from both urban and rural China judged group decision making as acceptable for both social conventional and…

  12. The Role of Social Identity Complexity in Inter-Group Attitudes among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2013-01-01

    To supplement research on adolescent social identities, the current study examined how social identity complexity relates to ethnic inter-group attitudes in a young adolescent sample (N = 97; "age range" = 12-14 years). Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap of groups with which youth align themselves. Descriptive…

  13. Utilizing Mutual Aid in Reducing Adolescent Substance Use and Developing Group Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogro-Wilson, Cristina; Letendre, Joan; Toi, Hiroki; Bryan, Janelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the effectiveness of mutual aid groups for high school students. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was applied to 242 adolescents, where every other adolescent was assigned to the intervention or the control condition. The study evaluated the influence of implementing mutual aid groups in decreasing perceived risk…

  14. Fusion with the Cross-Gender Group Predicts Genital Sex Reassignment Surgery.

    PubMed

    Swann, William B; Gómez, Ángel; Vázquez, Alexandra; Guillamón, Antonio; Segovia, Santiago; Carrillo, Beatriz; Carillo, Beatriz

    2015-07-01

    Transsexuals vary in the sacrifices that they make while transitioning to their cross-gender group. We suggest that one influence on the sacrifices they make is identity fusion. When people fuse with a group, a visceral and irrevocable feeling of oneness with the group develops. The personal self (the sense of "I" and "me") remains potent and combines synergistically with the social self to motivate behavior. We hypothesized that transsexuals who felt fused with the cross-gender group would be especially willing to make sacrifices while transitioning to that group. Our sample included 22 male-to-female (MtF) and 16 female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals. Consistent with expectation, those who were fused with their cross-gender group (1) expressed more willingness to sacrifice close relationships in the process of changing sex than non-fused transsexuals and (2) actually underwent irreversible surgical change of their primary sexual characteristics (vaginoplasty for MtF transsexuals and hysterectomy for FtM transsexuals). These outcomes were not predicted by a measure of "group identification," which occurs when membership in the group eclipses the personal self (the "I" and "me" is subsumed by the group; in the extreme case, brainwashing occurs). These findings confirm and extend earlier evidence that identity fusion is uniquely effective in tapping a propensity to make substantial sacrifices for the group. We discuss identity fusion as a social psychological determinant of the choices of transsexuals. PMID:25666854

  15. Fusion with the Cross-Gender Group Predicts Genital Sex Reassignment Surgery.

    PubMed

    Swann, William B; Gómez, Ángel; Vázquez, Alexandra; Guillamón, Antonio; Segovia, Santiago; Carrillo, Beatriz; Carillo, Beatriz

    2015-07-01

    Transsexuals vary in the sacrifices that they make while transitioning to their cross-gender group. We suggest that one influence on the sacrifices they make is identity fusion. When people fuse with a group, a visceral and irrevocable feeling of oneness with the group develops. The personal self (the sense of "I" and "me") remains potent and combines synergistically with the social self to motivate behavior. We hypothesized that transsexuals who felt fused with the cross-gender group would be especially willing to make sacrifices while transitioning to that group. Our sample included 22 male-to-female (MtF) and 16 female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals. Consistent with expectation, those who were fused with their cross-gender group (1) expressed more willingness to sacrifice close relationships in the process of changing sex than non-fused transsexuals and (2) actually underwent irreversible surgical change of their primary sexual characteristics (vaginoplasty for MtF transsexuals and hysterectomy for FtM transsexuals). These outcomes were not predicted by a measure of "group identification," which occurs when membership in the group eclipses the personal self (the "I" and "me" is subsumed by the group; in the extreme case, brainwashing occurs). These findings confirm and extend earlier evidence that identity fusion is uniquely effective in tapping a propensity to make substantial sacrifices for the group. We discuss identity fusion as a social psychological determinant of the choices of transsexuals.

  16. Disorders of sex development and gender identity outcome in adolescence and adulthood: understanding gender identity development and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2007-06-01

    This article reviews studies on gender identity outcome in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD). It appears that a high percentage of affected individuals suffer from gender dysphoria. However, these figures differ substantially among the various DSD and they never reach 100%. From the studies it also becomes clear that a distinction should be made between gender role behavior and gender identity. Put in a broader theoretical framework, there is now more evidence that biological factors influence the development of gender role behavior than gender identity. Developmental psychology studies add evidence that social and psychological factors play a role as well in gender development. Clinicians should be aware of, but not overestimate the influences of neurobiological factors in gender development.

  17. Educational achievement of immigrant adolescents in Spain: do gender and region of origin matter?

    PubMed

    Vaquera, Elizabeth; Kao, Grace

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the educational achievement of immigrant youth in Spain employing data from 3 waves of the Longitudinal Study of Families and Childhood (Pànel de Famílies i Infància), a representative sample of children in Catalonia first interviewed at ages 13-16 in 2006 (N = 2,710). Results suggest consistent disadvantage in achievement among first-generation students. Differences in achievement between the second and third generations are apparent in bivariate analyses, but are explained by observable characteristics in multivariate analyses. Gender-specific analyses uncover a large achievement gap between first-generation girls and their third-generation counterparts, but no equivalent gap for boys. Region-of-origin differences are modest, with the exception of Latin American adolescents who exhibit the lowest educational outcomes. The significance of perceptions about school on achievement are discussed.

  18. Recovery of Psychological Readiness May Differ Between Genders Following ACL Reconstruction in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Milewski, Matthew David; Kostyun, Regina; Iannicelli, Julie P.; Kostyun, Kyle J.; Solomito, Matthew; Nissen, Carl W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a traumatic and emotional event for adolescent athletes. Preparation to return to play (RTP) and the potential risk of re-injury are often equally as emotional as the injury, and have been identified as possible limiting factors to a successful rehabilitation and RTP. In order to create a comprehensive rehabilitation model, further understanding of psychological readiness following surgical intervention is needed. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinical outcomes of subjective knee function and psychological readiness differ between genders following ACL reconstruction surgery in adolescent athletes, and if higher knee function and physiological readiness was associated with an earlier to RTP. Methods: Athletes who underwent ACL reconstruction surgery and were successfully returned back to unrestricted sport were included in the analysis. At approximately six months post surgery, knee function was assessed using the validated International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Form, and psychological readiness was assessed using the validated ACL-Return to Sport after Injury (ACL-RSI) scale. Formal clearance to resume unrestricted sport was obtained from clinic notes. A T-test was used to determine if demographics, IKDC and ACL-RSI scores between genders. A mixed effects random intercept regression model was used to determine the association of time to RTP with IKDC and ACL-RSI scores. Results: A total of 45 adolescent athletes (23 females) were included in this analysis. No significant differences were found between males and females for age (16.2±1.5 years, 16.3±2.2 years) and average time to RTP (7.3±2.0 months, 7.3±1.8 months). No significant differences in IKDC scores were found between males and females (88±10%, 87±10%). A trend was identified that males demonstrated higher ACL-RSI scores at six month post surgery than females (81±14%, 72±17%, p = 0.063). In females

  19. Fighting like a girl fighting like a guy: gender identity, ideology, and girls at early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lyn Mikel; Tappan, Mark B

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we explore the phenomenon of "girls fighting like guys" by listening to adolescent girls' justification for physical fighting with other girls. We argue that physical girlfighting is a particular kind of gendered performance--a performance of identity that expresses, at least in part, an answer to the question, "Who am I?"--that both perpetuates and challenges the usual notions of masculinity and femininity and the differential power associated with these discourses. We present a sociocultural approach to identity that we believe not only holds promise for helping us to understand girl-fighting behavior but also highlights the clear interrelationship between social identity and personal identity. We conclude by highlighting several implications of this analysis for those who work with girls (and boys) in educational and clinical settings.

  20. Gender Differences in Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: A Multicenter Study in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Nusret; Ayaz, Muhammed; Gökten, Emel Sarı; Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Dönmez, Yunus Emre; Özcan, Özlem Özel; Ayaz, Ayşe Burcu; Tufan, Ali Evren

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender-based differences in abuse-related characteristics and post-abuse psychiatric disorders among sexually abused children and adolescents. The researchers retrospectively examined files, judicial reports, and social examination reports of 1,250 sexually abused youth cases. Results showed that boys were more often victimized by penetration, force, and physical violence. Incidence of sexual abuse by family members, familiar persons, and multiple persons was higher among girls. In addition, a higher rate of major depressive disorder as well as alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking were found in sexually abused girls. No difference was observed between boys and girls in terms of post-traumatic stress disorder, conduct disorder, and other mental disorders. Intellectual disability was more frequent in boys. PMID:27266537