Science.gov

Sample records for adolescent girls results

  1. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls) randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods/Design The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA) sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. Discussion NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an important contribution to the

  2. Is Underweight Associated with more Positive Body Image? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    PubMed

    Kantanista, Adam; Król-Zielińska, Magdalena; Borowiec, Joanna; Osiński, Wiesław

    2017-02-09

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between body image and prevalence of underweight, normal weight, and overweight in adolescents. The study included 1702 girls and 1547 boys, aged 14-16 years, who completed questionnaire assessing body satisfaction. The participants' BMI status: underweight, normal weight or overweight was determined on the basis of BMI cut-off values. Results revealed that more girls (p < .001) showed low body satisfaction (44.8%) and fewer girls (p < .001) had high body satisfaction (17.6%) compared to boys (28.5% and 29.0%, respectively). A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between BMI status and gender on body satisfaction F(2, 3243) = 4.10, p = .017, η2 = .003. In boys, body satisfaction was higher in normal weight and underweight in comparison to overweight individuals (p < .001). Underweight girls presented higher body satisfaction than those who were normal weight and overweight (p < .001). Our findings indicated that, in relation to gender, BMI status can be associated with different body satisfaction in adolescents. This should be taken into consideration when designing programs aimed at obesity and disordered eating prevention and body image improvement. Due to the fact that underweight girls and boys have high body satisfaction, this can lead to behaviors that maintain low body weight in adolescents and in turn this may have negative health consequences.

  3. Adolescent girls' parasocial interactions with media figures.

    PubMed

    Theran, Sally A; Newberg, Emily M; Gleason, Tracy R

    2010-01-01

    We examined aspects of adolescent girls' parasocial interactions in the context of typical development. Parasocial interactions are defined as symbolic, one-sided quasi-interactions between a viewer and a media figure. In total, 107 adolescent girls were examined; 94% reported engaging in parasocial interactions to some degree. Preoccupied attachment style predicted the degree of involvement in and emotional intensity of parasocial interactions. Results suggest that parasocial interactions are characteristic of girls with preoccupied attachment, but are also part of normative development.

  4. Adolescent Girls Face the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Lynn; Bergeron, Suzie

    1994-01-01

    This article is the final report on a study of adolescent girls which explored the relationship between physical activity and self-esteem. Two earlier phases of the study collected data on girls aged 9 to 12 years (n=76) and aged 12 to 17 years (n=67). A questionnaire explored: (1) confidence and perceived competence; (2) sports and activity…

  5. USAID Adolescent Girl Strategy Implementation Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    USAID's commitment to empowering adolescent girls to reach their full potential is reflected in the Agency's larger efforts to achieve gender equality and women's empowerment. The Agency holds decades of experience leading advances for greater gender equality and empowerment that benefit adolescent girls; however, these activities have not been…

  6. Social Cognition in Adolescent Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Meulenbroek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize social cognition, executive functions (EFs), and everyday social functioning in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome, and identify relationships among these variables. Participants were 20 girls with FXS and 20 age-matched typically developing peers. Results showed significant between-groups differences in…

  7. Perceived Experiences with Sexism among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls…

  8. Relational spirituality and depression in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Alethea; Miller, Lisa

    2007-10-01

    This study examines the possibility that relational spirituality may be inversely associated with the relatively higher rates of adolescent depression found in girls as compared with boys. Subjects were 615 adolescents, representing a diverse range of religious, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Overall spirituality and depression were measured using The Brief-Multidimensional Measure of Religiosity/Spirituality and the Beck Depression Inventory, respectively. Overall, both level of depression and level of relational spirituality were higher in girls as compared with boys. Regression analyses conducted independently for boys and girls revealed that daily spiritual experiences, forgiveness, and religious coping were associated with less-depressive symptomatology exclusively in girls. This pattern in the findings suggests that uniquely in girls, depression may be associated with disruptions in a relational form of spirituality.

  9. How Israeli social workers perceive adolescent girls in prostitution.

    PubMed

    Peled, Einat; Lugasi, Reut

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of girls in prostitution poses great challenges to professionals who work with adolescent girls at risk and in distress. Prostitution is socially stigmatized and seen as something shameful. However, current theory and research show adolescent girls in prostitution to be victims of violence, exploitation and trauma. This naturalistic qualitative study examined the views of 15 social workers at six Adolescent Girls Treatment Units in Israel on prostitution and on adolescent girls in prostitution. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The participants struggled to link the term "prostitution" with the adolescent girls in their care. The findings explore the source this perceived conflict, and its manifestation in the participants' professional intervention with the girls. The discussion examines the participants' professional discourse about adolescent girls in prostitution, and offers explanations for their difficulty in associating the adolescent girls in their care with prostitution.

  10. Characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual violence is considered a serious violation of human rights which affects mainly young women and adolescents. There is little information about the conditions under which sexual offences occur. We evaluated characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Method This is a quantitative, retrospective, descriptive study of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Analyses were carried out on data collected from 1118 women, 546 adolescents (10-19 years) and 572 adults (≥ 20 years), with a complaint of rape treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, between 1994 and 1999. The age limit of the adolescent sample met the World Health Organization’s (WHO) criteria. We analyzed the type of sexual contact, degree of intimidation, perpetrator and activity of the victim during the approach. Results Crimes without penetration were five times more frequent in adolescents and use of threats of death or intimidation was common in both groups. Mental illness was more prevalent in adult victims and the majority of adolescent victims were aged <14 years. Uncle and stepfather perpetrators were more frequent among adolescents and partners or former intimate partners in adult women. In most cases the approach occurred in public places, although sex crimes at the perpetrator’s residence were more frequent amongst adolescents. Conclusions Although children and adolescents require the same intervention measures and legal protection, a considerable proportion of adolescent sex offenders can face conditions similar to those of adult women. PMID:24450307

  11. The relationship between age of menarche and mental distress in Norwegian adolescent girls and girls from different immigrant groups in Norway: results from an urban city cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Lien, Lars; Dalgard, Florence; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Thoresen, Magne; Bjertness, Espen

    2006-07-01

    Lower age of menarche has been associated with increased mental distress among adolescent girls. The association might be mediated via body image, as girls with early menarche tend to have higher weight than those with late onset menarche. Many of the existing studies of menarche and mental distress are based on samples of white, western girls. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between age of menarche and mental distress among Norwegian girls and girls from different immigrant groups, and to study the effect of body mass index (BMI) and the difference between current and desired weight, on the relationship between age of menarche and mental distress. The study was a cross-sectional population-based self-report survey of all 10th grade pupils in Oslo for two consecutive years. A total of 3694 girls (91%) participated, one quarter of which were first or second generation immigrants. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 was used to measure mental distress. An inverse, linear association between age of menarche and mental distress was found for both Norwegian girls and girls from all the immigrant groups. Regardless of immigrant status, girls with early onset menarche had higher BMI and higher difference in current and desired weight than those with late onset menarche. In linear regression, the difference in current and desired weight was more strongly associated with mental distress both among the Norwegian girls and girls from immigrant groups than age of menarche and BMI when controlling for social and behavioral factors. Early age of menarche might serve as a predictor for psychopathology in Norwegians girls as well as in girls from different immigrant groups. The association between age of menarche and mental distress might be mediated via differences in current and desired weight.

  12. American Indian adolescent girls: vulnerability to sex trafficking, intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Alexandra Sandi

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation, violence, and addiction. Evaluation results indicate frequent exposure to sex traffickers and suggest that harm reduction methods can help girls reduce risk of commercial sexual exploitation.

  13. Sparking connections: An exploration of adolescent girls' relationships with science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Kathryn A.

    Despite progress in narrowing the gender gap, fewer women than men pursue science careers. Adolescence is a critical age when girls' science interest is sparked or smothered. Prior research provides data on who drops out of the "science pipeline" and when, but few studies examine why and how girls disconnect from science. This thesis is an in-depth exploratory study of adolescent girls' relationships with science based on a series of interviews with four middle-class Caucasian girls---two from public schools, two homeschooled. The girls' stones about their experiences with, feelings about, and perspectives on science, the science process, and their science learning environments are examined with a theoretical and analytic approach grounded in relational psychology. The potential link between girls' voices and their involvement in science is investigated. Results indicate that girls' relationships with science are multitiered. Science is engaging and familiar in the sense that girls are curious about the world, enjoy learning about scientific phenomena, and informally use science in their everyday fives. However, the girls in this study differentiated between the science they do and the field of science, which they view as a mostly male endeavor (often despite real life experiences to the contrary) that uses rather rigid methods to investigate questions of limited scope and interest. In essence, how these girls defined science defined their relationship with science: those with narrow conceptions of science felt distant from it. Adolescent girls' decreased involvement in science activities may be a relational act---a move away from a patriarchical process, pedagogy, and institution that does not resonate with their experiences, questions, and learning styles. Girls often feel like outsiders to science; they resist considering science careers when they have concerns that implicitly or explicitly, doing so would involve sacrificing their knowledge, creativity, or

  14. Perforated peptic ulcer in an adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Shepard; Edden, Yair; Orkin, Boris; Erlichman, Matityahu

    2012-07-01

    A perforated peptic ulcer in a child is a rare entity. Severe abdominal pain in an ill-appearing child with a rigid abdomen and possibly with signs of shock is the typical presenting feature of this life-threatening complication of peptic ulcer disease. We present a case of a 14.5-year-old adolescent girl who developed abdominal and shoulder pain that resolved after 1 day. She was then completely well for 2 days until the abdominal and shoulder pain recurred. On examination, she appeared well, but in pain. A chest radiograph revealed a large pneumoperitoneum. She underwent emergent laparoscopic omental patch repair of a perforated ulcer on the anterior wall of her stomach. Result of a urea breath test to detect Helicobacter pylori was negative. The differential diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum in children is discussed, as are childhood perforated peptic ulcer in general, and the unique clinical features present in this case in particular.

  15. Perceived experiences with sexism among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls reported sexual harassment (90%), academic sexism (52%), and athletic sexism (76%) at least once, with likelihood increasing with age. Socialization influences and individual factors, however, influenced likelihood of all three forms of sexism. Specifically, learning about feminism and gender-conformity pressures were linked to higher perceptions of sexism. Furthermore, girls' social gender identity (i.e., perceived gender typicality and gender-role contentedness) and gender-egalitarian attitudes were related to perceived sexism.

  16. Preventing Substance Use among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a computerized gender-specific, parent-involvement intervention program grounded in family interaction theory and aimed at preventing substance use among adolescent girls. Following program delivery and 1 year later, girls randomly assigned to the intervention arm improved more than girls in a control arm on variables associated with reduced risks for substance use, including communication with their mothers, knowledge of family rules about substance use, awareness of parental monitoring of their discretionary time, non-acceptance of peer substance use, problem-solving skills, and ability to refuse peer pressure to use substances. Relative to control-arm girls, those in the intervention arm also reported less 30-day use of alcohol and marijuana and lower intentions to smoke, drink, and take illicit drugs in the future. Girls’ mothers in the intervention arm reported greater improvements after the program and relative to control-arm mothers in their communication with their daughters, establishment of family rules about substance use, and monitoring of their daughters’ discretionary time. Study findings lend support to the potential of gender-specific, parent-involvement, and computerized approaches to preventing substance use among adolescent girls. PMID:19632053

  17. Bothersome Exposure to Online Sexual Content among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ševcíková, Anna; Simon, Laura; Daneback, Kristian; Kvapilík, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Prior research suggests that adolescent girls may react more negatively to online sexual content than boys. This study explored the qualitative experiences of adolescent girls who encountered bothersome or disturbing sexual content online. Fourteen girls (aged 15-17 years) were interviewed online about the context in which they saw bothersome…

  18. Anaemia in pregnant adolescent girls with malaria and practicing pica

    PubMed Central

    Intiful, Freda Dzifa; Wiredu, Edwin Kwame; Asare, George Awuku; Asante, Matilda; Adjei, David Nana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy during the adolescent period is challenging mainly because of the nutritional demands of both the adolescent and pregnancy period. The risk for anaemia increases especially in developing countries such as Ghana where malaria is endemic and the practice of pica is common. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of anaemia, pica practice and malaria infection among pregnant adolescent girls and assess the extent to which these factors are associated. Methods Two hundred and sixty five (265) pregnant adolescent girls were recruited from three hospitals in Accra. Haemoglobin levels, malaria infection and the practice of pica were assessed. Pearson's Chi squared tests were used to determine associations and logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds of being anaemic. Significance was set at p≤0.05. Results Anaemia prevalence was 76% with severity ranging from mild (47.8%) to severe (0.8%). About 27.5% were moderately anaemic. Pica was practiced in only 9.1% of the girls. Malaria infection was prevalent in 17.7% of the girls. The logistic regression analysis indicated that pregnant girls with malaria infection were 3.56 times more likely to be anaemic when compared to those without malaria. Also, those who practiced pica were 1.23 times more likely to be anaemic when compared to those who did not practice pica. Conclusion Anaemia is very prevalent in pregnant adolescent girls and is a public health problem. Drastic measures should be taken to reduce the high prevalence. PMID:27642435

  19. Beyond Appearance: A New Look at Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Norine G., Ed.; Roberts, Michael C., Ed.; Worell, Judith, Ed.

    This book provides a new look at adolescent girls. The sections and chapters reveal the strengths and positive assets of adolescent girls, their relationships, and their communities. It takes a new look at the strengths and successes of adolescents within the context of their race, ethnicity, class, self, sexual orientation, relationships and…

  20. Health and human rights of adolescent girls in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Heisler, M; Rasekh, Z; Iacopino, V

    1999-01-01

    Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) conducted a study in early 1998 to assess the health and human rights conditions of Afghan women and girls living under the Taliban regime in Kabul. This paper highlights the concerns and experiences of adolescent girls in Kabul, includes a brief overview of the political situation in Afghanistan and Taliban policies toward women and girls, and presents findings from interviews with adolescent girls and women with adolescent daughters. It concludes with a discussion of current international standards for the protection of women's and girls' rights and the crucial role of health professionals in helping defend these rights.

  1. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it.

  2. Personalized Biobehavioral HIV Prevention for Women and Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Bevilacqua, Amanda W.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Women and adolescent girls bear a significant burden of the global HIV pandemic. Both behavioral and biomedical prevention approaches have been shown to be effective. In order to foster the most effective combination HIV-prevention approaches for women and girls, it is imperative to understand the unique biological, social, and structural considerations that increase vulnerability to acquiring HIV within this population. Primary Study Objective: The purpose of this article is to propose novel ideas for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention for women and adolescent girls. The central argument is that we must transcend unilevel solutions for HIV prevention toward comprehensive, multilevel combination HIV prevention packages to actualize personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention. Our hope is to foster transnational dialogue among researchers, practitioners, educators, and policy makers toward the actualization of the proposed recommendations. Methods: We present a commentary organized to review biological, social, and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV acquisition among women and adolescent girls. The overview is followed by recommendations to curb HIV rates in the target population in a sustainable manner. Results: The physiology of the lower female reproductive system biologically increases HIV risk among women and girls. Social (eg, intimate partner violence) and structural (eg, gender inequality) factors exacerbate this risk by increasing the likelihood of viral exposure. Our recommendations for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention are to (1) create innovative mechanisms for personalized HIV risk—reduction assessments; (2) develop mathematical models of local epidemics; (3) prepare personalized, evidence-based combination HIV risk—reduction packages; (4) structure gender equity into society; and (5) eliminate violence (both physical and structural) against women and girls. Conclusions: Generalized programs and

  3. Interpersonal influences on late adolescent girls' and boys' disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-04-01

    Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys' and girls' symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16-19 years of age (N=199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents', mothers' and friends' reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys.

  4. First Births among Adolescent Girls: Risk and Protective Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Kunz, James

    1999-01-01

    Survey administered to 958 girls studied effects of sociodemographic risk factors for adolescent nonmarital childbearing. Analysis showed adolescents girls who experienced five or more sociodemographic risk factors were 16 times more likely to experience a nonmarital childbirth during their teenage years. Under similar levels of risk, adolescent…

  5. Perceptions of Slimming and Healthiness among Norwegian Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjelkrem, Kristiane; Lien, Nanna; Wandel, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore what adolescent girls mean when they talk about healthiness and slimming, as well as the distinction between the 2 concepts. Design: Data was collected by the use of 8 focus groups, each with 5-9 adolescent girls. Setting: Four different schools in Oslo and 2 other municipalities in Norway in 2006-2007. Participants:…

  6. Scientific Temper among Academically High and Low Achieving Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kour, Sunmeet

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the scientific temper of high and low achieving adolescent girl students. Random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from various high schools of District Srinagar. The sample for the present study consisted of 120 school going adolescent girls (60 high and 60 low achievers). Data was…

  7. Promoting Resiliency in Adolescent Girls through Adventure Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, Anja; Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Budbill, Nadine W.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether participation in an adventure program increased the resiliency of adolescent girls. Eighty-seven girls who participated in Dirt Divas, a non-profit, adventure program, completed the Resiliency Scale for Children and Adolescents® before and after their experience. Means-comparison tests for within-subjects designs were…

  8. Understanding and Responding to Adolescent Girls' Online Cruelty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokal, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Many school counsellors have identified "cyber-bullying" among adolescent girls as a growing concern. In order to respond to this issue, this article begins with a new model of cyber-communications from the unique perspective of adolescent girls. Next, it explores the limitations of responding to this model, based on current understandings of…

  9. Obesity among Black Adolescent Girls: Genetic, Psychosocial, and Cultural Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne, Sylvan I.; LaPoint, Velma

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the causes, consequences, and prevention of obesity among a subgroup of the American population, Black adolescent girls. Using an ecological perspective on obesity among Black adolescent girls, including feminist-womanist perspectives and historical and medical sociological perspectives, the authors discuss genetic,…

  10. After-School Physical Activity Programs for Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Doris L.; Poczwaradowski, Artur; Eisenman, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Describes adolescent girls' responses to an after-school physical activity program, examining how it functioned as a listening tool within a social marketing approach to promoting physical activity. Focus groups and interviews indicated that girls enjoyed and valued the program. Though the program did not increase girls' physical activity levels,…

  11. Acculturation and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris; Killen, Joel D.; Robinson, Thomas N.; Taylor, C. Barr

    1999-01-01

    Examined relationship between acculturation and eating-disorder symptoms in normative samples of 920 adolescents girls of high school age. Found that acculturation was positively associated with structured-interview defined partial syndrome eating disorders in Hispanic girls, but not in Asian or European-American girls. There was no relation…

  12. Social cognition in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Meulenbroek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize social cognition, executive functions (EFs), and everyday social functioning in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome, and identify relationships among these variables. Participants were 20 girls with FXS and 20 typically developing peers. Results showed significant between-groups differences in social cognition, accounted for by differences in IQ and language. Within the FXS group, IQ and language were related to social cognition; parent-reported social functioning was related to language and EFs; and self-reported social functioning was generally good and not related to cognitive or social cognition variables. Results suggest that intervention might focus on managing language and cognitive contributions to social functioning, rather than social cognition, and underscore the importance of considering parent and adolescent perspectives. (120 words) PMID:25007297

  13. Examining Means of Reaching Adolescent Girls for Iron Supplementation in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mulugeta, Afework; Tessema, Masresha; H/sellasie, Kiday; Seid, Omer; Kidane, Gebremedhin; Kebede, Aweke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in adolescent girls from the developing world. One of the recommended interventions to improve iron status in adolescent girls is iron supplementation. Yet the provision of iron supplements to adolescent girls proved to be a challenging task for the health systems across the developing world. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine means of reaching adolescent girls for iron supplementation in Northern Ethiopia. Methodology: Analytical cross-sectional study consisting of both quantitative and qualitative approaches to data collection and analysis was used in this study. Stratified multi-stage systematic random sampling technique was adopted and primary quantitative data were collected from 828 (578 school attending and 250 non school attending) adolescent girls recruited from nine districts of Tigray. The primary quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. The qualitative data collected through key informant interviews and focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and qualitatively analyzed. Results: The mean (SD) age of the girls was 16.7 (1.4) years. Four hundred forty seven (54%), 355 (42.9%) and 26 (3.1%) of the adolescent girls had low, medium and high diet diversity scores, respectively. More than half, 467 (56%), of the adolescent girls believed that adolescent girls were overloaded with household jobs everyday compared to boys from their respective communities. Key informants said that, there is no adolescent nutrition message promoted in the study area. Low community awareness, perceiving iron tablet as a contraceptive, religious and cultural influences, and lack of confidence in supplementation value of iron tablets, are some of the potential barriers mentioned by the key informant and focus group discussion participants. Schools (45%), health centers (27%) and health posts (26%) were the preferred public facilities for provision of iron

  14. Invisible Girls: At Risk Adolescent Girls' Writing within and beyond School. Adolescent Cultures, School and Society. Volume 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesley, Mellinee

    2012-01-01

    "Invisible Girls" is an examination of twenty-four at-risk adolescent girls' writing practices in a Third Space setting located within a school but outside of the confines of a regular classroom. Through a description of the girls' writing over a three-and-a-half-year period in this setting, Mellinee Lesley details phenomena that both support and…

  15. Contextualising sexual harassment of adolescent girls in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Papreen; van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Reis, Ria

    2013-05-01

    Violence against women is a social mechanism confirming women's subordination in many societies. Sexual violence and harassment have various negative psychological impacts on girls, including a persistent feeling of insecurity and loss of self-esteem. This article aims to contextualize a particular form of sexual harassment, namely "eve teasing", experienced by Bangladeshi adolescent girls (12-18 years) which emerged from a study of adolescent sexual behaviour carried out by young people. The study used qualitative methods and a participatory approach, including focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observation. Despite taboos, unmarried adolescents actively seek information about sex, erotic pleasure and romance. Information was easily available from videos, mobile phone clips and pornographic magazines, but reinforced gender inequality. "Eve teasing" was one outlet for boys' sexual feelings; they gained pleasure from it and could show their masculinity. The girls disliked it and were afraid of being blamed for provoking it. Thus, "eve teasing" is a result of socio-cultural norms relating to sexuality, as well as a lack of access to sexual and reproductive health information and services in Bangladesh. These findings underscore the importance of comprehensive sexuality education that goes beyond a mere health focus and addresses gender norms and helps youth to gain social-sexual interaction skills.

  16. Promoting Physical Activity in Middle School Girls: Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Larry S.; Catellier, Diane J.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Young, Deborah R.; Elder, John P.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Stevens, June; Jobe, Jared B.; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical activity is important for weight control and good health; however, activity levels decline in the adolescent years, particularly in girls. Design Group randomized controlled trial Setting/participants Middle school girls with English-speaking skills and no conditions to prevent participation in physical activity in 36 schools in six geographically diverse areas of the United States. Random, cross-sectional samples were drawn within schools: 6th graders in 2003 (n=1721) and 8th graders in 2005 (n=3504) and 2006 (n=3502). Intervention A 2-year study-directed intervention (fall 2003 to spring 2005) targeted schools, community agencies, and girls to increase opportunities, support, and incentives for increased physical activity. Components included programs linking schools and community agencies, physical education, health education, and social marketing. A third-year intervention used school and community personnel to direct intervention activities. Main outcome measures The primary outcome, daily MET-weighted minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MET-weighted MVPA), was assessed using accelerometry. Percent body fat was assessed using anthropometry. Results After the staff-directed intervention (pre-stated primary outcome), there were no differences (mean= −0.4, 95% CI= CI= −8.2 to 7.4) in adjusted MET-weighted MVPA between 8th-grade girls in schools assigned to intervention or control. Following the Program Champion–directed intervention, girls in intervention schools were more physically active than girls in control schools (mean difference 10.9 MET-weighted minutes of MVPA, 95% CI=0.52–21.2). This difference is about 1.6 minutes of daily MVPA or 80 kcal per week. There were no differences in fitness or percent body fat at either 8th-grade timepoint. Conclusion A school-based, community-linked intervention modestly improved physical activity in girls. PMID:18312804

  17. Supporting Girls in Early Adolescence. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Dianne

    Results of national studies suggest that for girls, the middle grades can be a time of significant decline in self-esteem and academic achievement. Reasons for this decline are not clearly indicated by research, but it is likely that multiple factors are involved. One factor is the preferential treatment boys receive in the classroom.…

  18. Supplementation with iron and folic acid enhances growth in adolescent Indian girls.

    PubMed

    Kanani, S J; Poojara, R H

    2000-02-01

    The prevalence of anemia is high in adolescent girls in India, with over 70% anemic. Iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements have been shown to enhance adolescent growth elsewhere in the world. To confirm these results in India, a study was conducted in urban areas of Vadodora, India to investigate the effect of IFA supplements on hemoglobin, hunger and growth in adolescent girls 10-18 y of age. Results show that there was a high demand for IFA supplements and >90% of the girls consumed 85 out of 90 tablets provided. There was an increment of 17.3 g/L hemoglobin in the group of girls receiving IFA supplements, whereas hemoglobin decreased slightly in girls in the control group. Girls and parents reported that girls increased their food intake. A significant weight gain of 0.83 kg was seen in the intervention group, whereas girls in the control group showed little weight gain. The growth increment was greater in the 10- to 14-y-old age group than in the 15- to 18-y-old group, as expected, due to rapid growth during the adolescent spurt. IFA supplementation is recommended for growth promotion among adolescents who are underweight.

  19. Sexual Violence Against Adolescent Girls: Labeling It to Avoid Normalization.

    PubMed

    Barbara, Giussy; Collini, Federica; Cattaneo, Cristina; Facchin, Federica; Vercellini, Paolo; Chiappa, Laura; Kustermann, Alessandra

    2017-03-20

    Violence against women is a pervasive complex phenomenon that destroys women's feelings of love, trust, and self-esteem. In this commentary, we specifically focus on sexual violence against adolescent girls, whose impact is particularly harmful since it may lead to impaired mental health, social functioning, and neurodevelopment. Between 12% and 25% of adolescent girls throughout the world experience sexual violence, very often perpetrated by a family member or a friend. Moreover, for an alarming proportion of girls, the first sexual experience is coerced. In this article, we review the multiple negative effects of sexual violence against adolescent girls. We also report data derived from our practice in a public Italian referral Centre for Sexual and Domestic Violence (SVSeD) and address the importance of a multidisciplinary clinical approach with adolescent victims of sexual violence.

  20. Combatting anemia in adolescent girls: a report from India.

    PubMed

    Kanani, S

    1994-01-01

    In a study on anemia in adolescent girls living in slum areas, 105 girls, aged 10 to 18, participated in qualitative (focus group discussions; open ended, in depth interviews) and quantitative (structured survey and hemoglobin estimation) research activities before and after intervention. Perceptions of mothers were also surveyed. The qualitative methods were used on selected subsamples in order to represent all age and ethnic groups and geographic areas of the slum. Quantitative methods were used on all 105 girls. The prevalence of anemia was 98%. The patterns of responses were similar for the focus groups, interviews, and surveys. Mothers and their daughters believed the girls were healthy (" one who ate well, worked without tiring easily and did not fall sick often"). There was no major connection made between menstruation and health, or between present and future health. Most of the girls were unaware of the Gujarati term for anemia, pandurog, which is used in awareness campaigns. The girls described symptoms (weakness = kamshakti) associated with anemia and knew these could be remedied with green leafy vegetables, fruit, milk, meat, tonics from the doctor, and iron tablets (shakti ni goli). Based on these results, a puppet show, using local terms and events, was developed that covered the causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention of anemia. The term, pandurog, was introduced and reinforced. The girls were encouraged to have their blood tested and to take iron tablets. The hemoglobin levels of the girls were taken after the show and after an iron supplement program lasting three months. Compliance with the supplementation program was monitored biweekly. Group discussions with flash cards reinforced the information in the puppet show. Results from the last hemoglobin level showed a significant increase; however, the prevalence of anemia was 87%. About half of the girls consumed at least 60% of the tablets; one-fifth consumed 80%. Forgetfulness and fasting

  1. Father Absence, Menarche and Interest in Infants among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestripieri, Dario; Roney, James R.; Debias, Nicole; Durante, Kristina M.; Spaepen, Geertrui M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between menarche and interest in infants among adolescent girls, and the effects of early environment, particularly of father absence from home, on both variables. Eighty-three girls ranging in age from between 11 and 14 years served as study participants. Interest in infants was assessed through their…

  2. Reviving Ophelia: Saving the Selves of Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipher, Mary

    More American adolescent girls today are prey to depression, eating disorders, addictions, and suicide attempts than ever before. This book is an exploration of the underlying causes of this disturbing phenomena, structured around therapy case studies of various teenage girls. The position is taken that despite the women's movement, adolescent…

  3. Teasing and weight-control behaviors in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Leme, Ana Carolina B.; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between weight teasing, body satisfaction and weight control behaviors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on adaptation and validity research of a North American questionnaire for adolescent girls about physical activity, nutrition, body image, perceptions, and behaviors. The variables used to conduct the study were weight control behaviors, body satisfaction and presence of teasing by family members. Descriptive analyses were carried out by chi-square test, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: A total of 159 adolescent girls, with 16.2±1.3 years old were enrolled in this study. Of the total, 60.1% reported that family members did not tease them. The teasing was associated with weight dissatisfaction (p<0.001), body shape (p=0.006), belly (p=0.001), waist (p=0.001), face (p=0.009), arms (p=0.014) and shoulders (p=0.001). As a consequence, there was association with unhealthy weight control behaviors (p<0.001), vomiting (p=0,011), diet (p=0.002) and use of laxatives (p=0.035). CONCLUSIONS: The teasing about body image by family members was associated with risk for unhealthy weight control behaviors in female adolescents. PMID:24473946

  4. Adolescent girls' weight-related family environments, Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Katherine W; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary

    2011-05-01

    Significant sociodemographic disparities exist in the prevalence of obesity among adolescent girls, and in girls' participation in physical activity, sedentary activity, and healthful dietary intake. However, little is known of how factors in the family environment associated with weight and behavior vary by sociodemographic groups. We examined differences and similarities in the weight-related family environments of adolescent girls by race/ethnicity, parental educational attainment, and US nativity. Data are from the baseline assessment of 253 parent/daughter dyads. Parents completed survey items on the family environment; parents and girls reported their sociodemographic characteristics. Hierarchical regression models were used to test relationships between the family environment and sociodemographic characteristics. Parents of Asian girls reported qualities supportive of physical activity and healthy eating. Higher parental education was associated with more parental modeling of and support for physical activity and greater frequency of family meals. Parents of foreign-born girls reported having fewer televisions in the home, more frequent family meals, and fewer fast-food family meals. Understanding sociodemographic differences in the family environments of adolescent girls can inform the development of obesity prevention programs and reduce disparities in adolescents' weight status, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and healthful dietary intake.

  5. Television Images and Adolescent Girls' Body Image Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botta, Renee A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the effects of media images on adolescents, using social-comparison theory and critical-viewing theory. Finds that media do have an impact on body-image disturbance. Suggests that body-image processing is the key to understanding how television images affect adolescent girls' body-image attitudes and behaviors. (SR)

  6. Creating Spaces for Black Adolescent Girls to "Write It Out!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2012-01-01

    Identity and literacy development are two critical processes shaping the life trajectories of adolescents. Identity development in particular can present unique issues for Black adolescent girls, who are positioned in ways to negotiate their identity(ies) when presented with hegemonic language and representations of what is beauty and what is…

  7. How can we help adolescent girls avoid HIV infection?

    PubMed

    Helitzer-allen, D; Makhambera, M

    1993-05-01

    90% OF Malawi's 9 million inhabitants live in rural areas. Although tradition dictates that young females abstain from engaging in sexual relations until being initiated by a traditional adviser following the initial onset on menses, many preinitiation and premenstrual girls break tradition and say that they receive school fees and gifts in exchange for sex. While these village girls may know that AIDS can kill, most think that they are not at risk. Knowledge, attitude, and behavior were assessed by live-in researchers in a sample of 258 girls aged 10-18 in 2 villages over the period 1991-92. Focus groups were held, in initiations attended and observed, and interviews conducted with girls, mothers, grandmothers, and village leaders. 300 female adolescents were then surveyed in 10 other villages. 70% of the girls had sex before either initiation or menstruation with the average age at first intercourse of 13.6 years. 80% of the girls had heard of AIDS and 14% thought they had a good or moderate chance of contracting it, yet they expressed a far higher perceived risk of contracting other sexually transmitted diseases. These benefits were obtained from radio, church, and word-of-mouth messages that AIDS is transmitted by easy partners, bar girls, and truck drivers, and from someone who looks very ill from AIDS. 55% said they are often forced to have sex; 66% have accepted money or gifts for sex; and 75% would like help in learning how to convince a boy to use a condom. Grandmothers and other elders tell girls about menstruation, hygiene, and illness, while sex education comes largely from peers. Were there widespread motivation to employ condoms, condoms are accessible only in the district hospital which is a 25-mile round trim for many; all surveyed community members favored eventual community-based condom distribution. Study results suggest that disseminating messages through existing communication channels of grandmothers, other elder women, and peers could help

  8. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  9. [Evaluation and treatment of adolescent girls with hirsutism].

    PubMed

    Bumbuliene, Zana; Alisauskas, Jonas

    2009-05-01

    Clinical manifestations of androgen excess which are skin and hair related (hirsutism, acne, alopecia) are common and distressing symptoms for an adolescent girls. During puberty and at the time of the first menstruation cycles, physiological hyperandrogenism can be observed. The causes of hirsutism can be various, including familial, idiopathic, and those, caused by excess androgen secretion by the ovary (PCOS, tumors), or by adrenal glands (congenital adrenal hyperplasia, tumor), or exogenous pharmacologic sources of androgens. The diagnosis and treatment of hirsutism remains quite problematic due to innumerous endocrinologic aspects and unsatisfactory treatment results. Androgen excess during puberty must be appropriately recognized, clinically evaluated and treated. Pharmacologic and cosmetic treatments may have beneficial effect. Oral contraceptives and antiadrogens combinations may be recommended as the treatment of choice in adolescents.

  10. Transition to Adolescence Program: A Program To Empower Early Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saitzyk, Arlene R.; Poorman, Michele

    As girls approach early adolescence they begin to experience losses in self-competence and in authenticity in relationships. These girls hide their strengths for the sake of relationships. This study attempts to change this phenomenon through a 13-week small group intervention program, The Transition to Adolescence Program (TAP). TAP encourages…

  11. Evaluation of a reproductive health program to support married adolescent girls in rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Erulkar, Annabel; Tamrat, Tigest

    2014-06-01

    Few reproductive health programs are targeted to married adolescent girls. This study measures changes associated with a program for married adolescent girls and a parallel husbands' program, in rural Ethiopia. The married girls' program provided information on communication, self-esteem, reproductive health and gender through girls' groups. The husbands' program focused on non-violence, support to families, and reproductive health. Population-based surveys were undertaken among married girls, at midterm and end line. Outcomes of interest were husbands' assistance with domestic work, accompaniment to the clinic, family planning use, voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), and domestic violence. Overall, 1,010 married girls were interviewed. Participation in the girls' groups was associated with improvements in help with domestic work, accompaniment to the clinic, family planning and VCT. Further improvements were recorded when both partners participated. For example, participating girls were nearly 8 times more likely to receive VCT (OR 7.7) than nonparticipants, and more than 18 times more likely if both partners participated (OR 18.3). While these results are promising, there were indications of selectivity bias that could have contributed to the positive results. Programs engaging both wives and husbands can result in incremental improvements to the health and well-being of girls married early.

  12. Zinc Absorption from Fortified Milk Powder in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Rosa O; Hambidge, Michael; Baker, Mark; Salgado, Sergio A; Ruiz, Joaquín; García, Hugo S; Calderón de la Barca, Ana M

    2015-11-01

    Zinc (Zn) is essential for development, growth, and reproduction. The Mexican government subsidizes micronutrient-fortified milk for risk groups, with positive effect on the targeted groups' plasma Zn level, inferring a good absorption is achieved although it has not being measured. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of micronutrient-fortified milk intake during 27 days on Zn absorption in adolescent girls from northwest Mexico. Therefore, Zn absorption was evaluated in 14 healthy adolescent girls (14.1 years old) with adequate plasma Zn levels, before and after 27 days of fortified Zn milk intake. Fractional Zn absorption (FZA) was calculated from urinary ratios of stable isotopic Zn tracers administered orally and intravenously on days 0 and 27, and total absorbed Zn (TZA) was calculated. At the beginning, Zn intake was 6.8 ± 0.85 mg/d (mean ± SE), and 50 % of the adolescent girls did not achieve their requirement (7.3 mg/d). Additionally, FZA was negatively correlated with Zn intake (r =-0.61, p = 0.02), while TZA (1.06 mg/d) was insufficient to cover the physiologic requirements of adolescent girls (3.02 mg/d). At the end of the intervention, all the girls reached the Zn intake recommendation and TZA, 3.09 mg/d, which was enough to meet the physiological requirement for 57 % of the adolescent girls. Therefore, the low Zn intake and the Zn status of adolescent girls were positively impacted by Zn-fortified milk intake and its good absorption rate.

  13. Suicidal behavior of adolescent girls: profile and meaning.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Hanna Bar; Reznik, Ilya; Mester, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    In the last two decades the incidence of adolescent suicides has been very high (though it has been on the decrease in the U.S.A. over the last four years), giving rise to a multitude of empirical and theoretical studies. The extensive knowledge that has accumulated regarding adolescent suicidal behavior has led to a more differentiated attitude. Many studies try to clarify specific needs, motivations and the conceptualization of death and suicide in various adolescent subgroups (minorities, females, homosexuals), thereby enabling more specific and exact methods of evaluation, prevention and intervention. Adolescent girls' suicidal behavior is different in many aspects from boys' suicidal behavior: Girls mortality rate from suicide is a 3-5 times lower rate than boys, but their attempted suicide rate is four to hundreds time higher. Girls suicide mainly by drugs and their suicide is mainly in reaction to interpersonal difficulties. Their motivation is often a cry for help. The comorbidity of suicide and depression is much higher for adolescent girls than boys. These differences generate a different understanding and separate treatment strategies. Two theoretical approaches that may explain the profile which characterizes suicidal girls will be presented. One has a psychological developmental context, and the other a social cultural context. Implications for specific prevention measures include legal action on pack sizes of analgesics, compulsory registration of attempted suicide and more gender specific treatment and prevention programs.

  14. Pubertal timing and adolescent sexual behavior in girls.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah R; Harden, K Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Girls who experience earlier pubertal timing relative to peers also exhibit earlier timing of sexual intercourse and more unstable sexual relationships. Although pubertal development initiates feelings of physical desire, the transition into romantic and sexual relationships involves complex biological and social processes contributing both to physical maturation and to individual interpretations of pubertal experiences. Using a sample of female sibling pairs (n = 923 pairs) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the present study investigated associations among menarche and perceived pubertal timing, age of first sexual intercourse (AFI), and adolescent dating and sexual behavior using a behavioral genetic approach. Genetic factors influencing age at menarche and perceived pubertal timing predicted AFI through shared genetic pathways, whereas genetic factors related only to perceived pubertal timing predicted engagement in dating, romantic sex, and nonromantic sex in the previous 18 months. These results suggest that a girl's interpretation of her pubertal timing beyond objective timing is important to consider for the timing and the contexts of romantic and reproductive behavior.

  15. Sexual behaviors and partner characteristics by sexual identity among adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Rosario, Margaret; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Goodenow, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Data suggest that lesbian and bisexual adolescents engage in risky sexual behaviors at higher rates than heterosexual girls. Whether these findings also apply to girls of other sexual identities is less well understood. Potential differences in risky sexual behaviors reported by lesbian versus bisexual adolescents are also underreported in the literature. Methods Data were collected online in 2010–2011 among 2,823 girls, aged 13 to 18 years, in the U.S. Multinomial logistic regression was used to quantify comparisons of sexual behaviors between (1) lesbian, (2) bisexual, and (3) questioning, unsure, or other (QUO) identity and (0) heterosexual girls. Logistic regression compared lesbian and bisexual adolescents. Results Lesbian and bisexual adolescents reported significantly more lifetime and past-year sexual partners than heterosexual girls. Bisexual girls were also more likely to report penile-anal and penile-vaginal sex, whereas lesbians were more likely to report earlier sexual debut for almost all types of sex, as compared to heterosexual girls. Lesbians also were more likely to report infrequent condom use and less likely to have conversations with partners about the use of barriers (e.g., dental dams) before first sex. Relative to lesbians, bisexual girls reported older age at first sex for almost all sexual behaviors and higher lifetime prevalence of recent male partners, penile-vaginal, and penile-anal sex. Few differences were noted between QUO and heterosexual girls. Conclusions Sexual minority adolescents are not identical in terms of sexual risk. Providers need to be sensitive to these differences and their implications for health and counseling of patients. PMID:26903429

  16. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

    2015-01-01

    Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.

  17. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    PubMed Central

    ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  18. New Moves—Preventing Weight-Related Problems in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.; Friend, Sarah E.; Flattum, Colleen F.; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary T.; Bauer, Katherine W.; Feldman, Shira B.; Petrich, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Weight-related problems are prevalent in adolescent girls. Purpose To evaluate New Moves, a school-based program aimed at preventing weight-related problems in adolescent girls. Design School-based group-randomized controlled design. Setting/participants 356 girls (mean age=15.8± 1.2 years) from six intervention and six control high schools. Over 75% of the girls were racial/ethnic minorities and 46% were overweight or obese. Data were collected in 2007–2009 and analyzed in 2009–2010. Intervention An all-girls physical education class, supplemented with nutrition and self-empowerment components, individual sessions using motivational interviewing, lunch meetings, and parent outreach. Main outcome measures Percent body fat, BMI, physical activity, sedentary activity, dietary intake, eating patterns, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and body/self-image. Results New Moves did not lead to significant changes in the girls’ percent body fat or BMI but improvements were seen for sedentary activity, eating patterns, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and body/self-image. For example, in comparison to control girls, at 9-month follow-up, intervention girls decreased their sedentary behaviors by approximately one 30-minute block a day (p=.050); girls increased their portion control behaviors (p=.014); the percentage of girls using unhealthy weight control behaviors decreased by 13.7% (p=.021), and improvements were seen in body image (p=.045) and self-worth (p=.031). Additionally, intervention girls reported more support by friends, teachers, and families for healthy eating and physical activity. Conclusions New Moves provides a model for addressing the broad spectrum of weight-related problems among adolescent girls. Further work is needed to enhance the effectiveness of interventions to improve weight status of youth. PMID:20965379

  19. Building positive life skills the Smart Girls way: evaluation of a school-based sexual responsibility program for adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Graves, Kelly N; Sentner, Annette; Workman, Jean; Mackey, Wanda

    2011-05-01

    In response to the public health epidemic of teenage pregnancy, the present study investigated a new, gender-specific, school-based approach to adolescent pregnancy prevention for middle school girls called Smart Girls Life Skills Training(©) (Smart Girls). Participants included 854 students (633, experimental group; 221, control group) across three time points to assess change in social sexuality expectations, personal/self sexuality expectations, perceived susceptibility, and parent-adolescent communication. Girls who received the Smart Girls curriculum increased their personal/self sexuality expectations and improved some aspects of their parent-adolescent communication compared to control group participants. The evaluation provides initial evidence that Smart Girls is at least partially effective at changing personal/self sexuality expectations and parent-adolescent communication for middle school girls. Implications, recommendations, and next steps for school-based teen pregnancy prevention programs are offered.

  20. Urban American Indian Adolescent Girls: Framing Sexual Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, Kristy K.; Momper, Sandra L.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol J.; Low, Lisa Kane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose American Indian (AI) adolescent girls have higher rates of sexual activity, births and STIs compared to the national average. The purpose of this study was to explore factors that influence urban adolescent AI girls' sexual risk behavior (SRB). Design A qualitative study was conducted using grounded theory methodology to reveal factors and processes that influence SRB. Methods Talking circles, individual interviews, and event history calendars were used with 20 urban AI 15-19 year old girls to explore influences on their sexual behavior. Findings The generated theory, Framing Sexual Risk Behavior, describes both social and structural factors and processes that influenced the girls' sexual behaviors. The theory extends Bronfenbrenner's ecological model by identifying microsystem, mesosystem, and macrosystem influences on sexual behavior, including: Microsystem: Being “Normal,” Native, and Having Goals; Mesosystem: Networks of Family and Friends, Environmental Influences, and Sex Education; and Macrosystem: Tribal Traditions/History and Federal Policy. Discussion Urban AI girls reported similar social and structural influences on SRB as urban adolescents from other racial and ethnic groups. However, differences were noted in the family structure, cultural heritage, and unique history of AIs. Implications for Practice This theory can be used in culturally responsive practice with urban AI girls. PMID:24803532

  1. Cultural and social practices regarding menstruation among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anant; Srivastava, Kamiya

    2011-01-01

    The study attempts to find out the existing social and cultural practices regarding menstruation, awareness levels, and the behavioral changes that come about in adolescent girls during menstruation, their perception about menarche, how do they treat it, and the various taboos, norms, and cultural practices associated with menarche. The study was conducted on 117 adolescent girls (age 11-20 years) and 41 mothers from various communities and classes in Ranchi comprising residential colonies and urban slums. The findings unfolds many practices: cultural and social restrictions associated with menstruation, myth, and misconception; the adaptability of the adolescent girls toward it; their reaction, reaction of the family; realization of the importance of menstruation; and the changes that have come in their life after menarche and their resistance to such changes. The article also suggests the strategies to improve menstrual health and hygiene among adolescent girls. The study concludes that cultural and social practices regarding menstruation depend on girls' education, attitude, family environment, culture, and belief.

  2. Beyond Self-Rated Health: The Adolescent Girl's Lived Experience of Health in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…

  3. Negotiating the Early Developing Body: Pubertal Timing, Body Weight, and Adolescent Girls' Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite knowledge that early pubertal timing predicts adolescent girls' substance use, it is still unclear whether this relationship persists beyond early adolescence and whether it is conditional on girls' body weight. This study examined the moderating role of body weight in the association between early pubertal timing and adolescent girls'…

  4. Prospective Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Girls and Boys: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Susan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated prospective risk factors for increases in body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls and boys in the Eating Among Teens Project. At the time of first assessment (Time 1), participants were a cohort of early adolescent girls (N = 440) and boys (N = 366) and a cohort of middle adolescent girls (N = 946) and boys (N = 764).…

  5. Girls on the Fringe: The Writing Lives of Two Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pytash, Kristine E.

    2016-01-01

    Writing plays an important role in young adults' lives. It is tied to academic achievement and also provides young adults with a voice in social interactions, a way to express their feelings, and an opportunity to reflect on life events. This study explores the writing practices of 2 adolescent girls: Suzanne and Molly. On multiple occasions they…

  6. Being a girl in a boys' world: investigating the experiences of girls with autism spectrum disorders during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cridland, Elizabeth K; Jones, Sandra C; Caputi, Peter; Magee, Christopher A

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the experiences of adolescent girls with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) during adolescence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three mother-daughter dyads and two additional mothers. A range of issues were highlighted covering physical, emotional, social and sexual domains. Some of these issues were similar to those experienced by boys with ASD during adolescence, such as negative implications of late diagnosis, challenges of transitioning to and coping with high school, 'hands-on' role of parents into adolescence, difficulties adjusting to the increased demands of adolescent hygiene routines, and the importance of learning personal boundaries in interactions with others. Other issues discussed were of particular relevance to adolescent girls with ASD, such as difficulties socialising with neurotypically developing girls, sex-specific puberty issues, and sexual vulnerabilities. This study highlights an important research area and is a preliminary step towards understanding the experiences of adolescent girls with ASD and their families.

  7. Preventing Obesity Among Adolescent Girls: One-Year Outcomes of the Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Okely, Anthony D; Dewar, Deborah; Collins, Clare E; Batterham, Marijka; Callister, Robin; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2012-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of a 12-month multicomponent school-based obesity prevention program, Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls among adolescent girls. DESIGN Group randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. SETTING Twelve secondary schools in low-income communities in the Hunter and Central Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS Three hundred fifty-seven adolescent girls aged 12 to 14 years. INTERVENTION A multicomponent school-based intervention program tailored for adolescent girls. The intervention was based on social cognitive theory and included teacher professional development, enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity sessions, handbooks and pedometers for self-monitoring, parent newsletters, and text messaging for social support. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), BMI z score, body fat percentage, physical activity, screen time, dietary intake, and self-esteem. RESULTS After 12 months, changes in BMI (adjusted mean difference, -0.19; 95% CI, -0.70 to 0.33), BMI z score (mean, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.20 to 0.04), and body fat percentage (mean, -1.09; 95% CI, -2.88 to 0.70) were in favor of the intervention, but they were not statistically different from those in the control group. Changes in screen time were statistically significant (mean, -30.67 min/d; 95% CI, -62.43 to -1.06), but there were no group by time effects for physical activity, dietary behavior, or self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS A school-based intervention tailored for adolescent girls from schools located in low-income communities did not significantly reduce BMI gain. However, changes in body composition were of a magnitude similar to previous studies and may be associated with clinically important health outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION anzctr.org.au Identifier: 12610000330044.

  8. Juxtaposing Immigrant and Adolescent Girl Experiences: Literature for All Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Mary Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Twenty percent of all youth in America's schools are children of immigrants, making them first- or second-generation immigrant students. Addressing these students' literacy needs with relevant curriculum paves the way for them to experience meaningful learning. Literacy scholarship also points to the specific literacy needs of adolescent girls and…

  9. Rural Adolescent Girls Negotiating Healthy and Unhealthy Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Toupey; Jenkins, Melissa; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2012-01-01

    The focused discussions of adolescent girls were analyzed to explore the processes of managing healthy and unhealthy aspects of dating relationships. Grounded theory methods were used to generate an outline of these processes. The core category elicited from discussions with participants was "wrestling with gender expectations". This category…

  10. American Indian Adolescent Girls: Vulnerability to Sex Trafficking, Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to…

  11. Associations between the School Environment and Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Joanna; Levin, Kate A.; Inchley, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores school sports facility provision, physical education allocation and opportunities for physical activity and their association with the number of days adolescent girls participate in at least 60 min of moderate-vigorous physical activity per week (MVPAdays). Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires from…

  12. A Test of Objectification Theory in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2002-01-01

    Tested the components of a model proposed by Objectification Theory in a sample of adolescent girls who did and did not study classical ballet. Participant surveys examined self-objectification, body shame, appearance anxiety, and disordered eating. There was no difference between groups on self-objectification or any of its proposed consequences.…

  13. Agency in Paul and Implications for Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck-McClain, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Agency is a particular concern for ministry with adolescent girls because they rarely see themselves as subjects of their own lives. Human agency is often emphasized in churches as a way to explain human sinful action. As a population treated as objects by society, it is important for young women to embrace and exercise their agency in order to be…

  14. Discovering Their Voices: Engaging Adolescent Girls with Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Marsha M.; Keeling, Kara K.

    2007-01-01

    Authors Marsha M. Sprague and Kara K. Keeling propose a language arts curriculum that incorporates literature-based discussions to help adolescent girls deal constructively with difficult issues and develop their own authentic voices. To help put such a curriculum into action, this book offers the following resources: (1) A research base to frame…

  15. Bone speed of sound and physical activity levels of overweight and normal-weight girls and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yao, Mathew; Ludwa, Izabella; Corbett, Lauren; Klentrou, Panagiota; Bonsu, Peter; Gammage, Kimberley; Falk, Bareket

    2011-02-01

    Bone properties, reflected by speed of sound (SOS), and physical activity levels were examined in overweight (OW) girls (n = 19) and adolescents (n = 22), in comparison with normal-weight (NW) girls (n = 21) and adolescents (n = 13). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was higher in NW than in OW in both age groups. Tibial SOS was lower in OW compared with NW in both age groups. MVPA correlated with tibial SOS, once age was partialed out. The results suggest that overweight girls and adolescents are characterized by low tibial SOS, which may be partially attributed to lower physical activity levels.

  16. Predictors and consequences of developmental changes in adolescent girls' self-reported quality of attachment to their primary caregiver.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lori N; Whalen, Diana J; Zalewski, Maureen; Beeney, Joseph E; Pilkonis, Paul A; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2013-10-01

    In an at-risk community sample of 2101 girls, we examined trajectories, predictors, and consequences of changes in a central aspect of adolescents' perceived quality of attachment (QOA), i.e., their reported trust in the availability and supportiveness of the primary caregiver. Results demonstrated two distinct epochs of change in this aspect of girls' perceived QOA, with a significant linear decrease in early adolescence (ages 11-14) followed by a plateau from 14 to 16. Baseline parent-reported harsh punishment, low parental involvement, single parent status, and child-reported depression symptoms predicted steeper decreases in attachment during early adolescence, which in turn predicted greater child-reported depression and conduct disorder symptoms in later adolescence. Results suggest that both parent and child factors contribute to trajectories of self-reported QOA in adolescence, and a faster rate of decrease in girls' perceived QOA to caregivers during early adolescence may increase risk for both internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

  17. Inhalant Use in Latina Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzmán, Bianca L.; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how lifetime use and extent of use of inhalants by Latina girls is impacted by age, acculturation, grades, ditching, sexual behaviors (light petting, heavy petting, and going all the way) and sexual agency. A total of 273 females who self-identified as being Latina whose mean age was 13.94 completed…

  18. Experiences in Sport, Physical Activity, and Physical Education Among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

  19. Experiences in sport, physical activity, and physical education among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed.

  20. Daily Shame and Hostile Irritability in Adolescent Girls with Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Lori N.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Whalen, Diana J.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical work suggests that adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have difficulty regulating both shame and anger, and that these emotions may be functionally related in clinically relevant ways (e.g., Schoenleber & Berenbaum, 2012b). The covariation of shame with anger-related emotions has important clinical implications for interventions targeting shame and uncontrolled anger in BPD. However, no studies have examined shame, anger, and their covariation in adolescents who may be at risk for developing BPD. Therefore, this study focuses on associations between BPD symptoms and patterns of covariation between daily experiences of shame and anger-related affects (i.e., hostile irritability) in a community sample of adolescent girls using ecological momentary assessment. Multilevel models revealed that girls with greater BPD symptoms who reported greater mean levels of shame across the week also tended to report more hostile irritability, even after controlling for guilt. Additionally, examination of within-person variability showed that girls with greater BPD symptoms reported more hostile irritability on occasions when they also reported greater concurrent shame, but this was only the case in girls of average socioeconomic status (i.e., those not receiving public assistance). Unlike shame, guilt was not associated with hostile irritability in girls with greater BPD symptoms. Results suggest that shame may be a key clinical target in the treatment of anger-related difficulties among adolescent girls with BPD symptoms. PMID:25580673

  1. Does Problem Behavior Elicit Poor Parenting?: A Prospective Study of Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Huh, David; Tristan, Jennifer; Wade, Emily; Stice, Eric

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that perceived parenting would show reciprocal relations with adolescents' problem behavior using longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results provided support for the assertion that female problem behavior has an adverse effect on parenting; elevated externalizing symptoms and substance abuse symptoms predicted future decreases in perceived parental support and control. There was less support for the assertion that parenting deficits foster adolescent problem behaviors; initially low parental control predicted future increases in substance abuse, but not externalizing symptoms, and low parental support did not predict future increases in externalizing or substance abuse symptoms. Results suggest that problem behavior is a more consistent predictor of parenting than parenting is of problem behavior, at least for girls during middle adolescence. PMID:16528407

  2. Preconception nutrition, physical activity, and birth outcomes in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yiqiong; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Harville, Emily Wheeler

    2015-01-01

    Background Recommendations for preconception care usually include optimal nutrition and physical activity, but these have not been tested extensively for their relationship with birth outcomes such as low birthweight and preterm birth. Methods Data from Waves I, II and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) contractual dataset were utilized. In Wave I in-home interview, participants were asked to recall their frequency of having five types of food on the previous day, including milk, fruit, vegetables, grains, and sweets. At Wave II, participants reported the previous day's intake of 55 items, and results were categorized into high-calorie sweet, high-calorie non-sweet, and low-calorie food. At Wave I in-home interview, participants were also asked how many times in a week or during the past week they were involved in types of physical activity. At Wave IV, female participants reported pregnancies and birth outcomes. Multivariable linear regression analysis with survey weighting was used to predict birthweight and gestational age. Results There were no associations between reported food intake and birth outcomes. Girls who engaged in more episodes of active behavior had higher birthweights (p<0.01), but hours of sedentary behavior was not associated with birthweight. Multivariable analysis also indicated a u-shaped association between BMI and birthweight (p for quadratic term=0.01). Conclusion Adolescents who are more physically active prior to pregnancy have more positive birth outcomes as represented by birthweight. PMID:26233291

  3. Nobody's perfect: a qualitative examination of African American maternal caregivers' and their adolescent girls' perceptions of body image.

    PubMed

    Pope, Michell; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2014-06-01

    Using semi-structured interviews, we explored African American maternal caregivers' and their adolescent girls' (N=25 dyads) perceptions about the adolescent's body using Grounded Theory. Caregivers and adolescent girls (Mage=13.42) were asked what the adolescent girls liked most/least about their bodies and how peers and media may affect adolescent girls' perceptions. While some adolescent girls reported overall body satisfaction, others described features they would like to change. Belief in God, body acceptance, and appreciation for average/moderate features helped the adolescent girls maintain their positive body image. The body-related messages that adolescent girls received from caregivers and peers included compliments, pressure to lose weight, teasing, and advice. Adolescent girls also reported being either influenced by or skeptical of the images presented in the media. Programs that promote caregiver-adolescent communication about body perceptions and that build on the adolescent girls' media skepticism may prove useful for their health-related attitudes and behaviors.

  4. Efficacy of twice weekly iron supplementation in anemic adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Shobha, S; Sharada, D

    2003-12-01

    Two hundred and forty four girls with different hemoglobin levels were selected, of which forty-one were non-anemic. The rest were graded as mildly, moderately or severely anemic and supplemented with 60 mg of iron daily or twice weekly for twelve weeks. There was no significant difference in the increase in hemoglobin levels between daily and twice weekly-supplemented subjects at the end of the study. Unpleasant side effects of supplementation were experienced by 57.8% of the daily supplemented subjects as against 5.9% of twice weekly-supplemented ones. Twice weekly supplementation could be recommended for overcoming anemia in adolescent girls.

  5. Motivation for eating behaviour in adolescent girls: the body beautiful.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew J

    2006-11-01

    Body dissatisfaction is commonplace for teenage girls and is associated with dieting and unhealthy weight-control behaviours. The idealisation and pursuit of thinness are seen as the main drivers of body dissatisfaction, with the media prominent in setting thin body ideals. Television and consumer magazine production in the UK are extensive, annually releasing 1x10(6) h programming and >3000 magazine titles. Their engagement by adolescent girls is high, and in surveys girls identify thin and revealing body images as influential to the appeal of thinness and their pursuit of dieting. Experimental studies show a short-term impact of these images on body dissatisfaction, especially in teenagers who are already concerned about body image. Magazine images appear more influential than television viewing. For many adolescents selecting thin-image media is purposive, permitting comparison of themselves with the models or celebrities featured. Indeed, the impact of the media needs to be understood within a social context, as engagement is often a highly-social process. Media influence is uneven because of differences in its content and manner of communication, and individual differences in vulnerability to its content. Greater social responsibility on the part of the media and better media literacy by children would be beneficial. For those working in adolescent nutrition it is a reminder that adolescent food choice and intake are subject to many competing, contradictory and non-health-related determinants.

  6. Physical Activity Trajectories and Multi-Level Factors among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Zook, Kathleen R.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Wu, Tong Tong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls is well-documented, there are girls whose physical activity does not follow this pattern. This study examined the relationships between physical activity trajectories and personal, psychosocial and environmental factors among adolescent girls. Methods Participants were from the University of Maryland field site of the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Of 730 girls measured in 8th grade, 589 were re-measured in 11th grade. Moderate to vigorous physical activity was assessed by accelererometers; participants were categorized as active maintainers (n=31), inactive maintainers (n=410), adopters (n=64), or relapsers (n=56). Height and weight were measured, personal and psychosocial information was collected from surveys, and distance from home to school and parks was assessed from Geographical Information Systems. Multivariable logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results Variables at individual, social, and environmental levels predicted active maintainers and inactive maintainers, while only individual-level variables predicted adoption. None predicted relapse. Higher (favorable) scores for physical self-concept, perceived body fat, friend and family physical activity support, frequency of physical activity with friends, and shorter distance from home to a park predicted active maintainers. Overweight/obese status, earlier age at menses, and lower scores for physical self-concept, perceived body fat, friend physical activity support, and frequency of physical activity with friends, and further distance from home to school predicted inactive maintainers. High physical self-concept and not being overweight/obese predicted adopters. Conclusion Multi-level factors appear to predict behavior maintenance rather than actual change. Implications and Contribution Although physical activity declines among girls during adolescence, some maintain and others increase their physical activity. Our

  7. "I Can Actually Be a Super Sleuth": Promising Practices for Engaging Adolescent Girls in Cybersecurity Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jethwani, Monique M.; Memon, Nasir; Seo, Won; Richer, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing qualitative data gleaned from focus groups with adolescent girls participating in a cybersecurity summer program (N = 38, mean age = 16.3), this study examines the following research questions: (a) How do adolescent girls perceive the cybersecurity field?; and (b) What are the promising practices that engage girls in cybersecurity…

  8. The Role of Peer Social Network Factors and Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Murray, David; Welk, Greg; Birnbaum, Amanda; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Saksvig, Brit; Jobe, Jared B.

    2005-01-01

    This report studies the relationship between peer-related physical activity (PA) social networks and the PA of adolescent girls. Methods: Cross-sectional, convenience sample of adolescent girls. Mixed-model linear regression analyses to identify significant correlates of self-reported PA while accounting for correlation of girls in the same…

  9. Emerging Depression Is Associated with Face Memory Deficits in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Choate, Victoria R.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Pine, Daniel S.; Keenan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between memory for previously encoded emotional faces and depression symptoms assessed over 4 years in adolescent girls. Investigating the interface between memory deficits and depression in adolescent girls may provide clues about depression pathophysiology. Method: Participants were 213 girls recruited from…

  10. Baseline and Modulated Acoustic Startle Responses in Adolescent Girls with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipschitz, Deborah S.; Mayes, Linda M.; Rasmusson, Ann M.; Anyan, Walter; Billingslea, Eileen; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Southwick, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess baseline and modulated acoustic startle responses in adolescent girls with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Twenty-eight adolescent girls with PTSD and 23 healthy control girls were recruited for participation in the study. Acoustic stimuli were bursts of white noise of 104 dB presented biaurally through…

  11. An Exploration of the Drive for Muscularity in Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreary, Donald R.; Sasse, Doris K.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the drive for muscularity among high school adolescents using the Drive for Muscularity Scale. Results indicated that the scale was reliable. High-drive students were mainly boys trying to gain weight and muscle mass. Drive related to poor self-esteem and higher depression levels among boys, but not girls. Drive for muscularity was…

  12. A Life History of a Korean Adolescent Girl Who Attempted Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sungeun

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the life history of a South Korean adolescent girl who attempted suicide. The study focuses on how sociocultural values affected her suicide attempt and how she made meaning out of the experience. The results revealed that her life history was a process of seeking independence and autonomy, and freeing herself from…

  13. A Prospective Test of Cognitive Vulnerability Models of Depression with Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric; Burton, Emily; Fudell, Molly; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to provide a more rigorous prospective test of two cognitive vulnerability models of depression with longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results supported the cognitive vulnerability model in that stressors predicted future increases in depressive symptoms and onset of clinically significant major depression for…

  14. [Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in adolescent girls].

    PubMed

    Henry-suchet, J

    1987-04-01

    Contraception has been a factor in lowering the age at 1st sexual intercourse, which is now about 15 years in France. At that age, changes of partners are frequent, placing sexually active adolescents at high risk of sexually transmitted diseases. 2 risks predominate, those of condyloma following infection with the papilloma virus which exposes patients to risk of dysplasia and cervical cancer, and that of salpingitis with its risk of sterility. Condyloma has become more frequent in adolescents in France in the past 5 years. A comparative study showed that the average age at diagnosis of intraepithelial epithelioma related to condyloma declined by 5 years between 1960-80. The average age of condyloma diagnosis is about 18 years. Condyloma in adolescents should be treated prudently. If resected too soon after the primary infection before formation of antibodies, there is a risk of propagating the virus. Adolescent condyloma represents the major indication for laser treatment after colposcopy and microhysteroscopy have been used to determine the exact limits of the lesion. Patients should be warned of the possibility of return and the need for regular monitoring. Partners should also be treated. Apart from barrier methods, no contraceptive methods are known to affect development of condyloma. Chronic and acute salpingitis are 2 different entities, but both can cause sterility. Of the 100,000 French women diagnosed with salpingitis each year, 1/2 are under 25 and 1/5 are under 20. Salpingitis multiplies the risk of extrauterine pregnancy by 6 and carries a 15% risk of sterility, which doubles with each new episode. 75% of cases of salpingitis are caused by sexually transmitted diseases, with chlamydia trachomatis responsible for about 1/2. The risk of salpingitis in oral contraceptive (OC) users is .2-.9 in relation to women not using contraception. The seriousness of salpingitis is significantly less for OC than for IUD users. On the other hand , various studies have

  15. Subclinical bulimia predicts conduct disorder in middle adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Viinamäki, Anni; Marttunen, Mauri; Fröjd, Sari; Ruuska, Jaana; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the comorbidity and longitudinal associations between self-reported conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia in a community-based sample of Finnish adolescents in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. There are 2070 adolescents who participated in the survey as ninth graders (mean age 15.5) and followed-up 2 years later. The Youth Self-Report Externalizing scale was used to measure conduct disorder and DSM-IV-based questionnaire to measure bulimia. Co-occurrence of female conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia was found at ages 15 and 17. Subclinical bulimia among girls at age 15 was a risk factor for conduct disorder at age 17, but conduct disorder at age 15 was not predictive of subclinical bulimia at age 17. The pathway from bulimia to conduct disorder may be suggestive of an association with future borderline personality disorder among girls.

  16. Engaging adolescent girls in transactional sex through compensated dating.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Jia, Xinshan; Li, Jessica Chi-Mei; Lee, Tak-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Transactional sex through so-called compensated dating in adolescent girls is a problem in need of public concern. Compensated dating typically involves the use of information communication technology to advertise, search, bargain, and eventually arrange for transactional sex. The technology enables the sexual partners to maintain privacy and secrecy in transactional sex. Such secrecy necessitates the girls' disclosure about their life experiences in order to address the concern. The disclosure is the focus of the present qualitative study of 27 girls practicing the dating in Hong Kong, China. Based on the disclosure, the study presents a grounded theory that epitomizes engagement in compensated dating by referential choice. Such a referential choice theory unravels that choice with reference to the family push and social norms sustains the engagement. Meanwhile, the choice rests on expectancy and reinforcement from experiential learning about compensated dating. The theory thus implies ways to undercut the engagement through diverting the referential choice of the dating.

  17. Diagnosis and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Lanzo, Erin; Monge, Maria; Trent, Maria

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in adolescent girls that has both reproductive and metabolic implications. Patients with PCOS typically present to their pediatrician for evaluation of menstrual irregularity and/or signs of hyperandrogenism, such as hirsutism and acne. The diagnosis of PCOS is made by clinical symptoms and laboratory evaluation. Because of the long-term health consequences that can accompany the disorder, pediatricians should consider PCOS in their initial evaluation of menstrual irregularity. Lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of treatment for girls with PCOS; however, hormonal medication such as oral contraceptive pills and insulin-sensitizing agents are useful and effective adjuncts to therapy. The goals of treatment for girls with PCOS are to improve clinical manifestations of the disorder, health-related quality of life, and long-term health outcomes.

  18. Developing a Web-Based Intervention to Prevent Drug Use among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinn, Traci Marie; Hopkins, Jessica Elizabeth; Schinke, Steven Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Girls' rates of drug use have met up with and, in some instances, surpassed boys' rates. Although girls and boys share risk and protective factors associated with drug use, girls also have gender-specific risks. Interventions to prevent girls' drug use must be tailored to address the dynamics of female adolescence. Methods: One such…

  19. Emerging changes in reproductive behaviour among married adolescent girls in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2006-05-01

    Structural and social inequalities, a harsh political economy and neglect on the part of the state have made married adolescent girls an extremely vulnerable group in the urban slum environment in Bangladesh. The importance placed on newly married girls' fertility results in high fertility rates and low rates of contraceptive use. Ethnographic fieldwork among married adolescent girls, aged 15-19, was carried out in a Dhaka slum from December 2001-January 2003, including 50 in-depth interviews and eight case studies from among 153 married adolescent girls, and observations and discussions with family and community members. Cultural and social expectations meant that 128 of the girls had borne children before they were emotionally or physically ready. Twenty-seven had terminated their pregnancies, of whom 11 reported they were forced to do so by family members. Poverty, economic conditions, marital insecurity, politics in the household, absence of dowry and rivalry among family, co-wives and in-laws made these young women acquiesce to decisions made by others in order to survive. Young married women's status is changing in urban slum conditions. When their economical productivity takes priority over their reproductive role, the effects on reproductive decision-making within families may be considerable. This paper highlights the vulnerability of young women as they pragmatically make choices within the social and structural constraints in their lives.

  20. Bidirectional linkages between psychological symptoms and sexual activities among African American adolescent girls in psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Starr, Lisa R; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding has not been examined among African American youth or in clinical samples. African American girls in psychiatric treatment suffer disparities in HIV/AIDS vulnerability, and understanding the context of girls' risk-taking (and how psychological symptoms contribute) may aid prevention efforts. Two-hundred-sixty-five African American girls seeking psychiatric care were assessed for mental health symptoms and light and heavy sexual behaviors. Participants completed a 6-month follow-up. Baseline light sexual activity predicted increased internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use at follow-up. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted increased heavy sexual behaviors over time, including HIV-risk behaviors. Results support the association between romantic involvement and depression. Psychological symptoms may play a key role in the emergence of risky sexual behaviors among African American adolescent girls in psychiatric care and should be considered in prevention program development.

  1. The Moral Reasoning of Adolescent Boys and Girls in the Light of Gilligan's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsoom, Farhat; Behlol, Malik Ghulam; Kayani, Muhammad Munir; Kaini, Aneesa

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the moral reasoning of adolescent boys and girls in the light of Gilligan theory. The main objectives of the study were to investigate the moral reasoning of adolescent boys and girls with reference to responsibility orientation versus justice orientation and to compare the frequency of adolescent boys and girls…

  2. HIP AND KNEE EXTENSOR MOMENTS PREDICT VERTICAL JUMP HEIGHT IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS

    PubMed Central

    FORD, KEVIN R.; MYER, GREGORY D.; BRENT, JENSEN L.; HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.

    2014-01-01

    Biomechanical factors, such as hip and knee extensor moments, related to drop jump (DJ) performance have not been investigated in adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to determine the key independent biomechanical variables that predict overall vertical jump performance in adolescent girls. Sixteen high school adolescent girls from club–sponsored and high school–sponsored volleyball teams performed DJ at 3 different drop heights (15, 30, and 45 cm). A motion analysis system consisting of 10 digital cameras and a force platform was used to calculate vertical jump height, joint angles, and joint moments during the tasks. A multiple linear regression was used to determine the biomechanical parameters that were best predictive of vertical jump height at each box drop distance. The 2 predictor variables in all 3 models were knee and hip extensor moments. The models predicted 82.9, 81.9, and 88% of the vertical jump height variance in the 15, 30, and 45 cm trials, respectively. The results of the investigation indicate that knee and hip joint moments are the main contributors to vertical jump height during the DJ in adolescent girls. Strength and conditioning specialists attempting to improve vertical jump performance should target power and strength training to the hip and knee extensors in their athletes. PMID:19528842

  3. Hip and knee extensor moments predict vertical jump height in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Brent, Jensen L; Hewett, Timothy E

    2009-07-01

    Biomechanical factors, such as hip and knee extensor moments, related to drop jump (DJ) performance have not been investigated in adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to determine the key independent biomechanical variables that predict overall vertical jump performance in adolescent girls. Sixteen high school adolescent girls from club-sponsored and high school-sponsored volleyball teams performed DJ at 3 different drop heights (15, 30, and 45 cm). A motion analysis system consisting of 10 digital cameras and a force platform was used to calculate vertical jump height, joint angles, and joint moments during the tasks. A multiple linear regression was used to determine the biomechanical parameters that were best predictive of vertical jump height at each box drop distance. The 2 predictor variables in all 3 models were knee and hip extensor moments. The models predicted 82.9, 81.9, and 88% of the vertical jump height variance in the 15, 30, and 45 cm trials, respectively. The results of the investigation indicate that knee and hip joint moments are the main contributors to vertical jump height during the DJ in adolescent girls. Strength and conditioning specialists attempting to improve vertical jump performance should target power and strength training to the hip and knee extensors in their athletes.

  4. Predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential predictors, and a range of health outcomes, at 2 time points separated by 1 year. Longitudinal change regression models showed that perceived body acceptance by others (positively), self-objectification and social comparison (negatively), and body appreciation (positively) prospectively predicted intuitive eating 1 year later, consistent with the acceptance model of intuitive eating. Perceived body acceptance by others was the only proposed predictor to prospectively predict an increase in body appreciation over time. Time 1 body appreciation prospectively predicted a decrease in dieting, alcohol, and cigarette use, and an increase in physical activity 1 year later. In particular, girls with low body appreciation were more likely than girls with high body appreciation to take up alcohol and cigarette use between time points. The results highlight body appreciation as an important target for interventions designed to prevent or delay the uptake of alcohol and cigarette consumption among girls. More broadly, they suggest that a positive body image can confer considerable benefit for adolescent girls.

  5. Menstrual Hygiene Practices and Sources of Menstrual Hygiene Information among Adolescent Secondary School Girls in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilo, Cajetan I.; Nwimo, Ignatius O.; Onwunaka, Chinagorom

    2016-01-01

    Menstruation is clouded by socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of hygienic practices. The study was designed to ascertain the menstrual hygiene practices and sources of menstrual hygiene information among 1200 adolescent secondary school girls, who completed the questionnaire designed for the study. Out of…

  6. "I feel free": Experiences of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Duberg, Anna; Möller, Margareta; Sunvisson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13-18 were included in the study. The dance intervention group comprised 59 girls, 24 of whom were strategically chosen to be interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The experiences of the dance intervention resulted in five generic categories: (1) An Oasis from Stress, which represents the fundamental basis of the intervention; (2) Supportive Togetherness, the setting; (3) Enjoyment and Empowerment, the immediate effect; (4) Finding Acceptance and Trust in Own Ability, the outcome; and (5) Dance as Emotional Expression, the use of the intervention. One main category emerged, Finding Embodied Self-Trust That Opens New Doors, which emphasizes the increased trust in the self and the ability to approach life with a sense of freedom and openness. The central understanding of the adolescent girls' experiences was that the dance intervention enriched and gave access to personal resources. With the non-judgmental atmosphere and supportive togetherness as a safe platform, the enjoyment and empowerment in dancing gave rise to acceptance, trust in ability, and emotional expression. Taken together, this increased self-trust and they discovered a new ability to "claim space." Findings from this study may provide practical information on designing future interventions for adolescent girls with internalizing problems.

  7. Maternal-related deaths and impoverishment among adolescent girls in India and Niger: findings from a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Verguet, Stéphane; Nandi, Arindam; Filippi, Véronique; Bundy, Donald A P

    2016-01-01

    Background High levels of maternal mortality and large associated inequalities exist in low-income and middle-income countries. Adolescent pregnancies remain common, and pregnant adolescent women face elevated risks of maternal mortality and poverty. We examined the distribution across socioeconomic groups of maternal deaths and impoverishment among adolescent girls (15–19 years old) in Niger, which has the highest total fertility rate globally, and India, which has the largest number of maternal deaths. Methods In Niger and India, among adolescent girls, we estimated the distribution per income quintile of: the number of maternal deaths; and the impoverishment, measured by calculating the number of cases of catastrophic health expenditure incurred, caused by complicated pregnancies. We also examined the potential impact on maternal deaths and poverty of increasing adolescent girls' level of education by 1 year. We used epidemiological and cost inputs sourced from surveys and the literature. Results The number of maternal deaths would be larger among the poorer adolescents than among the richer adolescents in Niger and India. Impoverishment would largely incur among the richer adolescents in Niger and among the poorer adolescents in India. Increasing educational attainment of adolescent girls might avert both a large number of maternal deaths and a significant number of cases of catastrophic health expenditure in the 2 countries. Conclusions Adolescent pregnancies can lead to large equity gaps and substantial impoverishment in low-income and middle-income countries. Increasing female education can reduce such inequalities and provide financial risk protection and poverty alleviation to adolescent girls. PMID:27670517

  8. Determinants of utilization of antenatal care services among adolescent girls and young women in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Efendi, Ferry; Chen, Ching-Min; Kurniati, Anna; Berliana, Sarni Maniar

    2016-05-26

    Due to the high number of maternal deaths, provision of antenatal care services (ANC) in Indonesia is one of the key aims of the post-Millennium Development Goals agenda. This study aimed to assess the key factors determining use of ANC by adolescent girls and young women in Indonesia. Data from the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2012 were used, with a focus on married adolescent girls (aged 15-19 years, n = 543) and young women (20-24 years, n = 2,916) who were mothers. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the factors associated with ANC use. The findings indicated that adolescents were less likely to make ANC visits than young women. Richer women were more likely to make four ANC visits in both groups compared to the poorer women. Living in urban areas, higher educational attainment, and lower birth order were also all associated with higher levels of receiving ANC among young women. The results showed that socio-economic factors were related to the use of ANC among adolescent girls and young women. Ongoing health-care interventions should thus put a priority on adolescent mothers coming from poor socio-economic backgrounds.

  9. Social Anxiety, Depression and Self-Esteem in Obese Adolescent Girls with Acanthosis Nigricans

    PubMed Central

    Pirgon, Özgür; Sandal, Gonca; Gökçen, Cem; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of acanthosis nigricans (AN) on depression symptoms, related quality of life and self-esteem scores in obese adolescent girls. Methods: Fifty-nine obese adolescent girls (mean age: 13.19±1.3 years, age range: 12-17 years, mean body mass index: 29.89±3.30) were enrolled in this study. The obese adolescent girls were divided into two groups based on presence or absence of AN. Non-obese healthy adolescents constituted the control group (30 girls, mean age: 13.5±1.4 years). All subjects were evaluated using the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C), and the modified Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Higher scores indicated more severe depression and anxiety, as well as low self-esteem status. Results: The AN and non-AN obese groups showed significantly higher CDI, STAI-C and SES scores than the control group, and the two obese groups demonstrated no significant differences for these scores. The AN obese group with higher total testosterone levels (>50 ng/dL) had higher scores for SES (2.55±1.8 vs. 1.42±1.2; p=0.03) than the AN obese group with low total testosterone levels. SES scores significantly correlated with total testosterone levels (r=0.362; p=0.03) and fasting insulin (r=0.462; p=0.03) in the AN obese group. Conclusion: Higher SES scores (low self-esteem status) were determined in obese adolescents with acanthosis and were related to hyperandrogenism. This study also showed that a high testosterone level may be one of the important indicators of low self-esteem status in obese girls with AN. PMID:25800478

  10. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Travis, Katherine E; Golden, Neville H; Feldman, Heidi M; Solomon, Murray; Nguyen, Jenny; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason D; Dougherty, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1), an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4) were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3). We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18) and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total). Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA) and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN.

  11. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Katherine E.; Golden, Neville H.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Solomon, Murray; Nguyen, Jenny; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason D.; Dougherty, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1), an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4) were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3). We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18) and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total). Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA) and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN. PMID:26740918

  12. Coping strategies for food insecurity among adolescent girls during the lean season in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Fatmaningrum, Dewi; Roshita, Airin; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty

    2016-07-01

    One in eight people suffer from chronic hunger, leading to an insecure food situation. Chronic hunger mostly occurs in developing countries and includes adolescent girls. Our qualitative study, with data collected in December 2012, provided the results of an exploration of the experiences and strategies implemented by fifteen adolescent girls who tried to cope with their condition of living in food-insecure families. The age of the girls ranged from 10 to 19 years. Their coping strategies were grouped into self-initiated and parent-initiated strategies. Self-initiated coping strategies that were the girls' own initiatives included eating only rice without any vegetables or side dish, eating less-desirable food, reducing portion size, skipping meals, saving pocket money and earning money to buy food. The parent-initiated coping strategies that were initiated by the parents and followed by the girls included selling their own field produce and livestock, asking for food, borrowing food and storing maize for 6 months up to 1 year. These results show that adolescent girls living in food-insecure areas implement several coping strategies in severe conditions, which parents may not be aware of, and such conditions may compromise their growth and health. The acknowledgement of such coping strategies and the girls' food insecurity condition can lead to a useful and suitable food insecurity alleviation programme for the girls and their families.

  13. Nutritional status, dietary intake, and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, A M Shamsir

    2010-02-01

    This study estimated the levels and differentials in nutritional status and dietary intake and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh using data from the Baseline Survey 2004 of the National Nutrition Programme. A stratified two-stage random cluster-sampling was used for selecting 4,993 unmarried adolescent girls aged 13-18 years in 708 rural clusters. Female interviewers visited girls at home to record their education, occupation, dietary knowledge, seven-day food-frequency, intake of iron and folic acid, morbidity, weight, and height. They inquired mothers about age of their daughters and possessions of durable assets to divide households into asset quintiles. Results revealed that 26% of the girls were thin, with body mass index (BMI)-for-age <15th percentile), 0.3% obese (BMI-for-age >95th percentile), and 32% stunted (height-for-age < or = 2SD). Risks of being thin and stunted were higher if girls had general morbidity in the last fortnight and foul-smelling vaginal discharge than their peers. Consumptions of non-staple good-quality food items in the last week were less frequent and correlated well positively with the household asset quintile. Girls of the highest asset quintile ate fish/meat 2.1 (55%) days more and egg/milk two (91%) days more than the girls in the lowest asset quintile. The overall dietary knowledge was low. More than half could not name the main food sources of energy and protein, and 36% were not aware of the importance of taking extra nutrients during adolescence for growth spurt. The use of iron supplement was 21% in nutrition-intervention areas compared to 8% in non-intervention areas. Factors associated with the increased use of iron supplements were related to awareness of the girls about extra nutrients and their access to mass media and education. Community-based adolescent-friendly health and nutrition education and services and economic development may improve the overall health and nutritional knowledge and

  14. Negotiated media effects. Peer feedback modifies effects of media's thin-body ideal on adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C

    2014-02-01

    The present study introduces a theoretical framework on negotiated media effects. Specifically, we argue that feedback of peers on thin-body ideal media images and individual dispositions guide effects on adolescent girls' psychosocial responses to media exposure. Therefore, we examined the thin-body ideal as portrayed in media and peers' feedback on such thin-ideal images in their combined effects on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, objectified body consciousness, and social comparison with media models. Hence, media models and peer comments were systematically combined as incorporated entities in YouTube-formats. Hypotheses were tested in a 3 (media models: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight)×3 (peer comments: 6kg-underweight vs. 3kg-underweight vs. normal-weight)×2 (appearance schematicity: lower vs. higher) between-subjects design (N=216). Results showed that peer comments indicating that a media model was 'only 3kg-underweight' exerted most negative responses, particularly in girls who strongly process appearance relevant information. Peer feedback interacts with media models in guiding perceptions of what is considered an 'ideal' body shape. Results highlight the important role of peers as well as individual predispositions in view of understanding how thin-ideal media images may impact adolescent girls' body image concerns.

  15. Adolescent inpatient girls׳ report of dependent life events predicts prospective suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Stone, Lindsey B; Liu, Richard T; Yen, Shirley

    2014-09-30

    Adolescents with a history of suicidal behavior are especially vulnerable for future suicide attempts, particularly following discharge from an inpatient psychiatric admission. This study is the first to test whether adolescents׳ tendency to generate stress, or report more dependent events to which they contributed, was predictive of prospective suicide events. Ninety adolescent psychiatric inpatients who were admitted for recent suicide risk, completed diagnostic interviews, assessments of history of suicidal behavior, and a self-report questionnaire of major life events at baseline. Participants were followed over the subsequent 6 months after discharge to assess stability vs. onset of suicide events. Cox proportional hazard regressions were used to predict adolescents׳ time to suicide events. Results supported hypothesis, such that only recent greater dependent events, not independent or overall events, predicted risk for prospective suicide events. This effect was specific to adolescent girls. Importantly, dependent events maintained statistical significance as a predictor of future suicide events after co-varying for the effects of several established risk factors and psychopathology. Results suggest that the tendency to generate dependent events may contribute unique additional prediction for adolescent girls׳ prospective suicide risk, and highlight the need for future work in this area.

  16. Eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in Japanese adolescent girls and boys in high schools.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Nin, Kazuko; Teramukai, Satoshi; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-12-15

    To investigate eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in adolescents, we administered the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q) to Japanese adolescent girls and boys. The EDE-Q global scores in Japanese girls and boys, respectively, were significantly lower than those in girls and boys in previous studies. Objective binge eating episodes and extreme dietary restriction were the common behaviors, whereas self-induced vomiting and the misuse of laxatives were uncommon. Differences in the EDE-Q data between Japanese adolescents and adolescents in previous studies from Western countries suggest that there may be certain cultural differences in eating disorder psychopathology in adolescents.

  17. Being a Girl in a Boys' World: Investigating the Experiences of Girls with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Caputi, Peter; Magee, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the experiences of adolescent girls with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) during adolescence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three mother-daughter dyads and two additional mothers. A range of issues were highlighted covering physical, emotional, social and sexual domains. Some of these issues were similar to…

  18. Determinants and trends in health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections among married adolescent girls in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Shahabuddin, A S M; Delvaux, Thérèse; Utz, Bettina; Bardají, Azucena; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the determinants and measure the trends in health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections among married adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Methods In order to measure the trends in health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections, Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS) data sets were analysed (BDHS; 1993–1994, 1996–1997, 1999–2000, 2004, 2007, 2011). The BDHS 2011 data sets were analysed to identify the determinants of health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections. A total of 2813 adolescent girls (aged 10–19 years) were included for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results Health facility-based deliveries have continuously increased among adolescents in Bangladesh over the past two decades from 3% in 1993–1994 to 24.5% in 2011. Rates of population-based and facility-based caesarean sections have increased linearly among all age groups of women including adolescents. Although the country's overall (population-based) caesarean section rate among adolescents was within acceptable range (11.6%), a rate of nearly 50% health facility level caesarean sections among adolescent girls is alarming. Among adolescent girls, use of antenatal care (ANC) appeared to be the most important predictor of health facility-based delivery (OR: 4.04; 95% CI 2.73 to 5.99), whereas the wealth index appeared as the most important predictor of caesarean sections (OR: 5.7; 95% CI 2.74 to 12.1). Conclusions Maternal health-related interventions should be more targeted towards adolescent girls in order to encourage them to access ANC and promote health facility-based delivery. Rising trends of caesarean sections require further investigation on indication and provider–client-related determinants of these interventions among adolescent girls in Bangladesh. PMID:27633641

  19. Attenuated behavioral and brain responses to trust violations among assaulted adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Lenow, Jennifer K; Scott Steele, J; Smitherman, Sonet; Kilts, Clinton D; Cisler, Josh M

    2014-07-30

    Physical and sexual assault during adolescence is a potent risk factor for mental health and psychosocial problems, as well as revictimization, especially among female victims. To better understand this conferred risk, we conducted an exploratory study comparing assaulted and non-assaulted girls׳ behavioral and brain responses during a trust learning task. Adolescent girls (14 assaulted, 16 non-assaulted) performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task that manipulated the percentages of which three different faces delivered positive and negative outcomes. Analyses focused on comparing unexpected to expected outcomes. We found that assaulted adolescent girls demonstrated less behavioral slowing in response to unexpected negative social outcomes, or trust violations (i.e., when a presumably trustworthy face delivered a negative outcome), relative to control girls. Trust violations were also associated with less activation in anterior insular and anterior cingulate regions among the assaulted group compared to the control group. Furthermore, we found that the severity of participants׳ exposure to assaultive events scaled negatively with recruitment of these regions. These preliminary results suggest that assault victims may engage differential learning processes upon unexpected negative social outcomes. These findings have implications for understanding impaired trust learning and social functioning among assault victims.

  20. “I feel free”: Experiences of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems

    PubMed Central

    Duberg, Anna; Möller, Margareta; Sunvisson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13–18 were included in the study. The dance intervention group comprised 59 girls, 24 of whom were strategically chosen to be interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The experiences of the dance intervention resulted in five generic categories: (1) An Oasis from Stress, which represents the fundamental basis of the intervention; (2) Supportive Togetherness, the setting; (3) Enjoyment and Empowerment, the immediate effect; (4) Finding Acceptance and Trust in Own Ability, the outcome; and (5) Dance as Emotional Expression, the use of the intervention. One main category emerged, Finding Embodied Self-Trust That Opens New Doors, which emphasizes the increased trust in the self and the ability to approach life with a sense of freedom and openness. The central understanding of the adolescent girls’ experiences was that the dance intervention enriched and gave access to personal resources. With the non-judgmental atmosphere and supportive togetherness as a safe platform, the enjoyment and empowerment in dancing gave rise to acceptance, trust in ability, and emotional expression. Taken together, this increased self-trust and they discovered a new ability to “claim space.” Findings from this study may provide practical information on designing future interventions for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. PMID:27416014

  1. Late-Adolescent Delinquency: Risks and Resilience for Girls Differing in Risk at the Start of Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Tia; Morash, Merry; Park, Suyeon

    2011-01-01

    Based on resilience and feminist criminological theories, several individual, family, and community characteristics were hypothesized to predict late-adolescent delinquency for girls varying in early-adolescent risk. Girls aged 12 and 13 were interviewed each year as part of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Predictors of…

  2. The Incidence of Human Papillomavirus in Tanzanian Adolescent Girls Before Reported Sexual Debut

    PubMed Central

    Houlihan, Catherine F.; Baisley, Kathy; Bravo, Ignacio G.; Kapiga, Saidi; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Changalucha, John; Ross, David A.; Hayes, Richard J.; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Acquisition of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women occurs predominantly through vaginal sex. However, HPV has been detected in girls reporting no previous sex. We aimed to determine incidence and risk factors for HPV acquisition in girls who report no previous sex in Tanzania, a country with high HPV prevalence and cervical cancer incidence. Methods We followed 503 adolescent girls aged 15–16 years in Mwanza, Tanzania, with face-to-face interviews and self-administered vaginal swabs every 3 months for 18 months; 397 girls reported no sex before enrollment or during follow-up; of whom, 120 were randomly selected. Samples from enrollment, 6-, 12-, and 18-month visits were tested for 37 HPV genotypes. Incidence, clearance, point prevalence, and duration of any HPV and genotype-specific infections were calculated and associated factors were evaluated. Results Of 120 girls who reported no previous sex, 119 were included, contributing 438 samples. HPV was detected in 51 (11.6%) samples. The overall incidence of new HPV infections was 29.4/100 person-years (95% confidence interval: 15.9–54.2). The point prevalence of vaccine types HPV-6,-11,-16, and -18 was .9%, .9%, 2.0%, and 0%, respectively. Spending a night away from home and using the Internet were associated with incident HPV, and reporting having seen a pornographic movie was inversely associated with HPV incidence. Conclusions Incident HPV infections were detected frequently in adolescent girls who reported no previous sex over 18 months. This is likely to reflect under-reporting of sex. A low-point prevalence of HPV genotypes in licensed vaccines was seen, indicating that vaccination of these girls might still be effective. PMID:26725717

  3. Body Satisfaction, Weight Gain, and Binge Eating Among Overweight Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn; Field, Alison E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine if body satisfaction is associated with body mass index (BMI) change and whether it protects against the development of frequent binge eating among overweight and obese adolescent girls. Methods We used prospective data from 9 waves of an ongoing cohort study of adolescents, the Growing Up Today Study. At enrollment in 1996, participants were 9 to 14 years old. Questionnaires were mailed to participants annually until 2001, then biennially through 2007. Girls who were overweight or obese in 1996 were included in the analysis (n=1 559). Our outcomes were annual change in BMI and incident frequent binge eating, defined as binge eating at least weekly and no use of compensatory behaviors. Results At baseline, 57.2% of the overweight and obese girls were at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies. During 11 years of follow-up, 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) [7.8, 10.8]) of the girls started to binge eat frequently. Controlling for BMI and other confounders, overweight and obese girls who reported being at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies made smaller BMI gains (β=−0.10 kg/m2, 95% CI [−0.19, −0.02]) and had 61% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (odds ratio (OR)=0.39, 95% CI [0.24, 0.64]) than their less satisfied peers. Compared to girls who were the least satisfied with their bodies, girls who were the most satisfied had 85% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (OR=0.15, 95% CI [0.06, 0.37]). The association between body satisfaction and starting to binge eat frequently was stronger for younger adolescents than older adolescents. Conclusions While body dissatisfaction is common among overweight and obese girls, body satisfaction may protect against excessive weight gain and binge eating. Prevention of body dissatisfaction must begin early and should be considered as a component of both obesity and eating disorder prevention programs. PMID:22565419

  4. Relationship between Cardiovascular Risk Score and Traditional and Nontraditional Cardiometabolic Parameters in Obese Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Klisic, Aleksandra; Kavaric, Nebojsa; Soldatovic, Ivan; Bjelakovic, Bojko

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Since the cardiovascular (CV) risk score in the young population, children and adolescents, is underestimated, especially in developing countries such as Montenegro, where a strong interaction exists between the genetically conditioned CV risk and environmental factors, the purpose of this study was to estimate CV risk in apparently healthy adolescent girls. Moreover, we aimed to test some new, emerging CV risk factors and their interaction with the traditional ones, such as obesity. Precisely, we aimed to assess the impact of low bilirubin levels, as a routine biochemical parameter, as an additional risk factor for atherosclerotic disease in the adult phase. Methods Forty-five obese adolescent girls (mean age 17.8±1.22 years) and forty-five age- and sex-matched normal weight controls, all nonsmokers, were included. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. Cardiovascular Risk Score (CVRS) was calculated by adding the points for each risk factor (e.g. sex, HDL-c, non-HDL-c, blood pressure and fasting glycemia). Results A significant positive relationship between CVRS and ALT, hsCRP and TG/HDL-c, but an opposite relationship between CVRS and total bilirubin were found (P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that higher waist circumference (WC) and LDL-c, but lower HDL-c were independent predictors of lower bilirubin values (adjusted R2=0.603, P<0.001). Conclusions Obese adolescent girls are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease late in life. In addition to the traditional risk factors, total bilirubin may have the potential to discriminate between low and higher risk for cardiovascular disturbances in healthy adolescent girls. PMID:28356879

  5. Individual and Sociocultural Influences on Pre-Adolescent Girls' Appearance Schemas and Body Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    Appearance schemas, a suggested cognitive component of body image, have been associated with body dissatisfaction in adolescent and adult samples. This study examined girls' weight status (BMI), depression, and parent, sibling, peer, and media influences as predictors of appearance schemas in 173 pre-adolescent girls. Hierarchical regression…

  6. Study of Delinquent, Diverted, and High-Risk Adolescent Girls: Implications for Mental Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffolo, Mary C.; Sarri, Rosemary; Goodkind, Sara

    2004-01-01

    This study examines risk and protective factors for delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls to inform the development of effective mental health prevention and intervention programs. Delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls (N = 159) involved or at risk of involvement with the juvenile justice system, who were receiving…

  7. Brief Report: Relationships between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Neissaar, Inga

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between changes in physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Participants were 277 urban adolescent girls. Physical activity was measured using the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall and depressive symptoms were assessed using questionnaire. Data were collected on three occasions over a 3-year…

  8. Sizing up Peers: Adolescent Girls' Weight Control and Social Comparison in the School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Anna S.; Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Frank, Kenneth; Turner, Alyn

    2010-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and multi-level modeling, we examine the role of social comparison with schoolmates in adolescent girls' weight control. Specifically, we focus on how girls' own weight control is influenced by the body sizes and weight-control behaviors of their schoolmates. Our findings suggest that…

  9. Family Financial Hardship and Adolescent Girls' Adjustment: The Role of Maternal Disclosure of Financial Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Stephanie Jacobs; Koerner, Susan Silverberg

    2002-01-01

    A study of 62 adolescent girls and their recently divorced mothers examined the relationship between maternal disclosure of financial concerns and difficulties in adolescent daughters' adjustment. Findings revealed a positive direct relationship between family financial hardship and girls' psychological distress, and that financial hardship was…

  10. Effects of Learning about Gender Discrimination on Adolescent Girls' Attitudes toward and Interest in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgram, Erica S.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2007-01-01

    Gender discrimination has contributed to the gender imbalance in scientific fields. However, research on the effects of informing adolescent girls about gender discrimination in these fields is rare and controversial. To examine the consequences of learning about gender-based occupational discrimination, adolescent girls (n= 158, ages 11 to 14)…

  11. Developmental and Individual Differences in Girls' Sex-Typed Activities in Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Susan M.; Shanahan, Lilly; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Crouter, Ann C.; Booth, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Girls' time in sex-typed leisure activities was studied across 2 years in middle childhood (n=98, M=8.2 years in Year 1), early adolescence (n=106, M=11.7 years), and middle adolescence (n=86, M=14.9 years). In annual home interviews, White middle-class girls, mothers, and fathers rated their gendered attitudes, interests, and personality…

  12. Race-Specific Transition Patterns among Alcohol Use Classes in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauber, Sarah E.; Paulson, James F.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2011-01-01

    We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine transitions among alcohol use classes in 2225 White and African American adolescent girls, and race differences in predictors of transition into and out of problematic drinking classes. Latent class analysis confirmed four classes for White girls and three for AA…

  13. Impact of Socio-Emotional Adjustment on Academic Achievement of Adolescent Girls in Jammu and Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement of adolescent girls of Jammu and Kashmir. The purpose of the investigation was to study the relationship and effect of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement among adolescent girls. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the…

  14. Effects of Overweight on Risky Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Girls. NBER Working Paper No. 16172

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averett, Susan; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We use data from The National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health to estimate effects of adolescent girls' overweight on their propensity to engage in risky sexual behavior. We estimate single equation, two-stage, and sibling fixed-effects models and find that overweight or obese teenage girls are more likely than their recommended-weight…

  15. The Effect of Recreational Activities on Self-Esteem Development of Girls in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayazit, Betül

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of recreational activities on self-esteem development of girls in adolescence. For this purpose, a total of 20 girls in adolescence period took part in the present study. Recreational activities program included bowling, patenga, orienteering, basketball, volleyball, badminton, ping-pong, dance, fun…

  16. The Influence of Parental Support, Depressed Affect, and Peers on the Sexual Behaviors of Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Used longitudinal data from 76 adolescent girls and their parents to investigate effects of parental warmth and supportiveness on adolescents' depressed affect, attitudes about sexuality, peer influence, and sexual experience. Girls with more emotionally distant parents were more likely to manifest symptoms of depression. Depressed affect was…

  17. Team Sports Achievement and Self-Esteem Development among Urban Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Sara; Seidman, Edward

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigate the contribution of achievement in team sports to adolescent girls' self-esteem development. Adolescent girls (N = 247) from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds were surveyed as part of a larger study investigating the development of poor urban youth. Participants responded to items tapping global self-esteem,…

  18. Counseling Adolescent Girls for Body Image Resilience: Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2007-01-01

    Because body image dissatisfaction is such a pervasive problem in adolescent girls, school counselors need to develop effective prevention programs in this area. In this article, a model to promote girls' body image resilience is presented. The model identifies five protective factors that contribute to girls' abilities to resist sociocultural…

  19. "Looks do matter"--visual attentional biases in adolescent girls with eating disorders viewing body images.

    PubMed

    Horndasch, Stefanie; Kratz, Oliver; Holczinger, Anna; Heinrich, Hartmut; Hönig, Florian; Nöth, Elmar; Moll, Gunther H

    2012-07-30

    Visual attention allocation of adolescent girls with and without an eating disorder while viewing body images of underweight, normal-weight and overweight women was studied using eye tracking. While all girls attended more to specific body parts (e.g. hips, upper legs), eating-disordered girls showed an attentional bias towards unclothed body parts.

  20. Measuring Social Provisions for Physical Activity among Adolescent Black and White Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluate the validity of the Social Provisions Scale for physical activity among adolescent Black (n = 896) and White (n = 823) girls. The girls completed the scale and measures of subjective norms and physical activity in the eighth and ninth grades. Within the sample of White girls, the Social Provisions Scale contained 24 items that…

  1. Relationships between Social Information Processing and Aggression among Adolescent Girls with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Lee, Steve S.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Mullin, Benjamin C.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between social information processing (SIP) and both relational and overt, physical aggression in a longitudinally-followed sample of 228 adolescent girls (ages 11-18; 140 with ADHD and 88 comparison girls). During childhood, girls participated in naturalistic summer camps where peer rejection, overt…

  2. Heterosocial Involvement, Peer Pressure for Thinness, and Body Dissatisfaction among Young Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Gondoli, Dawn M.; Corning, Alexandra F.; Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Fitzsimmons, Ellen E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal connections among young adolescent heterosocial involvement (i.e., mixed-sex interactions), peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. Three years of self-report questionnaire data were collected from 88 adolescent girls as they completed 6th through 8th grades. Results indicated that the relation between heterosocial involvement and body dissatisfaction was mediated by perceived peer pressure for thinness. Within this model, heterosocial involvement was associated with greater peer pressure for thinness. In turn, peer pressure for thinness was associated with greater body dissatisfaction. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at girls during their middle-school years. PMID:21354882

  3. Heterosocial involvement, peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction among young adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Gondoli, Dawn M; Corning, Alexandra F; Salafia, Elizabeth H Blodgett; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Fitzsimmons, Ellen E

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal connections among young adolescent heterosocial involvement (i.e., mixed-sex interactions), peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. Three years of self-report questionnaire data were collected from 88 adolescent girls as they completed 6th through 8th grades. Results indicated that the relation between heterosocial involvement and body dissatisfaction was mediated by perceived peer pressure for thinness. Within this model, heterosocial involvement was associated with greater peer pressure for thinness. In turn, peer pressure for thinness was associated with greater body dissatisfaction. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at girls during their middle-school years.

  4. Relationship between observational learning and health belief with physical activity among adolescents girl in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rostamian, Marzieh; Kazemi, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activities among adolescents affects health during pubescence and adolescence and decrease in physical activities among adolescents has become a global challenge. The aim of the present study was to define the relation between the level of physical activity among adolescent girls and their health beliefs as personal factor and level of observational learning as environmental factor. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted on 400 students aged from 11 to 19 years in Isfahan, Iran. Information regarding the duration of physical activity with moderate/severe intensity was measured in four dimensions of leisure time (exercising and hiking), daily activities, and transportation-related activities using the International Physical Activity questionnaire. Health belief structures included perceived sensitivity, intensity of perceived threat, perceived benefits, and barriers and self-efficacy; observational learning was measured using a researcher-made questionnaire. Results: Results showed that perceived barriers, observational learning, and level of self-efficacy were related to the level of physical activity in all dimensions. In addition, the level of physical activity at leisure time, transportation, and total physical activity were dependent on the intensity of perceived threats (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study showed that the intensity of perceived threats, perceived barriers and self-efficacy structures, and observational learning are some of the factors related to physical activity among adolescent girls, and it is possible that by focusing on improving these variables through interventional programs physical activity among adolescent girls can be improved. PMID:28194200

  5. Body Dissatisfaction Prospectively Predicts Depressive Mood and Low Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Susan J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2006-01-01

    This research examined whether body dissatisfaction prospectively predicted depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys 5 years later. Participants were early-adolescent girls (n = 440, Time 1 M age = 12.7 years) and boys (n = 366, Time 1 M age = 12.8 years) and midadolescent girls (n = 946, Time 1 M age = 15.8 years) and boys…

  6. Heterosexual romantic involvement and depressive symptoms in black adolescent girls: effects of menarche and perceived social support.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S

    2015-04-01

    Research has accumulated to demonstrate that depressive symptoms are associated with heterosexual romantic involvement during adolescence, but relatively little work has linked this body of literature to the existing literature on associations between early pubertal timing and adolescent depressive symptoms. This study extends prior research by examining whether early menarche and heterosexual romantic involvement interact to predict depressive symptoms in a national sample of Black adolescent girls (N = 607; M age = 15 years; 32 % Caribbean Black and 68 % African American). We further examined whether the adverse effects of heterosexual romantic involvement and early menarche would be mediated by perceived social support from mothers, fathers, and peers. Path analysis results indicated that girls who report current involvement in a heterosexual romantic relationship also reported high levels of perceived peer support than girls with no romantic involvement. High levels of perceived peer support, in turn, predicted low levels of depressive symptoms. Romantically involved girls with an early menarche also reported significantly less depressive symptoms than girls not romantically involved with an early menarche. Neither perceived maternal support nor perceived paternal support mediated associations between heterosexual romantic involvement, menarche, and depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that individual and social factors can impede heterosexual romantic involvement effects on depressive symptoms in Black adolescent girls.

  7. Exploring Temporal Patterns of Stress in Adolescent Girls with Headache.

    PubMed

    Björling, Elin A; Singh, Narayan

    2017-02-01

    As part of a larger study on perceived stress and headaches in 2009, momentary perceived stress, head pain levels and stress-related symptom data were collected. This paper explores a temporal analysis of the patterns of stress, as well as an analysis of momentary and retrospective stress-related symptoms compared by level of headache activity. Adolescent girls (N = 31) ages 14-18 were randomly cued by electronic diaries 7 times per day over a 21-day period responding to momentary questions about level of head pain, perceived stress and stress-related symptoms. Multivariate general linear modelling was used to determine significant differences among headache groups in relation to temporal patterns of stress. Significant headache group differences were found on retrospective and momentary stress-related symptom measures. A total of 2841 diary responses captured stress levels, head pain and related symptoms. The chronic headache (CH) group reported the highest levels of hourly and daily stress, followed by the moderate headache (MH) and low headache (LH) groups. Patterns of stress for the three headache groups were statistically distinct, illustrating increased stress in girls with more frequent head pain. This evidence suggests that because of increased stress, girls with recurrent head pain are likely a vulnerable population who may benefit from stress-reducing interventions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Addressing career barriers for high risk adolescent girls: the PATHS curriculum intervention.

    PubMed

    Doren, Bonnie; Lombardi, Allison R; Clark, Julie; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2013-12-01

    The study evaluated a gender-specific comprehensive career development curriculum designed to target career barriers faced by high risk adolescent girls - those with disabilities and at risk for school failure. The goal of the curriculum was to promote social cognitive career and self determination outcomes associated with adaptive career development and adjustment. A pre-post control group design was used to evaluate the curriculum. Findings suggest that participation in the curriculum resulted in significant and large gains in autonomy and in disability and gender-related knowledge. Meaningful gains were noted in perceptions of social support and relevance of school. Participants in a high fidelity sample made significant and large gains in vocational skills self-efficacy and disability and gender-related knowledge. Meaningful improvements were noted in self-advocacy, autonomy, and vocational outcome expectations. The findings suggest that the curriculum can improve important indicators of positive career development and adjustment in high risk adolescent girls.

  9. Bisexual Invisibility and the Sexual Health Needs of Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Celia B.; Macapagal, Kathryn; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze bisexual female youth perspectives on their experiences accessing sexual health information and services provided by a doctor, nurse, or counselor. Specifically, we sought to: (1) understand how youth perceptions of providers' attitudes and behaviors affect their seeking and obtaining sexual health information and services; (2) examine how social stigmas within the family context might be associated with barriers to sexual health information and services; and (3) assess school-based sources of sexual health information. Method: We utilized a mixed-method study design. Data from bisexual female youth were collected through an online questionnaire and asynchronous online focus groups addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health and HIV prevention. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Results: Barriers to sexual healthcare included judgmental attitudes and assumptions of patient heterosexuality among healthcare providers, and missed opportunities for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing. Bisexual stigma within families was associated with restricted youth openness with providers, suggesting fear of disclosure to parent or guardian. School-based sexual health education was limited by a restrictive focus on abstinence and condoms and the exclusion of STI risk information relevant to sex between women. Conclusion: We recommend that practitioners integrate nonjudgmental questions regarding bisexuality into standard contraceptive and sexual health practices involving female youth, including discussion of HIV and STI risk reduction methods. Further support for bisexual health among adolescent girls can come through addressing stigmas of female bisexuality, increasing sensitivity to privacy while engaging parents, and expanding the reach of school-based sexual health education. PMID:27604053

  10. Knowledge, skills, and qualities for effectively facilitating an adolescent girls' group.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carolyn; Lindgren, Sandi; Pintor, Jessie Kemmick

    2011-12-01

    Nurses employed in a variety of school settings often rely on group-format approaches to support the health and well-being of adolescent girls. The process of selecting an effective facilitator, and evaluating the impact of a facilitator on intervention process and outcomes, is rarely described. The purpose of this article was to synthesize the literature regarding facilitator knowledge, skills, and qualities to provide school-based researchers and practitioners with a framework for selecting and evaluating group facilitators. Literature was reviewed between Fall of 2008 and Spring of 2011. Findings were synthesized into categories that provide the organization for this article (why groups, why a facilitator, and the knowledge, skills, and qualities of an effective girls' group facilitator). Nurses need to carefully identify, select, and equip those who serve as facilitators because group successes, evidenced in the ways girls grow and support each other in growth, are the result of a successful, well-matched facilitator-group participant experience.

  11. Weight status and hypertension among adolescent girls in Argentina and Norway: Data from the ENNyS and HUNT studies

    PubMed Central

    Stray-Pedersen, Marit; Helsing, Ragnhild M; Gibbons, Luz; Cormick, Gabriela; Holmen, Turid L; Vik, Torstein; Belizán, José M

    2009-01-01

    Background To provide data on overweight, obesity and hypertension among adolescent girls in Norway and Argentina. Methods Data was obtained from two population-based, cross-sectional and descriptive studies containing anthropometric and blood pressure measurements of 15 to 18 year old girls. The study included 2,156 adolescent girls from Norway evaluated between 1995 and 1997, and 669 from Argentina evaluated between 2004 and 2005. Results Around 15% of adolescent girls in Norway and 19% in Argentina are overweight or obese. Body mass index (BMI) distribution in these two countries is similar, with a low percentage (< 1%) of girls classified as thin. Norwegian adolescents show a height mean value 8 cm taller than the Argentinean. Obesity is strongly associated with systolic hypertension in both populations, with odds ratios of 11.4 [1.6; 82.0] and 28.3 [11.8; 67.7] in Argentina and Norway, respectively. No direct association between BMI and systolic hypertension was found, and only extreme BMI values (above 80th - 90th percentile) were associated with hypertension. Conclusion This study confirms a current world health problem by showing the high prevalence of obesity in adolescents and its association with hypertension in two different countries (one developed and one in transition). PMID:19878550

  12. Forms of aggression, peer relationships, and relational victimization among Chinese adolescent girls and boys: roles of prosocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shujun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Dongping; Yu, Chengfu; Zhen, Shuangju; Huang, Shihua

    2015-01-01

    Through a sample of 686 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 13.73 years; 50% girls), we examined the compensatory and moderating effects of prosocial behavior on the direct and indirect associations between forms of aggression and relational victimization mediated by peer relationships among adolescent girls and boys. The results indicated that only adolescent girls’ relationally aggressive behaviors could be directly linked with their experiences of relational victimization, and both relationally and overtly aggressive adolescent boys and girls might be more often rejected by their peers, which, in turn, could make them targets of relational aggression. Next, we found that prosocial behavior indirectly counteracts the effects of aggression on relational victimization through reducing adolescents’ peer rejection and promoting adolescents’ peer attachment. In addition, relationally aggressive girls with high levels of prosocial behavior might be less rejected by peers; however, they might also have lower levels of peer attachment and be more likely to experience relational victimization. Last, adolescent boys scored higher on risks, but lower on the protective factors of relational victimization than girls, which, to some degree, might explain the gender difference in relational victimization. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:26347704

  13. Contributing Factors to High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among Iranian Adolescent Girls: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Alimoradi, Zainab; Kariman, Nourossadat; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Adolescence is a period of overwhelming changes and challenges, which expose the adolescents to high-risk behaviors. Risky sexual relationship is one of these behaviors that entails physical risks and psychosocial harms. Various factors have been recognized to shape sexual behaviors in adolescents. This paper is an attempt to investigate the factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in Iranian adolescent girls. Methods: A literature review of the research published by Iranian authors, in Farsi or English language in local and foreign journals, was conducted using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scientific Information Database (SID), IranMedex, IranDoc, and Google Scholar. The search in each database included all the years covered at that time using keywords such as “sexual, adolescents, and Iran”, and continued using other keywords such as “sexual behavior, high-risk behavior, sexual risk and reproductive behavior” individually and in combination Results: Sixteen published articles were identified. Factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in girls can be divided into four general groups including personal, family, peer, school and community. Conclusion: Regarding the identified risk and protective factors, appropriate individual, family and school-based interventions can be designed and implemented to strengthen protective factors. While individual and family factors are considered more in research, factors related to peers, school and community have received less attention. Since social values, beliefs and norms are important factors in formation of sexual behaviors, further research regarding these factors is suggested. PMID:28097173

  14. The experience of puberty in Iranian adolescent girls: a qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescence is an important stage in human life span. Physiologic changes associated with puberty manifest themselves in often complex and bizarre ways to which girls show different reactions. This study aims to explore to puberty experiences in adolescent girls who live in the city of Sari in Iran. Methods The present study is a qualitative study of content analysis. Sampling took place in the city of Sari, Iran and was objective focused in accordance with qualitative studies. Participants were 38 girls of 12–20 years old who had at least experienced 3 menstrual cycles. Data was collected by means of focus group and in-depth interviews. Results As follows, Seven main themes were extracted from the interviews are follows: Menarche as the most unpleasant event in puberty, getting nervous about and ashamed of bodily changes, psychological changes, discordance with parents, sexual orientation and the need for education on this issue, scholastic dysfunction and religious considerations. Conclusion The results showed that for the majority of the participants puberty was an unpleasant experience. Most of them were in need of education on how to go about the issues surrounding puberty. The society, families and of course the adolescents themselves are responsible to work together in order to create an atmosphere in which correct information on puberty and the associated issues are readily accessible. PMID:22925369

  15. Family risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy: study of a group of adolescent girls and their families in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guijarro, S; Naranjo, J; Padilla, M; Gutiérez, R; Lammers, C; Blum, R W

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents the study on the family risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy among adolescent girls and their families in Quito, Ecuador. The study aimed to identify characteristics within the family associated with adolescent pregnancy. A total of 135 female adolescents (aged 12-19 years) and their families were separately interviewed. 47 were pregnant and attending prenatal care at an inner city hospital in Quito, and 88 were nonpregnant students from schools located within the same geographical area. Results showed that when compared to their pregnant peers, more nonpregnant adolescents lived with their biological parents (p 0.002); they showed higher school performance (p 0.001); and more values and religiosity (p 0.0001). Pregnant adolescents reported lower mother-daughter and father-daughter communication (p 0.02), lesser life satisfaction in general, and more school and economic difficulties (p 0.001). Moreover, they were less likely to find support for their problems in or outside the family (p 0.0001) and showed higher levels of depression (68.8%) and sexual abuse (14.9%). Parental education was higher in the families of nonpregnant adolescents and both parents worked to provide financial support for the family.

  16. Pregnancy and lactation hinder growth and nutritional status of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rah, Jee H; Christian, Parul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2008-08-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Less is known about its influence on maternal growth and nutritional status. We determined how pregnancy and lactation during adolescence affects postmenarcheal linear and ponderal growth and body composition of 12-19 y olds in rural Bangladesh. In a prospective cohort study, anthropometric measurements were taken among primigravidae (n = 229) in the early first trimester of pregnancy and at 6 mo postpartum. Randomly selected never-pregnant adolescents (n = 458) of the same age and time since menarche were measured within 1 wk of these assessments. Annual changes in anthropometric measurements were compared between the 2 groups adjusting for confounders using mixed effects regression models. The mean +/- SD age and age at menarche of adolescents were 16.3 +/- 1.6 y and 12.7 +/- 1.2 y, respectively. Unlike pregnant girls who did not grow in height (-0.09 +/- 0.08 cm/y), never-pregnant girls increased in stature by 0.35 +/- 0.05 cm/y. The adjusted mean difference between the 2 groups was 0.43 +/- 0.1cm (P < 0.001). Similarly, whereas never-pregnant girls gained BMI, mid-upper arm circumference, and percent body fat, pregnant girls declined in every measurement by 6 mo postpartum, resulting in adjusted mean +/- SD differences in annual changes of 0.62 +/- 0.11 kg/m(2), 0.89 +/- 0.12 cm, and 1.54 +/- 0.25%, respectively (all P < 0.001). Differences in changes in all anthropometric measurements except height were greater among adolescents whose first pregnancy occurred <24 mo vs. > or =24 mo since menarche (BMI, -1.40 +/- 0.18 vs. -0.60 +/- 0.11 kg/m(2); all interaction terms, P < 0.05). Pregnancy and lactation during adolescence ceased linear growth and resulted in weight loss and depletion of fat and lean body mass of young girls.

  17. Sex hormone binding globulin decrease as a potential pathogenetic factor for hirsutism in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Cross, Graciela; Danilowicz, Karina; Kral, Martha; Caufriez, Anne; Copinschi, Georges; Bruno, Oscar D

    2008-01-01

    We investigated 252 non-obese female subjects aged 13-39 years to evaluate if an exaggerated descent of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels during adolescence can play a role in the development of hirsutism. Body hair was assessed according to Ferriman and Gallwey (FG), with a stringent criterion of normality of < or = 4. In 13-14 years girls, SHBG and free testosterone (FT) levels were similar in "hirsute" girls (FG > 4) and controls (FG < or = 4, regular menstrual cycles, no acne). In 15-18 years girls, SHBG values were lower in "hirsute" girls, FT levels were similar in both groups, FG correlated inversely with SHBG. In 19-39 yr women, FT levels were higher in "hirsute" subjects, SHBG values were similar in both groups, FG correlated positively with FT. Lowest SHBG values were observed at 15-18 years, but the slope of the decrease from 13-14 years values was greater in the "hirsute" group. FT values increased progressively with age, but the increase was greater in the "hirsute" group. Those results suggest an important role of SHBG decrease in adolescence vs. a more accentuated testosterone increase in adults, as factors conditioning the development of hirsutism in these two different periods of life.

  18. Urban Rural Comparison of Anthropometry and Menarcheal Status of Adolescent School Going Girls of Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Khichar, Satyendra; Dabi, Dhanraj; Parakh, Manish; Dara, Pawan K.; Parakh, Poonam; Vyas, Suyasha; Deopa, Bindu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adolescence is the formative period of life. Poor adolescent health translates into poor maternal health leading to increased maternal morbidity with inter-generational consequences. Aim To compare anthropometric, socio-demographic, menstrual and nutritional status of rural and urban adolescent school going girls of Western Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in two rural schools and one urban school of Jodhpur region. Anthropometric, socio-economic (family history, menstrual history, maternal education) and dietary habit data of 327 (137 urban and 190 rural) school going adolescent girls aged 11–16 years were collected using structured questionnaires by a school based survey after consent from parents and school officials. Height and weight were taken using the standard procedure. Stunting (height for age) and thinness [Body Mass index (BMI) for age] were calculated as per the National Center for Health and Statistics (NCHS) standards. Statistical analysis was done using student t-test, fisher-exact test and Chi-square test. Results Mean height was significantly higher in urban girls while mean BMI of adolescents was significantly higher in rural areas as compared to their urban counterparts. Growth spurt was between 12-13 years showing maximum increase in mean height, coinciding with or immediately post-menarche. Menarche was one year earlier in urban girls as compared to rural girls (p<0.001). Thinness was more prevalent among females in urban areas and stunting was more common amongst girls residing in rural areas. Conclusion Life style habits (poor dietary habits, sedentary life style) of the urban girls may contribute to an early menarche but rural girls despite having a later onset of menarche; have a lower final height which may be attributed to their poor nutritional status. Improving nutrition of rural girls and modifying the life style of urban girls and educating their mothers will

  19. The secret struggle of the active girl: a qualitative synthesis of interpersonal factors that influence physical activity in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Standiford, Anne

    2013-10-01

    The author conducted a systematic review of 19 international, multidisciplinary, qualitative studies of interpersonal factors that influence physical activity in adolescent girls. Themes were deductively generated based on reported findings, and were organized according to frequency of occurrence. Themes were further organized according to a theoretical model to illustrate how interpersonal, perceptual, and situational influences affect physical activity in adolescent girls. The three most frequently discovered themes follow: (a) ability comparison and competition; (b) family, peer, and teacher influence; and (c) appearance concerns. It is important to consider the influence of gender role conflict on physical activity.

  20. Family structure effects on early sexual debut among adolescent girls in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Nanlesta A.; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Gray, Ronald H.; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Lutalo, Tom; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the association between household family structure and early sexual debut among adolescent girls, ages 15-19, in rural Rakai District, Uganda. Early sexual debut is associated with detrimental physical, emotional and social outcomes, including increased risk of HIV. However, research on the family's role on adolescents' sexual risk behaviors in sub-Sahara Africa has been minimal and rarely takes into account the varying family structures within which African adolescents develop. Using six rounds of survey data (2001-2008) from the Rakai Community Cohort Study, unmarried adolescent girls (n=1940) aged 15-17 at their baseline survey, were followed until age 19. Parametric survival models showed that compared to adolescent girls living with both biological parents, girls who headed their own household and girls living with step-fathers, grandparents, siblings, or other relatives had significantly higher hazards of early sexual debut before age 16. Adolescent girls were significantly more likely to debut sexually if neither parent resided in the household, either due to death or other reasons. In addition, absence of the living biological father from the home was associated with higher risk of sexual debut, regardless of the biological mother's presence in the home. Our study's findings suggest that family structure is important to adolescent girls' sexual behavior. There is need for research to understand the underlying processes, interactions and dynamics of both low and high risk family structures in order to devise and strategically target interventions targeted for specific types of family structures. PMID:25317199

  1. SOCIAL CAPITAL AND ADOLESCENT GIRLS' RESILIENCE TO TEENAGE PREGNANCY IN BEGORO, GHANA.

    PubMed

    Gyan, Sylvia Esther; Ahorlu, Collins; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S; Fayorsey, Clara K

    2016-09-20

    This study focuses on how older adolescent girls access and utilize social capital to develop resilience against teenage pregnancy in Begoro, Ghana. A survey of 419 non-pregnant girls aged 15-19 years, selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique, was conducted in 2012. Qualitative data were gathered through in-depth interviews with ten girls purposively selected from the survey respondents. Parents, relatives, teachers and religious groups were found to be important sources of social capital for the non-pregnant girls in developing resilience against teenage pregnancy. In addition, resilient girls tended to rely on multiple sources of social capital. It is recommended that stakeholders and policymakers in Ghana ensure that these significant sources of social capital in adolescent girls' sexual experience are equipped with the right information to help girls decrease the risk of teenage pregnancy.

  2. Educating for the future: adolescent girls' health and education in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rees, Chris A; Long, Katelyn N; Gray, Bobbi; West, Joshua H; Chanani, Sheila; Spielberg, Freya; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent girls in India carry a disproportionate burden of health and social risks; girls that do not finish secondary education are more likely to have an earlier age of sexual initiation, engage in risky sexual behavior, and consequentially be at greater risk of dying from pregnancy-related causes. This paper presents a comparison of girls in school and girls not in school from 665 participants in rural West Bengal, India. The social cognitive theory (SCT), a comprehensive theoretical model, was used as a framework to describe the personal, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting the lives of these adolescent girls. There were significant differences between girls in and out of school in all three categories of the SCT; girls in school were more likely to have heard of sexually transmitted diseases or infections than girls not in school (p<0.0001). Girls in school were also more likely than girls not in school to boil water before drinking (p=0.0078), and girls in school lived in dwellings with 2.3 rooms on average, whereas girls not in school lived in dwellings with only 1.7 rooms (p<0.0001). Indian adolescent girls who are not in school are disadvantaged both economically and by their lack of health knowledge and proper health behaviors when compared with girls who are still in school. In addition, to programs to keep girls in school, efforts should also be made to provide informal education to girls not in school to improve their health knowledge and behaviors.

  3. Efficacy of a Group Therapy for Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourigny, Marc; Hebert, Martine; Daigneault, Isabelle; Simoneau, Ann Claude

    2005-01-01

    The effects of a group therapy program for teenage girls reporting child sexual abuse were evaluated by means of a pretest/post-test design with a control group. The psycho-educational intervention consisted of an average of 20 weekly two-hour meetings. Results of the repeated analyses of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant improvement in…

  4. Mediators Affecting Girls’ Levels of Physical Activity Outside of School: Findings from the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Moody, Jamie; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Metcalfe, Lauve; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Background Providing after school activities is a community level approach for reducing the decline in physical activity of girls as they reach early adolescence. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial, environmental, and behavioral factors as potential mediators of after school physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods We assessed objectively measured levels of physical activity occurring outside of school and potential predictors and mediators of activity in girls participating in the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG). Results We found that the TAAG intervention had a statistically significant and positive effect on out of school activity in the 2006 cohort. Self-efficacy, friends’ social support, total social support, and difficulty getting to and from community activities mediated the level of moderate to vigorous physical activity in girls. Conclusions Parents, communities, and schools should provide and enhance opportunities outside of the school day for adolescents to be active. Reducing transportation barriers and enlisting social support appear to be key. PMID:20012810

  5. Prevalence of Thinness and Stunting and Associated Factors among Adolescent School Girls in Adwa Town, North Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebregyorgis, Tsgehana; Tadesse, Takele; Atenafu, Azeb

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Despite the fact that adolescence is a window of opportunity to break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition, adolescents are the neglected age groups. Hence information regarding the nutritional status of adolescents is lacking making creating and implementing intervention programs difficult. Objective. To assess the prevalence of thinness, stunting, and associated factors among adolescent school girls in Adwa town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods. Data on 814 adolescent female students were collected from March to April 2015 using interviewer administered pretested semistructured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO Anthroplus software. Results. The prevalence of thinness and stunting was 21.4% and 12.2%, respectively. Age of adolescent [AOR = 2.15 (1.14,4.03)], mother's educational status [AOR = 2.34 (1.14,4.80)], eating less than 3 meals per day [AOR = 1.66 (1.12,2.46)], having family size >5 [AOR = 2.53 (1.66,3.86)] were significantly associated with thinness among the adolescent girls. Family size >5 [AOR = 2.05 (1.31,3.23)] and unimproved source of drinking water [AOR = 3.82 (2.20,6.62)] were significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Thinness and stunting are prevalent problems in the study area. Strategies to improve the nutritional status of girls should be given much attention. PMID:27294107

  6. A model for promoting physical activity among rural South African adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Kinsman, John; Norris, Shane A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Twine, Rhian; Riggle, Kari; Edin, Kerstin; Mathebula, Jennifer; Ngobeni, Sizzy; Monareng, Nester; Micklesfield, Lisa K.

    2015-01-01

    Background In South Africa, the expanding epidemic of non-communicable diseases is partly fuelled by high levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Women especially are at high risk, and interventions promoting physical activity are urgently needed for girls in their adolescence, as this is the time when many girls adopt unhealthy lifestyles. Objective This qualitative study aimed to identify and describe facilitating factors and barriers that are associated with physical activity among adolescent girls in rural, north-eastern South Africa and, based on these, to develop a model for promoting leisure-time physical activity within this population. Design The study was conducted in and around three secondary schools. Six focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent girls from the schools, and seven qualitative interviews were held with sports teachers and youth leaders. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results Seven thematic areas were identified, each of which was associated with the girls’ self-reported levels of physical activity. The thematic areas are 1) poverty, 2) body image ideals, 3) gender, 4) parents and home life, 5) demographic factors, 6) perceived health effects of physical activity, and 7) human and infrastructural resources. More barriers to physical activity were reported than facilitating factors. Conclusions Analysis of the barriers found in the different themes indicated potential remedial actions that could be taken, and these were synthesised into a model for promoting physical activity among South African adolescent girls in resource-poor environments. The model presents a series of action points, seen both from the ‘supply-side’ perspective (such as the provision of resources and training for the individuals, schools, and organisations which facilitate the activities) and from the ‘demand-side’ perspective (such as the development of empowering messages about body image for teenage girls, and

  7. Relationships Between Social-Emotional Intelligence and Sexual Risk Behaviors in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Lando-King, Elizabeth; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gower, Amy L.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Pettingell, Sandra; Sieving, Renee E.

    2015-01-01

    Social-emotional intelligence (SEI) has been linked with a number of health behaviors in adolescent populations. However, little is known about the influence of SEI on sexual behavior. This study examined associations between three indicators of SEI (intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, stress management skills) and adolescent girls’ sexual risk behaviors. Data come from a cross-sectional sample of sexually active adolescent girls (ages 13 to 17 years) at high risk for pregnancy (N = 253), recruited from health care clinics in a Midwest metropolitan area during 2007 and 2008. Results of multivariable regression models controlling for participants’ age and race/ethnicity indicated that each aspect of SEI was related to distinct sexual risk behaviors. Specifically, girls with greater intrapersonal skills had significantly fewer male sex partners in the past six months (b = −0.16). Participants with greater interpersonal skills reported earlier communication with their sexual partner about sexual risk (b = 0.14), and those with a better ability to manage stress reported more consistent condom use (b = 0.31). Study findings suggest that SEI may provide a protective buffer against sexual risk behaviors. Building adolescent girls’ social and emotional skills may be an effective strategy for reducing their risk for early pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:25621508

  8. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  9. Data to Action: Using Formative Research to Develop Intervention Programs to Increase Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Steckler, Allan; Gittelsohn, Joel; Saunders, Ruth P.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Lytle, Leslie A.; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Formative research is used to inform intervention development, but the processes of transmitting results to intervention planners and incorporating information into intervention designs are not well documented. The authors describe how formative research results from the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) were transferred to planners to…

  10. When a girl's decision involves the community: the realities of adolescent Maya girls' lives in rural indigenous Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Wehr, Heather; Tum, Silvia Ester

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent Maya girls are among the most vulnerable, marginalized sub-populations in Guatemala, a country that is largely young, indigenous and poor. Adolescent Maya girls have limited access to secondary schooling, opportunities to work or earn an income, and sexual and reproductive health information and services. This article explores the extent to which adolescent Maya girls are able to adopt what they have learned in a community-based skills-building and sex education programme in isolated rural, indigenous Guatemalan communities. This is presented through an interview between the authors, who met and worked together in the Population Council's programme Abriendo Oportunidades (Opening Opportunities) for girls aged 8-19 years. The interview discusses what can be done so that indigenous adolescents not only obtain the sexual health information they need, but develop the skills to make decisions, communicate with their peers and parents, and exercise their rights. Much culturally and linguistically sensitive work must be done, using a community-based participatory approach, so that young people who do want to use condoms for protection or contraceptive methods not only have access to the methods, but the support of their families and communities, and government-sponsored sex education programmes, to use them.

  11. Changes in physical activity, self-efficacy and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Neissaar, Inga; Raudsepp, Lennart

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between naturally occurring changes in leisure-time physical activity, depressive symptoms and self-efficacy in adolescent girls. We also aimed to test whether depressive symptoms would moderate the self-efficacy-physical activity relationship. Participants were 181 urban adolescent girls. Physical activity was measured using the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall. Self-efficacy and depressive symptoms were assessed using questionnaires. Body height and body mass were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Data were collected on three occasions over a 2-year period. There was a decrease in physical activity and self-efficacy and increase in depressive symptoms across three measurement occasions. There were statistically significant and negative relationships between initial level and change for physical activity and depressive symptoms. Initially higher levels of physical activity were related with initially lower levels of depressive symptoms, and change in physical activity across time was inversely associated with change in levels of depressive symptoms across measurements. There were statistically significant and positive relationships between initial level and change for physical activity and self-efficacy after controlling effect of BMI. Latent growth modeling (LGM) also indicated a moderating effect of depressive symptoms on the self-efficacy-physical activity relationship. Girls who had high initial levels of self-efficacy and smaller increases in depressive symptoms had the lowest decline in physical activity participation. Our results encourage the design of interventions that reduce depressive symptoms and increase self-efficacy as a possible of means of increasing adolescent girls' physical activity.

  12. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition.

  13. A qualitative exploration of the work of embodiment in adolescent girls with obesity.

    PubMed

    Liné, C; Moro, M R; Lefèvre, H; Thievenaz, J; Lachal, J

    2016-10-01

    Social representations generally associate obesity, especially in adolescent girls, with sedentariness, lack of self-control and laziness. These girls thus have substantial problems of self-esteem. Dietary, lifestyle and behavioural approaches alone cannot address this issue, for they do not apprehend all of the complexity of obesity. This qualitative study is based on a dual observation: that the work performed by adolescents is unrecognized and that the body is not considered as a subject of analysis. It raises the question of the corporality of these teens through an original perspective: that of the perspective of their organization of actions on, to and by the body, in specific situations. The objective is to have access to the corporal experience of young girls with obesity, so that we can understand and support them better. The data come from semi-directive interviews with 10 adolescent girls with obesity. The content was analysed in terms of concepts of professional didactics (a branch of educational psychology) and enaction. Five situations were identified from these interviews: the first, shopping with friends, concerns actions by the subjects towards their bodies; the other four are enacted actions: conduct towards a normal-weight person, conduct in public transportation, performing physical activity, and eating. The results show the work of these young women with obesity, the means they mobilize to live in their bodies and their considerable efforts of embodiment. Recognition of this work should help to enhance their self-esteem. Treatment and support may take this dimension of work into account and help them to become aware of the efforts they make every day.

  14. How perfectionism and ineffectiveness influence growth of eating disorder risk in young adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Wade, Tracey D; Wilksch, Simon M; Paxton, Susan J; Byrne, Susan M; Austin, S Bryn

    2015-03-01

    While perfectionism is widely considered to influence risk for eating disorders, results of longitudinal studies are mixed. The goal of the current study was to investigate a more complex model of how baseline perfectionism (both high personal standards and self-critical evaluative concerns) might influence change in risk status for eating disorders in young adolescent girls, through its influence on ineffectiveness. The study was conducted with 926 girls (mean age of 13 years), and involved three waves of data (baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up). Latent growth curve modelling, incorporating the average rate at which risk changed over time, the intercept (initial status) of ineffectiveness, and baseline perfectionism, was used to explore longitudinal mediation. Personal standards was not supported as contributing to risk but results indicated that the higher mean scores on ineffectiveness over the three waves mediated the relationship between higher baseline self-critical evaluative concerns and both measures of eating disorder risk. The relationship between concern over mistakes and change in risk was small and negative. These results suggest the usefulness of interventions related to self-criticism and ineffectiveness for decreasing risk for developing an eating disorder in young adolescent girls.

  15. [Comparison of Health-related Behavior Patterns of Boys and Girls in Germany: Results of the MoMo Study].

    PubMed

    Spengler, S; Mess, F; Woll, A

    2015-12-22

    Aim of the study: For optimal health promotion in adolescents, it is important to know their typical behavior patterns. The aims of this study were to identify and compare sex-specific health-related behavior patterns of adolescents in Germany. Methods: The KiGGS Survey and the MoMo Study assessed the health behavior of 832 boys and 811 girls by means of a questionnaire. The indices physical activity, diet quality and media use were included in cluster analyses for boys and girls separately. Results: For each sex, 4 clusters with similar characteristics on the three included indices were identified. However, cluster size, level of the characteristics and correlates were different in boys and girls: fewer girls showed high activity levels. Overall, physical activity and media use were less pronounced in the behavior pattern of girls. There was a stronger association of behavior patterns with socio-economic status in girls. In boys, behavior patterns were significantly associated with prevalence of overweight. Conclusions: The similar cluster solutions for boys and girls support the assumption that there are typical health-related behavior patterns among German adolescents. This finding might facilitate the precise definition of homogeneous target groups for health promotion programs. Furthermore, it seems that sex-specific foci should be set.

  16. HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behavior Among African American Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Sales, Jessica M.; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Latent class analysis (LCA) is a useful statistical tool that can be used to enhance understanding of how various patterns of combined sexual behavior risk factors may confer differential levels of HIV infection risk and to identify subtypes among African American adolescent girls. Methods: Data for this analysis is derived from baseline assessments completed prior to randomization in an HIV prevention trial. Participants were African American girls (n=701) aged 14–20 years presenting to sexual health clinics. Girls completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview, which assessed a range of variables regarding sexual history and current and past sexual behavior. Results: Two latent classes were identified with the probability statistics for the two groups in this model being 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. In the final multivariate model, class 1 (the “higher risk” group; n=331) was distinguished by a higher likelihood of >5 lifetime sexual partners, having sex while high on alcohol/drugs, less frequent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), when compared with class 2 (the “lower risk” group; n=370). The derived model correctly classified 85.3% of participants into the two groups and accounted for 71% of the variance in the latent HIV-related sexual behavior risk variable. The higher risk class also had worse scores on all hypothesized correlates (e.g., self-esteem, history of sexual assault or physical abuse) relative to the lower risk class. Conclusions: Sexual health clinics represent a unique point of access for HIV-related sexual risk behavior intervention delivery by capitalizing on contact with adolescent girls when they present for services. Four empirically supported risk factors differentiated higher versus lower HIV risk. Replication of these findings is warranted and may offer an empirical basis for parsimonious screening recommendations for girls presenting for sexual healthcare services. PMID

  17. Can Anne Be Like Margot and Still Be Anne? Adolescent Girls' Development and "Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin-DeVitis, Linda; Benjamin, Beth

    1995-01-01

    Explores the thoughts and feelings of a group of young adolescent girls on dilemmas of identity, self, and society through reading and discussing "The Diary of Anne Frank." Discusses adolescent females in literature and life, the double standard revisited, the dilemma of being right or being nice, and the challenge of including girls'…

  18. High prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in adolescent girls in a tropical area of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Vaca, M; Guadalupe, I; Erazo, S; Tinizaray, K; Chico, M E; Cooper, P J; Hay, P

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common clinical syndrome, but data are scarce on the BV prevalence in tropical regions among sexually active and virgin adolescents. To estimate the prevalence of BV among adolescent girls in an Ecuadorian coastal town, girls were asked to complete a questionnaire on risk factors for BV and vaginal samples were examined. Bacterial vaginosis was present in 31.5% of 213 girls, and the prevalence was similar in self-reported virgin and sexually active girls (OR 1.06, 95% CI, 0.51-2.21, P = 0.88), although the power of this analysis was limited. The prevalence of BV was high among Ecuadorian adolescent girls, and did not appear to be associated with sexual activity.

  19. Bodily Knowledge: Learning about Equity and Justice with Adolescent Girls. Adolescent Cultures, School and Society, Vol. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Kimberly L.; Lalik, Rosary.

    This book examines how four adolescent girls constructed the meaning of their bodies, discussing oppression and resistance, voice and silence, and girls' desires to be seen and heard for who they are as they experience themselves individually and socially. It presents the struggles of two educational researchers trying to create ethical research…

  20. Identity Representations in Patterns of School Achievement and Well-Being among Early Adolescent Girls: Variable- and Person-Centered Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeser, Robert W.; Galloway, Mollie; Casey-Cannon, Shannon; Watson, Cary; Keller, Laura; Tan, Elyn

    2008-01-01

    This study examines relations between early adolescent girls' well-being, achievement, and emerging identities. Variable-centered results showed that girls' moral and student identities were the strongest predictors of their achievement, whereas their moral, student, physical, and peer identities predicted their well-being. Person-centered results…

  1. "I Would Rather Be Size 10 Than Have Straight A's": A Focus Study Group of Adolescent Girls' Wish To Be Thinner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiggemann, Marika; Gardiner, Maria; Slater, Amy

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the body concerns of adolescent girls (N=67), together with the underlying motivations for wishes to be thinner. Results of focus group studies reveal that sociocultural influences exerted the strongest pressures to be thin. The girls displayed an unexpected sophistication in their conceptualization of the role of both media effects…

  2. Mindfulness and Eating Behavior in Adolescent Girls at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pivarunas, Bernadette; Kelly, Nichole R.; Pickworth, Courtney K.; Cassidy, Omni; Radin, Rachel M.; Shank, Lisa M.; Vannucci, Anna; Courville, Amber B.; Chen, Kong Y.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.; Shomaker, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship of dispositional mindfulness to binge eating and associated eating attitudes and behaviors among adolescent girls at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Participants were 114 overweight or obese adolescents enrolled in a study of girls with a family history of T2D and mild depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-reports of mindfulness, eating in the absence of hunger, and depressive symptoms were collected. An interview was administered to determine presence of binge eating episodes and a behavioral task was used to assess the reinforcing value of food relative to other non-snack food rewards. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results In analyses accounting for race, percent body fat, lean mass, height, age, and depressive symptoms, dispositional mindfulness was associated with a lower odds of binge eating (p = .002). Controlling for the same potential confounds, mindfulness was also inversely associated with eating concern, eating in the absence of hunger in response to fatigue/boredom, and higher food reinforcement relative to physical activity (all p < .05). Conclusions In girls with a family history of T2D, independent of body composition and depressive symptoms, intra-individual differences in mindfulness are related to binge eating and associated attitudes and behaviors that may confer risk for obesity and metabolic problems. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which mindfulness plays a role in the etiology and/or maintenance of disinhibited eating in adolescents at risk for T2D. PMID:26172157

  3. Measuring Peer Pressure, Popularity, and Conformity in Adolescent Boys and Girls: Predicting School Performance, Sexual Attitudes, and Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santor, Darcy A.; Messervey, Deanna; Kusumakar, Vivek

    2000-01-01

    Developed and validated short measures of peer pressure, peer conformity, and popularity with 148 adolescent Canadian boys and girls in grades 11 to 13. Results show all constructed measures to be internally consistent. Peer pressure and peer conformity were stronger predictors of risk behavior than measures assessing popularity, general…

  4. Substance Use and Abuse Trajectories across Adolescence: A Latent Trajectory Analysis of a Community-Recruited Sample of Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marti, C. Nathan; Stice, Eric; Springer, David W.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from a school-based study of 496 adolescent girls to identify qualitatively distinct substance use and substance abuse developmental trajectory groups and tested whether the problematic groups differed from the non-problematic groups on baseline and outcome validation variables. Results identified four substance use groups (late…

  5. Inner-City Youth Development Organizations: Strengthening Programs for Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Barton J.; Roffman, Jennifer G.; Deutsch, Nancy L.; Flynn, Cathy A.; Loder, Tondra L.; Pagano, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of early adolescence are intensified for girls of color who live in disadvantaged urban communities. One response to the needs of these girls comes from the Boys & Girls Clubs of America (BGCA), a youth development organization that has a long-standing presence in inner-city neighborhoods. A gender equity initiative designed to strengthen programming for minority girls at a BGCA affiliate in a major urban center was examined. Drawing on initial qualitative findings, a conceptual framework is presented for understanding the ways in which the clubs can affect urban early adolescent girls’ self-esteem. Several strategic choices confronting this initiative then are considered. The authors emphasize the creation of a “home place” that enables the development of self via organizational responsiveness to girls’ voices, strong bonds between girls and staff, adaptive peer friendship cliques, and the development of programs that fuse the interests of girls and adult staff. PMID:23565020

  6. Geographic Factors and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Initiation Among Adolescent Girls in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Kevin A.; Stroup, Antoinette M.; Warner, Echo L; Kepka, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is among the first to explore geographic factors that may be associated with HPV vaccine uptake in the United States. Methods Data from the 2011 and 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen for 20,565 female adolescents aged 13-17 years were analyzed to examine associations of HPV vaccine initiation (receipt of at least one dose) with ZIP code-level geographic factors. Logistic regression including individual and geographic factors was used to estimate the odds of HPV vaccine initiation. Results Approximately 53% of girls initiated the HPV vaccine in both years. Girls in high poverty communities had higher HPV vaccine initiation compared to those in low poverty communities (61.1% vs .52.4%; Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 1.18,95%CI 1.04-1.33). Initiation was higher among girls in communities where the majority of the population was Hispanic (69.0% vs. 49.9%;AOR 1.64, 95%CI 1.43-1.87) or non-Hispanic mixed race (60.4% vs. 49.9%; AOR 1.30, 95%CI 1.17-1.44) compared to majority non-Hispanic white communities. Interactions between individual-level race/ethnicity and community racial–ethnic composition indicated significantly higher odds of initiation among Hispanic girls living in Hispanic communities compared to Hispanic girls living in predominately NHW (AOR 2.23;95%CI 1.87-2.65) or NHB (AOR 1.90; 95%CI 1.20-3.04)communities, respectively Conclusion Initiation rates of HPV vaccination among teen girls were highest in the poorest communities and among Hispanics living in communities where the racial–ethnic composition was predominantly Hispanic or mixed race. Impact Given low HPV vaccination rates in the United States, these results provide important evidence to inform public health interventions to increase HPV vaccination. PMID:26768989

  7. Reciprocal effects of parenting and borderline personality disorder symptoms in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Stepp, Stephanie D; Whalen, Diana J; Scott, Lori N; Zalewski, Maureen; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison E

    2014-05-01

    Theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) postulate that high-risk transactions between caregiver and child are important for the development and maintenance of the disorder. Little empirical evidence exists regarding the reciprocal effects of parenting on the development of BPD symptoms in adolescence. The impact of child and caregiver characteristics on this reciprocal relationship is also unknown. Thus, the current study examines bidirectional effects of parenting, specifically harsh punishment practices and caregiver low warmth, and BPD symptoms in girls aged 14-17 years based on annual, longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (N = 2,451) in the context of child and caregiver characteristics. We examined these associations through the use of autoregressive latent trajectory models to differentiate time-specific variations in BPD symptoms and parenting from the stable processes that steadily influence repeated measures within an individual. The developmental trajectories of BPD symptoms and parenting were moderately associated, suggesting a reciprocal relationship. There was some support for time-specific elevations in BPD symptoms predicting subsequent increases in harsh punishment and caregiver low warmth. There was little support for increases in harsh punishment and caregiver low warmth predicting subsequent elevations in BPD symptoms. Child impulsivity and negative affectivity, and caregiver psychopathology were related to parenting trajectories, while only child characteristics predicted BPD trajectories. The results highlight the stability of the reciprocal associations between parenting and BPD trajectories in adolescent girls and add to our understanding of the longitudinal course of BPD in youth.

  8. Menstrual hygiene management among adolescent girls in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Eijk, Anna Maria; Sivakami, M; Thakkar, Mamita Bora; Bauman, Ashley; Laserson, Kayla F; Coates, Susanne; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the status of menstrual hygiene management (MHM) among adolescent girls in India to determine unmet needs. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, The Global Health Database, Google Scholar and references for studies published from 2000 to September 2015 on girls’ MHM. Setting India. Participants Adolescent girls. Outcome measures Information on menarche awareness, type of absorbent used, disposal, hygiene, restrictions and school absenteeism was extracted from eligible materials; a quality score was applied. Meta-analysis was used to estimate pooled prevalence (PP), and meta-regression to examine the effect of setting, region and time. Results Data from 138 studies involving 193 subpopulations and 97 070 girls were extracted. In 88 studies, half of the girls reported being informed prior to menarche (PP 48%, 95% CI 43% to 53%, I2 98.6%). Commercial pad use was more common among urban (PP 67%, 57% to 76%, I2 99.3%, n=38) than rural girls (PP 32%, 25% to 38%, I2 98.6%, n=56, p<0.0001), with use increasing over time (p<0.0001). Inappropriate disposal was common (PP 23%, 16% to 31%, I2 99.0%, n=34). Menstruating girls experienced many restrictions, especially for religious activities (PP 0.77, 0.71 to 0.83, I2 99.1%, n=67). A quarter (PP 24%, 19% to 30%, I2 98.5%, n=64) reported missing school during periods. A lower prevalence of absenteeism was associated with higher commercial pad use in univariate (p=0.023) but not in multivariate analysis when adjusted for region (p=0.232, n=53). Approximately a third of girls changed their absorbents in school facilities (PP 37%, 29% to 46%, I2 97.8%, n=17). Half of the girls’ homes had a toilet (PP 51%, 36% to 67%, I2 99.4%, n=21). The quality of studies imposed limitations on analyses and the interpretation of results (mean score 3 on a scale of 0–7). Conclusions Strengthening of MHM programmes in India is needed. Education on awareness, access to hygienic absorbents and

  9. Sociocultural and Individual Influences on Muscle Gain and Weight Loss Strategies among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2003-01-01

    The study examined the role of body dissatisfaction, body image importance, sociocultural influences (media and parent and peer encouragement), self-esteem and negative affect on body change strategies to decrease weight and increase muscles in adolescent boys and girls. Surveys were administered to 587 boys and 598 girls aged between 11 and 15…

  10. Body Image and Self-Esteem among Adolescent Girls: Testing the Influence of Sociocultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Daniel; Vignoles, Vivian L.; Dittmar, Helga

    2005-01-01

    In Western cultures, girls' self-esteem declines substantially during middle adolescence, with changes in body image proposed as a possible explanation. Body image develops in the context of sociocultural factors, such as unrealistic media images of female beauty. In a study of 136 U.K. girls aged 11-16, experimental exposure to either ultra-thin…

  11. What Would Catherine of Sienna Do? Spiritual Formation and the Brains of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Dori; Edwards, Ned

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how new knowledge about the adolescent female brain lends theoretical support to narrative and contemplative practices of spiritual formation of girls. Current brain research supports the use of particular methods of religious formation for teenagers in general, and teenage girls in particular. This article suggests that…

  12. Unraveling the Slut Narrative: Gender Constraints on Adolescent Girls' Sexual Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summit, Aleza K.; Kalmuss, Debra; DeAtley, Jenifer; Levack, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Limited research exists on the slut labeling process, a key means of enforcing rules around appropriate female sexuality. This study explores that process through qualitative interviews with 44 adolescent girls in Travis County, Texas. Labeling girls as sluts or hos was pervasive and was based on a number of factors beyond sexual behavior,…

  13. A Multi-Dimensional Model of Groupwork for Adolescent Girls Who Have Been Sexually Abused.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindon, Jillian; Nourse, Carol A.

    1994-01-01

    A treatment approach for sexually abused adolescent girls, using a group work model, incorporated three treatment modalities: a skills component, a psychotherapeutic component, and an educative component. Abused girls demonstrated difficulties in many areas of their lives. The six participants showed improvement according to self-statements and…

  14. Emotional Dysregulation and Interpersonal Difficulties as Risk Factors for Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, Molly; Zeman, Janice; Erdley, Cynthia; Lisa, Ludmila; Sim, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a model of factors that place psychiatrically hospitalized girls at risk for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). The role of familial and peer interpersonal difficulties, as well as emotional dysregulation, were examined in relationship to NSSI behaviors. Participants were 99 adolescent girls (83.2% Caucasian;…

  15. Building Developmental Assets to Empower Adolescent Girls in Rural Bangladesh: Evaluation of Project "Kishoree Kontha"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Peter C.; Benson, Peter L.; Dershem, Larry; Fraher, Kathleen; Makonnen, Raphael; Nazneen, Shahana; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Titus, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    "Kishoree Kontha" ("Adolescent Girls' Voices") was implemented in Bangladeshi villages to build the developmental assets (e.g., support from others, social competencies) of rural girls through peer education in social skills, literacy, and school learning. The Developmental Assets Profile (DAP) measured the project's impact on…

  16. Deconstructing Barbie: Using Creative Drama as a Tool for Image Making in Pre-Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Elizabeth; Lanoux, Carol

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the dilemma of self-concept in pre-adolescent girls, as they revise their self-images based on information that the culture dictates as the norm. Argues that drama education can offer creative activities to help girls find their voice and bring them into their power. Includes two group drama activities and a short annotated bibliography…

  17. Adolescent Girls' Experiences of Discrimination: An Examination of Coping Strategies, Social Support, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Melanie M.; Leaper, Campbell

    2013-01-01

    The research examined (a) girls' responses to personal experiences of gender and/or ethnic/racial discrimination, (b) social support from parents and friends following the discrimination, and (c) the relationship between girls' reported coping strategies to the discrimination and their self-esteem. Participants were 74 adolescent girls…

  18. "No Fear Comes": Adolescent Girls, Ice Hockey, and the Embodiment of Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theberge, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between gender, physicality, and embodiment among Canadian adolescent girls who played ice hockey. Interview data indicated that the girls emphasized the importance of being aggressive (fearless in use of the body). Players understood that contrasts between men's hockey (more physical and aggressive) and women's hockey…

  19. Changes in Strength Abilities of Adolescent Girls: The Effect of a 3-Year Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czarniecka, Renata; Milde, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To evaluate changes in strength abilities of adolescent girls that underwent a 3-year physical education curriculum. Material and methods: The research participants comprised 141 girls aged 13.3 plus or minus 0.35 years who participated in a 3-year physical education curriculum (PEC). Evaluation was based on the following EUROFIT…

  20. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  1. Body Image Concerns in Young Girls: The Role of Peers and Media Prior to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohnt, Hayley K.; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-01-01

    Peer and media influences have been identified as important conveyors of socio-cultural ideals in adolescent and preadolescent samples. This study aims to explore peer and media influences in the body image concerns and dieting awareness of younger girls, aged 5-8 years. A sample of 128 girls was recruited from the first 4 years of formal…

  2. Internalization of the Sociocultural Ideal: Weight-Related Attitudes and Dieting Behaviors among Young Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Nancy E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed adolescent girls regarding body dissatisfaction, dieting, and internalization of sociocultural values, media-influenced knowledge, acceptance of varied body shapes, and media exposure. Girls understood media influence on self-image and behavior and accepted varied body shapes. Significant numbers reported dissatisfaction with weight and…

  3. The Relationship between STD Locus of Control and STD Acquisition among Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Susan L.; Griffith, Jennifer O.; Succop, Paul A.; Biro, Frank M.; Lewis, Lisa M.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.

    2002-01-01

    Adolescent girls from an urban-based clinic participated in a longitudinal study about psychosexual development and risk of STD acquisition. The girls were asked about their perceptions of loci of control (parents, internal control) as it relates to STD acquisition. Responses to locus of control correlated over time but variations were not found…

  4. Precocious Puberty in Adolescent Girls: A Biomarker of Later Psychosocial Adjustment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Line; Frigon, Jean-Yves

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the hypothesis that stress condition will accelerate pubertal maturation in adolescent girls and that faster maturing girls will display more behavioral problems than their on-time or late-maturing peers during pubertal development. Longitudinal data were collected yearly from 1986 to 1997. Parents of 1039 French-speaking…

  5. Utilization of Heroin Information by Adolescent Girls in Australia: A Cognitive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a study of a small group of girls in Australia that investigated how older adolescents cognitively utilize information on heroin. The study sought to establish the perceived effects of exposures to information and to establish how the perceived effects are associated with changes to the girls' knowledge structures. (Author/LRW)

  6. A Typology of Retaliation Strategies against Social Aggression among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, Karen Phelan; Warber, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Girls respond to peer attacks of indirect social aggression in various ways. This study explores when and how victims retaliate against their aggressors. Qualitative interviews with 15 adolescent girls ages 10-16 suggest that victims of social aggression are likely to retaliate when their aggressors communicate the following: identity attacks,…

  7. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Young Adolescent Girls: Moderators of the Distress-Function Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilt, Lori M.; Cha, Christine B.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study examined nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of young adolescent girls. Potential moderators of the relationships between different types of distress (internal and interpersonal) and particular functions of NSSI (emotion-regulation and interpersonal) were explored. Participants included 94 girls (49% Hispanic; 25%…

  8. "Mbizi": Empowerment and HIV/AIDS Prevention for Adolescent Girls in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitza, Amy; Chilisa, Bagele; Makwinja-Morara, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a small group intervention for HIV/AIDS prevention among adolescent girls in Botswana. The psychoeducational group model is designed to empower girls to overcome the gender inequality that puts women at increased risk of HIV infection in the country. Group goals include heightening group members' awareness of the influence…

  9. Comparison of Social Variables for Understanding Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Ruth P.; Motl, Robert W.; Dowda, Marsha; Dishman, Rod K.; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate social support and theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs in explaining physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods : One thousand seven hundred ninety-seven 8 th -grade girls completed a survey measuring social provisions, family support, TPB constructs, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and team sport…

  10. The impact of media and advertising of food on the eating behaviour of adolescent girls in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaaly, Elham

    2016-12-12

    This study aims to detect differences in eating behaviours demonstrated by adolescent girls in Jeddah Saudi Arabia, according to the influence of the media through TV advertisements. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 1519 girls from 20 schools in Jeddah. Survey questions included information regarding media advertising and its effect on eating behaviour. Bivariate analyses were performed to define differences in eating behaviour according to media influence and Chi-square analyses to detect significant relationships. The results indicated a significant correlation between dessert consumption and advertising exposure (P = 0.035). Adolescent girls exposed to such advertising were more likely to consume dessert [n=299 (48.5%)], to shop for food [n=316 (50.7%)], and had attempted to lose weight [n=373 (59.5%)]. The results emphasize the role and obligation of decision-makers to protect young consumers through increased legislation and control of media content (particularly food advertisements) targeting young people.

  11. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Adolescent Girls Before Reported Sexual Debut

    PubMed Central

    Houlihan, Catherine F.; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Baisley, Kathy; Changalucha, John; Ross, David A.; Kapiga, Saidi; Godinez, Jose M.; Bozicevic, Ivana; Hayes, Richard J.; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are recommended for girls prior to sexual debut because they are most effective if administered before girls acquire HPV. Little research has been done on HPV prevalence in girls who report not having passed sexual debut in high HPV-prevalence countries. Methods. Using attendance registers of randomly selected primary schools in the Mwanza region of Tanzania, we enrolled girls aged 15–16 years who reported not having passed sexual debut. A face-to-face interview on sexual behavior and intravaginal practices, and a nurse-assisted self-administered vaginal swab were performed. Swabs were tested for 13 high-risk and 24 low-risk HPV genotypes. Results. HPV was detected in 40/474 (8.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9–11.0) girls. Ten different high-risk and 21 different low-risk genotypes were detected. High-risk genotypes were detected in 5.3% (95% CI, 3.5–7.8). In multivariable analysis, only intravaginal cleansing (practiced by 20.9%) was associated with HPV detection (adjusted odds ratio = 2.19, 95% CI, 1.09–4.39). Conclusion. This cohort of adolescent Tanzanian girls had a high HPV prevalence prior to self-reported sexual debut, and this was associated with intravaginal cleansing. This most likely reflects underreporting of sexual activity, and it is possible that intravaginal cleansing is a marker for unreported sexual debut or nonpenetrative sexual behaviors. PMID:24740630

  12. Prenatal and early life stress and risk of eating disorders in adolescent girls and young women.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiujuan; Liang, Hong; Yuan, Wei; Olsen, Jørn; Cnattingius, Sven; Li, Jiong

    2016-11-01

    Females are more likely than males to develop eating disorders (EDs) in the adolescence and youth, and the etiology remains unclear. We aimed to estimate the effect of severe early life stress following bereavement, the death of a close relative, on the risk of EDs among females aged 10-26 years. This population-based cohort study included girls born in Denmark (from 1973 to 2000) or Sweden (from 1970 to 1997). Girls were categorized as exposed if they were born to mothers who lost a close relative 1 year prior to or during pregnancy or if the girl herself lost a parent or a sibling within the first 10 years of life. All other girls were included in unexposed group. An ED case was defined by a diagnosis of EDs at ages of 10-26 years, including broadly defined bulimia nervosa, broadly defined anorexia nervosa and mixed EDs. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) between exposed group and unexposed group.A total of 64453 (3.05 %) girls were included in the exposed group. We identified 9477 girls with a diagnosis of EDs, of whom 307 (3.24 %) were from the exposed group. Both prenatal and postnatal exposure following bereavement by unexpected death was associated with an increased overall risk of EDs (IRRprenatal: 1.49, 95 % CI: 1.01-2.19 and IRRpostnatal: 1.34, 95 % CI: 1.05-1.71). We observed similar results for subtypes of broadly defined bulimia nervosa (IRR: 2.47, 95 % CI: 1.67-3.65) and mixed EDs (IRR: 1.45, 95 % CI: 1.02-2.07).Our findings suggest that prenatal and early postnatal life stress due to unexpected death of a close relative is associated with an increased overall risk of eating disorders in adolescent girls and young women. The increased risk might be driven mainly by differences in broadly defined bulimia nervosa and mixed eating disorders, but not broadly defined anorexia nervosa.

  13. Risky lifestyle as a mediator of the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and dating violence victimization among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Vézina, Johanne; Hébert, Martine; Poulin, François; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

    2011-07-01

    Few studies have explored the possible contribution of the peer group to dating violence victimization. The current study tested the hypothesis that a risky lifestyle would mediate the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and dating violence victimization among adolescent girls. The proposed mediation model was derived from lifestyles and routine activities theories. A sample of 550 girls (mean age = 15) drawn from a larger representative community sample in Quebec, Canada, completed a questionnaire on three forms of dating violence victimization (psychological, physical, and sexual). Results revealed that girls with a higher level of affiliation with deviant peers were more likely to endorse a risky lifestyle and reported higher rates of all forms of dating violence victimization. Further analyses showed that, while deviant peer affiliation is associated with dating violence victimization, this relationship may be explained, at least partially for psychological violence, and completely for physical/sexual violence, by the girls' own risky lifestyle. Future preventive interventions for adolescent dating violence victimization should target deviant peer groups, as well as adolescent girls who display a risky lifestyle.

  14. Principles and strategies of programming for adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Rohde, J E

    1990-01-01

    In consort with the focus on women's enrichment and status improvement in developing countries, the following principles and strategies are discussed: decentralized planning, maximizing schooling, experiential learning, avoidance of exploitation. Planning must involve adolescents and women and be consistent with cultural influences and patterns. Girls also need to be encouraged by parents to stay in schools as long as possible, with minimizing the attractions of staying out of school, and provision for dropouts to return. Experiential learning through interaction, observation, and enjoyment is the best method and will work best with the disadvantaged and neglected, and enable women to, for instance, understand the importance of breastfeeding, immunization, or hygiene. The program which may involved service is not to be exploitative, be a convenience, and benefit her. The content needs to be flexible and suitable to the age such that nutrition must be taught before menarche and at the first sign of breast development, and when bone growth is at its peak. School feeding programs are of proven benefit. Goals can be satisfied without being rigid and allowing for dream time also. The shape of a better tomorrow will depend upon these women. Adequate funding is always necessary, and something for nothing doesn't work without adequate food, useful learning materials, and attractive incentives such as a culturally appropriate items of clothing, confidence and prestige building are a must. The challenges are to provide formal schooling and the concomitant self-esteem building and public recognition of women's competence. Seclusion of pubescent girls in purdah needs to be eliminated and replaced with programs of responsible, mature and positive interaction with older women, who provide leadership skills and linkages to larger society. Interactions between girls is also important with village based continuing education, and practical self-guided curricula. Vocational training

  15. Influence of the built environment on pedestrian route choices of adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Daniel A; Merlin, Louis; Prato, Carlo G.; Conway, Terry L.; Cohen, Deborah; Elder, John P.; Evenson, Kelly R.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Pickrel, Julie L.; Veblen-Mortenson, Sara

    2014-01-01

    We examined the influence of the built environment on pedestrian route selection among adolescent girls. Portable global positioning system units, accelerometers, and travel diaries were used to identify the origin, destination, and walking routes of girls in San Diego, CA and Minneapolis, MN. We completed an inventory of the built environment on every street segment to measure the characteristics of routes taken and not taken. Route-level variables covering four key conceptual built environment domains (Aesthetics, Destinations, Functionality, and Safety) were used in the analysis of route choice. Shorter distance had the strongest positive association with route choice, while the presence of a greenway or trail, higher safety, presence of sidewalks, and availability of destinations along a route were also consistently positively associated with route choice at both sites. The results suggest that it may be possible to encourage pedestrians to walk farther by providing high quality and stimulating routes. PMID:25969591

  16. Family Obligation Values as a Protective and Vulnerability Factor among Low-Income Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Milan, Stephanie; Wortel, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ beliefs about family obligation often reflect cultural variations in their family context, and thus are important for understanding development among diverse youth. In this study, we test hypotheses about the role of family obligation values in risk behavior and mental health in a sample of 194 low-income adolescent girls (Mean age = 15.2; 58% Latina, 28% African-American/Black). We hypothesized that family obligation values can be both a protective and vulnerability factor, depending on the type of outcome and the presence of other risk factors. Across the sample, higher family obligation values tended to occur with indicators of positive family functioning (e.g., more frequent communication, less maternal hostility) based on mother and adolescent reports. As hypothesized, family obligation values moderated the relationship between established risk factors and adjustment in distinct ways, such that high family obligation values decreased risk in some domains (i.e., a protective factor) but increased risk in other domains (i.e., a vulnerability factor). Specifically, high family obligation values diminished the relationship between peer norms for risky behavior (sex and substance use) and individual engagement in those behaviors. At the same time, high family obligation values magnified the relationship between exposure to negative life events and poor mental health (PTSD and depressive symptoms). The results suggest that family obligation is an important but complex aspect of development among diverse adolescent girls. PMID:25351163

  17. Late Adolescent and Young Adult Outcomes of Girls Diagnosed with ADHD in Childhood: An Exploratory Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The study aims to characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method The study included 58 females from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. Thirty-four (M=19.97 years old) met DSM criteria for ADHD in childhood, while the remaining 24 (M=19.83 years old) did not. Self- and parent-reports of psychopathology, delinquency, interpersonal relationships, academic achievement, job performance, and substance use were collected. Results The findings suggest that girls with ADHD experience difficulties in late adolescence and young adulthood, such as more conflict with their mothers, being involved in fewer romantic relationships, and experiencing more depressive symptoms than comparison women. However, differences did not emerge in all domains, such as job performance, substance use, and self-reported ADHD symptomatology. Conclusion The findings of this study add to the literature on the negative late adolescent and young adult outcomes associated with childhood ADHD in females. PMID:20562386

  18. Pubertal Timing, Friend Smoking, and Substance Use in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Marklein, Elizabeth; Negriff, Sonya

    2017-01-01

    The influence of friend substance use on the association between pubertal timing and substance use has received little consideration in the literature. With a sample of 264 female adolescents (11–17 years), this study examined (a) the relationship between pubertal timing and substance use, (b) the impact of number of friends that smoke cigarettes on adolescents' use of three substances (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana), and (c) the interactions between pubertal timing and friends' smoking in predicting individual substance use. Results showed a significant relationship between pubertal timing and alcohol use; later timing was related to more alcohol use. This association between late timing and alcohol use is contrary to previous literature and may be due to the broad age range of this sample. Pubertal timing may have less of an effect in late adolescence when drinking becomes more normative and less deviant; the rationale for this association is discussed. Second, this study found females who reported that more of their friends smoke regularly (at least once a week) used significantly more cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana than those who reported no friends who smoke. Finally, the interaction between pubertal timing and number of friends who were regular smokers was not significantly related to adolescent substance use. However, friend smoking explained more of the variation in substance use than pubertal timing. This indicates that having friends who smoke is more influential in predicting substance use than pubertal timing. These findings are important when considering the development of interventions to target adolescent substance use. PMID:19067163

  19. An athletic adolescent girl with proteinuria and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dante, Siddhartha; Glunz, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    An 18-year-old athletic adolescent presents with hypertension found during a routine screening. Her prior history includes familial hyperlipidemia. Hypertension in the adolescent is classified based on percentiles for age, sex, and height. The most common secondary cause of hypertension in the pediatric and adolescent patient is renal disease. This patient was found to have nephrotic syndrome and because of her age, a renal biopsy was required to make the diagnosis and to direct subsequent treatment plans. She was diagnosed with C3 glomerulopathy, which is the result of dysregulation and uncontrolled activation of the alternative complement pathway; new therapies are emerging for this disease. In this case, we review the diagnosis and initial assessment of hypertension in the pediatric patient, and the causes of nephrotic syndrome with a focus on C3 glomerulopathy.

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use in inner-city adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Lipschitz, Deborah S; Rasmusson, Ann M; Anyan, Walter; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Billingslea, Eileen M; Cromwell, Polly F; Southwick, Steven M

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine rates of nicotine, marijuana, and alcohol use as well as patterns of problematic substance use and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in inner-city adolescent girls. One hundred four adolescents who obtained medical care at a hospital-based adolescent clinic were systematically surveyed for trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and substance use. A subset (N = 54, 52%) of girls completed a semistructured psychiatric diagnostic interview (K-SADS-PL) to ascertain timing of PTSD symptoms relative to substance use. Compared with traumatized girls without PTSD, girls with full and partial PTSD were significantly more likely to use nicotine, marijuana, and/or alcohol on a regular basis. Fifteen girls met criteria for both PTSD and a substance-use disorder. For 80% of these girls, the age of onset of PTSD was either before or concurrent with the onset of their substance-use disorder. Inner-city adolescent girls with PTSD exhibit problematic substance use and may be at high risk of developing a comorbid substance-use disorder.

  1. "Styled by Their Perceptions": Black Adolescent Girls Interpret Representations of Black Females in Popular Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.; McArthur, Sherell A.

    2015-01-01

    Identity formation is a critical process shaping the lives of adolescents and can present distinct challenges for Black adolescent girls who are positioned in society to negotiate ideals of self when presented with false and incomplete images representing Black girlhood. Researchers have found distorted images of Black femininity derived from…

  2. Predictors of Peer Victimization among Hispanic Adolescent Girls: Implications for School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Anne; Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive behavior aimed at peers in school settings is a persistent problem for students, teachers, parents, and school social workers. Peer victimization is particularly troubling for adolescent girls in light of recent increases in aggression and violence among female adolescents. However, most studies of peer victimization, particularly among…

  3. Building Self: Adolescent Girls and Self-Esteem. Working Paper 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flansburg, Sundra

    This working paper explores current thinking about self-esteem in adolescent girls in a pluralistic or multicultural society. A large percentage of current discussion and research on gender, adolescence, and self-esteem overlooks the diversity among females and neglects to analyze how various identities interweave with gender and strongly…

  4. Transition in Participation in Sport and Unstructured Physical Activity for Rural Living Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eime, R. M.; Payne, W. R.; Casey, M. M.; Harvey, J. T.

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is important for lifelong health; however, participation is lower in rural compared with metropolitan areas and declines during adolescence, particularly for girls. It is likely that this decline is related to the number of life transitions that occur during adolescence. This qualitative study examined the views of active…

  5. Pubertal Development and Adolescent Girls' Substance Use: Race, Ethnicity, and Neighborhood Contexts of Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2012-01-01

    To highlight individual and neighborhood interactions in the risk of adolescent substance use, this study examined the moderating role of neighborhood disadvantage on the relationship between pubertal development and adolescent girls' substance use. Drawing on the contextual amplification hypothesis, it was hypothesized that the effect of pubertal…

  6. The Graduate, the Globetrotter and the Good Samaritan: Adolescent Girls' Visions of Themselves in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Cherie

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent aspirations have been extensively researched, particularly in the contexts of higher education and the workforce. This paper extends research by exploring how the educational and career aspirations of rural adolescent girls relate to their other future goals. It demonstrates how exploring aspirations, both within and outside of the…

  7. Preventing Depression among Adolescent Girls: Pathways toward Effective and Sustainable Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Vicky Veitch; Dozois, David J. A.; Fisman, Sandra; DePace, JoAnne

    2008-01-01

    Up to 25% of adolescent girls experience an episode of major depression, at least twice the rate found with adolescent boys. In addition to reducing the suffering associated with depression, prevention efforts with this high-risk population have the potential to avert short- and long-term functional impairment, reduce the risk of associated mental…

  8. A Study of Personality Profiles among the Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashid, Shaziya; Rafaqi, Mohd Zia Ul Haq

    2016-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to study the personality profiles of adolescent boys and girls of Anantnag District of south Kashmir. Out of eleven educational zones of Anantnag, one educational zone i.e., Anantnag was randomly selected. A total of 200 adolescent respondents, comprising of 100 male and 100 female students were obtained through random…

  9. Sexual Orientation, Weight Concerns, and Eating-Disordered Behaviors in Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, S. Bryn; Ziyadeh, Najat; Kahn, Jessica A.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Colditz, Graham A.; Field, Alison E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine sexual orientation group differences in eating disorder symptoms in adolescent girls and boys. Method: Cross-sectional associations were examined using multivariate regression techniques using data gathered in 1999 from 10,583 adolescents in the Growing Up Today Study, a cohort of children of women participating in the…

  10. Adolescent Girls' ADHD Symptoms and Young Adult Driving: The Role of Perceived Deviant Peer Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoos, Stephanie L.; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with…

  11. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…

  12. Severe vulvovaginitis as a presenting problem of type 2 diabetes in adolescent girls: a case series.

    PubMed

    Curran, Jacqueline; Hayward, Jenette; Sellers, Elizabeth; Dean, Heather

    2011-04-01

    This article describes the presentation of 4 adolescent girls who sought medical attention for severe vulvovaginitis and were subsequently found to have type 2 diabetes. Symptomatic vulvovaginitis is rare in adolescent girls, and its presence should alert health care providers to test for underlying hyperglycemia. These 4 girls represent 8.5% of the females with new-onset type 2 diabetes during a 3-year period (2007-2009). The 4 cases fulfilled the current Canadian Diabetes Association screening criteria for type 2 diabetes in youth, yet none of these girls had been screened. These cases highlight the need for better awareness of screening criteria for type 2 diabetes in adolescents. Consideration should be given in clinical practice guidelines to including the presence of unusual or severe infections as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in youth.

  13. Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Girls with Hypogonadotropic and Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Demirbilek, Hüseyin; Baran, Rıza Taner; Baran, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Deficiency of sex steroids has a negative impact on bone mineral content. In studies conducted on postmenopausal women and animal studies, elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were found to be correlated with a decrease in bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescent girls with hypogonadotropic and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and also to investigate the correlation between FSH level and BMD. Methods: The study group included 33 adolescent girls with hypogonadism (14 with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and 19 with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism). FSH, luteinizing hormone, estradiol levels, and BMD (using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the chronological age and bone age of the two patient groups, namely, with hypogonadotropic and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. There was also no significant difference between BMD z-score values obtained from measurements from the spine and the femur neck of patients in the two groups (p-values were 0.841 and 0.281, respectively). In the hypergonadotropic group, a moderately negative correlation was detected between FSH level and BMD z-score measured from the femur neck (ρ=-0.69, p=0.001), whilst no correlation was observed between FSH levels and height adjusted BMD-z scores measured from the spine (ρ=0.17, p=0.493). FSH level was not found to be an independent variable affecting BMD z-score. Conclusion: BMD z-scores were detected to be similar in adolescent girls with hypogonadotropic and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and FSH levels were not found to have a clinically relevant impact on BMD. PMID:27087454

  14. Adolescent Girls' Acceptance and Rejection Based on Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Charlene Duch; Eicher, Joanne B.

    1973-01-01

    Authors gathered evidence that visual assessment of another individual precedes decisions to associate with that individual. Girls in this study made appraisals of the dress of fictional girls and then made subsequent judgments about whether or not they would be willing to have these girls as friends and whether their group would accept the girl…

  15. The Benefits Associated with Dance Education for Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicario, Terra; Chambliss, Catherine

    Dance education provides an opportunity for aerobic exercise and conditioning that is especially appealing to many girls. Dance may act as an outlet for girls and give them confidence, but, at the same time, it may create risks associated with perceived body-image. The benefits of taking dance classes were examined for girls, ages 13-20, enrolled…

  16. "Connecting with Courage," An Outward Bound Program for Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Terry

    Research on girls' development has found that girls see the world that coheres through human relationships rather than through systems of rules, and that 12 or 13 is a watershed age for girls, a time of "central relational crisis." As their bodies enter the physiological transformations that culminate in womanhood, they face an onslaught…

  17. What's Sexy? Adolescent Girls Discuss Confidence, Danger, and Media Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon; Farmer, Kaelin M.; Kosterina, Elena; Lambe Sariñana, Susan; Plocha, Aleksandra; Randazzo, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Building on qualitative research about sexualisation by media and culture and the impact on girls' development, in this article we present a discourse analysis of three focus groups of teen girls of colour and of diverse ethnicities asked to talk about sexiness. We focus on the ways the girls both support and resist hegemonic discourses about…

  18. What characterizes early adolescents with a positive body image? A qualitative investigation of Swedish girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Frisén, Ann; Holmqvist, Kristina

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate positive body image during adolescence. Semi-structured interviews, centring on three body image domains (satisfaction with own appearance, views on exercise, and influence from family and friends) were conducted with 30 early adolescent Swedish girls and boys who at age 10 and 13 had shown the highest level of body satisfaction in a large longitudinal sample. The data were analyzed thematically. Results revealed that the adolescents' satisfaction with their own appearance was characterized by a functional view of the body and an acceptance of the bodily imperfections that they perceived that they had. The vast majority of the adolescents were physically active and found exercise joyful and health-promoting. Finally, although some of the adolescents had received negative comments about their appearance from family and friends, such comments were not given any importance.

  19. The influence of urban literature on African-American adolescent girls' sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2011-07-01

    Many African-American teenaged girls are reading urban literature. This genre of literature is known for its gritty portrayal of urban life and has themes of violence, promiscuity, substance abuse and misogyny. Although research has demonstrated that the portrayal of sex and violence in the media are influential on adolescent sexual behavior, to date there has been little research on the influence of "urban lit" on adolescent sexual risk behaviors. This qualitative study explores the influence of urban literature on the sexual risk behaviors among a group of African-American adolescent girls. Findings from this study suggest that African-American adolescent girls may be influenced by the sexual themes depicted in this genre of literature. Additional research is needed to gain a greater understanding of this phenomon.

  20. Qualitative Iranian study of parents' roles in adolescent girls' physical activity habit development.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyyed Vahide; Anoosheh, Monireh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    Parents are likely to be key influences on children's physical activity behaviors, although it is not clear how. This study was designed to explore parents' roles in Iranian adolescent girls' physical activity habit development. A qualitative study was conducted by means of semistructured one-to-one interviews with 25 participants, including 16 adolescent girls (10-19 years of age), seven mothers, and two fathers. Content analysis was applied. Two main themes emerged as parental role in adolescent girls' physical activity behavior: developing interest in physical activity (making children familiar with physical activity, discovering talents, and role modeling) and providing support to adolescents for physical activity (material and immaterial). This study provided a better understanding of how Iranian parents influence their children's physical activity behavior. This will enable nurses to design more effective family-based interventions.

  1. The Relationship between Psychosocial Correlates and Physical Activity in Underserved Adolescent Boys and Girls in the ACT Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lawman, Hannah G.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Van Horn, M. Lee; Resnicow, Ken; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests motivation, enjoyment, and self-efficacy may be important psychosocial factors for understanding physical activity (PA) in youth. While previous studies have shown mixed results, emerging evidence indicates relationships between psychosocial factors and PA may be stronger in boys than girls. This study expands on previous research by examining the effects of motivation, enjoyment and self-efficacy on PA in underserved adolescent (low income, ethnic minorities) boys and girls. Based on previous literature, it was hypothesized the effects of motivation, enjoyment and self-efficacy on moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) would be stronger in boys than in girls. Methods Baseline cross-sectional data were obtained from a randomized, school-based trial (Active by Choice Today; ACT) in underserved 6th graders (N=771 girls, 651 boys). Intrapersonal variables for PA were assessed via self-report and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for each predictor. MVPA was assessed with 7-day accelerometry estimates. Results Multivariate regression analyses stratified by sex demonstrated a significant positive main effect of self-efficacy and motivation on MVPA for girls. Boys also showed a positive trend for the effect of motivation on MVPA. Conclusions The results from this study suggest motivation and self-efficacy should be better integrated to facilitate the development of more effective interventions for increasing PA in underserved adolescents. PMID:21359129

  2. Challenges in the Detection of Working Memory and Attention Decrements Among Overweight Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Lance O.; Manning, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study is unique in employing unusually difficult attention and working memory tasks to reveal subtle cognitive decrements among overweight/obese adolescents. It evaluated novel measures of background electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during one of the tasks and tested correlations of these and other measures with psychological and psychiatric predictors of obesity maintenance or progression. Methods Working memory and sustained attention tasks were presented to 158 female adolescents who were rated on dichotomous (body mass index percentile < vs. >=85) and continuous (triceps skinfold thickness) measures of adiposity. Results The results revealed a significant association between excess adiposity and performance errors during the working memory task. During the sustained attention task, overweight/obese adolescents exhibited more EEG frontal beta power as well as greater intraindividual variability in reaction time and beta power across task periods than their normal-weight peers. Secondary analyses showed that frontal beta power during the sustained attention task was positively correlated with anxiety, panic, borderline personality features, drug abuse, and loss of control over food intake. Conclusions The findings suggest that working memory and sustained attention decrements do exist among overweight/obese adolescent girls. The reliable detection of the decrements may depend on the difficulty of the tasks as well as the manner in which performance and brain activity are measured. Future studies should examine the relevance of these decrements to diet education efforts and treatment response. PMID:26812684

  3. Justice System Involvement Into Young Adulthood: Comparison of Adolescent Girls in the Public Mental Health System and in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, William H.; Gershenson, Bernice; Grudzinskas, Albert J.; Banks, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    We compared arrest onset and frequency and types of charges between a statewide cohort of adolescent girls in the public mental health system and girls of the same age in the general population to investigate important differences that could have policy or intervention implications. Girls in the public mental health system were arrested at earlier ages more frequently and were charged with more serious offenses than were girls in the general population. Our results strongly argue for cooperation between the public mental health and justice systems to provide mental health and offender rehabilitation in their shared population. PMID:19059845

  4. Amygdala response predicts trajectory of symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy among adolescent girls with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Cisler, Josh M; Sigel, Benjamin A; Kramer, Teresa L; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-12-01

    Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is the gold standard treatment for pediatric PTSD. Nonetheless, clinical outcomes in TF-CBT are highly variable, indicating a need to identify reliable predictors that allow forecasting treatment response. Here, we test the hypothesis that functional neuroimaging correlates of emotion processing predict PTSD symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) among adolescent girls with PTSD. Thirty-four adolescent girls with PTSD related to physical or sexual assault were enrolled in TF-CBT, delivered in an approximately 12 session format, in an open trial. Prior to treatment, they were engaged in an implicit threat processing task during 3T fMRI, during which they viewed faces depicting fearful or neutral expressions. Among adolescent girls completing TF-CBT (n = 23), slopes of PTSD symptom trajectories during TF-CBT were significantly related to pre-treatment degree of bilateral amygdala activation while viewing fearful vs neutral images. Adolescents with less symptom reduction were characterized by greater amygdala activation to both threat and neutral images (i.e., less threat-safety discrimination), whereas adolescents with greater symptom reduction were characterized by amygdala activation only to threat images. These clinical outcome relationships with pre-treatment bilateral amygdala activation remained when controlling for possible confounding demographic or clinical variables (e.g., concurrent psychotropic medication, comorbid diagnoses). While limited by a lack of a control group, these preliminary results suggest that pre-treatment amygdala reactivity to fear stimuli, a component of neurocircuitry models of PTSD, positively predicts symptom reduction during TF-CBT among assaulted adolescent girls, providing support for an objective measure for forecasting treatment response in this vulnerable population.

  5. [Atypical celiac disease in an adolescent girl--case report].

    PubMed

    Hozyasz, Kamil; Czerwińska, Barbara

    2004-11-01

    Coeliac disease is characterized by life-long gluten intolerance. There are a wide variety of clinical presentations, which range from severe diarrhoea and weight loss to asymptomatic forms. The primary treatment for coeliac disease is the removal of gluten from the diet to prevent both immediate and long-term complications. The case of 16-year-old girl with coeliac disease was presented. At the age of 2 years the patient with impaired growth and abnormal stools was suspected to have coeliac disease. She experienced symptomatic improvement on gluten-free diet, but after 3 years the treatment was discontinued. The patient denied gastrointestinal or skin problems. At the age of 14 years Raynaud's phenomenon was observed for the first time. Two years later episodes of Raynaud's phenomenon involved all fingers and toes. Body mass index (BMI) was 23.8 kg/m2. Levels of free-carnitine, tocopherol, vitamin B12 were below normal limits and homocysteine level was increased. Antiendomysial IgA, antireticulin IgA, antigliadin IgA and IgG antibodies were positive. The duodenal mucosa showed total villous atrophy. Gluten free-diet and multivitamin supplementation provided some benefit in reducing Raynaud's phenomenon. The patient's well being has improved markedly. Atypical coeliac disease is usually seen in adolescents and adults in whom features of overt malabsorption are often absent. In cases of health problems occurring in persons with history of malabsorption syndrome in childhood suspicion of coeliac disease should be heightened and appropriate evaluation undertaken.

  6. Testing an equifinality model of nonsuicidal self-injury among early adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    KEENAN, KATE; HIPWELL, ALISON E.; STEPP, STEPHANIE D.; WROBLEWSKI, KRISTEN

    2015-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a common behavior among females that has been shown to confer risk for continued self-injury and suicidal attempts. NSSI can be viewed conceptually as behavior that is pathognomonic with aggression and/or depression. Empirical research on concurrent correlates supports this concept: numerous and diverse factors are shown to be significantly associated with self-harm, including depression, emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, and aggression and other conduct problems, as well as environmental stressors such as bullying, harsh parenting, and negative life events. In the present study, we test hypotheses regarding developmental precursors (measured from ages 8 to 12 years) to NSSI in young adolescent girls (ages 13–14 years), specifically whether aggression, depression, and environmental stressors distinguish girls with and without self-harm, and whether there is evidence for multiple developmental pathways to NSSI. Data were derived from the longitudinal Pittsburgh Girls Study. In this community sample of girls, the prevalence of NSSI at ages 13 or 14 years of age was 6.0%. Initial levels in dimensions measured within the depression, aggression, and environmental stressor domains accounted for variance in NSSI in early adolescence. Changes over time in relational aggression and assertiveness were also significantly associated with risk for NSSI. To a large extent, adolescent NSSI was predicted by psychological deficits and stress exposure that began early in childhood. Risk indices were calculated using the 85th or 15th percentile. Close to 80% of girls who engaged in NSSI during adolescence were identified by at least one risk domain in childhood. A sizable proportion of adolescent girls who later engaged in NSSI had childhood risk scores in all three domains; the remaining girls with adolescent NSSI were relatively evenly distributed across the other risk domain profiles. The observation that multiple pathways to NSSI exist

  7. Age at Time of Initial Sexual Intercourse and Health of Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Lara, Lúcia A S; Abdo, Carmita H N

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is characterized by marked changes in the body, psychology, and sexual behavior due to increasing production of hormones. In this review we aimed to assess the effect of age at the time of first sexual intercourse (sexarche) on the health of adolescent girls, and identify factors that might protect against early initiation of sexual relations in girls. The PubMed, Lilacs, and Google Scholar databases were searched for clinical trials, comparative studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, multicenter studies, observational studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to December 2014 on this theme. The search terms were: "sexual debut," "coitarche," "sexarche," and "young people," "adolescent," "unplanned pregnancy," "adolescent contraception," and "STDs." Data were extracted from 28 studies and 41 references were used to introduce the theme and to support the discussion. Sexarche has been occurring in increasingly younger girls. A young age at sexarche can lead to subsequent risky sexual behavior. Girls who have sexarche when they are 14 years old or younger are less likely to use contraception on this occasion, take more time before they start using contraception in subsequent sexual relations, are more likely to have several sex partners, have a higher risk for depression, have lower self-esteem and more episodes of repentance, and have a higher risk for a sexually transmitted disease and cervical cancer. Girls with low educational, socioeconomic, and cultural status, little parental monitoring, parental separation, and absence of religiosity tend to experience sexarche at a younger age. Adolescent girls who postpone sexarche until they are 16 years old are physically and psychologically healthier than those who have sexarche at a younger age. This suggests that providing adolescent girls with appropriate education about sexual relations might reduce the negative effect of sexual relations at a young age.

  8. Problem Solving in the Natural Sciences and Early Adolescent Girls' Gender Roles and Self-Esteem a Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis from AN Ecological Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavkin, Michael

    What impact do gender roles and self-esteem have on early adolescent girls' abilities to solve problems when participating in natural science-related activities? Bronfenbrenner's human ecology model and Barker's behavior setting theory were used to assess how environmental contexts relate to problem solving in scientific contexts. These models also provided improved methodology and increased understanding of these constructs when compared with prior research. Early adolescent girls gender roles and self-esteem were found to relate to differences in problem solving in science-related groups. Specifically, early adolescent girls' gender roles were associated with levels of verbal expression, expression of positive affect, dominance, and supportive behavior during science experiments. Also, levels of early adolescent girls self-esteem were related to verbal expression and dominance in peer groups. Girls with high self-esteem also were more verbally expressive and had higher levels of dominance during science experiments. The dominant model of a masculine-typed and feminine-typed dichotomy of problem solving based on previous literature was not effective in Identifying differences within girls' problem solving. Such differences in the results of these studies may be the result of this study's use of observational measures and analysis of the behavior settings in which group members participated. Group behavior and problem-solving approaches of early adolescent girls seemed most likely to be defined by environmental contexts, not governed solely by the personalities of participants. A discussion for the examination of environmental factors when assessing early adolescent girls' gender roles and self-esteem follows this discussion.

  9. The relation between intra- and interpersonal factors and food consumption level among Iranian adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Zahraei, Nafisehsadat Nekuei; Nazarian, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poor nutrition habits in adolescent girls endanger their health and are followed by serious systemic diseases in adulthood and negative effects on their reproductive health. To design health promotion programs, understanding of the intra- and interpersonal associated factors with treatment is essential, and this was the aim of this study. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 193 adolescent girls of age 11-15 years. Random cluster selection was used for sample selection. Food group consumption pattern was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Also, perceived susceptibility/severity and nutritional attitude as intrapersonal factors and social support as interpersonal factor were assessed. The relationship between food group consumption level and nutritional attitude and perceived treat (susceptibility/severity) as intrapersonal factors and perceived social support as interpersonal factor were assessed by linear multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Results showed that the level of sweetmeat food consumption was related to perceived social support (P = 0.03) and nutritional attitude (P = 0.01) negatively. In addition, an inverse and significant association was found between the level of junk food intake and informational perceived social support (P = 0.004). The association between the level of fast food intake and the perceived parental social support for preparation of healthy food was negatively significant (P = 0.03). Breakfast consumption was related to nutritional attitude (P = 0.03), social support (P = 0.03), and perceived severity (P = 0.045). Conclusions: Results revealed that perceived social support and nutritional attitude are the important and related factors in dietary intake among girls, and promotion of social support and modification of nutritional attitude may lead to healthy nutritional behaviors among them. PMID:27095987

  10. Cool Girls, Inc.: Promoting the Positive Development of Urban Preadolescent and Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Thomason, Jessica; DiMeo, Michelle; Broomfield-Massey, Kimberley

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a transformation in youth programming toward a comprehensive positive youth development (YD) framework. Cool Girls, Inc., a YD program, focuses on improving girls' life chances by promoting positive behaviors and attitudes in multiple domains. These include self-concept, academic orientation, future orientation, and…

  11. A 2-year longitudinal study of eating attitudes, BMI, perfectionism, asceticism and family climate in adolescent girls and their parents.

    PubMed

    Westerberg, J; Edlund, B; Ghaderi, A

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study of 383 Swedish adolescent girls (11 and 13 years old at year 1) and their parents was to examine changes in eating attitudes over a two-year period, and to investigate the predictive value of eating attitudes, perfectionism, asceticism, family climate and body mass index (BMI) for the development of disturbed eating attitudes. The following self-report questionnaires were used: Children's Eating Attitudes test, Eating Attitudes Test, Eating Disorder Inventory for Children, Eating Disorder Inventory 2, I Think I Am and The Family Climate. The frequency of disturbed eating attitudes increased with increased age in the girls. Children's eating attitudes, higher BMI than peers, the girls rating of a less healthy relation to family and their fathers' eating attitudes at year 1 contributed most to the prediction of disturbed eating attitudes for the girls 2 years later. The results suggest that early signs of disturbed eating attitudes and higher BMI than peers may be important predictors for the development of more serious eating disturbances among adolescent girls.

  12. Effectiveness of weekly supplementation of iron to control anaemia among adolescent girls of Nashik, Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, P R; Garg, B S; Bharambe, M S

    2008-03-01

    A national nutritional anaemia-control programme in India, focusing on supplementation of iron to pregnant women after the first trimester of pregnancy, failed to make an impact. It is prudent to recommend the correction of iron stores before the woman becomes pregnant. 'Efficacy' of weekly supplementation of iron has been proved to improve iron stores in adolescence in many studies abroad and in India. The objective was to study the 'effectiveness' of a weekly iron-supplementation regimen among urban-slum, rural, and tribal girls of Nashik district, Maharashtra, India. A baseline and the mid-term assessments were done using the cluster-sampling techniques. In each stratum, 30 clusters were identified. Twelve and 10 adolescent girls from each cluster were identified in the baseline and mid-term surveys respectively. The haemoglobin estimation was done using the HemoCue system. Data were analyzed using the Epi Info software (version 6.04). The overall prevalence of anaemia came down significantly to 54.3% from 65.3%. The decline was statistically significant (p<0.001) in tribal girls (48.6% from 68.9%) and among rural girls (51.6% from 62.8%). But the decline was not statistically significant among urban slum girls. Similarly, a significant rise in the mean haemoglobin levels was seen among tribal and rural girls. However, it did not increase significantly among urban slum girls. The programme had performed poorly in urban-slum areas, as the mean number of tablets consumed in urban-slum areas was only 5.6+/-3.3, as against 6.7+/-2.6 tablets in tribal girls and 7.2+/-2.2 tablets in rural girls. Considering the biological and operational feasibility and the effectiveness of the intervention, weekly supplementation of iron to adolescent girls should be universally started to correct the iron stores of a woman before she becomes pregnant.

  13. Adolescent girls define menstruation: a multiethnic exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Orringer, Kelly; Gahagan, Sheila

    2010-09-01

    Incomplete understanding of menstruation may place girls at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unintended pregnancy. Prior research suggests that European American and African American girls incompletely understand menstruation, yet little is known about menstrual knowledge in other ethnic groups. Using audiotaped focus group and individual interviews with 73 African American, Mexican American, Arab American, and European American girls, we assessed girls' menstrual understanding. Responses included reproduction, growing up, cleansing, messages about femininity, and not knowing. We found ethnic differences in the prominence of these themes. We learned that social and cultural factors play an important role in transmission of menstrual knowledge.

  14. Beta-test Results for an HPV Information Web site: GoHealthyGirls.org – Increasing HPV Vaccine Uptake in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Nodulman, Jessica A.; Kong, Alberta S.; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Buller, David B.; Woodall, W. Gill

    2014-01-01

    A web site, GoHealthyGirls, was developed to educate and inform parents and their adolescent daughters about human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccines. This article provides an overview of web site development and content followed by the results of a beta-test of the web site. 63 New Mexican parents of adolescent girls tested the site. Results indicated that GoHealthyGirls was a functioning and appealing web site. During this brief educational intervention, findings suggest that the web site has the potential to increase HPV vaccine uptake. This research supports the Internet as a valuable channel to disseminate health education and information to diverse populations. PMID:25221442

  15. Beta-test Results for an HPV Information Web site: GoHealthyGirls.org - Increasing HPV Vaccine Uptake in the United States.

    PubMed

    Starling, Randall; Nodulman, Jessica A; Kong, Alberta S; Wheeler, Cosette M; Buller, David B; Woodall, W Gill

    2014-01-01

    A web site, GoHealthyGirls, was developed to educate and inform parents and their adolescent daughters about human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccines. This article provides an overview of web site development and content followed by the results of a beta-test of the web site. 63 New Mexican parents of adolescent girls tested the site. Results indicated that GoHealthyGirls was a functioning and appealing web site. During this brief educational intervention, findings suggest that the web site has the potential to increase HPV vaccine uptake. This research supports the Internet as a valuable channel to disseminate health education and information to diverse populations.

  16. Ovarian Torsion in the Normal Ovary: A Diagnostic Challenge in Postmenarchal Adolescent Girls in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Erbil; Beger, Burhan; Çetin, Orkun; Melek, Mehmet; Karaman, Yasemin

    2017-01-01

    Background Ovarian torsion can be seen in the otherwise-normal ovary and is a challenging issue in the emergency department. The aims were (1) to evaluate and compare the surgically verified ovarian torsion cases in otherwise-normal ovaries and ovaries including a mass or cyst and (2) to investigate whether the normal-appearing ovaries on ultrasound examination affected the diagnosis of ovarian torsion or not. Material/Methods A retrospective cohort study design was used. The medical records of all postmenarchal adolescent girls with surgically verified ovarian torsion treated in a university hospital from 2010 to 2016 were reviewed. Results Twenty-nine post-menarchal girls were identified. The subjects were divided into two groups. Eight girls (group 1) had ovarian torsion in a normal ovary, and twenty-one girls (group 2) had ovarian torsion including a mass or cyst. The median ages of group 1 and 2 were 13 and 14 years, respectively. Abdominal pain was the main presenting symptom for all cases in both groups. Doppler flow studies were abnormal in 6/9 (66.6%) in group 1 and 12/21 (57.1%) in group 2. The time from first admission to the operation was statistically longer in group 1 than in group 2 (34.5±24.3 hours vs. 19.5±9.2 hours, respectively; p=0.001). The longitudinal axis of uterine size was significantly shorter in group 1 than in group 2 (34.3±2.9 mm vs. 47.6±4.5 mm, respectively; p=0.001). Conclusions Ovarian torsion in adolescent girls can be seen within the otherwise-normal ovary. The normal-appearing ovaries on ultrasound in the emergency department may lead to delay in the diagnosis of ovarian torsion in adolescent girls. PMID:28296829

  17. The effect of increasing dairy calcium intake of adolescent girls on changes in body fat and weight.

    PubMed

    Lappe, Joan M; McMahon, Donald J; Laughlin, Ann; Hanson, Corrine; Desmangles, Jean Claude; Begley, Margaret; Schwartz, Misty

    2017-03-15

    Background: Overweight is epidemic in adolescents and is a major concern because it tracks into adulthood. Evidence supports the efficacy of high-calcium, high-dairy diets in achieving healthy weight in adults. However, no randomized controlled trials of the effect of dairy food on weight and body fat in adolescents have been reported to our knowledge.Objective: The aim was to determine whether increasing calcium intake to recommended amounts with dairy foods in adolescent girls with habitually low calcium intakes would decrease body fat gain compared with girls who continued their low calcium intake. Participants had above-the-median body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)).Design: We enrolled 274 healthy postmenarcheal 13- to 14-y-old overweight girls who had calcium intakes of ≤600 mg/d in a 12-mo randomized controlled trial. Girls were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to 1 of 2 groups within each of 3 BMI percentiles: 50th to <70th, 70th to <85th, and 85th to <98th. The assignments were 1) dairy, which included low-fat milk or yogurt servings providing ≥1200 mg Ca/d or 2) control, which included the usual diet of ≤600 mg Ca/d.Results: We failed to detect a statistically significant difference between groups in percentage of body fat gain over 12 mo (mean ± SEM: dairy 0.40% ± 0.53% > control; P < 0.45). The effect of the intervention did not differ by BMI percentile stratum. There was no difference in weight change between the 2 groups.Conclusion: Our findings that the dairy group gained body fat similar to the control group provide no support for dairy food as a stratagem to decrease body fat or weight gain in overweight adolescent girls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01066806.

  18. The meaning of seasonal changes, nature, and animals for adolescent girls' wellbeing in northern Finland: A qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Varpu; Kyngäs, Helvi; Pölkki, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Wellbeing is complex, holistic, and subjectively perceived. Issues such as gender, age, and environment seem to affect it. Therefore, the aim of this qualitative study was to describe the meaning of seasonal changes, nature, and animals towards 13-16-year-old girls' wellbeing in Northern Finland. In the spring of 2014, through purposive sampling, a total of 19 girls participated in semi-structured interviews from various parts of Northern Finland. The data were analysed using content analysis. Afterwards, the analysis combining the category participatory involvement with environment was found, and this consisted of three main categories: adaptation to seasonal changes, restorative nature, and empowering interactivity with animals. Seasonal changes had an effect on girls' wellbeing; in the summertime, they felt happy and vivacious, active, and outgoing. Instead, during the winter months, girls' mood and activity seemed to be lower and they felt lazier and depressed. Nature brought mainly positive feelings to girls; being in nature was experienced as liberating and relaxing, and it offered opportunities to relax and have sensory perceptions. Interaction with animals was perceived as empowering. They were experienced as altruistic and comforting companions. Animals were important to girls, and they contributed to girls' lives through positive effects towards their mental and physical wellbeing. Based on the results of this study, we can recommend that being in nature and interacting with animals should be supported because they seem to have benefits towards adolescent girls' health and wellbeing. In order to facilitate the negative effects of winter, the school days should be arranged in such a way that it would be possible for girls to have outdoor activities during the daytime. The challenge for the future is perhaps the purposeful utilisation of nature's and the animals' positive effects towards their wellbeing.

  19. Lipid Profile in Adolescent Girls with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Hyperandrogenemia

    PubMed Central

    Zachurzok, Agnieszka; Deja, Grazyna; Gawlik, Aneta; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Klimek, Katarzyna; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives. The study aim was to evaluate whether hyperandrogenemia in adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) may adversely influence lipid profile. Design and Participants. Lipid levels in 16 diabetic girls with biochemical hyperandrogenemia (T1DM-H) aged 16.3 ± 1.2 years were compared to 38 diabetic girls with normal androgen levels (T1DM-N) aged 15.8 ± 1.2 years. 15 healthy girls served as controls (CG). In all patients, anthropometric measurements were done, and androgens and SHBG were assessed. Results. In T1DM-H, total cholesterol (TC) and low density cholesterol (LDL-ch) were significantly higher than in CG (196.1 ± 41.2 versus 162.7 ± 31.7 mg/dL, p = 0.01; 117.3 ± 33.1 versus 91.3 ± 27.8 mg/dL, p = 0.01, resp.). Their LDL-ch, non-high density cholesterol (non-HDL-ch) concentrations, and LDL/HDL ratio were also significantly higher than in T1DM-N (117.3 ± 33.1 versus 97.7 ± 26.7 mg/dL, p = 0.03; 137.3 ± 42.9 versus 113.3 ± 40.4 mg/dL, p = 0.04; 2.8 ± 3.7 versus 1.6 ± 0.5, p = 0.04, resp.). In stepwise multiple linear regression, free androgen index (FAI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were associated with TC (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.0006), non-HDL-ch (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.0003), and LDL-ch (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.0008). Triglycerides and LDL/HDL ratio were (R2 = 0.7, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.6, p < 0.0003 resp.) related to testosterone, FAI, WHR, and mean HbA1c. Conclusion. Lipid profile in diabetic adolescent girls is adversely influenced by the androgens level, particularly in the group with higher WHR and poorer glycemic control. PMID:27239195

  20. Immigration status, acculturation, and dating violence risk for Hispanic adolescent girls in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Mary M; Green, Dan; Booker, John; Nelson, Anna

    2011-10-01

    Little data exist on dating violence experienced by immigrant Hispanic adolescents. The present study examined the relationships between immigration status, language spoken at home, and dating violence experienced by Hispanic adolescent girls in New Mexico. Data from the 2007 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Surveys were analyzed. Adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted among the full sample of Hispanic females (N = 3,412) and among strata based on immigration status. Immigrant Hispanic girls were as likely as non-immigrant Hispanic girls to have experienced dating violence in the prior year (P = 0.93). Among immigrant Hispanic girls, those who were Non-English-dominant were one-fourth as likely to have experienced dating violence as those immigrant girls who were English-dominant (aOR 0.27 [95% CI 0.08-0.87]). Among US-born Hispanic girls, those who were Non-English-dominant were less likely to have experienced dating violence; however, this value did not reach statistical significance (aOR 0.65 [95% CI 0.33-1.27]). Past sexual experience was a significant risk factor for dating violence for US-born Hispanic girls (aOR 4.99 [95% CI 3.18-7.83]) but not for immigrant Hispanic girls (aOR 1.66 [95% CI 0.63-4.43]). Immigrant status was not found to be protective against dating violence for New Mexico Hispanic girls. However, those immigrant girls who were less acculturated in terms of language used at home were found to have only a quarter of the risk of dating violence as those more acculturated. The use of heritage language by immigrant Hispanic girls may be a protective factor against dating violence. Further studies are indicated to confirm this finding.

  1. Ankle Accelerometry for Assessing Physical Activity among Adolescent Girls: Threshold Determination, Validity, Reliability, and Feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Erin R.; Treuth, Margarita S.; Gormely, Candice; Epps, LaShawna; Snitker, Soren; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ankle accelerometry allows for 24-hour data collection, improving data volume/integrity versus hip accelerometry. Using Actical ankle accelerometry, the purpose was to (a) develop sensitive/specific thresholds; (b) examine validity/reliability; (c) compare new thresholds with manufacturer’s; and (d) examine feasibility in a community sample (low-income, urban adolescent girls). Methods Two studies were conducted with 6th–7th grade girls (age 10–14 years): Laboratory study (n=24)- Two Actical accelerometers were placed on the ankle and worn while measuring energy expenditure (Cosmed K4b2, Metabolic Equivalents (METs)) during 10 prescribed activities. Analyses included device equivalence reliability (intraclass correlation (ICC): activity counts of 2 Acticals), criterion-related validity (correlation: activity counts and METs), and calculations of sensitivity, specificity, kappa and ROC curves for thresholds. Free-Living study (n=459)- an Actical was worn >7 days on the ankle (full 24-hour days retained). Analyses included feasibility (frequencies: missing data) and paired t-tests (new thresholds versus manufacturer’s). Results Laboratory study- Actical demonstrated reliability (ICC=.92) and validity (r=.81). Thresholds demonstrated sensitivity (91%), specificity (84%), kappa=.73 (p=.043), area under curve range .81–.97. Free-Living study- 99.6% wore the accelerometer; 84.1% had complete/valid data (mean=5.7 days). Primary reasons for missing/invalid data: Improper programming/documentation (5.2%), failure to return device (5.0%), wear-time ≤2 days (2.8%). The Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) threshold (>3200 counts/minute) yielded 37.2 minutes/day, 2–4.5 times lower than the manufacturer’s software (effect size=.74–4.05). Conclusions Validity, reliability, and feasibility evidences support Actical ankle accelerometry to assess physical activity in community studies of adolescent girls. When comparing manufacturers’ software

  2. How Adolescent Girls Interpret Weight-Loss Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Renee; Broder, Sharon; Pope, Holly; Rowe, Jonelle

    2006-01-01

    While they demonstrate some ability to critically analyze the more obvious forms of deceptive weight-loss advertising, many girls do not recognize how advertising evokes emotional responses or how visual and narrative techniques are used to increase identification in weight-loss advertising. This study examined how girls aged 9-17 years…

  3. Understanding Adolescent Gifted Girls with ADHD: Motivated and Achieving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugate, C. Matthew; Gentry, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The manifestation of ADHD in girls who are gifted can place strains on motivation and academic performance as they enter their middle school years. The purpose of this collective case study research was to examine the lived experiences of five girls who are gifted with ADHD in order to gain an understanding of the array of coping mechanisms used…

  4. Perceptions of Physical Activity and Influences of Participation in Young African-American Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shannon; Knight, Candace; Crew-Gooden, Annette

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore African-American adolescent girls' perceptions of physical activity participation, examine how physical activity is defined and identify the most preferred forms of physical activity. Qualitative focus group interviews of a convenience sample (N = 30; Mean age = 14.3 years) were used to identifyfactors that influence African-American girls' physical activity participation as well as to explore how physical activity is defined within this population. Four themes emerged: (a) benefits and motivation to engage in physical activity, (b) behaviors consistent with perceived physical activity, (c) most enjoyable physical activity/activities, and (d) barriers to physical activity. Physical activities that promoted normative adolescent development (i.e., autonomy) were perceived as most beneficial, desirable, and most likely to be sustained. Implications of these findings highlight the importance of the incorporation of socialization and peer engagement in physical activity programs designed for African-American adolescent girls.

  5. “Knowledge and attitudes of Spanish adolescent girls towards human papillomavirus infection: where to intervene to improve vaccination coverage”

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HPV vaccine coverage is far from ideal in Valencia, Spain, and this could be partially related to the low knowledge about the disease and the vaccine, therefore we assessed these, as well as the attitude towards vaccination in adolescent girls, and tried to identify independently associated factors that could potentially be modified by an intervention in order to increase vaccine coverage. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in a random selection of schools of the Spanish region of Valencia. We asked mothers of 1278 girls, who should have been vaccinated in the 2011 campaign, for informed consent. Those that accepted their daughters’ participation, a questionnaire regarding the Knowledge of HPV infection and vaccine was passed to the girls in the school. Results 833 mothers (65.1%) accepted participation. All their daughters’ responded the questionnaire. Of those, 89.9% had heard about HPV and they associated it to cervical cancer. Only 14% related it to other problems like genital warts. The knowledge score of the girls who had heard about HPV was 6.1/10. Knowledge was unrelated to the number of contacts with the health system (Pediatrician or nurse), and positively correlated with the discussions with classmates about the vaccine. Adolescents Spanish in origin or with an older sister vaccinated, had higher punctuation. 67% of the girls thought that the vaccine prevented cancer, and 22.6% felt that although prevented cancer the vaccine had important safety problems. 6.4% of the girls rejected the vaccine for safety problems or for not considering themselves at risk of infection. 71.5% of the girls had received at least one vaccine dose. Vaccinated girls scored higher knowledge (p = 0.05). Conclusion Knowledge about HPV infection and vaccine was fair in adolescents of Valencia, and is independent to the number of contacts with the health system, it is however correlated to the conversations about the vaccine with their peers and the

  6. Assessing community readiness for overweight and obesity prevention in pre-adolescent girls: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity is a global public health concern. For girls in particular, being overweight or obese during pre-adolescence (aged 7–11 years) has intergenerational implications for both the mother and her future offspring. In the United Kingdom (UK) there is increasing interest in community targeted interventions but less is known about how to tailor these approaches to the needs of the community. This study applied the Community Readiness Model (CRM), for the first time in the UK, to demonstrate its applicability in designing tailored interventions. Methods Community readiness assessment was conducted using semi-structured key informant interviews. The community’s key informants were identified through focus groups with pre-adolescent girls. The interviews addressed the community’s efforts; community knowledge of the efforts; leadership; community climate; community knowledge of the issue and resources available to support the issue. Interviews were conducted until the point of theoretical saturation and questions were asked separately regarding physical activity (PA) and healthy eating and drinking (HED) behaviours. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and were firstly analysed thematically and then scored using the assessment guidelines produced by the CRM authors. Results Readiness in this community was higher for PA than for HED behaviours. The lowest scores related to the community’s ’resources’ and the ’community knowledge of the issue’; affirming these two issues as the most appropriate initial targets for intervention. In terms of resources, there is also a need for resources to support the development of HED efforts beyond the school. Investment in greater physical education training for primary school teachers was also identified as an intervention priority. To address the community’s knowledge of the issue, raising the awareness of the prevalence of pre-adolescent girls’ health behaviours is a

  7. On Their Own and in Their Own Words: Bolivian Adolescent Girls' Empowerment through Non-Governmental Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervais, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In recognition of the profound benefits of children's engagement with their rights, this article presents an experiential account of how Bolivian adolescent indigenous girls discover, articulate, experience, and advocate human rights. This study explores adolescent girls' demonstrations of empowerment, agency, resistance, and solidarity as part of…

  8. Testing Social-Cognitive Theory to Explain Physical Activity Change in Adolescent Girls from Low-Income Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Deborah L.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Morgan, Philip J.; Okely, Anthony D.; Costigan, Sarah A.; Lubans, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesized structural paths in Bandura's social-cognitive theory (SCT) model on adolescent girls' physical activity following a 12-month physical activity and dietary intervention to prevent obesity. Method: We conducted a 12-month follow-up study of 235 adolescent girls ("M[subscript…

  9. The Selection and Prevalence of Natural and Fortified Calcium Food Sources in the Diets of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Karen; Watson, Patrice; Lappe, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of calcium-fortified food and dairy food on selected nutrient intakes in the diets of adolescent girls. Design: Randomized controlled trial, secondary analysis. Setting and Participants: Adolescent girls (n = 149) from a midwestern metropolitan area participated in randomized controlled trials of bone physiology…

  10. Focus Group Studies on Food Safety Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices of School-Going Adolescent Girls in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavaravarapu, Subba Rao M.; Vemula, Sudershan R.; Rao, Pratima; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Polasa, Kalpagam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices of adolescent girls. Design: Focus group discussions (FGDs) with 32 groups selected using stratified random sampling. Setting: Four South Indian states. Participants: Adolescent girls (10-19 years). Phenomena of Interest: Food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices.…

  11. Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Udry, J. Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath; Campbell, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Investigated implications of body-fat differences for dating and sexual activity and implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns in adolescent girls. Found that among white girls, and blacks with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with lower dating probability, even among non-obese girls. Body fat was…

  12. "She Gives Me a Break from the World": Formal Youth Mentoring Relationships between Adolescent Girls and Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Renee; Liang, Belle

    2009-01-01

    Formal mentoring programs have historically tended to match youth with same-sex mentors; more recently, mentoring programs designed specifically for girls have begun cropping up in response to theories on gender and adolescent girls' psychological health and development, which suggest girls have particular psychosocial needs and ways of relating.…

  13. The Impact of an Art-Based Media Literacy Curriculum on the Leadership Self-Efficacy of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keown, Emily Louise

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the impact of an arts-based media literacy program on the leadership efficacy of adolescent girls. The participants of this study were 19 middle school girls who participated in an after-school, arts-based media literacy curricula known as Project Girl. The group meetings were led by female…

  14. Brief Report: Parsing the Heterogeneity of Adolescent Girls' Sexual Behavior--Relationships to Individual and Interpersonal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate; Chung, Tammy; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Clusters of pre-sexual and sexual behaviors were identified in an urban US sample of 546 mid-adolescent girls. No distinct group of girls engaging in sexually risky behavior was revealed. Sexually active girls were older, lived with a single parent, and reported more substance use and depression, but similar levels of conduct problems, impulsivity…

  15. 'Mum's the word': Predictors and outcomes of weight concerns in pre-adolescent and early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ng, Johan Yau Yin; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Vlachopoulos, Symeon; Katartzi, Ermioni S; Nikitaras, Nikitas

    2016-03-01

    Predictors and outcomes of weight concerns in pre-adolescent and adolescent girls are well known, but few models have incorporated concerns reported directly by mothers as a predictor, and both eating and exercise outcomes. Using questionnaires, a comprehensive model of 232 pre-adolescent and early adolescent girls' weight concerns, eating restraint, and exercise behavior was tested. Structural equation modeling showed that daughters' weight concerns were predicted primarily by their perceptions of their mothers' concerns about the daughters' weight, as well as by daughters' BMI, appearance conversations with friends, and perceived media pressure. Mothers' concerns with their daughters' weight were indirectly associated with daughters' own concerns, via the daughters' perceptions of their mothers' concerns. Daughters' concerns with their weight were a strong predictor of eating restraint, but not exercise behavior.

  16. Urban adolescent girls' perspectives on romantic relationships: initiation, involvement, negotiation, and conflict.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Ellen M; Morales-Alemán, Mercedes M; Teitelman, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe romantic relationships from the perspective of urban, adolescent girls, to address gaps in our understanding of their relationship dimensions. Minority adolescent girls (n  =  17) participated in private semi-structured interviews aimed to elicit the understanding of the adolescents' perspectives on their own relationship experiences and dynamics. The research team conducted conventional content analysis of the interview transcripts. Four major themes emerged about romantic relationships: (1) influence of male pursuit and social norms on relationship initiation factors; (2) a romantic partner is a confidant, friend, and companion; (3) negotiating intimacy respectfully; and (4) relationship conflict through control and abuse. Adolescents described sub-themes of social norms of male pursuit and relationship pressures that dictated relationship initiation. Relationships were depicted by emotional support, caring, and companionship. Adolescents described positive negotiation skills. However, relationship conflict, including controlling behaviors and violence, was illustrated in these same relationships. This study provides a rich description of romantic relationships from the perspectives of urban, adolescent girls. Most salient findings included social pressures and a combination of both positive and negative attributes. Implications include the need for intervention development at the community level to address social pressures, recognition of positive adolescent relationship attributes, and facilitation of skills to identify and address low-quality relationship characteristics.

  17. Linkages between childhood executive functioning and adolescent social functioning and psychopathology in girls with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Rinsky, Jenna R; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2011-01-01

    We followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n = 140) and matched comparison girls (n = 88) over a period of 5 years, from middle childhood through early/midadolescence, with the aim of determining whether childhood levels of executive function (EF) would predict adolescent multi-informant outcomes of social functioning and psychopathology, including comorbidity between externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. Predictors were well-established measures of planning, response inhibition, and working memory, along with a control measure of fine motor control. Independent of ADHD versus comparison group status, (a) childhood planning and response inhibition predicted adolescent social functioning and (b) childhood planning predicted comorbid internalizing/externalizing disorders in adolescence. Subgroup status (ADHD-Combined, ADHD-Inattentive, and comparison) moderated the relationship between childhood planning and adolescent internalizing/externalizing comorbidity, with the combined type revealing particularly strong associations between baseline planning and adolescent comorbidity. Mediation analyses indicated that adolescent social functioning mediated the prediction from childhood EF to comorbidity at follow-up; in turn, in the girls with ADHD, adolescent comorbidity mediated the prediction from childhood EF to social functioning at follow-up. We conclude that childhood interventions should target EF impairments in addition to behavioral symptoms.

  18. The impact of menstrual cycle-related physical symptoms on daily activities and psychological wellness among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    van Iersel, Kirsten C; Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano; Scholte, Ron H J

    2016-06-01

    Associations between perimenstrual physical and psychological symptoms have not been adequately studied among adolescent girls. The purpose of the present study was to test a mediation hypothesis postulating that perimenstrual disengagement from daily activities would mediate the association between physical symptoms and psychological symptoms. A non-clinical sample of N = 208 Italian adolescent girls (age M = 16.68 years) completed a 95-item online retrospective questionnaire regarding perimenstrual symptoms, and how these symptoms affect their daily activities. Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the mediation hypothesis. Results showed that physical and psychological symptoms were strongly associated. More importantly, results supported the hypothesis that perimenstrual disengagement from daily activities mediates the association between physical symptoms and psychological symptoms, but only for depressed mood and cognitive symptoms. This study provides support for a novel theoretical framework linking diverse aspects of menstrual cycle change. Longitudinal research is needed to replicate these findings.

  19. Brain Structure Abnormalities in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD.…

  20. Investigating issues surrounding depression in adolescent girls across Ontario: a participatory action research project.

    PubMed

    Ross, Erin; Ali, Alisha; Toner, Brenda

    2003-01-01

    This study gathered data from adolescent girls in four regions (Ottawa, North Bay, Toronto, Windsor) concerning key issues in the prevention of depression in young women. Using a participatory methodology, a team of young women worked with researchers to design and conduct focus groups with 48 adolescent girls across Ontario. Major themes emerging from the focus group data fell into five categories: (a) symptoms, (b) contributing factors, (c) alleviating depression, (d) prevention, and (e) barriers to receiving help. These findings should be considered when designing programs targeting depression in young women in order to maximize the accessibility and effectiveness of such initiatives.

  1. New methods of pregnancy testing in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Saxena, B B

    1981-05-01

    The knowledge and use of newer, more sensitive, and reliable pregnancy tests which are easily accessible and of moderate cost are the 1st steps in the early diagnosis and management of pregnancy, especially in adolescent girls. Accurate diagnosis of pregnancy soon after conception offers the option of abortion by simple, effective, and inexpensive procedures or early initiation of prenatal maternity care. Discussion focuses on the symptoms of pregnancy and the historical development and basis of pregnancy tests as well as the specific types of pregnancy tests. The most familiar sign of pregnancy is the missed period. Other symptoms that provide presumptive evidence of pregnancy include fatigue and lassitude, increased body temperature, and breast fullness or pain. Feelings of nausea, vomiting, and weight gain may appear after 2 weeks. The diagnosis of pregnancy by the detection of the human chorionic gonadotropin was initially described 53 years ago by Selmar Aschheim and Bernhardt Zondek. Improvements in the techniques for the measurement of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) have been directly related to the progress in the purification and isolation of hCG and elucidation of the amino acid sequence of the hormone-nonspecific alpha subunit and hormone-specific beta subunit of hCG. The history, physical examination, and pregnancy tests will generally provide sufficient information for a definite diagnosis of pregnancy. The presence of hCG in the urine or blood is the most accurate of all the indications of pregnancy. During the last century, 4 different techniques for the determination of hCG in blood and/or urine have been developed. These include the following and are reviewed in detail: 1) bioassays in intact laboratory animals; 2) immunologic tube or slide methods with heme- or latex-agglutination inhibition, as well as the more recently developed competitive protein binding method such as 3) radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the use of radioisotope labeled hormone

  2. Menstrual Symptoms in Adolescent Girls: Association with Smoking, Depressive Symptoms and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Negriff, Sonya; Huang, Bin; Pabst, Stephanie; Hillman, Jennifer; Braverman, Paula; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Dysmenorrhea affects quality of life and contributes to absenteeism from school and work diminishing opportunities for successful psychosocial and cognitive development during adolescence. In adults, depression, anxiety, and smoking have an impact on menstrual cycles and dysmenorrhea. Associations between these potential problems have not been examined in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between depressive symptoms and anxiety with menstrual symptoms. Smoking was examined as a moderator of this relationship. Methods This study enrolled 154 post-menarcheal girls from a sample of 207 girls age 11, 13, 15, and 17 years [M = 15.4 years (± 1.9)]. Self-reported measures included the Menstrual Symptom Questionnaire (MSQ), Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and smoking behavior. Generalized linear regression modeled MSQ outcomes separately for depressive symptoms and anxiety. Results More depressive symptoms/anxiety were related to higher numbers of menstrual symptoms (r = 0.23–0.44, p < .05). Smoking status (ever) was related to higher MSQ scores. Moderating effects of smoking and depressive symptoms or anxiety on menstrual symptoms were consistent across most MSQ factors where effects were stronger in never smokers. Conclusion This is the first study in adolescents showing smoking status and depressive symptoms/anxiety are related to menstrual symptoms and that the impact of depressive symptoms/anxiety on menstrual symptoms is stronger in never smokers. The dynamic and complex nature of smoking, moods, and dysmenorrhea cannot be disentangled without longitudinal analyses. Efforts to reduce menstrual symptoms should begin at a young gynecological age and include consideration of mood and smoking status. PMID:19237109

  3. "It's Too Crowded": A Qualitative Study of the Physical Environment Factors That Adolescent Girls Perceive to Be Important and Influential on Their PE Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niven, Ailsa; Henretty, Joan; Fawkner, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Many adolescent girls do not achieve a health-enhancing level of physical activity. This study aimed to identify the school physical environment factors that adolescent girls perceive to be important and influential regarding their physical education (PE) behaviour. Adolescent girls (n = 38; aged 13-16) participated in eight moderated focus…

  4. An analysis of anger in adolescent girls who practice the martial arts.

    PubMed

    Lotfian, Sara; Ziaee, Vahid; Amini, Homayoun; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali

    2011-01-01

    The effect of martial arts on adolescents' behavior, especially aggression, is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess and compare anger ratings among adolescent girl athletes of different martial arts. 291 female adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 were assessed according to the Adolescent Anger Rating Scale designed by DM Burney. In the case group, the martial arts practiced were either judo (n = 70) or karate (n = 66), while the control group was composed of swimmers (n = 59) and nonathletes (n = 96). Total anger scores showed statistically significant differences between the groups (P = 0.001) decreasing from girls who practiced judo to nonathletes, karate, and swimmers. Instrumental and reactive anger subscales also showed significant differences between the groups, but this difference was not found for anger control. As a conclusion, the anger rate did not differ between judoka and nonathletes, but that both of these groups received higher scores in total anger than karateka and swimmers.

  5. Cigarette smoking and the disenfranchisement of adolescent girls: a discourse of resistance?

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Marjorie; Wright, Nancy E

    2002-01-01

    The consequences of smoking for women are of particular concern in light of recent observations that more adolescent females than males are taking up smoking. To date, few studies have explored gender differences in depth, but we do know that males and females smoke for different reasons and that current smoking prevention programs may be differentially effective depending on gender. Recent evidence suggests that the school environment may have an important influence on smoking. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to explore gender differences in the relationships between cigarette smoking and adolescents' experiences of school climate and their relationships with the school and significant adults in their lives. A secondary data analysis was done using a data set derived from a student survey conducted in 20 secondary schools in British Columbia (BC), Canada, which included 8,179 students in grades 8 to 12. Analyses were primarily descriptive. The results demonstrated that adolescent girls who smoke are more likely than either males or nonsmoking females to experience powerlessness in their school environment and to feel considerably less attachment to the school. Female smokers are more likely than males or female nonsmokers to be engaged in oppositional, distanced, and unsatisfactory relationships with important adults in their lives, particularly those who are in positions of relative power and authority. These findings are discussed in relation to critical and feminist perspectives that suggest smoking is part of a larger discourse of resistance within schools. The implications for health practitioners are discussed.

  6. Exploring Maternal Health Care-Seeking Behavior of Married Adolescent Girls in Bangladesh: A Social-Ecological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Shahabuddin, Asm; Nöstlinger, Christiana; Delvaux, Thérèse; Sarker, Malabika; Delamou, Alexandre; Bardají, Azucena; Broerse, Jacqueline E. W.; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Background The huge proportion of child marriage contributes to high rates of pregnancies among adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Despite substantial progress in reducing maternal mortality in the last two decades, the rate of adolescent pregnancy remains high. The use of skilled maternal health services is still low in Bangladesh. Several quantitative studies described the use of skilled maternal health services among adolescent girls. So far, very little qualitative evidence exists about attitudes and practices related to maternal health. To fill this gap, we aimed at exploring maternal health care-seeking behavior of adolescent girls and their experiences related to pregnancy and delivery in Bangladesh. Methods and Findings A prospective qualitative study was conducted among thirty married adolescent girls from three Upazilas (sub-districts) of Rangpur district. They were interviewed in two subsequent phases (2014 and 2015). To triangulate and validate the data collected from these married adolescent girls, key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with different stakeholders. Data analysis was guided by the Social-Ecological Model (SEM) including four levels of factors (individual, interpersonal and family, community and social, and organizational and health systems level) which influenced the maternal health care-seeking behavior of adolescent girls. While adolescent girls showed little decision making-autonomy, interpersonal and family level factors played an important role in their use of skilled maternal health services. In addition, community and social factors and as well as organizational and health systems factors shaped adolescent girls’ maternal health care-seeking behavior. Conclusions In order to improve the maternal health of adolescent girls, all four levels of factors of SEM should be taken into account while developing health interventions targeting adolescent girls. PMID:28095432

  7. Cool Girls, Inc.: promoting the positive development of urban preadolescent and early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Kuperminc, Gabriel P; Thomason, Jessica; DiMeo, Michelle; Broomfield-Massey, Kimberley

    2011-08-01

    The past two decades have seen a transformation in youth programming toward a comprehensive positive youth development (YD) framework. Cool Girls, Inc., a YD program, focuses on improving girls' life chances by promoting positive behaviors and attitudes in multiple domains. These include self-concept, academic orientation, future orientation, and healthy behaviors. The present study uses a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent comparison group design to examine short-term effects of participation in Cool Girls, Inc. on multiple indicators of each of these domains. Participants were predominately African American and included 86 program participants and 89 comparisons in grades 4-8. Self-report questionnaires were administered at pretest (September-October) and posttest (April-May) of the 2005-2006 academic school year. We hypothesized that program participants would show improvements across domains of self-concept, academic orientation, future orientation, and healthy behavior. Relative to comparisons, program participants experienced gains in scholastic competence, hope for the future, and physical activity. Cool Girls participants with a mentor experienced significant gains in social acceptance and body image relative to other Cool Girls and were more than four times as likely to have expectations of avoiding drug use in the future. The role of mentoring as well as the study's practical significance, strengths, and limitations are discussed.

  8. The relationship between mother’s parenting style and social adaptability of adolescent girls in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Solokian, Soheila; Ashouri, Elaheh; Marofi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social adaptability is an important requirement of the social life of adolescents, which can be affected by their mother’s parenting style (PS). The purpose of this study is to compare the social adaptability in four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful) through which mothers interact with their adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This survey is a cross-sectional and analytical study on 737 adolescents that study in the all girls junior high schools in Isfahan. Data collection was done with a questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed by the adolescents. After data collection, the parenting styles were determined and the social adaptability of the four groups was compared. Findings: The mean social adaptability in adolescents who their mothers have the authoritative parenting style was 49.6 ± 6.1, in the permissive parenting style 50.1 ± 5.8, the authoritarian parenting style 44.2 ± 6.5 and in the neglectful parenting style was 42.2 ± 7.5. The social adaptability of the four groups was significantly different (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study shows that the permissive parenting style and after that authoritative parenting style were followed by higher social adaptability in adolescent girls. PMID:23833590

  9. Depressed affect and dietary restraint in adolescent boys' and girls' eating in the absence of hunger.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Nichole R; Shomaker, Lauren B; Pickworth, Courtney K; Grygorenko, Mariya V; Radin, Rachel M; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M; Brady, Sheila M; Courville, Amber B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-08-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17 y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p < .001). Yet, there was no main effect of film condition on EAH (p = .26). Instead, dietary restraint predicted greater EAH among girls, but not boys (p < .001). These findings provide evidence that adolescent girls' propensity to report restrained eating is associated with their greater disinhibited eating in the laboratory. Additional experimental research, perhaps utilizing a more potent laboratory stressor and manipulating both affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence.

  10. Higher Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Adolescent and Young Adult Girls Belonging to Different Indian Tribes with Varied Socio-Sexual Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kirti; Kathait, Atul; Jain, Asha; Kujur, Karmila; Raghuwanshi, Shirish; Bharti, Alok Chandra; Saklani, Asha Chandola; Das, Bhudev Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer in Indian women, no study has been done in tribal populations whose socio-sexual lifestyle is different. Therefore, HPV screening has been carried out in pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adult tribal girls using self-collected urine samples. Methods 20–35 ml self-collected midstream urine samples were obtained from a total of 2278 healthy tribal girls (9–25 years) comprising pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adults from three Indian states: Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. β-globin positive 2034 samples were employed for HPV detection and genotyping. Results The overall prevalence of HPV infection in tribal girls was 12.9% (262/2034). More than 65% (172/262) of them were infected with HR-HPV types of which HPV16 was the most predominant type (54%). Young adult girls aged 18–25 years showed a significantly higher prevalence of HPV infection (19.2%; OR = 3.36; 95% CI 2.97–6.34, P<0.001) as compared to that in adolescent (11.4%; OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.20–2.76, P<0.01) or pre-adolescent girls (6.6%). Conclusion This is a first study showing significantly a very high prevalence of HPV infection in adolescent and young adult tribal girls possibly due to different socio-sexual behavior, indicating a serious health concern for Indian tribal women. PMID:25954813

  11. Subclinical vitamin D deficiency is increased in adolescent girls who wear concealing clothing.

    PubMed

    Hatun, Sukru; Islam, Omer; Cizmecioglu, Filiz; Kara, Bulent; Babaoglu, Kadir; Berk, Fatma; Gökalp, Ayse Sevim

    2005-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency continues to be a worldwide problem, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate potential risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. Girls (n = 89) aged 13 to 17 y were enrolled in the study. Study subjects were stratified into 3 groups: Group I included girls living in a suburban area; Group II girls lived in an urban area, and Group III girls lived in an urban area and wore concealing clothes for religious reasons. At the end of winter (in April) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were measured and dietary data were collected using questionnaires. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25(OH)D concentration < 25 nmol/L, and insufficiency as a 25(OH)D concentration between 25 and 50 nmol/L. The lumbar and femur neck bone mineral densities (BMD) were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Overall, 39 girls (43.8%) had vitamin D insufficiency and 19 (21.3%) had vitamin D deficiency. In group III (wearing covered dress) the serum 25(OH)D concentrations (28.13 +/- 12.53 nmol/L) were significantly lower than in the other 2 groups, and within this group, 50% of girls were vitamin D deficient. The lumbar and femur neck BMD of girls with lower 25(OH)D levels did not differ from those with adequate vitamin D levels. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an important problem in Turkish adolescent girls, especially in those who follow a religious dress code; therefore, vitamin D supplementation appears to be necessary for adolescent girls.

  12. Poor Self-Control and Harsh Punishment in Childhood Prospectively Predict Borderline Personality Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Hallquist, Michael N.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) propose that harsh, invalidating parenting of a child with poor self-control and heightened negative emotionality often leads to a coercive cycle of parent-child transactions that increase risk for BPD symptoms such as emotion dysregulation. Although parenting practices and child temperament have previously been linked with BPD, less is known about the prospective influences of caregiver and child characteristics. Using annual longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 2450), our study examined how reciprocal influences among harsh parenting, self-control, and negative emotionality between ages 5 and 14 predicted the development of BPD symptoms in adolescent girls ages 14 to 17. Consistent with developmental theories, we found that harsh punishment, poor self-control, and negative emotionality predicted BPD symptom severity at age 14. Only worsening self-control between ages 12 and 14, however, predicted growth in BPD symptoms from 14 to 17. Furthermore, the effects of harsh punishment and poor self-control on age 14 BPD symptoms were partially mediated by their earlier reciprocal effects on each other between ages 5 and 14. Our findings underscore the need to address both child and parental contributions to dysfunctional transactions in order to stem the development of BPD symptoms. Moreover, problems with self-regulation in early adolescence may indicate heightened risk for subsequent BPD. Altogether, these results increase our understanding of developmental trajectories associated with BPD symptoms in adolescent girls. PMID:25961815

  13. Poor self-control and harsh punishment in childhood prospectively predict borderline personality symptoms in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Hallquist, Michael N; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2015-08-01

    Developmental theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) propose that harsh, invalidating parenting of a child with poor self-control and heightened negative emotionality often leads to a coercive cycle of parent-child transactions that increase risk for BPD symptoms such as emotion dysregulation. Although parenting practices and child temperament have previously been linked with BPD, less is known about the prospective influences of caregiver and child characteristics. Using annual longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 2,450), our study examined how reciprocal influences among harsh parenting, self-control, and negative emotionality between ages 5 and 14 predicted the development of BPD symptoms in adolescent girls ages 14 to 17. Consistent with developmental theories, we found that harsh punishment, poor self-control, and negative emotionality predicted BPD symptom severity at age 14. Only worsening self-control between ages 12 and 14, however, predicted growth in BPD symptoms from 14 to 17. Furthermore, the effects of harsh punishment and poor self-control on age 14 BPD symptoms were partially mediated by their earlier reciprocal effects on each other between ages 5 and 14. Our findings underscore the need to address both child and parental contributions to dysfunctional transactions in order to stem the development of BPD symptoms. Moreover, problems with self-regulation in early adolescence may indicate heightened risk for subsequent BPD. Altogether, these results increase our understanding of developmental trajectories associated with BPD symptoms in adolescent girls.

  14. Motivation and Self-Perception Profiles and Links with Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Wang, C. K. John

    2003-01-01

    Research shows a decline in participation in physical activity across the teenage years. It is important, therefore, to examine factors that might influence adolescent girl's likelihood of being physically active. This study used contemporary theoretical perspectives from psychology to assess a comprehensive profile of motivational and…

  15. Profiling Sport Role Models to Enhance Initiatives for Adolescent Girls in Physical Education and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vescio, Johanna; Wilde, Kerrie; Crosswhite, Janice J.

    2005-01-01

    This study involved the investigation of sport role models for adolescent girls in Australia. Initially, a theoretical perspective is presented based on social learning and gender theory. Then, using quantitative and qualitative data obtained through two focus group interviews and a survey (n = 357) conducted at two Sydney high schools, the…

  16. Age at Menarche and Premenstrual Syndrome in Adolescent Girls with Intellectual Disability in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibralic, Inga; Sinanovic, Osman; Memisevic, Haris

    2010-01-01

    The issues involving menstruation are the topic of many scientific inquires in the fields of medicine, psychology, sociology and anthropology. The aim of this study was to determine the age at menarche and the most common symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in adolescent girls with intellectual disability. The main method of data collection…

  17. Examination of a Model of Multiple Sociocultural Influences on Adolescent Girls' Body Dissatisfaction and Dietary Restraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkley, Tracy L.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.; Paxton, Susan J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the perceived role of sociocultural agents (peers, parents, and media) in influencing body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint in adolescent girls. While current body size strongly predicted ideal body size and dissatisfaction, perceived influence of sociocultural agents also had a direct relationship with body ideal and…

  18. Factorial Validity and Invariance of a Self-Report Measure of Physical Activity among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR) using confirmatory factor analysis. Adolescent girls from two cohorts (N=955, N=1,797) completed the 3DPAR in the eighth grade; participants in Cohort 2 (N=1,658) completed the 3DPAR again 1 year later in the ninth grade. The 3DPAR…

  19. Self-Motivation and Physical Activity among Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Felton, Gwen; Pate, Russell R.

    2003-01-01

    Established the psychometric properties of the Self-Motivation Inventory for Children (SMI-C) using tests of factorial validity, factorial invariance, latent mean structure, and predictive validity. Two cohorts of black and white adolescent girls completed the SMI-C and various physical activity measures. The single-factor, positively worded,…

  20. A Meaningful Method: Research with Adolescent Girls Who Use Crystal Methamphetamine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbury, Janet; Hoskins, Marie L.

    2008-01-01

    Embarking on a study in which we hope to gain a contextualized understanding of the experiences of adolescent girls who use crystal methamphetamines, it is crucial for us to select a research methodology congruent with our aims. In the current article, we share the theoretical basis and decision making process that has lead us to a multi-modal…

  1. Pubertal Development and Sexual Intercourse among Adolescent Girls: An Examination of Direct, Mediated, and Spurious Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savolainen, Jukka; Mason, W. Alex; Hughes, Lorine A.; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Taanila, Anja M.

    2015-01-01

    There are strong reasons to assume that early onset of puberty accelerates coital debut among adolescent girls. Although many studies support this assumption, evidence regarding the putative causal processes is limited and inconclusive. In this research, longitudinal data from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study (N = 2,596) were used to…

  2. Longitudinal Association between Childhood Impulsivity and Bulimic Symptoms in African American Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodell, Lindsay P.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using a longitudinal design, the authors of this study examined the relationship between externalizing problems and impulsivity in early childhood and symptoms of disordered eating in late adolescence. Method: Participants were urban, African American first-grade girls (N = 119) and their parents who were participating in a longitudinal…

  3. The Effect of Risk and Resilience Factors on the Prediction of Delinquency in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Lela Renee'; Loper, Ann Booker

    2002-01-01

    Describes two studies conducted with samples of adolescent girls to determine whether resilience factors could distinguish at risk characteristics as delinquent or non-delinquent. Resiliency was shown to determine delinquency levels. Suggests that intervention programs designed to remediate the effects of risk factors should include components…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Pubertal Timing and Extreme Body Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have examined the prevalence of disordered eating and other health risk behaviors among adolescent boys and girls. However, these studies generally have not examined predictors of these behaviors, and have not embedded the investigations within a theoretical framework. This study employed a longitudinal design to evaluate the…

  5. Impact of Group Sandtray Therapy on the Self-Esteem of Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Yu-Pei; Armstrong, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of group sandtray therapy was examined using a pretest-posttest control group design with young adolescent girls (n = 37) identified as having low self-esteem. A split-plot analysis of variance (SPANOVA) revealed statistically significant differences between participants in the treatment and control groups in self-esteem on five…

  6. Background, Personal, and Environmental Influences on the Career Planning of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novakovic, Alexandra; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of background variables (age, race/ethnicity, mother's work status outside of the home, and socioeconomic status), personal variables (anticipatory role conflict and academic self-efficacy), and environmental variables (parental attachment and parental support) on aspects of adolescent girls' career planning.…

  7. Embodiment Feels Better: Girls' Body Objectification and Well-Being across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impett, Emily A.; Henson, James M.; Breines, Juliana G.; Schooler, Deborah; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    In a five-year longitudinal study, we investigated the role of body objectification in shaping girls' self-esteem and depressive symptoms over the course of adolescence. Multivariate Latent Growth Curve Modeling (MLGM) was used to test the association between body objectification and both self-esteem and depressive symptoms with data from 587…

  8. A Prospective Study of Extreme Weight Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined changes in extreme weight change attitudes and behaviors (exercise dependence, food supplements, drive for thinness, bulimia) among adolescent boys and girls over a 16 month period. It also investigated the impact of body mass index, puberty, body image, depression and positive affect on these attitudes and behaviors 16 months…

  9. Relationship Characteristics and Sexual Practices of African American Adolescent Girls Who Desire Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Susan L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Person, Sharina D.; Crosby, Richard A.; Harrington, Kathleen F.; Dix, Emily S.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations between African American adolescent girls' desire to become pregnant and their sexual and relationship practices. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to detect significant associations between pregnancy desire and the assessed correlates. Of 522 participants (14 to 18 years old), 67 (12.8%) were…

  10. Narratives of Adolescent Girls Journeying via Feminist Participatory Action Research through the Aftermath of Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botha, Carolina S.; Hay, Johnnie

    2016-01-01

    This article documents the (often counter-normative) narrative journey of four South African adolescent girls whose biological parents had divorced--and one (or both) parent(s) remarried. Through purposive sampling within a qualitative research paradigm of feminist participatory action research, they were supported in group context by the primary…

  11. Empowering Adolescent Girls in Developing Countries: The Potential Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Graham, Erin; Lloyd, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a conceptual framework for how education can promote adolescent girls' empowerment and, by mapping the field, highlights promising examples of empowering education programs. We conclude by identifying both research and programmatic opportunities for the future that will harness the expertise of a range of specialists from the…

  12. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  13. Emotion Awareness and Identification Skills in Adolescent Girls with Bulimia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Leslie; Zeman, Janice

    2004-01-01

    This study examined emotion-identification skills in 19 adolescent girls (M age = 16 years, 8 months) diagnosed with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV], American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis of bulimia nervosa or eating disorder not otherwise specified in the bulimic spectrum, 19 age-matched girls…

  14. Ponytails & Death-Ray Looks: A Review of Research on Relational Aggression among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Glenn L.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression (RA) involves either indirect, verbal, or covert acts with the intent to humiliate, exclude peers from groups, and/or damage a peer's reputation and social status. RA is believed to be particularly devastating psychologically for adolescent girls, as they tend to form smaller and more intimate social groups. Unfortunately, RA…

  15. Mothers, Peers, and Perceived Pressure to Diet among Japanese Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Takayo

    1996-01-01

    Compared impact of maternal influences and impact of peer influences on eating problems among Japanese adolescent girls. Found greater impact of peer interactions in grades 10 and 11, while maternal influence was stronger in grades 8 and 9. Measured participants' sensitivity to social evaluation and found no effects of grade in this area. (SD)

  16. Late Adolescent and Young Adult Outcomes of Girls Diagnosed with ADHD in Childhood: An Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method: The study included 58 women from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. A total of 34 (M = 19.97 years old) met "DSM" criteria for ADHD in childhood, whereas the remaining 24 (M = 19.83 years old) did not. Self- and…

  17. Explaining Why Early-Maturing Girls Are More Exposed to Sexual Harassment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested two competing explanations of the previously established link between early female puberty and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The sample included 680 seventh-grade Swedish girls (M[subscript age] = 13.40, SD = 0.53). Findings revealed that looking more sexually mature and being sexually active mediated the link…

  18. Mother-Daughter Communication about Sexuality in a Clinical Sample of Hispanic Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Jaramillo, Beatriz M. S.; Moreau, Donna; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.

    1999-01-01

    Surveys of 110 inner-city Hispanic adolescent girls referred for psychiatric assessment and their mothers found that the quality of mother/daughter communication in general was more useful in predicting onset of sexual experiences than aspects of later sexual experiences. However, specific communication about sexuality was not related to…

  19. Hormone Concentrations and Variability: Associations with Self-Reported Moods and Energy in Early Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Christy Miller

    Examined were relations between concentrations and variability of hormones (testosterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, and leutenizing hormone) and mood intensity, mood variability (within and across days), energy, and restlessness in early adolescent girls. The study also considered the issue of whether hormones have effects on mood…

  20. A biopsychosocial model of body image concerns and disordered eating in early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A

    2014-05-01

    Body image and eating concerns are prevalent among early adolescent girls, and associated with biological, psychological and sociocultural risk factors. To date, explorations of biopsychosocial models of body image concerns and disordered eating in early adolescent girls are lacking. A sample of 488 early adolescent girls, mean age = 12.35 years (SD = 0.53), completed a questionnaire assessing depressive symptoms, self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), sociocultural appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, appearance comparison, body image concerns and disordered eating. Structural equation modelling was conducted to test a hypothetical model in which internalization and comparison were mediators of the effect of both negative affect and sociocultural influences on body image concerns and disordered eating. In addition, the model proposed that BMI would impact body image concerns. Although the initial model was a poor fit to the data, the fit was improved after the addition of a direct pathway between negative affect and bulimic symptoms. The final model explained a large to moderate proportion of the variance in body image and eating concerns. This study supports the role of negative affect in biopsychosocial models of the development of body image concerns and disordered eating in early adolescent girls. Interventions including strategies to address negative affect as well as sociocultural appearance pressures may help decrease the risk for body image concerns and disordered eating among this age group.

  1. Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

  2. Thyroid Hormone Levels and Psychological Symptoms in Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…

  3. Coping with Social Stress: Implications for Psychopathology in Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Warren, Michelle P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of social stress on symptoms of psychopathology at the entry into adolescence (111 girls, Mage = 11.84, SD = 0.77). We examined whether peer stress and pubertal timing were associated with internalizing distress and aggression, and whether responses to stress and cortisol reactivity mediated or moderated these…

  4. Dramatising the Hidden Hurt: Acting against Covert Bullying by Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    This paper, delivered at the International Drama in Education Research Institute (IDIERI) conference in Sydney in July 2009, explores the outcomes of a project designed to apply the applied theatre techniques developed for the Acting Against Bullying programme to the specific problem of covert or hidden bullying by adolescent girls. Conducted in a…

  5. Sedentary Activity and Body Composition of Middle School Girls: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Charlotte; Webber, Larry S.; Baggett, Chris D.; Ward, Dianne; Pate, Russell R.; Murray, David; Lohman, Timothy; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between sedentary activity and body composition in 1,458 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Multivariate associations between sedentary activity and body composition were examined with regression analyses using general linear mixed models. Mean age, body mass index, and…

  6. Shortchanging Hispanic Girls. An Analysis of Hispanic Girls in the Greenberg-Lake Survey of Self-Esteem, Education, and Career Aspirations among Adolescent Girls and Boys in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    "Shortchanging Girls, Shortchanging America," a report about the interrelationships among self-esteem, education, and career aspirations in adolescent girls and boys in today's society, received widespread attention on its release. The American Association of University Women asked the Academy for Educational Development to review the…

  7. Girls' and boys' experience with teen sexting in early and late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ševčíková, Anna

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the extent to which sexting represents a problematic behavior in early and late adolescence. Using data from the EU Kids Online II project (17,016 participants aged 11-16 from 25 European countries, 49.7% boys), multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for four groups: younger girls, older girls, younger boys, and older boys. Irrespective of age and gender, sexting was associated with emotional problems and alcohol use. Its effect decreased in older adolescents, except for emotional difficulties, which remained relatively high in older boys. Vaginal sex was associated with sexting in both younger and older boys while, in girls, the association was observed only in the older group. Younger boys with higher self-efficacy were more likely to send sexts than those with lower self-efficacy. Although sexting is associated with psychological challenges and other types of risk behavior, sexting in some younger boys may not necessarily represent problematic behavior.

  8. Reaching adolescent girls through social networking: a new avenue for smoking prevention messages.

    PubMed

    Struik, Laura Louise; Bottorff, Joan L; Jung, Mary; Budgen, Claire

    2012-09-01

    Because adolescent girls are being targeted on social networking sites by the tobacco industry, new online tobacco control (TC) initiatives are needed. The purpose of this interpretive descriptive study was to explore adolescent girls' perspectives on the use of social networking sites to deliver TC messages targeting young women. Focus groups were conducted with 17 girls aged 16 to 19. Seven TC messages were provided for evaluation and as context for discussion about the delivery of TC messages on social networking sites. Data were analyzed for themes, which included concerns about the effectiveness of current TC messages and the stereotypical representations of gender, factors perceived to influence the effectiveness of TC messages on social networking sites, and suggestions for enhancing the effectiveness of TC messages placed on social networking sites. Endorsement of TC messaging on social networking sites suggests that this medium is an untapped resource for smoking prevention.

  9. Suicidal Ideation of Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents has One-Year Predictive Validity for Suicide Attempts in Girls Only

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qingmei; Czyz, Ewa K.; Kerr, David C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians commonly incorporate adolescents’ self-reported suicidal ideation into formulations regarding adolescents’ risk for suicide. Data are limited, however, regarding the extent to which adolescent boys’ and girls’ reports of suicidal ideation have clinically significant predictive validity in terms of subsequent suicidal behavior. This study examined psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent boys’ and girls’ self-reported suicidal ideation as a predictor of suicide attempts during the first year following hospitalization. A total of 354 adolescents (97 boys; 257 girls; ages 13–17 years) hospitalized for acute suicide risk were evaluated at the time of hospitalization as well as 3, 6, and 12 months later. Study measures included the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Youth Self-Report, and Personal Experiences Screen Questionnaire. The main study outcome was presence and number of suicide attempt(s) in the year after hospitalization, measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Results indicated a significant interaction between suicidal ideation, assessed during first week of hospitalization, and gender for the prediction of subsequent suicide attempts. Suicidal ideation was a significant predictor of subsequent suicide attempts for girls, but not boys. Baseline history of multiple suicide attempts was a significant predictor of subsequent suicide attempts across genders. Results support the importance of empirically validating suicide risk assessment strategies separately for adolescent boys and girls. Among adolescent boys who have been hospitalized due to acute suicide risk, low levels of self-reported suicidal ideation may not be indicative of low risk for suicidal behavior following hospitalization. PMID:23996157

  10. Friendships and Suicidality among Mexican American Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterrowd, Erin; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Chavez, Ernest L.

    2010-01-01

    Friendship factors have been implicated in adolescent suicidality, but this relationship has not been verified across ethnicities. This study examined suicidality and friendship problems (i.e., social isolation, poor friendship quality, friends' school disconnection, and friends' delinquency) among Mexican American adolescents, an understudied,…

  11. Effectiveness and Feasibility of Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation to Adolescent Girls and Boys through Peer Educators at Community Level in the Tribal Area of Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shobha P; Shah, Pankaj; Desai, Shrey; Modi, Dhiren; Desai, Gaytri; Arora, Honey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemia during adolescence affects growth and development of girls and boys increasing their vulnerability to dropping out-of-school. Hence investing in preventing anemia during adolescence is critical for their survival, growth and development. Objective: To find out the burden of anemia on adolescent age group in the tribal area of Jhagadia block and to assess the change in the hemoglobin level through the weekly Iron and Folic Acid IFA (DOTS) directly observed treatment supplementation under Supervision by Peer Educators at Community level among adolescents. Methods: Community based intervention study conducted with adolescents (117 girls and 127 boys) aged 10-19 years, through supplementation of IFA (DOTS) by trained Peer Educators for 52 weeks in 5 tribal villages of Jhagadia. Hemoglobin level was determined by HemoCue method before and after intervention and sickle cell anemia by Electrophoresis method. Primary data on hemoglobin and number of tablets consumed was collected and statistically analyzed in SPSS 16.0 software by applying paired t-test. Results: The overall findings suggest that the prevalence of anemia reduced from 79.5% to 58% among adolescent girls and from 64% to 39% among boys. Mean rise of hemoglobin seen was 1.5 g/dl among adolescent boys and 1.3 g/dl among girls. A significant association was found in change in hemoglobin before and after intervention (P = 0.000) Conclusion: Prevalence of anemia among girls and boys can be reduced in their adolescent phase of life, through weekly supplementation of iron folic acid tablets under direct supervision and Nutrition Education by Peer Educator at community level. PMID:27051093

  12. Latina and European American Girls' Experiences with Academic Sexism and their Self-Concepts in Mathematics and Science During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christia Spears; Leaper, Campbell

    2010-12-01

    The study investigated Latina and European American adolescent girls' (N = 345, M = 15.2 years, range = 13 to 18) experiences with academic sexism in mathematics and science (M/S) and their M/S perceived competence and M/S value (liking and importance). M/S academic sexism was based on girls' reported experiences hearing sexist comments about girls' abilities in math and science. Older European American adolescents, and both younger and older Latina adolescents, who experienced several instances of academic sexism felt less competent in M/S than girls who experienced less sexism (controlling for M/S grades). In addition, among older girls (regardless of ethnicity), those who experienced several instances of academic sexism valued M/S less than girls who experienced less sexism.

  13. The measurement of menstrual symptoms: factor structure of the menstrual symptom questionnaire in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Negriff, Sonya; Dorn, Lorah D; Hillman, Jennifer B; Huang, Bin

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the Menstrual Symptom Questionnaire (MSQ) in a sample of 210 adolescent girls (11-17 years). Such an examination has not been carried out with an adolescent sample. In addition, the definitions of menstrual disorders have evolved since the creation of the MSQ. Exploratory factor analysis supported a three factor structure indicating abdominal pain, negative affect/somatic complaints, and back pain. Partial correlations indicated all three MSQ factors were correlated with depressive symptoms, but only the negative affect factor was correlated with trait anxiety. Future research should explore potential associations in multiple areas of functioning as menstrual symptoms may alter healthy developmental processes during adolescence.

  14. Longitudinal Trajectories of PTSD Symptoms and Binge Drinking Among Adolescent Girls: The Role of Sexual Victimization

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Many studies have documented associations among sexual victimization (SV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and alcohol use; however, few have examined these associations longitudinally among adolescents. The present study evaluated the impact of SV on the longitudinal trajectory of PTSD symptoms and binge drinking (BD) among adolescent girls, a population known to have high rates of SV and alcohol use. Methods Participants (N = 1,808 at wave 1) completed interviews regarding PTSD symptoms, BD, and SV experiences over approximately three years. Results Multilevel modeling revealed decreases in PTSD symptoms over the course of the study; however, compared to non-victims, SV adolescents reported greater PTSD symptoms at wave 1 and maintained higher levels of PTSD symptoms over the course of the study after controlling for age. SV reported during the study also predicted an acute increase in PTSD symptoms at that occasion. BD increased significantly over the course of the study; however, SV did not predict initial BD or increases over time. SV reported during the study was associated with acute increases in BD at that occasion, although this effect diminished when participants reporting substance-involved rape were excluded. Conclusions SV was associated with immediate and long-lasting elevations in PTSD symptoms, but not with initial or lasting elevations in BD over time, suggesting that adolescent victims have yet to develop problematic patterns of alcohol use to cope with SV. However, SV was associated with acute increases in PTSD symptoms and BD, suggesting a need for BD interventions to reduce alcohol-related SV. PMID:22188834

  15. Adolescent girls' most common source of junk food away from home.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Deborah A; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Beckman, Robin; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John; Pereira, Mark A; Veblen Mortenson, Sara; Pickrel, Julie; Conway, Terry L

    2012-09-01

    Contextual factors associated with adolescent girls' dietary behaviors could inform future interventions to improve diet. High school girls completed a 7-day diary, recording all trips made. In places other than home or school they recorded the food eaten. Girls made an average of 11.4 trips per week other than to home or school. Snacks high in solid oils, fats and added sugars (SOFAS) were frequently consumed. Girls reported eating an average of 3.5 servings per week of snacks high in SOFAS at someone else's house compared to 3.0 servings per week at retail food outlets. Findings demonstrate that low nutrient foods are ubiquitous and efforts should be made to reduce their availability in multiple settings.

  16. Association between food intake frequency and obesity among adolescent girls in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Zagzoog, Nisreen

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to discover the association between the intake of certain foods and the occurrence of obesity among adolescent girls in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional multistage sampling method was conducted among girls aged 12-19 years in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The total sample was 512. Obesity was calculated based on the International Obesity Task Force standards. Findings revealed that obese girls were less likely to eat fruit, vegetables, meat, chicken and dairy products than non-obese girls, but the differences were not statistically significant. However, the risk of being obese was greater for those who consumed chocolates and sweets (odds ratio=1.57) and fast foods (odds ratio=1.35) more than three times a week. Thus, programs to promote a healthy lifestyle for schoolchildren should include appropriate intervention on changing dietary habits.

  17. Resilient Adolescent Adjustment among Girls: Buffers of Childhood Peer Rejection and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Examined a risk-resilience model of peer rejection and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a 5-year longitudinal study of 209 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls aged 6–13 at baseline and 11–18 at follow-up. Risk factors were childhood ADHD diagnosis and peer rejection; hypothesized protective factors were childhood measures of self-perceived scholastic competence, engagement in goal-directed play when alone, and popularity with adults. Adolescent criterion measures were multi-informant composites of externalizing and internalizing behavior plus indicators of academic achievement, eating pathology, and substance use. ADHD and peer rejection predicted risk for all criterion measures except for substance use, which was predicted by ADHD only. ADHD and peer rejection predicted lower adolescent academic achievement controlling for childhood achievement, but they did not predict adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior after controlling for baseline levels of these constructs. Regarding buffers, self-perceived scholastic competence in childhood (with control of academic achievement) predicted resilient adolescent functioning. Contrary to hypothesis, goal-directed play in childhood was associated with poor adolescent outcomes. Buffers were not found to have differential effectiveness among girls with ADHD relative to comparison girls. PMID:17051436

  18. Non-suicidal self-injury prospectively predicts interpersonal stressful life events and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Burke, Taylor A; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-08-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is the deliberate self-harm of one's tissue, engaged in without lethal intent, and occurs frequently among late adolescents. Although research has indicated that NSSI predicts depression, the potential psychosocial mechanisms through which engagement in NSSI makes one susceptible to future depressive symptoms remain unclear. The present study examined whether NSSI increases the risk of experiencing stressful life events, which, in turn, heightens the risk for subsequent depressive symptoms. Drawn from a sample specifically selected for adolescents at high and low risk for developing bipolar spectrum disorders, a total of 110 late-adolescents (mean age=18.74, SD=.69; 73% female) were administered measures of lifetime and past year engagement in NSSI and current depressive symptomatology. Approximately 6 months later, they completed a measure of depressive symptoms and a questionnaire and interview assessing life events that occurred over the 6-month interval. Results suggest that the frequency of lifetime and past year NSSI predicted the occurrence of interpersonal stressful life events beyond the effects of initial depressive symptoms, but only for late adolescent girls. Results further suggest that higher levels of interpersonal stressful life events mediated the relationship between NSSI frequency and prospective increases in depressive symptoms among girls.

  19. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Prospectively Predicts Interpersonal Stressful Life Events and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Taylor A.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is the deliberate self-harm of one’s tissue, engaged in without lethal intent, and occurs frequently among late adolescents. Although research has indicated that NSSI predicts depression, the potential psychosocial mechanisms through which engagement in NSSI makes one susceptible to future depressive symptoms remain unclear. The present study examined whether NSSI increases the risk of experiencing stressful life events, which, in turn, heightens the risk for subsequent depressive symptoms. Drawn from a sample specifically selected for adolescents at high and low risk for developing bipolar spectrum disorders, a total of 110 late-adolescents (mean age = 18.74, SD = .69; 73% female) were administered measures of lifetime and past year engagement in NSSI and current depressive symptomatology. Approximately 6 months later, they completed a measure of depressive symptoms and a questionnaire and interview assessing life events that occurred over the 6-month interval. Results suggest that the frequency of lifetime and past year NSSI predicted the occurrence of interpersonal stressful life events beyond the effects of initial depressive symptoms, but only for late adolescent girls. Results further suggest that higher levels of interpersonal stressful life events mediated the relationship between NSSI frequency and prospective increases in depressive symptoms among girls. PMID:26165966

  20. Prevalence of Anaemia and Its Associated Risk Factors Among Adolescent Girls of Central Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Sobha, A.; Manjula, V.D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adolescent age group is the window of opportunity to correct nutritional status of children. If we intervene correctly during this period we can prevent future consequences of nutritional deficiencies. Very few studies have been conducted in kerala regarding adolescent anaemia. Aim To estimate prevalence of anaemia and its associated factors among adolescent girls of central Kerala, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 257 adolescent girls of ettumanoor panchayat, the field practice area of Government Medical College, Kottayam. A pre-designed and pre-tested proforma was used to obtain data regarding socio-demographic details and factors associated with anaemia. Relevant clinical examination of participants were done. Blood samples were analysed using an auto-analyser and stool examination for ova or cyst was done under microscopy. Diagnosis of anaemia was established when haemoglobin was less than 12gm/dl. Data analysis was done using SPSS 16.0. Association between Categorical variables were tested with Chi-square test and continuous variables independent t-test was used. Logistic regression was used to find out independent risk factors. The level of significance was fixed at p-value of < 0.05. Results The prevalence of anaemia was 21%. Risk factors associated with anaemia in the univariate analysis were presence of ova or cyst in stool (p = 0.003, OR = 2.94) and number of pads per day during menstruation (p = 0.004). Protective factors were hand washing after toileting (p = 0.021, OR = 0.311), hand washing before food intake (p = 0.026, OR = 0.5), foot wear usage (p = 0.022, OR = 0.25) and jaggery consumption (0.042). The factors which were significant in logistic regression were worm infestation, number of pads per day, washing hands before food intake and foot wear usage. Conclusion Worm infestation and number of pads per day during menstruation were found to be risk factors for anaemia. Personal hygiene practices

  1. BodiMojo: effective Internet-based promotion of positive body image in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Franko, Debra L; Cousineau, Tara M; Rodgers, Rachel F; Roehrig, James P

    2013-09-01

    This study tested the efficacy of an Internet-based health promotion program, BodiMojo, designed to promote positive body image in adolescents. Participants were 178 students (mean age 15.2 years, 67.6% ethnic minority) in three public high schools. Intervention groups used BodiMojo for four weekly health class periods, while controls participated in their usual health curriculum. Body image measures were given at baseline, post-intervention, and 3 months. Girls reported decreased body dissatisfaction (p<.05), decreased physical appearance comparison (p<.05), and increased appearance satisfaction (p<.05), relative to controls. Effects were not maintained at 3-month follow-up. No significant differences were found between the intervention and control groups with boys. Moderation analyses suggested positive effects for diverse adolescents as well as those who were overweight or indicated baseline high body dissatisfaction. BodiMojo appears to be modestly effective in decreasing body image concerns among adolescent girls in the short term.

  2. Thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction and symptoms of eating disorders in Croatian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Rukavina, T; Pokrajac-Bulian, A

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the relationship between unhealthy eating habits and behaviors, perception and acceptance of societal standards regarding thinness, body dissatisfaction, and family and peer pressure to be thin. One hundred and twentythree high school girls from Rijeka (Croatia) were surveyed using Eating Attitudes Test (EAT- 26), Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ), Body Esteem Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (BES), and Scale of perceived pressure to be thin from family and peers. The results of path analyses showed that social pressure from family and peers, experience of weight-related teasing and criticism by family members, contributed to development of eating disturbance. The acceptance of social standards related to appearance, contributed to onset of disturbed eating habits. Weight satisfaction alone influences the development of some eating disorder symptoms, but it is also a mediator of higher body mass index (BMI) and internalization of societal appearance standards. Girls with higher BMI, who accepted societal standards of thin-ideal, perceived major social pressure to be thin through direct and persuasive comments designed to establish the importance of dieting, and probably develop eating disturbed habits, or some symptoms of anorexia (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN).

  3. Interpersonal problem areas and alexithymia in adolescent girls with loss of control eating.

    PubMed

    Berger, Sarah Shafer; Elliott, Camden; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Shomaker, Lauren B; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E; Young, Jami F; Sbrocco, Tracy; Wilfley, Denise E; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the links among interpersonal problem areas, depression, and alexithymia in adolescent girls at high risk for excessive weight gain and binge eating disorder. Participants were 56 girls (Mage = 14.30, SD = 1.56; 53% non-Hispanic White) with a body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) between the 75th and 97th percentiles (MBMI z = 1.57, SD = 0.32). By design, all participants reported loss of control eating patterns in the past month. Adolescents were individually interviewed prior to participating in a group interpersonal psychotherapy obesity and eating disorder prevention program, termed IPT for the prevention of excessive weight gain (IPT-WG). Participants' interpersonal problem areas were coded by trained raters. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing depression and alexithymia. Primary interpersonal problem areas were categorized as interpersonal deficits [as defined in the eating disorders (ED) literature] (n = 29), role disputes (n = 22), or role transitions (n = 5). Girls with interpersonal deficits-ED had greater depressive symptoms and alexithymia than girls with role disputes (p's ≤ 0.01). However, girls with role transitions did not differ from girls with interpersonal deficits-ED or role disputes. Interpersonal problem area had an indirect association with depression via alexithymia; interpersonal deficits-ED were related to greater alexithymia, which in turn, was related to greater depressive symptoms (p = 0.01). Among girls at risk for excess weight gain and eating disorders, those with interpersonal deficits-ED appear to have greater distress as compared to girls with role disputes or role transitions. Future research is required to elucidate the impact of interpersonal problem areas on psychotherapy outcomes.

  4. New Horizons: An Empowerment Program for Egyptian Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Julie Hanson

    New Horizons is a nonschool program that demystifies and communicates essential information on basic life skills and reproductive health to Egyptian girls and young women aged 9-20. The program consists of 100 hour-long sessions, each including an introduction to a specific topic, review of group knowledge level, discussion around key points…

  5. Pubertal Timing and Adolescent Sexual Behavior in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sarah R.; Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Girls who experience earlier pubertal timing relative to peers also exhibit earlier timing of sexual intercourse and more unstable sexual relationships. Although pubertal development initiates feelings of physical desire, the transition into romantic and sexual relationships involves complex biological and social processes contributing both to…

  6. Depression and School Performance in Middle Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frojd, Sari A.; Nissinen, Eeva S.; Pelkonen, Mirjami U. I.; Marttunen, Mauri J.; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the associations between different levels of depression with different aspects of school performance. The target population included 2516 7th-9th grade pupils (13-17 years) of whom 90% completed the questionnaire anonymously in the classroom. Of the girls 18.4% and of the boys 11.1% were classified as being depressed…

  7. How adolescent girls interpret weight-loss advertising.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Renee; Broder, Sharon; Pope, Holly; Rowe, Jonelle

    2006-10-01

    While they demonstrate some ability to critically analyze the more obvious forms of deceptive weight-loss advertising, many girls do not recognize how advertising evokes emotional responses or how visual and narrative techniques are used to increase identification in weight-loss advertising. This study examined how girls aged 9-17 years interpreted magazine advertising, television (TV) advertising and infomercials for weight-loss products in order to determine whether deceptive advertising techniques were recognized and to assess pre-existing media-literacy skills. A total of 42 participants were interviewed in seven geographic regions of the United States. In groups of three, participants were shown seven print and TV advertisements (ads) for weight-loss products and asked to share their interpretations of each ad. Common factors in girls' interpretation of weight-loss advertising included responding to texts emotionally by identifying with characters; comparing and contrasting persuasive messages with real-life experiences with family members; using prior knowledge about nutrition management and recognizing obvious deceptive claims like 'rapid' or 'permanent' weight loss. Girls were less able to demonstrate skills including recognizing persuasive construction strategies including message purpose, target audience and subtext and awareness of economic factors including financial motives, credibility enhancement and branding.

  8. Case Series: Outbreak of Conversion Disorder among Amish Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassady, Joslyn D.; Kirschke, David L.; Jones, Timothy F.; Craig, Allen S.; Bermudez, Ovidio B.; Schaffner, William

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Outbreak investigations are challenging in a cross-cultural context, and outbreaks of psychiatric disease are rare in any community. We investigated a cluster of unexplained debilitating illness among Amish girls. Method: We reviewed the medical records of cases, consulted with health care providers, performed active case finding,…

  9. Trauma, Delinquency, and Substance Use: Co-occurring Problems for Adolescent Girls in the Juvenile Justice System.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dana K; Saldana, Lisa

    2013-07-02

    Girls in the juvenile justice system are known to have high rates of co-occurring childhood abuse, trauma, and substance abuse. Girls with this constellation of problems are at high risk for serious adverse outcomes, including problems with drug dependence and abuse. The relationship between childhood sexual abuse, childhood physical abuse, other types of childhood trauma, and rates of substance use during adolescence were examined for girls in the juvenile justice system. As expected, childhood sexual abuse was significantly related to girls' substance use during adolescence. In contrast to prior research, no link was found between physical abuse, lifetime trauma, and substance use. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  10. Disclosure bias for group versus individual reporting of violence amongst conflict-affected adolescent girls in DRC and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Stark, Lindsay; Sommer, Marni; Davis, Kathryn; Asghar, Khudejha; Assazenew Baysa, Asham; Abdela, Gizman; Tanner, Sophie; Falb, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Methodologies to measure gender-based violence (GBV) have received inadequate attention, especially in humanitarian contexts where vulnerabilities to violence are exacerbated. This paper compares the results from individual audio computer-assisted self-administered (ACASI) survey interviews with results from participatory social mapping activities, employed with the same sample in two different post-conflict contexts. Eighty-seven internally displaced adolescent girls from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and 78 Sudanese girls living in Ethiopian refugee camps were interviewed using the two methodologies. Results revealed that the group-based qualitative method elicited narratives of violence focusing on events perpetrated by strangers or members of the community more distantly connected to girls. In contrast, ACASI interviews revealed violence predominantly perpetrated by family members and intimate partners. These findings suggest that group-based methods of information gathering frequently used in the field may be more susceptible to socially accepted narratives. Specifically, our findings suggest group-based methods may produce results showing that sexual violence perpetrated by strangers (e.g., from armed groups in the conflict) is more prevalent than violence perpetrated by family and intimate partners. To the extent this finding is true, it may lead to a skewed perception that adolescent GBV involving strangers is a more pressing issue than intimate partner and family-based sexual violence, when in fact, both are of great concern.

  11. Transition in participation in sport and unstructured physical activity for rural living adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Eime, R M; Payne, W R; Casey, M M; Harvey, J T

    2010-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) is important for lifelong health; however, participation is lower in rural compared with metropolitan areas and declines during adolescence, particularly for girls. It is likely that this decline is related to the number of life transitions that occur during adolescence. This qualitative study examined the views of active rural living girls regarding the factors affecting their sport and PA participation, using the socioecological model. Twenty-seven girls aged 16-17 from four schools participated in semi-structured focus group discussions. Content and thematic analysis was conducted from verbatim transcripts using NVivo. The girls enjoyed involvement in community club sport with friends and they reported living in communities where participation in sport was a major form of social interaction. However, the desire to succeed educationally was a critical factor affecting their participation in sport and PA and influenced their movement from structured club sport to more flexible, but socially isolated individual activities. It is recommended that future longitudinal research should track rural living adolescent females as they complete secondary school, in order to better understand the influence of educational priorities upon sport and PA participation and to identify practical strategies for both schools and community organizations to foster continuing participation throughout this crucial period of life transition.

  12. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    PubMed

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-07-08

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 49% boys). Respondents answered questions about their motives for PA and the frequency of their PA. Motives for PA were assessed using 13 items, which were structured in four groups. We explored the association between the motives for PA and sufficient PA using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, and separately for boys and girls. "Good child" motives and Achievement motives were significantly associated with sufficient PA among both boys and girls. Health motives were associated with sufficient PA only among boys, and Social motives were associated with sufficient PA only among girls. Motives for PA were associated with the level of PA, and this association was partially gender dependent. These gender differences should be considered in interventions focusing on enhancement of PA.

  13. Cardiorespiratory fitness in urban adolescent girls: associations with race and pubertal status.

    PubMed

    Gammon, Catherine; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Kazanis, Anamaria; Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B

    2017-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness affords health benefits to youth. Among females, weight-relative fitness declines during puberty and is lower among African American (AA) than Caucasian girls. Data indicate racial differences in pubertal timing and tempo, yet the interactive influence of puberty and race on fitness, and the role of physical activity (PA) in these associations have not been examined. Thus, independent and interactive associations of race and pubertal development with fitness in adolescent girls, controlling for PA were examined. Girls in grades 5-8 (n = 1011; Caucasian = 25.2%, AA = 52.3%, Other Race group = 22.5%) completed the Pubertal Development Scale (pubertal stage assessment) and Fitnessgram® Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test (cardiorespiratory fitness assessment). PA was assessed by accelerometry. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine associations among race, pubertal stage and fitness, controlling for vigorous PA, AA, and pubertally advanced girls demonstrated lower fitness than Caucasian and less mature counterparts. Puberty and race remained significantly associated with fitness after controlling for vigorous PA. The interaction effect of race and puberty on fitness was non-significant. The pubertal influence on fitness is observed among AA adolescents. Associations between fitness and race/puberty appear to be independent of each other and vigorous PA. Pubertally advanced AA girls represent a priority group for fitness interventions.

  14. Adherence to ACIP Recommendation for Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Among US Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Hirth, Jacqueline M; Berenson, Abbey B

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine use according to Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)'s recommendations among US adolescent girls. We used National Immunization Survey of Teens 2013 data. Based on provider-verified (n = 9403) information, 57.3, 39.1 and 19.0 % of adolescent girls, initiated, completed and completed the HPV vaccine according to ACIP's recommendation (by age 12), respectively. Hispanic race/ethnicity, a physician recommendation for HPV vaccine and ≥1 influenza vaccine in the past 3 years were all associated with a higher likelihood of compliance with ACIP's recommendation. Girls from a larger family and those whose immunization provider was a STD/school/teen clinic were less likely to receive the vaccine at the recommended age compared to a girl raised in a smaller sized family and received immunization from a hospital facility, respectively. Only one-fifth of 13-17 yo girls receive the HPV vaccine by age 12 as recommended by ACIP. Physician visits and influenza vaccination settings are opportunities to improve vaccine series completion at the recommended age.

  15. Adolescent girls, illegal abortions and "sugar-daddies" in Dar es Salaam: vulnerable victims and active social agents.

    PubMed

    Silberschmidt, M; Rasch, V

    2001-06-01

    Adolescent girls' early sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortions and the increase in HIV infections have become major concerns in Sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts, though, to understand their sexual behaviour and to prevent reproductive health problems are almost non-existent. Adolescent girls are normally seen as victims and easy preys of (often older and married) men's sexual exploitation. This article, which is based on a qualitative study of 51 adolescent girls who had just had an illegal abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, reveals that these girls are not only victims but also willing preys and active social agents engaging in high-risk sexual behaviour. In order to get material benefits they expose themselves to serious health risks, including induced abortion - without realising their own vulnerability. In our study, one out of four girls had more than one partner at the time they became pregnant, and many counted on an illegally induced abortion if they got pregnant. Even if adolescents are now allowed free access to family planning information, education and services, our study shows that this remains in the realm of theory rather than practice. Moreover, most adolescent girls are not aware about their right to such services. The paper concludes that the vulnerability of adolescent girls increases without the recognition that sexuality education and contraceptive services do not constitute a licence to practice illicit sex - but rather a means to create more mature and responsible attitudes and to increase sexual and reproductive health.

  16. Vitamin D deficiency and biochemical variations among urban Saudi adolescent girls according to season

    PubMed Central

    Sulimani, Riad A.; Mohammed, Ashry G.; Alfadda, Assim A.; Alshehri, Suliman N.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Hanley, David A.; Khan, Aliya A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine seasonal variations in the vitamin D status of Saudi adolescent girls in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and its effect in biochemical and clinical characteristics. Methods: In this prospective study, a total of 2000 Saudi females aged 12-18 years from different schools in Riyadh, KSA participated and submitted a generalized questionnaire with clinical information. Fasting blood samples were obtained in 1618 subjects for the winter season (December to February) and only 499 subjects returned to submit fasting blood samples for the summer season (June-August). Circulating serum 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and other biomarkers of bone remodeling were measured during both seasons. Results: Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D <25 nmol/L) was significantly higher during summer than winter (63.5% versus 40.8%; p<0.001). Mean serum PTH was also significantly higher during summer than winter (p<0.01). In all subjects, serum PTH showed a significant inverse association with 25(OH)D at levels below 40 nmol/L (r=-0.21; p<0.001). The prevalence of subjects having clinical and metabolic manifestations suggestive of osteomalacia was 2.1% (N=33 out of 1548). Conclusion: Seasonal variations in the vitamin D status of Saudi adolescent females significantly modifies biochemical parameters as response to vitamin D status change. In the meantime, heightened public health awareness should be given to populations at higher risk for vitamin D deficiency. PMID:27570857

  17. Influence of muscle fitness test performance on metabolic risk factors among adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the association between muscular fitness (MF), assessed by 2 components of Fitnessgram test battery, the Curl-Up and Push-Ups tests and the metabolic risk score among adolescent girls. Methods A total of 229 girls (aged 12-15 years old) comprised the sample of this study. Anthropometric data (height, body mass, waist circumference) were collected. Body mass index (BMI) was also calculated. Muscular strength was assessed taking into account the tests that comprised the FITNESSGRAM test battery, i.e. the curl-up and the push-up. Participants were then categorized in one of 3 categories according the number of tests in which they accomplished the scores that allow them to be classified in health or above health zone. The blood pressure [BP], fasting total cholesterol [TC], low density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], high density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides [TG], glucose, and a metabolic risk score (MRS) were also examined. Physical Activity Index (PAI) was obtained by questionnaire. Results Higher compliance with health-zone criteria (good in the 2 tests), adjusted for age and maturation, were positive and significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with height (r = 0.19) and PAI (r = 0.21), while a significant but negative association was found for BMI (r = -0.12); WC (r = -0.19); TC (r = -0.16); TG (r = -0.16); LDL (r = -0.16) and MRS (r = -0.16). Logistic regression showed that who were assigned to MF fittest group were less likely (OR = 0.27; p = 0.003) to be classified overweight/obese and less likely (OR = 0.26; p = 0.03) to be classified as having MRS. This last association was also found for those whom only performed 1 test under the health zone (OR = 0.23; p = 0.02). Conclusions Our data showed that low strength test performance was associated with increased risk for obesity and metabolic risk in adolescent girls even after adjustment for age and maturation. PMID:20573222

  18. Detrimental Psychological Outcomes Associated with Early Pubertal Timing in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Mendle, Jane; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Though often discussed as though it were a discrete event, puberty comprises one segment of a larger developmental continuum and is notable for rapid transformation across a multitude of domains. Research suggests that an earlier rate of pubertal maturation in girls correlates with a number of detrimental outcomes compared with on-time or later maturation. The present review synthesizes the research on negative psychological sequelae of early pubertal timing in adolescent girls. Emphasis is on three theoretical perspectives by which precocious development is believed to affect the emergence of adverse outcomes: biological, psychosocial, and selection effects. PMID:20740062

  19. Perceived stress, recurrent pain, and aggregate salivary cortisol measures in mid-adolescent girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Petra; Folkesson Hellstadius, Lisa; Östberg, Viveca

    2017-02-01

    Measures of perceived stress have been criticized for theoretical inconsistency. However, the validated pressure activation stress scale has been suggested as a theoretically sound alternative. But it is unclear how pressure and activation stress relate to objective and subjective measures including commonly used aggregate cortisol measures and health complaints respectively. Specifically, this study aimed at investigating how pressure and activation stress were related to aggregate salivary cortisol measures and recurrent pain in mid-adolescent girls and boys. Mid-adolescents (119 girls and 56 boys) provided self-reports in questionnaires on activation and pressure stress and recurrent pain (headache, stomach ache, neck/shoulder and back pain). Additionally, adolescents sampled saliva during an ordinary school day: (1) immediately at awakening; (2) 30 minutes after waking up; (3) 60 minutes after waking up, and (4) at 8 p.m. These samples were analyzed for cortisol. Hierarchical regressions showed no statistically significant associations between activation and pressure stress and cortisol, neither for girls nor for boys. However, activation and pressure stress were significantly associated with recurrent pain but only for girls. The findings may relate to subjective and objective measures reflecting distinct aspects of stress-related functioning. However, the study participants included mid-adolescents whose bodily systems are flexible and still relatively unaffected by the strain of their daily stress perceptions. To conclude, the non-significant relationships between activation and pressure stress and commonly used aggregate measures of cortisol adds to the understanding of how perceived stress may relate to physiological functioning in the daily life of adolescents when using such aggregate measures.

  20. Dieting among Adolescent Girls and Their Mothers: An Interpretive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Jennifer Paff; Damhorst, Mary Lynn

    2000-01-01

    A study of 20 mothers and their adolescent daughters found that both groups distinguished between going on a diet and watching eating habits. Dieting/watching patterns varied in content, duration, and intent. Daughters' modeling of mothers' behavior varied depending on degree of identification with mothers or mothers' verbal reinforcement.…

  1. Walking Behaviours among Adolescent Girls in Scotland: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Joanna; Inchley, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The wide ranging physical and mental health benefits of physical activity during adolescence are well established and walking has been identified as one of only two forms of physical activity not to show a significant decrease in participation levels across the primary/secondary years. The aim of this paper is to explore the broader…

  2. Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Binge Eating in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; DeBar, Lynn L.; Firemark, Alison; Leung, Sue; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2013-01-01

    Whereas effective treatments exist for adults with recurrent binge eating, developmental factors specific to adolescents point to the need for a modified treatment approach for youth. We adapted an existing cognitive behavioral therapy treatment manual for adults with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (Fairburn, 2008) for use with…

  3. A Comparison of the Sexual Behaviors and Attitudes of Adolescent Girls with Older vs. Similar-Aged Boyfriends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, L. Kris; Feldman, S. Shirley; Diaz, Rafael; Yisrael, Donnovan Somera

    2004-01-01

    Sexual behaviors and attitudes of female adolescents were studied as a function of age of boyfriend. Boyfriend's age was dichotomized: similar-aged was defined as within 2 years of the girls' age; older aged was 3 or more years older than the girl. A school-based, ethnically diverse sample of 9th-grade girls (N = 146) who had been in a serious…

  4. "I Want To Read Stuff on Boys": White, Latina, and Black Girls Reading "Seventeen" Magazine and Encountering Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Elaine Bell; Cole, Leslie

    2003-01-01

    Study sought to gain insight into what forum girls use to learn about the adolescent experience, and to examine views of their sexuality and femininity. Interviews were conducted with groups of girls ages 13-16 years, from diverse backgrounds. Discussions revealed a displacement of female sexuality. Responsible adults should challenge distorted…

  5. Resisting Pressure from Peers to Engage in Sexual Behavior: What Communication Strategies Do Early Adolescent Latino Girls Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Anne E.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Hutchison, Janet; Campoe, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    A content analysis of early adolescent X-bar = 12.02 years) Latino girls' (n = 44) responses to open-ended questions embedded in an electronic survey was conducted to explore strategies girls may use to resist peer pressure with respect to sexual behavior. Analysis yielded 341 codable response units, 74% of which were consistent with the REAL…

  6. Adolescent Girls' Preferences Pertaining to Cardiovascular Fitness Testing: A Comparison between the One-Mile Run and PACER Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Brown, Lanell; Graser, Sue Vincent; Pennington, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Many adolescent girls are not participating in the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) and are at risk for unhealthy lifestyles (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008). Helping girls understand the importance of PA and giving them positive experiences in physical education classes, including fitness testing, may help to…

  7. Substance Use and Dependency Disorders in Adolescent Girls in Group Living Programs: Prevalence and Associations with Milieu Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amy J. L.; Ashare, Caryn; Charvat, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-three adolescent girls residing in community-based group-living child welfare programs were administered a standardized measure (SASS-2) in order to assess probability of a substance use/dependency disorder in this highly vulnerable population. Findings revealed that one third of the sample, and one half of the nonpregnant/parenting girls,…

  8. Body Talk and Body Ideals among Adolescent Boys and Girls: A Mixed-Gender Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandbu, Åse; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how body ideals are discussed among adolescent boys and girls in 5 mixed-gender focus groups (n = 37). The ways in which boys and girls talk about bodies differed clearly within the focus group conversations as well as in the everyday situations described in the interviews. The boys were more concrete in their description of…

  9. Childhood Peer Rejection and Aggression as Predictors of Adolescent Girls' Externalizing and Health Risk Behaviors: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2004-01-01

    This 6-year longitudinal study examined girls' peer-nominated social preference and aggression in childhood as predictors of self- and parent-reported externalizing symptoms, substance use (i.e.. cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use), and sexual risk behavior in adolescence. Participants were 148 girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds, who were…

  10. The "Healthy Teen Girls Project": Comparison of Health Education and STD Risk Reduction Intervention for Incarcerated Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Angela R.; St. Lawrence, Janet; Morse, David T.; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Liew, Hui; Gresham, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent girls incarcerated in a state reformatory (N = 246) were recruited and assigned to an 18-session health education program or a time-equivalent HIV prevention program. Cohorts were assigned to conditions using a randomized block design separated by a washout period to reduce contamination. Post intervention, girls in the HIV risk…

  11. Religious Practice and Health-Related Quality of Life in Iranian Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Sharajabad, Fariba Alizadeh; Sanaati, Favziye

    2017-03-24

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between religious practice and health-related quality of life in adolescent girls in Tabriz, Iran, 2014-2015. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 520 female students who were selected using the random sampling method. Religious practice and health-related quality of life questionnaires were used for data collection. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship between health-related quality of life and received religious support, religiosity, father's and mother's education, father's occupation, family economic status, and the number of children. It is necessary to find ways to further promote religious practices in adolescents and ultimately their quality of life.

  12. Coming of age under Hitler and Stalin: the everyday life of adolescent girls in occupied Latvia.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of the continuation of everyday life in occupied Europe through a case study of the lives of twenty-five adolescent girls and young women living in Latvia between 1939 and 1944. Late adolescence is the period in which young women are struggling to establish some degree of independence, especially through leaving the parental home and entering the labour market. These transitions are the conventional markers of adulthood in modern societies. The article explores how occupation by the Soviet Union and the Third Reich affected daily life and the speed and nature of the transition to adulthood.

  13. Sexual abuse and violence among adolescent girls in Botswana: a mental health perspective.

    PubMed

    Seloilwe, Esther Salang; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria

    2009-07-01

    The presence of sexual abuse among societies in Botswana is a phenomenon whose occurrence is usually denied albeit the police report on it and legal frameworks have been established to combat it. Several factors influence the concealment of sexual abuse among adolescent girls, which includes cultural factors and social status of the perpetrators. This paper espouses the concept of sexual abuse among adolescent girls, the existence of the problem, its magnitude, the factors that increase vulnerability to violence and abuse, and how these factors intersect with HIV and AIDS. Two case studies using a discovery method were used to explore the phenomenon under the study. The findings of the study indicated that sexual abuse and violence have profound mental health consequences including guilt, anxiety, depression and anger. Future research is suggested to explore this problem on a wider scale and develop interventions that can assist victims and perpetrators to cope with the situation.

  14. Development and aetiology of body dissatisfaction in adolescent boys and girls

    PubMed Central

    Dion, Jacinthe; Blackburn, Marie-Eve; Auclair, Julie; Laberge, Luc; Veillette, Suzanne; Gaudreault, Marco; Vachon, Patrick; Perron, Michel; Touchette, Évelyne

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study aims to describe the development of body dissatisfaction (BD), measured with the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, between the ages of 14 and 18, and to identify factors associated with BD at age 18, among 413 adolescents. Between the ages of 14 and 18, the proportion of girls wanting to be thinner increased, although it remained unchanged among boys. A ratio of 1:2 girls and 1:5 boys reported having seriously tried to lose weight. Factors associated with BD in girls at age 18 were (1) wanting to be thinner, (2) body mass index (BMI), (3) weight control behaviours and (4) negative comments about weight. Factors associated with BD in boys at age 18 were (1) wanting to be thinner or bigger, (2) BMI, (3) having experienced sexual intercourse and (4) negative comments about weight. The high prevalence of BD and weight-related concerns suggest a need for early interventions. PMID:25931646

  15. Nonsuicidal self-injury in young adolescent girls: moderators of the distress-function relationship.

    PubMed

    Hilt, Lori M; Cha, Christine B; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-02-01

    This study examined nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of young adolescent girls. Potential moderators of the relationships between different types of distress (internal and interpersonal) and particular functions of NSSI (emotion-regulation and interpersonal) were explored. Participants included 94 girls (49% Hispanic; 25% African American) ages 10-14 years who completed questionnaires regarding self-injurious behavior and other constructs of interest. Fifty-six percent of girls (n = 53) reported engaging in NSSI during their lifetime, including 36% (n = 34) in the past year. Internal distress (depressive symptoms) was associated with engaging in NSSI for emotion-regulation functions, and rumination moderated the relationship between depressive symptoms and engaging in NSSI for automatic positive reinforcement. Interpersonal distress (peer victimization) was associated with engaging in NSSI for social reinforcement, and quality of peer communication moderated this relationship. The clinical implications of these findings include designing preventions that address the particular contexts of self-injurious behavior.

  16. Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity Among Reproductive-Age Women and Adolescent Girls in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuan; Pan, An; Yang, Ying; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jihong; Zhang, Ya; Liu, Dujia; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Yan, Donghai; Peng, Zuoqi; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To provide prevalence and trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity among reproductive-age women and adolescent girls in rural China. Methods. We measured weight and height in 16 742 344 women aged 20 to 49 years and 178 556 girls aged 15 to 19 years from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project between 2010 and 2014. Results. Among women, the prevalence of underweight was 7.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.7%, 7.9%), and overweight or obesity was 16.5% (95% CI = 16.4%, 16.6%; World Health Organization criteria). Among adolescents, prevalence of underweight was 6.0% (95% CI = 5.7%, 6.2%; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria) and overweight or obesity was 8.3% (95% CI = 7.9% to 8.8%; International Obesity Task Force criteria). According to Chinese criteria, overweight and obesity prevalence was 24.8% (95% CI = 24.7%, 24.9%) for women and 17.2% (95% CI = 16.6%, 17.8%) for adolescents, and underweight prevalence was 2.9% (95% CI = 2.8%, 3.1%) for adolescents. Considerable disparities existed in prevalence and trends within subpopulations (age groups, parity, region, education levels, and socioeconomic status). Conclusions. Our results reveal coexisting underweight and overweight or obesity among rural women and adolescents of reproductive age, which requires public health attention. PMID:27831775

  17. Happiness and health behaviour in Iranian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Fararouei, M; Brown, I J; Akbartabar Toori, M; Estakhrian Haghighi, R; Jafari, J

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association of happiness in adolescent females with leisure time and health related behaviours namely diet, physical activity and first or second hand smoking. Using a self-administered questionnaire, data were collected from 8159 female high school students ages 11-19 years. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed statistically significant associations between happiness and weight, regular exercise, exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, daily fruit or vegetable consumption and the way participants spent their leisure time. Happiness was associated with lower BMI, regular physical activity, absence of exposure to second-hand smoke, higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, and spending leisure time with family (all P < 0.005). These exploratory findings suggest that encouraging children and adolescents to adopt healthy behaviours, providing family time and a smoke-free environment may make them not only healthier but also happier.

  18. Factorial validity and invariance of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire among black and white adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Dishman, Rod K; Hales, Derek P; Almeida, Maria Joao; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R

    2006-01-01

    Meaningful comparison of physical self-concept among racial or ethnic groups requires that the measurement instruments used have equivalent measurement properties. We tested the factorial validity and invariance of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) among Black (n = 658) and White (n = 479) adolescent girls in the 12th grade. Construct validity was examined by estimating correlations between PSDQ subscales and external criteria (physical activity, physical fitness, body mass index [BMI], and participation in sports). The hypothesized 11-factor model demonstrated adequate overall fit in both groups. Comparison of nested models supported the between-group invariance of the overall factor structure. Convergent and discriminant evidence for construct validity was supported by the pattern of correlations with the external criteria. The results indicate that a meaningful comparison of PSDQ scores can be made between Black and White girls in the 12th grade and that valid inferences from PSDQ scores can be made about specific aspects of physical self-concept. Despite lower levels of physical activity, sport participation, and fitness and higher BMI, Black girls had similar self-esteem and higher physical self-concept and perceived appearance compared to White girls.

  19. India moves towards menstrual hygiene: subsidized sanitary napkins for rural adolescent girls-issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rajesh; Goyal, Shobha; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2012-05-01

    The onset of menstruation is one of the most important physiological changes occurring among girls during the adolescent years. Menstruation heralds the onset of physiological maturity in girls. It becomes the part and parcel of their lives until menopause. Apart from personal importance, this phenomenon also has social significance. In India, menstruation is surrounded by myths and misconceptions with a long list of "do's" and "don'ts" for women. Hygiene-related practices of women during menstruation are of considerable importance, as it may increase vulnerability to Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI's). Poor menstrual hygiene is one of the major reasons for the high prevalence of RTIs in the country and contributes significantly to female morbidity. Most of the adolescent girls in villages use rags and old clothes during menstruation, increasing susceptibility to RTI's. Adolescents constitute one-fifths of India's population and yet their sexual health needs remain largely unaddressed in the national welfare programs. Poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. In June 2010, the Government of India proposed a new scheme towards menstrual hygiene by a provision of subsidized sanitary napkins to rural adolescent girls. But there are various other issues like awareness, availability and quality of napkins, regular supply, privacy, water supply, disposal of napkins, reproductive health education and family support which needs simultaneous attention for promotion of menstrual hygiene. The current article looks at the issue of menstrual hygiene not only from the health point of view, but also considers social and human rights values attached to it.

  20. Non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal ideation as predictors of suicide attempts in adolescent girls: a multi-wave prospective study.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lori N; Pilkonis, Paul A; Hipwell, Alison E; Keenan, Kate; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2015-04-01

    Although both suicide ideation (SI) and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are known risk factors for suicidal behavior, few longitudinal studies have examined whether having a history of one or both of these factors prospectively predicts increased risk for suicide attempts. According to the theory of acquired capability for suicide, engagement in NSSI may reduce inhibitions around self-inflicted violence, imparting greater risk for suicide attempts among those with SI than would be observed in those with SI who do not have a history of NSSI. We used prospective data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study, a large community sample, to compare groups of girls reporting no SI or NSSI, SI only, or both NSSI and SI between early to late adolescence on any lifetime or recent suicide attempts in late adolescence and early adulthood. As compared to girls with no SI or NSSI history and those with only an SI history, girls with a history of both NSSI and SI were significantly more likely to subsequently report both lifetime and recent suicide attempts. Results are consistent with the acquired capability theory for suicide and suggest that adolescent girls who have engaged in NSSI and also report SI represent a particularly high-risk group in need of prevention and intervention efforts.

  1. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Ideation as Predictors of Suicide Attempts in Adolescent Girls: A Multi-wave Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Lori N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Keenan, Kate; Stepp, Stephanie D.

    2015-01-01

    Although both suicide ideation (SI) and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are known risk factors for suicidal behavior, few longitudinal studies have examined whether having a history of one or both of these factors prospectively predicts increased risk for suicide attempts. According to Joiner’s1 theory of acquired capability for suicide, engagement in NSSI may reduce inhibitions around self-inflicted violence, imparting greater risk for suicide attempts among those with SI than would be observed in those with SI who do not have a history of NSSI. We used prospective data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study, a large community sample, to compare groups of girls reporting no SI or NSSI, SI only, or both NSSI and SI between early to late adolescence on any lifetime or recent suicide attempts in late adolescence and early adulthood. As compared to girls with no SI or NSSI history and those with only an SI history, girls with a history of both NSSI and SI were significantly more likely to subsequently report both lifetime and recent suicide attempts. Results are consistent with the acquired capability theory for suicide and suggest that adolescent girls who have engaged in NSSI and also report SI represent a particularly high-risk group in need of prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:25595520

  2. Linking physical education with community sport and recreation: a program for adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Casey, Meghan; Mooney, Amanda; Eime, Rochelle; Harvey, Jack; Smyth, John; Telford, Amanda; Payne, Warren

    2013-09-01

    The engagement of adolescent girls in physical activity (PA) is a persistent challenge. School-based PA programs have often met with little success because of the lack of linkages between school and community PA settings. The Triple G program aimed to improve PA levels of secondary school girls (12-15 years) in regional Victoria, Australia. The program included a school-based physical education (PE) component that uniquely incorporated student-centered teaching and behavioral skill development. The school component was conceptually and practically linked to a community component that emphasized appropriate structures for participation. The program was informed by ethnographic fieldwork to understand the contextual factors that affect girls' participation in PA. A collaborative intervention design was undertaken to align with PE curriculum and coaching and instructional approaches in community PA settings. The theoretical framework for the intervention was the socioecological model that was underpinned by both individual-level (social cognitive theory) and organizational-level (building organizational/community capacity) strategies. The program model provides an innovative conceptual framework for linking school PE with community sport and recreation and may benefit other PA programs seeking to engage adolescent girls. The objective of this article is to describe program development and the unique theoretical framework and curriculum approaches.

  3. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination and Adolescent Girls' Knowledge and Sexuality in Western Uganda: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Muhwezi, Wilson Winston; Okello, Elialilia Sarikiaeli; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Banura, Cecil; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on adolescent girls' knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine, perception of sexual risk and intentions for sexual debut. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Ibanda and Mbarara districts. Data was collected using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences computer software. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were conducted with significance level set at p < .05. Results showed that HPV vaccination was associated with being knowledgeable (Crude OR: 5.26, CI: 2.32-11.93; p = 0.000). Vaccination against HPV did not predict perception of sexual risk. Knowledge was low (only 87/385 or 22.6% of vaccinated girls were knowledgeable), but predicted perception of a high sexual risk (Adjusted OR: 3.12, CI: 1.37-3.63; p = 0.008). HPV vaccination, knowledge and perceived sexual risk did not predict sexual behaviour intentions. High parental communication was associated with adolescent attitudes that support postponement of sexual debut in both bivariate and multiple regression analyses. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that HPV vaccination is not likely to encourage adolescent sexual activity. Influence of knowledge on sexual behaviour intentions was not definitively explained. Prospective cohort studies were proposed to address the emerging questions.

  4. Facebook photo activity associated with body image disturbance in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Meier, Evelyn P; Gray, James

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between body image and adolescent girls' activity on the social networking site (SNS) Facebook (FB). Research has shown that elevated Internet "appearance exposure" is positively correlated with increased body image disturbance among adolescent girls, and there is a particularly strong association with FB use. The present study sought to replicate and extend upon these findings by identifying the specific FB features that correlate with body image disturbance in adolescent girls. A total of 103 middle and high school females completed questionnaire measures of total FB use, specific FB feature use, weight dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, thin ideal internalization, appearance comparison, and self-objectification. An appearance exposure score was calculated based on subjects' use of FB photo applications relative to total FB use. Elevated appearance exposure, but not overall FB usage, was significantly correlated with weight dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, thin ideal internalization, and self-objectification. Implications for eating disorder prevention programs and best practices in researching SNSs are discussed.

  5. Exploring a model linking social physique anxiety, drive for muscularity, drive for thinness and self-esteem among adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Dorsch, Kim D; McCreary, Donald R

    2010-03-01

    This study examined gender differences on body image measures, and tested a model where self-esteem influences social physique anxiety (SPA), which in turn influences drive for muscularity and drive for thinness in a sample of adolescents (N=329; 58% boys). Multi-group invariance analyses indicated that the measurement and structural models were partially invariant for boys and girls, allowing for gender comparisons. Results indicated that boys reported significantly lower drive for thinness and SPA, and higher drive for muscularity and self-esteem compared to girls. The measurement and structural models were an adequate fit for the total sample. Findings supported the proposed sequence in which self-esteem significantly influenced SPA, and SPA significantly influenced the drives for muscularity and thinness. Interventions aimed at decreasing SPA, by promoting self-esteem, may be helpful in decreasing adolescent boys' and girls' drive for muscularity and thinness.

  6. In the face of war: examining sexual vulnerabilities of Acholi adolescent girls living in displacement camps in conflict-affected Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescent girls are an overlooked group within conflict-affected populations and their sexual health needs are often neglected. Girls are disproportionately at risk of HIV and other STIs in times of conflict, however the lack of recognition of their unique sexual health needs has resulted in a dearth of distinctive HIV protection and prevention responses. Departing from the recognition of a paucity of literature on the distinct vulnerabilities of girls in time of conflict, this study sought to deepen the knowledge base on this issue by qualitatively exploring the sexual vulnerabilities of adolescent girls surviving abduction and displacement in Northern Uganda. Methods Over a ten-month period between 2004–2005, at the height of the Lord’s Resistance Army insurgency in Northern Uganda, 116 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions were held with adolescent girls and adult women living in three displacement camps in Gulu district, Northern Uganda. The data was transcribed and key themes and common issues were identified. Once all data was coded the ethnographic software programme ATLAS was used to compare and contrast themes and categories generated in the in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Results Our results demonstrated the erosion of traditional Acholi mentoring and belief systems that had previously served to protect adolescent girls’ sexuality. This disintegration combined with: the collapse of livelihoods; being left in camps unsupervised and idle during the day; commuting within camp perimeters at night away from the family hut to sleep in more central locations due to privacy and insecurity issues, and; inadequate access to appropriate sexual health information and services, all contribute to adolescent girls’ heightened sexual vulnerability and subsequent enhanced risk for HIV/AIDS in times of conflict. Conclusions Conflict prevention planners, resettlement programme developers, and policy-makers need to recognize

  7. Relationships amongst body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the media body ideal and perceived pressure from media in adolescent girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Knauss, Christine; Paxton, Susan J; Alsaker, Françoise D

    2007-12-01

    Sociocultural factors that underpin gender differences in body dissatisfaction have not frequently been explored. We examined the relative contribution of internalization of media body ideals and perceived pressure to achieve this ideal in explaining body dissatisfaction in adolescent boys and girls. A sample of 819 boys and 791 girls completed measures of internalization of body ideals, perceived pressure, body mass index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction. As expected, girls showed higher body dissatisfaction, internalization and pressure than boys. Internalization, pressure and BMI contributed to the prediction of body dissatisfaction in boys and in girls although these variables explained less variance in body dissatisfaction in boys. In addition, for girls the strongest predictor of body dissatisfaction was internalization, whilst for boys the strongest predictor was pressure. Differences in extent of internalization and pressure may contribute to higher body dissatisfaction in girls than boys. These sociocultural factors may affect girls and boys differently.

  8. Deficiencies of Serum Ferritin and Vitamin B12, but not Folate, are Common in Adolescent Girls Residing in a Slum in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Gupta Bansal, Priyanka; Singh Toteja, Gurudayal; Bhatia, Neena; Kishore Vikram, Naval; Siddhu, Anupa; Kumar Garg, Ashok; Kumar Roy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Anemia among adolescent girls is one of the major challenges faced by India. The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of anemia and status of other hematological parameters among adolescent girls (11 - 18 years) residing in an urban slum of Delhi. A total of 794 adolescent girls were recruited for the study. The prevalence of anemia was estimated using the cyanmethemoglobin method. Serum levels of ferritin, folic acid and vitamin B12 were estimated for anemic subjects. The prevalence of anemia was reported as 58.7 %, with 31.6 %, 25.7 % and 1.4 % of subjects being mild, moderate and severely anemic. Hemoglobin levels of subjects who had attained menarche were found to be significantly lower than those who had not attained menarche. The prevalence of serum ferritin, folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency among those who were anemic was reported as 41.1 %, 5.0 % and 63.3 % respectively. A total of 23.5 % anemic subjects had concomitant micronutrient deficiencies of serum vitamin B12 and ferritin. The results indicate that supplemental iron and vitamin B12 may better address the burden of anemia in adolescent girls in Delhi.

  9. "They said "be careful'": sexual health communication sources and messages for adolescent girls living with perintally-acquired HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Marhefka, Stephanie L; Green, Shana M; Sharma, Vinita; Mellins, Claude A

    2017-03-12

    Due to advances in highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), children "who perinatally acquired HIV infection" (PHIV+) in the United States have been reaching adolescence and adulthood in large numbers. As youth PHIV + become sexually active it is important to understand their sources of sexual health information and the messages communicated by those sources to safeguard their sexual health and that of their partners. This paper explores sexual health communication for adolescent girls PHIV + in comparison to adolescent girls who were exposed but did not acquire HIV perinatally (PHIV-) to understand how HIV infection influences the sexual health communication needs of the former. A convenience sample size of 30 (20 PHIV + and 10 PHIV-, mean age 14.5) girls completed survey and participated in a 45-90 min developmentally appropriate semi-structured interview. The interviews aimed to elicit the girls' sources of sexual health communication, the sexual health messages they receive, their comfort or discomfort with these communications, and to determine how their sexual health communication experiences differ from those of their PHIV- peers. Transcripts of the interviews were coded and analyzed for themes related to sexual health communication sources, sexual health communication messages and comfort/discomfort with sexual health communication sources. Our findings suggest that girls PHIV + do not differ significantly from Girls PHIV- in their sources of sexual health information, yet girls PHIV + are most comfortable receiving sexual health information from their health providers, whereas for girls PHIV, the comfort is higher with caregivers. However, the messages Girls PHIV + reported receiving from their providers and caregivers were vague. Both providers and caregivers of Girls PHIV + are uniquely positioned to provide information to adolescents about sexuality and responsible sex decision-making. Some caregivers and providers

  10. Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Results Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Conclusions Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive health services should include

  11. Love Hurts (in More Ways Than One): Specificity of Psychological Symptoms as Predictors and Consequences of Romantic Activity Among Early Adolescent Girls*

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Lisa R.; Davila, Joanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Li, Po Ching Clara; Yoneda, Athena; Hershenberg, Rachel; Miller, Melissa Ramsay

    2012-01-01

    Objective Research has linked adolescent romantic and sexual activities to depressive symptoms. The current study examines whether such activities are uniquely linked to depressive symptoms versus symptoms of other disorders (including anxiety, externalizing, and eating disorders), and whether co-occurring symptoms more precisely account for the association between depressive symptoms and romantic involvement. Method Early adolescent girls (N = 83; mean age = 13.45) participated in baseline and 1-year follow up data collection. Results Romantic (i.e., dating and sexual) activities were longitudinally related to numerous types of symptoms. The association between depressive symptoms and romantic variables remained when considering co-occurring symptoms. Girls with more comorbid disorders reported more romantic activities. Conclusions Results suggest that the maladaptive consequences and precipitants of adolescent romantic activities extend beyond depression, but also imply that this association is not secondary to comorbid symptoms. Future work should clarify causal pathways. PMID:22307747

  12. Psychosocial Predictors of Changes in Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors over the Course of the "Go Girls!" Group-Based Mentoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, A. Justine; Chen, Michelle Y.; Schmader, Toni; Jung, Mary E.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Beauchamp, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in social cognitions targeted within a group-based mentoring program for adolescent girls were examined as predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) and dietary behavior (in two separate models) over the course of the 7-week program. Data were collected from 310 participants who participated in the program. Multilevel path models…

  13. [Devic's disease in an adolescent girl with juvenile dermatomyositis].

    PubMed

    Fraga, Melissa Mariti; Oliveira, Enedina Maria Lobato de; Len, Claudio Arnaldo; Campos, Maria Fernanda; Terreri, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-28

    Devic's disease, also known as neuromyelitis optica, is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the optic nerve and spinal cord. Recently, Devic's disease was demonstrated to be a channelopathy due to the presence of antibodies against the water channel aquaporin-4 in the blood-brain barrier. There have been reports of Devic's disease in infancy, but there are few reported associations of Devic's disease with other diseases. The association of Devic's disease with dermatomyositis has not yet been described in the literature. The aim of this paper is to describe the first case of Devic's disease in an adolescent with juvenile dermatomyositis.

  14. Understanding gender norms, nutrition, and physical activity in adolescent girls: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Rebecca A; Rehman, Laurene; Kirk, Sara F L

    2015-01-24

    Public health is currently focused on childhood obesity, and the associated behaviors of physical activity and nutrition. Canadian youth are insufficiently active and do not meet nutritional guidelines. This is of particular concern for adolescent girls, as they are less active than boys, become less active as they age, and engage in unhealthy weight control behaviors. The purpose of this review is to determine what is known from the existing literature about how gender norms are understood in relation to the health-related behaviors of PA and nutrition in young girls. This scoping review follows the framework of Arksey and O'Malley, involving defining a research question, study identification and selection, charting, interpretation, summarizing, and reporting. In total, 28 documents are reviewed, and characteristics are summarized quantitatively and qualitatively. Five major themes are identified: (1) Girls' relationships with PA are complex and require negotiating gender roles, (2) the literature focuses on dieting rather than nutrition, (3) appearance and perceptions influence behaviors, (4) "body" focused discourse is significant to girls' experiences, and (5) social influences, institutions, and environments are influential and may offer opportunity for future research and action. Gaps in the literature are identified and discussed. It is concluded that young girls' activity and nutrition is affected by gender norms and feminine ideals through complex negotiations, perceptions, body-centered discourse, and societal influences.

  15. Heterosexual Men's Ratings of Sexual Attractiveness of Adolescent Girls: A Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Paul; Lowe, Rob; Petrova, Hristina

    2015-11-01

    Following an identical procedure to the one we previously reported (O'Donnell, Lowe, Brotherton, & Bennett, 2014), we examined ratings of sexual attraction to photographs of (the same) adolescent girls (Tanner stages 3-4) labelled as either 14-15 years or 16-17 years old, women, and men. Ratings were made by Bulgarian heterosexual men by pressing buttons on a response box which recorded the ratings made and the time in milliseconds taken to respond. Despite the age of sexual consent in Bulgaria being 14 years, the pattern of findings did not differ from those found in the UK, where the age of consent is 16 years. That is, mean ratings of the sexual attractiveness of the girls labelled as younger were lower than those of the (same) girls labelled as older, and those of the women. In addition, correlations revealed significantly longer responding times when younger girls (and men) were rated as more highly sexually attractive. These associations were reversed in response to the photographs of women. We take these findings to indicate an inhibitory effect arising from generalized sexual norms relating to the inappropriateness of sexual attraction to young girls; the greater the attraction, the higher the inhibition. This second replication of our initial findings suggests a robust effect that may be of benefit in exploration of pedophile or sex offender groups.

  16. Associations of family and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics with longitudinal adiposity patterns in a biracial cohort of adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Catherine M.; Wang, May C.; Seto, Edmund; Mare, Robert; Gee, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Although many studies have examined the relationship of adiposity with neighborhood socioeconomic context in adults, few studies have investigated this relationship during adolescence. Using 10-year annual measurements of body mass index, expressed as z-scores (BMIz), obtained from 775 Black and White participants of the NHLBI Growth and Health Study, a prospective cohort study of girls from pre- to post-adolescence, we used multilevel modeling to investigate whether family socioeconomic status (SES) and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics (measured by census tract median family income) explain variation in BMIz trajectory parameters. Analyses controlled for pubertal maturation. We found that lower SES was associated with higher overall levels of BMIz for both White and Black girls. Additionally, lower SES Black girls had a more sustained increase in BMIz during early adolescence and reached a higher peak compared to higher SES Black girls and to White girls. Neighborhood income was associated with BMIz trajectory for Black girls only. Unexpectedly, among Black girls, living in higher income neighborhoods was associated with higher overall levels of BMIz, controlling for SES. Our findings suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics may affect adolescent BMIz trajectory differently in different racial/ethnic groups. PMID:25879263

  17. Barriers and Facilitators of Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infections in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Mombasa, Kenya: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Avuvika, Ethel; Wanje, George; Wanyonyi, Juliet; Nyaribo, Benard; Omoni, Grace; Baghazal, Anisa; McClelland, R. Scott

    2017-01-01

    Objective Young women bear the greatest burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it is important to identify and address barriers to STI screening in this population. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the feasibility of STI screening among adolescent girls and young women in Mombasa, Kenya. Methods We conducted 17 in-depth interviews (IDIs) (8 with adolescent girls and 9 with young women) and 6 focus group discussions (FGDs) (4 with adolescent girls and 2 with young women, total 55 participants). The audio recordings for the IDIs and FGDs were translated and transcribed into English. Transcripts were independently reviewed by two researchers, and a set of codes was designed to help analyze the data using the content analysis approach. Data content was then analyzed manually and digitally using ATLAS.ti, and consensus was reached on central and specific emergent themes discussed by the research team. Results Adolescent girls and young women in Mombasa, Kenya expressed willingness to participate in STI screening. A major incentive for screening was participants’ desire to know their STI status, especially following perceived high-risk sexual behavior. Lack of symptoms and fear of positive test results were identified as barriers to STI screening at the individual level, while parental notification and stigmatization from parents, family members and the community were identified as barriers at the community level. Uncomfortable or embarrassing methods of specimen collection were an additional barrier. Thus, urine-based screening was felt to be the most acceptable. Conclusion Kenyan adolescent girls and young women seem willing to participate in screening for STIs using urine testing. Addressing stigmatization by parents, health care workers and the community could further facilitate STI screening in this population. PMID:28046104

  18. The Relationship between Media Influence and Ethnic Identity Development among Low-Income African American and White Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Kenycia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between media influence and ethnic identity among low-income African American and White adolescent girls. According to the U.S. Census (2008), 98% of Americans have a television in their home. Prior research suggests that low-income African American adolescents are exposed to more media…

  19. The Psychology of Antecedents to Adult Reproductive Disorders in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Covington, Sharon N.; Martinez, Pedro E; Popat, Vaishali; Nandagopal, Radha; Ryan, Mary; Nelson, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    The normal developmental tasks and roles of adolescence are altered with a diagnosis of a reproductive disorder. The crisis of impaired fertility affects both parent and child, stressing the family system. For the adolescent girl, a reproductive disorder impacts her developing sense of self, body-image and sexuality which, in turn, can affect her self-esteem and relationships with others. Because of the sexual nature of a reproductive disorder, feelings of embarrassment or protectiveness are often engendered that can make it difficult for families to discuss. Nonetheless, families do best with openness and honesty regarding the condition and should be discouraged from keeping the diagnosis a secret. Adolescence encompasses a broad spectrum of emotional maturity, which needs to be considered by parents and clinicians when communicating information. Understanding that the family is an emotional unit, a family systems approach to deal with health issues is most appropriate. In this context, parents need to first deal with their own feelings about the diagnosis, before they can help their child. Secondly, parents must be provided with tools to build an ongoing conversation with their child that will avoid stigmatizing her condition and handicapping her growth into healthy adulthood. The goal for parent and clinician is to help the adolescent girl formulate positive self-esteem and body image, despite impaired fertility. PMID:18574221

  20. Lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis in an adolescent girl presenting as mycetoma.

    PubMed

    Tilak, Ragini; Kumari, Varsha; Bansal, Manish; Sharma, Taniya; Pandey, Shyam Sunder

    2012-09-01

    A 13-year-old girl presented with multiple painless purulent ulcers with raised borders on the medial aspect of the sole of her right foot associated with inguinal lymphadenopathy for the past 4 years. There was history of local trauma at the site prior to the formation of ulcers. There were no other significant associated signs or symptoms. The patient was initially treated with multiple antibiotics with minimal improvement. Fungal cultures of biopsy specimens demonstrated the presence of colonies of Sporothrix schenckii thus confirming the diagnosis of sporotrichosis. Oral itraconazole at the dose of 100 mg twice daily was initiated with marked response at 4 weeks. This case demonstrated a rare morphological presentation of the lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis as mycetoma. The possible diagnosis of sporotrichosis should be kept in mind in such a clinical presentation not responding to antibiotics. Cutaneous sporotrichosis should be diagnosed and treated as early as possible because untreated cases may disseminate to cause visceral involvement with fatal outcome in immunocompromised patients.

  1. Unhealthy weight control behaviours in adolescent girls: a process model based on self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Nikitaras, Nikitas

    2010-06-01

    This study used self-determination theory (Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2000). The 'what' and 'why' of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.) to examine predictors of body image concerns and unhealthy weight control behaviours in a sample of 350 Greek adolescent girls. A process model was tested which proposed that perceptions of parental autonomy support and two life goals (health and image) would predict adolescents' degree of satisfaction of their basic psychological needs. In turn, psychological need satisfaction was hypothesised to negatively predict body image concerns (i.e. drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction) and, indirectly, unhealthy weight control behaviours. The predictions of the model were largely supported indicating that parental autonomy support and adaptive life goals can indirectly impact upon the extent to which female adolescents engage in unhealthy weight control behaviours via facilitating the latter's psychological need satisfaction.

  2. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Pubertal Preparedness Program in Terms of Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Pubertal Changes Among Pre-Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Manisha; Sheoran, Poonam; Kumar, Yogesh; Singh, Navjyot

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the knowledge and attitude regarding pubertal changes among pre – adolescent girls before and after the pubertal preparedness program (PPP) in experimental and comparison group. Materials and methods: A Quasi experimental (non- equivalent comparison group pretest posttest) design was adopted with 104pre-adolescentgirls (52 in each experimental and comparison group) of age 12-14years, selected by purposive sampling from two different Government schools of Ambala District. Knowledge and attitude was assessed using structured knowledge questionnaire (KR-20 = 0.74) and 5 point likert scale (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.79) respectively. On the same day of pretest, PPP was administered and on 12th day FAQs reinforcement session was held only for experimental group. After 28 days, posttest was taken. Results: The computed t value of pretest of knowledge and attitude scores of pre-adolescent girls (1.97), (1.95) respectively in experimental and comparison group was found non-significant at 0.05 level of significance which shows that both group didn’t differ significantly in their knowledge and attitude before the administration of intervention. Findings of unpaired ‘t’ value of posttest knowledge and attitude scores of pre-adolescent girls (19.77), (17.17) respectively in experimental and comparison group were found significant at 0.05 level of significance, Thus knowledge and attitude of pre-adolescent girls were improved with PPP and FAQs session. Conclusion: Pubertal preparedness program and FAQs reinforcement session are effective in enhancing knowledge and developing favorable attitude among pre-adolescent girls. PMID:28101113

  3. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jean W; Thame, Minerva M; Gibson, Raquel; Baker, Tameka M; Tang, Grace J; Chacko, Shaji K; Jackson, Alan A; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-14

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% from the first to the third trimester in pregnant adolescent girls. As serine is a primary precursor for glycine synthesis, the objective of this study was to measure and compare glycine and serine fluxes and inter-conversions in pregnant adolescent girls and adult women in the first and third trimesters. Measurements were made after an overnight fast by continuous intravenous infusions of 2H2-glycine and 15N-serine in eleven adolescent girls (17·4 (se 0·1) years of age) and in ten adult women (25·8 (se 0·5) years of age) for 4 h. Adolescent girls had significantly slower glycine flux and they made less glycine from serine in the third (P<0·05) than in the first trimester. Baby birth length was significantly shorter of adolescent girls (P=0·04) and was significantly associated with third trimester glycine flux. These findings suggest that the pregnant adolescent cannot maintain glycine flux in late pregnancy compared with early pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine. It is possible that the inability to maintain glycine synthesis makes her fetus vulnerable to impaired cartilage synthesis, and thus linear growth.

  4. Nutritional factors affecting the menarcheal state of adolescent school girls in Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Mounir, Gehan M; El-Sayed, Nawal A; Mahdy, Nehad H; Khamis, Sally E

    2007-01-01

    The nutritional status of adolescents plays a dominant role in determining the maturation status. The aim of the present work was to assess the mean age of menarche and the main nutritional factors affecting it. A cross-sectional study of 1606 girls was conducted in primary and preparatory schools in Alexandria. Every girl was subjected to anthropometric assessment including weight, height, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), waist circumference, hip circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness. BMI and body fat percentage were calculated. A 24 hours diet recall method was used to assess the dietary intake. The mean age of menarche was 11.98+/-0.96 years. The mean MUAC, triceps skin-fold thickness, waist circumference and hip circumference were significantly higher among menstruating girls as compared to non-menstruating. (p<0.01). Only 7.5% of the females less than the 5th percentile of BMI (thinness) were menstruating, while the corresponding figure for those at or more than 85th percentile (overweight) was 65.6% and this was statistically significant (X 2 (2) =102.8, P<0.001). Girls who attained menstruation demonstrated a higher significant mean percent of body fat (43.40+/-10.0) as compared to non menstruating ones (35.41+/-7.87), ( t=17.09, P<0.001). The oldest age at menarche was noted when the protein, iron and caloric intake was less than 80% of the RDAs. However after adjustment of other variables direct relation was detected between age of girls and their age of menarche and those in private school had earlier age of menarche than those in governmental one. The nutritional status of the adolescents had a significant association with the onset of menstruation and the age at menarche.

  5. Using self-determination theory to promote adolescent girls' physical activity: Exploring the theoretical fidelity of the Bristol Girls Dance Project

    PubMed Central

    Sebire, Simon J.; Kesten, Joanna M.; Edwards, Mark J.; May, Thomas; Banfield, Kathryn; Tomkinson, Keeley; Blair, Peter S.; Bird, Emma L.; Powell, Jane E.; Jago, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To report the theory-based process evaluation of the Bristol Girls' Dance Project, a cluster-randomised controlled trial to increase adolescent girls' physical activity. Design A mixed-method process evaluation of the intervention's self-determination theory components comprising lesson observations, post-intervention interviews and focus groups. Method Four intervention dance lessons per dance instructor were observed, audio recorded and rated to estimate the use of need-supportive teaching strategies. Intervention participants (n = 281) reported their dance instructors' provision of autonomy-support. Semi-structured interviews with the dance instructors (n = 10) explored fidelity to the theory and focus groups were conducted with participants (n = 59) in each school to explore their receipt of the intervention and views on the dance instructors' motivating style. Results Although instructors accepted the theory-based approach, intervention fidelity was variable. Relatedness support was the most commonly observed need-supportive teaching behaviour, provision of structure was moderate and autonomy-support was comparatively low. The qualitative findings identified how instructors supported competence and developed trusting relationships with participants. Fidelity was challenged where autonomy provision was limited to option choices rather than input into the pace or direction of lessons and where controlling teaching styles were adopted, often to manage disruptive behaviour. Conclusion The successes and challenges to achieving theoretical fidelity in the Bristol Girls' Dance Project may help explain the intervention effects and can more broadly inform the design of theory-based complex interventions aimed at increasing young people's physical activity in after-school settings. PMID:27175102

  6. Menstrual Hygiene Practices in Context of Schooling: A Community Study Among Rural Adolescent Girls in Varanasi

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. The lack of attention to this issue is striking as we cannot achieve several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that is, 2, 3 4,5, and 5B. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about menarche and hygienic practices during menstruation in context of schooling. Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study using a mix method approach (qualitative and quantitative). It was conducted among 650 adolescent girls in the field practice area of Rural Health and Training Centre, Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi between January and June2011. Pretested, semistructured interview schedule was used. Data were analyzed statistically by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results: Out of the total 650 respondents, 590 (90.78%) had attained menarche at the time of interview and only one-third of the respondents (29.4%) were aware of menstruation before menarche and sisters (55%) played the key role in providing information to them. Only 31% respondents were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Self-reported reproductive tract infection (RTI) was observed more in respondents not maintaining hygienic practices (6.6%) as compared to those maintaining hygiene (2.6%). Conclusion and Recommendations: From the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) as well as quantitative survey it was observed that the awareness about menarche before its onset was still poor in rural areas. Significant association (P < 0.05) was observed between respondent education and their awareness about menarche before its onset. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers can play an influential role in informing them about changes during adolescence, especially about menarche and other issues related to menstruation. As per the present study, sisters and mothers were the major source of information. Therefore, there is a need for the

  7. Are there different sociocultural influences on body image and body change strategies for overweight adolescent boys and girls?

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Holt, Kate

    2010-08-01

    This study examined how sociocultural messages differ for overweight and normal weight adolescents and how these messages predict body image and body change strategies. In total, 590 adolescents participated in the study. Overweight adolescents experienced greater body dissatisfaction, engaged in more strategies to lose weight, and experienced greater sociocultural messages to lose weight. Body dissatisfaction and sociocultural pressures predicted weight loss among overweight boys. Body image importance, and sociocultural pressures predicted increasing muscle bulk for normal and overweight boys. Weight loss for overweight girls was predicted by sociocultural pressures. Sociocultural pressures also predicted muscle increase for overweight and normal weight girls. Implications for intervention and prevention programs for overweight adolescent boys and girls are discussed.

  8. Resisting pressure from peers to engage in sexual behavior: What communication strategies do early adolescent Latino Girls use?

    PubMed

    Norris, Anne E; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L; Hutchison, Janet; Campoe, Kristi

    2015-05-01

    A content analysis of early adolescent (M=12.02 years) Latino girls' (n=44) responses to open-ended questions imbedded in an electronic survey was conducted to explore strategies girls may use to resist peer pressure with respect to sexual behavior. Analysis yielded 341 codable response units, 74% of which were consistent with the REAL typology (i.e., refuse, explain, avoid, and leave) previously identified in adolescent substance use research. However, strategies reflecting a lack of resistance (11%) and inconsistency with communication competence (e.g., aggression, involving authorities) were also noted (15%). Frequency of particular strategies varied according to offer type, suggesting a variety of strategies may be needed to resist the peer pressure that puts early adolescent girls at risk for engaging in sexual behavior. Findings argue for universality of the REAL typology, building communication competence skills for conflict resolution in dating situations, and including peer resistance strategies in adolescent pregnancy prevention programs.

  9. Associations among Parent-Adolescent Relationships, Pubertal Growth, Dieting, and Body Image in Young Adolescent Girls: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Andrea Bastiani; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    1999-01-01

    Early adolescent girls, predominantly of normal weight, were seen for 2 consecutive years and completed measures assessing their dieting, body image, and relationships with parents; weights and heights were also measured. Mothers rated daughters' pubertal growth. Findings indicated that negative parent-adolescent relationships are linked to higher…

  10. The Role of Mothers' and Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic-Racial Socialization in Shaping Ethnic-Racial Identity among Early Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Diane; Hagelskamp, Carolin; Way, Niobe; Foust, Monica D.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined relationships between adolescents' and mothers' reports of ethnic-racial socialization and adolescents' ethnic-racial identity. The sample included 170 sixth graders (49% boys, 51% girls) and their mothers, all of whom identified as Black, Puerto Rican, Dominican, or Chinese. Two dimensions of ethnic-racial socialization…

  11. Metabolic syndrome risk factors are associated with white rice intake in Korean adolescent girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Song, SuJin; Young Paik, Hee; Song, Won O; Song, YoonJu

    2015-02-14

    In the present study, we examined the associations of total carbohydrate intake, dietary glycaemic load (DGL) and white rice intake with metabolic syndrome risk factors by sex in Korean adolescents. For the present cross-sectional study, data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-9) were used. A total of 2209 adolescents (n 1164 boys and n 1045 girls) aged 10-18 years with complete anthropometric, biochemical and dietary intake data were included in the study. Dietary intake data were obtained using the 24 h recall method, and total carbohydrate intake, DGL and white rice intake were divided into quartiles by sex. The metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were defined using the International Diabetes Federation criteria for children and adolescents. Fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance were included as the metabolic syndrome risk factors. All statistical analyses considered the complex sampling design effect and appropriate sampling weights. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to estimate means with their standard errors of the mean for the metabolic syndrome risk factors across the quartiles of total carbohydrate intake, DGL and white rice intake. While high DGL was significantly associated with increased fasting glucose levels in boys, high total carbohydrate intake, DGL and white rice intake were consistently associated with reduced HDL-cholesterol levels in girls. High white rice intake was significantly associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in girls but not in boys. Optimising dietary carbohydrate intake with respect to the source or amount is fundamental to preventing and managing metabolic diseases in Asian adolescents.

  12. The contribution of dance to daily physical activity among adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Structured physical activity (PA) programs are well positioned to promote PA among youth, however, little is known about these programs, particularly dance classes. The aims of this study were to: 1) describe PA levels of girls enrolled in dance classes, 2) determine the contribution of dance classes to total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and 3) compare PA between days with a dance class (program days) and days without a dance class (non-program days). Methods Participants were 149 girls (11-18 years) enrolled in dance classes in 11 dance studios. Overall PA was assessed with accelerometry for 8 consecutive days, and girls reported when they attended dance classes during those days. The percent contribution of dance classes to total MVPA was calculated, and data were reduced to compare PA on program days to non-program days. Data were analyzed using mixed models, adjusting for total monitoring time. Results Girls engaged in 25.0 ± 0.9 minutes/day of MVPA. Dance classes contributed 28.7% (95% CI: 25.9%-31.6%) to girls' total MVPA. Girls accumulated more MVPA on program (28.7 ± 1.4 minutes/day) than non-program days (16.4 ± 1.5 minutes/day) (p < 0.001). Girls had less sedentary behavior on program (554.0 ± 8.1 minutes/day) than non-program days (600.2 ± 8.7 minutes/day) (p < 0.001). Conclusions Dance classes contributed a substantial proportion (29%) to girls' total MVPA, and girls accumulated 70% more MVPA and 8% less sedentary behavior on program days than on non-program days. Dance classes can make an important contribution to girls' total physical activity. PMID:21816074

  13. Time perceptions and time allocation preferences among adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Bruno, J E

    1996-01-01

    How time is allocated between competing directed and nondirected activities can greatly define persona and lifestyle objectives. The important process of learning about time and the consequences of its various uses begins in childhood and adolescence, and provides the foundation for later life. This study examines whether girls differ from boys with regard to certain directed and nondirected types of time allocation preferences. Lifestyle objectives related to personal development (spending time), material achievement (selling time), social acceptance (giving time), and passive entertainment (passing or killing time), are explored using a time allocation preference model that defines a person's time investment portfolio. This study extends recent research by psychologists, sociologists, and anthropologists regarding the allocation and perception of time by examining student time allocation preferences and their association with teacher-observed behaviors in school. It was found that adolescent girls, whether considered by their teachers to exhibit at-risk or normal behaviors, seem to be less inclined toward nondirected activities and more toward other-directed activities. Boys seem to be more inclined toward nondirected activities. Being at risk as a school behavioral classification, is particularly associated with a large amount of nondirected activities in boys and large amounts of other-directed activities in girls.

  14. Understanding the effects of MTV's 16 and Pregnant on adolescent girls' beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward teen pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Kim, Kyungbo

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a popular documentary series about teen pregnancy, MTV's 16 and Pregnant, on adolescent girls' pregnancy-related attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions. The results suggest that girls who watched 16 and Pregnant, compared with a control group, reported a lower perception of their own risk for pregnancy and a greater perception that the benefits of teen pregnancy outweigh the risks. The authors also examined the relationships between homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms featured in 16 and Pregnant and attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions, finding that homophily predicted lower risk perceptions, greater acceptance of myths about teen pregnancy, and more favorable attitudes about teen pregnancy. Parasocial interaction demonstrated the same pattern of results, with the addition of also predicting fewer behavioral intentions to avoid teen pregnancy. Last, results revealed that teen girls' perceptions that the message of 16 and Pregnant was encouraging of teen pregnancy predicted homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  15. Alcohol Involvement in First Sexual Intercourse Experiences of Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Testa, Maria; Windle, Michael; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether use of alcohol at first coitus is associated with increased sexual risk for young women. First coitus is the focus of the investigation because it is a memorable, formative experience that has implications for subsequent sexual health. A community sample of young women ages 18 – 19 years (N = 227) completed retrospective interviews. Characteristics and perceptions of the first coital event were examined using chi squares and one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to determine if there were differences based on alcohol-involvement. Alcohol-involved first coitus events occurred in social settings with risky partners, were rated less positively, and were non-consensual relative to those that did not involve alcohol. Alcohol use was not related to condom use. Alcohol-involvement was associated with subsequent pairing of alcohol with sex and incapacitated rape. Adolescent alcohol use occurs in contexts that increases young women’s sexual risk through exposure to risky partners. PMID:26121927

  16. [Diagnosis and management of amenorrhea in adolescent girls].

    PubMed

    Laroche, E; Bricaire, L; Christin-Maitre, S

    2013-07-01

    Amenorrhea in adolescents can be primary, with or without breast development, or secondary. Whether amenorrhea is primary or secondary, height, body mass index, food intake, the level of physical activity per week, the presence of hirsutism or galactorrhea, pelvic pain and past history of intercourse need to be investigated. Initially, blood tests should include hCG, FSH, estradiol, testosterone and prolactin serum levels. This screening will discriminate between hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and amenorrhea from primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). In case of primary amenorrhea, hypogonadism may be due to congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) or more rarely acquired HH. If FSH is elevated, amenorrhea is due to primary ovarian failure, mainly related to Turner syndrome. If pubertal development is normal, a pelvic ultrasound should be performed. It may visualize a hindering of menses output or less frequently an absence of uterus, as in Rokitansky syndrome or androgen insentivity syndrome. The most frequent etiologies of secondary amenorrhea are polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and less frequently POI and hyperprolactinemia. The differential diagnoses of PCOS are late-onset 21-hydroxylase deficiency and very rare ovarian or adrenal tumors. When contraception is not necessary, hormonal replacement therapy, including estrogen and progestins should be administered in order to avoid hypoestrogenism. In case of PCOS, sequential progestins can be prescribed. A contraceptive pill can be considered when contraception is needed and/or when hyperandrogenism needs to be treated.

  17. Callous-unemotional traits as unique prospective risk factors for substance use in early adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Wymbs, Brian T; McCarty, Carolyn A; King, Kevin M; McCauley, Elizabeth; Vander Stoep, Ann; Baer, John S; Waschbusch, Daniel A

    2012-10-01

    Youth with elevated conduct disorder (CD) symptoms who also have callous-unemotional (CU) traits exhibit more antisocial behavior than youth without CU traits. However, evidence regarding whether CU traits increase risk of substance use over and above CD symptoms, and whether these associations differ for boys and girls, is scarce. Using the Developmental Pathways Project sample of 521 middle school students, we examined whether adolescent- and parent-reported CU traits measured in 6th grade prospectively predicted the onset and recurrence of substance use and use-related impairment by 9th grade. We also examined the degree to which CU traits uniquely predicted substance use and impairment over and above CD symptoms, as well as whether gender moderated these associations. Results indicated that adolescent-reported CU traits increased the likelihood of substance use and impairment onset and recurrence by 9th grade. Analyses revealed that CD symptoms accounted for prospective associations between adolescent-reported CU and substance use, but gender moderated these associations. Boys with elevated CU traits and CD symptoms were not more likely to report alcohol use onset or recurrence, but they were at highest risk of recurrent marijuana use, use of both alcohol and marijuana, and use-related impairment by 9th grade. Girls with low CU traits and high CD symptoms were most likely to report onset and recurrent use of alcohol, as well as recurrent marijuana use, use of both substances and impairment. Study findings highlight the importance of accounting for CD symptoms and gender when examining links between CU traits and substance use in early adolescence.

  18. Girls feeling good at school: School gender environment, internalization and awareness of socio-cultural attitudes associations with self-esteem in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Cribb, Victoria L; Haase, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    As society continues to advocate an unrealistically thin body shape, awareness and internalization of appearance and its consequent impact upon self-esteem has become increasingly of concern, particularly in adolescent girls. School gender environment may influence these factors, but remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to assess differences between two different school environments in appearance attitudes, social influences and associations with self-esteem. Two hundred and twelve girls (M = 13.8 years) attending either a single-sex or co-educational school completed measures on socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance, social support and self-esteem. Though marginal differences between school environments were found, significantly higher internalization was reported among girls at the co-educational school. School environment moderated relations between internalization and self-esteem such that girls in co-educational environments had poorer self-esteem stemming from greater internalization. Thus, in a single-sex school environment, protective factors may attenuate negative associations between socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance and self-esteem in adolescent girls.

  19. Factors influencing adolescent girls' sexual behavior: a secondary analysis of the 2011 youth risk behavior survey.

    PubMed

    Anatale, Katharine; Kelly, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Adolescence is a tumultuous and challenging time period in life. Sexual risk behavior among adolescents is a widespread topic of interest in the current literature. Two common factors that influence increased sexual risk behavior are symptoms of depression and negative body image. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of body image and symptoms of depression upon sexual risk-taking in an adolescent female population. A secondary data analysis of the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used to explore girls' sexual activity, body image, and mental health. There were 7,708 high-school girls who participated in this study. Three questions were used to represent the constructs under investigation. There were significant correlations between sexual activity, body image, and symptoms of depression; only symptoms of depression were significant predictors of both sexual activity and condom usage. Body image was a predictor of sexual activity, but not condom use. Our findings support previous studies that suggested that people with depressive symptoms were more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Our study also supports the idea that a negative body image decreases sexual activity; however, other researchers have reported that negative body image leads to an increase in sexual activity.

  20. Adolescent girls' ADHD symptoms and young adult driving: the role of perceived deviant peer affiliation.

    PubMed

    Cardoos, Stephanie L; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with or without a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood (Wave 1; 6-12 years) followed through adolescence (Wave 2; 11-18 years) and into young adulthood (Wave 3; 17-24 years). A subsample of 103 girls with a driving license by Wave 3 and with full data for all study variables was utilized in this investigation. In adolescence, mothers and teachers reported on ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), and participants reported on perceived deviant peer affiliation. In young adulthood, participants reported on driving behavior and outcomes, including number of accidents, number of moving vehicle citations, and ever having driven illegally. Covariates included age and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder. Inattention directly predicted citations. Perceived deviant peer affiliation mediated the association between inattention and (a) accidents and (b) citations. In addition, perceived deviant peer affiliation moderated the association between hyperactivity/impulsivity and accidents, with hyperactivity/impulsivity predicting accidents only for those with low perceived deviant peer affiliation. Perceived deviant peer affiliation appears to play an important role in the association between ADHD symptoms and driving outcomes. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that both ADHD symptoms and peer processes should be targeted in interventions that aim to prevent negative driving outcomes in young women with and without ADHD.

  1. Body image concern among Australian adolescent girls: the role of body comparisons with models and peers.

    PubMed

    Carey, Renee N; Donaghue, Ngaire; Broderick, Pia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential mediating roles of body comparisons with peers and models in the relationship between the internalization of thinness norms and body image concern. A total of 224 Western Australian girls aged 14-15 completed questionnaires assessing their endorsement of thinness norms, body image concerns, and frequency of body comparisons with peers and with models. Both targets of body comparisons were found to significantly mediate the relationship between the endorsement of thinness norms and body image concern, with body comparison with peers a stronger mediator than comparison with models. These findings show that body comparison with peers, in particular, plays a significant role in the experience of body image concerns among adolescent girls, and should be given a higher profile in programs designed to prevent or reduce body image concern.

  2. Low-income African American adolescents who avoid pregnancy: tough girls who rewrite negative scripts.

    PubMed

    Martyn, K K; Hutchinson, S A

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to generate a grounded theory that explains the social-psychological processes of low-income African American adolescents who avoided pregnancy. Data collection included focus groups and in-depth interviews with 17 women aged 19 to 26. Data analysis using the grounded theory method revealed that these girls were the recipients of negative social-psychological scripts, putting them at risk for poverty and early childbearing. The "tough girls" struggled to rewrite these scripts by recognizing their negativity, being disenchanted with the scripts, determining to be different, and creating better lives. These aware, introspective young women believed in self-responsibility, self-protection, education, and financial independence. Practice implications and considerations for programmatic interventions can be based on this analysis.

  3. A school-based smoking prevention program for adolescent girls in New York City.

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, M M

    1989-01-01

    Teenaged girls comprise the largest percentage of new cigarette smokers in the United States today. Factors contributing to smoking initiation include peer pressure, family and social influences, cigarette availability, and cigarette advertising. Because three-quarters of smokers become dependent on cigarettes by age 20, smoking prevention programs aimed at the adolescent population have great potential. The proposed program outlined is directed at girls 12 to 18 years of age in New York City. Among the objectives are increasing students' knowledge of the short- and long-term health effects of smoking and awareness of the social factors which lead to smoking. Participants would be taught social skills and behaviors which could help them to resist initiating smoking, by such activities as assertiveness training through role playing. Endurance sports activities would be emphasized while learning of the effects of smoking on physical conditioning. The costs of such a program are estimated, and classroom activities are outlined. PMID:2493667

  4. Cynical boys, determined girls? Success and failure anxiety in British adolescents.

    PubMed

    Weinreich-Haste, H

    1984-09-01

    Fifteen-year-old British adolescents of both sexes were presented with success or failure story cues, in sex-appropriate and sex-inappropriate fields of endeavour. Responses were analysed to establish the extent and nature of 'motive to avoid success'. The effects of cue variables (sex appropriateness, success versus failure), sex-role attitude, locus of control, social class and maternal employment were explored. It was found that boys were generally more negative, predicting failure and demonstrating anxiety in various ways. Girls were generally more positive, more likely to predict success outcomes, and tended to treat the obstacles to girls' achievement as challenges to be overcome. They tended to show a realistic appreciation of the problems likely to be encountered rather than anxiety or a motive to avoid success.

  5. One-year outcome and incidence of anorexia nervosa and restrictive eating disorders among adolescent girls treated as out-patients in a family-based setting

    PubMed Central

    Rosling, Agneta; Salonen Ros, Helena; Swenne, Ingemar

    2016-01-01

    Aims To study the 1-year outcome and to analyse predictors of outcome of a cohort of adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN) or restrictive eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOSr) treated as out-patients in a family-based programme at a specialized eating disorder service. To calculate the incidence of anorexia nervosa among treatment-seeking girls younger than 18 in Uppsala County from 2004 to 2006. Methods A total of 168 female patients were offered treatment, and 141 were followed-up 1 year after starting treatment, 29 with AN and 112 with EDNOSr. Results Of the 29 girls who initially had AN, 6 (20%) had a good outcome and were free of any form of eating disorder at follow-up; only 1 (3%) had AN. Of the patients with EDNOSr, 54 (48%) had a good outcome and were free of eating disorders. Three (3%) had a poor outcome and had developed AN. The incidence of AN was 18/100,000 person-years in girls younger than 12 and 63/100,000 in girls younger than 18. Conclusion Restrictive eating disorders, including AN, in children and adolescents can be successfully treated in a family-based specialized out-patient service without in-patient care. PMID:26915921

  6. One-year outcome and incidence of anorexia nervosa and restrictive eating disorders among adolescent girls treated as out-patients in a family-based setting.

    PubMed

    Rosling, Agneta; Salonen Ros, Helena; Swenne, Ingemar

    2016-01-01

    Aims To study the 1-year outcome and to analyse predictors of outcome of a cohort of adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN) or restrictive eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOSr) treated as out-patients in a family-based programme at a specialized eating disorder service. To calculate the incidence of anorexia nervosa among treatment-seeking girls younger than 18 in Uppsala County from 2004 to 2006. Methods A total of 168 female patients were offered treatment, and 141 were followed-up 1 year after starting treatment, 29 with AN and 112 with EDNOSr. Results Of the 29 girls who initially had AN, 6 (20%) had a good outcome and were free of any form of eating disorder at follow-up; only 1 (3%) had AN. Of the patients with EDNOSr, 54 (48%) had a good outcome and were free of eating disorders. Three (3%) had a poor outcome and had developed AN. The incidence of AN was 18/100,000 person-years in girls younger than 12 and 63/100,000 in girls younger than 18. Conclusion Restrictive eating disorders, including AN, in children and adolescents can be successfully treated in a family-based specialized out-patient service without in-patient care.

  7. Development of leadership self-efficacy and collective efficacy: adolescent girls across castes as peer educators in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Posner, J; Kayastha, P; Davis, D; Limoges, J; O'Donnell, C; Yue, K

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent girls in Nepal face enormous social barriers to accessing education and health services due to exclusionary socio-religious traditions and years of conflict. The programme and study reported here address two issues that a national assembly of in-school and out-of-school adolescent girls, who had completed a basic life skills class, and, in the case of unschooled girls, an intensive literacy course, identified as important to their well-being - menstrual restrictions and HIV awareness and prevention. Local non-governmental organizations developed a peer education programme in three districts of Nepal that paired girls from different castes and different educational levels. The programme sought to increase peer educators' (PE) leadership and collective efficacy for informing peers and adults in their communities about the effects that these issues have on women and girls. In total, 504 girls were selected and trained as PEs. They conducted targeted discussion sessions with other girls and organised mass awareness events, reaching 20,000 people. Examination of the effects of participating in the programme on key outcome measures showed that leadership self-efficacy, which was a central theoretical construct for the programme, provided a strong predictor of both increased HIV knowledge and of practicing fewer menstrual restrictions at endline. The project demonstrated that girls from different caste and educational backgrounds are able to work together to change individual behaviour and to address socio-cultural norms that affect their lives and well-being within their communities.

  8. Pre-meal affective state and laboratory test meal intake in adolescent girls with loss of control eating.

    PubMed

    Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E; Shomaker, Lauren B; Stephens, Mark; Sbrocco, Tracy; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2013-09-01

    Loss of control eating confers risk for excess weight gain and exacerbated disordered eating. Affect theory proposes that loss of control eating is used to cope with negative mood states. Self-report data suggest that negative affect may contribute to the etiology of loss of control eating, but this theory has not been well-tested using laboratory paradigms. We examined associations between pre-meal affective states and intake during a laboratory test meal. One-hundred and ten adolescent girls with reported loss of control eating whose body mass index fell between the 75th and 97th percentile for age and sex completed state mood ratings prior to a test-meal. Results indicated that pre-meal state negative affect was associated with greater carbohydrate and less protein consumption, as well as greater snack and dessert and less fruit and dairy intake. All girls experienced significant decreases in negative affect from pre- to post-meal, but intake during the meal was unassociated with post-meal affect. In support of affect theory, negative affective states reported among girls with loss of control may be a driving factor for increased energy-dense food intake, which may play a role in excess weight gain.

  9. Risk and protective factors for disturbed eating in adolescent girls - aspects of perfectionism and attitudes to eating and weight.

    PubMed

    Aila Gustafsson, Sanna; Edlund, Birgitta; Kjellin, Lars; Norring, Claes

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to longitudinally examine the role of personal standards, self-evaluation, perceived benefits of thinness and attitudes to eating and weight in the development of healthy versus disturbed eating in adolescent girls. In a longitudinal study, girls who participated in two assessments, four to five years apart, were divided into three groups according to the attitudes to eating that they manifested at the second evaluation: those with disturbed eating patterns (DE-group, n = 49), those with intermediate concerns about eating (IE-group, n = 260) and those with healthy eating attitudes (HE-group, n = 120). Variables concerning attitudes to eating and weight and physical self-evaluation emerged as risk factors, whereas personal standards or self-evaluation in general did not. Protective factors were a low BMI, healthy eating attitudes, an accepting attitude towards body size and a positive self-evaluation, particularly with regard to physical and psychological characteristics. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of early risk and protective factors for eating disturbances in girls.

  10. Mediating Effects of Self-Efficacy, Benefits and Barriers on the Association between Peer and Parental Factors and Physical Activity among Adolescent Girls with a Lower Educational Level

    PubMed Central

    Cardon, Greet; De Craemer, Marieke; D’Haese, Sara; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of physical activity among lower educated adolescent girls is low, suggesting it is important to have insights into the complex processes that may underlie their physical activity levels. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the mediating effects of self-efficacy, perceived benefits and barriers on the associations between peer and parental variables and physical activity among lower educated adolescent girls. Methods In total, 226 girls (mean age 16.0±1.0 years; 53% technical education; 47% vocational education) from a convenience sample of 6 secondary schools in Flanders, Belgium, completed a questionnaire on their total physical activity level and related peer and parental variables (i.e. modeling of physical activity, co-participation in physical activities and encouragement to be active) and personal variables (i.e. self-efficacy to be active, and specific perceived benefits of physical activity and specific barriers to be active). Mediating effects were tested using MacKinnon’s product-of-coefficients test based on multilevel linear regression analyses. Results Higher peer and parental modeling, co-participation and encouragement were significantly related to a higher physical activity level among adolescent girls (p<0.05). Self-efficacy, the perceived benefits of having fun, being around friends or meeting new people, and not being bored and the perceived barrier of not liking physical activity mediated several associations between peer and parental variables and girls’ physical activity, with some of the mediated proportions exceeding 60%. Conclusions This study contributed to a better understanding of the complexity of how parental and peer factors work together with personal factors to influence the physical activity levels of adolescent girls with a lower educational level. Interventions should involve both peers and parents, as they may influence girls’ physical activity both directly and indirectly through the

  11. Efficacy of an HIV/STI Sexual Risk-Reduction Intervention for African American Adolescent Girls in Juvenile Detention Centers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    DiClemente, Ralph J.; Davis, Teaniese L.; Swartzendruber, Andrea; Fasula, Amy M.; Boyce, Lorin; Gelaude, Deborah; Gray, Simone C.; Hardin, James; Rose, Eve; Carry, Monique; Sales, Jessica M.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Staples-Horne, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Few HIV/STI interventions exist for African American adolescent girls in juvenile detention. Objective The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention to reduce incident STIs, improve HIV-preventive behaviors, and enhance psychosocial outcomes. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial among African American adolescent girls (13-17 years, N=188) in juvenile detention from March 2011 to May 2012. Assessments occurred at baseline and 3- and 6-months post-randomization and included: audio computer-assisted self-interview, condom skills assessment, and self-collected vaginal swab to detect Chlamydia and gonorrhea. Intervention The Imara intervention included three individual-level sessions and four phone sessions; expedited partner therapy was offered to STI-positive adolescents. The comparison group received the usual care provided by the detention center: STI testing, treatment and counseling. Results At the 6-month assessment (3-months post-intervention) Imara participants reported higher condom use self-efficacy (p<0.001), HIV/STI knowledge (p<0.001), and condom use skills (p<0.001) compared to control participants. No significant differences were observed between trial conditions in incident Chlamydia or gonorrhea infections, condom use, or number of vaginal sex partners. Conclusions Imara for detained African American adolescent girls can improve condom use skills and psychosocial outcomes; however, a critical need for interventions to reduce sexual risk remains. PMID:25190056

  12. Longitudinal prediction and concurrent functioning of adolescent girls demonstrating various profiles of dating violence and victimization.

    PubMed

    Chiodo, Debbie; Crooks, Claire V; Wolfe, David A; McIsaac, Caroline; Hughes, Ray; Jaffe, Peter G

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent girls are involved in physical dating violence as both perpetrators and victims, and there are negative consequences associated with each of these behaviors. This article used a prospective design with 519 girls dating in grade 9 to predict profiles of dating violence in grade 11 based on relationships with families of origin (child maltreatment experiences, harsh parenting), and peers (harassment, delinquency, relational aggression). In addition, dating violence profiles were compared on numerous indices of adjustment (school connectedness, grades, self-efficacy and community connectedness) and maladjustment (suicide attempts, distress, delinquency, sexual behavior) for descriptive purposes. The most common profile was no dating violence (n = 367) followed by mutual violence (n = 81). Smaller numbers of girls reported victimization or perpetration only (ns = 39 and 32, respectively). Predicting grade 11 dating violence profile membership from grade 9 relationships was limited, although delinquency, parental rejection, and sexual harassment perpetration predicted membership to the mutually violent group, and delinquency predicted the perpetrator-only group. Compared to the non-violent group, the mutually violent girls in grade 11 had lower grades, poorer self-efficacy, and lower school connectedness and community involvement. Furthermore, they had higher rates of peer aggression and delinquency, were less likely to use condoms and were much more likely to have considered suicide. There were fewer differences among the profiles for girls involved with dating violence. In addition, the victims-only group reported higher rates of sexual intercourse, comparable to the mutually violent group and those involved in nonviolent relationships. Implications for prevention and intervention are highlighted.

  13. The energy cost of cycling and aerobic performance of obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Lafortuna, C L; Agosti, F; Busti, C; Galli, R; Sartorio, A

    2009-09-01

    In order to assess the energy cost of cycling and aerobic capacity in juvenile obesity, responses to cycle ergometer exercise were studied in 10 pubertal obese (OB) [body mass index (BMI) SD score (SDS): 3.40+/-0.58 SD] adolescent girls (age: 16.0+/-1.2 yr) and in 10 normal-weight (NW, BMI SDS: -0.30+/-0.54) girls of the same age (15.1+/-1.9). To this aim, gas exchange, heart rate (HR), and energy expenditure (EE) were studied during graded cycle ergometer test at 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 W. The energy cost of cycling was higher in OB, being oxygen uptake (VO2) higher (about 20%) in OB than in NW girls at all workloads (p<0.01-0.001). Estimated maximal VO2 and VO2 at anaerobic threshold were significantly (p<0.05) higher in OB girls [although lower per unit body mass (p<0.01) and similar for unit fat-free mass], and explained the higher oxygen pulse and lower HR for any EE observed during submaximal exercise in OB. While net mechanical efficiency (ME) was significantly lower in OB (p<0.01), delta ME was similar in both groups, indicating no substantial derangement of muscle intrinsic efficiency. It is concluded that, despite a higher cost of cycling, OB girls can rely on a larger aerobic capacity which makes them able to sustain this kind of exercise within a wide range of work loads, with relevant implications when planning protocols of physical activity in the context of interventions for the reduction of juvenile obesity.

  14. Effects of early menarche on physical and psychosocial health problems in adolescent girls and adult women.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Ho

    2016-09-01

    The menarcheal age of Korean women has been rapidly decreasing for the last 50 years, and the average menarcheal age of women born in the 1990s is approaching 12.6 years. In addition, interest in early puberty has been increasing recently owing to the rapid increase in precocious puberty. Generally, out of concern for short stature and early menarche, idiopathic central precocious puberty in female adolescents is treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Studies to date have described the association between early menarche and psychosocial problems such as delinquency and risky sexual behavior, as well as physical health problems such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and breast cancer throughout the lifespan of women. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying this association has not been clarified thus far. In this article, we review and discuss the existing literature to describe the current understanding of the effects of early menarche on the physical and psychosocial health of adolescent girls and adult women.

  15. Adapting Cognitive Interviewing for Early Adolescent Hispanic Girls and Sensitive Topics

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Anne E.; Torres-Thomas, Sylvia; Williams, Ellita T.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive interviewing is a research technique commonly used in survey research to improve measurement validity. However, this technique is useful to researchers planning to use self-report measures in intervention research because invalidity of such measures jeopardizes detection of intervention effects. Little research currently exists regarding the use of cognitive interviewing techniques with adolescent populations, particularly those who are Hispanic. This article describes common challenges to conducting cognitive interviewing with early adolescent girls and how these challenges are impacted by Hispanic culture and sensitive topics. A focus group approach is recommended over the traditional one-on-one cognitive interview format, and experiences from actual focus groups, conducted in preparation for an intervention study are used to illustrate strategies for accomplishing the goals of cognitive interviewing. Creative and careful planning, attention to developmental considerations, and incorporation of cultural values are essential to the success of this approach. PMID:25239207

  16. Menstruation in girls and adolescents: using the menstrual cycle as a vital sign.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Angela; Laufer, Marc R; Breech, Lesley L

    2006-11-01

    Young patients and their parents often are unsure about what represents normal menstrual patterns, and clinicians also may be unsure about normal ranges for menstrual cycle length and amount and duration of flow through adolescence. It is important to be able to educate young patients and their parents regarding what to expect of a first period and about the range for normal cycle length of subsequent menses. It is equally important for clinicians to have an understanding of bleeding patterns in girls and adolescents, the ability to differentiate between normal and abnormal menstruation, and the skill to know how to evaluate young patients' conditions appropriately. Using the menstrual cycle as an additional vital sign adds a powerful tool to the assessment of normal development and the exclusion of pathological conditions.

  17. Ayahuasca in adolescence: Qaualitative results.

    PubMed

    de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Grob, Charles S; Lopez, Enrique; da Silviera, Dartiu Xavier; Alonso, Luisa K; Doering-Silveira, Evelyn

    2005-06-01

    Qualitative research was conducted in Brazil among 28 ayahuasca-consuming adolescents members of the União do Vegetal Church, and 28 adolescents who never used ayahuasca. They were compared on a number of qualitative variables, including vignettes measuring moral and ethical concerns. Psychocultural studies utilizing co-occurences of variables in the realm of qualitative studies are useful in understanding and complementing quantitative studies also conducted among this population. Qualitative data show that the teens in the União do Vegetal religion appear to be healthy, thoughtful, considerate and bonded to their families and religious peers. This study examines the modern use of a powerful hallucinogenic compound within a legal religious context, and the youth who participated in these ayahuasca religious ceremonies (usually with parents and other family members) appeared not to differ from their nonayahuasca-using peers. This study helps to elucidate the full range of effects of plant hallucinogenic use within a socially-sanctioned, elder-facilitated and structured religious context.

  18. Mapping the Rural Adolescent Girls' Participation in Residential Non-Formal Education Program--A Study in Lunkaransar Block, Rajasthan, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shilpa

    2002-01-01

    The present study, "Mapping Rural Adolescent Girl's Participation in Residential Non- Formal Education Program--A Study in Lunkaransar Block, Rajasthan", was an attempt to understand the dimensions of rural adolescent girls' participation in the "Balika Shivir" Program. It is a six month residential non-formal education program…

  19. Learning Results from the Viewpoint of Equity: Boys, Girls and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehkonen, Erkki

    1997-01-01

    Explores why girls successful in mathematics choose advanced courses in upper secondary school less than did boys. Analyzes the results of tests and a student questionnaire (N=739) in Finland. Findings indicate that in the case of word problems and calculation without calculators, boys are significantly better than girls. Reports that the boys…

  20. 12 month changes in dietary intake of adolescent girls attending schools in low-income communities following the NEAT Girls cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Collins, Clare E; Dewar, Deborah L; Schumacher, Tracy L; Finn, Tara; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R

    2014-02-01

    Poor dietary habits and obesity are more prevalent in lower socio-economic status (SES) communities. The NEAT Girls cluster randomized controlled trial was a school-based obesity prevention program targeting adolescent girls in low SES schools in NSW, Australia. The aim was to evaluate the 12-month impact of key nutrition program messages on dietary intake and food behaviors. Diet was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Individual foods were categorized into nutrient-dense or energy-dense, nutrient-poor food groups and the percentage contribution to total energy intake calculated. Participants were aged 13.2±0.5years (n=330). There were no statistically significant group-by-time effects for dietary intake or food related behaviors, with 12-month trends suggesting more intervention group girls had improved water intakes (59% consuming⩽three glasses per day to 54% at 12 months vs. 50% to 61% in controls, p=0.052), with a greater proportion consuming < one sweetened beverage per day (24-41% vs. 34-37% in controls, p=0.057). Further research including more intensive nutrition intervention strategies are required to evaluate whether dietary intake in adolescent girls attending schools in low SES communities can be optimized.

  1. The Healthy Teen Girls project: comparison of health education and STD risk reduction intervention for incarcerated adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Angela A; Robertson, Angela R; St Lawrence, Janet; Morse, David T; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Liew, Hui; Gresham, Kathleen

    2011-06-01

    Adolescent girls incarcerated in a state reformatory (N = 246) were recruited and assigned to an 18-session health education program or a time-equivalent HIV prevention program. Cohorts were assigned to conditions using a randomized block design separated by a washout period to reduce contamination. Post intervention, girls in the HIV risk reduction program demonstrated the acquisition of risk-reduction behavioral skills and improved condom application skill. At a follow-up assessment approximately 9 months after release from the correctional facility, girls in both conditions reported fewer unprotected sexual intercourse occasions and less sex while under the influence of alcohol or other drugs.

  2. Abnormal melatonin receptor 1B expression in osteoblasts from girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Man, Gene Chi-Wai; Wong, Jack Ho; Wang, William Wei-Jun; Sun, Guang-Quan; Yeung, Benson Hiu-Yan; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Lee, Simon Kwong-Man; Ng, Bobby Kin-Wah; Qiu, Yong; Cheng, Jack Chun-Yiu

    2011-05-01

    Melatonin signaling dysfunction has been associated with the etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Genetic analysis has also associated the occurrence of AIS with the MT2 gene. Thus, we determined whether there is abnormality in the protein expression of melatonin receptors (MT) in AIS osteoblasts. In this study, we recruited 11 girls with severe AIS and eight normal subjects for intraoperative bone biopsies. MT1 and MT2 receptor protein expressions in the isolated osteoblasts were detected. Also, cell proliferation assay using different melatonin concentrations (0, 10(-9), 10(-5), 10(-4) m) was carried out. The results showed that both MT1 and MT2 receptors are expressed in osteoblasts of the controls. While MT1 receptors were expressed in osteoblasts of all AIS subjects, osteoblasts of only 7 of 11 AIS showed expression of MT2 receptors. Melatonin stimulated control osteoblasts to proliferate. However, proliferation of AIS osteoblasts without expression of MT2 receptor, after treatment with melatonin, was minimal when compared with control and AIS osteoblasts with MT2 receptor expression. The proliferation of AIS osteoblasts with MT2 receptor was greater than those without. This is the first report demonstrating a difference between AIS and normal osteoblasts in the protein expression of MT2 receptor. The results suggest that there is a possible functional effect of MT2 receptor on osteoblast proliferation. AIS osteoblasts without expression of MT2 receptor showed the lowest percentage of viable cells after melatonin treatment. This possibly indicates the modulating role of melatonin through MT2 receptor on the proliferation of osteoblasts.

  3. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment to Examine Interpersonal and Affective Predictors of Loss of Control Eating in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Engel, Scott G.; Crosby, Ross D.; Anderson, Micheline; Vannucci, Anna; Cohen, L. Adelyn; Cassidy, Omni; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pediatric loss of control (LOC) eating is predictive of partial- and full-syndrome binge eating disorder. The interpersonal model proposes that LOC eating is used to cope with negative mood states resulting from interpersonal distress, possibly on a momentary level. We therefore examined temporal associations between interpersonal problems, negative affect, and LOC eating among overweight adolescent girls using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Method Thirty overweight and obese (≥85th body mass index (BMI) percentile; BMI: M = 36.13, SD = 7.49 kg/m2) adolescent females (Age: M = 14.92, SD = 1.54 y; 60.0% African American) who reported at least two LOC episodes in the past month completed self-report momentary ratings of interpersonal problems, state affect, and LOC eating for 2 weeks. A series of 2-level multilevel models with centering within subjects was conducted. Results Between- and within-subjects interpersonal problems (p’s < .05), but not between- (p = .12) or within- (p = .32) subjects negative affect predicted momentary LOC eating. At the between-subjects level, interpersonal problems significantly predicted increases in negative affect (p < 001). Discussion Naturalistic data lend support to the predictive value of interpersonal problems for LOC eating among adolescents. Interventions targeting interpersonal factors on a momentary basis may be useful during this developmental stage. PMID:25046850

  4. The girls set the tone: gendered classroom norms and the development of aggression in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Busching, Robert; Krahé, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    In a four-wave longitudinal study with N = 1,321 adolescents in Germany, we examined the impact of class-level normative beliefs about aggression on aggressive norms and behavior at the individual level over the course of 3 years. At each data wave, participants indicated their normative acceptance of aggressive behavior and provided self-reports of physical and relational aggression. Multilevel analyses revealed significant cross-level interactions between class-level and individual-level normative beliefs at T1 on individual differences in physical aggression at T2, and the indirect interactive effects were significant up to T4. Normative approval of aggression at the class level, especially girls' normative beliefs, defined the boundary conditions for the expression of individual differences in aggressive norms and their impact on physically and relationally aggressive behavior for both girls and boys. The findings demonstrate the moderating effect of social norms on the pathways from individual normative beliefs to aggressive behavior in adolescence.

  5. The impact of thin models in music videos on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Bell, Beth T; Lawton, Rebecca; Dittmar, Helga

    2007-06-01

    Music videos are a particularly influential, new form of mass media for adolescents, which include the depiction of scantily clad female models whose bodies epitomise the ultra-thin sociocultural ideal for young women. The present study is the first exposure experiment that examines the impact of thin models in music videos on the body dissatisfaction of 16-19-year-old adolescent girls (n=87). First, participants completed measures of positive and negative affect, body image, and self-esteem. Under the guise of a memory experiment, they then either watched three music videos, listened to three songs (from the videos), or learned a list of words. Affect and body image were assessed afterwards. In contrast to the music listening and word-learning conditions, girls who watched the music videos reported significantly elevated scores on an adaptation of the Body Image States Scale after exposure, indicating increased body dissatisfaction. Self-esteem was not found to be a significant moderator of this relationship. Implications and future research are discussed.

  6. Optical spectroscopy for quantification of bulk breast tissue properties in adolescent girls: preliminary observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Samantha N.; Lilge, Lothar

    2005-09-01

    Optical technology holds considerable promise to improve early detection, diagnosis and risk assessment of breast cancer. Unlike current clinical risk assessment tools such as the Gail model, the most widely accepted risk assessment tool, optical risk assessment technology can be applied to the entire female population of all ages. This study is investigating the use of optical reflectance spectroscopy (ORS) as a possible breast tissue development monitoring tool for adolescent girls. Changes in breast development due to proliferation of mammary gland and the surrounding stroma are reflected in changes in breast tissue density and composition which can be interrogated optically. Modifications of development influenced by micronutrients and hormonal status from exposures (e.g. toxins), lifestyle and diet effects, may ultimately be tracked. Preliminary data suggests that ORS has the ability to detect differences in bulk tissue properties in the developing breast of adolescent girls when compared to developmental stages assessed by Tanner, regional variation within breast tissue structure and asymmetries between left and right breast size and shape. Spectral comparison of unilateral breast development permits adjusting the optode separation as function of developmental breast size to minimize optical sampling of pectoral muscle.

  7. Zuclopenthixol-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome in an adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    Erermis, Serpil; Bildik, Tezan; Tamar, Muge; Gockay, Ahmet; Karasoy, Hatice; Ercan, Eyup Sabri

    2007-01-01

    We present the case of a 14-year-old female who had many characteristics of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) without pyrexia following a single depot injection of 200 mg of zuclopenthixol. The patient presented with a change in mental status that had progressed over the preceding 48 hours. Subsequently, she became increasingly agitated and confused, and developed diffuse muscular rigidity, mutism, tremor, tachycardia, diaphoresis, sialorrhea, and incontinence. Results of laboratory tests showed elevated CPK levels, leukocytosis, and a low serum iron level. Bromocriptine and diazepam were used as initial treatment of a probable NMS and provided significant improvement. During the next seven days, she clinically improved but continued to exhibit emotional lability, logorrhea, elevated mood, and increased psychomotor activity. Therefore, bromocriptine and diazepam were discontinued and lorazepam and lithium were administered as treatment of a bipolar disorder. Four weeks later, she was discharged in stable condition. The presentation of this case report suggests that the primary psychiatric diagnosis is important in antipsychotic usage in the pediatric population, and that young patients receiving neuroleptic treatment should be monitored for the early signs of NMS. Using the diagnostic criteria of a neuroleptic toxicity spectrum may result in greater clinical awareness and earlier recognition of NMS.

  8. Late adolescent girls' relationships with parents and romantic partner: the distinct role of mothers and fathers.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra

    2008-12-01

    The distinct role of mothers and fathers in shaping the quality of relationships with romantic partner was explored. One hundred and twenty 17-year old girls were observed during their senior year in high school with each of their parents during a Revealed differences task [Allen, J. P., Hauser, S. T., Bell, K. L., Boykin, K. A., & Tate, D. C. (1994). Autonomy and relatedness coding system manual, version 2.01. Unpublished manual] and filled out questionnaires pertaining to their relationships with romantic partners. A year and a half later (7 months after conscription to compulsory military service) they again filled out questionnaires. Whereas self-reports did not distinguish between relations with mothers and fathers observational data revealed that relationships with each parent are associated with somewhat different aspects of the romantic relationship. Better quality of relationship with mother was associated with delays in the girl's entrance into sexual romantic relationships, and with better quality of romantic relationship concurrently whereas better quality of relationship with father was associated with better quality of romantic relationship once they are formed concurrently and longitudinally. The findings highlight the central role that mothers and fathers play in shaping the quality of the romantic relationships that late adolescent girls form and underscore the importance of using observational data as well as questionnaire data.

  9. Resisting pressure from peers to engage in sexual behavior: What communication strategies do early adolescent Latino Girls use?

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Anne E.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Hutchison, Janet; Campoe, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    A content analysis of early adolescent (M=12.02 years) Latino girls’ (n=44) responses to open-ended questions imbedded in an electronic survey was conducted to explore strategies girls may use to resist peer pressure with respect to sexual behavior. Analysis yielded 341 codable response units, 74% of which were consistent with the REAL typology (i.e., refuse, explain, avoid, and leave) previously identified in adolescent substance use research. However, strategies reflecting a lack of resistance (11%) and inconsistency with communication competence (e.g., aggression, involving authorities) were also noted (15%). Frequency of particular strategies varied according to offer type, suggesting a variety of strategies may be needed to resist the peer pressure that puts early adolescent girls at risk for engaging in sexual behavior. Findings argue for universality of the REAL typology, building communication competence skills for conflict resolution in dating situations, and including peer resistance strategies in adolescent pregnancy prevention programs. PMID:26146434

  10. Anna, leaving home--an adolescent girl's journey.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Rachel G

    2006-01-01

    The author presents an in-depth exploration of psychoanalytic process from her work with Anna, a young woman in treatment from age 15 through her 18th birthday, when she left for college. Anna came to treatment with attachment problems and bulimic symptoms embedded in her character structure, the deformation of which had impaired relationships and disrupted developmental processes. A noteworthy aspect of Anna's analysis is a treatment resistance that repeated early issues of abandonment and loss, and that allowed the analyst to experience the centrality of Anna's sadomasochistic relatedness. As this material is analyzed, an erotized transference emerges in which Anna both longs for and fears a special intimacy with her analyst. Talented at working and playing in the transference, Anna is able to use the transference to remember her early life, to learn to experience and tolerate a range of affects, and to explore old and new kinds of attachments. Psychoanalysis helps to put developmental processes back on track and results in significant intrapsychic and interpersonal change, allowing Anna to separate and to leave home.

  11. [Knowledge about sexual health in Italian adolescents girls and women: the need for intergenerational communication].

    PubMed

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Cicognola, Lucrezia; Salmasi, Luca; Angeli, Giuseppe; Minelli, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study, performed between September to November 2010, was to provide insight into Italian girls' and women's knowledge of sexual health and sexuality, in particular regarding the physiology of human reproduction, contraception, sexuality, cervical cancer screening and abortion. The data used were obtained through face-to-face interviews with two groups of women, performed by a trained interviewer using a structured multiple-choice questionnaire. The first group was composed of young women aged 17 to 20 years, randomly selected from five high-school institutes in the inner-city area of Perugia (Italy), while the second group was made up of women aged 30 to 43 years, recruited amongst women undergoing postpartum checks at a regional hospital. The number of correct answers for each group of questions and the total number of correct answers in the questionnaire were calculated. A Poisson regression model was used to identify the main determinants of answering correctly. Adult women gave a higher rate of correct answers for each topic, except for those related to abortion, contraception, and HPV. Characteristics of adult women associated with a better knowledge about sexuality were: discussing about sexuality with friends or partner, being Italy-born and having an open and relaxed attitude toward sex. For younger women, better knowledge was associated with being Italy-born, having attended affectivity education courses and having an open and relaxed attitude towards sex. Results suggest that no sex education or information source by itself is effective but what is needed is a combination of various information sources, both formal and informal, including parent-adolescent communication.

  12. The role of mothers' and adolescents' perceptions of ethnic-racial socialization in shaping ethnic-racial identity among early adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Diane; Hagelskamp, Carolin; Way, Niobe; Foust, Monica D

    2009-05-01

    The current study examined relationships between adolescents' and mothers' reports of ethnic-racial socialization and adolescents' ethnic-racial identity. The sample included 170 sixth graders (49% boys, 51% girls) and their mothers, all of whom identified as Black, Puerto Rican, Dominican, or Chinese. Two dimensions of ethnic-racial socialization (cultural socialization and preparation for bias) were evaluated alongside three dimensions of ethnic-racial identity (exploration, affirmation and belonging, and behavioral engagement). Mothers' reports of their cultural socialization predicted adolescents' reports, but only adolescents' reports predicted adolescents' ethnic-racial identity processes. Mothers' reports of preparation for bias predicted boys' but not girls' reports of preparation for bias. Again, only adolescents' reports of preparation for bias predicted their ethnic-racial identity. Thus, several gender differences in relationships emerged, with mothers' and adolescents' perceptions of cultural socialization, in particular, playing a more important role in girls' than in boys' identity processes. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research.

  13. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination and Adolescent Girls' Knowledge and Sexuality in Western Uganda: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on adolescent girls’ knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine, perception of sexual risk and intentions for sexual debut. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Ibanda and Mbarara districts. Data was collected using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences computer software. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were conducted with significance level set at p < .05. Results showed that HPV vaccination was associated with being knowledgeable (Crude OR: 5.26, CI: 2.32–11.93; p = 0.000). Vaccination against HPV did not predict perception of sexual risk. Knowledge was low (only 87/385 or 22.6% of vaccinated girls were knowledgeable), but predicted perception of a high sexual risk (Adjusted OR: 3.12, CI: 1.37–3.63; p = 0.008). HPV vaccination, knowledge and perceived sexual risk did not predict sexual behaviour intentions. High parental communication was associated with adolescent attitudes that support postponement of sexual debut in both bivariate and multiple regression analyses. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that HPV vaccination is not likely to encourage adolescent sexual activity. Influence of knowledge on sexual behaviour intentions was not definitively explained. Prospective cohort studies were proposed to address the emerging questions. PMID:26327322

  14. Exploring gender-specific trends in underage drinking across adolescent age groups and measures of drinking: is girls' drinking catching up with boys'?

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hua; Schwartz, Jennifer

    2010-08-01

    Underage drinking is among the most serious of public health problems facing adolescents in the United States. Recent concerns have centered on young women, reflected in media reports and arrest statistics on their increasing problematic alcohol use. This study rigorously examined whether girls' alcohol use rose by applying time series methods to both arrest data, Uniform Crime Reports, and self-report data from Monitoring the Future, a nationally representative long-term survey gathered independently of crime control agents. All self-reported drinking behaviors across all age groups show declining or unchanged female rates and no significant change in the gender gap, while the official source displays a steady narrowing gender gap and some increase of female arrest rates for liquor law violations. Results indicate that social control measures applied to underage drinking have shifted to target young women's drinking patterns, but their drinking has not become more widespread/problematic. Girls' increased alcohol use and abuse is a socially constructed problem, rather than the result of normalization of drinking or more strain in girls' lives. Future underage drinking policies and practices that apply legal intervention strategies to less chronic adolescent drinking behaviors will increase the visibility of girls' drinking.

  15. Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Vessby, Bengt; Tengblad, Siv; Vaara, Elina M; Hauta-alus, Helena; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-04-14

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18 % of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9):arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated.

  16. Do Media Use and Physical Activity Compete in Adolescents? Results of the MoMo Study

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Sarah; Mess, Filip; Woll, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The displacement hypothesis predicts that physical activity and media use compete in adolescents; however, findings are inconsistent. A more differentiated approach at determining the co-occurrence of physical activity and media use behaviors within subjects may be warranted. The aim of this study was to determine the co-occurrence of physical activity and media use by identifying clusters of adolescents with specific behavior patterns including physical activity in various settings (school, sports club, leisure time) and different types of media use (watching TV, playing console games, using PC / Internet). Methods Cross-sectional data of 2,083 adolescents (11–17 years) from all over Germany were collected between 2009 and 2012 in the Motorik-Modul Study. Physical activity and media use were self-reported. Cluster analyses (Ward’s method and K-means analysis) were used to identify behavior patterns of boys and girls separately. Results Eight clusters were identified for boys and seven for girls. The clusters demonstrated that a high proportion of boys (33%) as well as girls (42%) show low engagement in both physical activity and media use, irrespective of setting or type of media. Other adolescents are engaged in both behaviors, but either physical activity (35% of boys, 27% of girls) or media use (31% of boys and girls) predominates. These adolescents belong to different clusters, whereat in most clusters either one specific setting of physical activity or a specific combination of different types of media predominates. Conclusion The results of this study support to some extent the hypothesis that media use and physical activity compete: Very high media use occurred with low physical activity behavior, but very high activity levels co-occurred with considerable amounts of time using any media. There was no evidence that type of used media was related to physical activity levels, neither setting of physical activity was related to amount of media use

  17. Home sweet home(s): parental separations, residential moves, and adjustment problems in low-income adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Adam, Emma K; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay

    2002-09-01

    Associations between histories of family disruption (residential moves and separations from parent figures) and adolescent adjustment (including educational, internalizing, externalizing, and sexual behavior outcomes) were examined in a random sample of 267 African American girls from 3 urban poverty neighborhoods. Higher numbers of residential moves and parental separations significantly predicted greater adolescent adjustment problems after household demographic characteristics were controlled. Adolescents' perceptions of their current relationships and neighborhoods were significantly associated with adolescent adjustment but did not mediate the effects of family disruption. Associations between parental separations and adolescent outcomes were strongest for externalizing problems and were found for both male and female caregivers, for long-standing and more temporary caregivers, and for separations in early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence.

  18. A web-based, health promotion program for adolescent girls and their mothers who reside in public housing.

    PubMed

    Schwinn, Traci M; Schinke, Steven; Fang, Lin; Kandasamy, Suganthi

    2014-04-01

    This study tested a brief web-based, family-involvement health promotion program aimed at drug use, physical activity, and nutrition for adolescent girls, aged 10 to 12 years, who reside in public housing. Separately, girls (n=67) and their mothers (n=67) completed baseline measures online. Following baseline, 36 randomly assigned mother-daughter dyads jointly completed a 3-session, health promotion program online. Subsequently, all girls and mothers separately completed posttest and 5-month follow-up measures. Attrition at posttest and 5-month follow-up measures was 3% and 9%, respectively. At posttest, intervention-arm girls, relative to control-arm girls, reported greater mother-daughter communication and parental monitoring. Intervention-arm mothers reported greater mother-daughter communication and closeness as well as increased vegetable intake and physical activity. At 5-month follow-up, intervention-arm girls and mothers, relative to those in the control arm, reported greater levels of parental monitoring. Intervention-arm girls also reported greater mother-daughter communication and closeness, reduced stress, greater refusal skills, and increased fruit intake. Findings indicate the potential of a brief, web-based program to improve the health of low-income girls and their mothers.

  19. A Web-Based, Health Promotion Program for Adolescent Girls and Their Mothers Who Reside in Public Housing

    PubMed Central

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven; Fang, Lin; Kandasamy, Suganthi

    2014-01-01

    This study tested a brief web-based, family-involvement health promotion program aimed at drug use, physical activity, and nutrition for adolescent girls, aged 10 to 12 years, who reside in public housing. Separately, girls (n = 67) and their mothers (n = 67) completed baseline measures online. Following baseline, 36 randomly assigned mother-daughter dyads jointly completed a 3-session, health promotion program online. Subsequently, all girls and mothers separately completed posttest and 5-month follow-up measures. Attrition at posttest and 5-month follow-up measures was 3% and 9%, respectively. At posttest, intervention-arm girls, relative to control-arm girls, reported greater mother-daughter communication and parental monitoring. Intervention-arm mothers reported greater mother-daughter communication and closeness as well as increased vegetable intake and physical activity. At 5-month follow-up, intervention-arm girls and mothers, relative to those in the control arm, reported greater levels of parental monitoring. Intervention-arm girls also reported greater mother-daughter communication and closeness, reduced stress, greater refusal skills, and increased fruit intake. Findings indicate the potential of a brief, web-based program to improve the health of low-income girls and their mothers. PMID:24447886

  20. Longitudinal associations between depressive problems, academic performance, and social functioning in adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Verboom, Charlotte E; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Verhulst, Frank C; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between depressive problems and three types of functioning in adolescents while testing gender differences. Depressive problems and functioning of 2,230 children were measured with structured questionnaires. The measurements took place biennially over 3 waves, from late childhood into adolescence (age range = 10-18 years). To examine the longitudinal relation between depression and functioning, path analyses with cross-lagged effects were conducted with structural equation modeling. Multigroup analyses were used to test for gender differences, which were only observed for academic performance. Other findings indicated substantial stability in depressive problems and functioning over time and within-wave correlations between depression and the 3 types of functioning. Poor social well-being was predicted by depressive problems but not the other way around. The relation between depressive and social problems was bidirectional, that is, they predicted each other. Finally, depressive problems and academic performance were bidirectionally related as well but only in girls.

  1. Self-Efficacy for Sexual Risk Reduction and Partner HIV Status as Correlates of Sexual Risk Behavior Among HIV-Positive Adolescent Girls and Women.

    PubMed

    Boone, Melissa R; Cherenack, Emily M; Wilson, Patrick A

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the correlates of sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive adolescent girls and women in the United States. This study investigates two potential factors related to unprotected vaginal and anal intercourse (UVAI) that have yet to be thoroughly studied in this group: self-efficacy for sexual risk reduction and partner HIV status. Data was analyzed from 331 HIV-positive adolescent girls and women between 12 and 24 years old who reported vaginal and/or anal intercourse with a male partner in the past 3 months at fifteen sites across the United States. Results show that overall self-efficacy (B=-0.15, p=0.01), self-efficacy to discuss safe sex with one's partner (B=-0.14, p=0.01), and self-efficacy to refuse unsafe sex (B=-0.21, p=0.01) are related to UVAI episodes. Participants with only HIV-positive partners or with both HIV-positive and HIV-negative partners showed a trend towards higher percentages of UVAI episodes compared to participants with only HIV-negative partners (F(2, 319)=2.80, p=0.06). These findings point to the importance of including self-efficacy and partner HIV status in risk-reduction research and interventions developed for HIV-positive adolescent girls and young women.

  2. "Doing Hair" and Literacy in an Afterschool Reading and Writing Workshop for African-American Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Daneell

    2005-01-01

    The term "doing hair" is utterly familiar. However, while the term can refer to simple acts of combing, brushing, washing, and styling hair, in the culture of adolescent African-American girls, doing hair is a social practice that represents power, creativity, and sometimes popularity. This article describes a three-month afterschool…

  3. The Influence of Body Mass Index on Long-Term Fitness from Physical Education in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camhi, Sarah M.; Phillips, Jennie; Young, Deborah R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Physical education (PE) can improve physical fitness; however, little research has evaluated PE's long-term influence. The purpose is to determine PE's longitudinal effects on fitness in a group of adolescent girls and to determine whether body mass index (BMI) status influenced any potential effects. Methods: Participants were…

  4. Taking Flight: Adolescent Girls' Camps in Lok Jumbish of Rajasthan, India. Education for All: Making It Work. Innovation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    The Education for All: Making It Work series is a major international interagency program designed to collect, analyze, and promote successful basic education projects in the least developed and developing countries. This project report describes the innovative work being undertaken in adolescent girls' camps in Lok Jumbish (Rajasthan, India).…

  5. Striving to Make a Positive Difference: School Nurses' Experiences of Promoting the Health and Well-Being of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Margaretha; Björk, Maria; Ekebergh, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson

    2014-01-01

    In Sweden, school nurses are part of the School Health Service with the main objective of health promotion to support students' health and attainment of educational goals. The aim in this phenomenological study was to illuminate the experiences of school nurses in promoting the health and well-being of adolescent girls. Seventeen school nurses…

  6. Body-Image and Eating Disturbances Prospectively Predict Increases in Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Girls: A Growth Curve Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2001-01-01

    Examined longitudinal community data to test whether body-image and eating disturbances partially explain increased depression in adolescent girls. Found that initial pressure to be thin, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, and bulimic symptoms predicted subsequent increased depressive symptoms. There was also prospective…

  7. Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…

  8. Sexual and reproductive health and rights of adolescent girls: Evidence from low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Santhya, K.G.; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence on sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of adolescent girls in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) in light of the policy and programme commitments made at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), analyses progress since 1994, and maps challenges in and opportunities for protecting their health and human rights. Findings indicate that many countries have yet to make significant progress in delaying marriage and childbearing, reducing unintended childbearing, narrowing gender disparities that put girls at risk of poor SRH outcomes, expanding health awareness or enabling access to SRH services. While governments have reaffirmed many commitments, policy development and programme implementation fall far short of realising these commitments. Future success requires increased political will and engagement of young people in the formulation and implementation of policies and programmes, along with increased investments to deliver at scale comprehensive sexuality education, health services that are approachable and not judgemental, safe spaces programmes, especially for vulnerable girls, and programmes that engage families and communities. Stronger policy-making and programming also require expanding the evidence on adolescent health and rights in LMICs for both younger and older adolescents, boys and girls, and relating to a range of key health matters affecting adolescents. PMID:25554828

  9. Adolescent Boys' and Girls' Block Constructions Differ in Structural Balance: A Block-Building Characteristic Related to Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Beth M.; Pezaris, Elizabeth E.; Bassi, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted on block building in adolescents, assessing middle school (Study 1) and high school students (Study 2). Students were asked to build something interesting with blocks. In both samples, the same pattern of gender differences were found; boys built taller structures than girls, and balanced a larger number of blocks on a…

  10. Being Admired or Being Liked: Classroom Social Status and Depressive Problems in Early Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Veenstra, Rene; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ormel, Johan

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates associations between depressive problems and classroom social status in a large population cohort of Dutch early adolescents (N = 1046, age 13.52 plus or minus 0.51, 52.4% girls). Depressive problems were assessed by parent and self-reports and classroom status by peer nominations. We assessed peer status with respect to…

  11. Early to Bed: A Study of Adaptation among Sexually Active Urban Adolescent Girls Younger than Age Sixteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andres; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Caminis, Argyro; Vermeiren, Robert; Henrich, Christopher C.; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between sexual activity among urban adolescent girls and four global measures of psychosocial adaptation (academic motivation, school achievement, depressive symptoms, and expectations about the future). Method: Data derived from the Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey administered in 1998 to…

  12. Multiple Sexual Victimizations among Adolescent Boys and Girls: Prevalence and Associations with Eating Behaviors and Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackard, Diann M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexual abuse, including multiple victimizations, among adolescents and to examine associations among history of sexual abuse, disordered eating behaviors and psychological health. The sample included 81,247 students (40,946 girls and 40,301 boys) in 9th and 12th grades in Minnesota public…

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Drug/Alcohol-Facilitated and Incapacitated Sexual Assault in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Conoscenti, Lauren M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    Incapacitated/drug-alcohol facilitated sexual assault (IS/DAFS) is rapidly gaining recognition as a distinct form of assault with unique public health implications. This study reports the prevalence, case characteristics, and associated health risks of IS/DAFS using a large, nationally representative sample of 1,763 adolescent girls. Results…

  14. Internet-Delivered Targeted Group Intervention for Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating in Adolescent Girls: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinicke, Brooke E.; Paxton, Susan J.; McLean, Sian A.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated a targeted intervention designed to alleviate body image and eating problems in adolescent girls that was delivered over the internet so as to increase access to the program. The program consisted of six, 90-minute weekly small group, synchronous on-line sessions and was facilitated by a therapist and manual. Participants were…

  15. Adolescent Girls' Experiences and Gender-Related Beliefs in Relation to Their Motivation in Math/Science and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, Campbell; Farkas, Timea; Brown, Christia Spears

    2012-01-01

    Although the gender gap has dramatically narrowed in recent decades, women remain underrepresented in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This study examined social and personal factors in relation to adolescent girls' motivation in STEM (math/science) versus non-STEM (English) subjects. An ethnically diverse…

  16. Ethnic Identity Trajectories among Mexican-Origin Girls during Early and Middle Adolescence: Predicting Future Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Allen, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    We examined trajectories of ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation and their associations with depressive symptoms and self-esteem 3.5 years later among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin girls (N = 338). Findings indicated that exploration, resolution, and affirmation increased over time for both cohorts. Among early…

  17. Comparing the in vivo glycine fluxes of adolescent girls and adult women during early and late pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During pregnancy, growth of the fetus depends on an adequate glycine supply because it is needed for synthesis of fetal DNA, collagen, and serine. Since pregnant adolescent girls give birth to lower birth weight babies, it is possible that they do not produce sufficient glycine to meet overall deman...

  18. The Interactive Effects of Puberty and Peer Victimization on Weight Concerns and Depression Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compian, Laura J.; Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing a cross-sectional design, the authors examined associations between pubertal status, peer victimization, and their interaction in relation to weight concerns and symptoms of depression in a sample of early adolescent girls (N = 261). Multivariate analyses revealed a significant interaction between pubertal status and relational…

  19. Study of Aspirations, Attitudes and Motivational Structure of Adolescent Girl Students of Iraq for Out-of-Home Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla, Aditya N.; El-Hanafy, Mohammad Ghanim

    To ascertain the educational, occupational and social aspirations, attitudes and motivation-structure of Iraqi adolescent girl students, a questionnaire was distributed to 137 randomly-selected students from 2 colleges at the University of Mosul. Respondents were predominantly urban-oriented, dormitory residents, unmarried, average in scholastic…

  20. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  1. Risky Lifestyle as a Mediator of the Relationship between Deviant Peer Affiliation and Dating Violence Victimization among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vezina, Johanne; Hebert, Martine; Poulin, Francois; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have explored the possible contribution of the peer group to dating violence victimization. The current study tested the hypothesis that a risky lifestyle would mediate the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and dating violence victimization among adolescent girls. The proposed mediation model was derived from lifestyles and…

  2. The Role of Literary Mentors in Writing Development: How African American Women's Literature Supported the Writings of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2015-01-01

    Coupling Royster's (2000) conceptual framework of "zamani" with Rosenblatt's (1978) reader response theory, the researcher explores the ways African American women's writings supported, nurtured, and "mentored" the writings of adolescent girls. Findings show that the mentor texts helped in generating ideas for writing, thinking…

  3. Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization.

    PubMed

    Granberg, Ellen M; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L

    2009-12-01

    Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the maintenance of these positive self-views. In this paper, we evaluate these arguments using data drawn from a panel study of socio-economically diverse African American adolescent girls living in Iowa and Georgia. We analyze the relationship between body size and social self-image over three waves of data, starting when the girls were 10 years of age and concluding when they were approximately 14. We find that heavier respondents hold less positive social self-images but also find that being raised in a family that practices racial socialization moderates this relationship.

  4. Validation of an Italian version of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) on adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Stefanile, Cristina; Matera, Camilla; Nerini, Amanda; Pisani, Elena

    2011-09-01

    The present study used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to investigate the factor structure of an Italian version of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) with a sample of 598 adolescent girls. Results of EFA indicated a four-factor structure: Information, Pressures, Internalization-General, and Internalization-Athlete. Factor loadings confirmed the original structure of the scale, except for one item. As expected, the four factors appeared to be slightly correlated. Cronbach's alphas for the four subscales were uniformly high: Information=.91, Pressures=.91, Internalization-General=.94, Internalization-Athlete=.84. Convergent validity of this Italian version of the SATAQ-3 was found to be good. SATAQ-3 seems useful to measure different aspects of societal influences on body image in Italian contexts. Future studies could subject SATAQ-3 to a confirmatory factor analysis in order to confirm the adequate fit of the model according to conventional criteria.

  5. Associations between sociocultural pressures to be thin, body distress, and eating disorder symptomatology among Chilean adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Ferrer-García, Marta; Toro, José; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Peñaloza, Claudia; Cuadros-Sosa, Yasna; Gálvez-Madrid, Ma José

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between perceived sociocultural pressure to fulfill the thin beauty ideal, body distress, and the presence of eating disorder symptoms. Participants were 437 Chilean adolescent girls from Arica, northern Chile, aged 13-18. Results showed significant associations between perceived pressure from social agents to be thin and the presence of disrupted eating attitudes and behavior. The perceived influence of advertising, verbal messages and social situations related to eating and dieting emerged as the strongest predictors of eating disorders symptoms. Influence of advertising was also the strongest predictor of body image distress. Age differences emerged in perceived sociocultural pressure to be thin, with older participants reporting higher sociocultural pressure to fulfill the slender beauty ideal. This paper provides information about body distress and associated disturbances, a phenomenon which has seldom been studied in non-Western countries, but which has important health implications.

  6. Peer Influence and Nonsuicidal Self Injury: Longitudinal Results in Community and Clinically-Referred Adolescent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Heilbron, Nicole; Guerry, John D.; Franklin, Joseph C.; Rancourt, Diana; Simon, Valerie; Spirito, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that adolescents' engagement in nonsuicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviors may be increasing over time, yet little is known regarding distal longitudinal factors that may promote engagement in these behaviors. Data from two longitudinal studies are presented to examine whether NSSI may be associated with peer influence processes. Study 1 included 377 adolescents from a community-based sample; Study 2 included 140 clinically-referred adolescents recruited from a psychiatric inpatient facility. In Study 1, adolescents' NSSI was examined at baseline and one year later. Adolescents' nominated best friend reported their own levels of NSSI. In Study 2, adolescents' NSSI was examined at baseline as well as 9 and 18-months post-baseline. Adolescents' perceptions of their friends' engagement in self-injurious behavior (including suicidality) and depressed mood also were examined at all three time points. Baseline depressive symptoms were measured in both studies; gender and age were examined as moderators of peer influence effects. Results from both studies supported longitudinal peer socialization effects of friends' self-injurious behavior on adolescents' own NSSI for girls, but not for boys, even after controlling for depressive symptoms as a predictor. Study 1 suggested socialization effects mostly for younger youth. Results from Study 2 also suggested longitudinal socialization effects, as well as peer selection effects; adolescents' NSSI was associated with increasing perceptions of their friends' engagement in depressive/self-injurious thoughts and behavior. Findings contribute to the nascent literature on longitudinal predictors of NSSI and to work on peer influence. PMID:20437255

  7. Early postpartum gastric band slippage after bariatric surgery in an adolescent obese girl

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Françoise; Topart, Philippe; Salle, Agnès; Sentilhes, Loïc; Bouhours-Nouet, Natacha; Coutant, Régis; Weil, Dominique; Podevin, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    We report here a case of a rarely described complication of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), slippage during the postpartum period, after LAGB had been performed in an adolescent obese girl. The LAGB had been placed after one year of clinical survey initiated at the age of 16. Maximal pre-operative body mass index (BMI) was 48.5 kg.m−2 and obesity was associated with insulin resistance. Before pregnancy, there was a loss of 17 Kg (final BMI = 41.5 kg.m−2) and a resolution of insulin resistance. The patient became pregnant 21 months after LAGB, and whole pregnancy and delivery were uneventful for both mother and fetus. Six weeks after delivery, the patient suddenly complained for total food intolerance, due to a band slippage, leading to removal of the band. Slippage is now a rare complication of LAGB, but can happen during pregnancy and the postpartum period as well. PMID:27619323

  8. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in an adolescent girl: A case report

    PubMed Central

    DONG, LI-QUN; SUN, XIAO-MEI; XIANG, CHENG-FA; WU, JIN; YU, PING

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer in childhood is not as common in the adult population. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease associated with autoantibodies, and the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid remains controversial. The present study reported a 15-year-old adolescent girl with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. With the complexity of the clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, it can be expressed as not only hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, but also normal thyroid function. The long-term treatment, and for children with thyroid cancer, early diagnosis is particularly difficult. In the present case, the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is primarily based on clinical manifestations, anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid microsomal antibody. The only diagnostic imaging ultrasound was negative. The present study discussed the possible reason and the identification of this unique case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. PMID:27330783

  9. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in an adolescent girl: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li-Qun; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Xiang, Cheng-Fa; Wu, Jin; Yu, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer in childhood is not as common in the adult population. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease associated with autoantibodies, and the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid remains controversial. The present study reported a 15-year-old adolescent girl with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. With the complexity of the clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, it can be expressed as not only hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, but also normal thyroid function. The long-term treatment, and for children with thyroid cancer, early diagnosis is particularly difficult. In the present case, the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is primarily based on clinical manifestations, anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid microsomal antibody. The only diagnostic imaging ultrasound was negative. The present study discussed the possible reason and the identification of this unique case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer.

  10. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder After Sexual Abuse in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Bethany D; Kaul, Paritosh

    2016-12-01

    The sexual assault of girls and women in this country is estimated at approximately 20%. The development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after sexual abuse and assault is one of the potential lingering aftereffects. In this article we describe PTSD after sexual abuse and its effect on presenting complaints, such as sexually transmitted infections, contraception, and chronic pain, for the pediatric and adolescent gynecology (PAG) clinician. Treatment approaches, including the use of antidepressants and anxiolytics, as well as evidenced-based psychotherapies, are highlighted. In addition, this article will assist the PAG clinician in identifying trauma-related concerns during clinic visits and will cover specific screening tools to aid in identification of PTSD. A better understanding of PTSD after sexual abuse will allow PAG providers to deliver better care to their patients.

  11. The value of different Risser grading systems in determining growth maturity of girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijun; Zhen, Xin; Sun, Xu; Zhu, Zezhang; Zhu, Feng; Lam, T P; Cheng, Jack C Y; Qiu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    A grading system for ossification of the iliac apophysis (Risser sign) was developed for skeletal maturity assessment in the United States (US) then adopted with modifications in France (Fr) and other countries. Despite the same name, these systems have important differences. With the aim to analyzing the difference between US and Fr Risser grading systems in determining the growth maturity of girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), Fifty-three AIS girls undergoing posterior spinal correction with autogenous bone graft were recruited. The Risser grades were recorded for the non-dominant side iliac crest apophysis according to the US and Fr grading systems. Growth activity was determined by standard histologic grades (HGs) on iliac crest cartilage. As a result, Kappa statistics showed poor agreement between two grading systems. The US system showed higher correlation with HGs compared to Fr system by Spearman correlation analysis. It was also found that growth cessation could be determined by Risser grade 5 of US system or Risser grade 4 of Fr system. Furthermore, by employing Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, it was found that the Risser grade 4-5 of US system with two years after menarche could be used in determining growth cessation with the highest sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Hence it was concluded that the US Risser grading system was better in determining maturity of girls with AIS than Fr Risser grading system. By combining years since menarche, the accuracy of Risser grades in determining growth cessation could be enhanced, and the time of weaning from a brace could be advanced.

  12. Predictors of Level of Voice in Adolescent Girls: Ethnicity, Attachment, and Gender Role Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theran, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study empirically examined predictors of level of voice (ethnicity, attachment, and gender role socialization) in a diverse sample of 108 14-year-old girls. Structural equation modeling results indicated that parental attachment predicted level of voice with authority figures, and gender role socialization predicted level of voice with…

  13. El Apoyo a las Ninas en la Temprana Adolescencia (Supporting Girls in Early Adolescence). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Dianne

    Results of national studies suggest that for girls, the middle grades can be a time of significant decline in self-esteem and academic achievement. Reasons for this decline are not clearly indicated by research, but it is likely that multiple factors are involved. One factor is the preferential treatment boys receive in the classroom.…

  14. Representin' in cyberspace: sexual scripts, self-definition, and hip hop culture in Black American adolescent girls' home pages.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Carla E

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of media in the lives of girls, sexuality researchers have largely overlooked how Black American adolescent girls engage with media to construct sexual self-definitions and explore their emerging sexuality. This study investigated sexual scripts, self-definition, and hip hop culture in internet home pages constructed by Black girls aged 14-17 years residing in southern states in the USA. Although some girls in the sample constructed sexual self-representations that mirrored sexual scripts portrayed in the media, hip hop, and youth cyberculture, others resisted stereotypical representations of Black female sexuality. This paper discusses the dominant sexual scripts that emerged from in-depth analysis of 27 home pages constructed by girls residing in Georgia. The focus is on 'Freaks', 'Virgins', 'Down-Ass Chicks/Bitches', 'Pimpettes', and Resisters. Findings suggest that a one-size-fits-all approach to sexuality education may fail to address key contextual issues of relevance to girls and young women. Innovative sexuality and media education strategies that respond to the significance of media in the lives of Black American girls and young women are needed.

  15. Primary amenorrhea in adolescent girls: normal coitus or not? Always take a look in the physician's office

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary care physicians are frequently faced with the challenge of evaluating primary amenorrhea in adolescent girls. Approximately 15% of these women have abnormal genital examination, with Müllerian agenesis being the second most frequent cause. We report two cases of adolescents with Müllerian agenesis that presented to a tertiary adolescent medicine center with primary amenorrhea and the very rare sexual phenomenon of urethral coitus. The aim of this report is to emphasize the importance of performing a genital examination in girls who present with amenorrhea in the primary care setting, even if ‘normal’ vaginal sexual activity is assumed. Case presentations A 19-year-old Caucasian and a 16-year-old Filipino girl presented to a tertiary adolescent medicine center with primary amenorrhea and a history of ‘normal’ vaginal coitus. Investigation revealed Müllerian agenesis in association with urethral coitus in both cases; neither patient suffered significant urethral damage to require urethra reconstruction. However, the first adolescent had recurrent pyelonephritis and renal scarring and the second had dysuria. To the best of our knowledge, Case 1 also represents the second reported case of pituitary prolactinoma in association with Müllerian agenesis. The first adolescent underwent a hernia repair and vaginoplasty, whereas the second had vaginal dilatations. Conclusion Our cases highlight the need for careful assessment of the external genitalia and vagina patency in all girls with amenorrhea, even if they report ‘normal’ vaginal sexual activity. Early identification of anatomic disorders such as Müllerian agenesis, will allow provision of proper care according to the patient’s needs and the existing abnormalities, and prevention of rare, unintentional but potentially physically and emotionally harmful, patterns of sexual intercourse. PMID:24507015

  16. Girls Discuss Choice of an All-Girl Middle School: Narrative Analysis of an Early Adolescent Identity Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Emilia; Bell, Nancy J.; Corson, Kimberly; Kostina-Ritchey, Erin; Frederick, Helyne

    2012-01-01

    The narrative creation of identity by young adolescents has so far been addressed mainly from an identity-in-interaction perspective, focusing attention on the multiplicity and variability of identity negotiation as adolescents interact with others, typically with peers. In contrast, a sociocultural/dialogical perspective draws attention to the…

  17. Bidirectional association between sedentary behaviour and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp, Lennart

    2016-11-01

    This study examined longitudinal and bidirectional association between sedentary behaviour (SB) and depressive symptoms (DS) in adolescent girls. Participants (n = 253) completed measures of SB and DS at three time points spanning a four-year interval. DS were obtained using the modified Centre for Epidemiological Depression Scale (CES-D). Weekday and weekend SB was assessed using a questionnaire. In the latent growth model, both SB and DS increased and the change in SB was positively associated with change in DS (β = 0.24). Higher levels of SB at baseline were associated with larger increases in DS over time (β = 0.23), and higher baseline levels of DS were associated with smaller increases in SB over time (β = -0.17). These findings suggest persistent longitudinal and bidirectional associations between SB and DS and encourage the design of interventions that limit sedentary time as a possible means of reducing adolescent depression.

  18. Stigma Scale for Receiving Psychological Help (SSRPH): An Examination Among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Melissa D.; Hickman, Ronald L.; Thomas, Tami

    2014-01-01

    Stigma is one of the greatest obstacles to mental health care and is associated with more severe psychiatric symptoms, impaired daily functioning, and limited engagement in mental health treatment. The Stigma Scale for Receiving Professional Psychological Help (SSRPH) is a measure of public stigma, which has been used in young adults and has limited psychometric data in adolescents. This paper reports the reliability and validity of the SSRPH in adolescent girls (n=156, age 13–17). Discriminant validity was supported, but concurrent validity was not. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed excellent model fit and serves as beginning evidence for construct validity. Cronbach’s alpha for the SSRPH was .65. The SSRPH was stable over 8 weeks. Findings suggest that the SSRPH can serve as a foundation for further instrument development. Future studies may explore enhancing the reliability and validity of the SSRPH and employ advanced analytic techniques to examine the overall global construct of stigma, the latent constructs of public and private stigma, and associations of individual items to these constructs. PMID:25100566

  19. Effects of early menarche on physical and psychosocial health problems in adolescent girls and adult women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The menarcheal age of Korean women has been rapidly decreasing for the last 50 years, and the average menarcheal age of women born in the 1990s is approaching 12.6 years. In addition, interest in early puberty has been increasing recently owing to the rapid increase in precocious puberty. Generally, out of concern for short stature and early menarche, idiopathic central precocious puberty in female adolescents is treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Studies to date have described the association between early menarche and psychosocial problems such as delinquency and risky sexual behavior, as well as physical health problems such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and breast cancer throughout the lifespan of women. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying this association has not been clarified thus far. In this article, we review and discuss the existing literature to describe the current understanding of the effects of early menarche on the physical and psychosocial health of adolescent girls and adult women. PMID:27721839

  20. Impact of the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children on early pregnancy and marriage of adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Peterman, Amber; Huang, Carolyn; Halpern, Carolyn; Pettifor, Audrey; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2015-09-01

    There is promising evidence that poverty-targeted cash transfer programs can have positive impacts on adolescent transitions to adulthood in resource poor settings, however existing research is typically from small scale programs in diverse geographic and cultural settings. We provide estimates of the impact of a national unconditional cash transfer program, the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children, on pregnancy and early marriage among females aged 12 to 24, four years after program initiation. The evaluation was designed as a clustered randomized controlled trial and ran from 2007 to 2011, capitalizing on the existence of a control group, which was delayed entry to the program due to budget constraints. Findings indicate that, among 1549 females included in the study, while the program reduced the likelihood of pregnancy by five percentage points, there was no significant impact on likelihood of early marriage. Program impacts on pregnancy appear to work through increasing the enrollment of young women in school, financial stability of the household and delayed age at first sex. The Kenyan program is similar in design to most other major national cash transfer programs in Eastern and Southern Africa, suggesting a degree of generalizability of the results reported here. Although the objective of the program is primarily poverty alleviation, it appears to have an important impact on facilitating the successful transition of adolescent girls into adulthood.