Leigh, S R
This study investigates subadult growth spurts in a large sample of anthropoid primates, including humans. Analyses of body mass growth curves show that humans are not unique in the expression of female and male body mass growth spurts. Subadult growth spurts are observed in both New World and Old World anthropoid primates and are more common in males than in females. Allometric analyses of growth spurts indicate that many aspects of primate growth spurts are strongly correlated with species size. Small species tend not to exhibit growth spurts. Although male and female scaling patterns for velocity and size measures are comparable, scaling relations of variables that measure the timing of growth spurts differ by sex. These patterns can be related to sexual differences in life histories. Scaling analyses further show that humans do not depart substantially from patterns that describe other anthropoid primates. Thus, in relative terms, human growth spurts are not exceptional compared to this sample of primates. The long absolute delay in the initiation of the human growth spurt may be of substantial evolutionary importance and serves to distinguish humans from other primates. In essence, humans exhibit growth spurts that are comparable to other primates in many respects. However, human growth spurts are shifted to very late absolute ages.
Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Lin, Yi-Ruu; Chan, Ming-Huan
Toluene, an industrial organic solvent, is voluntarily inhaled as drug of abuse. Because inhibition of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is one of the possible mechanisms underlying developmental neurotoxicity of toluene, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of toluene exposure during two major neurodevelopmental stages, brain growth spurt and adolescence, on NMDA receptor-mediated current. Rats were administered with toluene (500 mg/kg, i.p.) or corn oil daily over postnatal days (PN) 4-9 (brain growth spurt) or PN 21-26 (early adolescence). Intracellular electrophysiological recordings employing in CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal slices were performed during PN 30-38. Toluene exposure during brain growth spurt enhanced NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) by electrical stimulation, but impaired the paired-pulse facilitation and NMDA response by exogenous application of NMDA. Toluene exposure during adolescence resulted in an increase in NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs and a decrease in exogenous NMDA-induced currents, while lack of any effect on paired-pulse facilitation. These findings suggest that toluene exposure during brain growth spurt and adolescence might result in an increase in synaptic NMDA receptor responsiveness and a decrease in extrasynaptic NMDA receptor responsiveness, while only toluene exposure during brain growth spurt can produce presynaptic modulation in CA1 pyramidal neurons. The functional changes in NMDA receptor-mediated transmission underlying developmental toluene exposure may lead to the neurobehavioral disturbances.
Salazar-Lazo, Rodrigo; Arriola-Guillén, Luis E; Flores-Mir, Carlos
The aim of the present work was to determine the duration of the adolescent peak growth spurt using cervical vertebral maturation analysis in class I and II malocclusion subjects. The study was conducted on a sample which consisted of 154 lateral cephalograms of children and adolescents aged 9-15 years (84 females and 70 males). The evaluation of skeletal maturation stage was performed using a visual morphological analysis of CS3 and CS4 cervical vertebrae. The sagittal skeletal relation was evaluated according to Steiner analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize chronological age in each malocclusion group and for each CS3 and CS4 skeletal maturation stage. Due to a lack of normal distribution, comparisons of CS3 and CS4 age intervals on class I and II subjects were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test for independent samples. The results show that the mean duration of the adolescent peak growth spurt was 10 months between CS3 and CS4 stages in class I malocclusion subjects, whereas in class II malocclusion patients the duration was 6 months. This difference of 4 months was statistically significant (p<0.001). Finally, a clinically significant difference of 4 months in the duration of the adolescent peak growth spurt for class I and II malocclusion subjects was identified.
Helfer, Jennifer L; Goodlett, Charles R; Greenough, William T; Klintsova, Anna Y
Exposure to alcohol during the brain growth spurt results in impaired cognition and learning in adulthood. This impairment is accompanied by permanent structural changes in the hippocampal formation. Exercise improves performance on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks and increases adult neurogenesis in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus. The present study examined the effects of wheel running during adolescence on dentate gyrus cell proliferation and neurogenesis after postnatal binge-like alcohol exposure. On postnatal days (PD) 4-9, pups were either intubated with alcohol in a binge-like manner, sham intubated, or reared normally. On PD30-42, all animals were randomly assigned to two adolescent conditions: wheel running or inactive control. Animals were injected with BrdU every day between PD32 and PD42 and perfused on PD42 or PD72. In inactive control animals at both PD42 and PD72, cell proliferation and neurogenesis did not differ between postnatal treatment groups. Wheel running significantly increased the number of BrdU-labeled cells on PD42 in all three postnatal treatments. On PD72, only the normal controls showed significant increases in survival of newly generated cells resulting from the wheel running. These results indicate that adolescent wheel running can induce comparable increases in cell proliferation and neurogenesis in alcohol-exposed and control rats, but the long-term survival of those newly generated cells is impaired relative normal controls. Exercise may provide a means to stimulate neurogenesis, with implications for amelioration of hippocampal-dependent learning impairments associated with alcohol exposure. However, benefits requiring long-lasting survival of the newly generated cells will depend on identifying ways to promote survival.
Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.
When energetic materials are subjected to high-velocity impacts, the first steps in the shock-to-detonation transition are the creation, ignition, and growth of hot spots. We used 1-3.2 km s-1 laser-launched flyer plates to impact powdered octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, a powerful explosive, and monitored hundreds of emission bursts with an apparatus that determined temperature and emissivity at all times. The time-dependent volume fraction of hot spots was determined by measuring the time-dependent emissivity. After the shock, most hot spots extinguished, but the survivors smoldered for hundreds of nanoseconds until their temperatures spiked, causing a hot spot growth spurt. Depending on the impact duration, the growth spurts could be as fast as 300 ns and as slow as 13 μs.
Distant galaxies undergoing intense bursts of star formation have been shown by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to be fertile growing grounds for the largest black holes in the Universe. Collisions between galaxies in the early Universe may be the ultimate cause for both the accelerated star formation and black hole growth. By combining the deepest X-ray image ever obtained with submillimeter and optical observations, an international team of scientists has found evidence that some extremely luminous adolescent galaxies and their central black holes underwent a phenomenal spurt of growth more than 10 billion years ago. This concurrent black hole and galaxy growth spurt is only seen in these galaxies and may have set the stage for the birth of quasars - distant galaxies that contain the largest and most active black holes in the Universe. Simulation of a Galaxy Collision Simulation of a Galaxy Collision "The extreme distances of these galaxies allow us to look back in time, and take a snapshot of how today's largest galaxies looked when they were producing most of their stars and growing black holes," said David Alexander of the University of Cambridge, UK, and lead author of a paper in the April 7, 2005 issue of Nature that describes this work. The galaxies studied by Alexander and his colleagues are known as submillimeter galaxies, so-called because they were originally identified by the James Clerk Maxwell submillimeter telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The submillimeter observations along with optical data from Keck indicate these galaxies had an unusually large amount of gas. The gas in each galaxy was forming into stars at a rate of about one per day, or 100 times the present rate in the Milky Way galaxy. The Chandra X-ray data show that the supermassive black holes in the galaxies were also growing at the same time. Chandra X-ray Image of CDFN Chandra X-ray Image of CDFN These galaxies are very faint and it is only with the deepest observations of the
Filgueiras, Cláudio C.; Pohl-Guimarães, Fernanda; Krahe, Thomas E.; Medina, Alexandre E.
The brain is extremely vulnerable to teratogenic insults during the brain growth spurt, a period that starts during the third trimester of human gestation and is characterized by synaptogenesis establishment of neuronal circuits. While the treatment of epilepsy during pregnancy increases the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring, the consequences of exposure to anticonvulsants during the brain growth spurt remain poorly known. Here we investigate whether exposure to sodium valproate (VPA) during a similar period in rats impairs spatial learning of juvenile rats. Long-Evans rats were exposed to VPA (200mg/kg) or saline solution (SAL) every other day between postnatal day (PN) 4 and PN10. At PN23 and PN30, Morris water maze performance was evaluated during 6 consecutive days. In the group of animals which started their tests at PN23, the VPA exposure impaired both, swimming speed and learning/memory performance. Interestingly, no differences were observed between VPA and control animals tested from PN30 to PN35. Our data suggests that the neurobehavioral deficits caused by VPA exposure during the brain growth spurt are transitory. PMID:23178315
Ettin, M F
Group psychotherapy evidenced a growth spurt in the decade of the 1930s and prior to World War II. Following upon the pioneering efforts of the psychoeducators (Pratt, Marsh, Lazell) and the writings of the early analysts (Freud, Adler, Dreikurs, Burrow), the next wave of practitioners and theorizers popularized and expounded the use of the group treatment modality in hospitals, clinics, and private practice. A review of the seminal ideas and efforts of Jacob Moreno, Louis Wender, Paul Schilder, Lauretta Bender, Alexander Wolf, and Samuel Slavson continues the historical overview begun earlier in this journal (Ettin, 1988). In a continuing effort to call up the wisdom of the past in the service of the work of the present, the emphasis in this paper will be on practical application. Representative quotes will be embedded in the text to capture the tenor of the times, and special attention will be given to (1) theoretical underpinnings such as the proposed advantages, curative variables, and therapy goals of a group treatment; (2) the basic logistics of practice, including optimum group size, composition, membership and exclusion criteria, and length, frequency, and structure of the meetings; and (3) technical considerations, such as the role of the therapist and the techniques, procedures, and processes of the ongoing group endeavor, as well as the interface between individual and group sessions. In conclusion, it will be argued that group psychotherapy matured just in time to respond to the pressing need for efficient mental treatment mandated by the coming of the Second World War.
Chen, W J; Andersen, K H; West, J R
The prevalence of concomitant use of alcohol and cocaine among drug abusers has raised concern about the possible increased risk of fetal damage. The aim of this study was to assess the interactive effects of alcohol and cocaine on lethality, somatic growth, and brain growth using an animal model system. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were used as subjects. They were randomly assigned to 1 of the 9 artificially reared groups which varied with respect to the combination treatments of cocaine (0, 40, or 60 mg/kg) and alcohol (0, 3.3, or 4.5 g/kg). All artificially reared pups were given daily cocaine and alcohol treatments during a major part of the brain growth spurt period (postnatal days 4-9). An additional group of suckled control animals raised by their natural dams was included to control for artificial rearing. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Drug-induced lethality was higher in cocaine-treated groups when compared with non-cocaine-treated groups, and the concurrent administration of high doses of alcohol and cocaine significantly increased the mortality rate. 2) Somatic growth, in terms of body weight, was not affected by alcohol, cocaine, or the combination of both drugs using the artificial rearing technique. 3) Alcohol exposure during this brain growth spurt period significantly reduced whole brain weight, as well as forebrain, cerebellum, and brain stem weights. 4) In contrast to alcohol, cocaine failed to exert a detrimental effect on brain weight measures during this early postnatal period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Oliveira-Pinto, Juliana; Paes-Branco, Danielle; Cristina-Rodrigues, Fabiana; Krahe, Thomas E; Manhães, Alex C; Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Filgueiras, Cláudio C
Both NMDA receptor blockade and GABAA receptor overactivation during the brain growth spurt may contribute to the hyperactivity phenotype reminiscent of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Here, we evaluated the effects of exposure to MK801 (a NMDA antagonist) and/or to muscimol (a GABAA agonist) during the brain growth spurt on locomotor activity of juvenile Swiss mice. This study was carried out in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, pups received a single i.p. injection of either saline solution (SAL), MK801 (MK, 0.1, 0.3 or 0.5 mg/kg) or muscimol (MU, 0.02, 0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg) at the second postnatal day (PND2), and PNDs 4, 6 and 8. In the second experiment, we investigated the effects of a combined injection of MK (0.1 mg/kg) and MU (doses: 0.02, 0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg) following the same injection schedule of the first experiment. In both experiments, locomotor activity was assessed for 15 min at PND25. While MK promoted a dose-dependent increase in locomotor activity, exposure to MU failed to elicit significant effects. The combined exposure to the highest dose of MU and the lowest dose of MK induced marked hyperactivity. Moreover, the combination of the low dose of MK and the high dose of MU resulted in a reduced activity in the center of the open field, suggesting an increased anxiety-like behavior. These findings suggest that, during the brain growth spurt, the blockade of NMDA receptors induces juvenile locomotor hyperactivity whereas hyperactivation of GABAA receptors does not. However, GABAA overactivation during this period potentiates the effects of NMDA blockade in inducing locomotor hyperactivity.
Barros, K M F T; Manhaes-de-Castro, R; Goubel, F; Canon, F
During the post-weaning growth and maturation period (25/90 days after birth), rat limb muscles are submitted to specific adaptations. Our aim was to characterize the mechanical properties of two muscles that are opposite in terms of fibre-type distribution, the soleus and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of male Wistar rats. Results showed a fast-to-slow fibre-type transition in soleus while no modification in fibre-type distribution was observed in EDL. A growth-induced increase in muscle force was observed. Soleus underwent an increase in twitch kinetics, but EDL showed no modification. Resistance to fatigue was higher in 90-day-old soleus but not modified in the EDL. Surprisingly, analysis of maximal shortening velocity showed a decrease in both soleus and EDL. Finally, tension/extension curves indicated a growth-induced increase in series elastic stiffness in the two muscles. These results suggest that during this growth period, skeletal muscles are submitted to differential adaptations. Moreover, whereas adaptation of biomechanical properties observed can be explained partly by an adaptation of fibre profile in soleus, this is not the case for EDL. It is suggested that changes in muscle architecture, which are often disregarded, could explain some variations in mechanical properties, especially when muscles undergo an increase in both mass and length.
Mohandas Rao, K G; Muddanna Rao, S; Gurumadhva Rao, S
Centella asiatica (CeA) is a creeping herb, growing in moist places in India and other Asian Countries. Ayurvedic system of medicine, an alternate system of medicine in India, uses leaves of CeA for memory enhancement. Here, we have investigated the role of CeA fresh leaf juice treatment during growth spurt period of rats on dendritic morphology of amygdaloid neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory. The present study was conducted on neonatal rat pups. The rat pups (7-days-old) were fed with 2, 4 and 6 ml/kg body of fresh leaf juice of CeA for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After the treatment period, the rats were killed, brains removed and amygdaloid neurons impregnated with Silver nitrate (Golgi staining). Amygdaloid neurons were traced using camera lucida and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization) and intersections (a measure dendritic length) quantified. These data were compared with those of age-matched control rats. The results showed a significant increase in dendritic length (intersections) and dendritic branching points along the length of dendrites of the amygdaloid neurons of rats treated with 4 and 6 ml/kg body weight/day of CeA for longer periods of time (i.e. 4 and 6 weeks). We conclude that constituents/active principles present in CeA fresh leaf juice has neuronal dendritic growth stimulating property; hence it can be used for enhancing neuronal dendrites in stress and other neurodegenerative and memory disorders.
Csukás, A; Takai, S; Baran, S
Considerable information is available on peak growth velocity characteristics of various body dimensions but the age at minimal velocity (AMV) and the duration of the spurt are not that well documented. Authors applied the mathematical growth model of Preece and Baines (PBGM1) to six longitudinally followed somatometric traits [height, sitting height, iliospinal height (B-ic), upper limb length (a-da), biacromial diameter (a-a), and biiliocristal diameter (ic-ic)] of Japanese boys of Ogi Growth Study. Biological variables derived from the estimated parameters were studied with emphasis on duration and velocity characteristics of the adolescent spurt. Ages for measurements at peak velocities tend to be younger than previously reported non-Japanese ones. Spurt duration in limb measurements was significantly the shortest. Earlier AMV and later age at peak velocity (APV), thus the longest spurt duration, are the characteristic for transverse measurements (a-a, ic-ic). B-ic and a-da had the largest, while a-a and ic-ic had the smallest relative velocity at AMV. Another result for the transverse measurements is that the magnitudes of differences between relative minimal and peak velocities (RMV, RPV) are the largest. It is suggested that a high level of RMV results from early maturation of bones, thus leading to the shortest spurt duration in limb dimensions, while a low level of RMV results from late maturation of the bones, consequently leading to the longest spurt duration in transverse measurements. This tendency of reverse relation was present in the rest of the measurements as well. Transformation of velocity variables (minimal velocity -- MV, peak velocity -- PV) to relative ones, proved to be useful in observing the relation of spurts in measurements.
McKigney, John I,; Munro, Hamish N.
It is important to understand the nutrient requirements and the significance of nutrition both in pubescence and adolescence. The pubescent growth spurt is characterized by an increase in body size and a change in proportion of different tissues. Both of these factors are of great nutritional importance, since there is reason to believe that the…
Did the first hominids have a short developmental period similar to that of the great apes or a longer period closer to that of modern humans? Evidence from studies on dental and facial growth favors the first point of view. Additional evidence presented in this report is provided by a morphogenetic analysis of the lower limb. Some morphological modifications undergone by the human femur during infantile and adolescent growth are shown to be excellent markers of different developmental stages. The angular remodelling of the femoral diaphysis, which results in femoral bicondylar angle, is a marker of infancy, while the reshaping of the distal femoral epiphysis is a marker of adolescence. This reshaping of the bony epiphysis consists of the strong projection of the external lip of the femoral trochlea, the increase of the radius of curvature of the external condyle, and the anteroposterior lengthening of the whole epiphysis. The growth spurt in linear dimensions of the femur, characteristic of human adolescence, is shown to be associated with qualitative changes of the distal femoral epiphysis engendered by the late closure of the distal epiphysis. The femur of the first hominids (Australopithecus afarensis) shows only features of infantile growth, whereas characters of both precocious and later growth are typical of later hominids (Homo). The absence of the derived epiphyseal features in Australopithecus would be linked to their early epiphyseal closure and short adolescent growth period; their presence in Homo would have been promoted by their delayed epiphyseal closure and prolonged adolescent growth period. The transition from Australopithecus to Homo appears to have involved a heterochronic process of time hypermorphosis (Gould, , Ontogeny and Phylogeny [Cambridge: Harvard University Press]) in which the size of the femur increases, the epiphysis is modified, and the period of peripubertal growth is prolonged. The shape of the distal epiphyses of KNM
Kanani, S J; Poojara, R H
The prevalence of anemia is high in adolescent girls in India, with over 70% anemic. Iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements have been shown to enhance adolescent growth elsewhere in the world. To confirm these results in India, a study was conducted in urban areas of Vadodora, India to investigate the effect of IFA supplements on hemoglobin, hunger and growth in adolescent girls 10-18 y of age. Results show that there was a high demand for IFA supplements and >90% of the girls consumed 85 out of 90 tablets provided. There was an increment of 17.3 g/L hemoglobin in the group of girls receiving IFA supplements, whereas hemoglobin decreased slightly in girls in the control group. Girls and parents reported that girls increased their food intake. A significant weight gain of 0.83 kg was seen in the intervention group, whereas girls in the control group showed little weight gain. The growth increment was greater in the 10- to 14-y-old age group than in the 15- to 18-y-old group, as expected, due to rapid growth during the adolescent spurt. IFA supplementation is recommended for growth promotion among adolescents who are underweight.
Pascual, Rodrigo; Aedo, Luz; Meneses, Juan Carlos; Vergara, Daniela; Reyes, Alvaro; Bustamante, Carlos
Solvent abuse during pregnancy may cause "fetal solvent syndrome", which is characterized by mild brain atrophy and associated with behavioral, cognitive, and emotional abnormalities. The present study investigated whether solvent inhalation during the preweaning period (P2-P21) alters the morphological maturation of frontal, parietal, and occipital cortical neurons. Twelve hours after delivery (postnatal day 0, P0), litters were cross-fostered, culled to 8 pups/dam and housed together with a dam in standard laboratory cages. Litters were randomly assigned to the "air-only" group (n=64, 8 litters) and to the "solvent-sniffer" group (n=72, 9 litters). During P2-P21, each animal was exposed daily to either organic solvent vapors (75% toluene and 18% n-hexane, a solvent mixture commonly found in glues and adhesives) or clean air. To determine the impact of early solvent inhalation on cortical neuronal differentiation, brains were stained using the Golgi-Cox-Sholl procedure to quantitatively assess neocortical pyramidal cell dendrogenesis. Preweaning, solvent-exposed animals displayed dramatic impairments in dendritic growth as well as significant reductions in brain weight and size.
Krabbe, S; Christiansen, C; Rødbro, P; Transbøl, I
The bone mineral content (BMC) and body height were measured in 301 normal children and adolescents aged 7--20 years, and in 8 boys with constitutional delayed puberty aged 14--17 years. Serum testosterone was measured in the last group as well as in a subpopulation of the normal children and adolescents. The growth spurt, which coincided with a steep increase of serum testosterone in boys, indicated a great change in skeletal growth and mineralisation in both sexes. After the growth spurt, linear growth slowed down considerably while bone mineralisation rose steeply. When low levels of serum testosterone were maintained, as in delayed puberty, these combined changes of skeletal growth and mineralisation did not occur. It is suggested that gonadal hormones are the true initiators of the short-lived growth spurt as well as of prolonged acceleration of bone mineralisation. PMID:533299
Aerenhouts, Dirk; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Poortmans, Jacques Remi; Hauspie, Ronald; Clarys, Peter
This study aimed to estimate nitrogen balance and protein requirements in adolescent sprint athletes as a function of growth rate and physical development. Sixty adolescent sprint athletes were followed up biannually over a 2-yr period. Individual growth curves and age at peak height velocity were determined. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was estimated based on anthropometric measurements and fat mass was estimated by underwater densitometry. Seven-day diet and physical activity diaries were completed to estimate energy balance and protein intake. Nitrogen analysis of 24-hr urine samples collected on 1 weekday and 1 weekend day allowed calculation of nitrogen balance. Body height, weight, and SMM increased throughout the study period in both genders. Mean protein intakes were between 1.4 and 1.6 g kg-1 day-1 in both genders. A protein intake of 1.46 g kg-1 day-1 in girls and 1.35 g kg-1 day-1 in boys was needed to yield a positive nitrogen balance. This did not differ between participants during and after their growth spurt. None of the growth parameters was significantly related to nitrogen balance. It can be concluded that a mean protein intake around 1.5 g kg-1 day-1 was sufficient to stay in a positive nitrogen balance, even during periods of peak growth. Therefore, protein intake should not be enhanced in peak periods of linear or muscular growth.
Weisfeld, G. E.; Berger, J. M.
Focuses on some apparently evolved features of human adolescence and their possible functions, including the pubertal growth spurt, sexual size dimorphism and bimaturism, the greater aggressiveness of males, heightened concern with one's social standing and the factors affecting it, intergenerational friction, same-sex aggregations and solidarity,…
Background Scoliosis is present in 3-5% of the children in the adolescent age group, with a higher incidence in females. Treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is mainly dependent on the progression of the scoliotic curve. There is a close relationship between curve progression and rapid (spinal) growth of the patient during puberty. However, until present time no conclusive method was found for predicting the timing and magnitude of the pubertal growth spurt in total body height, or the curve progression of the idiopathic scoliosis. The goal of this study is to determine the predictive value of several maturity indicators that reflect growth or remaining growth potential, in order to predict timing of the peak growth velocity of total body height in the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Furthermore, different parameters are evaluated for their correlation with curve progression in the individual scoliosis patient. Methods/design This prospective, longitudinal cohort study will be incorporated in the usual care of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. All new patients between 8 and 17 years with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (Cobb angle >10 degrees) visiting the outpatient clinic of the University Medical Center Groningen are included in this study. Follow up will take place every 6 months. The present study will use a new ultra-low dose X-ray system which can make total body X-rays. Several maturity indicators are evaluated like different body length dimensions, secondary sexual characteristics, skeletal age in hand and wrist, skeletal age in the elbow, the Risser sign, the status of the triradiate cartilage, and EMG ratios of the paraspinal muscle activity. Correlations of all dimensions will be calculated in relationship to the timing of the pubertal growth spurt, and to the progression of the scoliotic curve. An algorithm will be made for the optimal treatment strategy in the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic
Norgan, N G
The application of a lifespan perspective in human biology in recent years has shown that a number of early environmental factors influencing human growth and development have long-term biological or psycho-social consequences. Human growth is characterized by prolonged infancy, an extended childhood phase and high rates of growth during the adolescent growth spurt. It is unlikely that these characteristics would have evolved without having advantages, and curtailments have the potential for disadvantage. The present paper examines the evidence for long-term physiological and economic consequences of growth retardation in children and adolescents. The emphasis is the biological and economic imperatives of survival, subsistence, reproduction and production rather than aspects of metabolic competence. Many of the consequences of growth retardation are determined by the direct effect on body size, but many other consequences arise from the conditions that cause the growth retardation. Catch up of retarded growth can occur, but does not usually do so because of the continued presence of the retarding agents. Basal metabolism and physical work capacity are usually commensurate with the size of the individual; mechanical efficiency of physical work is unchanged, but falls in activity levels may occur along with a reduction in the pace of activity. Growth retardation in childhood is associated with a higher disease and mortality risk in adulthood, with decreased productivity and employment and promotion prospects. Studies are showing that relative deprivation and the accumulation of socially patterned exposures are important in some societies. Height and growth retardation have proved invaluable in reflecting these factors, but the next generation of studies may require more discriminating indices.
Jayalekshmi, N. B.; Dharma Raja, B. William
Early adolescence is the period where the transition from child to adult takes place gradually. A major physical and cognitive change during this period is accompanied by social and emotional development. The growth spurt in this period makes them stronger and plays an important role in developing self identities. The journey through this crucial…
Nowak-Szczepanska, Natalia; Koziel, Slawomir
There are numerous studies concerning sexual dimorphism in body proportions, but only a few have investigated growth in the relative length of particular segments of the upper and lower limbs during adolescence. The aim of the study is an assessment of sex differences of longitudinal growth in the relative length of the forearm and knee height among adolescents. Sample involved 121 boys and 111 girls, participants of the Wroclaw Growth Study, examined annually between 8 and 18 years of age. Sexual dimorphism in six ratios: forearm length and knee height relatively to: trunk, height, and limb length were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measurements. The sex and age relative to an estimate of maturity timing (3 years before, and after age class at peak height velocity [PHV]) were independent variables. All of the ratios showed significant sex differences in interaction with age relative to age at PHV. The relative length of the forearm, in boys, did not change significantly with the years relative to age at PHV, whereas in girls, was the lowest in the two first age classes and afterward significantly increased just 1 year before and during the adolescent growth spurt, remaining unchanged in further age classes. For relative knee height no clear pattern for sex differences was noticed. It is proposed that relatively longer forearms, particularly in relation to the trunk in girls, could have evolved as an adaptation to more efficient infant carrying and protection during breastfeeding.
Mehta, Nishit; Patel, Dolly; Mehta, Falguni; Gupta, Bhaskar; Zaveri, Grishma; Shah, Unnati
Objective: This study was done with the following objectives: to estimate dental maturity using the Demirjian Index (DI) for the mandibular third molar; to investigate the relationship between dental maturity and skeletal maturity among growing patients; to evaluate the use of the mandibular third molar as an adjunctive tool for adolescent growth assessment in combination with the cervical vertebrae; to evaluate the clinical value of the third molar as a growth evaluation index. Materials and Methods: Samples were derived from panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms of 615 subjects (300 males and 315 females) of ages ranging 9-18 years, and estimates of dental maturity (DI) and skeletal maturity [cervical vertebrae maturation indicators (CVMI)] were made. Results: A highly significant association (r = 0.81 for males and r = 0.72 for females) was found between DI and CVMI. DI Stage B corresponded to Stage 2 of CVMI (prepeak of pubertal growth spurt) in both sexes. In males, DI stages C and D represent the peak of the pubertal growth spurt. In females, stages B and C show that the peak of the pubertal growth spurt has not been passed. DI stage E in females and DI Stage F in males correlate that the peak of the pubertal growth spurt has been passed. Conclusion: A highly significant association exists between DI and CVMI. Mandibular third molar DI stages are reliable adjunctive indicators of skeletal maturity. PMID:27555733
Nakashima, Eiji; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Carter, R.L.
Using a random coefficient regression model, sex-specific longitudinal analyses of height were made on 801 (392 male and 409 female) atomic-bomb survivors exposed in utero to detect dose effects on standing height. The data set resulted from repeated measurements of standing height of adolescents (age 10-18 y). The dose effect, if any, was assumed to be linear. Gestational ages at the time of radiation exposure were divided into trimesters. Since an earlier longitudinal data analysis has demonstrated radiation effects on height, the emphasis in this paper is on the interaction between dose and gestational age at exposure and radiation effects on the age of occurrence of the adolescent growth spurt. For males, a cubic polynomial growth-curve model applied to the data was affected significantly by radiation. The dose by trimester interaction effect was not significant. The onset of adolescent growth spurt was estimated at about 13 y at 0 Gy. There was no effect of radiation on the adolescent growth spurt For females, a quadratic polynomial growth-curve model was fitted to the data. The dose effect was significant, while the dose by trimester interaction was again not significant. 27 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.
Whitlock, Les B.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; McQuillan, Julia; Crawford, Devan M.
North American Indigenous adolescents smoke earlier, smoke more, and are more likely to become regular smokers as adults than youth from any other ethnic group, yet we know very little about their early smoking trajectories. We use multilevel growth modeling across five waves of data from Indigenous adolescents (aged 10-13 years at Wave 1) to…
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a 3D spinal deformity in frontal, sagittal and axial planes, with high relevance in the pediatric population especially in adolescents and females between 10 years of age and the end of growth spurt and skeletal maturity. The radiographic manifestation is a curve greater than 10° measured by Cobb method associated with vertebral rotation. "Idiopathic" diagnosis has to be done after neuroanatomical anomalies of the posterior cerebral fosa and spinal canal have been ruled out. The physical finding of a thoracic or lumbar hump is the clinical manifestation of vertebral rotation seen in a forward bending test (Adam's Test). It is recommended that all curves with a magnitude greater than 20° have to be controlled and treated by a spinal surgeon being observation, bracing and surgery the different treatment options based on the extent, progression of deformity and basically the clinical condition of the patient.
Dworkin, Jodi B.; Larson, Reed; Hansen, David
Conducted 10 focus groups in which adolescents discussed their "growth experiences" in extracurricular and community-based activities. The 55 participants reported personal and interpersonal processes and generally described themselves as agents of their own development and change. (SLD)
Tuqan, Alia T; Kelly, Kristen M; Aguilar, Guillermo; Ramirez-San-Juan, Julio C; Sun, Chung-Ho; Cassarino, David; Derienzo, Damian; Barr, Ronald J; Nelson, J Stuart
Many commercially available dermatologic lasers utilize cryogen spray cooling for epidermal protection. A previous tissue culture study demonstrated that single cryogen spurts (SCS) of 80 ms or less were unlikely to cause cryo-injury in light-skinned individuals. More recently, multiple cryogen spurts (MCS) have been incorporated into commercial devices, but the effects of MCS have not been evaluated. The aim was to study an in vitro tissue culture model and the epidermal and dermal effects of SCS vs patterns of shorter MCS with the same preset total cryogen delivery time (Deltat(c)) and provide an explanation for noted differences. Four different spurt patterns were evaluated: SCS: one 40-ms cryogen spurt; MCS2: two 20-ms cryogen spurts; MCS4: four 10-ms cryogen spurts; MCS8: eight 5-ms cryogen spurts. Actual Deltat(c) and total cooling time (Deltat(Total)) were measured for each spurt pattern. RAFT tissue culture specimens were exposed to cryogen spurt patterns and biopsies were taken immediately and at days 3 and 7. Actual Deltat(c) was increased while Deltat(Total) remained relatively constant as the preset Deltat(c) of 40 ms was delivered as shorter MCS. Progressively more epidermal damage was noted with exposure to the MCS patterns. No dermal injury was noted with either SCS or MCS. For a constant preset Deltat(c) of 40 ms, delivering cryogen in patterns of shorter MCS increased the actual Deltat(c) and consequently the observed epidermal cryo-injury as compared to an SCS.
Leung, Alexander K. C.; Barankin, Benjamin
We report a 13-year-old boy with multiple purplish, atrophic, horizontal linear striae in the thoracic area. He reported a growth spurt in the preceding 12 months. His past health was unremarkable, and he took no medications. To our knowledge, physiological striae atrophicae of adolescence where idiopathic striae were restricted to the upper back have rarely been reported. Physiological striae atrophicae of adolescence may, on occasions, be mistaken for child abuse. It is important that child care professionals recognize this condition so that false accusations of child abuse will not be made. PMID:23956908
Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta
The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…
Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey
Growth curve modelling was used to examine developmental trajectories of sociometric and perceived popularity across eight years in adolescence, and the effects of gender, overt aggression, and relational aggression on these trajectories. Participants were 303 initially popular students (167 girls, 136 boys) for whom sociometric data were…
Ulijaszek, Stanley J
This review has two aims. The first is to identify important environmental influences on the growth of children aged 1 to 9 years and of adolescents, defined as those aged 10 to 19 years. The second is to identify possible environmentally based criteria for the selection of individuals and populations for data collection in the development of an international growth reference for these age ranges. There are many common environmental influences on the growth of children between the ages of 1 and 19 years; the examination and description of these forms the main body of this review. Subsequently, environmental factors influencing adolescent growth only are considered. In both cases, possible selection criteria are put forward. The most important inclusion criteria for both preadolescence and adolescence are good nutrition, lack of infection, and socioeconomic status that does not constrain growth. Additionally, low birthweight, catchup growth, breastfeeding, and early adiposity rebound have impacts on growth and/or body composition into puberty. Exclusion of children born at low birth and/or experiencing catch-up growth could be most realistically operationalized if populations in which secular trends in growth were either completed or minimal were selected. Although an effect of hypoxia on child and adolescent growth, independent of nutrition, is small at most, many high-altitude populations have high prevalances of low birthweight and should be excluded on this basis. Since all populations are exposed to pollutants, contaminants, and toxicants in varying degrees, they cannot be realistically excluded from the sample frame. However, it may be desirable to exclude populations that are habitually exposed to extremely high levels of environmental pollution, including air pollution, and those living in close proximity to toxic waste. It is impossible to exclude populations and individuals on the basis of their exposure to aflatoxin contamination of food. However
Cochet, Helene; Jover, Marianne; Vauclair, Jacques
This study investigated the development of hand preference for bimanual manipulative activities and pointing gestures in toddlers observed longitudinally over a 5-month period, in relation to language acquisition. The lexical spurt was found to be accompanied by an increase in the right-sided bias for pointing but not for manipulation. Moreover,…
Kiviruusu, Olli; Huurre, Taina; Aro, Hillevi; Marttunen, Mauri; Haukkala, Ari
The present study examined the trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to mid-adulthood and its predictors in adolescence in a prospective cohort sample with a 26-year follow-up. Participants of a Finnish cohort study in 1983 at 16 years (N = 2194) were followed up at ages 22 (N = 1656), 32 (N = 1471) and 42 (N = 1334) years. Self-esteem development was analyzed using latent growth curve models with parental socioeconomic status (SES), parental divorce, school achievement, daily smoking, and heavy drinking as time invariant covariates. Self-esteem grew linearly from 16 to 32 years, but stabilized after that with no growth between 32 and 42 years. Males had significantly higher self-esteem throughout the follow-up, although females had a faster growth rate. Better school performance and higher parental SES were associated with a higher initial level of self-esteem among both genders, while parental divorce among females and daily smoking among males were associated with a lower initial level of self-esteem. Among females the growth rate of self-esteem was practically unaffected by the studied covariates. Among males, however, the initial differences in self-esteem favouring those from a higher SES background were indicated to diminish, while the differences between non-smokers and smokers were indicated to increase. The studied adolescent covariates combined had only limited predictive value for the later self-esteem development. However, the effects of any covariate on the level and slope of the self-esteem trajectory, even if small, should be assessed in combination in order to identify whether they lead to converging, diverging or constantly equidistant self-esteem trajectories. The findings highlight the variety of roles that adolescent behaviours and social environments may have in the developmental process of self-esteem from adolescence into mid-adulthood.
Sanna, Andrea; De Marco, Arianna; Thierry, Bernard; Cozzolino, Roberto
Measuring variations in body mass is necessary to gain a deeper understanding of the evolution of life-history patterns, and it provides information on the timing of sexual maturity and the development of sexual dimorphism. In this study, we collected longitudinal data on body mass from infancy to adulthood in a captive population of Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana). Tests to evaluate whether social group, maternal age, and dominance rank influenced growth rates showed that they had no significant effect. We investigated the timing and magnitude of breaking points in the growth paths of males and females, and checked whether these breaking points could correspond to specific reproductive and morphological developmental events. We found that male and female Tonkean macaques have roughly equivalent body masses until around the age of four, when males go through an adolescent growth spurt and females continue to grow at a constant rate. Males not only grow faster than females, but they also continue to grow for nearly one and a half years after females have attained their full body mass. Growth rate differences account for approximately two-thirds of the body mass sexual dimorphism; only the remaining third results from continued male growth beyond the age where full body mass is reached in females. We also discovered remarkable correspondences between the timing of testicular enlargement and the adolescent growth spurt in males, and between dental development and slowdown breaking points in both sexes.
Acerini, Carlo; Albanese, Assunta; Casey, Angela; Denvir, Louise; Jones, Julie; Mathew, Verghese; Musson, Pauline; Sparrow, Susan
It is common for children and adolescents on growth hormone (GH) treatment to miss one or more injections per week, thereby compromising their linear growth outcome. Among factors likely to affect treatment concordance are patient education and support in the selection of the most appropriate GH injection device. The authors discovered inconsistencies in the process of starting patients on GH therapy throughout the UK, and found that there were no clinical recommendations to support health professionals starting patients on treatment. This article describes the issues involved and the development of practical recommendations for use when starting paediatric patients on long-term GH therapy.
Hua, Xue; Thompson, Paul M; Leow, Alex D; Madsen, Sarah K; Caplan, Rochelle; Alger, Jeffry R; O'Neill, Joseph; Joshi, Kishori; Smalley, Susan L; Toga, Arthur W; Levitt, Jennifer G
Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous disorder of brain development with wide ranging cognitive deficits. Typically diagnosed before age 3, autism spectrum disorder is behaviorally defined but patients are thought to have protracted alterations in brain maturation. With longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we mapped an anomalous developmental trajectory of the brains of autistic compared with those of typically developing children and adolescents. Using tensor-based morphometry, we created 3D maps visualizing regional tissue growth rates based on longitudinal brain MRI scans of 13 autistic and seven typically developing boys (mean age/interscan interval: autism 12.0 ± 2.3 years/2.9 ± 0.9 years; control 12.3 ± 2.4/2.8 ± 0.8). The typically developing boys demonstrated strong whole brain white matter growth during this period, but the autistic boys showed abnormally slowed white matter development (P = 0.03, corrected), especially in the parietal (P = 0.008), temporal (P = 0.03), and occipital lobes (P = 0.02). We also visualized abnormal overgrowth in autism in gray matter structures such as the putamen and anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings reveal aberrant growth rates in brain regions implicated in social impairment, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors in autism, suggesting that growth rate abnormalities persist into adolescence. Tensor-based morphometry revealed persisting growth rate anomalies long after diagnosis, which has implications for evaluation of therapeutic effects.
Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey
Growth curve modelling was used to examine developmental trajectories of sociometric and perceived popularity across eight years in adolescence, and the effects of gender, overt aggression, and relational aggression on these trajectories. Participants were 303 initially popular students (167 girls, 136 boys) for whom sociometric data were available in Grades 5-12. The popularity and aggression constructs were stable but non-overlapping developmental dimensions. Growth curve models were run with SAS MIXED in the framework of the multilevel model for change [Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press]. Sociometric popularity showed a linear change trajectory; perceived popularity showed nonlinear change. Overt aggression predicted low sociometric popularity but an increase in perceived popularity in the second half of the study. Relational aggression predicted a decrease in sociometric popularity, especially for girls, and continued high-perceived popularity for both genders. The effect of relational aggression on perceived popularity was the strongest around the transition from middle to high school. The importance of growth curve models for understanding adolescent social development was discussed, as well as specific issues and challenges of growth curve analyses with sociometric data.
... is a time of dramatic change for both boys and girls. Hormone-driven changes are accompanied by growth spurts ... ages 12 and 15. The growth spurt of boys is, on average, about 2 years later than that of girls. By age 16, most boys have stopped growing, ...
Aguilar, Guillermo; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Nelson, J Stuart
Although cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is used to minimize the risk of epidermal damage during laser dermatologic surgery, optimization of the current cooling approach is needed to permit the safe use of higher light doses, which should improve the therapeutic outcome in many patients. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of spurt duration (delta t) on the heat transfer dynamics during CSC using a model skin phantom. A fast-response temperature sensor was constructed to record the changes in surface temperature during CSC. Temperature measurements as a function of delta t at two nozzle-to-skin distances (z = 50 and 20 mm) were performed. The average surface heat fluxes (q) and heat transfer coefficients (h) for each delta t were computed using an inverse heat conduction problem algorithm. It was observed that q undergoes a marked dynamic variation during the entire delta t, with a maximum heat flux (qc) occurring early in the spurt (5-15 ms), followed by a quick decrease. The estimated qc vary from 450 to 600 kW m(-2), corresponding to h maxima of 10 and 17-22 kW m(-2) K(-1) for z = 50 and 20 mm, respectively. For z = 50 mm, spurts longer than 40 ms do not increase the total heat removal (Q) within the first 200 ms. However, for z = 20 mm, delta t longer than 100 ms are required to achieve the same Q. It is shown that the heat transfer dynamics and the time it takes to reach qc during CSC can be understood through classic boiling theory as a transition from transient to nucleate boiling. Based on the results of this model skin phantom, it is shown that spurts longer than 40 ms have a negligible impact on both q and Q within clinically relevant cooling times (10-100 ms).
Franchi, L; Baccetti, T; McNamara, J A
The analysis of mandibular growth changes around the pubertal spurt in humans has several important implications for the diagnosis and orthopedic correction of skeletal disharmonies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular shape and size growth changes around the pubertal spurt in a longitudinal sample of subjects with normal occlusion by means of an appropriate morphometric technique (thin-plate spline analysis). Ten mandibular landmarks were identified on lateral cephalograms of 29 subjects at 6 different developmental phases. The 6 phases corresponded to 6 different maturational stages in cervical vertebrae during accelerative and decelerative phases of the pubertal growth curve of the mandible. Differences in shape between average mandibular configurations at the 6 developmental stages were visualized by means of thin-plate spline analysis and subjected to permutation test. Centroid size was used as the measure of the geometric size of each mandibular specimen. Differences in size at the 6 developmental phases were tested statistically. The results of graphical analysis indicated a statistically significant change in mandibular shape only for the growth interval from stage 3 to stage 4 in cervical vertebral maturation. Significant increases in centroid size were found at all developmental phases, with evidence of a prepubertal minimum and of a pubertal maximum. The existence of a pubertal peak in human mandibular growth, therefore, is confirmed by thin-plate spline analysis. Significant morphological changes in the mandible during the growth interval from stage 3 to stage 4 in cervical vertebral maturation may be described as an upward-forward direction of condylar growth determining an overall "shrinkage" of the mandibular configuration along the measurement of total mandibular length. This biological mechanism is particularly efficient in compensating for major increments in mandibular size at the adolescent spurt.
Apter, Alan; And Others
Adolescents with varying combinations of pubertal delay and growth retardation were given the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. Delay in sexual maturation by itself had no deleterious effect on self-image but growth retardation did. (Author/GK)
Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...
Skordis, Nicos; Kyriakou, Andreas
Growth failure in thalassaemia major (TM) has been recognised for many years, and has persisted despite major therapeutic advances. The child with TM has a particular growth pattern, which is relatively normal until age 9-10 years; after this age a slowing down of growth velocity and reduced or absent pubertal growth spurt are observed. The pathogenesis of growth failure is multifactorial. The fundamental problem is the free iron and hemosiderosis-induced damage of the endocrine glands. Additional factors may contribute to the aetiology of growth delay including chronic anaemia and hypoxia, chronic liver disease, zinc and folic acid and nutritional deficiencies, intensive use of chelating agents, emotional factors, endocrinopathies (hypogonadism, delayed puberty, hypothyroidism, disturbed calcium homeostasis and bone disease) and last but not least dysregulation of the GH-IGF-1 axis.Three phases of growth disturbances according to age of presentation are well recognised, and have different aetiologies: in the first phase growth disturbance is mainly due to hypoxia, anaemia, ineffective erythropoiesis and nutritional factors. During late childhood (second phase), growth retardation is mainly due to iron overload affecting GH-IGF-1 axis and other potential endocrine complications. Although appropriate iron chelation therapy can improve growth and development, TM children and adolescents treated intensively with desferrioxamine remain short as well, showing body disproportion between the upper and lower body segment. After the age of 10-11 years (third phase), delayed or arrested puberty is an important contributing factor to growth failure in adolescent thalassaemics, who do not exhibit a normal growth spurt. During the last decades therapeutic progress and bone marrow transplantation resulted in a prolonged life expectancy in TM patients. Growth retardation, however, continues to be a significant challenge in these individuals, often affecting their social
Kontulainen, Saija A; Hughes, Julie M; Macdonald, Heather M; Johnston, James D
Understanding the development of the material composition and structure of bone during growth, both key determinants of bone strength, and identifying factors that regulate the development of these properties are important for developing effective lifestyle interventions to optimize peak bone strength. New imaging technologies provide the ability to measure estimates of both the material composition and structure of bone, and thus, estimates of whole bone strength. During childhood and adolescence, bone structure is altered by growth in length and width, which is associated with increases in mass, and alterations in tissue density. These processes lead to a bone with an optimal size, shape, and architecture to withstand the normal physiological loads imposed on it. Longitudinal bone growth is the result of endochondral ossification, a process that continues throughout childhood and rapidly increases during the adolescent growth spurt. Along the shaft, long bones continually grow in width, thus improving the resistance to bending forces by depositing new bone on the periosteal surface with simultaneous resorption on the endocortical surface. Sexual dimorphism in periosteal bone formation and endosteal bone resorption result in sex-specific differences in adult bone conformation. Changes in linear and periosteal growth are closely tied to changes in bone mass, with approximately one quarter of adult total body bone mineral accrued during the 2 years around the adolescent growth spurt. These structural and material changes are under mechanical regulation and influenced by the hormonal environment. Overall, bones must continually adapt their geometry and mass to withstand loads from increases in bone length, muscle mass and external forces during growth. However, the tempo, timing, and extent of such adaptations are also closely regulated by several systemic hormones.
Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said
Puberty is a period of development characterized by partially concurrent changes which includes growth acceleration, alteration in body composition and appearance of secondary sex characteristics. Puberty is characterized by an acceleration and then deceleration in skeletal growth. The initiation, duration and amount of growth vary considerably during the growth spurt. Pubertal growth and biological maturation are dynamic processes regulated by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Changes in skeletal maturation and bone mineral accretion concomitant with the stage of pubertal development constitute essential components in the evaluation of growth during this pubertal period. Genetic, endocrine and nutritional factors and ethnicity contribute variably to the amount of growth gained during this important period of rapid changes. Many studies investigated the possibility of increasing pubertal growth to gain taller final adult height in adolescents with idiopathic short stature (ISS). The pattern of pubertal growth, its relation to sex maturity rating and factors affecting them has been addressed in this review. The results of different trials to increase final adult height of adolescents using different hormones have been summarized. These data enables Endocrinologists to give in-depth explanations to patients and families about the efficacy and clinical significance as well as the safety of using these therapies in the treatment of adolescents with ISS.
Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said
Puberty is a period of development characterized by partially concurrent changes which includes growth acceleration, alteration in body composition and appearance of secondary sex characteristics. Puberty is characterized by an acceleration and then deceleration in skeletal growth. The initiation, duration and amount of growth vary considerably during the growth spurt. Pubertal growth and biological maturation are dynamic processes regulated by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Changes in skeletal maturation and bone mineral accretion concomitant with the stage of pubertal development constitute essential components in the evaluation of growth during this pubertal period. Genetic, endocrine and nutritional factors and ethnicity contribute variably to the amount of growth gained during this important period of rapid changes. Many studies investigated the possibility of increasing pubertal growth to gain taller final adult height in adolescents with idiopathic short stature (ISS). The pattern of pubertal growth, its relation to sex maturity rating and factors affecting them has been addressed in this review. The results of different trials to increase final adult height of adolescents using different hormones have been summarized. These data enables Endocrinologists to give in-depth explanations to patients and families about the efficacy and clinical significance as well as the safety of using these therapies in the treatment of adolescents with ISS. PMID:25538878
Mohr, Lynn D
Caring for the adolescent (13-18 years of age) with an ostomy presents multiple challenges. The purpose of this article is to provide strategies to assist the WOC nurse in minimizing the potential impact on growth and development for this age group with an ostomy. This is relevant to the WOC nurse since it is estimated that between 6% and 14% of all adolescents have symptoms of irritable bowel disease, and many will require an ostomy. Thus the WOC nurse will be called upon to provide care to this age group. This article discusses normal adolescent growth and development and provides strategies to support the normal growth and development.
Pätz, H.-W.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Hegglin, M. I.; Brunner, D.; Fischer, H.; Schmidt, U.
Two aircraft instruments for the measurement of total odd nitrogen (NOy) were compared side by side aboard a Learjet A35 in April 2003 during a campaign of the AFO2000 project SPURT (Spurengastransport in der Tropopausenregion). The instruments albeit employing the same measurement principle (gold converter and chemiluminescence) had different inlet configurations. The ECO-Physics instrument operated by ETH-Zürich in SPURT had the gold converter mounted outside the aircraft, whereas the instrument operated by FZ-Jülich in the European project MOZAIC III (Measurements of ozone, water vapour, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides aboard Airbus A340 in-service aircraft) employed a Rosemount probe with 80 cm of FEP-tubing connecting the inlet to the gold converter. The NOy concentrations during the flight ranged between 0.3 and 3 ppb. The two data sets were compared in a blind fashion and each team followed its normal operating procedures. On average, the measurements agreed within 6%, i.e. within the combined uncertainty of the two instruments. This puts an upper limit on potential losses of HNO3 in the Rosemount inlet of the MOZAIC instrument. Larger transient deviations were observed during periods after calibrations and when the aircraft entered the stratosphere. The time lag of the MOZAIC instrument observed in these instances is in accordance with the time constant of the MOZAIC inlet line determined in the laboratory for HNO3.
Pätz, H.-W.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Hegglin, M. I.; Brunner, D.; Fischer, H.; Schmidt, U.
Two aircraft instruments for the measurement of total odd nitrogen (NOy) were compared side by side aboard a Learjet A35 in April 2003 during a campaign of the AFO2000 project SPURT (Spurengastransport in der Tropopausenregion). The instruments albeit employing the same measurement principle (gold converter and chemiluminescence) had different inlet configurations. The ECO-Physics instrument operated by ETH-Zürich in SPURT had the gold converter mounted outside the aircraft, whereas the instrument operated by FZ-Jülich in the European project MOZAIC III (Measurements of ozone, water vapour, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides aboard Airbus A340 in-service aircraft) employed a Rosemount probe with 80 cm of FEP-tubing connecting the inlet to the gold converter. The NOy concentrations during the flight ranged between 0.3 and 3 ppb. The two data sets were compared in a blind fashion and each team followed its normal operating procedures. On average, the measurements agreed within 7%, i.e. within the combined uncertainty of the two instruments. This puts an upper limit on potential losses of HNO3 in the Rosemount inlet of the MOZAIC instrument. Larger transient deviations were observed during periods after calibrations and when the aircraft entered the stratosphere. The time lag of the MOZAIC instrument observed in these instances is in accordance with the time constant of the MOZAIC inlet line determined in the laboratory for HNO3.
Pickens, Tyra W.
The purpose of the current study was to examine features of adolescent reading comprehension trajectories and make within-person and between-person analyses of growth that occurs during the high school grades. Racial and socioeconomic group differences of the adolescent reading trajectories were also investigated and compared. This examination…
Lee, Kyungeun; Lee, Julie
This study examined the inter-related development of self-esteem and delinquency across three years. Participants were 3449 Korean high school adolescents (age M = 15.8, SD = 0.42, 1725 boys, 1724 girls) from Korea Youth Panel Study (KYPS), in 2005-2007, nationally representative of Korean adolescents. Latent growth modeling was employed for…
Cramer, J.A.; Claude Simeoni, M.; Auquier, P.; Robitail, S.; Brasseur, P.; Beresniak, A.
This study assessed the psychometric properties of a recently developed health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instrument (Vecu et Sante Percue de l'Adolescent -Malade, VSP-AM) in 172 adolescents receiving growth hormone. The VSP-AM was cross-culturally adapted into English and tested for internal consistency (@a=0.78-0.89 subscales, 0.74 Summary…
Rozzi, Fernando V. Ramirez; Koudou, Yves; Froment, Alain; Le Bouc, Yves; Botton, Jérémie
The African pygmy phenotype stems from genetic foundations and is considered to be the product of a disturbance in the growth hormone–insulin-like growth factor (GH–IGF) axis. However, when and how the pygmy phenotype is acquired during growth remains unknown. Here we describe growth patterns in Baka pygmies based on two longitudinal studies of individuals of known age, from the time of birth to the age of 25 years. Body size at birth among the Baka is within standard limits, but their growth rate slows significantly during the first two years of life. It then more or less follows the standard pattern, with a growth spurt at adolescence. Their life history variables do not allow the Baka to be distinguished from other populations. Therefore, the pygmy phenotype in the Baka is the result of a change in growth that occurs during infancy, which differentiates them from East African pygmies revealing convergent evolution. PMID:26218408
Butte, Nancy F; Garza, Cutberto; de Onis, Mercedes
The development of an international growth standard for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of school-aged children and adolescents has been motivated by 2 contemporaneous events, the global surge in childhood obesity and the release of a new international growth standard for infants and preschool children by the WHO. If a prescriptive approach analogous to that taken by WHO for younger children is to be adopted for school-aged children and adolescents, several issues need to be addressed regarding the universality of growth potential across populations and the definition of optimal growth in children and adolescents. A working group of experts in growth and development and representatives from international organizations concluded that subpopulations exhibit similar patterns of growth when exposed to similar external conditioners of growth. However, based on available data, we cannot rule out that observed differences in linear growth across ethnic groups reflect true differences in genetic potential rather than environmental influences. Therefore, the sampling frame for the development of an international growth standard for children and adolescents must include multiethnic sampling strategies designed to capture the variation in human growth patterns. A single international growth standard for school-aged children and adolescents could be developed with careful consideration of the population and individual selection criteria, study design, sample size, measurements, and statistical modeling of primary growth and secondary ancillary data. The working group agreed that existing growth references for school-aged children and adolescents have shortcomings, particularly for assessing obesity, and that appropriate growth standards for these age groups should be developed for clinical and public health applications.
Just as infants and the elderly have special health care needs based on their stages in the life cycle, adolescents also have particular health needs. While some of those needs are simply a result of the bodily changes that define adolescence, others are true medical conditions which are most commonly found in this age group. Among achievements…
Bravo, Diamond Y.; Toomey, Russell B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Lauden B.
Pregnant and parenting adolescents are at significant risk for educational underachievement. Educational expectations play a critical role for understanding subsequent educational attainment; yet, limited empirical attention has been given to changes in educational expectations across the transition to parenthood among adolescent mothers. This…
Rai, K S; Murthy, K D; Karanth, K S; Rao, M S
Neonatal rat pups (7 days old) were intubated with either 50 mg/kg body weight or 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Clitoria ternatea (CTR) for 30 days. These rats were then subjected to open field, two compartment passive avoidance and spatial learning (T-Maze) tests (i) immediately after the treatment and (ii) 30 days after the treatment, along with age matched normal and saline control rats. Results showed no change in open field behaviour, but showed improved retention and spatial learning performance at both time points of behavioural tests, indicating the memory enhancing property of CTR which implicates a permanent change in the brain of CTR treated rats.
Bayat, Hadi; Omidi, Meysam; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Sabri, Suriana; Rahimpour, Azam
Clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in association with CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) is an adaptive immune system, playing a pivotal role in the defense of bacteria and archaea. Ease of handling and cost effectiveness make the CRISPR-Cas system an ideal programmable nuclease tool. Recent advances in understanding the CRISPR-Cas system have tremendously improved its efficiency. For instance, it is possible to recapitulate the chronicle CRISPR-Cas from its infancy and inaugurate a developed version by generating novel variants of Cas proteins, subduing off-target effects, and optimizing of innovative strategies. In summary, the CRISPR-Cas system could be employed in a number of applications, including providing model systems, rectification of detrimental mutations, and antiviral therapies.
Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Hagewen, Kellie J
Research on adolescent self-esteem indicates that adolescence is a time in which individuals experience important changes in their physical, cognitive, and social identities. Prior research suggests that there is a positive relationship between an adolescent's participation in structured extracurricular activities and well-being in a variety of domains, and some research indicates that these relationships may be dependent on the type of activities in which adolescents participate. Building on previous research, a growth-curve analysis was utilized to examine self-esteem trajectories from adolescence (age 14) to young adulthood (age 26). Using 3 waves of data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 5,399; 47.8% male), the analysis estimated a hierarchical growth-curve model emphasizing the effects of age and type of school-based extracurricular activity portfolio, including sports and school clubs, on self-esteem. The results indicated that age had a linear relationship with self-esteem over time. Changes in both the initial level of self-esteem and the growth of self-esteem over time were significantly influenced by the type of extracurricular activity portfolio. The findings were consistent across race and sex. The results support the utility of examining the longitudinal impact of portfolio type on well-being outcomes.
Archibald, Andrea Bastiani; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Early adolescent girls, predominantly of normal weight, were seen for 2 consecutive years and completed measures assessing their dieting, body image, and relationships with parents; weights and heights were also measured. Mothers rated daughters' pubertal growth. Findings indicated that negative parent-adolescent relationships are linked to higher…
King, Kevin M.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Chassin, Laurie
Although there is much empirical support for the relation between stress and alcohol consumption in adolescence, it is unclear whether exposure to stressors is associated with overall trajectories or temporary elevations in drinking. Moreover, little research has explored whether the stress-alcohol use association in adolescence may be explained by shared risk factors that produce both individual differences in stress exposure and elevated risk for alcohol use. The current study tested these hypotheses within the context of a state-trait model of family stressors in a prospectively studied sample of children at high risk for alcoholism: children of alcoholic parents and matched controls (n = 451). Levels and growth in alcohol use were modeled longitudinally from ages 13 to 17. Results indicated that shared risk factors accounted for 53% of the impact of trait family stressors on growth in adolescent drinking, but time-specific exposure to familial stressors still predicted short-term boosts in alcohol use in adolescence. These findings imply that trait familial stressors mark adolescents at risk for alcohol use, and also impact adolescent alcohol use within a short time frame (i.e. over a year versus over many years) when they occur above and beyond the adolescent’s “usual load” of stressors. PMID:19685957
Liu, Yang; Lee, Ju Hwan; Seo, Dae-Shik; Li, Xiang-Dan
Thin ion-beam (IB)-spurted dimethyl sulfate/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (DMS/PEDOT:PSS) layers with improved electro-optic performance are presented for aligning liquid crystals. IB spurting is effective for enhancing the conductivity of such layers, as well as the anchoring energy of the liquid crystals sandwiched between them. Compared with a commercial twisted-nematic cell assembled with polyimide alignment layers, the same cell assembled with 3.0-keV IB-spurted DMS/PEDOT:PSS alignment layers shows a 38% faster switching and a 93% lower residual direct current. The improved electro-optic performance here is likely due to the enhanced electric field effect and the charge-releasing ability of thin IB-spurted DMS/PEDOT:PSS layers.
Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Jeong-Il; Song, MiKyung; Lee, Donghun; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Soo Young; Park, Juyeon; Choi, Ho-Young; Kim, Hocheol
Eucommia ulmoides is one of the popular tonic herbs for the treatment of low back pain and bone fracture and is used in Korean medicine to reinforce muscles and bones. This study was performed to investigate the effects of E. ulmoides extract on longitudinal bone growth rate, growth plate height, and the expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in adolescent female rats. In two groups, we administered a twice-daily dosage of E. ulmoides extract (at 30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively) per os over 4 days, and in a control group, we administered vehicle only under the same conditions. Longitudinal bone growth rate in newly synthesized bone was observed using tetracycline labeling. Chondrocyte proliferation in the growth plate was observed using cresyl violet dye. In addition, we analyzed the expressions of BMP-2 and IGF-1 using immunohistochemistry. Eucommia ulmoides extract significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate and growth plate height in adolescent female rats. In the immunohistochemical study, E. ulmoides markedly increased BMP-2 and IGF-1 expressions in the proliferative and hypertrophic zones. In conclusion, E. ulmoides increased longitudinal bone growth rate by promoting chondrogenesis in the growth plate and the levels of BMP-2 and IGF-1. Eucommia ulmoides could be helpful for increasing bone growth in children who have growth retardation.
Llauradó, Anna; Tolchinsky, Liliana
Lexical development is a key facet of later language development. To characterize the linguistic knowledge of school age children, performance in the written modality must also be considered. This study tracks the growth of written text-embedded lexicon in Catalan-speaking children and adolescents. Participants (N = 2161), aged from 5 to 16 years…
Ellanti, Prasad; Harrington, Paul
Distal radius physeal fractures are common in children and adolescents. However, posttraumatic growth arrest is uncommon. The management of posttraumatic growth arrest is dependent on the severity of the deformity and the remaining growth potential of the patient. Various treatment options exist. We present a 17-year-old male with distal radius growth arrest who presented four years after the initial injury. He had a symptomatic 15 mm positive ulnar variance managed with an ulnar shortening osteotomy with the use of the AO mini distractor intraoperatively. To the best of our knowledge, an acute ulnar shortening of 15 mm is the largest reported. PMID:23227397
Ellanti, Prasad; Harrington, Paul
Distal radius physeal fractures are common in children and adolescents. However, posttraumatic growth arrest is uncommon. The management of posttraumatic growth arrest is dependent on the severity of the deformity and the remaining growth potential of the patient. Various treatment options exist. We present a 17-year-old male with distal radius growth arrest who presented four years after the initial injury. He had a symptomatic 15 mm positive ulnar variance managed with an ulnar shortening osteotomy with the use of the AO mini distractor intraoperatively. To the best of our knowledge, an acute ulnar shortening of 15 mm is the largest reported.
Argente, J; Caballo, N; Barrios, V; Muñoz, M T; Pozo, J; Chowen, J A; Hernández, M
Numerous endocrine abnormalities of the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor axis have been described in patients with both anorexia nervosa and obesity during childhood and adolescence. These alterations include changes in the levels of 24-hour spontaneous GH secretion, high-affinity, low-capacity GH binding protein (GHBP), IGF-I, IGF-II and the IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). However, the existing information is sometimes confusing and contradictory. Furthermore, little or no data in these pathologies are available concerning IGFBP-2 or free IGF-I. We have analysed the GH-IGF axis in large populations of adolescents with anorexia nervosa and prepubertal children with exogenous obesity. These patients were studied at the time of diagnosis and at two timepoints during nutritional therapy and normal weight recovery. The results of these studies using age- and sex-matched controls are described here.
Wang, Youfa; Moreno, Luis A; Caballero, Benjamin; Cole, Tim J
Since the 1970s, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the use of the growth references developed by the United States National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) based on national survey data collected in the 1960s and 1970s. These references are known as the WHO or NCHS/WHO growth references. Over the past three decades, the WHO or NCHS/WHO growth references have played an important role internationally in the assessment of child and adolescent growth and nutritional status. However, the references have a number of weaknesses. The limitations of the infant portion of the references were thoroughly assessed in WHO's effort to develop a new international growth reference for infants and preschool children. The present report discusses the limitations of the NCHS/WHO references for school-aged children and adolescents, including a number of conceptual, methodological, and practical problems. The global obesity epidemic poses another challenge that the NCHS/WHO reference cannot appropriately meet. There is a need for a single international reference to assess the nutritional status and growth of school-aged children and adolescents across different countries.
Ozener, B; Duyar, I
Although the effect of labour and physical stress on the height and weight of growing children is relatively well known, rather limited information concerning the influences of the work environment on the physique of working children and adolescents is available. The purpose of this study was to increase our knowledge of the effects of mechanical stress on the human physique via somatotype during the adolescent growth period. Anthropometric measurements of 509 male apprentices aged 13.50-18.49 years and measurements of 451 nonworking youth (control group) of the same age group were taken. The members of both groups were from the lower socioeconomic strata and had similar living conditions. The apprentices were working an average of 11h per day in vocations requiring intense physical effort. The subjects were somatotyped using the Heath-Carter anthropometric protocol. The overall mean somatotypes were 2.3-4.4-3.3 for working adolescents, and 2.5-3.9-3.6 for the nonworking controls. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated significant differences between the groups. Working adolescents were more mesomorphic and less ectomorphic than their nonworking peers. In both groups, endomorphy decreased with age up to age 15; then remained stable for the labourers but increased for the nonworking peers. In both groups, mesomorphy was stable, but decreased with ectomorphy. These results indicate that physical stress not only causes retardation in linear growth, but also produces changes in human physique during the growth period.
Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A; Guimond, Amy B
The current longitudinal study of 323 Latino adolescents (50.5% male; M age = 15.31 years) examined whether ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation demonstrated significant growth over a 4-year period and whether growth in ethnic identity predicted growth in self-esteem. Findings from multiple-group latent growth curve models revealed that exploration, resolution, and affirmation all increased significantly from middle to late adolescence for Latina girls. For Latino boys, only affirmation increased significantly. Furthermore, only growth in exploration predicted growth in boys' and girls' self-esteem. This research indicates that patterns of growth in ethnic identity vary by adolescent sex. Furthermore, findings underscore the need to examine the unique contributions of each ethnic identity component, rather than using a composite ethnic identity score.
Lea, Richard G; Hannah, Lisa T; Redmer, Dale A; Aitken, Raymond P; Milne, John S; Fowler, Paul A; Murray, Joanne F; Wallace, Jacqueline M
Most intrauterine growth restriction cases are associated with reduced placental growth. Overfeeding adolescent ewes undergoing singleton pregnancies restricts placental growth and reduces lamb birth weight. We used this sheep model of adolescent pregnancy to investigate whether placental growth restriction is associated with altered placental cell proliferation and/or apoptosis at d 81 of pregnancy, equivalent to the apex in placental growth. Adolescent ewes with singleton pregnancies were offered a high or moderate level of a complete diet designed to induce restricted or normal placental size at term, respectively. Bromodeoxyuridine (Brd-U) was administered to H and M ewes 1 h before slaughter. Placental tissues were examined for a) Brd-U (immunohistochemistry) and b) apoptosis regulatory genes by in situ hybridization, Northern analyses (bax, mcl-1), immunohistochemistry, and Western analyses (bax). Quantification was carried out by image analysis. Total placentome weights were equivalent between groups. Brd-U predominantly localized to the trophectoderm and was significantly lower in the H group. Bax and mcl-1 mRNA were localized to the maternal-fetal interface. Bax protein was significantly increased in the H group and predominant in the uninuclear fetal trophectoderm. These observations indicate that reduced placental size at term may be due to reduced placental cell proliferation and possibly increased apoptosis occurring much earlier in gestation.
Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Flores, Antonio Viveros; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Olivares, Pedro R.; Garcia-Rubio, Javier; de Arruda, Miguel
Background: Peru is experiencing a stage of nutritional transition where the principal characteristics are typical of countries undergoing development. Objectives: The objectives of this study were the following: (a) compare physical growth patterns with an international standard; (b) determine biological age; and (c) analyze the double nutritional burden of adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. Design: Weight, standing height, and sitting height were measured in 551 adolescents of both sexes (12.0 to 17.9 years old) from an urban area of Arequipa, Peru (2328 m). Physical growth was compared with the international standard of the CDC-2000. Biological age was determined by using a non-invasive transversal technique based on years from age at peak height velocity (APHV). Nutritional state was determined by means of weight for age and height for age. Z scores were calculated using international standards from the CDC-2000. Results: Body weight for both sexes was similar to the CDC-2000 international standards. At all ages, the girls’ height (p < 0.05) was below the standards. However, the boys’ height (p < 0.05) was less at ages, 15, 16, and 17. Biological age showed up in girls at age 12.7 years and for boys at 15.2 years. Stunted growth (8.7% boys and 18.0% girls) and over weight (11.3% boys and 8.8% girls) occurred in both groups. A relationship existed in both sexes between the categories of weight for the age and stunted growth by sex. Conclusions: Adolescents living at a moderate altitude exhibited stunted linear growth and biological maturation. Furthermore, adolescents of both sexes showed the presence of the double nutritional burden (stunted growth and excessive weight). PMID:26404334
Taku, Kanako; McDiarmid, Leah
Research on posttraumatic growth (PTG), positive psychological changes that may occur as a result of highly stressful life events, reveals adolescents are able to experience PTG. The current study tests individual differences among adolescents in relative importance of PTG and examines the relationships among personally important PTG, commonly defined PTG, and self-esteem. Adolescents (N = 145) with the mean age of 15.75 (SD = 1.13) completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and PTG Inventory, and then reported which items on the PTG Inventory were personally important to them. Results indicated within-scale differences in item importance on the PTG Inventory. Personally important PTG was a better predictor of adolescent self-esteem than commonly defined PTG, measured as total PTGI score or each of the five factors. These findings suggest future research should look at both short-term and long-term effects of personally important PTG as well as commonly defined PTG.
Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam; Hamagami, Fumiaki
Developmentalists are often interested in understanding change processes, and growth models are the most common analytic tool for examining such processes. Nonlinear growth curves are especially valuable to developmentalists because the defining characteristics of the growth process such as initial levels, rates of change during growth spurts, and…
Ens, Carla; Bond, John B
Relationships between bereavement following the death of a grandparent and adolescent death anxiety levels were examined using Hogan's Inventory of Bereavement and the revised Death Anxiety Scale within private schools. Of the 226 adolescent respondents (aged 11-18) who completed questionnaires, 124 had experienced the death of a grandparent. The regression model indicated that grief due to bereavement was found to be significantly associated with death anxiety. The factors of personal growth, gender, time since death, and numbers of deaths experienced were not found to be significant predictors within the model. The findings encourage further exploration into the nature of the grandparent-adolescent relationship as well as the impact of type of death experienced.
Gasparetto, Marco; Guariso, Graziella
Nutritional concerns, linear growth deficiency, and delayed puberty are currently detected in up to 85% of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) diagnosed at childhood. To provide advice on how to assess and manage nutritional concerns in these patients, a Medline search was conducted using "pediatric inflammatory bowel disease", "pediatric Crohn's disease", "linear growth", "pubertal growth", "bone health", and "vitamin D" as key words. Clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses published between 2008 and 2013 were selected to produce this narrative review. Studies referring to earlier periods were also considered if the data was relevant to our review. Although current treatment strategies for CD that include anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy have been shown to improve patients' growth rate, linear growth deficiencies are still common. In pediatric CD patients, prolonged diagnostic delay, high initial activity index, and stricturing/penetrating type of behavior may cause growth deficiencies (in weight and height) and delayed puberty, with several studies reporting that these patients may not reach an optimal bone mass. Glucocorticoids and inflammation inhibit bone formation, though their impact on skeletal modeling remains unclear. Long-term control of active inflammation and an adequate intake of nutrients are both fundamental in promoting normal puberty. Recent evidence suggests that recombinant growth factor therapy is effective in improving short-term linear growth in selected patients, but is of limited benefit for ameliorating mucosal disease and reducing clinical disease activity. The authors conclude that an intense initial treatment (taking a "top-down" approach, with the early introduction of immunomodulatory treatment) may be justified to induce and maintain remission so that the growth of children with CD can catch up, ideally before puberty. Exclusive enteral nutrition has a key role in inducing remission and improving patients
Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Moramarco, Marc Michael; Borysov, Maksym; Lee, Sang Gil; Nan, Xiaofeng; Moramarco, Kathryn Ann
Long-term follow-up of untreated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) indicates that, with the exception of some extremely severe cases, AIS does not have a significant impact on quality of life and does not result in dire consequences. In view of the relatively benign nature of AIS and the long-term complications of surgery, the indications for treatment should be reviewed. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that scoliosis-specific exercises focusing on postural rehabilitation can positively influence the spinal curvatures in growing adolescents. Experiential postural re-education is a conservative, non-invasive approach, and its role in the management of AIS warrants further study. This article reviews current evidence for the inclusion of various forms of postural reeducation in the management of AIS. Recent comprehensive reviews have been researched including a manual and PubMed search for evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical/postural re-education/physiotherapy programs in growing AIS patients. This search revealed that there were few studies on the application of postural re-education in the management of AIS. These studies revealed that postural re-education in the form of exercise rehabilitation programs may have a positive influence on scoliosis; however, the various programs were difficult to compare. More research is necessary. There is at present Level 1 evidence for the effectiveness of Schroth scoliosis exercises in the management of AIS. Whether this evidence can be extrapolated to include other forms of scoliosis- pattern-specific exercises requires further investigation. Because corrective postures theoretically reduce the asymmetric loading of the spinal deformities and reverse the vicious cycle of spinal curvature progression, their integration into AIS programs may be beneficial and should be further examined. PMID:27340540
Quinn, Catherine A; Bussey, Kay
Moral disengagement is a social cognitive process that has been extensively applied to transgressive behaviors, including delinquency, aggression and illicit substance use. However, there has been limited research on moral disengagement as it relates to underage drinking. The current study aimed to examine moral disengagement contextualized to underage drinking and its longitudinal relationship to alcohol use. Moreover, the social context in which adolescent alcohol use typically occurs was also considered, with a specific emphasis on the social sanctions, or social outcomes, that adolescents anticipate receiving from friends for their alcohol use. Adolescents were assessed across three time-points, 8 months apart. The longitudinal sample consisted of 382 (46% female) underage drinkers (12-16 years at T1). Parallel latent growth curve analysis was used to examine the bi-directional influence of initial moral disengagement, anticipated social outcomes, and alcohol use on subsequent growth in moral disengagement, anticipated social outcomes and alcohol use. The interrelation of initial scores and growth curves was also assessed. The findings revealed that, in the binary parallel analyses, initial moral disengagement and anticipated social outcomes both significantly predicted changes in alcohol use across time. Moreover, initial anticipated social outcomes predicted changes in moral disengagement. These findings were not consistently found when all three process analyses were included in a single model. The results emphasize the impact of social context on moral disengagement and suggest that by targeting adolescents' propensity to justify or excuse their drinking, as well as the social outcomes adolescents anticipate for being drunk, it may be possible to reduce their underage drinking.
Weide, Guido; Huijing, Peter A; Maas, Josina C; Becher, Jules G; Harlaar, Jaap; Jaspers, Richard T
Using a cross-sectional design, the purpose of this study was to determine how pennate gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle geometry changes as a function of adolescent age. Sixteen healthy adolescent males (aged 10-19 years) participated in this study. GM muscle geometry was measured within the mid-longitudinal plane obtained from a 3D voxel-array composed of transverse ultrasound images. Images were taken at footplate angles corresponding to standardised externally applied footplate moments (between 4 Nm plantar flexion and 6 Nm dorsal flexion). Muscle activity was recorded using surface electromyography (EMG), expressed as a percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC). To minimise the effects of muscle excitation, EMG inclusion criteria were set at <10% of MVC. In practice, however, normalised EMG levels were much lower. For adolescent subjects with increasing ages, GM muscle (belly) length increased due to an increase in the length component of the physiological cross-sectional area measured within the mid-longitudinal plane. No difference was found between fascicles at different ages, but the aponeurosis length and pennation angle increased by 0.5 cm year(-1) and 0.5° per year, respectively. Footplate angles corresponding to externally applied 0 and 4 Nm plantarflexion moments were not associated with different adolescent ages. In contrast, footplate angles corresponding to externally applied 4 and 6 Nm dorsal flexion moments decreased by 10° between 10 and 19 years. In conclusion, we found that in adolescents' pennate GM muscles, longitudinal muscle growth is mediated predominantly by increased muscle fascicle diameter.
Mingin, Gerald; Maroni, Paul; Gerharz, Elmar W; Woodhouse, Christopher R J; Baskin, Laurence S
The interposition of bowel in continuity with the urinary tract has allowed for the preservation of renal function and continence in children with bladder exstrophy, as well as neurogenic and valve bladders. Although bladder augmentation with ileum or colon has been shown to be safe, the long-term effects of metabolic acidosis in addition to abnormalities in linear growth and bone metabolism remain largely unknown. We reviewed the literature to critically examine linear growth in children who have had bladder augmentation with a particular emphasis on the correlation between acid-base status, bone mineralization and growth. The majority of studies suggest that linear growth is not affected by bladder augmentation. In the short-term, children post-augmentation have varying degrees of metabolic acidosis which, overtime, appears to resolve with no affect on linear growth. In a single study, bladder augmentation led to significant bone demineralization almost a decade after surgery, however, even in these children no decrease in linear growth was noted. No alterations in bone density levels were seen with short-term follow-up.
Attkiss, K J; Buncke, H J
A case of premature closure of the distal phalanx growth plate of the thumb is reported in an adolescent, presumably caused by accumulated repetitive trauma incurred during years of piano playing. The injury may be analogous to overuse injury to certain growth plates reported in child and adolescent athletes. Upper extremity problems in musicians due to the unusual and excessive demands of playing an instrument are discussed.
McPhie, Meghan L; Rawana, Jennine S
This study examined the influence of physical activity on the trajectory of depression from adolescence through emerging adulthood (EA). Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I to IV), latent growth curve modeling was performed to assess how physical activity and gender influenced depression across adolescence and EA. Higher levels of physical activity in mid-adolescence were associated with lower levels of depression during mid-adolescence and slower inclines and declines in depression over time. Boys had lower levels of depression in mid-adolescence and slower inclines and declines in depression over time compared to girls. Findings provide evidence that current theories on understanding depression and mental health prevention programs may be enhanced by the inclusion of physical activity.
Fried, P A; James, D S; Watkinson, B
Weight, height, head circumference, and pubertal milestones were examined in one hundred fifty-two 13- to 16-year-old adolescents for whom prenatal exposure to marihuana and cigarettes had been ascertained. The subjects were from a low-risk, predominantly middle-class sample participating in an ongoing, longitudinal study and whose growth has been monitored since birth. The weight of the 13- to 16-year-old children of heavy cigarette smokers, after statistical adjustment, did not differ from control subjects but they had a significantly higher Ponderal Index (PI). These observations continued those noted when these subjects were 9 to 12 years of age. Among the male offspring of cigarette smokers, pubertal milestones occurred at an earlier age than among male adolescents born to nonsmokers. Active smoking by the offspring did not moderate these findings. Maternal marihuana use was not associated with any growth measurement or the timing of pubertal milestones.
Lee, Donghun; Kim, Young-Sik; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Guo, Hailing; Kim, Hocheol
This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone growth and growth mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8-10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in response to P. umbrosa administration in either growth plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial growth plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in growth plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the growth plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway.
Wallace, Jacqueline M; Milne, John S; Adam, Clare L; Aitken, Raymond P
The influence of maternal obesity during oocyte development and its putative interaction with nutrient reserves at conception on pregnancy outcome were examined in an adolescent sheep model. Donor ewes were nutritionally managed to achieve contrasting adiposity (control (CD)/obese (ObD)) for 6 weeks prior to superovulation and inseminated by a non-obese sire. Morulae from 6 CD and 7 ObD were transferred in singleton into adolescent recipients of identical age but differing adiposity, classified as relatively fat or thin respectively. Thereafter, all were overnourished to promote rapid growth/adiposity (2 × 2 design, 13/14 pregnancies/group). A fifth recipient group of intermediate adiposity received embryos from another 5 CD, was offered a moderate intake to maintain adiposity throughout gestation and acted as controls for normal pregnancy outcome (optimally treated control (OTC), 19 pregnancies). Donor obesity did not influence ovulation, fertilisation or recovery rates or impact embryo morphology. Gestation length and colostrum yield were unaffected by donor or recipient adiposity and were reduced relative to OTC. Total fetal cotyledon and lamb birth weights were independent of initial donor adiposity but reduced in relatively thin vs relatively fat recipients and lower than those in the OTC group. In spite of high placental efficiency, the incidence of fetal growth restriction was greatest in the thin recipients. Thus, maternal adiposity at conception, but not pre-conception maternal obesity, modestly influences the feto-placental growth trajectory, whereas comparison with the OTC indicates that high gestational intakes to promote rapid maternal growth remain the dominant negative influence on pregnancy outcome in young adolescents. These findings inform dietary advice for pregnant adolescent girls.
DiMeglio, Alain; Dimeglio, Alain; Canavese, Federico; Charles, Yann Philippe; Charles, Philippe
Growth in childhood and in puberty has a major influence on the evolution of spinal curvature. The yearly rate of increase in standing height and sitting height, bone age, and Tanner signs are essential parameters. Additionally, biometric measurements must be repeated every six months. Puberty is a turning point. The pubertal diagram is characterized by two phases: the first two years are a phase of acceleration, and the last three years is a phase of decelaration. Thoracic growth is the fourth dimension of the spine. Bone age is an essential parameter. Risser 0 covers two third of the pubertal growth. On the acceleration phase, olecranon evaluation is more precise than the hand. On the deceleration phase, the Risser sign must be completed by the hand maturation. A 30 degree curve at the very beginning of puberty has 100% risk of surgery. Any spinal, if progression is greater than 10 degree per year on the first two years of puberty the surgical risk is 100%.
Rah, Jee H; Christian, Parul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur
Adolescent pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Less is known about its influence on maternal growth and nutritional status. We determined how pregnancy and lactation during adolescence affects postmenarcheal linear and ponderal growth and body composition of 12-19 y olds in rural Bangladesh. In a prospective cohort study, anthropometric measurements were taken among primigravidae (n = 229) in the early first trimester of pregnancy and at 6 mo postpartum. Randomly selected never-pregnant adolescents (n = 458) of the same age and time since menarche were measured within 1 wk of these assessments. Annual changes in anthropometric measurements were compared between the 2 groups adjusting for confounders using mixed effects regression models. The mean +/- SD age and age at menarche of adolescents were 16.3 +/- 1.6 y and 12.7 +/- 1.2 y, respectively. Unlike pregnant girls who did not grow in height (-0.09 +/- 0.08 cm/y), never-pregnant girls increased in stature by 0.35 +/- 0.05 cm/y. The adjusted mean difference between the 2 groups was 0.43 +/- 0.1cm (P < 0.001). Similarly, whereas never-pregnant girls gained BMI, mid-upper arm circumference, and percent body fat, pregnant girls declined in every measurement by 6 mo postpartum, resulting in adjusted mean +/- SD differences in annual changes of 0.62 +/- 0.11 kg/m(2), 0.89 +/- 0.12 cm, and 1.54 +/- 0.25%, respectively (all P < 0.001). Differences in changes in all anthropometric measurements except height were greater among adolescents whose first pregnancy occurred <24 mo vs. > or =24 mo since menarche (BMI, -1.40 +/- 0.18 vs. -0.60 +/- 0.11 kg/m(2); all interaction terms, P < 0.05). Pregnancy and lactation during adolescence ceased linear growth and resulted in weight loss and depletion of fat and lean body mass of young girls.
Ali, Farah N.; Falkner, Bonita; Gidding, Samuel S.; Price, Heather E.; Keith, Scott W.; Langman, Craig B.
Objectives Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a biomarker for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Obesity may promote FGF23 production in the absence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We sought to determine among normotensive African American adolescents, whether FGF23 levels are higher in obese compared with normal weight African American adolescents; and to determine the relationship of FGF23 with markers of cardiac structure and insulin resistance. Study design Cross-sectional data were obtained from a cohort of 130 normotensive, African American adolescents aged 13-18 years old without CKD; 74 were obese; 56 were normal weight. Plasma C-terminal FGF23, fasting glucose and insulin, and hsCRP were measured; participants underwent M-mode echocardiography. Results FGF23 was skewed and approximately normally distributed after natural log transformation (logFGF23). FGF23 levels were higher in obese versus normal weight participants (geometric mean 43 vs. 23 RU/mL, p<0.01). FGF23 values were significantly higher in participants with eccentric or concentric cardiac hypertrophy compared with those without hypertrophy (p<0.01). LogFGF23 directly correlated with BMI, BMI z-score, waist circumference, fasting insulin levels, and HOMA scores. Regression models adjusted for age, sex, and hsCRP suggest that each 10% increase in FGF23 is associated with 1.31 unit increase in LVM (p<0.01), 0.29 unit increase in LVMI (p<0.01), and 0.01 unit increase in left atrial dimension indexed to height (p=0.02). Conclusions In this sample of obese African American adolescents, FGF23 blood levels were associated with abnormal cardiac structure. We postulate that FGF23 may be an early marker of cardiac injury in obese but otherwise healthy African American adolescents. PMID:25063724
Wiium, Nora; Breivik, Kyrre; Wold, Bente
Based on nine waves of data collected during a period of 17 years (1990–2007), the present study explored different developmental trajectories of the following unhealthy behaviors: regular smoking, lack of regular exercise, lack of daily fruit intake, and drunkenness. A baseline sample of 1195 13-year-old pupils was from 22 randomly selected schools in the Hordaland County in western Norway. Latent class growth analysis revealed three developmental trajectories. The first trajectory was a conventional trajectory, comprising 36.3% of participants, who showed changes in smoking, physical exercise, fruit intake, and drunkenness consistent with the prevailing age specific norms of these behaviors in the Norwegian society at the time. The second trajectory was a passive trajectory, comprising 25.5% of participants, who reported low levels of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors during the 17-year period. The third trajectory was an unhealthy trajectory, comprising 38.2% of participants, who had high levels of unhealthy behaviors over time. Several covariates were examined, but only sex and mother’s and father’s educational levels were found to be significantly associated with the identified trajectories. While these findings need to be replicated in future studies, the identification of the different trajectories suggests the need to tailor intervention according to specific needs. PMID:26516889
Park, Sanghyun; Chiu, Weisheng; Won, Doyeon
The present study aimed to investigate the longitudinal influence of physical education classes, extracurricular sports activities, and leisure satisfaction on aggressive behavior among South Korean adolescents. Data were drawn from the Korea Youth Panel Survey. We used latent growth curve modeling to explain the growth trajectory of adolescent aggressive behaviors and a multi-group analysis to investigate gender differences in aggressive behavior. The results indicated that adolescents' aggressive behavior significantly changed with age. There were significant gender-based differences in the level of and changes in aggressive behavior over time. Both extracurricular sports activities and leisure satisfaction had significant influences on the changes in adolescents' aggressive behavior with age, whereas physical education classes did not.
Lake, A M; Kim, S; Mathis, R K; Walker, W A
The postoperative growth rates achieved in eight early pubertal adolescent males with Crohn's disease undergoing surgery for obstructive complications is reported as a function of the use of 1 month's preoperative central venous alimentation. All patients had ileal strictures with ileocolitis, bone ages less than 13, Tanner stages 1 or 2, and growth velocities below the 3rd percentile for age. During a 3-year follow-up, those receiving preoperative venous alimentation demonstrated greater oral caloric intake (significant for 1 year) and greater postoperative growth velocity (significant for 2 years) in comparison to those patients who did not receive preoperative venous alimentation. There was no significant difference between the two groups of patients in postoperative weight gain, sexual development, and 3-year disease control.
Leem, Kang-Hyun; Lee, Sena; Jang, Aera; Kim, Hye Kyung
Collagen hydrolysates (CHs) are mixtures of peptides obtained by partial hydrolysis of gelatin that are receiving scientific attention as potential oral supplements for the restoration of osteoarticular tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CHs for promoting longitudinal bone growth in growing rats. An in vitro study was carried out in osteoblast-like MG63 cells and the most effective CH on bone formation was selected among 36 various CHs. An in vivo study confirmed the functional effects of a selected CH with molecular weight of <3 kDa on longitudinal bone growth. CHs dose-dependently promoted the longitudinal bone growth and height of the growth plate in adolescent male rats, whereas gelatin failed to affect longitudinal bone growth. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the CH treated group were highly expressed in the growth plate. These results suggest that CHs isolated in this study may provide beneficial effects on bone metabolism of growing animals and humans.
Fried, P A; Watkinson, B; Gray, R
Weight, height, and head circumference were examined in children from birth to early adolescence for whom prenatal exposure to marijuana and cigarettes had been ascertained. The subjects were from a low-risk, predominantly middle-class sample participating in an ongoing longitudinal study. The negative association between growth measures at birth and prenatal cigarette exposure was overcome, sooner in males than females, within the first few years, and by the age of six, the children of heavy smokers were heavier than control subjects. Pre and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke did not have a negative effect upon the growth parameters; however, the choice of bottle-feeding or shorter duration of breast-feeding by women who smoked during pregnancy appeared to play an important positive role in the catch-up observed among the infants of smokers. Prenatal exposure to marijuana was not significantly related to any growth measures at birth, although a smaller head circumference observed at all ages reached statistical significance among the early adolescents born to the heavy marijuana users.
Chung, Yoon Hee; Lee, Do Yeon; Lee, Ho Sung; Hong, Soon Auck; Park, Eon Sub; Nam, Yunsung; Kim, Hyoung Chun; Lee, Sang Joon; Sohn, Uy Dong; Kim, Hohyun; Jeong, Ji Hoon
This study examined whether treatment with Phyllostachyos Caulis in Taeniam aqueous extract improves longitudinal bone growth in adolescent male rats. Three-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: a control group, a Phyllostachyos Caulis in Taeniam group (200 mg/kg, p.o.), and a recombinant human growth hormone group (20 µg/kg, s.c.). The total tibial length and the height of each growth plate zone were evaluated by radiography and histomorphometry. The total number of proliferative cells and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive cells were counted after 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine staining. Serum total osteocalcin levels were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The average total tibial length of the Phyllostachyos Caulis in Taeniam group was significantly longer than that of the control group. The heights of the proliferative and hypertrophic zones in the Phyllostachyos Caulis in Taeniam group were increased, and the ratio of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive to total cells in the proliferative zone was also increased. The serum osteocalcin, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were significantly increased in the Phyllostachyos Caulis in Taeniam group compared to the control group. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor were highly expressed in the proliferative and hypertrophic zones in the Phyllostachyos Caulis in Taeniam group. The Phyllostachyos Caulis in Taeniam extract increased bone length, promoted cell proliferation, and activated the growth plate zones, which suggested that the extract could play an important role in longitudinal bone growth. Therefore, the Phyllostachyos Caulis in Taeniam extract might be a good alternative medicine to growth hormone therapy.
Kujala, U M; Taimela, S; Erkintalo, M; Salminen, J J; Kaprio, J
In this 3-yr longitudinal study we investigated the occurrence of low-back pain and anatomic changes in the low back in relation to loading and injuries among 98 adolescents: 33 nonathletes (16 boys, 17 girls), 34 boy athletes (17 ice hockey, 17 soccer players), and 31 girl athletes (17 figure skaters, 14 gymnasts). During the 3-yr follow-up, low-back pain lasting longer than 1 wk was reported by 29 (45%; 95% CI, 32%-57%) athletes and by 6 (18%; 95% CI, 7%-35%) nonathletes (P = 0.0099). Acute back injury was reported by 17 of 19 subjects who also reported low-back pain (89%; 95% CI, 67%-99%) and by 2 of 63 of those without prolonged low-back pain (3%; 95% CI, 0%-11%) (P < 0.0001). Among 43 girls participating in baseline and follow-up MRI examinations of the lumbar spine, new MRI abnormalities were found in 6 of 8 reporting acute back injury (75%; 95% CI, 35%-97%) and in 8 of the remaining 35 girls (23%; 95% CI 10% to 40%) (P = 0.018). In conclusion, excessive loading that involves a risk for acute low-back injuries during the growth spurt is harmful to the lower back.
Ziemann, Ewa; Sledziewska, Ewelina; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Gibson, Ann L; Wierzba, Tomasz H
The study was performed to evaluate relationships among the major anthropological parameters: (body mass - BM, height, body mass index - BMI, lean body mass - FFM, proportion of fat mass -Fat%), physical capacity, and the tennis federations ranking position as an index of the temporal sport success. Seventeen elite female tennis players, divided into three age-matched groups (15, 16, and 17 yr) participated in this study. All the players had a national singles ranking (positions between 1st-80th) and in International Tennis Federation's Junior Circuit ranking (ITFJC; 21st to 990th position of ITF). Body composition was assessed via bioelectrical impedance. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was calculated from the distance covered in 12-min run test via Cooper's formula. Wingate test with lactate assay was used as an index of anaerobic capacity. There was a significant age-related trend for an increase in BM, height, FFT, and Fat%, associated with impressive shift of the anthropological indexes of body weight and height, assessed by the percentile chart analysis. The unexpected body growth spurt evidently observed between aged 15 and 17 is supposed to reflect a delay in somatic development, related to extensive exercise load. Body composition did not correlate to the ranking positions. All tested tennis players revealed excellent aerobic capacity associated with poor indices of anaerobic fitness. The position in the tennis federations rankings correlated to VO2max but not with maximal power or maximal work output assessed by Wingate test. In the whole group the maximal power and work output were proportional to BMI and FFM, but not to Fat%. In conclusion, in light of the contradictory reports concerning a possible link between strenuous regular exercise performed by young children and adolescent elite sportsmen our data indicate a delayed growth spurt in the elite female tennis players to occur between ages 15 and 17. The other important finding in terms of
Frison, Eline; Eggermont, Steven
Despite increasing evidence that specific types of Facebook use (i.e., active private, active public, and passive Facebook use) are differently related to adolescents' well-being, little is known how these types function over the course of adolescence and whether gender and Facebook motives may predict the initial level and changes in these types over time. To address these gaps, Flemish adolescents (ages 12-19) were questioned at three different time points, with six months in between (NTime1 = 1866). Latent growth curve models revealed that active private Facebook use increased over the course of adolescence, whereas public Facebook use decreased. Passive Facebook use, however, remained stable. In addition, gender and Facebook motives were related to initial levels of specific types of Facebook use, and predictive of dynamic change in specific types of Facebook use over time. The discussion focuses on the understanding and implications of these findings.
Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R.; Hanson Sobraske, Katherine N.; Samore, Theodore; Gurven, Michael; Gaulin, Steven J. C.
Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) has been proposed as a sexually dimorphic signal in humans that develops under the influence of pubertal testosterone (T); however, no studies have examined the association between fWHR and T during the phase in which facial growth is canalized—adolescence. In a sample of adolescent Tsimane males, we evaluate the relationship between T, known T-derived traits (i.e. strength and voice pitch), and craniofacial measurements. If fWHR variation derives from T’s effect on craniofacial growth during adolescence, several predictions should be supported: 1) fWHR should increase with age as T increases, 2) fWHR should reflect adolescent T (rather than adult T per se), 3) fWHR should exhibit velocity changes during adolescence in parallel with the pubertal spurt in T, 4) fWHR should correlate with T after controlling for age and other potential confounds, and 5) fWHR should show strong associations with other T-derived traits. Only prediction 4 was observed. Additionally, we examined three alternative facial masculinity ratios: facial width/lower face height, cheekbone prominence, and facial width/full face height. In contrast to fWHR, all three alternative measures show a strong age-related trend and are associated with both T and T-dependent traits. Overall, our results question the status of fWHR as a sexually-selected signal of pubertal T and T-linked traits. PMID:27078636
Using data on 11,835 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a series of regression analyses investigated the effects of changing social support on adolescent depression. Decreases in parental and peer support had stronger effects on adolescent depression than did increases in support. (Contains 45 references.)…
Monk, Bradley R; Leslie, Frances M; Thomas, Jennifer D
Prenatal alcohol exposure leads to long-lasting cognitive and attention deficits, as well as hyperactivity. Using a rat model, we have previously shown that perinatal supplementation with the essential nutrient, choline, can reduce the severity of some fetal alcohol effects, including hyperactivity and deficits in learning and memory. In fact, choline can mitigate alcohol-related learning deficits even when administered after developmental alcohol exposure, during the postnatal period. However, it is not yet known how choline is able to mitigate alcohol-related behavioral alterations. Choline may act by altering cholinergic signaling in the hippocampus. This study examined the effects of developmental alcohol exposure and perinatal choline supplementation on hippocampal M(1) and M(2/4) muscarinic receptors. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were orally intubated with ethanol (5.25 mg/kg/day) from postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development equivalent to the human third trimester; control subjects received sham intubations. From PD 4-30, subjects were injected s.c. with choline chloride (100 mg/kg/day) or saline vehicle. Open field activity was assessed from PD 30 through 33, and brain tissue was collected on PD 35 for autoradiographic analysis. Ethanol-exposed subjects were more active compared to controls during the first 2 days of testing, an effect attenuated with choline supplementation. Developmental alcohol exposure significantly decreased the density of muscarinic M(1) receptors in the dorsal hippocampus, an effect that was not altered by choline supplementation. In contrast, developmental alcohol exposure significantly increased M(2/4) receptor density, an effect mitigated by choline supplementation. In fact, M(2/4) receptor density of subjects exposed to alcohol and treated with choline did not differ significantly from that of controls. These data suggest that developmental alcohol exposure can cause long-lasting changes in the hippocampal cholinergic system and that perinatal choline supplementation may attenuate alcohol-related behavioral changes by influencing cholinergic systems.
Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Maiano, Christophe; Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W.; Morizot, Julien; Janosz, Michel
Substantively, this study investigates potential heterogeneity in the developmental trajectories of anxiety in adolescence. Methodologically, this study demonstrates the usefulness of general growth mixture analysis (GGMA) in addressing these issues and illustrates the impact of untested invariance assumptions on substantive interpretations. This…
Bao, H; Liu, Z; Yan, P; Qiu, Y; Zhu, F
A self-control ratio, the spine-pelvis index (SPI), was proposed for the assessment of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in this study. The aim was to evaluate the disproportionate growth between the spine and pelvis in these patients using SPI. A total of 64 female patients with thoracic AIS were randomly enrolled between December 2010 and October 2012 (mean age 13 years, standard deviation (sd) 2.17; 9 to 18) and a further 73 healthy female patients with a mean age of 12.4 years (mean age 12.4 years, sd 2.24; 9 to 18), were randomly selected from a normal control database at our centre. The radiographic parameters measured included length of spine (LOS), height of spine (HOS), length of thoracic vertebrae (LOT), height of thoracic vertebrae (HOT), width of pelvis (WOP), height of pelvis (HOP) and width of thorax (WOT). SPI was defined as the ratio LOS/HOP. The SPI and LOT/HOP in patients with AIS showed a significant increase when compared with normal girls (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 respectively), implying an abnormal pattern of growth of the spine relative to the pelvis in patients with AIS. No significant difference in SPI was found in different age groups in the control group, making the SPI an age-independent parameter with a mean value of 2.219 (2.164 to 2.239). We also found that the SPI was not related to maturity in the control group. This study, for the first time, used a self-control ratio to confirm the disproportionate patterns of growth of the spine and pelvis in patients with thoracic AIS, highlighting that the SPI is not affected by age or maturity.
Wade, Tracey D; Wilksch, Simon M; Paxton, Susan J; Byrne, Susan M; Austin, S Bryn
While perfectionism is widely considered to influence risk for eating disorders, results of longitudinal studies are mixed. The goal of the current study was to investigate a more complex model of how baseline perfectionism (both high personal standards and self-critical evaluative concerns) might influence change in risk status for eating disorders in young adolescent girls, through its influence on ineffectiveness. The study was conducted with 926 girls (mean age of 13 years), and involved three waves of data (baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up). Latent growth curve modelling, incorporating the average rate at which risk changed over time, the intercept (initial status) of ineffectiveness, and baseline perfectionism, was used to explore longitudinal mediation. Personal standards was not supported as contributing to risk but results indicated that the higher mean scores on ineffectiveness over the three waves mediated the relationship between higher baseline self-critical evaluative concerns and both measures of eating disorder risk. The relationship between concern over mistakes and change in risk was small and negative. These results suggest the usefulness of interventions related to self-criticism and ineffectiveness for decreasing risk for developing an eating disorder in young adolescent girls.
Zając, Magdalena; Rybi-Szumińska, Agnieszka; Wasilewska, Anna
Aim To determine the correlation of urinary fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) excretion with blood pressure and calcium-phosphorus metabolism. Methods The study included 42 hypertensive (17 girls) and 46 healthy children and adolescents (17 girls) aged 6-18 years admitted to the Department of Pediatrics and Nephrology, Medical University of Białystok between January 2013 and December 2013. FGF23 in urine was measured using Human Intact FGF-23 ELISA Kit. Results Hypertensive participants had significantly higher urine FGF23/creatinine values than the reference group (8.65 vs 5.59 RU/mg creatinine, P = 0.007). Urine FGF23/creatinine positively correlated with systolic blood pressure in all participants. In hypertensive patients, urine FGF23/creatinine positively correlated with serum calcium and negatively with serum 25(OH)D, urinary calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. Conclusion This study found that FGF23 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in children and adolescents, but our results should be confirmed by further studies. PMID:26321027
Colder, Craig R.; O’Connor, Roisin M.; Read, Jennifer P.; Eiden, Rina D.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Hawk, Larry W.; Wieczorek, William F.
This longitudinal study provided a comprehensive examination of age-related changes in alcohol outcome expectancies, subjective evaluation of alcohol outcomes, and automatic alcohol associations in early adolescence. A community sample (52% female, 75% White/Non-Hispanic) was assessed annually for three years (mean age at the first assessment = 11.6 years). Results from growth modeling suggested that perceived likelihood of positive outcomes increased and that subjective evaluations of these outcomes were more positive with age. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes declined with age. Automatic alcohol associations were assessed with an Implicit Association Task (IAT), and were predominantly negative, but these negative associations weakened with age. High initial levels of perceived likelihood of positive outcomes at age 11 were associated with escalation of drinking. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes was associated with low risk for drinking at age 11, but not with changes in drinking. Increases in positive evaluations of positive outcomes were associated with increases in alcohol use. Overall, findings suggest that at age 11, youth maintain largely negative attitudes and perceptions about alcohol, but with the transition into adolescence, there is a shift toward a more neutral or ambivalent view of alcohol. Some features of this shift are associated with escalation of drinking. Our findings point to the importance of delineating multiple aspects of alcohol information processing for extending cognitive models of alcohol use to the early stages of drinking. PMID:24841180
Colder, Craig R; O'Connor, Roisin M; Read, Jennifer P; Eiden, Rina D; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawk, Larry W; Wieczorek, William F
This longitudinal study provided a comprehensive examination of age-related changes in alcohol outcome expectancies, subjective evaluation of alcohol outcomes, and automatic alcohol associations in early adolescence. A community sample (52% female, 75% White/non-Hispanic) was assessed annually for 3 years (mean age at the first assessment = 11.6 years). Results from growth modeling suggested that perceived likelihood of positive outcomes increased and that subjective evaluations of these outcomes were more positive with age. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes declined with age. Automatic alcohol associations were assessed with an Implicit Association Task (IAT), and were predominantly negative, but these negative associations weakened with age. High initial levels of perceived likelihood of positive outcomes at age 11 were associated with escalation of drinking. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes was associated with low risk for drinking at age 11, but not with changes in drinking. Increases in positive evaluations of positive outcomes were associated with increases in alcohol use. Overall, findings suggest that at age 11, youth maintain largely negative attitudes and perceptions about alcohol, but with the transition into adolescence, there is a shift toward a more neutral or ambivalent view of alcohol. Some features of this shift are associated with escalation of drinking. Our findings point to the importance of delineating multiple aspects of alcohol information processing for extending cognitive models of alcohol use to the early stages of drinking.
Busscher, Iris; Kingma, Idsart; de Bruin, Rob; Wapstra, Frits Hein; Verkerke, Gijsvertus J; Veldhuizen, Albert G
Predicting the peak growth velocity in an individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is essential or determining the prognosis of the disorder and timing of the (surgical) treatment. Until the present time, no accurate method has been found to predict the timing and magnitude of the pubertal growth spurt in the individual child. A mathematical model was developed in which the partial individual growth velocity curve was linked to the generic growth velocity curve. The generic curve was shifted and stretched or shrunk, both along the age axis and the height velocity axis. The individual age and magnitude of the PGV were obtained from the new predicted complete growth velocity curve. Predictions were made using 2, 1.5, 1 and 0.5 years of the available longitudinal data of the individual child, starting at different ages. The predicted values of 210 boys and 162 girls were compared to the child's own original values of the PGV. The individual differences were compared to differences obtained when using the generic growth velocity curve as a standard. Using 2 years of data as input for the model, all predictions of the age of the PGV in boys and girls were significantly better in comparison to using the generic values. Using only 0.5 years of data as input, the predictions with a starting age from 13 to 15.5 years in boys and from 9.5 to 14.5 years in girls were significantly better. Similar results were found for the predictions of the magnitude of the PGV. This model showed highly accurate results in predicting the individual age and magnitude of the PGV, which can be used in the treatment of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
Coldwell, Susan E.; Oswald, Teresa K.; Reed, Danielle R.
Sweet preference is higher in childhood than adulthood but the mechanism for this developmental shift is not known. The objective of this study was to assess perceptual, physiological and eating habit differences between children preferring solutions high in sugar (high preference) and children preferring solutions low in sugar (low preference). We tested 143 children (11- to 15-years old) using sip and spit methodology to assess their hedonic profile, detection threshold, and perceived intensity of sucrose. Their plasma concentration of several hormones, a biomarker of bone-growth, body size, puberty stage, and dietary habits were measured. Eighty-eight children were classified as high preference and 53 were classified as low preference based on their hedonic ratings to a series of sucrose solutions. A marker of bone growth measured in urine and plasma leptin adjusted for body weight were significantly lower in the low preference group. Children with high and low preference patterns did not differ in sensory aspects of sucrose perception, nor did they differ in age, body mass index percentile, or dietary restraint. The change in sugar preference from high to low during adolescence appears to be associated with the cessation of growth. PMID:19150454
Sleijpen, Marieke; Haagen, Joris; Mooren, Trudy; Kleber, Rolf J.
Objective The aim of this study was to explore perceived posttraumatic growth (PTG) and its associations with potentially traumatic events (PTEs), dispositional optimism, perceived social support, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and satisfaction with life (SWL) among adolescent refugees and asylum seekers. Method A cross-sectional design was employed including 111 refugees, aged 12–17, that were recruited from asylum seeker centres throughout the Netherlands. Measurements included the revised Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children, Children's Impact of Event Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, The Life Orientation Test, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Results Participants reported mean PTG scores (20.2) indicating an average response of some perceived change, while reporting high levels of PTSD symptoms (30.6). PTG and PTSD symptoms were not related with each other (r=0.07, p=0.50). PTG was positively associated with dispositional optimism (r=0.41, p<0.01) and social support (r=0.43, p<0.01). A hierarchical regression analysis demonstrated that dispositional optimism (β=0.33; p<0.05) and social support (β=0.27; p<0.05) positively predicted PTG, explaining 22% of the PTG variance above demographic variables and PTEs. PTG was also positively related with SWL (r=0.37, p<0.01). Conclusions Perceived PTG and PTSD symptoms appear to be independent constructs, which co-occur in adolescent refugees and asylum seekers. The relationship between PTG and mental health remains inconclusive; PTG was positively related to SWL and not associated with PTSD symptoms. Longitudinal research is required to determine causality between PTG and mental health in this refugee population confronted with many traumatic experiences and challenging migration tasks. PMID:26886487
Rose, Samuel P.; Fischer, Kurt W.
Whereas prior conceptions treated cognitive development as a sequence of stages, current research points to recurring growth cycles between birth and age 30. Each recurrence produces a new capacity for thinking and learning grounded in an expanded, reorganized neural network. Cognitive spurts are evident only under optimal support conditions.…
Wallace, Jacqueline M; Matsuzaki, Masatoshi; Milne, John; Aitken, Raymond
In the overnourished adolescent sheep, maternal tissue synthesis is promoted at the expense of placental growth and leads to a major decrease in lamb birth weight at term. Maternal growth hormone (GH) concentrations are attenuated in these pregnancies, and it was recently demonstrated that exogenous GH administration throughout the period of placental proliferation stimulates uteroplacental and fetal development by Day 81 of gestation. The present study aimed to determine whether these effects persist to term and to establish whether GH affects fetal growth and body composition by increasing placental size or by altering maternal metabolism. Adolescent recipient ewes were implanted with singleton embryos on Day 4 postestrus. Three groups of ewes offered a high dietary intake were injected twice daily with recombinant bovine GH from Days 35 to 65 of gestation (high intake plus early GH) or from Days 95 to 125 of gestation (high intake plus late GH) or remained untreated (high intake only). A fourth moderate-intake group acted as optimally nourished controls. Pregnancies were terminated at Day 130 of gestation (6 per group) or were allowed to progress to term (8-10 per group). GH administration elevated maternal plasma concentrations of GH, insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids during the defined treatment windows, while urea concentrations were decreased. At Day 130, GH treatment had reduced the maternal adiposity score, percentage of fat in the carcass, and internal fat depots and leptin concentrations, predominantly in the high-intake plus late GH group. Placental weight was lower in high-intake vs. control dams but independent of GH treatment. In contrast, fetal weight was elevated by late GH treatment, and these fetuses had higher relative carcass fat content, perirenal fat mass, and liver glycogen concentrations than all other groups. Expression of leptin mRNA in fetal perirenal fat and fetal plasma leptin concentrations were not significantly altered
Orden, Alicia B; Torres, María F; Castro, Luis; Cesani, María F; Luis, María A; Quintero, Fabián A; Oyhenart, Evelia E
The aim of this study was to assess the physical growth of schoolchildren from Argentina by comparison with the CDC/NCHS and Argentinean growth references (AGR), to contribute to the discussion about the use of local or international references for the assessment of growth in developing countries. Weight and height were measured in 3,411 schoolchildren aged 5-14 years. Data were log-transformed and compared with both references by paired samples t-test (CI = 0.95; alpha = 0.005). The boys' weights were greater than CDC/NCHS (up to 10, and at 14 years old) and the national reference at all ages (P < 0.005). The girls also were heavier than CDC/NCHS (at 7 and 12 years old, P < 0.005) and AGR, except at age 11 and 14 years. In boys, height was lower than CDC/NCHS at 9 and 14 years of age, and higher than AGR at all ages (P < 0.005). The girls were also shorter than CDC/NCHS at 7, 13, and 14 years old (P < 0.005), and-except at age 14-taller than AGR. The weight was higher than both of the references. Height showed a clear dissociation from the national reference and minor differences from CDC/NCHS. Nevertheless, around puberty, the children's height fell short of CDC/NCHS, especially the girls, whose values approached those of their Argentinean peers. This divergence could be associated with cohort effects or population variations in adolescent growth spurt. The use of a single growth reference for preadolescent may be appropriate. The height decrease in adolescents suggests the usefulness of local standards at this period.
Background There is strong evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and restriction of intrauterine growth, but the effects of this exposure on postnatal linear growth are not well defined. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the role of tobacco smoke exposure also after pregnancy on linear growth until adolescence. In this study we investigated the effect of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on linear growth from birth to adolescence. Methods We evaluated a cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 in Cuiabá, Brazil, who attended primary health clinics for vaccination between the years 1999 and 2000 (at preschool age) and followed-up after approximately ten years. Individuals were located in public and private schools throughout the country using the national school census. Height/length was measured, and length at birth was collected at maternity departments. Stature in childhood and adolescence was assessed using the height-for-age index sex-specific expressed as z-score from curves published by the World Health Organization. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking, during pregnancy and preschool age, and height of children assessed at birth, preschool and school age, adjusted for age of the children. Results We evaluated 2405 children in 1999–2000, length at birth was obtained from 2394 (99.5%), and 1716 at follow-up (71.4% of baseline), 50.7% of the adolescents were male. The z-score of height-for-age was lower among adolescents exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and childhood (p < 0.01). Adjusting for age, sex, maternal height, maternal schooling, socioeconomic position at preschool age, and breastfeeding, children exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and preschool age showed persistent lower height-for-age since birth to adolescence (coefficient: −0.32, p < 0.001) compared to non
Conrod, Patricia J.; Castellanos, Natalie; Mackie, Clare
Background: Personality factors are implicated in the vulnerability to adolescent alcohol misuse. This study examined whether providing personality-targeted interventions in early adolescence can delay drinking and binge drinking in high-risk youth. Methods: A randomised control trial was carried out with 368 adolescents recruited from years 9 and…
Kort-Butler, Lisa A.; Hagewen, Kellie J.
Research on adolescent self-esteem indicates that adolescence is a time in which individuals experience important changes in their physical, cognitive, and social identities. Prior research suggests that there is a positive relationship between an adolescent's participation in structured extracurricular activities and well-being in a variety of…
Schlotz, Wolff; Godfrey, Keith M.; Phillips, David I.
Objective Individual differences in the temperamental dimension of effortful control are constitutionally based and have been associated with an adverse prenatal developmental environment, with structural brain alterations presenting a potential mechanism. We investigated this hypothesis for anatomically defined brain regions implicated in cognitive and inhibitory motor control. Methods Twenty-seven 15–16 year old participants with low, medium, or high fetal growth were selected from a longitudinal birth cohort to maximize variation and represent the full normal spectrum of fetal growth. Outcome measures were parent ratings of attention and inhibitory control, thickness and surface area of the orbitofrontal cortex (lateral (LOFC) and medial (MOFC)) and right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG), and volumetric measures of the striatum and amygdala. Results Lower birth weight was associated with lower inhibitory control, smaller surface area of LOFC, MOFC and rIFG, lower caudate volume, and thicker MOFC. A mediation model found a significant indirect effect of birth weight on inhibitory control via caudate volume. Conclusions Our findings support a neuroanatomical mechanism underlying potential long-term consequences of an adverse fetal developmental environment for behavioral inhibitory control in adolescence and have implications for understanding putative prenatal developmental origins of externalizing behavioral problems and self-control. PMID:24802625
Lengua, Liliana J
The author examined relations among demographic risk (income, maternal education, single-parent status), growth in temperament (fear, irritability, effortful control), and parenting (rejection, inconsistent discipline) across 3 years and the prediction of children's adjustment problems in a community sample (N=190; ages 8-12 years at Time 1). Family income was related to higher initial levels of fear, irritability, rejection, and inconsistency and lower effortful control but was not related to changes in these variables. Higher initial rejection predicted increases in child fear and irritability. Higher initial fear predicted decreases in rejection and inconsistency. Higher initial irritability predicted increases in inconsistency, and higher initial effortful control predicted decreases in rejection. When growth of parenting and temperament were considered simultaneously, increases in effortful control and decreases in fear and irritability predicted lower Time 3 internalizing and externalizing problems. Increases in rejection and inconsistent discipline predicted higher Time 3 externalizing, although sometimes the effect appeared to be indirect through temperament. The findings suggest that temperament and parenting predict changes in each other and predict adjustment during the transition to adolescence.
von Stumm, Sophie; Plomin, Robert
Low socioeconomic status (SES) children perform on average worse on intelligence tests than children from higher SES backgrounds, but the developmental relationship between intelligence and SES has not been adequately investigated. Here, we use latent growth curve (LGC) models to assess associations between SES and individual differences in the intelligence starting point (intercept) and in the rate and direction of change in scores (slope and quadratic term) from infancy through adolescence in 14,853 children from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), assessed 9 times on IQ between the ages of 2 and 16 years. SES was significantly associated with intelligence growth factors: higher SES was related both to a higher starting point in infancy and to greater gains in intelligence over time. Specifically, children from low SES families scored on average 6 IQ points lower at age 2 than children from high SES backgrounds; by age 16, this difference had almost tripled. Although these key results did not vary across girls and boys, we observed gender differences in the development of intelligence in early childhood. Overall, SES was shown to be associated with individual differences in intercepts as well as slopes of intelligence. However, this finding does not warrant causal interpretations of the relationship between SES and the development of intelligence.
Wasilewska, Anna; Zoch-Zwierz, Walentyna; Taranta-Janusz, Katarzyna
The aim of the study was to assess urinary transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF beta1) level in children and adolescents with congenital solitary kidney (CSK), depending on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and compensatory overgrowth of the kidney. The study group (I) consisted of 65 children and young adults, 0.5-22 years of age (median 10.0 years) with CSK and no other urinary defects. The control group (C) contained 44 healthy children and adolescents, 0.25-21 years old (median 10.3 years). We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the urinary level of TGF beta1, the Jaffe method to assess creatinine concentration, and the Schwartz formula to estimate GFR. Kidney length was measured while the patient was in a supine position, and overgrowth (O%) was calculated with reference to the charts. Urinary TGF beta1 level in CSK patients was more than twice as high as that in controls (P < 0.05). Also, eGFR in patients with CSK exceeded the values in the control group (P < 0.01). Compensatory overgrowth of the solitary kidney was found (median 19.44%). Urinary TGF beta1 concentration was positively correlated with eGFR (r = 0.247, P < 0.05), uric acid concentration (r = 0.333, P < 0.01), and percentage of overgrowth (r = 0.338, P < 0.01) and body mass index (BMI) centile (r = 0.274, P < 0.05). We concluded that, although proteinuria and progressive renal insufficiency is not observed in patients with CSK during childhood, the renal haemodynamic changes are present and may be a risk factor for impairment of renal function and hypertension in future life.
Spears, Gwendolyn V.; Stein, Judith A.; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah
We examine changes among adolescent girls in substance use during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Three separate latent growth curve analyses assessed the impact of psychosocial, behavioral, and sociodemographic factors on resumption of or change in use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. The Vulnerable Populations Model for Research and Clinical Practice (Flaskerud & Winslow, 1998) provided the theoretical foundation for this study. This is a secondary analysis of data from a sample of 305 ethnic minority females (245 Latina, 60 African-American), aged 13–18 years, who were pregnant at baseline and were participating in an HIV prevention study conducted in inner-city alternative schools in Los Angeles County. Data collected at four time points captured changes in substance use from pregnancy through the postpartum period. Baseline predictors included ethnicity/race, partner substance use, childhood abuse history, religiosity, acculturation, depressive symptoms, length of gestation at baseline, and prior substance use. Common predictors of greater resumption and/or greater level of use included greater history of use prior to pregnancy, partner substance use, childhood abuse, and a longer time since childbirth. African Americans were more likely to be smoking at baseline when they were still pregnant and to use marijuana postpartum; Latinas were more likely to use alcohol over the course of pregnancy and postpartum. Other variables exerted an influence on specific substances. For instance, religiosity impacted cigarette and alcohol use. Findings may assist prenatal care providers to identify and counsel pregnant adolescents at risk for perinatal substance use and to prevent resumption or initiation of substance use following childbirth. PMID:20565158
HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.; MYER, GREGORY D.; KIEFER, ADAM W.; FORD, KEVIN R.
ABSTRACT Purpose Knee abduction moment (KAM) is an injury risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury that shows divergent incidence between males and females during adolescence. The objective of this study was to determine the relation between skeletal growth and increased KAM. The hypotheses tested were that females would demonstrate peak KAM during landing at peak height velocity (PHV) and that they would diverge from males at PHV. Methods The subject pool consisted of 674 females and 218 males (1387 female and 376 male assessments) who participated in a preseason testing session before their basketball or soccer seasons. They were tested longitudinally for multiple years (2 ± 1 yr) to capture maturation via estimates of percent (%) adult stature and biomechanical analysis during a drop vertical jump maneuver. Data were analyzed using three-dimensional motion analysis that used a 37 retroreflective marker body model and inverse dynamics to calculate segment joint centers and peak KAM. Results Mature females, as defined as 92% adult stature or greater, displayed increased peak KAM and knee abduction angles relative to growing (≤91% adult stature) adolescent females (P < 0.001). A significant sex–maturation (% adult stature) interaction (P < 0.001) in peak KAM was observed. Post hoc analyses showed consistent sex differences in groups greater than or equal to, but not less than, 92% adult stature, which is approximately at PHV. Hence, sex differences in peak KAM and PHV coincide. Conclusions Increases in peak KAM during and after PHV seem to coincide with increased risk of ACL injury in females. KAM peaked in females at PHV. Tracking longitudinal increases in peak KAM may be useful for the identification of females at increased risk of ACL injury. PMID:25970663
Visser – van Balen, Hanneke; Geenen, Rinie; Kamp, Gerdine A; Huisman, Jaap; Wit, Jan M; Sinnema, Gerben
Background Growth-enhancing hormone treatment is considered a possible intervention in short but otherwise healthy adolescents. Although height gain is an obvious measure for evaluating hormone treatment, this may not be the ultimate goal for the person, but rather a means to reach other goals such as the amelioration of current height-related psychosocial problems or the enhancement of future prospects in life and society. The aim of our study was to clarify the motives of adolescents and their parents when choosing to participate in a growth-enhancing trial combining growth hormone and puberty-delaying hormone treatment. Methods Participants were early pubertal adolescents (25 girls, 13 boys) aged from 11 to 13 years (mean age 11.5 years) with a height standard deviation score (SDS) ranging from -1.03 to -3.43. All had been classified as idiopathic short stature or persistent short stature born small for the gestational age (intrauterine growth retardation) on the basis of a height SDS below -2, or had a height SDS between -1 and -2 and a predicted adult height SDS below -2. The adolescents and their parents completed questionnaires and a structured interview on the presence of height-related stressors, parental worries about their child's behavior and future prospects, problems in psychosocial functioning, and treatment expectations. Questionnaire scores were compared to norms of the general Dutch population. Results The adolescents reported normal psychosocial functioning and highly positive expectations of the treatment in terms of height gain, whereas the parents reported that their children encountered some behavioral problems (being anxious/depressed, and social and attention problems) and height-related stressors (being teased and juvenilized). About 40% of the parents were worried about their children's future prospects for finding a spouse or job. The motives of the adolescents and their parents exhibited rather different profiles. The most prevalent
Kotwicki, Tomasz; Chowanska, Joanna; Kinel, Edyta; Czaprowski, Dariusz; Tomaszewski, Marek; Janusz, Piotr
Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the growing spine, affecting 2%–3% of adolescents. Although benign in the majority of patients, the natural course of the disease may result in significant disturbance of body morphology, reduced thoracic volume, impaired respiration, increased rates of back pain, and serious esthetic concerns. Risk of deterioration is highest during the pubertal growth spurt and increases the risk of pathologic spinal curvature, increasing angular value, trunk imbalance, and thoracic deformity. Early clinical detection of scoliosis relies on careful examination of trunk shape and is subject to screening programs in some regions. Treatment options are physiotherapy, corrective bracing, or surgery for mild, moderate, or severe scoliosis, respectively, with both the actual degree of deformity and prognosis being taken into account. Physiotherapy used in mild idiopathic scoliosis comprises general training of the trunk musculature and physical capacity, while specific physiotherapeutic techniques aim to address the spinal curvature itself, attempting to achieve self-correction with active trunk movements developed in a three-dimensional space by an instructed adolescent under visual and proprioceptive control. Moderate but progressive idiopathic scoliosis in skeletally immature adolescents can be successfully halted using a corrective brace which has to be worn full time for several months or until skeletal maturity, and is able to prevent more severe deformity and avoid the need for surgical treatment. Surgery is the treatment of choice for severe idiopathic scoliosis which is rapidly progressive, with early onset, late diagnosis, and neglected or failed conservative treatment. The psychologic impact of idiopathic scoliosis, a chronic disease occurring in the psychologically fragile period of adolescence, is important because of its body distorting character and the onerous treatment required, either conservative or surgical
Carroll, P V; Drake, W M; Maher, K T; Metcalfe, K; Shaw, N J; Dunger, D B; Cheetham, T D; Camacho-Hübner, C; Savage, M O; Monson, J P
Although GH replacement improves the features of GH deficiency (GHD) in adults, it has yet to be established whether cessation of GH at completion of childhood growth results in adverse consequences for the adolescent with GHD. Effects of continuation or cessation of GH on body composition, insulin sensitivity, and lipid levels were studied in 24 adolescents (13 males, 11 females, aged 17.0 +/- 0.3, yr, mean +/- se, puberty stage 4 or 5) in whom height velocity was less than 2 cm/yr. Provocative testing confirmed severe GHD [peak GH < 9 mU/liter (3 microg/liter)] in all cases and was followed by a lead-in period of 3 months during which the pediatric dose of GH continued unchanged. Baseline investigations were then performed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (body composition), lipid measurements, and assessment of insulin sensitivity by both homeostasis model assessment and a short insulin tolerance test. Twelve patients remained on GH (0.35 U/kg.wk), and 12 patients ceased GH treatment. The groups were followed up in parallel with repeat observations made after 6 and 12 months. No endocrine differences were evident between the groups at baseline. GH cessation resulted in a reduction of serum IGF-I Z score [-1.62 +/- 0.29, baseline vs. -2.52 +/- 0.12, 6 months (P < 0.05) vs. -2.52 +/- 0.10, 12 months (P < 0.01)] but values remained unchanged in those continuing GH replacement. Lean body mass increased by 2.5 +/- 0.5 kg ( approximately 6%) over 12 months in those receiving GH but was unchanged after GH discontinuation. Cessation of GH resulted in increased insulin sensitivity [short insulin tolerance test, 153 +/- 22 micromol/liter.min, baseline vs. 187 +/- 20, 6 months (P < 0.05) vs. 204 +/- 14, 12 months (P = 0.05)], but no significant change was seen during 12 months of GH continuation. Lipid levels remained unaltered in both groups. Continuation of GH at completion of linear growth resulted in ongoing accrual of lean body mass (LBM), whereas skeletal
Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A; Nedelec, Joseph L; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, J C
An extensive line of research has identified delinquent peer association as a salient environmental risk factor for delinquency, especially during adolescence. While previous research has found moderate-to-strong associations between exposure to delinquent peers and a variety of delinquent behaviors, comparatively less scholarship has focused on the genetic architecture of this association over the course of adolescence. Using a subsample of kinship pairs (N = 2379; 52% female) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child and Young Adult Supplement (CNLSY), the present study examined the extent to which correlated individual differences in starting levels and developmental growth in delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency were explained by additive genetic and environmental influences. Results from a series of biometric growth models revealed that 37% of the variance in correlated growth between delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency was explained by additive genetic effects, while nonshared environmental effects accounted for the remaining 63% of the variance. Implications of these findings for interpreting the nexus between peer effects and adolescent delinquency are discussed.
Svefors, Pernilla; Rahman, Anisur; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Lindström, Emma; Persson, Lars Åke; Ekholm Selling, Katarina
Background Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years. Methods and Findings Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054) was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2) at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD) to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50%) decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001) and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm) (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06–4.20), mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.81) or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37–2.77). Conclusions Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth. PMID:26934484
Bahchachi, N; Dahel-Mekhancha, C C; Rolland-Cachera, M F; Badis, N; Roelants, M; Hauspie, R; Nezzal, L
Measurements of height and weight provide important information on growth and development, puberty, and nutritional status in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to develop contemporary reference growth centiles for Algerian children and adolescents (6-18 years of age). A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted in government schools on 7772 healthy schoolchildren (45.1% boys and 54.9% girls) aged 6-18 years in Constantine (eastern Algeria) in 2008. Height and weight were measured with portable stadiometers and calibrated scales, respectively. Smooth reference curves of height and weight were estimated with the LMS method. These height and weight curves are presented together with local data from Arab countries and with the growth references of France, Belgium (Flanders), and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007. In girls, median height and weight increased until 16 and 17 years of age, respectively, whereas in boys, they increased through age 18 years. Between ages 11 and 13 years (puberty), girls were taller and heavier than boys. After puberty, boys became taller than girls, by up to 13 cm by the age of 18 years. Median height and weight of Algerian boys and girls were generally intermediate between those observed in other Arab countries. They were higher than the French reference values up to the age of 13 years and lower than Belgian and WHO reference values at all ages. The present study provides Algerian height- and weight-for-age growth charts, which should be recommended as a national reference for monitoring growth and development in children and adolescents.
Molero-Conejo, Emperatriz; Morales, Luz Marina; Fernández, Virginia; Raleigh, Xiomara; Casanova, Angel; Connell, Lissette; Gómnez, Maria Esther; Ryder, Elena; Campos, Gilberto
Leptin, insulin and growth hormone levels seem to regulate body composition, fat distribution and fat mass. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among insulin, leptin and growth hormone levels in a group of adolescents. Ninety five adolescents (31 boys and 64 girls) between 13 and 18 y. of age were studied. A medical and nutritional history was made which included body mass index (BMI) and subcutaneous skinfolds measurements. Basal levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, leptin, insulin and growth hormone were determined. The leptin and insulin levels were positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and obesity index (OBI). Insulin, leptin and obesity markers were negatively associated with growth hormone level. Fifty two percent of the adolescents with BMI = 21.09 kg/m2 were considered metabolically obese because they had elevated levels of insulin (18.68 +/- 1.52 vs. 10.08 +/- 0.38 microU/ml), HOMA IR (3.34 +/- 0.24 vs. 1.76 +/- 0.07), leptin (16.30 +/- 1.24 vs. 8.11 +/- 1.32 ng./dl) and triglycerides (78.56 +/- 4.38 vs. 64.39 +/- 5.48 mg/dl) and lower levels of HDL-C (39.09 +/- 1.27 vs. 43.30 +/- 2.38 mg/dl), compared with normal group. The same alterations were observed in the obese group, in which significative decrease in growth hormone level was added. We conclude that hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia and low growth hormone levels, may be established as risk factors related to obesity markers, lipid alterations and insulin resistance that can lead to an early development of Type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Swartout, Kevin M; Swartout, Ashlyn G; Brennan, Carolyn L; White, Jacquelyn W
Approximately 25% of male college students report engaging in some form of sexual coercion by the end of their fourth year of college. White and Smith (2004) found that negative childhood experiences-childhood sexual abuse, childhood physical abuse, and witnessing domestic violence-predicted sexual aggression perpetrated before college, but not during the subsequent college years, a puzzling finding in view of the reasonably consistent rates of sexual aggression from adolescence to the first 2 years of college. The current study takes a person-centered approach to sexual aggression in an attempt to resolve this discrepancy. We examined the possibility of cohesive subgroups of men in terms of their frequency of sexual aggression across the pre-college and college years. A series of latent class growth models were fit to an existing longitudinal dataset of sexual experiences collected across four time points-pre-college through year 3 of college. A four-trajectory model fit the data well, exhibiting significantly better fit than a three-trajectory model. The four trajectories are interpreted as men who perpetrate sexual aggression at (1) low (71.5% of the sample), (2) moderate (21.2%), (3) decreasing (4.2%), and (4) increasing (3.1%) frequencies across time. Negative childhood experiences predicted membership of the decreasing trajectory, relative to the low trajectory, but did not predict membership of the increasing trajectory, explaining the discrepancy uncovered by White and Smith. Implications for primary prevention of sexual aggression are discussed.
dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Maia, José A. R.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha Q. F.; Daca, Timóteo; Madeira, Aspacia; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Prista, António
Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. Methods 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls), distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012), were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. Results Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p<0.05) across the three time points, where those from 2012 were the heaviest, but those in 1999 were the tallest, and for BMI the highest value was observed in 2012 (1992<2012, 1999<2012). Among girls, those from 1999 were the tallest (1992<1999, 1999>2012), and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999<2012). In general, similar patterns were observed when mean values were analyzed by age. A positive trend was observed for overweight and obesity prevalences, whereas a negative trend emerged for wasting, stunting-wasting (in boys), and normal-weight (in girls); no clear trend was evident for stunting. Conclusion Significant positive changes in growth and nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. PMID:25473837
Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Veena, Sargoor R.; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline H. D.
Background We aimed to determine how linear growth and fat and lean tissue gain during discrete age periods from birth to adolescence are related to adolescent cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive ability. Methods Adolescents born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy from an Indian birth cohort (N = 486, age 13.5 years) had detailed anthropometry and measurements of body fat (fat%), fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations, blood pressure and cognitive function. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and statistically independent measures (conditional SD scores) representing linear growth, and fat and lean tissue gain during birth-1, 1–2, 2–5, 5–9.5 and 9.5–13.5 years in 414 of the children with measurements at all these ages. Results Birth length and linear growth at all ages were positively associated with current height. Fat gain, particularly during 5–9.5 years was positively associated with fat% at 13.5 years (0.44 SD per SD [99.9% confidence interval: 0.29,0.58]). Greater fat gain during mid-late childhood was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (5–9.5 years: 0.23 SD per SD [0.07,0.40]) and HOMA-IR (5–9.5 years: 0.24 [0.08,0.40], 9.5–13.5 years: 0.22 [0.06,0.38]). Greater infant growth (up to age 2 years) in linear, fat or lean components was unrelated to cardiometabolic risk factors or cognitive function. Conclusion This study suggests that factors that increase linear, fat and lean growth in infancy have no adverse cardiometabolic effects in this population. Factors that increase fat gain in mid-late childhood may increase cardiometabolic risk, without any benefit to cognitive abilities. PMID:26575994
Scales, Peter C.
Designed to promote the creation of programs and policies that meet the needs of young adolescents, this report considers trends and forces affecting children between the ages of 10 and 15 and offers recommendations for drawing out adolescents' positive possibilities. Section 1 acknowledges trends that point to an increasing number of at-risk…
Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang
Three waves of panel data from 7,897 adolescents in the National Education Longitudinal Studies have been used to investigate whether a stabilized postdivorce family environment benefits adolescents' academic performance trajectories. The analyses indicate that compared with peers who grow up in stable postdivorce families, children of divorce who…
Cortes, Rebecca C.; Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Catalano, Richard F.
Maternal depression has been implicated in the development of adolescent substance use. Conceptualizing depression as a continuum, the aims of this study are to (a) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood and risk factors associated with adolescent substance use; (b) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood…
Lundequist, Aiko; Böhm, Birgitta; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Forssberg, Hans; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
Aim The aim of this study was to investigate long-term cognitive outcome in a cohort of 18-year-olds born preterm and previously assessed at the age of 5.5. Methods We tested 134 adolescents born preterm with a very low birthweight of <1500 g and 94 term-born controls with a comprehensive cognitive battery at 18 years of age. The cohort was subdivided into 73 extremely preterm, 42 very preterm and 19 moderately preterm infants with gestational ages of 23–27, 28–31 and 32–36 weeks, respectively. The moderately preterm group was dominated by adolescents born small for gestational age. Results Very preterm adolescents performed on a par with term-born controls. In contrast, extremely preterm adolescents displayed inferior results on all cognitive tests, more so if they had suffered neonatal complications. Moderately preterm adolescents scored lower than very preterm and full-term born adolescents, particularly on complex cognitive tasks. Conclusion Adolescents born at 28 weeks of gestation or later, with appropriate birthweight and no perinatal complications, functioned like term-born peers at 18 years of age. Extremely preterm birth per se posed a risk for long-term cognitive deficits, particularly executive deficits. Adolescents born moderately preterm but small for gestational age were at risk of general cognitive deficits. PMID:25394225
Wang, Shoufeng; Qiu, Yong; Ma, Zhaolong; Xia, Caiwei; Zhu, Feng; Zhu, Zezhang
The different expression of type X collagen and Runx2 between the convex and concave side of vertebral growth plate in scoliosis may help to improve our understanding of the role that growth plate tissue play in the development or progression of idiopathic scoliosis. In this investigation, there were significant differences of the total expression of type X collagen, Runx2 protein, and Runx2 mRNA between convex side and concave side growth plates of the apex vertebrae (p < 0.05). The total expression of type X collagen in the concave side growth plates of the lower end vertebrae was higher than that in the same side growth plates of apex (p < 0.05). The total expression of Runx2 in the concave side growth plates in the upper and lower end vertebrae were higher than that in the concave side growth plates of apex (p < 0.05). The expression of type X collagen, Runx2, and Runx2 mRNA, the cell density of type X collagen and Runx2 positive chondrocytes, and histological changes between convex side and concave side of the vertebral growth plate indicated that the vertebral growth plate was affected by mechanical forces, which was a secondary change and could contribute to progression of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Fraser, Ashley M; Dyer, W Justin; Yorgason, Jeremy B
The current study examined how parents' use of restrictive and active monitoring and deference changed over three years, and examined both adolescent and parent characteristics as predictors of initial levels of media monitoring, as well as change in media monitoring. Participants included 276 mother-child dyads (M age of child = 12.08, SD = .63, 50% female) taken from Time 2 of the Flourishing Families Project, 96% of whom had complete data for Time 4 (N = 266). Active monitoring was the most common approach at the first and second time points, while active monitoring and deference were equally common by the final time point. Latent growth curve analysis revealed that restrictive and active monitoring decreased over time, while deference increased. In addition, both adolescent and parent characteristics were predictive of initial levels of all three types of monitoring, and of change in restrictive monitoring. Discussion focuses on developmental implications of these findings.
Weybright, Elizabeth H; Caldwell, Linda L; Ram, Nilam; Smith, Edward A; Wegner, Lisa
Considerable heterogeneity exists in adolescent substance use development. To most effectively prevent use, distinct trajectories of use must be identified as well as differential associations with predictors of use, such as leisure experience. The current study used a person-centered approach to identify distinct substance use trajectories and how leisure is associated with trajectory classes. Data came from a larger efficacy trial of 2.249 South African high school students who reported substance use at any time across 8 waves. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify developmental trajectories of substance use and the influence of healthy leisure. Results identified three increasing and one stable substance use trajectory and subjective healthy leisure served to protect against use. This study is the first of its kind to focus on a sample of South African adolescents and serves to develop a richer understanding of substance use development and the role of healthy leisure.
Proffit, William R.; Phillips, Ceib; Turvey, Timothy A.
In mandibular deficient patients, mandibular growth is not expected after the adolescent growth spurt, so mandibular advancement surgery is often carried out at 13 years. To test if the long-term stability for younger patients is similar to that for adult patients, the authors compared cephalometric changes from 1 year postsurgery (when changes due to the surgery should be completed) to 5 year follow up. 32 patients who had early mandibular advancement with or without simultaneous maxillary surgery (aged up to 16 for girls and 18 for boys), and 52 patients with similar surgery at older ages were studied. Beyond 1 year postsurgery, the younger patients showed significantly greater change in the horizontal and vertical position of points B and pogonion, the horizontal (but not vertical) position of gonion, and mandibular plane angle. 50% of younger patients had 2–4 mm backward movement of Pg and another 25% had >4 mm. 15% of older patients had 2–4 mm change and none had >4 mm. Long-term changes in younger patients who had 2-jaw surgery were greater than for mandibular advancement only. Changes in younger groups were greater than for adult groups. Satisfaction with treatment and perception of problems were similar for both groups. PMID:20181460
Mills, Randall K.
Explores use of fiction in the classroom as a tool for enhancing the self-understanding of adolescents. Two novels by S.E. Hinton are used as examples. Discusses theoretical consideration as well as practical classroom activities. (Author)
Wallace, J M; Bourke, D A; Aitken, R P; Palmer, R M; Da Silva, P; Cruickshank, M A
The aim was to investigate the consequences of nutritionally-mediated placental growth restriction on fetal organ growth, conformation, body composition and endocrine status during late gestation. Embryos recovered from superovulated adult ewes inseminated by a single sire were transferred in singleton to the uterus of peripubertal adolescent recipients. Post-transfer, adolescent dams were offered a high (H) or moderate (M) level of a complete diet to promote rapid or moderate maternal growth rates, respectively (n=7 per group). After day 100 of gestation the feed intake of the M dams was adjusted weekly to maintain body condition score. Liveweight gain during the first 100 days of gestation was 301+/-24 and 90+/-4.6 g/day for the H and M groups, respectively. Maternal plasma concentrations of insulin, IGF-I and urea were significantly higher and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations significantly lower in H compared with M dams prior to slaughter on day 128 of gestation. At this stage of gestation, total placentome weight was 50 per cent lower in H compared with M groups (P< 0.001) and was associated with a 37 per cent reduction in fetal weight (P< 0.01). All variables of fetal conformation and absolute fetal organ weights, with the exception of the adrenal glands, were lower (P< 0. 05) in the fetuses from H intake dams. However, relative fetal organ weights expressed as g/kg fetal body weight, with the exception of the gut, were not influenced by maternal dietary intake. Furthermore, fetal weight but not maternal nutritional group were predictive of individual organ weight for all organs dissected. Together these results imply that growth restriction in the fetuses derived from H intake dams was largely symmetrical. Fetal plasma concentrations of insulin, IGF-I and glucose were attenuated (P< 0.05) in fetuses from H compared with M groups. The lower fetal body weight in the former group was associated with a reduction in absolute but not relative crude protein
Hasler, Carol C
It is wrong to believe that back pain only burdens adults: the yearly incidence during growth ranges from 10-20%, continuously increasing from childhood to adolescence. Rapid growth-related muscular dysbalance and insufficiency, poor physical condition in an increasingly sedentary adolescent community or - vice versa - high level sports activities, account for the most prevalent functional pain syndromes. In contrast to adults the correlation of radiographic findings with pain is high: the younger the patient, the higher the probability to establish a rare morphologic cause such as benign or malignant tumours, congenital malformations and infections. In children younger than 5 years old, the likelihood is more than 50%. The following red flags should lower the threshold for a quick in-depth analysis of the problem: Age of the patient <5 years, acute trauma, functional limitation for daily activities, irradiating pain, loss of weight, duration >4 weeks, history of tumour, exposition to tuberculosis, night pain and fever. High level sport equals a biomechanical field test which reveals the biologic individual response of the growing spine to the sports-related forces. Symptomatic or asymptomatic inhibitory or stimulatory growth disturbances like Scheuermann disease, scoliosis or fatigue fractures represent the most frequent pathomorphologies. They usually occur at the disk-growth plate compound: intraspongious disk herniation, diminuition of anterior growth with vertebral wedging and apophyseal ring fractures often occur when the biomechanical impacts exceed the mechanical resistance of the cartilaginous endplates. Spondylolysis is a benign condition which rarely becomes symptomatic and responds well to conservative measures. Associated slippage of L5 on S1 is frequent but rarely progresses. The pubertal spinal growth spurt is the main risk factor for further slippage, whereas sports activity - even at a high level - is not. Therefore, the athlete should only be
Zebrack, Brad; Kwak, Minyoung; Salsman, John; Cousino, Melissa; Meeske, Kathleen; Aguilar, Christine; Embry, Leanne; Block, Rebecca; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Cole, Steve
Objective Theories of posttraumatic growth suggest that some degree of distress is necessary to stimulate growth; yet investigations of the relationship between stress and growth following trauma are mixed. This study aims to understand the relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. Method 165 AYA patients aged 14–39 years at diagnosis completed standardized measures of posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth at 12 months following diagnosis. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing and regression were used to examine linear and curvilinear relationship between posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth. Results No significant relationships between overall posttraumatic stress severity and posttraumatic growth were observed at 12-month follow-up. However, curvilinear relationships between re-experiencing (a posttraumatic stress symptom) and two of five posttraumatic growth indicators (New possibilities, Personal strengths) were observed. Conclusion Findings suggest that re-experiencing is associated with some aspects of posttraumatic growth but not others. Although re-experiencing is considered a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder, it also may represent a cognitive process necessary to achieve personal growth for AYAs. Findings call into question the supposed psychopathological nature of re-experiencing and suggest that re-experiencing, as a cognitive process, may be psychologically adaptive. Opportunities to engage family, friends, cancer survivors, or health care professionals in frank discussions about fears, worries, or concerns may help AYAs re-experiencing cancer in a way that enhances their understanding of what happened to them and contributes to positive adaptation to life after cancer. PMID:24916740
Georgiadis, Andreas; Benny, Liza; Duc, Le Thuc; Galab, Sheikh; Reddy, Prudhvikar; Woldehanna, Tassew
Child chronic undernutrition, as measured by stunting, is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries and is among the major threats to child development. While stunting and its implications for cognitive development have been considered irreversible beyond early childhood there is a lack of consensus in the literature on this, as there is some evidence of recovery from stunting and that this recovery may be associated with improvements in cognition. Less is known however, about the drivers of growth recovery and the aspects of recovery linked to cognitive development. In this paper we investigate the factors associated with growth recovery and faltering through age 12 years and the implications of the incidence, timing, and persistence of post-infancy recovery from stunting for cognitive development using longitudinal data from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. We find that the factors most systematically associated with accelerated growth both before and after early childhood and across countries include mother's height, household living standards and shocks, community wages, food prices, and garbage collection. Our results suggest that post-infancy recovery from stunting is more likely to be systematically associated with higher achievement scores across countries when it is persistent and that associations between growth trajectories and cognitive achievement in middle childhood do not persist through early adolescence across countries. Overall, our findings indicate that growth after early childhood is responsive to changes in the household and community environments and that growth promotion after early childhood may yield improvements in child cognitive development.
Schunior, A.; Zengel, A.E.; Mullenix, P.J.; Tarbell, N.J.; Howes, A.; Tassinari, M.S. )
Many long term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia have short stature, as well as craniofacial and dental abnormalities, as side effects of central nervous system prophylactic therapy. An animal model is presented to assess these adverse effects on growth. Cranial irradiation (1000 cGy) with and without prednisolone (18 mg/kg i.p.) and methotrexate (2 mg/kg i.p.) was administered to 17- and 18-day-old Sprague-Dawley male and female rats. Animals were weighed 3 times/week. Final body weight and body length were measured at 150 days of age. Femur length and craniofacial dimensions were measured directly from the bones, using calipers. For all exposed groups there was a permanent suppression of weight gain with no catch-up growth or normal adolescent growth spurt. Body length was reduced for all treated groups, as were the ratios of body weight to body length and cranial length to body length. Animals subjected to cranial irradiation exhibited microcephaly, whereas those who received a combination of radiation and chemotherapy demonstrated altered craniofacial proportions in addition to microcephaly. Changes in growth patterns and skeletal proportions exhibited sexually dimorphic characteristics. The results indicate that cranial irradiation is a major factor in the growth failure in exposed rats, but chemotherapeutic agents contribute significantly to the outcome of growth and craniofacial dimensions.
Ganella, Despina E; Allen, Nicholas B; Simmons, Julian G; Schwartz, Orli; Kim, Jee Hyun; Sheeber, Lisa; Whittle, Sarah
The pituitary gland is integral in mediating the stress-response via its role in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Pituitary gland volume (PGV) is altered in stress-related psychopathology, and one study to date has shown stress to be associated with age-related PGV change during adolescence. The current study investigated the effects of a number of different types of early life (i.e., childhood and adolescent) stress (including childhood maltreatment, stressful life events, and maternal affective behavior) on PGV development from mid- to late adolescence using a longitudinal design. The influence of PGV development on depressive and anxiety symptoms was also investigated. Ninety one (49 male) adolescents took part in mother-child dyadic interaction tasks when they were approximately 12 years old, reported on childhood maltreatment and stressful life events when they were approximately 15 years old, and underwent two waves of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, when they were approximately 16 and 19 years old. Results revealed that childhood maltreatment predicted accelerated PGV development in females, and maternal dysphoric behavior predicted accelerated PGV development in the whole sample. PGV development was not associated with depressive or anxiety symptoms. These results suggest an effect of early life stress on altered HPA axis function across mid- to late adolescence. Further research is required to assess functional implications and whether these changes might be associated with risk for subsequent psychopathology.
Joslowski, Gesa; Remer, Thomas; Assmann, Karen E; Krupp, Danika; Cheng, Guo; Garnett, Sarah P; Kroke, Anja; Wudy, Stefan A; Günther, Anke L B; Buyken, Anette E
Recent studies provide evidence that insulin-like-growth-factor I (IGF-I) and its binding proteins (IGFBP) IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 are related to the risk of several common cancers. It remains to be clarified whether their concentrations can be programmed by protein intake from different sources during growth. This study addressed the hypothesis that animal protein intakes during infancy, mid-childhood, and adolescence differ in their relevance for the growth-hormone (GH)-IGF-I axis in young adulthood. Data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study participants with at least 2 plausible 3-d weighed dietary records during adolescence (age: girls, 9-14 y; boys, 10-15 y; n = 213), around the adiposity rebound (age 4-6 y; n = 179) or early life (age 0.5-2 y; n = 130), and one blood sample in young adulthood were included in the study. Mean serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were compared between tertiles of habitual animal protein intake using multivariable regression analysis. Habitually higher animal protein intakes in females during puberty were related to higher IGF-I (P-trend = 0.005) and IGFBP-3 (P-trend = 0.01) and lower IGFBP-2 (P-trend = 0.04), but not to IGFBP-1 in young adulthood. In turn, IGF-I concentrations in young adulthood were inversely related to animal protein intakes in early life among males only (P-trend = 0.03), but not to animal protein intake around adiposity rebound (P-trend > 0.5). Our data suggest that, among females, a habitually higher animal protein intake during puberty may precipitate an upregulation of the GH-IGF-I axis, which is still discernible in young adulthood. By contrast, among males, higher animal protein intakes in early life may exert a long-term programming of the GH-IGF-I axis.
While “outside of society” for much of the last sixty years, adolescents have attracted attention in recent times because of perceptions of their anti-social and, in some cases, violent behaviour. Teenagers face many challenges on their journey to adulthood; growth spurts, hormone developments and changes in the structure of the brain. These biological challenges have been affected since around 1990 by the impact of technology and the subsequent cultural changes. Activities, like the technology-driven, socially-networked pastime, Neknomination, amongst others, meet basic drives that gym-based activities do not. Adults are increasingly concerned about unhealthy patterns of behaviour that suggest that this coming generation of adults will not live as long as their parents, causing misery and putting additional economic pressures on families and society if the expected standards of living and health are to be maintained. The pressures facing teenagers are many, but a concerted effort by adults to change their attitudes towards children and young people to help rather than instruct may assist with meeting their needs and those of society. PMID:27417483
White matter occupies almost half of the human brain. It contains axons connecting spatially segregated modules and, as such, it is essential for the smooth flow of information in functional networks. Structural maturation of white matter continues during adolescence, as reflected in age-related changes in its volume, as well as in its…
Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Randall, Brandy A.; Roesch, Scott C.
The present study was designed to investigate stability and changes in prosocial behavior and the parent and peer correlates of prosocial behavior in rural adolescents. Participants were from a rural, low SES community in the Eastern United States. The participants were in 7th, 8th, and 9th grades at Time 1 and 10th, 11th, and 12th grades at Time…
Cleverley, Kristin; Bennett, Kathryn; Duku, Eric
Despite the fact that psychosocial and functional impairment has long been acknowledged as an important aspect of psychiatric diagnosis and treatment, relatively little is known about the longitudinal relationship between psychiatric symptoms and functional impairment. This is particularly true in childhood and adolescence. Understanding how…
Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Julián-Almárcegui, Cristina; González-Gross, Marcela; Mouratidou, Theodora; Börnhorst, Claudia; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Kersting, Mathilde; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Gottrand, Frederic; Molnár, Dénes; Hallström, Lena; Dallongeville, Jean; Plada, Maria; Roccaldo, Romana; Widhalm, Kurt; Moreno, Luis A; Manios, Yannis; De Henauw, Stefaan; Leclercq, Catherine; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Lioret, Sandrine; Gutin, Bernard; Huybrechts, Inge
This study examined the correlates of dietary energy under-reporting (UR) and over-reporting (OV) in European adolescents. Two self-administered computerised 24-h dietary recalls and physical activity data using accelerometry were collected from 1512 adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years from eight European countries. Objective measurements of height and weight were obtained. BMI was categorised according to Cole/International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-off points. Diet-related attitudes were assessed via self-administered questionnaires. Reported energy intake (EI) was compared with predicted total energy expenditure to identify UR and OV using individual physical activity objective measures. Associations between misreporting and covariates were examined by multilevel logistic regression analyses. Among all, 33·3 % of the adolescents were UR and 15·6 % were OV when considering mean EI. Overweight (OR 3·25; 95 % CI 2·01, 5·27) and obese (OR 4·31; 95 % CI 1·92, 9·65) adolescents had higher odds for UR, whereas underweight individuals were more likely to over-report (OR 1·67; 95 % CI 1·01, 2·76). Being content with their own figures (OR 0·61; 95 % CI 0·41, 0·89) decreased the odds for UR, whereas frequently skipping breakfast (OR 2·14; 95 % CI 1·53, 2·99) was linked with higher odds for UR. Those being worried about gaining weight (OR 0·55; 95 % CI 0·33, 0·92) were less likely to OV. Weight status and psychosocial weight-related factors were found to be the major correlates of misreporting. Misreporting may reflect socially desirable answers and low ability to report own dietary intakes, but also may reflect real under-eating in an attempt to lose weight or real over-eating to reflect higher intakes due to growth spurts. Factors influencing misreporting should be identified in youths to clarify or better understand diet-disease associations.
Krajnc, Zmago; Rupreht, Mitja; Drobnič, Matej
Purpose. To quantitatively evaluate growth plates around the knees in adolescent soccer players utilizing the diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI). Methods. The knees and adjacent growth plates of eleven 14-year-old male soccer players were evaluated by MRI before (end of season's summer break) and after two months of intense soccer training. MRI evaluation was conducted in coronal plane by PD-FSE and DWI. All images were screened for any major pathological changes. Later, central growth plate surface area (CGPSA) was measured and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated in two most central coronal slices divided into four regions: distal femur medial (DFM), distal femur lateral (DFL), proximal tibia medial (PTM), and proximal tibia lateral (PTL). Results. No gross pathology was diagnosed on MRI. CGPSA was not significantly reduced: DFM 278 versus 272, DFL 265 versus 261, PTM 193 versus 192, and PTL 214 versus 210. ADC decrease was statistically significant only for PTM: DFM 1.27 versus 1.22, DFL 1.37 versus 1.34, PTM 1.13 versus 1.03 (p = 0.003), and PTL 1.28 versus 1.22. Conclusions. DWI measurements indicate increased cellularity in growth plates around knees in footballers most prominent in PTM after intense training. No detectable differences on a standard PD-FSE sequence were observed. PMID:26693482
Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard; Randall, G. Kevin; Azevedo, Kari
This study evaluated effects of the "Iowa Strengthening Families Program," a family-focused universal preventive intervention, on growth patterns of adolescent internalizing (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and monthly polysubstance use (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, inhalants, and other illicit drugs), as well as the association between…
Pires, Paulo; Jenkins, Jennifer M.
This study purports that parental rejection and warmth are critical to the development of adolescent drug use, and investigates a model that also considers children's vulnerability and deviant peer affiliations. It tests mediation through the proximal risk factor of deviant peers. Poisson growth curve modeling was used to examine participants from…
El-Sheikh, Mona; Bagley, Erika J.; Keiley, Margaret K.; Erath, Stephen A.
This study examined longitudinal relations between sleep and body mass index (BMI) from late childhood ([X-bar] age = 9.44 at T1) to early adolescence ([X-bar] age = 11.36 at T3) with a relatively large (n = 273 at T1) and diverse (35% African Americans) sample. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy-based sleep minutes and self-reported sleep…
Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun
To examine the longitudinal relationship between gratitude, deliberate rumination and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in the adolescent survivors after the Wenchuan earthquake, 217 adolescent survivors were randomly selected from several primary and secondary schools in the county of Wenchuan, and were assessed by questionnaires at three and a half years (T1), four and a half years (T2), five and a half years (T3) after the Wenchuan earthquake, respectively. The results found that there was a one-way predictive relationship of gratitude onto PTG from T1 to T3, and gratitude predicted deliberate rumination from T1 to T2 but not T2 to T3. Deliberate rumination only had a significant positive effect on PTG from T2 to T3, and PTG only predicted deliberate rumination from T1 to T2. These results indicated that gratitude could be a stable predictive factor for the development of PTG, and gratitude could also affect PTG by deliberate rumination. In addition, the predictive effect between deliberate rumination and PTG is unstable with time change.
Alshammari, Eyad; Suneetha, Epuru; Khan, Saif; Alazzeh, Awfa
Hail region of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has the highest adult obesity rates in the entire kingdom and limited information is available about the prevalence and patterns of growth markers. Therefore, it is important to monitor the growth trends to implement effective public health preventive strategies for the region. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of growth profile patterns (stunting, wasting, underweight, and overweight) and its associations with nutrient intake and dietary patterns among children and adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted involving 1420 children and adolescents (2–18 years), selected using a multistage stratified random-sampling technique representing both female and male schools from Hail region, KSA. Growth profile z-scores were generated using 2006 and 2007 WHO growth standards. The overall prevalence of 4.73% moderate and 1.54% severe underweight; 6.65% moderate and 2.59% severe stunting; 6.34% moderate and 2.55% severe wasting was present in the study population. Stunting decreased as age progressed with concurrent increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. There was a significantly higher prevalence of overweight (18.55% versus 23.05%; P < 0.001) and obesity (8.7% versus 13.85%; P < 0.001) in adolescents than in school-age children with higher prevalence in females as compared to males. Both stunted and overweight/obesity groups had significantly lower mean intakes for critical micronutrients necessary for growth as compared to normal children. PMID:28316981
Luyckx, Koen; Robitschek, Christine
Developing a personal identity is a challenging task throughout adolescence and the transition to adulthood. The present study sampling 551 14-35 year olds (54.1% female) examined personal growth initiative (PGI) as a potential predictor of core identity processes and explored whether identity functioned as a mediator on the pathway from PGI to self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Path analyses from a structural equation modeling approach indicated that all four components of PGI (i.e., planfulness, readiness for change, intentional behavior, and using resources) predicted different commitment and exploration processes, with planfulness being the most consistent predictor. Important age differences linking PGI-components to identity exploration were found. Finally, especially the degree to which individuals identified themselves with their identity commitments and the degree to which they relied on ruminative or maladaptive forms of identity exploration mediated pathways from PGI to self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Wang, Weijun; Zhen, Xin; Sun, Xu; Zhu, Zezhang; Zhu, Feng; Lam, T P; Cheng, Jack C Y; Qiu, Yong
A grading system for ossification of the iliac apophysis (Risser sign) was developed for skeletal maturity assessment in the United States (US) then adopted with modifications in France (Fr) and other countries. Despite the same name, these systems have important differences. With the aim to analyzing the difference between US and Fr Risser grading systems in determining the growth maturity of girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), Fifty-three AIS girls undergoing posterior spinal correction with autogenous bone graft were recruited. The Risser grades were recorded for the non-dominant side iliac crest apophysis according to the US and Fr grading systems. Growth activity was determined by standard histologic grades (HGs) on iliac crest cartilage. As a result, Kappa statistics showed poor agreement between two grading systems. The US system showed higher correlation with HGs compared to Fr system by Spearman correlation analysis. It was also found that growth cessation could be determined by Risser grade 5 of US system or Risser grade 4 of Fr system. Furthermore, by employing Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, it was found that the Risser grade 4-5 of US system with two years after menarche could be used in determining growth cessation with the highest sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Hence it was concluded that the US Risser grading system was better in determining maturity of girls with AIS than Fr Risser grading system. By combining years since menarche, the accuracy of Risser grades in determining growth cessation could be enhanced, and the time of weaning from a brace could be advanced.
Daniel, William A., Jr.
Written to orient the physician and paramedical personnel to the adolescent patient, the book provides information concerning the changes of adolescence, and age-related problems and illnesses. Part 1 discusses the essence of adolescence by describing physical, mental, and emotional growth and development. Part 2, the major section, consists of 21…
Layden, T; Rosenberg, F; Nemchausky, G; Elson, C; Rosenberg, I
Growth arrest and delayed onset of puberty often complicate childhood onset Crohn's disease of the small bowel (granulomatous enteritis). Nutritional deficits arising from inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, and increased caloric needs may contribute to growth retardation. To assess whether a sustained high caloric and nitrogen intake could reestablish growth, 4 children with extensive Crohn's disease of the small bowel were studied before and after parenteral alimentation which was instituted for symtomatic disease control. Weight gain, positive nitrogen balance, and improved nutritional status were achieved during parenteral alimentation in each patient. In 2 patients weight gain was sustained using oral nutritional supplements, and a substantial increase in linear skeletal growth continued in the ensuing months. One patient entered puberty within 4 months of parenteral alimentation and another had the onset of menarche and the development of secondary sex characteristics 4 months after parenteral alimentation and resection of diseased bowel. Growth may be reestablished in some growth-arrested children if intake is sufficient to establish a sustained positive caloric and nitrogen balance. Nutritional requirements imposed by the demands of growth and active disease and often compounded by the catabolic effects of corticosteroids may be excessive; growth may occur only if these needs are met orally and/or parenterally.
Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, A M Shamsir
This study estimated the levels and differentials in nutritional status and dietary intake and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh using data from the Baseline Survey 2004 of the National Nutrition Programme. A stratified two-stage random cluster-sampling was used for selecting 4,993 unmarried adolescent girls aged 13-18 years in 708 rural clusters. Female interviewers visited girls at home to record their education, occupation, dietary knowledge, seven-day food-frequency, intake of iron and folic acid, morbidity, weight, and height. They inquired mothers about age of their daughters and possessions of durable assets to divide households into asset quintiles. Results revealed that 26% of the girls were thin, with body mass index (BMI)-for-age <15th percentile), 0.3% obese (BMI-for-age >95th percentile), and 32% stunted (height-for-age < or = 2SD). Risks of being thin and stunted were higher if girls had general morbidity in the last fortnight and foul-smelling vaginal discharge than their peers. Consumptions of non-staple good-quality food items in the last week were less frequent and correlated well positively with the household asset quintile. Girls of the highest asset quintile ate fish/meat 2.1 (55%) days more and egg/milk two (91%) days more than the girls in the lowest asset quintile. The overall dietary knowledge was low. More than half could not name the main food sources of energy and protein, and 36% were not aware of the importance of taking extra nutrients during adolescence for growth spurt. The use of iron supplement was 21% in nutrition-intervention areas compared to 8% in non-intervention areas. Factors associated with the increased use of iron supplements were related to awareness of the girls about extra nutrients and their access to mass media and education. Community-based adolescent-friendly health and nutrition education and services and economic development may improve the overall health and nutritional knowledge and
van der Meulen, M. C.; Marcus, R.; Bachrach, L. K.; Carter, D. R.
We have developed an analytical model of long bone cross-sectional ontogeny in which appositional growth of the diaphysis is primarily driven by mechanical stimuli associated with increasing body mass during growth and development. In this study, our goal was to compare theoretical predictions of femoral diaphyseal structure from this model with measurements of femoral bone mineral and geometry by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Measurements of mid-diaphyseal femoral geometry and structure were made previously in 101 Caucasian adolescents and young adults 9-26 years of age. The data on measured bone mineral content and calculated section modulus were compared with the results of our analytical model of cross-sectional development of the human femur over the same age range. Both bone mineral content and section modulus showed good correspondence with experimental measurements when the relationships with age and body mass were examined. Strong linear relationships were evident for both parameters when examined as a function of body mass.
Wang, William Wei-Jun; Man, Gene Chi-Wai; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Lee, Kwong-Man; Ng, Bobby Kin-Wah; Yeung, Hiu-Yan; Qiu, Yong; Cheng, Jack Chun-Yiu
Abnormalities in the melatonin signaling pathway and the involvement of melatonin receptor MT2 have been reported in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Whether these abnormalities were involved in the systemic abnormal skeletal growth in AIS during the peripubertal period remain unknown. In this cross-sectional case-control study, growth plate chondrocytes (GPCs) were cultured from twenty AIS and ten normal control subjects. Although the MT2 receptor was identified in GPCs from both AIS and controls, its mRNA expression was significantly lower in AIS patients than the controls. GPCs were cultured in the presence of either the vehicle or various concentrations of melatonin, with or without the selective MT2 melatonin receptor antagonist 4-P-PDOT (10 µM). Then the cell viability and the mRNA expression of collagen type X (COLX) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were assessed by MTT and qPCR, respectively. In the control GPCs, melatonin at the concentrations of 1, 100 nM and 10 µM significantly reduced the population of viable cells, and the mRNA level of COLX and ALP compared to the vehicle. Similar changes were not observed in the presence of 4-P-PDOT. Further, neither proliferation nor differentiation of GPCs from AIS patients was affected by the melatonin treatment. These findings support the presence of a functional abnormality of the melatonin signaling pathway in AIS GPCs, which might be associated with the abnormal endochondral ossification in AIS patients.
Morningstar, Mark W.; Dovorany, Brian; Stitzel, Clayton J.; Siddiqui, Aatif
The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiographic outcomes obtained in a sample of patients treated with a chiropractic scoliosis-specific exercise program for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Patients were treated and subsequently followed through skeletal maturity, and their results were reported in accordance with the SOSORT Consensus Guidelines. A total of 60 patient charts were consecutively selected when they met inclusion criteria. Cobb angle measurements and Risser staging were collected on all images. Using SOSORT criteria, 51.7% of patients achieved curve correction and 38.3% achieved stabilization. In the curve correction group, average total correction was 12.75°. A small number of sampled patients’ curves progressed, with a 13% failure rate based upon patients who dropped out before skeletal maturity combined with those who had progressed at skeletal maturity. Future studies are needed to corroborate these observations. PMID:28243430
Morningstar, Mark W; Dovorany, Brian; Stitzel, Clayton J; Siddiqui, Aatif
The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiographic outcomes obtained in a sample of patients treated with a chiropractic scoliosis-specific exercise program for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Patients were treated and subsequently followed through skeletal maturity, and their results were reported in accordance with the SOSORT Consensus Guidelines. A total of 60 patient charts were consecutively selected when they met inclusion criteria. Cobb angle measurements and Risser staging were collected on all images. Using SOSORT criteria, 51.7% of patients achieved curve correction and 38.3% achieved stabilization. In the curve correction group, average total correction was 12.75°. A small number of sampled patients' curves progressed, with a 13% failure rate based upon patients who dropped out before skeletal maturity combined with those who had progressed at skeletal maturity. Future studies are needed to corroborate these observations.
Khichar, Satyendra; Dabi, Dhanraj; Parakh, Manish; Dara, Pawan K.; Parakh, Poonam; Vyas, Suyasha; Deopa, Bindu
Introduction Adolescence is the formative period of life. Poor adolescent health translates into poor maternal health leading to increased maternal morbidity with inter-generational consequences. Aim To compare anthropometric, socio-demographic, menstrual and nutritional status of rural and urban adolescent school going girls of Western Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in two rural schools and one urban school of Jodhpur region. Anthropometric, socio-economic (family history, menstrual history, maternal education) and dietary habit data of 327 (137 urban and 190 rural) school going adolescent girls aged 11–16 years were collected using structured questionnaires by a school based survey after consent from parents and school officials. Height and weight were taken using the standard procedure. Stunting (height for age) and thinness [Body Mass index (BMI) for age] were calculated as per the National Center for Health and Statistics (NCHS) standards. Statistical analysis was done using student t-test, fisher-exact test and Chi-square test. Results Mean height was significantly higher in urban girls while mean BMI of adolescents was significantly higher in rural areas as compared to their urban counterparts. Growth spurt was between 12-13 years showing maximum increase in mean height, coinciding with or immediately post-menarche. Menarche was one year earlier in urban girls as compared to rural girls (p<0.001). Thinness was more prevalent among females in urban areas and stunting was more common amongst girls residing in rural areas. Conclusion Life style habits (poor dietary habits, sedentary life style) of the urban girls may contribute to an early menarche but rural girls despite having a later onset of menarche; have a lower final height which may be attributed to their poor nutritional status. Improving nutrition of rural girls and modifying the life style of urban girls and educating their mothers will
Umławska, Wioleta; Prusek-Dudkiewicz, Anna
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common joint disorder in developing children. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is difficult to diagnose and treat. In some patients, signs and symptoms can be frustratingly inconsistent, contradictory or idiosyncratic. Short stature in patients with JIA is usually due to reduced growth in the lower extremities, and only rarely due to reduced growth in the spinal column. In some studies, children with JIA were found to have infantile body proportions. Puberty is delayed in children with JIA. In children with chronic arthritic disorders, there is a strong correlation between the activity of the disease and the age of puberty. The main goals in reducing growth retardation in children with JIA are promoting timely remission and reducing the duration and dosage of corticosteroid treatment. It is important to regularly monitor physical development. Further improvements to the treatment protocol depend on continued interdisciplinary research involving paediatricians, rheumatologists and clinical anthropologists.
De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; Decuyper, Mieke; De Fruyt, Filip
The tripartite model (in Clark and Watson, J Abnorm Psychol 100:316-336, 1991) comprises Negative Affect (NA), Positive Affect (PA), and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH), three temperamental-based dimensions. The current study examined the tripartite model's assumptions that (a) NA interacts with PA to predict subsequent depressive (but not anxiety) symptom developments and (b) NA interacts with PH to predict subsequent anxiety (but not depressive) symptom developments in a sample of 243 community and referred children and adolescents (42.8% boys; M age = 10.87 years, SD = 1.83). Results confirmed that individuals with a combined high NA/low PA profile display the least favorable course of depressive -but not anxiety- symptoms. In contrast with the model, the combination of NA and PH influenced the development of depression, but not anxiety. Relations were not moderated by sex or sample. Results revealed that the assessment of the tripartite components is warranted as it can help to identify children at risk for an unfavorable depressive symptom course.
Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Kieffer, Michael J.; Biancarosa, Gina; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Snow, Catherine E.
The development of reading skills in language minority (LM) learners, particularly during the middle school years, remains unclear despite the increasing need for educators to serve this rapidly growing population. In this study, the English reading comprehension growth of middle school LM learners was investigated using a longitudinal design and…
Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.
A number of studies, both small scale and of nationally-representative student samples, have reported substantial associations between school entry math ability and later elementary school achievement. However, questions remain regarding the persistence of the association between early growth in math ability and later math achievement due to the…
Ying, Liuhua; Wang, Yanli; Lin, Chongde; Chen, Chuansheng
The current study examined the longitudinal association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and posttraumatic growth (PTG) as well as the moderating role of trait resilience in that association. Participants completed measures of PTSD symptoms, PTG, and trait resilience at 12, 18, and 24 months after the Wenchuan earthquake.…
Lengua, Liliana J.
The author examined relations among demographic risk (income, maternal education, single-parent status), growth in temperament (fear, irritability, effortful control), and parenting (rejection, inconsistent discipline) across 3 years and the prediction of children's adjustment problems in a community sample (N=190; ages 8-12 years at Time 1).…
Kleinjan, Marloes; Poelen, Evelien A; Engels, Rutger C M E; Verhagen, Maaike
Smoking and alcohol use often co-occur during adolescence, but little is known about the codevelopment of these substances. In the search for etiological factors that help to explain the development of adolescent substance use patterns, studies have revealed substantial heritability for both alcohol use and smoking. In this regard, the µ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1, chromosome 6q24-q25) has been linked to both substances. This study examined the predictive relationships between initial level and growth of smoking and drinking in 311 early adolescents (13-15 years old) over a 4-year period. In addition, the effects of the A118G polymorphism of the OPRM1 gene on the initial values and the development over time of alcohol use and smoking were assessed. Finally, as prevalence and heritability estimates for both alcohol- and smoking-related behaviors differ between males and females, OPRM1 by sex interactions were tested. We found that high initial levels of early adolescent alcohol consumption were related to a stronger increase in smoking levels over time. In contrast, high initial levels of smoking were not related to growth of alcohol use. No main OPRM1 effects were found, but sex-specificity of the gene was found for smoking development. Male A-allele carriers showed a faster development in smoking behavior, whereas in females, the G-allele led to a faster development in smoking. Thus, in addition to high levels of alcohol as a risk factor for the development of smoking behavior, sex-specific effects exist for OPRM1, which may additionally have consequences for the development of adolescent smoking.
Crest, Y.; Delmas, M.; Braucher, R.; Gunnell, Y.; Calvet, M.
Cirques are emblematic landforms of alpine landscapes. The statistical distribution of cirque-floor elevations is used to infer glacial equilibrium-line altitude, and the age of their frontal moraines for reconstructing glacial chronologies. Very few studies, however, have sought to measure cirque-floor and supraglacial ridgetop bedrock downwearing rates in order to confront these denudation estimates with theoretical models of Quaternary mountain landscape evolution. Here we use 10Be nuclide samples (n = 36) from moraines, bedrock steps, and supraglacial ridgetops among a population of cirques in the east-central Pyrenees in order to quantify denudation in the landscape and detect whether the mountain topography bears any relevance to the glacial buzzsaw hypothesis. Minimum exposure ages (MEAs) obtained for a succession of moraines spanning the Oldest Dryas to the Holocene produced a deglaciation chronology for three different Pyrenean ranges: Maladeta, Bassiès, and Carlit. Based on a series of corrections, calibrations, and chronostratigraphic tuning procedures, MEAs on ice-polished bedrock exposures were further used to model denudation depths at nested timescales during the Würm, the Younger Dryas, and the Holocene. Results show that subglacial cirque-floor denudation was lower during glacial periods (Würm: 10 mm/ka) than during deglacial and interglacial periods (tens to hundreds of mm/ka). The relative inefficiency of glacial denudation in the cirque zone during the Würm would have resulted from (i) cold-based and/or (ii) low-gradient glaciers situated in the upper reaches of the icefield; and/or from (iii) glacier-load starvation because of arrested clast supply from supraglacial rockslopes situated in the permafrost zone. Denudation peaked during the Younger Dryas and Holocene glacial advances, a time when cirque glaciers became steeper, warmer-based, and when frost cracking weakened supraglacial ridgetops, thus enhancing subglacial erosion by providing debris to the sliding glacier base. Cirques, therefore, grow faster during more temperate periods of cirque glaciation than under full glacial conditions. Another key finding was the very low rates of ridgetop lowering averaged over the Würm and Holocene (10-25 mm/ka). A comparison of the denudation rates obtained from the cirque zone with regional estimates of crustal uplift indicates that the alpine topography is not in a steady state. The low intensity of glacial denudation failed to bring the topography to a buzzsaw equilibrium state.
... used a lot in sports activities during a child's growth spurt, this area becomes irritated or swollen and causes pain. It is common in adolescents who play soccer, basketball, and volleyball, and who participate in gymnastics. ...
Drotar, Dennis; McNally, Kelly; Schluchter, Mark; Riekert, Kristin; Vavrek, Pamela; Schmidt, Amy; Redline, Susan; Kercsmar, Carolyn
Objectives The primary aims of the study were to: (a) describe the trajectories of adherence to daily inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) medication for a year in economically disadvantaged, African-American youth with asthma based on growth curve modeling; and (b) test the relationship of treatment adherence to symptom control, quick-relief medication, and healthcare utilization. Methods This prospective study measured adherence to daily ICS treatment using electronic monitoring in 92 children and adolescents with moderate to severe asthma for 9–12 months and assessed clinical outcomes, including asthma-related symptoms, quick-relief medication, and healthcare utilization. Results Youth showed a decrement in treatment adherence to less than half of prescribed corticosteroid treatment over the course of the study, which related to increased healthcare utilization (p < .04), but not to asthma symptoms or albuterol use. Conclusion Economically disadvantaged youth with asthma demonstrate high rates of chronic nonadherence that warrant identification and intervention to reduce asthma-related healthcare utilization. PMID:19710251
Yim, Annie Po-yee; Yeung, Hiu-yan; Sun, Guangquan; Lee, Kwong-man; Ng, Tzi-bun; Lam, Tsz-ping; Ng, Bobby Kin-wah; Qiu, Yong; Moreau, Alain; Cheng, Jack Chun-yiu
The defect of the melatonin signaling pathway has been proposed to be one of the key etiopathogenic factors in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). A previous report showed that melatonin receptor, MT2, was undetectable in some AIS girls. The present study aimed to investigate whether the abnormal MT2 expression in AIS is quantitative or qualitative. Cultured osteoblasts were obtained from 41 AIS girls and nine normal controls. Semi-quantification of protein expression by Western blot and mRNA expression by TaqMan real-time PCR for both MT1 and MT2 were performed. Anthropometric parameters were also compared and correlated with the protein expression and mRNA expression of the receptors. The results showed significantly lower protein and mRNA expression of MT2 in AIS girls compared with that in normal controls (p = 0.02 and p = 0.019, respectively). No differences were found in the expression of MT1. When dichotomizing the AIS girls according to their MT2 expression, the group with low expression was found to have a significantly longer arm span (p = 0.036). The results of this study showed for the first time a quantitative change of MT2 in AIS that was also correlated with abnormal arm span as part of abnormal systemic skeletal growth. PMID:23519105
Mantilla, Ronnald; Rosell, Italo; Pedregal, Carlos; Revoredo, Rafael; Makino, Arturo
The immature skeleton ACL reconstruction is controversial, due to the possibility of injuring the physis, producing discrepancies in length and angular deformities. The purpose of this study, is presenting our experience of 11 cases, describing the surgical technique Arthroscopic intra-articular respecting them physis. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to present our surgical technique, control and monitoring in patients with active growth cartilage. Material and Methods: Between 2010 and 2015 treated 11 patients from 12 to 16 years, with a injury of the ACL with active growth cartilage evaluated clinically and radiologically. We use a scale of Tanner, x-ray of wrist and MRI for evaluation. They showed no tibial spine avulsions. The acute injury was inclusive criterion. We indicate Arthroscopic cadaveric graft reconstruction, without passing through the physis. We use rehabilitation protocol, immobilizer and crutches. Tracking through scale IKDC and resonance. Description of the surgical technique: Arthroscopic portals habitual plus supramedial accesory portal, identified the injury of the ACL; using fluoroscopy identified the physis active, put kirschner’s pins as guides without crossing them physis, drilled tunnels, check indemnity of the physis, spent the graft, fixing femoral with endobutton and tibial with biodegradable screw. Results: Of the 11 patients, there were 3 meniscal injuries, only 1 sutured. We didn’t have cartilaginous lesions. One patient presented surface Erythema that solved with antibiotic. Slight pain according to scale of pain. Not instability was present. The 60% had sport return without complications. There were no failures of the graft or comorbidities. They showed no growth disorders. Conclusion: The discussion is in repair without producing complications, considering that the natural evolution will lead to a potential damage. Authors show reports of shortening by perforation of the physis, our series presents one more
Deconstructing the externalizing spectrum: Growth patterns of overt aggression, covert aggression, oppositional behavior, impulsivity/inattention, and emotion dysregulation between school entry and early adolescence
Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sexton, Holly; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether five subcomponents of children's externalizing behavior showed distinctive patterns of long-term growth and predictive correlates. We examined growth in teachers' ratings of overt aggression, covert aggression, oppositional defiance, impulsivity/inattention, and emotion dysregulation across three developmental periods spanning kindergarten through Grade 8 (ages 5–13 years). We also determined whether three salient background characteristics, family socioeconomic status, child ethnicity, and child gender, differentially predicted growth in discrete categories of child externalizing symptoms across development. Participants were 543 kindergarten-age children (52% male, 81% European American, 17% African American) whose problem behaviors were rated by teachers each successive year of development through Grade 8. Latent growth curve analyses were performed for each component scale, contrasting with overall externalizing, in a piecewise fashion encompassing three developmental periods: kindergarten–Grade 2, Grades 3–5, and Grades 6–8. We found that most subconstructs of externalizing behavior increased significantly across the early school age period relative to middle childhood and early adolescence. However, overt aggression did not show early positive growth, and emotion dysregulation significantly increased across middle childhood. Advantages of using subscales were most clear in relation to illustrating different growth functions between the discrete developmental periods. Moreover, growth in some discrete subcomponents was differentially associated with variations in family socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Our findings strongly affirmed the necessity of adopting a developmental approach to the analysis of growth in children's externalizing behavior and provided unique data concerning similarities and differences in growth between subconstructs of child and adolescent externalizing behavior. PMID
Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Kang, Myung-Hee
This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among the current status of calcium intake from milk and milk products, physical growth and bone mineral density in 664 male and female middle school and high school students aged 15-17 years. In the study, the current status of calcium intake from milk and milk products was analyzed, and the height, body composition, and bone mineral density of the right heel bone (calcaneus) were measured. The daily calcium intake of milk and milk products was calculated as the 'dairy equivalent of calcium', which is the calcium content in 200 mL of white milk. The cutoffs of tertiles of the dairy equivalent of calcium were calculated and then the subjects were categorized into 3 groups according to the tertiles, Q1 group (lower intake group), Q2 group (middle intake group) and Q3 group (upper intake group). The daily calcium intake of milk and milk products in Q1, Q2 and Q3 groups was 16.2 mg, 99.7 mg, and 284.0 mg, respectively, and the ratio of milk and milk product consumption to the daily total calcium intake was 5.4%, 27.4%, and 49.7%, respectively. The ratio of total calcium intake to the daily recommended intake in study subjects was 30.5% in Q1, 42.3% in Q2, and 60.7% in Q3, with significant differences (P < 0.05). Height, body weight, BMI, and % of body fat in three tertile groups (Q1, Q2 and Q3) were not significantly different. However, the T scores for bone mineral density in female students in three tertile groups (Q1, Q2 and Q3) was significantly different (P < 0.05). The study showed that the intake of milk and milk products in adolescents, particularly in girls, can improve the bone mineral density without increasing body weight, and thus confirmed that milk intake is important in adolescence.
Toldson, Ivory A.
A study examines the long-term effects of a family process program on social and cognitive competence and aggressive and deviant behavior among rural African American adolescents. Results suggest that family processes influence the status and changes in adolescent competence and behavior, while analysis of covariant structures suggest that…
Saunders, Stephen Allan
The lack of academic success by American adolescents has been of grave concern for both researchers and practitioners for many decades. While many American adolescents struggle in school, some students are at a greater risk than their peers based on personal characteristics such as race, socioeconomic status, and motivation. The low levels of…
Background context The main distinctive aspect of Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis (JIS) with respect to Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) is the high risk of severe deformity and surgery. Approximately 70% of curves in patients with JIS progress and ultimately require surgery. There are presently very few studies with long-term follow-up of JIS and even fewer looking specifically at bracing Purpose To verify the effectiveness of a complete conservative treatment, including bracing and exercises, for JIS. Study design/setting Retrospective cohort observational study nested in a clinical prospective database of consecutive outpatients. Patient Sample Inclusion criteria: JIS, no previous treatment, all consecutive radiographies available from treatment start to end of growth (Risser sign 3). We found 30 patients, 27 females, 10 JIS type 1; mean age at first diagnosis was 7.8 +/-1.5 and mean treatment lasted 5.8 years. Cobb degrees 24.4+/-10 degrees, with 7 cases >30 degrees, and 2 > 45degrees. Outcome Measures Physiological measures. Radiographic and clinical data. Methods Treatment (exercises alone, or elastic-rigid-highly rigid braces plus exercises) was tailored and continuously changed according to Cobb degrees, individual preferences, anthropometric characteristics, pubertal spurt, remaining growth, rotation, hump, lumbar curve take-off, and imbalance. The SOSORT Guidelines for patients’ management have been followed. Funding and Conflict of Interest: no. Results 33.3% (95% Confidence Interval 16.4-50.2%) of patients worsened over the years. At the end of growth, 6.6% (0–15.5%) had surgical deformities (>45degrees). We observed a good correction in the first years of treatment until pubertal growth spurt, when progression was usually noted and treatment changed increasing corrective forces (hours or rigidity of bracing). 23 cases were followed up until they had two consecutive radiographies showing Risser sign 5 and showed stability. Conclusions
This video from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft, orbiting more than 20,000 miles above Earth, shows a stream of plasma burst out from the sun on May 27,2014. Since the stream lacked en...
Wallace, W.H.; Shalet, S.M.; Morris-Jones, P.H.; Swindell, R.; Gattamaneni, H.R. )
To study the effect of abdominal irradiation on spinal growth in childhood we have measured final height, sitting height, and leg length in 30 male survivors of a Wilms' tumor. Twenty-one patients received whole abdominal irradiation by either megavoltage therapy (MV: n = 11) or orthovoltage therapy (OV: n = 10); the remainder received flank irradiation. To examine the effect of the adolescent growth spurt on the irradiated spine we have followed prospectively seven patients who received whole abdominal irradiation and nine patients who received flank irradiation through puberty. Compared to a normal population there is a modest reduction in median final standing height SDS (H.SDS: -1.15) accompanied by a marked reduction in median final sitting height SDS (S.HT SDS: -2.41) with no apparent effect on median subischial leg length SDS (SILL.SDS: 0.04). This reduction in spinal growth is reflected by a strongly positive disproportion score (DPS; (SILL SDS-S.HT SDS) + 2.81). The incidence of scoliosis after abdominal irradiation has been low (10%). During puberty there is a significant fall in median sitting height SDS after both whole abdominal (median fall: -0.9, P = 0.02) and flank irradiation (median fall: -1.85, P = 0.01), and this is reflected in a significant increase in disproportion (DPS: whole abdominal; median rise +1.4, P = 0.02: flank, median rise +1.34, P = 0.01). After MV irradiation there is a significant correlation between the degree of disproportion and the age at treatment (P less than 0.0005). The younger the patient is at treatment the more severe is the restriction on spinal growth and the shorter and more disproportionate they become as an adult. The estimated eventual loss in potential height from abdominal irradiation at the age of one is 10 cm and at five years is 7 cm.
Alatzoglou, Kyriaki S; Webb, Emma Alice; Le Tissier, Paul; Dattani, Mehul T
The diagnosis of GH deficiency (GHD) in childhood is a multistep process involving clinical history, examination with detailed auxology, biochemical testing, and pituitary imaging, with an increasing contribution from genetics in patients with congenital GHD. Our increasing understanding of the factors involved in the development of somatotropes and the dynamic function of the somatotrope network may explain, at least in part, the development and progression of childhood GHD in different age groups. With respect to the genetic etiology of isolated GHD (IGHD), mutations in known genes such as those encoding GH (GH1), GHRH receptor (GHRHR), or transcription factors involved in pituitary development, are identified in a relatively small percentage of patients suggesting the involvement of other, yet unidentified, factors. Genome-wide association studies point toward an increasing number of genes involved in the control of growth, but their role in the etiology of IGHD remains unknown. Despite the many years of research in the area of GHD, there are still controversies on the etiology, diagnosis, and management of IGHD in children. Recent data suggest that childhood IGHD may have a wider impact on the health and neurodevelopment of children, but it is yet unknown to what extent treatment with recombinant human GH can reverse this effect. Finally, the safety of recombinant human GH is currently the subject of much debate and research, and it is clear that long-term controlled studies are needed to clarify the consequences of childhood IGHD and the long-term safety of its treatment.
Colder, Craig R; Frndak, Seth; Lengua, Liliana J; Read, Jennifer P; Hawk, Larry W; Wieczorek, William F
Externalizing symptoms robustly predict adolescent substance use (SU); however, findings regarding internalizing symptoms have been mixed, suggesting that there may be important moderators of the relationship between internalizing problems and SU. The present study used a longitudinal community sample (N = 387, 55% female, 83% White) to test whether externalizing symptoms moderated the relationship between internalizing symptoms and trajectories of alcohol and marijuana use from early (age 11-12 years old) to late (age 18-19 years old) adolescence. Two-part latent growth models were used to distinguish trajectories of probability of use from trajectories of amount of use among users. Results suggested that externalizing symptoms moderated the association between internalizing symptoms and probability of alcohol, but not marijuana use. The highest probability of alcohol use was observed at high levels of externalizing symptoms and low levels of internalizing symptoms. A negative protective effect of internalizing symptoms on probability of alcohol use was strongest in early adolescence for youth high on externalizing symptoms. Although moderation was not supported for amount of use among users, both domains of symptomology were associated with amount of alcohol and marijuana use as first-order effects. High levels of externalizing symptoms and low levels of internalizing symptoms were associated with high levels of amount of use among users. These findings suggest that developmental models of substance use that incorporate internalizing symptomology should consider the context of externalizing problems and distinguish probability and amount of use.
Jacobs, Lotte; Rayyan, Maissa; van Tienoven, Theun Pieter; Ortibus, Els; Levtchenko, Elena
Aim To investigate growth patterns and anthropometrics in former extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) children and link these outcomes to neurocognition and body composition in childhood. Methods ELBW children were examined at birth (n = 140), at 9 and 24 months (n≥96) and at approximately 11 years within the framework of the PREMATCH (PREMATurity as predictor children’s of Cardiovascular and renal Health) case–control (n = 93–87) study. Regional growth charts were used to convert anthropometrics into Z–scores. Catch–up growth in the first two years of life was qualified as present if ΔZ–score >0.67 SDS. At 11 years, anthropometrics, neurocognitive performance, body composition, grip strength and puberty scores were assessed. Results ELBW neonates displayed extra–uterine growth restriction with mean Z–scores for height, weight and head circumference of –0.77, –0.93 and –0.46 at birth, –1.61, –1.67 and –0.72 at 9 months, –1.22, –1.61 and –0.84 at 24 months, and –0.42, –0.49 and –1.09 at 11 years. ELBW children performed consistently worse on neurocognitive testing with an average intelligence quotient equivalent at 11 years of 92.5 (SD 13.1). Catch–up growth was not associated with neurocognitive performance. Compared to controls, ELBW cases had lower grip strength (13.6 vs. 15.9 kg) and percentage lean body weight (75.1 vs. 80.5%), but higher body fat (24.6 vs. 19.2%) and advanced puberty scores at 11 years (all P≤0.025). Catch–up growth for weight and height in the first two years of life in cases was associated with a lower percentage body fat compared to cases without catch–up growth (16.8% catch-up growth for weight vs. 25.7%, P<0.001; 20.9% catch-up for height vs. 25.8%, P = 0.049). Conclusions In young adolescence, former ELBW children still have difficulties to reach their target height. Compared to normal birth weight controls, ELBW adolescents show lower neurocognitive performance and grip strength
Lamota, Laura; Bermudez-Silva, Francisco Javier; Marco, Eva-María; Llorente, Ricardo; Gallego, Araceli; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Viveros, María-Paz
Tobacco smoking and obesity are worldwide important health problems with a growing impact in adolescent and young adults. One of the consequences of nicotine withdrawal is an increase in body weight that can act as a risk factor to relapse. Experimental therapies with a cannabinoid receptor antagonist have been recently proposed for both cigarette smoking and complicated overweight. In the present study, we aimed to investigate metabolic and hormonal effects of chronic nicotine treatment (during treatment and in abstinence) in an animal model of adolescence as well as to address the pharmacological effects of the novel selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR 147778 (Surinabant). Adolescence (postnatal days 37-44) and/or post-adolescence (postnatal days 45-59) administration of Surinabant reduced body weight gain, as well as plasma glucose levels and triglycerides. The drug also reduced insulin and leptin secretion, and increased adiponectin and corticosterone levels. The effects showed sexual dimorphisms and, in general, were more pronounced in females. Chronic exposure to nicotine (0.8 mg/kg), from postnatal days 30-44 did not result in overt effects on food intake or body weight gain. However, it altered certain responses to the administration of Surinabant, both when the two drugs were given simultaneously and when Surinabant was administered during the post-adolescence period, along nicotine withdrawal. The present results indicate that the endogenous cannabinoid system is active as a metabolic modulator during adolescence and that nicotine exposure can induce long-lasting effects on metabolic regulation, altering cannabinoid modulation of energy expenditure and metabolism.
Oshri, Assaf; Carlson, Matthew W; Kwon, Josephine A; Zeichner, Amos; Wickrama, Kandauda K A S
Neglectful rearing is linked with young adults' substance use and abuse, though the developmental mechanisms that underlie this association are unclear. The present study examines links between self-esteem growth during adolescence, childhood supervisory versus physical neglect severity, and substance use and abuse in young adulthood. A sample of youth was obtained from the Add Health study (N = 8738; 55.4 %-Female; 20 %-African American, 14.7 %-Hispanic). Growth mixture modeling analyses supported declining, ascending, and stable high self-esteem trajectories. The declining and ascending trajectories reported greater neglect and alcohol abuse (but not use) as well as cannabis use and abuse. The findings suggest that compromised development of self-esteem underlies associations between neglect and substance use and abuse. Preventive interventions may benefit from targeting self-esteem among neglected youth.
Dean, M. Christopher; Cole, Tim J.
We explored the relationship between growth in tooth root length and the modern human extended period of childhood. Tooth roots provide support to counter chewing forces and so it is advantageous to grow roots quickly to allow teeth to erupt into function as early as possible. Growth in tooth root length occurs with a characteristic spurt or peak in rate sometime between tooth crown completion and root apex closure. Here we show that in Pan troglodytes the peak in root growth rate coincides with the period of time teeth are erupting into function. However, the timing of peak root velocity in modern humans occurs earlier than expected and coincides better with estimates for tooth eruption times in Homo erectus. With more time to grow longer roots prior to eruption and smaller teeth that now require less support at the time they come into function, the root growth spurt no longer confers any advantage in modern humans. We suggest that a prolonged life history schedule eventually neutralised this adaptation some time after the appearance of Homo erectus. The root spurt persists in modern humans as an intrinsic marker event that shows selection operated, not primarily on tooth tissue growth, but on the process of tooth eruption. This demonstrates the overarching influence of life history evolution on several aspects of dental development. These new insights into tooth root growth now provide an additional line of enquiry that may contribute to future studies of more recent life history and dietary adaptations within the genus Homo. PMID:23342167
Current evidence on the reliability of growth indicators in the identification of the pubertal growth spurt and efficiency of functional treatment for skeletal Class II malocclusion, the timing of which relies on such indicators, is highly controversial. Regarding growth indicators, the hand and wrist (including the sole middle phalanx of the third finger) maturation method and the standing height recording appear to be most reliable. Other methods are subjected to controversies or were showed to be unreliable. Main sources of controversies include use of single stages instead of ossification events and diagnostic reliability conjecturally based on correlation analyses. Regarding evidence on the efficiency of functional treatment, when treated during the pubertal growth spurt, more favorable response is seen in skeletal Class II patients even though large individual responsiveness remains. Main sources of controversies include design of clinical trials, definition of Class II malocclusion, and lack of inclusion of skeletal maturity among the prognostic factors. While no growth indicator may be considered to have a full diagnostic reliability in the identification of the pubertal growth spurt, their use may still be recommended for increasing efficiency of functional treatment for skeletal Class II malocclusion. PMID:28168195
Perinetti, Giuseppe; Contardo, Luca
Current evidence on the reliability of growth indicators in the identification of the pubertal growth spurt and efficiency of functional treatment for skeletal Class II malocclusion, the timing of which relies on such indicators, is highly controversial. Regarding growth indicators, the hand and wrist (including the sole middle phalanx of the third finger) maturation method and the standing height recording appear to be most reliable. Other methods are subjected to controversies or were showed to be unreliable. Main sources of controversies include use of single stages instead of ossification events and diagnostic reliability conjecturally based on correlation analyses. Regarding evidence on the efficiency of functional treatment, when treated during the pubertal growth spurt, more favorable response is seen in skeletal Class II patients even though large individual responsiveness remains. Main sources of controversies include design of clinical trials, definition of Class II malocclusion, and lack of inclusion of skeletal maturity among the prognostic factors. While no growth indicator may be considered to have a full diagnostic reliability in the identification of the pubertal growth spurt, their use may still be recommended for increasing efficiency of functional treatment for skeletal Class II malocclusion.
Hammill, Adrienne M; Conner, Joseph; Cripe, Timothy P
Lytic viruses kill cells as a consequence of their normal replication life cycle. The idea of harnessing viruses to kill cancer cells arose over a century ago, before viruses were even discovered, from medical case reports of infections associated with cancer remissions. Since then, there has been no shortage of hype, hope, or fear regarding the prospect of oncolytic virotherapy for cancer. Early developments in the field included encouraging antitumor efficacy both in animal studies in the 1920s-1940s and in human clinical trials in the 1950s-1970s. Despite its long-standing history, oncolytic virotherapy was an idea ahead of its time. Without needed advances in molecular biology, virology, immunology, and clinical research ethics, early clinical trials resulted in infectious complications and were fraught with controversial research conduct, so that enthusiasm in the medical community waned. Oncolytic virotherapy is now experiencing a major growth spurt, having sustained numerous laboratory advances and undergone multiple encouraging adult clinical trials, and is now witnessing the emergence of pediatric trials. Here we review the history and salient biology of the field, including preclinical and clinical data, with a special emphasis on those agents now being tested in pediatric cancer patients.
Stice, Eric; Bearman, Sarah Kate
Examined longitudinal community data to test whether body-image and eating disturbances partially explain increased depression in adolescent girls. Found that initial pressure to be thin, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, and bulimic symptoms predicted subsequent increased depressive symptoms. There was also prospective…
Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol; Azevedo,Kari
This study examines the effects of 2 brief family-focused interventions on the trajectories of substance initiation over a period of 6 years following a baseline assessment. The 2 interventions, designed for general-population families of adolescents, were the 7-session Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP) (Molgaard & Spoth, 2001) and the…
Brown, Eric C.; Catalano, Richard F.; Fleming, Charles B.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Abbott, Robert D.
Raising Healthy Children (RHC) is a preventive intervention designed to promote positive youth development by targeting developmentally appropriate risk and protective factors. In this study, the authors tested the efficacy of the RHC intervention on reducing adolescent alcohol, marijuana, and cigarette use. Ten public schools, which comprised 959…
Examined extent to which Scottish adolescents (N=40) were influenced by negative images of adolescence present in the culture, investigating self-images by means of Q sort. Eleven factors emerged from analysis, six of which met criterion that distinguishes common factors. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents were influenced by…
Cooper, E S; Bundy, D A; MacDonald, T T; Golden, M H
The Trichuris Dysentery Syndrome (Ramsey, 1962) is an insidious, chronic condition which has clinical features similar to Crohn's ileocolitis and ulcerative colitis, diseases similarly associated with growth retardation. The attained heights and weights of 19 children at the time of diagnosis of intens, -2.4 Standard Deviation (Z) scores from the Tanner-Whitehouse median with weight, adjusted for height-age, -1.3 Z. We present data on the growth velocities of 11 of the children in the half-year following worm expulsion by mebendazole. These children returned to their home environments without food supplementation or close follow-up, but showed an average height velocity of +5.5 Z and weight velocity (for height-age) of +2.4 Z. Of 8 children with unequivocal height spurts only 3 had any weight spurt. We suggest that the pattern of catch-up growth points to the existence of some specific link between allergy or inflammation in the lower intestinal tract and suppression of linear growth, rather than to stunting due to general deprivation and undernutrition.
Lloyd, Benjamin; Ravi, Praful; Mendes, Nara; Klibanski, Anne; Misra, Madhusmita
Context: Changes in appetite-regulating peptides may impact food intake during puberty and facilitate the pubertal growth spurt. Peptide YY (PYY) is an anorexigenic hormone that is high in anorexia nervosa and low in obesity, inhibits GnRH secretion, and is suppressed by GH administration. The relationship between PYY and GH has not been examined across puberty. Objectives: We hypothesized that PYY would be inversely associated with GH in adolescents and would be lowest when GH is highest. Design and Setting: We conducted a cross-sectional study at a Clinical Research Center. Subjects: We studied 87 children, 46 boys and 41 girls ages 9–17 yr at Tanner stages 1–5 of puberty (10th–90th percentiles for body mass index). Outcome Measures: We measured fasting PYY and nadir GH levels after administration of an oral glucose load. Leptin levels were also measured. Results: Fasting PYY was lowest and nadir GH highest in boys in Tanner stages 3–4 (P = 0.02) and in girls in Tanner stages 2–3 (P = 0.02). Leptin levels were highest in early pubertal boys and late pubertal girls. For the group as a whole and within genders, even after controlling for body mass index, log nadir GH correlated inversely with log PYY (P = 0.003, 0.07, and 0.02). PYY levels did not correlate with leptin levels. Conclusions: During mid-puberty, at a time when GH levels are the highest, PYY is at a nadir, and these low PYY levels may facilitate pubertal progression and growth. PMID:20375207
Toma, S; Shiozawa, Z
The clinical and radiological features in seven patients who had asymmetric muscular atrophy of the hand and forearm when young are reported and a new hypothesis for its aetiology is proposed. Investigation of body growth curves (a surrogate for velocity of arm growth) showed close relation between (a) the age when the body height increased most rapidly and the onset age of this disorder, and (b) the age when the rapid body growth period ended and the age when symptom progression ceased. Cervical radiological evidence is provided showing asymmetric anterior cord atrophy, disappearance of slackness of dorsal roots in neck extension, and anterior and lateral displacement of the lower cervical cord against the posterior aspects of the vertebral bodies during neck flexion. These results suggest that disproportionate shortening of the dorsal roots is further accentuated during the juvenile growth spurt, which determines the onset and self limited course of the condition, and that repeated neck flexion causes micro-trauma and relative ischaemia of anterior horn cells, which finally results in atrophy of the muscles innervated by motoneurons with long axons. Predisposing anatomical factors are a straight neck due to lack of physiological cervical lordosis and the presence of foreshortened dorsal roots. Images PMID:7823068
Wallace, Jacqueline M; Milne, John S; Aitken, Raymond P; Hay, William W
Fetal sensitivity to insulin and glucose was investigated during fetal hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic (HI-euG, n = 18) and hyperglycemic-euinsulinemic (HG-euI, n = 12) clamps. Singleton bearing adolescent ewes were fed high (H) or control (C) nutrient intakes to induce compromised or normal placental/fetal size, respectively. Catheters were inserted in the umbilical vein (v), fetal artery, (a) and veins, and studies were conducted between day 126 and 133 of gestation. Umbilical blood flow (UmBF) was determined by the steady-state transplacental diffusion technique using (3)H(2)O, and glucose fluxes were quantified by the Fick principle. For the HI-euG study, fetal glucose utilization was measured at spontaneously occurring fetal insulin concentrations and two additional higher levels, whereas fetal glucose was clamped at the initial baseline level. For the HG-euI study, fetal insulin was suppressed by somatostatin infusion, and fetal glucose utilization was determined at baseline (before somatostatin) glucose concentrations, and at 150 and 200% of this value. Placentome weight (219 vs. 395 g), fetal weight (2,965 vs. 4,373 g), and UmBF (519 vs. 794 ml/min) were lower (P < 0.001) in H than in C groups. Relative to control fetuses, glucose extraction (G[v - a]/G[v] x 100) in the nonperturbed state was higher (21.7 vs. 15.9%) in growth-restricted fetuses despite lower glucose (0.78 vs. 1.05 micromol/ml) and insulin (8.5 vs. 16.9 microU/ml) concentrations (all P < 0.001). During the HI-euG study, total fetal glucose utilization rate increased in response to higher insulin concentrations (65 and 64% in H and C groups). Similarly during the HG-euI study, a twofold increase in glucose supply increased fetal glucose utilization by 41 and 44% in H and C groups, respectively. Throughout both studies, absolute total fetal glucose utilization rates were reduced in H vs. C groups (P < 0.01) but were similar when expressed per kilogram fetus (HI-euG: 34.7, 49.5, and 57.5 in H vs
Salardi, S; Tonioli, S; Tassoni, P; Tellarini, M; Mazzanti, L; Cacciari, E
Growth of 79 children with diabetes was analysed at diagnosis and again after one to 10.7 years of treatment with insulin. Both sexes were tall at onset, whereas at the last observation boys alone showed significant growth retardation. Height standard deviation score (SDS), however, showed no significant fall either in 32 subjects reassessed after five years of disease or in 18 subjects examined at full stature. Skeletal maturity was not significantly impaired after treatment. Pubertal growth spurt was reduced, especially in girls and in subjects with onset of disease at or around puberty. We found no significant correlation between height and height velocity SDS and glycosylated haemoglobin values or secretion of growth hormone during the arginine test. Somatomedin C values were correlated with height velocity SDS in prepubertal boys. The results of this study suggest that there are interferences in the growth of children with diabetes but that they do not seem to have a significant influence on adult height. PMID:3813637
Alvarez-San Emeterio, Carlos; Antuñano, Nieves Palacios-Gil; López-Sobaler, Ana María; González-Badillo, Juan José
This work examines the influence of practicing strength training and Alpine skiing over 2 years on bone mineral density (BMD), growth, body composition, and the strength and power of the legs of adolescent skiers. The study subjects were 20 adolescent skiers (10 girls and 10 boys) and 19 sedentary adolescents (9 girls and 10 boys), all 13-16 years of age. The BMDs of the lumbar column (L2-L4) and hip (neck of the femur, trochanter, and Ward's triangle) were determined by dual x-ray photon absorptiometry at the beginning and end of the experimental period. The increase in height and the percentage fat and muscular masses of the subjects were also recorded, as was their ability to jump (countermovement jump [CMJ]), their leg strength and power (squat test), and their leg anaerobic power (continuous jump test [CMJ15″]). No significant differences were seen in the increase in height, body weight, or percentage fat mass between the skiers and sedentary subjects, although the boy skiers showed a significant increase in percentage muscular mass (p < 0.05) compared to the sedentary boys. The improvement in the values of the different CMJ variables was significantly greater among the boy skiers than among the sedentary boys (p < 0.001-0.01). The same was true for the girls (p < 0.001), except for CMJ15″. The skiers experienced a significantly greater increase in L2-L4 BMD than the sedentary subjects (boys p < 0.05; girls p < 0.01). These results suggest that Alpine skiing combined with rational strength training involves no special risk for the physical development of young people, has a positive effect on the power and the percentage of muscle mass in the legs, and helps to have a higher bone density in the lumbar spine (L2-L4).
Jenkins, Sandra; Horner, Sharon D
Adolescence is a time of rapid growth and development with biologic, psychological, and emotional changes occurring simultaneously. We conducted a critical review of the literature to analyze key topics in the study of adolescents' eating behaviors and to identify barriers to healthy eating experienced by adolescents. The literature documents that nutritional deficits and poor eating established during adolescence have long-term health, growth, and developmental consequences. Gaps in the literature are identified and recommendations for future studies are proposed.
Zorena, Katarzyna; Raczyńska, Dorota; Wiśniewski, Piotr; Malinowska, Ewa; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata; Raczyńska, Krystyna; Rachoń, Dominik
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) concentrations and the duration of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children and adolescents. One hundred and sixteen patients with T1DM and 19 healthy controls were examined. Serum TGF-β1 concentrations were measured using the cytometric bead array (CBA). A positive association between the time of diabetes duration and higher serum TGF-β1 concentrations was observed. Similarly, the prevalence of microvascular complications, such as retinopathy and nephropathy, increased with the duration of diabetes. Logistic regression analysis showed that serum TGF-β1 concentrations and the duration of the disease are independent risk factors of microangiopathy development. Higher serum TGF-β1 concentrations were associated with a significant risk of microangiopathy development after 10 years of T1DM duration. In the successive years of the disease, the effect was even stronger. The results of our study indicate that serum TGF-β1 concentrations are one of the factors that may have an impact on the progression of vascular complications in children and adolescents with T1DM. PMID:24222720
Journeau, Pierre; Lascombes, Pierre; Barbier, Dominique; Popkov, Dmitry
The prognosis of limb length discrepancy is a major subject in paediatric orthopaedic surgery. The strategy depends on the prognosis and must be adapted to each patient. The residual growth of the lengthened segment often remains unknown, but is dependent on age, the percentage of lengthening and other factors. Using a large cohort of 150 children who had undergone bone lengthening procedures, we describe five patterns of post-intervention growth and identify factors that are favourable for normal residual growth. The criteria for bone lengthening which should maintain good residual growth are-bone age at lengthening should be before the pubertal growth spurt; the interval between two lengthening procedures should be over three years; the percentage of lengthening should be <30% of the initial segment; and no more than two lengthening procedures should be carried out during infancy.
Tong, Ming; Yu, Rosa; Deochand, Chetram; de la Monte, Suzanne M.
Aims Since epidemiologic studies suggest that tobacco smoke toxins, e.g. the nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK) tobacco-specific nitrosamine, can be a co-factor in alcohol-related brain disease (ARBD), we examined the independent and additive effects of alcohol and NNK exposures on spatial learning/memory, and brain insulin/IGF signaling, neuronal function and oxidative stress. Methods Adolescent Long Evans rats were fed liquid diets containing 0 or 26% caloric ethanol for 8 weeks. During weeks 3–8, rats were treated with i.p. NNK (2 mg/kg, 3×/week) or saline. In weeks 7–8, ethanol groups were binge-administered ethanol (2 g/kg; 3×/week). In week 8, at 12 weeks of age, rats were subjected to Morris Water Maze tests. Temporal lobes were used to assess molecular indices of insulin/IGF resistance, oxidative stress and neuronal function. Results Ethanol and NNK impaired spatial learning, and NNK ± ethanol impaired memory. Linear trend analysis demonstrated worsening performance from control to ethanol, to NNK, and then ethanol + NNK. Ethanol ± NNK, caused brain atrophy, inhibited insulin signaling through the insulin receptor and Akt, activated GSK-3β, increased protein carbonyl and 3-nitrotyrosine, and reduced acetylcholinesterase. NNK increased NTyr. Ethanol + NNK had synergistic stimulatory effects on 8-iso-PGF-2α, inhibitory effects on p-p70S6K, tau and p-tau and trend effects on insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1) receptor expression and phosphorylation. Conclusions Ethanol, NNK and combined ethanol + NNK exposures that begin in adolescence impair spatial learning and memory in young adults. The ethanol and/or NNK exposures differentially impair insulin/IGF signaling through neuronal growth, survival and plasticity pathways, increase cellular injury and oxidative stress and reduce expression of critical proteins needed for neuronal function. PMID:26373814
Kapetanovic, Suad; Aaron, Lisa; Montepiedra, Grace; Sirois, Patricia A; Oleske, James M; Malee, Kathleen; Pearson, Deborah A; Nichols, Sharon L; Garvie, Patricia A; Farley, John; Nozyce, Molly L; Mintz, Mark; Williams, Paige L
Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly prescribed to treat psychiatric symptoms in pediatric patients infected with HIV. We examined the relationship between prescribed SGAs and physical growth in a cohort of youth with perinatally acquired HIV-1 infection. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG), Protocol 219C (P219C), a multicenter, longitudinal observational study of children and adolescents perinatally exposed to HIV, was conducted from September 2000 until May 2007. The analysis included P219C participants who were perinatally HIV-infected, 3-18 years old, prescribed first SGA for at least 1 month, and had available baseline data prior to starting first SGA. Each participant prescribed an SGA was matched (based on gender, age, Tanner stage, baseline body mass index [BMI] z score) with 1-3 controls without antipsychotic prescriptions. The main outcomes were short-term (approximately 6 months) and long-term (approximately 2 years) changes in BMI z scores from baseline. There were 236 participants in the short-term and 198 in the long-term analysis. In linear regression models, youth with SGA prescriptions had increased BMI z scores relative to youth without antipsychotic prescriptions, for all SGAs (short-term increase = 0.192, p = 0.003; long-term increase = 0.350, p < 0.001), and for risperidone alone (short-term = 0.239, p = 0.002; long-term = 0.360, p = 0.001). Participants receiving both protease inhibitors (PIs) and SGAs showed especially large increases. These findings suggest that growth should be carefully monitored in youth with perinatally acquired HIV who are prescribed SGAs. Future research should investigate the interaction between PIs and SGAs in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection.
Aaron, Lisa; Montepiedra, Grace; Sirois, Patricia A.; Oleske, James M.; Malee, Kathleen; Pearson, Deborah A.; Nichols, Sharon L.; Garvie, Patricia A.; Farley, John; Nozyce, Molly L.; Mintz, Mark; Williams, Paige L.
Abstract Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly prescribed to treat psychiatric symptoms in pediatric patients infected with HIV. We examined the relationship between prescribed SGAs and physical growth in a cohort of youth with perinatally acquired HIV-1 infection. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG), Protocol 219C (P219C), a multicenter, longitudinal observational study of children and adolescents perinatally exposed to HIV, was conducted from September 2000 until May 2007. The analysis included P219C participants who were perinatally HIV-infected, 3–18 years old, prescribed first SGA for at least 1 month, and had available baseline data prior to starting first SGA. Each participant prescribed an SGA was matched (based on gender, age, Tanner stage, baseline body mass index [BMI] z score) with 1–3 controls without antipsychotic prescriptions. The main outcomes were short-term (approximately 6 months) and long-term (approximately 2 years) changes in BMI z scores from baseline. There were 236 participants in the short-term and 198 in the long-term analysis. In linear regression models, youth with SGA prescriptions had increased BMI z scores relative to youth without antipsychotic prescriptions, for all SGAs (short-term increase = 0.192, p = 0.003; long-term increase = 0.350, p < 0.001), and for risperidone alone (short-term = 0.239, p = 0.002; long-term = 0.360, p = 0.001). Participants receiving both protease inhibitors (PIs) and SGAs showed especially large increases. These findings suggest that growth should be carefully monitored in youth with perinatally acquired HIV who are prescribed SGAs. Future research should investigate the interaction between PIs and SGAs in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection. PMID:19827949
Gonzales, G F; Valera, J; Rodriguez, L; Vega, A; Guerra-Garcia, R
Stature and weight of native children, adolescents, and adults at Huancayo , Peru (3,280 meters), were measured in 1977, 1978, and 1982 and compared with mean statures and weights reported in previous studies. The data indicate that in Huancayo there has been a secular increment in child stature, sitting height, and weight from 1937 to 1978-1982. The observed changes in stature are related to a proportionally greater increment in leg length relative to trunk length. It is concluded that the observed secular increase in body size reflects changes in the standard of living and a greater influx of nonnative populations, which are usually characterized by greater stature than natives.
De Goede, Irene H A; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim H J
This 4-wave longitudinal study examines developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of parent-adolescent relationships by assessing parental support, conflict with parents, and parental power. A total of 951 early adolescents (50.4% boys) and 390 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Univariate and multivariate growth curve analyses showed that support declined from early to middle adolescence for boys and girls and increased from middle to late adolescence for girls, while stabilizing for boys. Conflict was found to temporarily increase during middle adolescence. Parental power (relative power and dominance of parents) decreased from early to late adolescence. Results indicated that: (1) parent-adolescent relationships become more egalitarian during adolescence, (2) parents perceived by adolescents as powerful are viewed as supportive, especially in early adolescence, and (3) perceived conflict with parents is related to but not an impetus for changes in parent-adolescent relationships towards more equality.
American adolescents have experienced growth in their use of online communities; yet, it was unknown whether the current understanding of online-community design applied to the design of communities specific to adolescents. This study bridged this gap, examining (a) How adolescents interact in an online community designed in accordance with…
The proportion of women aged 15-19 in Colombia who are mothers declined from 14% in 1985 to 10% in 1990, but the actual number of cases increased due to population growth. Some 1,780,000 adolescents who have had children or are pregnant require family planning services. An additional, unknown number of adolescent pregnancies are terminated by abortion. It is estimated that 95% of adolescent pregnancies diagnosed or followed by PROFAMILIA's center for young people were unwanted. Reasons for making family planning services available to adolescents include the ever young age at initiation of sexual activity, the very low rates of contraceptive usage among sexually active adolescents, the lack of information of adolescents concerning reproduction and contraception, and their fear and guilt surrounding their sexual activity and contraceptive usage. Obstetrical services appear reluctant to furnish adolescent mothers with information on contraception, and the pharmacists and their employees who provide such information may not be aware of contraindications for this age group or whether adolescents are adequately instructed in use of the method. The rising age at marriage increases the span of time that adolescents are at risk of unwanted pregnancy. Adolescents who are well informed about sexuality and contraception and trained in decision making, self-esteem, and responsible parenthood are likely to postpone sexual activity. Information on contraception and family planning services needs to be made available to adolescents in a way that will actually motivate use. Information on sex and contraception should be made available at puberty and should include the form of use, contraindications, and advantages and disadvantages of all methods appropriate to adolescents. Orientation and assistance in selecting the best method should be individually tailored and should be provided in schools or other places accessible to young people, in a language they can understand. Rhythm and
De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
This 4-wave longitudinal study examines developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of parent-adolescent relationships by assessing parental support, conflict with parents, and parental power. A total of 951 early adolescents (50.4% boys) and 390 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Univariate and multivariate growth curve analyses…
Wegener, Veronika; Jorysz, Gabriele; Arnoldi, Andreas; Utzschneider, Sandra; Wegener, Bernd; Jansson, Volkmar; Heimkes, Bernhard
Evaluation of hip joint space width during child growth is important to aid in the early diagnosis of hip pathology in children. We established reference values for hip joint space and femoral head size for each age. Hip joint space development during growth was retrospectively investigated medial and cranial in 1350 hip joints of children using standard anteroposterior supine plain pelvic radiographs. Maximum capital femoral epiphysis diameter and femoral radii were further more investigated. Hip joint space values show a slow decline during growth. Joint space was statistically significantly (p < 0.006) larger in boys than girls. Our hip joint space measurements on supine subjects seem slightly larger than those reported by Hughes on standing subjects. Evaluation of the femoral head diameter and the radii showed a size curve quite parallel to the known body growth charts. Radii medial and perpendicular to the physis are not statistically significantly different. We recommend to compare measurements of hip joint space at two locations to age dependent charts using the same imaging technique. During growth, a divergence in femoral head size from the expected values or loss of the spherical shape should raise the question of hip disorder. Clin. Anat. 30:267-275, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This chapter is devoted to the growth of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some detail the growth of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the growth of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples are also presented. If a comparison between GaN and ZnO is made, very often the huge variety of different growth techniques available to fabricate ZnO is said to be an advantage of this material system. Indeed, growth techniques range from low cost wet chemical growth at almost room temperature to high quality MOCVD growth at temperatures above 1, 000∘C. In most cases, there is a very strong tendency of c-axis oriented growth, with a much higher growth rate in c-direction as compared to other crystal directions. This often leads to columnar structures, even at relatively low temperatures. However, it is, in general, not straight forward to fabricate smooth ZnO thin films with flat surfaces. Another advantage of a potential ZnO technology is said to be the possibility to grow thin films homoepitaxially on ZnO substrates. ZnO substrates are mostly fabricated by vapor phase transport (VPT) or hydrothermal growth. These techniques are enabling high volume manufacturing at reasonable cost, at least in principle. The availability of homoepitaxial substrates should be beneficial to the development of ZnO technology and devices and is in contrast to the situation of GaN. However, even though a number of companies are developing ZnO substrates, only recently good quality substrates have been demonstrated. However, these substrates are not yet widely available. Still, the situation concerning ZnO substrates seems to be far from low-cost, high-volume production. The fabrication of dense, single crystal thin films is, in general, surprisingly difficult, even when ZnO is grown on a ZnO substrate. However
Greene, Melissa L.; Way, Niobe
The current study presents a growth curve analysis of self-esteem among Black, Latino, and Asian American high school students. A series of hierarchical linear models were used to examine patterns and predictors of change in self-esteem over time. Results revealed an average increase in self-esteem with age. Although boys and girls experienced…
Mesías, Marta; Seiquer, Isabel; Navarro, M Pilar
Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing adequate iron bioavailability to favor element utilization and thus be sufficient for needs at this stage of life. Currently, many adolescents consume monotonous and unbalanced diets which may limit mineral intake and/or bioavailability, leading to iron deficiency and, consequently, to ferropenic anemia, a nutritional deficit of worldwide prevalence. Iron deficiency, apart from provoking important physiological repercussions, can adversely affect adolescents' cognitive ability and behavior. Accordingly, promoting the consumption of a varied, adjusted, and balanced diet by adolescents will facilitate iron utilization, benefiting their health both at present and in adulthood. This review discusses how physiological changes during adolescence can cause iron requirements to increase. Consequently, it is important that diet should contribute an appropriate amount of this mineral and, moreover, with an adequate bioavailability to satisfy needs during this special period of life.
Gordon, Carly S; Serino, Antonio S; Krause, Matthew P; Campbell, Jonathan E; Cafarelli, Enzo; Adegoke, Olasunkanmi A J; Hawke, Thomas J; Riddell, Michael C
This present study investigated the temporal effects of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) on adolescent skeletal muscle growth, morphology and contractile properties using a 90% partial pancreatecomy (Px) model of the disease. Four week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to Px (n = 25) or Sham (n = 24) surgery groups and euthanized at 4 or 8 weeks following an in situ assessment of muscle force production. Compared to Shams, Px were hyperglycemic (>15 mM) and displayed attenuated body mass gains by days 2 and 4, respectively (both P<0.05). Absolute maximal force production of the gastrocnemius plantaris soleus complex (GPS) was 30% and 50% lower in Px vs. Shams at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively (P<0.01). GP mass was 35% lower in Px vs Shams at 4 weeks (1.24±0.06 g vs. 1.93±0.03 g, P<0.05) and 45% lower at 8 weeks (1.57±0.12 vs. 2.80±0.06, P<0.05). GP fiber area was 15-20% lower in Px vs. Shams at 4 weeks in all fiber types. At 8 weeks, GP type I and II fiber areas were ∼25% and 40% less, respectively, in Px vs. Shams (group by fiber type interactions, P<0.05). Phosphorylation states of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 following leucine gavage increased 2.0- and 3.5-fold, respectively, in Shams but not in Px. Px rats also had impaired rates of muscle protein synthesis in the basal state and in response to gavage. Taken together, these data indicate that exposure of growing skeletal muscle to uncontrolled T1DM significantly impairs muscle growth and function largely as a result of impaired protein synthesis in type II fibers.
Relevance of fruits, vegetables and flavonoids from fruits and vegetables during early life, mid-childhood and adolescence for levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and its binding proteins IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 in young adulthood.
Krupp, Danika; Remer, Thomas; Penczynski, Katharina J; Bolzenius, Katja; Wudy, Stefan A; Buyken, Anette E
The growth hormone (GH) insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis has been linked to insulin metabolism and cancer risk. Experimental evidence indicates that the GH-IGF axis itself can be influenced by dietary flavonoids. As fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is a major source of flavonoid consumption, FV's beneficial health effects may be explained via flavonoids' influence on the GH-IGF axis, but observational evidence is currently rare. We used data from Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study participants to analyse prospective associations between FV, fruit intake and flavonoid intake from FV (FlavFV) with IGF-1 and its binding proteins IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3. Subjects needed to provide a fasting blood sample in adulthood (18-39 years) and at least two 3-d weighed dietary records in early life (0·5-2 years, n 191), mid-childhood (3-7 years, n 265) or adolescence (girls: 9-15 years, boys: 10-16 years, n 261). Additional analyses were conducted among those providing at least three 24-h urine samples in adolescence (n 236) to address the predictor urinary hippuric acid (HA), a biomarker of polyphenol intake. Higher fruit intake in mid-childhood and adolescence was related to higher IGFBP-2 in adulthood (P=0·03 and P=0·045). Comparable trends (P=0·045-0·09) were discernable for FV intake (but not FlavFV) in all three time windows. Similarly, higher adolescent HA excretion tended to be related (P=0·06) to higher adult IGFBP-2 levels. Regarding IGFBP-3, a marginal (P=0·08) positive association was observed with FlavFV in mid-childhood only. None of the investigated dietary factors was related to IGF-1. In conclusion, higher fruit and FV intakes during growth may be relevant for adult IGFBP-2, but probably not for IGFBP-3 or IGF-1.
van Roekel, Eeske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.
Parental support and parental depressive feelings are found to be associated with depressive feelings in adolescent boys and girls, but results are inconsistent. In addition, the "5-HTTLPR" genotype has been found to interact with environmental stressors in predicting adolescents' depressive feelings, but this has not been examined longitudinally.…
Fleming, Margaret, Ed.
Noting that most junior high level curricula do not take into account students' rapid mental and physical changes, the articles in this focused journal issue recommend works and teaching strategies that harmonize with these student needs. The titles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Adolescent Development and the Growth of Writing…
Faude, Oliver; Rößler, Roland; Junge, Astrid
than 1 week, one third resulted in an absence between 1 and 4 weeks, and 10 to 15 % of all injuries were severe. Separate data for players under the age of 11 years are almost absent. Maturation status seems to have an influence on injury characteristics, although evidence is not conclusive at this time. Three main areas seem to be of particular relevance for future prevention research in young football players: (1) the substantial number of severe contact injuries during matches, (2) the high number of fractures in younger players, and (3) the influence of maturation status and growth spurts.
Coutant, Régis; de Casson, Florence Boux; Rouleau, Stéphanie; Douay, Olivier; Mathieu, Elisabeth; Gatelais, Frédérique; Bouhours-Nouet, Natacha; Voinot, Christelle; Audran, Maurice; Limal, Jean Marie
The lower responsiveness to GH in women than in men is probably due to a divergent effect of gonadal steroids. It is unknown, however, how the progressive increase in sex steroid production that occurs during puberty affects this responsiveness. To compare the effects of puberty and sex steroid administration on responsiveness to GH, we used the IGF-I generation test, in which the peak IGF-I level 24 h after a single injection of GH (2 mg/m2) was studied in 117 healthy short subjects (56 females and 61 males). The subjects, aged 8-16 yr, were divided into four groups: prepuberty, early puberty, midpuberty, or pubertal delay. In the latter group, the IGF-I response was determined before and after priming with oral 17beta-estradiol in girls and im testosterone in boys. We also tested for an association between body composition (by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) and the IGF-I response to GH. The IGF-I increment in response to GH (change in IGF-I from baseline) was correlated with the growth velocity sd score (P < 0.05). Progression throughout puberty was associated with an increase in both baseline IGF-I (P < 0.05) and the IGF-I increment in response to GH (P < 0.05), with no gender difference. Pubertal category (pre-, early, and midpuberty; P < 0.05) and fat percentage (P < 0.05) were the main positive predictors of the IGF-I increment in response to GH, expressed as micrograms per liter as well as sd score, independently of baseline IGF-I. After sex steroid priming, both the GH peak in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and baseline IGF-I were increased (P < 0.05, after vs. before sex steroid). However, the IGF-I increment in response to GH decreased after oral 17beta-estradiol (P < 0.05), whereas it was unchanged after testosterone administration. Endogenous gonadal steroid secretion appears to result in increased responsiveness to GH in peripubertal girls and boys. By contrast, exogenous estrogen and testosterone, respectively, produce a relative decrease
Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M
There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex
Susick, Laura L; Lowing, Jennifer L; Bosse, Kelly E; Hildebrandt, Clara C; Chrumka, Alexandria C; Conti, Alana C
maturational parameters examined in the current study may not be sensitive enough to detect effects of a single ethanol exposure during the brain growth spurt period. Genetic deletion of AC1/8 reveals a role for these cylases in attenuating ethanol-induced behavioral effects in the neonatally-exposed adolescent.
Susick, Laura L.; Lowing, Jennifer L.; Bosse, Kelly E.; Hildebrandt, Clara C.; Chrumka, Alexandria C.; Conti, Alana C.
maturational parameters examined in the current study may not be sensitive enough to detect effects of a single ethanol exposure during the brain growth spurt period. Genetic deletion of AC1/8 reveals a role for these cylases in attenuating ethanol-induced behavioral effects in the neonatally-exposed adolescent. PMID:24769171
Monyeki, K D; Monyeki, M A; Brits, S J; Kemper, H C G; Makgae, P J
The purpose of this observational prospective cohort study was to investigate the development and tracking of body mass index (BMI) of Ellisras rural children from preschool age into late adolescence from the Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study. Heights and weights of children were measured according to the standard procedures recommended by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry twice a year from 1996 to 2003. In total, 2,225 children--550 preschool and 1,675 primary school--aged 3-10 years (birth cohorts 1993 to 1986) were enrolled at baseline in 1996 and followed through out the eight-year periodic surveys. In 2003, 1,771 children--489 preschool and 1,282 primary school--were still in the study. The prevalence of overweight was significantly higher among girls (range 1.6-15.5%) compared to boys (range 0.3-4.9%) from age 9.1 years to 14.9 years. The prevalence of thinness (severe, moderate, and mild) ranged from 7.1% to 53.7% for preschool children and from 8.0% to 47.6% for primary school children. Both preschool and primary school children showed a significant association between the first measurements of BMI and the subsequent measurement which ranged from B=0.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1-0.4) to B=0.8 (95% CI 0.6-0.9) for preschool and B=0.2 (95% CI 0.1-0.3) to B=0.7 (95% CI 0.6-0.8) for primary children. A significant tracking of BMI during 4-12 years of life was more consistent for preschool children (B=0.6 (95% CI 0.6-0.7) and for primary school children (B=0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.6). Investigation of nutritional intake and physical activity patterns will shed light on how healthy these children are and their lifestyle.
Coban, Aysel Esen
Problem Statement: Adolescence is a stage of major growth and development in terms of significant cognitive, behavioral, psychological, and physiological changes. For adolescents, these developmental changes could be accompanied by stressful situations. Adolescents need to cope with these stressors successfully, yet the developmental period of…
Muselman, Dannette M.; Wiggins, Marsha I.
The death of a loved one has serious implications for adolescent growth and development. The authors review relevant research on the grief process and spirituality in adolescence, and they give a rationale for integrating spirituality into adolescent grief work. By way of a case illustration, they draw implications for counselors' use of…
Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François
This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for…
Leftwich, Heidi K; Alves, Marcus Vinicius Ortega
Adolescent pregnancy, although on the decline, represents a significant public health concern. Often adolescents present late to prenatal care, either from lack of knowledge, fear of consequences, limited access, stigma, or all of the above. Although multifaceted, there are many risks both to mother and child that are increased in adolescent pregnancy. Many are unintended and are at risk for repeat adolescent pregnancy, especially within the first 2 years. Risks include but are not limited to: low birth weight, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and preeclampsia, as well as feelings of social isolation, delayed or neglected educational goals, and maternal depression.
Shamsie, S.J., Ed.
Discussed in a conference report on adolescent psychology are the varieties of behavioral problems and family dynamics by Richard Jenkins, biological growth during adolescence by J.R. Unwin, management of adolescents in a general hospital setting by Henry Kravitz, and educational problems in disturbed adolescents by S.J. Shamsie, Jean-L. Lapointe,…
Steer, Donald R., Ed.
Nine articles on the young adolescent consider the ability of middle schools to adapt to the needs of their students, the educational implications of preadolescent development, adolescent brain growth and cognitive ability, and the relevance of Piaget's psychology to the middle school. The authors' conclusions include the necessity to identify and…
During pregnancy, adult women with a normal BMI synthesize extra amino acids after an overnight fast by increasing body protein breakdown and decreasing amino acid oxidation. It is not known whether adolescent girls can make these adaptations during pregnancy. The present study aimed to measure and ...
Reading underachievement among adolescent students, particularly in urban areas, has been well documented in the literature. This reality points to two problems: Schools possess neither the capacity needed to prepare students for higher education and the workforce, nor the ability to help students view literacy as a tool for critical thinking,…
Gilbert, Andrée; Maheux, Brigitte; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Haley, Nancy
OBJECTIVE To investigate how often family physicians see adolescents with mental health problems and how they manage these problems. DESIGN Mailed survey completed anonymously. SETTING Province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS All 358 French-speaking family physicians who practise primarily in local community health centres (CLSCs), including physicians working in CLSC youth clinics, and 749 French-speaking practitioners randomly selected from private practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Frequency with which physicians saw adolescents with mental health problems, such as depression, suicidal thoughts, behavioural disorders, substance abuse, attempted suicide, or suicide, during the last year or since they started practice. RESULTS Response rate was 70%. Most physicians reported having seen adolescents with mental health problems during the last year. About 10% of practitioners not working in youth clinics reported seeing adolescents with these disorders at least weekly. Anxiety was the most frequently seen problem. A greater proportion of physicians working in youth clinics reported often seeing adolescents for all the mental health problems examined in this study. Between 8% and 33% of general practitioners not working in youth clinics said they had not seen any adolescents with depression, behavioural disorders, or substance abuse. More than 80% of physicians had seen adolescents who had attempted suicide, and close to 30% had had adolescent patients who committed suicide. CONCLUSION Family physicians play a role in adolescent mental health care. The prevalence of mental health problems seems higher among adolescents who attend youth clinics. Given the high prevalence of these problems during adolescence, we suggest on the basis of our results that screening for these disorders in primary care could be improved. PMID:17279202
Ippolito, Jacy, Ed.; Steele, Jennifer L., Ed.; Samson, Jennifer F., Ed.
"Adolescent Literacy" initially appeared as a special issue of the "Harvard Educational Review". It explores key issues and debates in the adolescent literacy crisis, the popular use of cognitive strategies, and disciplinary and content-area literacy. Also examined are alternative forms of literacy, afterschool interventions, new instruction…
Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda
Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)
Research has suggested that the incidence of loneliness peaks at adolescence and decreases with age. Changes in the determinants of loneliness during adolescence were investigated for grade 8, grade 11, and university students. Subjects (N=410) completed a written questionnaire which included ten items from the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the…
Examines recent empirical evidence to test theories postulated in separate works by G. Stanley Hall and Anna Freud that adolescents must experience psychological turbulence in the transition to adulthood. Concludes that turmoil is no longer a necessary condition of adolescence and that those who do experience it need psychiatric attention.…
Bertelloni, Silvano; Baroncelli, Giampiero I; Massart, Francesco; Toschi, Benedetta
45,X/46,XY mosaicism is a rare sex chromosome disorder of sex development. Short stature is a main feature of boys with this condition. Different causes likely contribute to growth impairment. Growth hormone (GH) has been administered to treat short stature in boys with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, but conflicting data are available. Here, spontaneous growth patterns as well as short- and long-term follow-up studies during GH therapy in these patients are reviewed. Short- and mid-term data showed an improvement of the growth pattern in GH-treated boys, mainly when hormonal therapy was started early, while long-term follow-up demonstrated similar adult heights in GH-treated and untreated patients. Individual biological factors (e.g. different chromosome constitution, different mosaicism among various tissues, impaired pubertal growth spurt), non-homogeneous GH doses and different ages at start of therapy may contribute to the variable results. Thus, early GH therapy at pharmacological doses may improve the growth pattern of short boys with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, but data on adult height are disappointing. Evaluation of larger patient samples treated by homogeneous doses and long-term follow-up studies assessing adult height and safety are needed to reach definitive conclusions on GH therapy in boys with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism.
Chu, Winnie CW; Lam, Wynnie MW; Ng, Bobby KW; Tze-ping, Lam; Lee, Kwong-man; Guo, Xia; Cheng, Jack CY; Burwell, R Geoffrey; Dangerfield, Peter H; Jaspan, Tim
There is no generally accepted scientific theory for the causes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). As part of its mission to widen understanding of scoliosis etiology, the International Federated Body on Scoliosis Etiology (IBSE) introduced the electronic focus group (EFG) as a means of increasing debate on knowledge of important topics. This has been designated as an on-line Delphi discussion. The Statement for this debate was written by Dr WCW Chu and colleagues who examine the spinal cord to vertebral growth interaction during adolescence in scoliosis. Using the multi-planar reconstruction technique of magnetic resonance imaging they investigated the relative length of spinal cord to vertebral column including ratios in 28 girls with AIS (mainly thoracic or double major curves) and 14 age-matched normal girls. Also evaluated were cerebellar tonsillar position, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), and clinical neurological examination. In severe AIS compared with normal controls, the vertebral column is significantly longer without detectable spinal cord lengthening. They speculate that anterior spinal column overgrowth relative to a normal length spinal cord exerts a stretching tethering force between the two ends, cranially and caudally leading to the initiation and progression of thoracic AIS. They support and develop the Roth-Porter concept of uncoupled neuro-osseous growth in the pathogenesis of AIS which now they prefer to term 'asynchronous neuro-osseous growth'. Morphological evidence about the curve apex suggests that the spinal cord is also affected, and a 'double pathology' is suggested. AIS is viewed as a disorder with a wide spectrum and a common neuroanatomical abnormality namely, a spinal cord of normal length but short relative to an abnormally lengthened anterior vertebral column. Neuroanatomical changes and/or abnormal neural function may be expressed only in severe cases. This asynchronous neuro-osseous growth concept is regarded as
... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...
Reiches, Meredith W.; Moore, Sophie E.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Prentice, Ann; Sawo, Yankuba; Ellison, Peter T.
Background and objectives: Life history theory predicts a shift in energy allocation from growth to reproductive function as a consequence of puberty. During adolescence, linear growth tapers off and, in females, ovarian steroid production increases. In this model, acquisition of lean mass is associated with growth while investment in adiposity is associated with reproduction. This study examines the chronological and developmental predictors of energy allocation patterns among adolescent women under conditions of energy constraint. Methodology: Fifty post-menarcheal adolescent women between 14 and 20 years old were sampled for weight and body composition at the beginning and end of 1 month in an energy-adequate season and 1 month in the subsequent energy-constrained season in a rural province of The Gambia. Results: Chronologically and developmentally younger adolescent girls gain weight in the form of lean mass in both energy-adequate and energy-constrained seasons, whereas older adolescents lose lean mass under conditions of energetic stress (generalized estimating equation (GEE) Wald chi-square comparing youngest tertile with older two tertiles 9.750, P = 0.002; GEE Wald chi-square comparing fast- with slow-growing individuals for growth rate 19.806, P < 0.001). When energy is limited, younger adolescents lose and older adolescents maintain fat (GEE Wald chi-square for interaction of age and season 6.568, P = 0.010; GEE Wald chi-square comparing fast- with slow-growing individuals for interaction of growth rate and season 7.807, P = 0.005). Conclusions and implications: When energy is constrained, the physiology of younger adolescents invests in growth while that of older adolescent females privileges reproductively valuable adipose tissue. PMID:24481188
Montoya, Sebastián Giraldo; Motoike, Sérgio Yoshimitsu; Kuki, Kacilda Naomi; Couto, Adriano Donato
Main conclusion Macauba palm fruiting is supra-annual, and the fruit growth follows a double sigmoidal trend. The prevailing compound in the mesocarp differs as the fruit ages, oil being the major storage compound. Acrocomia aculeata, macauba palm, is a conspicuous species in the tropical Americas. Because the species is highly productive in oil-rich fruits, it is the subject of domestication as an alternative vegetable oil crop, especially as a bioenergy feedstock. This detailed study first presents the macauba fruit growth and development patterns, morphological changes and accumulation of organic compounds. Fruits were monitored weekly in a natural population. The fruiting was supra-annual, and the fruit growth curve followed a double sigmoidal trend with four stages (S): SI-slow growth and negligible differentiation of the fruit inner parts; SII-first growth spurt and visible, but not complete, differentiation of the inner parts; SIII-growth slowed down and all structures attained differentiation; and SIV-second growth spurt and fruit maturation. In SII, the exocarp and endocarp were the main contributors to fruit growth, whereas the mesocarp and endosperm were responsible for most of the weight gain during SIV. In comparison with starch and oil, soluble sugars did not accumulate in the mesocarp. However, starch was transitory and fueled the oil synthesis. The protective layers, the exocarp and endocarp, fulfilling their ecological roles, were the first to reach maturity, followed by the storage tissues, the mesocarp, and endosperm. The amount and nature of organic compounds in the mesocarp varied with the fruit development and growth stages, and oil was the main and final storage material. The description of macauba fruit's transformations and their temporal order may be of importance for future ecological and agronomical references.
Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M
Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view.
Cain, Matthew S; Leonard, Julia A; Gabrieli, John D E; Finn, Amy S
Media use has been on the rise in adolescents overall, and in particular, the amount of media multitasking-multiple media consumed simultaneously, such as having a text message conversation while watching TV-has been increasing. In adults, heavy media multitasking has been linked with poorer performance on a number of laboratory measures of cognition, but no relationship has yet been established between media-multitasking behavior and real-world outcomes. Examining individual differences across a group of adolescents, we found that more frequent media multitasking in daily life was associated with poorer performance on statewide standardized achievement tests of math and English in the classroom, poorer performance on behavioral measures of executive function (working memory capacity) in the laboratory, and traits of greater impulsivity and lesser growth mindset. Greater media multitasking had a relatively circumscribed set of associations, and was not related to behavioral measures of cognitive processing speed, implicit learning, or manual dexterity, or to traits of grit and conscientiousness. Thus, individual differences in adolescent media multitasking were related to specific differences in executive function and in performance on real-world academic achievement measures: More media multitasking was associated with poorer executive function ability, worse academic achievement, and a reduced growth mindset.
Cook, Mary N.; Peterson, John; Sheldon, Christopher
Depression in adolescence and adulthood is common, afflicting up to 20 percent of these populations. It represents a significant public health concern and is associated with considerable suffering and functional impairment. Adolescent-onset depression tends to be a particularly malignant and recalcitrant condition, increasing the likelihood of recurrence and chronicity in adulthood. Clinical presentations for various medical and psychiatric conditions, as well as reactions to psychosocial stressors, can mimic or confound the picture of depression in adolescents. Therefore, careful assessment and differential diagnosis is essential. Effective treatments, both pharmacological and psychosocial in nature, exist, and so early detection and intervention is paramount. This article presents an overview of optimal prevention, assessment, and clinical decision-making strategies for managing depression in adolescents. PMID:19855857
Casemore, Bradley P.
Each generation of adolescents is exposed to a wider array of stressors and environmental deficits. Use, abuse, and dependence on alcohol and other drugs greatly impairs youths' ability to develop fully, and exacerbates and compounds other biopsychosocial problems. Physiologically, the onset of secondary sex characteristics, the growth spurt,…
Strasser-Vogel, B; Blum, W F; Past, R; Kessler, U; Hoeflich, A; Meiler, B; Kiess, W
The putative effects of diabetes and metabolic control on circulating levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) remain controversial. In the present study, serum levels of IGF-I and IGF-II and IGFBP-1, -2, and -3 were measured in 58 patients (age, 0.8-17 yr) with treated (51 subjects) or untreated (7 subjects) insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and were compared with the levels in normal subjects. In the untreated patients IGF-I and IGF-II were decreased as compared with the healthy controls. In the treated diabetics IGF-I and IGF-II were reduced; IGFBP-2 (only in prepubertal subjects) and IGFBP-3 were increased. Furthermore, age-adjusted values of IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP-3 were lower in prepubertal than in pubertal patients. Regression analysis revealed a negative correlation between hemoglobin (Hb)A1c and standard deviation scores (SDS) of IGF-I and a positive association between HbA1c and IGFBP-1 SDS or IGFBP-2 SDS. In the treated patients HbA1c was positively related to IGFBP-1 SDS and IGFBP-2 SDS when applying simple regression analysis and to IGFBP-2 SDS when using a multiple regression model. Strong correlations were observed between height SDS and IGF-I SDS, IGF-II SDS, and IGFBP-3 SDS in prepubertal subjects who had had IDDM for at least 2 yr, but not in adolescents. Such correlations have also been found in healthy children and adolescents. In conclusion; 1) IDDM is associated with alterations of the IGF-IGFBP system, which are partially accounted for by differences in metabolic control and pubertal status; 2) the lower plasma concentrations of serum IGF-I may play a role in the pathogenesis of growth impairment of poorly controlled prepubertal, but not pubertal, children and adolescents with IDDM; and 3) in addition, a potential role of the altered IGF-IGFBP system for the development of diabetic late complications is hypothesized.
Grant, L M; Demetriou, E
The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions.
Mulroy, Kevin; Palacios, Anna; Reid, Robert E.
This is a theoretical study of adolescent maturation within a cultural context. Personality development and disintegration due to the pressure of a dominant culture on a minority culture is considered. An attempt is made to understand how teachers might assist students to work out their psychological growth by story telling. The need for cultural…
The emotional, social, intellectual, and physical needs of young people from 10 to 15 years old are being increasingly recognized in the schools, but the activities of these students after school are just beginning to be considered in terms of their effects on adolescents' academic and personal growth. Early in 1985, the University of North…
We report the 8-year clinical and radiographic outcome of an adolescent patient with a large osteochondral defect of the lateral femoral condyle, and ipsilateral genu valgum secondary to an epiphyseal injury, managed with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and supracondylar re-alignment femoral osteotomy. Long-term clinical success was achieved using this method, illustrating the effective use of re-alignment osteotomy in correcting mal-alignment of the knee, protecting the ACI graft site and providing the optimum environment for cartilage repair and regeneration. This is the first report of the combined use of ACI and femoral osteotomy for such a case. PMID:21418566
Vijayan, Sridhar; Bentley, George
We report the 8-year clinical and radiographic outcome of an adolescent patient with a large osteochondral defect of the lateral femoral condyle, and ipsilateral genu valgum secondary to an epiphyseal injury, managed with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and supracondylar re-alignment femoral osteotomy. Long-term clinical success was achieved using this method, illustrating the effective use of re-alignment osteotomy in correcting mal-alignment of the knee, protecting the ACI graft site and providing the optimum environment for cartilage repair and regeneration. This is the first report of the combined use of ACI and femoral osteotomy for such a case.
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), environment, exposome and epigenetics: a molecular perspective of postnatal normal spinal growth and the etiopathogenesis of AIS with consideration of a network approach and possible implications for medical therapy
Genetic factors are believed to play an important role in the etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Discordant findings for monozygotic (MZ) twins with AIS show that environmental factors including different intrauterine environments are important in etiology, but what these environmental factors may be is unknown. Recent evidence for common chronic non-communicable diseases suggests epigenetic differences may underlie MZ twin discordance, and be the link between environmental factors and phenotypic differences. DNA methylation is one important epigenetic mechanism operating at the interface between genome and environment to regulate phenotypic plasticity with a complex regulation across the genome during the first decade of life. The word exposome refers to the totality of environmental exposures from conception onwards, comprising factors in external and internal environments. The word exposome is used here also in relation to physiologic and etiopathogenetic factors that affect normal spinal growth and may induce the deformity of AIS. In normal postnatal spinal growth we propose a new term and concept, physiologic growth-plate exposome for the normal processes particularly of the internal environments that may have epigenetic effects on growth plates of vertebrae. In AIS, we propose a new term and concept pathophysiologic scoliogenic exposome for the abnormal processes in molecular pathways particularly of the internal environment currently expressed as etiopathogenetic hypotheses; these are suggested to have deforming effects on the growth plates of vertebrae at cell, tissue, structure and/or organ levels that are considered to be epigenetic. New research is required for chromatin modifications including DNA methylation in AIS subjects and vertebral growth plates excised at surgery. In addition, consideration is needed for a possible network approach to etiopathogenesis by constructing AIS diseasomes. These approaches may lead through screening
... Slowed growth in height in infants, children, or adolescents (teenagers) • A young-looking face compared with other ... your child if you see signs of poor self-esteem or sadness that could be related to being ...
Valteau, Barthélémy; Grimard, Guy; Londono, Irène; Moldovan, Florina; Villemure, Isabelle
Longitudinal bone growth, which occurs in growth plates, has important implications in pediatric orthopedics. Mechanical loads are essential to normal bone growth, but excessive loads can lead to progressive deformities. In order to compare the effects of in vivo static and dynamic loading on bone growth rate and growth plate histomorphometry, a finely controlled, normalized and equivalent compression was applied for a period of two weeks on the seventh caudal vertebra (Cd7) of rats during their pubertal growth spurt. The load was sustained (0.2MPa, 0.0Hz) in the static group and sinusoidally oscillating (0.2MPa±30%, 0.1Hz) in the dynamic group. Control and sham (operated but no load applied) groups were also studied. Cd7 growth rate was statistically reduced by 19% (p<0.001) for both static and dynamic groups when compared to the sham group. Loading effects on growth plate histomorphometry were greater in the static than dynamic groups with significant reductions (p<0.001) observed for growth plate thickness, proliferative chondrocyte number per column and hypertrophic chondrocyte height in the static group when compared to the sham group. Significant differences (p<0.01) were also found between static and dynamic groups for growth plate thickness and proliferative chondrocyte number per column while the difference nearly reached significance (p=0.014) for hypertrophic chondrocyte height. This in vivo study shows that static and dynamic loading are equally effective in modulating bone growth of rat caudal vertebrae. However, dynamic loading causes less detrimental effects on growth plate histomorphometry compared to static loading. This knowledge is greatly relevant for the improvement and/or development of new minimally invasive approaches, which are based on the local modulation of bone growth, to correct several progressive musculoskeletal deformities.
Danner, Fred W.; Toland, Michael D.
This study assessed how socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, and birth weight interacted to predict differential patterns of body mass index (BMI) growth among U.S. children born in the early 1990s. Three BMI growth trajectories emerged--one above the 50th percentile across the age range of 5 to 14, one in which children rapidly became…
Hochberg, Ze'ev; Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin
Human size is a tradeoff between the evolutionary advantages and disadvantages of being small or big. We now propose that adult size is determined to an important extent during transition from infancy to childhood. This transition is marked by a growth spurt. A delay in the transition has a lifelong impact on stature and is responsible for 44% of children with short stature in developed countries and many more in developing countries. Here, we present the data and theory of an evolutionary adaptive strategy of plasticity in the timing of transition from infancy into childhood to match the prevailing energy supply. We propose that humans have evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and that evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises trigger a predictive adaptive response that modify the transition into childhood, culminating in short stature.
de Fátima Borges, Maria; Teixeira, Flávia Carolina Cândida; Feltrin, Aline Karin; Ribeiro, Karina Alvarenga; Nascentes, Gabriel Antonio Nogueira; Resende, Elisabete Aparecida Mantovani Rodrigues; Ferreira, Beatriz Pires; Silva, Adriana Paula; Palhares, Heloísa Marcelina Cunha
OBJECTIVES: To establish cut-off values for growth hormone concentrations using clonidine as a secretagogue and an immunochemiluminescent assay as the method of measurement and to analyze the response time as well as the influence of gender, nutritional status and pubertal stage. METHODS: A total of 225 tests were performed in 3 patient groups, categorized as group 1 (normal), group 2 (idiopathic short stature) and group 3 (growth hormone deficiency). Among the 199 disease-free individuals, 138 were prepubertal, and 61 were pubertal. Clonidine (0.1 mg/m2) was orally administered, and the growth hormone level was measured by immunochemiluminescent assay. The growth hormone peak and the difference between the growth hormone peak and the baseline level were then analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed using Student's t-test or the Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's post hoc test. Cut-off values were determined using a receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: Group 1 and group 2 had no difference in growth hormone peak, gender, body mass index standard deviation score, or pubertal stage. Group 3 exhibited a significantly lower growth hormone peak than the other groups did. The receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated that growth hormone concentrations ≥ 3.0 ng/mL defined responsiveness to clonidine. In total, 3.02% of individuals in group 1 and group 2 were considered false positive, i.e., these children lacked growth hormone deficiency and had a peak below 3.0 ng/mL. CONCLUSION: Clonidine-stimulated growth hormone concentrations ≥3 ng/mL, as measured by immunochemiluminescent assay, suggest responsiveness to the stimulus regardless of gender, body mass index standard deviation score or pubertal stage. PMID:27166774
Ewald, D. Rose; Haldeman, Lauren A.
Hypertension is a complex and multifaceted disease, with many contributing factors. While diet and nutrition are important influences, the confounding effects of overweight and obesity, metabolic and genetic factors, racial and ethnic predispositions, socioeconomic status, cultural influences, growth rate, and pubertal stage have even more influence and make diagnosis quite challenging. The prevalence of hypertension in adolescents far exceeds the numbers who have been diagnosed; studies have found that 75% or more go undiagnosed. This literature review summarizes the challenges of blood pressure classification in adolescents, discusses the impact of these confounding influences, and identifies actions that will improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes. PMID:27335997
Hardoff, Daniel; Eisenstein, Evelyn
Adolescent medicine was born out of scientific advances from a wide variety of disciplines, changes in societal mores and the explosion of technology that occurred during the 20th century. The past 100 years of clinical practice and research have provided a wealth of information that has improved our understanding of the biologic and physical development of adolescents as well as the epidemiology of high-risk adolescent behaviors. The present challenge for all providers of health care to adolescents is to continue to examine the effect of these high-risk behaviors and develop mechanisms to address and limit the impact of these behaviors, just as the scientists and practitioners of the 20th century made great strides in treatment and cure of medical illnesses. With a broad base of scientific knowledge, formalization into an academic field and strong government and organizational support adolescent medicine are energized by these factors and can only envision continued growth in this important field of medicine.
DiFiori, John P.
With the growth in youth sports programs, overuse injuries in children and adolescents have become common. Physicians are challenged to make the diagnosis and identify the causes of injury. Growth-related factors require special consideration in injury management. Physicians must make a directed history assessing causative factors and a systematic…
... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...
Williams-Evans, Shiphrah A; Myers, Joy Sher'ron
The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the rising occurrences of adolescent violence in the American school systems and how various theories can be used to assist in understanding this phenomenon. The authors have become increasingly interested in this topic, after direct involvement in the summer of 2001. There were a number of students who were attending summer school as a result of consistent out-of-school suspensions for violent acts. The procedure to process through the system with these students was to suspend them, resulting in the student subsequently failing their present grade. The school was located in a community known for its high rate of violence and criminal activity. Various types of adolescent violence exist in our schools. Studies have reported that violent adolescents may come from familial environments that are full of social and interpersonal conflicts (Gray & Foshee, 1999). This paper discusses the development of a research plan to investigate the number and type of adolescent violent occurrences in a southern middle school setting.
Stronski Huwiler, S M; Remafedi, G
Homosexuality has existed in all civilizations, but societal disapproval and cultural taboos have negatively influenced its recognition. A significant percentage of youths identify themselves as homosexual, and even more experience sex with the same sex or are confused about sexual feelings. A unifying etiological theory attributes the expression of sexual orientation to genes that shape the central nervous system's development, organization, and structure via prenatal sex steroids. Environmental factors may influence the expression of genetic potential. Several models of psychosocial development describe initial stages of awareness and confusion about same-sex attractions, followed by acknowledgement of homosexuality, disclosure to others, and eventual integration of sexual identity into a comprehensive sense of self. Stressors related to isolation, stigma, and violence may predispose homosexual adolescents to impaired social, emotional, and physical health, resulting in depression and suicide, school problems, substance abuse, running away eating disorders, risky sexual behavior, and illegal conduct. As with all adolescents, the overall goals in the care of homosexual youth are to promote normal adolescent development, social and emotional well-being, and physical health. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach is required to address medical, mental health, and psychosocial issues within the context of the adolescents' community and culture.
Turenne, M N; Port, F K; Strawderman, R L; Ettenger, R B; Alexander, S R; Lewy, J E; Jones, C A; Agodoa, L Y; Held, P J
We compared growth rates by modality over a 6- to 14-month period in 1,302 US pediatric end-stage renal disese (ESRD) patients treated during 1990. Modality comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and ESRD duration using linear regression models by age group (0.5 to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, 10 to 14 years, and 15 to 18 years). Growth rates were higher in young children receiving a transplant compared with those receiving dialysis (ages 0.5 to 4 years, delta = 3.1 cm/yr v continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis [CCPD], P < 0.01; ages 5 to 9 years, delta = 2.0 to 2.6 cm/yr v CCPD, chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), and hemodialysis, P < 0.01). In contrast, growth rates in older children were not statistically different when comparing transplantation with each dialysis modality. For most age groups of transplant recipients, we observed faster growth with alternate-day versus daily steroids that was not fully explained by differences in allograft function. Younger patients (<15 years) grew at comparable rates with each dialysis modality, while older CAPD patients grew faster compared with hemodialysis or CCPD patients (P < 0.02). There was no substantial pubertal growth spurt in transplant or dialysis patients. This national US study of pediatric growth rates with dialysis and transplantation shows differences in growth by modality that vary by age group.
Gabel, Leigh; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Brasher, Penelope M.; Moore, Sarah; Ahamed, Yasmin; Macdonald, Heather M.; McKay, Heather A.
We revisit Stanley Garn’s theory related to sex differences in endocortical and periosteal apposition during adolescence using a 12-year mixed longitudinal study design. We used peripheral quantitative computed tomography to examine bone parameters in 230 participants (110 boys, 120 girls; 11.0 yrs at baseline). We assessed total (Tt.Ar, mm2), cortical (Ct.Ar, mm2), and medullary canal area (Me.Ar, mm2), Ct.Ar/Tt.Ar, cortical bone mineral density (Ct.BMD, mg/cm3) and polar strength-strain index (SSIp, mm3) at the tibial midshaft (50% site). We used annual measures of height and chronological age to identify age at peak height velocity (APHV) for each participant. We compared annual accrual rates of bone parameters between boys and girls, aligned on APHV using a linear mixed effects model. At APHV, boys demonstrated greater Tt.Ar (Ratio: 1.27; 95% CI: [1.21, 1.32]), Ct.Ar (1.24; [1.18, 1.30]), Me.Ar (1.31; [1.22, 1.40]) and SSIp (1.36; [1.28, 1.45]), and less Ct.Ar/Tt.Ar (0.98; [0.96, 1.00]) and Ct.BMD (0.97; [0.96, 0.97]) compared with girls. Boys and girls demonstrated periosteal bone formation and net bone loss at the endocortical surface. Compared with girls, boys demonstrated greater annual accrual rates pre-APHV for Tt.Ar (1.18; [1.02, 1.34]) and Me.Ar (1.34; [1.11, 1.57]), lower annual accrual rates pre-APHV for Ct.Ar/Tt.Ar (0.56; [0.29, 0.83]) and Ct.BMD (−0.07; [−0.17, 0.04]) and similar annual accrual rates pre-APHV for Ct.Ar (1.10; [0.94, 1.26]) and SSIp (1.14; [0.98, 1.30]). Post-APHV, boys demonstrated similar annual accrual rates for Ct.Ar/Tt.Ar (1.01; [0.71, 1.31]) and greater annual accrual rates for all other bone parameters compared with girls (Ratio: 1.23 – 2.63; 95% CI: 1.11 to 3.45). Our findings support those of Garn and others of accelerated periosteal apposition during adolescence, more evident in boys than girls. However, our findings challenge the notion of greater endocortical apposition in girls, suggesting instead that girls
The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) is investigating factors which affect the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Benin, Cameroon, Ecuador, Guatemala, India, Jamaica, Mexico, Nepal, and the Philippines. The research is funded through the US Agency for International Development's Office of Nutrition. 22.5% of women in Nepal marry before they reach age 14 years, with most marrying before age 18. The research in the country has found pregnancy to be a burden among these young women which threatens their nutritional and health status as well as that of their offspring. Unequal distribution of food in the household and heavy workloads increase the level of risk faced by adolescent females. Postponing pregnancy in adolescents, however, delays the onset of increased nutritional needs in girls who are already likely to be undernourished. Delayed pregnancy also gives girls more time to complete their physical growth and avoids the risk of medical emergencies in childbirth, such as hemorrhage which, if survived, can lead to anemia which is aggravated by nutritional deficiencies. The ICRW has therefore proposed four strategies for postponing first births among female adolescents: encouraging later marriage, providing family planning and reproductive health services specially for adolescents, providing family life education about options for the future, and increasing educational opportunities for girls.
Han, Seung Hee; Lee, Sung-Ho
In mammals, puberty is a process of acquiring reproductive competence, triggering by activation of hypothalamic kisspeptin (KiSS)-gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal circuit. During peripubertal period, not only the external genitalia but the internal reproductive organs have to be matured in response to the hormonal signals from hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (H-P-G) axis. In the present study, we evaluated the maturation of male rat accessory sex organs during the peripubertal period using tissue weight measurement, histological analysis and RT-PCR assay. Male rats were sacrificed at 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, and 70 postnatal days (PND). The rat accessory sex organs exhibited differential growth patterns compared to those of non-reproductive organs. The growth rate of the accessory sex organs were much higher than the those of non-reproductive organs. Also, the growth spurts occurred differentially even among the accessory sex organs; the order of prepubertal organ growth spurts is testis = epididymis > seminal vesicle = prostate. Histological study revealed that the presence of sperms in seminiferous tubules and epididymal ducts at day 50, indicating the puberty onset. The number of duct and the volume of duct in epididymis and prostate were inversely correlated during the experimental period. Our RT-PCR revealed that the levels of hypothalamic GnRH transcript were increased significantly on PND 40, suggesting the activation of hypothalamic GnRH pulse-generator before puberty onset. Studies on the peripubertal male accessory sex organs will provide useful references on the growth regulation mechanism which is differentially regulated during the period in andevrepogen-sensitive organs. The detailed references will render easier development of endocrine disruption assay.
Herrenkohl, Todd I; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Mason, W Alex; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F
This study investigates patterns in violence over 3 time points in early- to mid-adolescence in 2 statewide representative samples of youth, one in Washington State, USA, and the other in Victoria, Australia. Comparable data collection methods in both states were used to cross-nationally compare patterns of violence, risk factors, and responses to violence (school suspensions and arrests) in 2 policy contexts. Risk factors include early use of alcohol, binge drinking, involvement with antisocial peers, family conflict, poor family management, sensation seeking, and bully victimization. These are modeled as correlates of initial violence and predictors of change in violence over a 3-year period, from ages 12-15, for participating youth. Results suggest that patterns and predictors of violence are mostly similar in the 2 states. Initial levels of violence (age 13) and change over time in violence were associated in both states with more youth school suspensions and more police arrests in Grade 9. Some cross-national differences were also shown. For example, correlations of violence with gender and violence with binge drinking were stronger in Victoria, whereas correlations of violence with early use of alcohol and with antisocial peer involvement were stronger in Washington State. Antisocial peer involvement and family conflict were significant predictors of a gradual increase in violence from Grades 7-9 for youth in Victoria only. Implications are discussed with attention to prevention and intervention efforts.
Roaten, Gail K.
Brain growth and change are key factors in adolescent development and influence cognitions, emotions, and behavior. Much of the research on the adolescent brain is fairly recent, and mental health practitioners working with adolescents must have knowledge about these changes to more effectively engage their young clients in therapy. The…
Stagman, Shannon; Schwarz, Susan Wile; Powers, Danielle
Adolescence is an important period of physical, social, psychological, and cognitive growth. No longer children and not yet adults, adolescents make significant choices about their health and develop attitudes and health behaviors that continue into adulthood. Substance use disorders among adolescents can impede the attainment of important…
Roaten, Gail K.; Roaten, David J.
Brain growth and change is a key factor in adolescent development, influencing cognitions, emotions, and behavior. As technology has improved, so has the research on the adolescent brain. School counselors working with adolescents need to be familiar with recent literature to be more effective in their work with middle and high school students.…
Sirois, Patricia A.; Montepiedra, Grace; Kapetanovic, Suad; Williams, Paige L.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Malee, Kathleen; Garvie, Patricia A.; Kammerer, Betsy L.; Nichols, Sharon L.; Nozyce, Molly L.; Mintz, Mark; Mitchell, Wendy G.; Oleske, James M.
Objective To examine the relationships between physical growth and medications prescribed for symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with HIV. Methods Analysis of data from children with perinatally acquired HIV (N = 2251; age 3–19 years), with and without prescriptions for stimulant and nonstimulant medications used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, in a long-term observational study. Height and weight measurements were transformed to z scores and compared across medication groups. Changes in z scores during a 2-year interval were compared using multiple linear regression models adjusting for selected covariates. Results Participants with (n = 215) and without (n = 2036) prescriptions were shorter than expected based on US age and gender norms (p < .001). Children without prescriptions weighed less at baseline than children in the general population (p < .001) but gained height and weight at a faster rate (p < .001). Children prescribed stimulants were similar to population norms in baseline weight; their height and weight growth velocities were comparable with the general population and children without prescriptions (for weight, p = .511 and .100, respectively). Children prescribed nonstimulants had the lowest baseline height but were similar to population norms in baseline weight. Their height and weight growth velocities were comparable with the general population but significantly slower than children without prescriptions (p = .01 and .02, respectively). Conclusion The use of stimulants to treat symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder does not significantly exacerbate the potential for growth delay in children with HIV and may afford opportunities for interventions that promote physical growth. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:19827220
The pubertal growth spurt is a time of rapid changes in bone length, mass and structure, followed by the cessation of longitudinal growth. The two best studied anatomical areas in this respect are the metaphyses and the diaphyses of peripheral long bones. A model is presented here in which the speed of longitudinal growth and the resulting age gradient in metaphyseal bone are key factors in explaining the high incidence of distal radius fractures during puberty. As growth in length accelerates, the age of the bone structural elements at a given distance to the growth plate decreases, leaving less time for cortical thickening through trabecular coalescence. This leads to a discrepancy between stagnant metaphyseal bone strength and increasing mechanical requirements in the case of accidents. In comparison to the metaphysis, diaphyseal bone develops more in line with the increasing mechanical requirements, presumably because the bone formation rates needed for diaphyseal growth in width are only a fraction of the apposition rates in the metaphysis. It remains largely unexplored how local and systemic signals are integrated to achieve site-specific changes in bone structure.
Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François
This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for boys and girls. From age 14 to 19 (but not from age 12 to 14) a linear decrease in parental control was found for both genders. For girls, parent-child communication decreased in early adolescence, as indicated by decreasing parental solicitation, decreasing adolescent disclosure, and increasing secrecy. Girls' communication with parents intensified in middle adolescence, as indicated by increasing parental solicitation, increasing adolescent disclosure, and decreasing adolescent secrecy. For boys, disclosure declined in early adolescence, but secrecy and solicitation were stable throughout adolescence. Parental knowledge decreased from age 12 to 19 for both genders but was temporarily stable for middle adolescent girls. The meaning of these developmental changes, their timing, and gender differences are discussed.
Megestrol acetate to correct the nutritional status in an adolescent with growth hormone deficiency: Increase of appetite and body weight but only by increase of body water and fat mass followed by profound cortisol and testosterone depletion.
Schmid, I; Stachel, D K; Freudenberg, S; Schmitt, M; Schuster, F; Haas, R J
Megestrol acetate (MA) is a synthetic, orally active derivative of the naturally occurring hormone progesterone. MA is increasingly used to correct loss of appetite and improve the nutritional status. We used MA in an adolescent with growth hormone (GH) deficiency due to former irradiation therapy in order to evaluate if MA can improve the nutritional status. In fact, MA increased appetite and weight dose-dependent. The energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry changed from hypo- to normometabolism. However, weight gain was first primarily due to an increase in body water and then in fat mass. The gain of fat mass was much more prominent than the gain of fat free mass. As important side-effect, MA lead to rapid and profound cortisol and testosterone depletion after only 10 days with a long-lasting effect on testosterone depletion. Therefore, MA as a single therapy cannot be recommended to improve the nutritional status. If MA is given, cortisol and testosterone levels have to be monitored and supplemented as needed.
Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary
Background Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. Methods We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: “Children of 1997” (n = 8,327). Results Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23, -0.14), lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04), greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14) and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14), but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11), adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996), but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15), but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11), at 13 years, but similar blood pressure. Conclusions Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk. PMID:27088360
Kovacs, Patty Rust
By definition, adolescence begins with the onset of puberty (often starting earlier now) and ends when adult responsibilities are assumed (often starting later). This is a very long period of enormous change and rapid growth, physically, socially, sexually, cognitively, emotionally, motivationally, and morally. Adolescents are moving from…
Ho, Pauline S. K.; Chong, Sylvia N. Y.
Using Gagne's Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (DMGT) as a conceptual model, this study investigated the factors that influenced the talent development process of a musically gifted adolescent in Singapore. Five macro themes emerged as key catalysts that impacted the adolescent's talent growth: (1) natural abilities; (2) early musical…
In an effort to use adolescents' enthusiasm about blogging to design more effective writing experiences, Read analyzed its appeal and found that blogging satisfied two of Maslow's "hierarchy of needs": relatedness needs and growth needs. By studying the blogs of 6 adolescents, Read also discovered that the process of writing in blogs helps…
Paone, Tina R.; Malott, Krista M.; Maldonado, Jose M.
Group activity therapy has been promoted as an effective means of providing growth opportunities for adolescents through the use of structured, developmentally appropriate activities in a group setting. This article qualitatively explores outcomes of 12 sessions of group activity therapy with ethnically diverse adolescents in a school setting. The…
Adelson, Joseph; And Others
Adolescence was the focus of an Urban Development Forum, a component of the Research for Better Schools, that explored the factors of effective schooling in terms of their impact on young people in large, urban systems. This forum featured a major presentation by Joseph Adelson. Focusing his presentation on the cognitive growth in adolescence, he…
Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence. Although, these athletes apparently undergo sufficient physical activity to develop healthy bones, it is possible that other...
Cousminer, Diana L; Berry, Diane J; Timpson, Nicholas J; Ang, Wei; Thiering, Elisabeth; Byrne, Enda M; Taal, H Rob; Huikari, Ville; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Kerkhof, Marjan; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Marinelli, Marcella; Holst, Claus; Leinonen, Jaakko T; Perry, John R B; Surakka, Ida; Pietiläinen, Olli; Kettunen, Johannes; Anttila, Verneri; Kaakinen, Marika; Sovio, Ulla; Pouta, Anneli; Das, Shikta; Lagou, Vasiliki; Power, Chris; Prokopenko, Inga; Evans, David M; Kemp, John P; St Pourcain, Beate; Ring, Susan; Palotie, Aarno; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S; Kähönen, Mika; Warrington, Nicole M; Lye, Stephen J; Palmer, Lyle J; Tiesler, Carla M T; Flexeder, Claudia; Montgomery, Grant W; Medland, Sarah E; Hofman, Albert; Hakonarson, Hakon; Guxens, Mònica; Bartels, Meike; Salomaa, Veikko; Murabito, Joanne M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Ballester, Ferran; Bisgaard, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Koppelman, Gerard H; Grant, Struan F A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Martin, Nicholas G; Heinrich, Joachim; Pennell, Craig E; Raitakari, Olli T; Eriksson, Johan G; Smith, George Davey; Hyppönen, Elina; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; McCarthy, Mark I; Ripatti, Samuli; Widén, Elisabeth
The pubertal height growth spurt is a distinctive feature of childhood growth reflecting both the central onset of puberty and local growth factors. Although little is known about the underlying genetics, growth variability during puberty correlates with adult risks for hormone-dependent cancer and adverse cardiometabolic health. The only gene so far associated with pubertal height growth, LIN28B, pleiotropically influences childhood growth, puberty and cancer progression, pointing to shared underlying mechanisms. To discover genetic loci influencing pubertal height and growth and to place them in context of overall growth and maturation, we performed genome-wide association meta-analyses in 18 737 European samples utilizing longitudinally collected height measurements. We found significant associations (P < 1.67 × 10(-8)) at 10 loci, including LIN28B. Five loci associated with pubertal timing, all impacting multiple aspects of growth. In particular, a novel variant correlated with expression of MAPK3, and associated both with increased prepubertal growth and earlier menarche. Another variant near ADCY3-POMC associated with increased body mass index, reduced pubertal growth and earlier puberty. Whereas epidemiological correlations suggest that early puberty marks a pathway from rapid prepubertal growth to reduced final height and adult obesity, our study shows that individual loci associating with pubertal growth have variable longitudinal growth patterns that may differ from epidemiological observations. Overall, this study uncovers part of the complex genetic architecture linking pubertal height growth, the timing of puberty and childhood obesity and provides new information to pinpoint processes linking these traits.
Mingarro, Mónica; Vega-Rubín de Celis, Silvia; Astola, Antonio; Pendón, Carlos; Valdivia, Manuel Martínez; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume
Regulation of somatolactin (SL) and the somatotropic axis was examined year-around at three different stocking times (spring, summer, and autumn) in a Mediterranean fish, the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The overall timing of plasma growth hormone (GH) increase was similar among trials (late spring-early summer), but the range of variation year-around was different and followed changes in food intake. Total plasma insulin-like growth factor-I primarily followed changes on growth rates, and a close positive correlation between IGF-I and thermal-unit growth coefficient (TGC) was found irrespective of fish stocking time. Thus, the activation of the somatotropic axis preceded always warm growth spurts, whereas the rise of SL in concurrence with low plasma cortisol levels was found at late autumn. This up-regulation of circulating SL titres preceded the winter inhibition of feeding, and it was more severe in big fish (spring and summer stocking times) than in small fish (autumn stocking time), growing with a relative high efficiency during the cold season despite of a severe hypertriglyceridemia and a high hepatosomatic index. These new insights provide good evidence for a different timing of GH and SL increases, and it is likely that the dominant role of SL in energy homeostasis is to be a mediator of the adaptation to fasting after replenishment of body fat stores, whereas GH and IGF-I are perceived as growth-promoting signals in times of food intake and increasing temperature and day-length.
A longitudinal study of the effects of surgery, radiation, growth hormone, and orthodontic therapy on the craniofacial skeleton of a patient evidencing hypopituitarism and a Class II malocclusion: report of a case.
Newman, G V; Newman, R A
Facial growth is an important factor for the orthodontists in the timing of treatment of the patient with a Class II malocclusion who has a potential for retarded growth. This patient had an isolated idiopathic growth hormone deficiency and hypothyroidism and was treated during a circumpubertal growth spurt in two phases. The first phase involved a functional appliance and the second was accomplished with fixed appliances. The case report affords one of the rare opportunities to document and analyze the multifactorial effects of surgery, radiation, growth and thyroid hormones, and orthodontic treatment on the craniofacial growth of a patient evidencing a Class II, Division 1 malocclusion (retrognathic mandible). Hand-wrist, panoramic, cephalometric radiographs, dental, and skeletal height and weight measurements are employed. Six-year posttreatment dental and craniofacial skeletal changes and management problems are presented as well.
Braverman, P K; Strasburger, V C
Adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages. One half of the adolescents in the United States are sexually active. This article reviews adolescent sexual activity, including rates of sexual activity, sexual practices, gay and lesbian youth, and factors affecting the initiation of sexual activity. In addition, adolescent pregnancy, with possible outcomes and effects on teen parents and their offspring, is discussed.
Sirpresi, S; Antoniazzi, F; Costantini, E; Zamboni, G; Tatò, L
Adolescence is usually defined as the period of rapid physical and psychological growth and development occurring during the second decade of life. After the introduction about the physiology of puberty and menstrual cycle, the major problems in female adolescents are discussed: delayed puberty, hypo and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, causes of primary and secondary amenorrhea, menstrual irregularity, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, breast disorders, hirsutism, acne. Finally, adolescent pregnancy prevention and contraception are discussed. The Authors want to stress the importance of the endocrinological and gynaecological disorders in female adolescents and their impact on the psychological and emotional development at this very delicate age.
Chaisson, Nicole; Shore, William B
Adolescence is marked by complex physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development, which can be stressful for families and adolescents. Before the onset of puberty, providers should clearly lay the groundwork for clinical care and office visits during the adolescent years. This article addresses the guidelines and current legal standards for confidentiality in adolescent care, the most frequently used psychosocial screening tools, and current recommendations for preventive health services and immunizations. Through the creation of teen-friendly clinics, primary care providers are well positioned to offer guidance and support to teens and their parents during this time of transition and growth.
Gruber, E; Chambers, C V
The cognitive skills that develop during adolescence are crucial to successful contraceptive practice because most birth control methods require at least a minimal ability to plan for, acquire, and utilize them at the appropriate time. Consequently, we must understand the special developmental setting in which adolescent sexual growth and experimentation occurs in order to have an impact on their contraceptive use. To provide optimal service to adolescents, the developmental and medical aspects should be taken into account in order to determine the best choice for each patient. This article demonstrates how mental health and medical providers can work together to better serve the adolescent population.
Lee, Peter A; Reiter, Edward O
Long before adolescence, males hear insinuations about adequacy of penis size. This concern may heighten during teen years and persist to varying degrees into adulthood. Men tend to underestimate their own penis size. This chapter provides objective information about anatomy and growth of the penis, including data about normal sizes. Published data indicate that, although full growth may be reached at different ages during adolescence, size is similar for most adult males. Hopefully, this information will provide the basis for teenaged males to develop a healthy perspective and to avoid intimidation by unfounded claims about sexual enhancement or size enlargement techniques.
Petras, Hanno; Masyn, Katherine; Ialongo, Nick
We examine the impact of two universal preventive interventions in first grade on the growth of aggressive/disruptive behavior in grades 1-3 and 6-12 through the application of a latent transition growth mixture model (LT-GMM). Both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions were designed to reduce the risk for later conduct problems by enhancing the child behavior management practices of teachers and parents, respectively. We first modeled growth trajectories in each of the two time periods with separate GMMs. We then associated latent trajectory classes of aggressive/disruptive behavior across the two time periods using a transition model for the corresponding latent class variables. Subsequently, we tested whether the interventions had direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 1-3 and 6-12. For males, both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions had significant direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 6-12, whereas only the classroom-centered intervention had a significant effect on class membership in grades 1-3. Significant direct effects for females were confined to grades 1-3 for the classroom-centered intervention. Further analyses revealed that both the classroom-centered and family-centered intervention males were significantly more likely than control males to transition from the high trajectory class in grades 1-3 to a low class in grades 6-12. Effects for females in classroom-centered interventions went in the hypothesized direction but did not reach significance.
Makidono, Akari; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Mori, Miki; Yagata, Hiroshi; Onoda, Yui; Kikuchi, Mari; Nozaki, Taiki; Saida, Yukihisa; Nakamura, Seigo; Suzuki, Koyu
Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare fibroepithelial lesion and particularly uncommon in adolescent girls. It is thought to arise from the periductal rather than intralobular stroma. Usually, it is seen as a well-defined mass. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth is extremely rare. Here we report a girl who has a phyllodes tumor with intraductal growth.
Brand, Serge; Kirov, Roumen
Restoring sleep is strongly associated with a better physical, cognitive, and psychological well-being. By contrast, poor or disordered sleep is related to impairment of cognitive and psychological functioning and worsened physical health. These associations are well documented not only in adults but also in children and adolescents. Importantly, adolescence is hallmarked by dramatic maturational changes in sleep and its neurobiological regulation, hormonal status, and many psychosocial and physical processes. Thus, the role of sleep in mental and physical health during adolescence and in adolescent patients is complex. However, it has so far received little attention. This review first presents contemporary views about the complex neurobiology of sleep and its functions with important implications for adolescence. Second, existing complex relationships between common adolescent somatic/organic, sleep-related, and psychiatric disorders and certain sleep alterations are discussed. It is concluded that poor or altered sleep in adolescent patients may trigger and maintain many psychiatric and physical disorders or combinations of these conditions, which presumably hinder recovery and may cross into later stages of life. Therefore, timely diagnosis and management of sleep problems appear critical for growth and development in adolescent patients. PMID:21731894
Mothi, S N; Swamy, V H T; Lala, Mamatha M; Karpagam, S; Gangakhedkar, R R
The term "Adolescence" literally means "to emerge" or "to attain identity" and is essentially the period of rapid physical and psychological development starting from the onset of puberty to complete growth. All adolescents go through a myriad of physical, psychological, neurobehavioural, hormonal and social developmental changes. Given the social taboos often surrounding puberty, the lives of millions of adolescents worldwide are at risk because they do not have the information, skills, health services and support they need to go through the enormous, rapid changes that adolescence brings. A HIV infected adolescent particularly presents enormous challenges in the current cultural and social context of India. The distinct groups of adolescents in the context of HIV are those who were infected at birth and survived and those who became infected during adolescence. Risk factors and situations for adolescents contracting HIV infection are life on streets, lack of adult love/care and support, extreme poverty, child trafficking, migrant population, exploitation in terms of sex and labor. HIV-infected adolescents with long standing HIV infection often face considerable physical challenges - delayed growth and development, late puberty, stunting/wasting, malnutrition, etc. Added to this are many other challenges related mainly to disclosure of HIV status, developmental delay, and transition from pediatric to adult care, including the choice of appropriate treatment regimens and adherence. Psychological and social factors deeply impact the ability to deal with the illness and must be addressed at all levels to encourage and support this vulnerable group.
Friedman, H L
The health and well-being of adolescents is closely intertwined with their physical, psychological and social development, but this is put at risk by sexual and reproductive health hazards which are increasing in much of the world. Changes in population growth and distribution, the rise of telecommunications, the increase in travel and a decline in the family, as well as a generally earlier start of menarche and later age of marriage are contributing to an increase in unprotected sexual relations before marriage. This, combined with risks from early marriage, result in too early or unwanted pregnancy and childbirth, induced abortion in hazardous circumstances and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection leading to AIDS. With more than half the world's population below the age of 25, and 4 out of 5 young people living in developing countries with inadequate access to prevention and care, there is an urgent need for action. Young women are particularly vulnerable. Mortality and morbidity from early pregnancy whether ending in childbirth or abortion, is much higher for the younger adolescent. Young women, especially those who have less formal education, are more vulnerable to pressures for marriage, or sexual relations before marriage, often with older men. Young people generally lack adequate knowledge about their own development and information on how to get help. Those who could help are rarely trained for working with adolescents, and services which are generally designed for adults or children often deter young people from getting help when they most need it. Policy and legislation relating to sexual and reproductive health issues are often contradictory, and unclear or unenforced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Larson, Reed; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly
As an outgrowth of the theory of flow, looks at some fine distinctions regarding the adolescent's optimal conditions for growth. Points to the importance of the adolescent's ability to reinterpret conflicts which crop up in raw experience, to overcome psychic entropy with long-term challenges or "life themes," and to find new meaning and…
Smith, Chad E.; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Lieberth, Ann
Adolescent health and health literacy are critical health topics recognized in Healthy People 2020. Evidence indicates that adolescents who are d/Deaf have unique health-related needs, yet health communication efforts have not reached them. Despite the Internet's exponential growth and the growth of online health information-seeking behavior among…
Anevska, Kristina; Gallo, Linda A; Tran, Melanie; Jefferies, Andrew J; Wark, John D; Wlodek, Mary E; Romano, Tania
Low birth weight, due to uteroplacental insufficiency, results in programmed bone deficits in the first generation (F1). These deficits may be passed onto subsequent generations. We characterized the effects of being born small on maternal bone health during pregnancy; and aimed to characterize the contribution of the maternal environment and germ line effects to bone health in F2 offspring from mothers born small. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation (or sham) surgery was performed on female F0 WKY rats on gestational day 18 (term 22days) to induce uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction. Control and Restricted F1 female offspring were allocated to a non-pregnant or pregnant group. To generate F2 offspring, F1 females were allocated to either non-embryo or embryo transfer groups. Embryo transfer was performed on gestational day 1, where second generation (F2) embryos were gestated (donor-in-recipient) in either a Control (Control-in-Control, Restricted-in-Control) or Restricted (Control-in-Restricted, Restricted-in-Restricted) mother. Restricted F1 females were born 10-15% lighter than Controls. Restricted non-pregnant females had shorter femurs, reduced trabecular and cortical bone mineral contents, trabecular density and bone geometry measures determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) compared to non-pregnant Controls. Pregnancy restored the bone deficits that were present in F1 Restricted females. F2 non-embryo transfer male and female offspring were born of normal weight, while F2 embryo transfer males and females gestated in a Control mother (Control-in-Control, Restricted-in-Control) were heavier at birth compared to offspring gestated in a Restricted mother (Restricted-in-Restricted, Control-in-Restricted). Male F2 Restricted embryo groups (Restricted-in-Control and Restricted-in-Restricted) had accelerated postnatal growth. There was no transmission of bone deficits present at 35days or 6months in F2 offspring. Embryo
Ratcliffe, S G; Pan, H; McKie, M
Longitudinal measurements of height, sitting height and leg length are compared between 11 XXX girls identified by cytogenetic screening, and 16 chromosomally normal controls from the same population using a nonparametric method. While height velocity did not differ between the two groups either during the pubertal or the mid-childhood spurts, leg length velocity was significantly increased during the mid-childhood spurt, between 4 and 9 years of age. A further contribution to the increased leg length came from the slower decline in leg length velocity at the end of the pubertal spurt. The possible mechanisms involved in these changes are discussed.
Smith, Robert F; McDonald, Craig G; Bergstrom, Hadley C; Ehlinger, Daniel G; Brielmaier, Jennifer M
Adolescent nicotine induces persisting changes in development of neural connectivity. A large number of brain changes occur during adolescence as the CNS matures. These changes suggest that the adolescent brain may still be susceptible to developmental alterations by substances which impact its growth. Here we review recent studies on adolescent nicotine which show that the adolescent brain is differentially sensitive to nicotine-induced alterations in dendritic elaboration, in several brain areas associated with processing reinforcement and emotion, specifically including nucleus accumbens, medial prefrontal cortex, basolateral amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and dentate gyrus. Both sensitivity to nicotine, and specific areas responding to nicotine, differ between adolescent and adult rats, and dendritic changes in response to adolescent nicotine persist into adulthood. Areas sensitive to, and not sensitive to, structural remodeling induced by adolescent nicotine suggest that the remodeling generally corresponds to the extended amygdala. Evidence suggests that dendritic remodeling is accompanied by persisting changes in synaptic connectivity. Modeling, electrophysiological, neurochemical, and behavioral data are consistent with the implication of our anatomical studies showing that adolescent nicotine induces persisting changes in neural connectivity. Emerging data thus suggest that early adolescence is a period when nicotine consumption, presumably mediated by nicotine-elicited changes in patterns of synaptic activity, can sculpt late brain development, with consequent effects on synaptic interconnection patterns and behavior regulation. Adolescent nicotine may induce a more addiction-prone phenotype, and the structures altered by nicotine also subserve some emotional and cognitive functions, which may also be altered. We suggest that dendritic elaboration and associated changes are mediated by activity-dependent synaptogenesis, acting in part
Holmbeck, Grayson N.; DeLucia, Christian; Essner, Bonnie; Kelly, Lauren; Zebracki, Kathy; Friedman, Deborah; Jandasek, Barbara
Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at…
Energy requirements of infants, children, and adolescents are defined as the amount of energy needed to balance total energy expenditure (TEE) at a desirable level of physical activity, and to support optimal growth and development consistent with long-term health. The latest FAO/WHO/UNU recommendat...
Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents are defined as the amount of energy needed to balance total energy expenditure (TEE) at a desirable level of physical activity, and to support optimal growth and development consistent with long-term health. The latest FAO/WHO/UNU recommendati...
This article details the reasons behind adolescents' attraction to cults. It is recommended that parents, teachers, and counselors familiarize themselves with the warning signs. Suggestions are offered on how to make adolescents less vulnerable to cult overtures.
Williams, Paula G; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Greenley, Rachel Neff
In this article, a biopsychosocial model of adolescent development is used as an organizing framework for a review of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention research with adolescent populations. During adolescence many critical health behaviors emerge, affecting future disease outcomes in adulthood. In addition, most of the predominant causes of morbidity and mortality in adolescence are unique to this period of development, indicating that health-focused interventions must be tailored specifically to adolescents. Moreover, it is during adolescence that lifelong patterns of self-management of and adjustment to chronic health conditions are established. Thus, an increased focus on adolescence in health psychology research is important both to improve the health of adolescents per se and to optimize health trajectories into adulthood.
Benson, Mark J.; Buehler, Cheryl
Beginning in sixth grade, 416 adolescents and their parents participated in four waves of data collection involving family observations and multiple-reporter assessments. Ecological theory and the Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) model guided the hypotheses and analyses. Lagged, growth curve models revealed that both hostile family interactions and peer deviance affiliation predicted adolescent aggression in the subsequent year. Family warmth played only a minor role in protecting against adolescent aggression. In hostile or low warmth families, peer deviance affiliation linked to a declining aggression trajectory consistent with the arena of comfort hypothesis. The longitudinal findings suggest a non-additive, synergistic interplay between family and peer contexts across time in adding nuance to the understanding adolescent aggression. PMID:22497273
Anastasopoulos, Dimitris; Soumaki, Eugenia; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris
The article begins with a brief exploration of the various aspects of adolescent's psychic qualities as these are described in Greek mythology. It is argued that myths are an integral part of the way that adolescence is perceived and myths play an important role in adolescents' psychic and external world, as well as in their mythological thinking.…
Understanding the nature of brain development in adolescence helps explain why adolescents can vacillate so often between mature and immature behavior. Early and middle adolescence, in particular, are times of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior because the brain's reward center is easily aroused, but the systems that control…
The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…
Maryland State Department of Education, 2008
Periodically, Maryland's sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders are surveyed to determine the nature, extent, and trend of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents. The "2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey (MAS)" presents the latest findings regarding ATOD use by Maryland's adolescents and compares State and local…
Strasburgber, Victor C., Ed.; Comstock, George A., Ed.
In the 1990s, the media represent the single most easily modifiable influence on children and adolescents. This series of articles offers medically oriented practitioners a review of current research on the influence of the media on children and adolescents. The 13 articles are: (1) "Children, Adolescents, and the Media: Five Crucial…
Soliman, Ashraf T; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said; Kassem, Islam
The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in adolescents is variable but considerably high in many countries, especially in Middle-east and Southeast Asia. Different factors attribute to this deficiency including lack of sunlight exposure due to cultural dress codes and veiling or due to pigmented skin, and less time spent outdoors, because of hot weather, and lower vitamin D intake. A potent adaptation process significantly modifies the clinical presentation and therefore clinical presentations may be subtle and go unnoticed, thus making true prevalence studies difficult. Adolescents with severe VDD may present with vague manifestations including pain in weight-bearing joints, back, thighs and/or calves, difficulty in walking and/or climbing stairs, or running and muscle cramps. Adaptation includes increased parathormone (PTH) and deceased insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion. PTH enhances the tubular reabsorption of Ca and stimulates the kidneys to produce 1, 25-(OH) 2D3 that increases intestinal calcium absorption and dissolves the mineralized collagen matrix in bone, causing osteopenia and osteoporosis to provide enough Ca to prevent hypocalcaemia. Decreased insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) delays bone growth to economize calcium consumption. Radiological changes are not uncommon and include osteoporosis/osteopenia affecting long bones as well as vertebrae and ribs, bone cysts, decalcification of the metaphysis of the long bones and pseudo fractures. In severe cases pathological fractures and deformities may occur. Vitamin D treatment of adolescents with VDD differs considerably in different studies and proved to be effective in treating all clinical, biochemical, and radiological manifestations. Different treatment regiments for VDD have been discussed and presented in this mini-review for practical use. Adequate vitamin D replacement after treating VDD, improving calcium intake (milk and dairy products), encouraging adequate exposure
Cui, Ming; Donnellan, M. Brent
The present study examined trajectories of marital satisfaction among couples with adolescent children and evaluated how changes in parents’ conflict over raising adolescent children were associated with changes in marital satisfaction over four years. Using a prospective, longitudinal research design and controlling for family socioeconomic status, dyadic growth curve analysis from a sample of 431 couples with adolescent children indicated that marital satisfaction decreased over time for parents with adolescent children, and that the trajectories for mothers and fathers were substantially linked. More importantly, the study demonstrated that increases or decreases in parents’ marital conflict over raising adolescent children were associated with corresponding decreases or increases in marital satisfaction for both mothers and fathers. PMID:20161030
Deschamps, Jean-Pierre; And Others
This report discusses the health of adolescents and youth in the tropics. The report is divided into five sections. The first section defines adolescence, youth, the duration of adolescence, the age group and its problems, and societies in adolescence. The second section discusses adolescence in relation to society and culture and focuses on the…
Ott, Mary A; Sucato, Gina S
A working knowledge of contraception will assist the pediatrician in both sexual health promotion as well as treatment of common adolescent gynecologic problems. Best practices in adolescent anticipatory guidance and screening include a sexual health history, screening for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, counseling, and if indicated, providing access to contraceptives. Pediatricians' long-term relationships with adolescents and families allow them to help promote healthy sexual decision-making, including abstinence and contraceptive use. Additionally, medical indications for contraception, such as acne, dysmenorrhea, and heavy menstrual bleeding, are frequently uncovered during adolescent visits. This technical report provides an evidence base for the accompanying policy statement and addresses key aspects of adolescent contraceptive use, including the following: (1) sexual history taking, confidentiality, and counseling; (2) adolescent data on the use and side effects of newer contraceptive methods; (3) new data on older contraceptive methods; and (4) evidence supporting the use of contraceptives in adolescent patients with complex medical conditions.
In this issue of the Jornal de Pediatria, Silva et al. compared the growth patterns of Brazilian children and adolescents with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) growth charts. The Silva et al. study has significant public health implications...
Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.
Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…
Hawley, Patricia H.
Adolescence is a period characterized by well-documented growth and change, including reproductive, social, and cognitive development. Though not unheard of, modern evolutionary approaches to adolescence are still relatively uncommon. Recent treatises in developmental biology, however, have yielded new tools through which to explore human…
Benson, Mark J.; Buehler, Cheryl
Beginning in sixth grade at an average age of 11.9 years, 416 adolescents and their parents participated in 4 waves of data collection involving family observations and multiple-reporter assessments. Ecological theory and the process-person-context-time (PPCT) model guided the hypotheses and analyses. Lagged, growth curve models revealed that…
Vigil, Gloria J; Clements, Paul T
The act of homicide may influence the worldviews of children and adolescents. Problematic beliefs of uncertainty, inadequacy, perceiving the world as dangerous, self-denial, and lack of control can contribute to complicated grief in children and adolescents, and can potentially disrupt their normal psychosocial growth and development. Mental health professionals' understanding of grief after the homicide of a family member enhances their ability to intervene with and support young people struggling to cope with and adapt to a sudden loss.
Mason, W. Alex; Hitch, Julia E.; Kosterman, Rick; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hawkins, J. David
Background: This study examined adolescent delinquency and alcohol use in relation to young adult crime, alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and risky sex. Analyses further examined the influences of late childhood involvement in these problem behavior outcomes, with mediation through teen delinquency and alcohol use, and examined differences in the…
Andersen, Susan L
Adolescence as highlighted in this special issue is a period of tremendous growth, synaptic exuberance, and plasticity, but also a period for the emergence of mental illness and addiction. This commentary aims to stimulate research on prevention science to reduce the impact of early life events that often manifest during adolescence. By promoting a better understanding of what creates a normal and abnormal trajectory, the reviews by van Duijvenvoorde et al., Kilford et al., Lichenstein et al., and Tottenham and Galvan in this special issue comprehensively describe how the adolescent brain develops under typical conditions and how this process can go awry in humans. Preclinical reviews also within this issue describe how adolescents have prolonged extinction periods to maximize learning about their environment (Baker et al.), whereas Schulz and Sisk focus on the importance of puberty and how it interacts with stress (Romeo). Caballero and Tseng then set the stage of describing the neural circuitry that is often central to these changes and psychopathology. Factors that affect the mis-wiring of the brain for illness, including prenatal exposure to anti-mitotic agents (Gomes et al.) and early life stress and inflammation (Schwarz and Brenhouse), are included as examples of how exposure to early adversity manifests. These reviews are synthesized and show how information from the maturational stages that precede or occur during adolescence is likely to hold the key towards optimizing development to produce an adolescent and adult that is resilient and well adapted to their environment.
Adolescence as highlighted in this special issue is a period of tremendous growth, synaptic exuberance, and plasticity, but also a period for the emergence of mental illness and addiction. This commentary aims to stimulate research on prevention science to reduce the impact of early life events that often manifest during adolescence. By promoting a better understanding of what creates a normal and abnormal trajectory, the reviews by van Duijvenvoorde et al., Kilford et al., Lichenstein et al., and Tottenham and Galvan in this special issue comprehensively describe how the adolescent brain develops under typical conditions and how this process can go awry in humans. Preclinical reviews also within this issue describe how adolescents have prolonged extinction periods to maximize learning about their environment (Baker et al.), whereas Schulz and Sisk focus on the importance of puberty and how it interacts with stress (Romeo). Caballero and Tseng then set the stage of describing the neural circuitry that is often central to these changes and psychopathology. Factors that affect the mis-wiring of the brain for illness, including prenatal exposure to anti-mitotic agents (Gomes et al.) and early life stress and inflammation (Schwarz and Brenhouse), are included as examples of how exposure to early adversity manifests. These reviews are synthesized and show how information from the maturational stages that precede or occur during adolescence is likely to hold the key towards optimizing development to produce an adolescent and adult that is resilient and well adapted to their environment. PMID:27423540
Huang, Cindy Y; Stormshak, Elizabeth A
Early adolescence is marked by transitions for adolescents, and is also a time for identity exploration. Ethnic identity is an essential component of youths' sense of self. In this study we examined the trajectories of ethnic identity for adolescents from ethnic minority backgrounds during a 4-year period. Six latent class trajectories were identified in the study: the majority of adolescents (41.8%) displayed growth in ethnic identity over 4 years, followed by 30.1% whose high levels of ethnic identity remained stable, then by those who experienced moderate decreases in ethnic identity (10.8%). Another class of adolescents (7.3%) showed significant declines in ethnic identity level, followed by 5.5% of adolescents with significant increases, and finally by 4.5% of adolescents with low stable levels of ethnic identity during this developmental period. The classes differed by ethnicity, and adolescents with increasing high levels of ethnic identity reported better parent-child relationships. Findings and implications are discussed.
Pinto, Raquel Borges; Schneider, Ana Claudia Reis; da Silveira, Themis Reverbel
Several conditions, especially chronic liver diseases, can lead to cirrhosis in children and adolescents. Most cases in clinical practice are caused by similar etiologies. In infants, cirrhosis is most often caused by biliary atresia and genetic-metabolic diseases, while in older children, it tends to result from autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson’s disease, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and primary sclerosing cholangitis. The symptoms of cirrhosis in children and adolescents are similar to those of adults. However, in pediatric patients, the first sign of cirrhosis is often poor weight gain. The complications of pediatric cirrhosis are similar to those observed in adult patients, and include gastrointestinal bleeding caused by gastroesophageal varices, ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. In pediatric patients, special attention should be paid to the nutritional alterations caused by cirrhosis, since children and adolescents have higher nutritional requirements for growth and development. Children and adolescents with chronic cholestasis are at risk for several nutritional deficiencies. Malnutrition can have severe consequences for both pre- and post-liver transplant patients. The treatment of cirrhosis-induced portal hypertension in children and adolescents is mostly based on methods developed for adults. The present article will review the diagnostic and differential diagnostic aspects of end-stage liver disease in children, as well as the major treatment options for this condition. PMID:25848466
Pratt, H D; Greydanus, D E
Violence is a form of aggressive behavior that has a debilitating effect on the optimal growth and development of our youth. Violence pervades the lives of a significant proportion of all adolescents in the U.S., but has a particularly devastating impact on males and minority youth. Adolescent males are more likely to be victimizers and victims of violence and aggression, except in cases of sexual victimization and suicide attempts. For all adolescents, exposure to violence at home, school, or in the community is associated with aggression later in life, the development of supportive attitudes toward aggression and violence, psychological distress, school absenteeism, academic dysfunction, and subsequent injury. Violence has historical, cultural, and societal roots in our world. Until and unless we begin to understand where violence fits on the continuum of aggressive behavior and until we address the politics of violence, we will remain conflicted and paralyzed by the dangers our youth face. By understanding the social, political, and developmental aspects of violence and understanding the nature and characteristics of resilient children, we can better prepare our youth for life. We may not be able to protect our adolescents from exposure to violence, but we most certainly can help them develop the necessary skills to survive such exposure and work to enhance and strengthen their access to protective factors so that they can experience a healthy transition from adolescence to adulthood in this new millennium.
Growth is defined as an increase of size over time with time usually defined as physical time. Yet, the rigid metric of physical time is not directly relevant to the internal dynamics of growth. Growth is linked to maturation. Children and adolescents differ in the tempo at which they mature. One calendar year differs in its meaning in a fast maturing, and in a slow maturing child. The slow child needs more calendar years for completing the same stage of maturity. Many characteristics in the human growth curve are tempo characteristics. Tempo - being fast or slow maturing - has to be carefully separated from amplitude - being tall or short. Several characteristic phenomena such as catch-up growth after periods of illness and starvation are largely tempo phenomena, and do usually not affect the amplitude component of growth. Applying Functional Data Analysis and Principal Component Analysis, the two main sources of height variance: tempo and amplitude can statistically be separate and quantified. Tempo appears to be more sensitive than amplitude to nutrition, health and environmental stress. An appropriate analysis of growth requires disentangling its two major components: amplitude and tempo. The assessment of the developmental tempo thus is an integral part of assessing child and adolescent growth. Though an Internet portal is currently available to process small amounts of height data (www.willi-will-wachsen.com) for separately determining amplitude and tempo in growth, there is urgent need of better and practical solutions for analyzing individual growth.
URLACHER, SAMUEL S.; BLACKWELL, AARON D.; LIEBERT, MELISSA A.; MADIMENOS, FELICIA C.; CEPON-ROBINS, TARA J.; GILDNER, THERESA E.; SNODGRASS, J. JOSH; SUGIYAMA, LAWRENCE S.
Objectives Information concerning physical growth among small-scale populations remains limited, yet such data are critical to local health efforts and to foster basic understandings of human life history and variation in childhood development. Using a large dataset and robust modeling methods, this study aims to describe growth from birth to adulthood among the indigenous Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Methods Mixed-longitudinal measures of height, weight, and BMI were collected from Shuar participants (n = 2,463; age 0–29 years). Centile growth curves and tables were created for each anthropometric variable of interest using GAMLSS. Pseudo-velocity and LMS curves were generated to further investigate Shuar patterns of growth and to facilitate comparison with U.S. CDC and multinational WHO growth references. Results The Shuar are small throughout life and exhibit complex patterns of growth that differ substantially from those of international references. Similar to other Amazonians, Shuar growth in weight compares more favorably to references than growth in height, resulting in BMI curves that approximate international medians. Several additional characteristics of Shuar development are noteworthy, including large observed variation in body size early in life, significant infant growth faltering, extended male growth into adulthood, and a markedly early female pubertal growth spurt in height. Phenotypic plasticity and genetic selection in response to local environmental factors may explain many of these patterns. Conclusions Providing a detailed reference of growth for the Shuar and other Amazonian populations, this study possesses direct clinical application and affords valuable insight into childhood health and the ecology of human growth. PMID:26126793
The concern for the consequences of adolescent pregnancy are discussed. Childbirth among unmarried teenagers results in a higher incidence of low birth weight babies, a higher infant mortality and morbidity rate, a higher percentage of childbirth complications, a decreased likelihood of completing school, a higher risk of unemployment and welfare dependency, limited vocational opportunities, larger families, and vulnerability to psychological problems and distress. In 1988, 66% of all births to teens occurred outside of marriage. Out of wedlock live births to teens 14 years rose from 80.8% in 1970 to 92.5% in 1986, and for teens 15-19 years, 29.5% to 60.8%. 70% have a repeat pregnancy within the 1st year following their 1st childbirth. 50% have a 2nd child within 3 years. Most 2nd pregnancies occur in teenagers who are not using effective contractive methods, and the pregnancy is frequently unplanned and unwanted. The factors affecting the rate of 2nd pregnancy are age, race, marital status, education, and economic status. Teenage mothers tend to come from disadvantaged backgrounds, and childbearing compounds the poverty. Aid to families with dependent children 50% of payments were to teen mothers for the birth of their 1st child. Teen fathers are usually low income providers. The public costs are high. Some teen fathers abandon their children after birth, but many are interested in supporting their child. Specific programs to help prepare fathers are needed. Teenage mothers are stressed by child care arrangements, living arrangements, employment, school, relationships with peers, relationships with parents, housework and errands, health, finances, job counseling, community services, and child care information. Parents play an important role in guiding sexual involvement and early childbearing, and need to understand why teens get pregnant and to keep channels of communication open. Teens are influenced by media, peer pressure, lack of self-esteem, unhappiness
Contraception is a pillar in reducing adolescent pregnancy rates. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians develop a working knowledge of contraception to help adolescents reduce risks of and negative health consequences related to unintended pregnancy. Over the past 10 years, a number of new contraceptive methods have become available to adolescents, newer guidance has been issued on existing contraceptive methods, and the evidence base for contraception for special populations (adolescents who have disabilities, are obese, are recipients of solid organ transplants, or are HIV infected) has expanded. The Academy has addressed contraception since 1980, and this policy statement updates the 2007 statement on contraception and adolescents. It provides the pediatrician with a description and rationale for best practices in counseling and prescribing contraception for adolescents. It is supported by an accompanying technical report.
Black, Amanda Y; Fleming, Nathalie A; Rome, Ellen S
Adolescent pregnancy remains a public health issue with significant medical, emotional, and societal consequences for the adolescent mother, her child, and her family. Teenage pregnancies are at higher risk of many adverse outcomes, including preterm delivery, low birth weight, and neonatal and infant mortality. Teen pregnancy and motherhood may have detrimental effects on the teen mother and her child; antenatal and postpartum care need to be adapted to meet the special needs of pregnant adolescents because standard obstetrical environments may not do so. This comprehensive review of adolescent pregnancy will highlight global statistics, factors contributing to adolescent pregnancy, social implications of adolescent pregnancy, obstetrical and neonatal outcomes, and the importance of multidisciplinary antenatal and postnatal care.
Ayhan, Aynur Bütün; Simşek, Sükran; Aral, Neriman; Baran, Gülen
The goal of this study was to characterize loneliness among adolescents with respect to socioeconomic level, sex, and mothers' and fathers' education. General information about the 400 adolescents and their families were obtained. The UCLA Loneliness Scale was administered. Results of a hierarchical multiple regression showed that mothers' educational level explained a slight but statistically significant amount of variance in adolescents' loneliness scores while sex, socioeconomic level and fathers' educational level did not.
Tamburrino, Federica; Gibertoni, Dino; Rossi, Cesare; Scarano, Emanuela; Perri, Annamaria; Montanari, Francesca; Fantini, Maria Pia; Pession, Andrea; Tartaglia, Marco; Mazzanti, Laura
RASopathies are developmental disorders caused by heterozygous germline mutations in genes encoding proteins in the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. Reduced growth is a common feature. Several studies generated data on growth, final height (FH), and height velocity (HV) after growth hormone (GH) treatment in patients with these disorders, particularly in Noonan syndrome, the most common RASopathy. These studies, however, refer to heterogeneous cohorts in terms of molecular information, GH status, age at start and length of therapy, and GH dosage. This work reports growth data in 88 patients affected by RASopathies with molecularly confirmed diagnosis, together with statistics on body proportions, pubertal pattern, and FH in 33, including 16 treated with GH therapy for proven GH deficiency. Thirty-three patients showed GH deficiency after pharmacological tests, and were GH-treated for an average period of 6.8 ± 4.8 years. Before starting therapy, HV was -2.6 ± 1.3 SDS, and mean basal IGF1 levels were -2.0 ± 1.1 SDS. Long-term GH therapy, starting early during childhood, resulted in a positive height response compared with untreated patients (1.3 SDS in terms of height-gain), normalizing FH for Ranke standards but not for general population and Target Height. Pubertal timing negatively affected pubertal growth spurt and FH, with IGF1 standardized score increased from -2.43 to -0.27 SDS. During GH treatment, no significant change in bone age velocity, body proportions, or cardiovascular function was observed.
This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article.
Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss
Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand.
The recent trend in suicide mortality has made it the second-most-common cause of death in adolescence. The recognition of depressed adolescents, especially males, is made difficult by their low utilization of health services and by the variety of modes of presentation. The family physician's ability to play an effective role in helping the depressed adolescent and preventing the occurrence of suicide depends on the establishment of rapport, obtaining a detailed history, and being prepared to offer continuity of care. In most depressed adolescents there is limited need for hospitalization, medication or psychiatric treatment. PMID:21267225
Resnick, M D
The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions.
Morin, C L; Roulet, M; Roy, C C; Weber, A
Four children aged (11.7-13.5 yr) with protracted growth retardation related to Crohn's disease, received a 6-wk period of continuous elemental enteral alimentation with no other form of treatment. Despite drug therapy the yearly height and weight gain velocities of these children (1.7 +/- 0.3 cm and -0.8 +/- 1.4 kg, respectively) had been abnormal during the previous 2 yr. All patients experienced a complete remission of symptoms, improved nutritional status, and significant height (1.8 +/- 0.3 cm) and weight (3.8 +/- 0.5 kg) gains during the 67 wk of treatment. After cessation of elemental enteral alimentation, 3 of the 4 patients continued to grow, and over a period of 4.5 mo from the beginning of this form of nutritional therapy, they gained an average of 5.0 +/- 1.6 kg and 3.5 +/- 0.3 cm. The disease became active thereafter, and the 3 children resumed their previously abnormal growth patterns during the ensuing year. The 4th patient had surgery 2 mo after elemental enteral alimentation and experienced a subsequent second spurt of growth and pubertal changes. This study suggests that a relatively short course of elemental enteral alimentation leads to a temporary resumption of growth in children with severe growth failure and Crohn's disease. The possibility that repeated courses of elemental enteral alimentation might be beneficial needs to be explored.
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Curby, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith D.
Depression has a heightened prevalence in adolescence, with approximately 15 % of adolescents experiencing a major depressive episode by age 18. Depression in adolescence also poses a risk for future distress and impairment. Despite treatment advances, many adolescents relapse after initial remission. Family context may be an important factor in the developmental trajectory of adolescent depression, and thus in enhancing treatment. This study examined concurrent change over time in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the context of the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study. Participants were 334 adolescents (mean age: 16; SD: 1.6; 70 % female, 84 % Caucasian), and their mothers (n = 241). All adolescents were clinically depressed when they entered the study and had received previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Adolescents received acute treatment for 12 weeks and additional treatment for 12 more weeks. Adolescent depression and suicidal ideation were assessed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks, while maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks. Latent basis growth curve analyses showed a significant correlation over 72 weeks between trajectories of maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms, supporting the hypothesis of concurrent patterns of change in these variables. The trajectories were correlated more strongly in a subsample that included only dyads in which mothers reported at least one depressive symptom at baseline. Results did not show a correlation between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms change in tandem, and that treatment for adolescent depression can benefit the wider family system. Notably, most mothers in this sample had subclinical depressive symptoms. Future research might explore these trajectories in dyads with more severely depressed mothers
Rinsky, Lawrence A.; Gamble, James G.
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the single most common form of spinal deformity seen in orthopedic practice. Our knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, natural history, and treatment has recently increased dramatically. The incidence of small curves is rather high (2% of the population), whereas severe curves are much less common (<0.1%), but we cannot always predict which curve will progress. Abnormalities of the neuromuscular system and of calcium metabolism, and certain growth, genetic, and mechanical factors may all play roles in the pathogenesis of the disorder. The physiologic secondary effects of severe scoliosis relate to restrictive lung disease, but most patients do not have a deformity great enough to affect their cardiorespiratory function. The psychological and social effects of scoliosis are significant for patients but difficult to quantitate. For most patients with moderate scoliosis—that is, more than 25 to 30 degrees—treatment with an underarm brace or electrical stimulation is adequate to “control” progression of the curve. Surgical fusion allows actual correction of the curve but is indicated in only a small percentage of patients—usually those with more than 50 degrees of deformity. Images PMID:3279708
Cavendish, Wendy; Nielsen, Amie L.; Montague, Marjorie
The purpose of this study was to examine the growth trajectories from early to late adolescence of teacher ratings of students' behavior problems from 9th through 11th grade and student self-reports of alcohol use in a sample of predominately minority adolescents (n = 179, 90% African-American and/or Hispanic, 43% boys, 57% girls) in a large,…
McWey, Lenore M.; Cui, Ming; Pazdera, Andrea L.
Using a developmental psychopathology framework, this study aimed to examine changes in externalizing and internalizing problems of adolescents in foster care and to determine whether type of maltreatment, gender, and age influenced trajectories. Authors used 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Growth-curve…
Schultz, Jerelyn B., Ed.; And Others
The second part of a parenthood education curriculum series intended for use in high school home economics classrooms, this second module focuses on sexuality and the adolescent with three major competencies as goals: (1) ability to describe how teenagers' concept of self is affected by growth and development in adolescence; (2) ability to explain…
Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey
The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…
Donaldson, Gordon A., Jr.
Current developmental theory and research are inadequate in explaining the development of rural youth, but a mid-1970s study of adolescents from a small Maine community provided three patterns of growth and suggested four lessons for social service professionals who work with rural adolescents. The study of "Sawyer, Maine" (a pseudonym)…
Objective: This study examined the growth pattern in physical aggression over a five-year period among South Korean early adolescents and the effects of temperament (anger/frustration and emotion regulation) and parenting (harsh parenting and parental monitoring) on early adolescents' physical aggression. Design: A five-year longitudinal design…
Sweet, Richard; And Others
Wisconsin legislation on adolescent pregnancy prevention is discussed in this document. The 1991 Senate Bill 324 and Assembly Bill 630, identical bills which relate to adolescent pregnancy prevention, school district instruction in human growth and development, medical assistance services, and making appropriations, are discussed. Part I notes…
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
The present study investigated the interplay between developmental changes in stress and coping during early and late adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, stress perception and coping styles of 200 adolescents in 7 different stressful situations were investigated. Multilevel piecewise latent growth curve models showed that stress perception…
Coley, Rebekah Levine; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Schindler, Holly S.
Transactional models of problem behavior argue that less effective parenting and adolescent problem behaviors coevolve, exerting bidirectional influences. This article extends such models by analyzing growth trajectories of sexual risk behaviors and parenting processes among 3,206 adolescents (aged 13-18) and their residential parents. Within…
Pituitary GH is obligatory for normal growth in mammals, but the importance of pituitary GH in avian growth is less certain. In birds, pituitary GH is biologically active and has growth promoting actions in the tibia-test bioassay. Its importance in normal growth is indicated by the growth suppression following the surgical removal of the pituitary gland or after the immunoneutralization of endogenous pituitary GH. The partial restoration of growth in some studies with GH-treated hypophysectomized birds also suggests GH dependency in avian growth, as does the dwarfism that occurs in some strains with GHR dysfunctions. Circulating GH concentrations are also correlated with body weight gain, being high in young, rapidly growing birds and low in slower growing older birds. Nevertheless, despite these observations, there is an extensive literature that concludes pituitary GH is not important in avian growth. This is based on numerous studies with hypophysectomized and intact birds that show only slight, transitory or absent growth responses to exogenous GH-treatment. Moreover, while circulating GH levels correlate with weight gain in young birds, this may merely reflect changes in the control of pituitary GH secretion during aging, as numerous studies involving experimental alterations in growth rate fail to show positive correlations between plasma GH concentrations and the alterations in growth rate. Furthermore, growth is known to occur in the absence of pituitary GH, as most embryonic development occurs prior to the ontogenetic appearance of pituitary somatotrophs and the appearance of GH in embryonic circulation. Early embryonic growth is also independent of the endocrine actions of pituitary GH, since removal of the presumptive pituitary gland does not impair early growth. Embryonic growth does, however, occur in the presence of extrapituitary GH, which is produced by most tissues and has autocrine or paracrine roles that locally promote growth and development
Donelson, Ken, Ed.
This issue of the Arizona English Bulletin contains articles discussing literature that adolescents read and literature that they might be encouraged to read. Thus there are discussions both of literature specifically written for adolescents and the literature adolescents choose to read. The term adolescent is understood to include young people in…
Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.
The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…
This author acknowledges that teachers agree that "adolescents aren't always interested in the topics adults consider important for them to learn." It is easy for adults who have forgotten the wonder and uncertainty of the adolescent years to declare that students today are more uninterested in school and undisciplined in life than…
Examination of 352 Dutch secondary school students reveals that adolescents with high-level education who endorse adolescent rebellion have a more distinctly left-wing profile--in both their political party preferences and their political views--than those with low-level education, who more often ratified political intolerance. (BJV)
Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Padilla, Teresita M., Ed.
This document comprises the two 1999 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent heath and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…
WRITTEN FOR PARENTS, THIS BOOKLET DESCRIBES THE BRAIN INJURED ADOLESCENT AND THE PROBLEMS AND EXPERIENCES FACED BY THE ADOLESCENT AND HIS PARENTS. EIGHTEEN QUESTIONS ASKED BY PARENTS OF THESE CHILDREN ARE DISCUSSED. THE AREAS COVERED ARE-- (1) SOCIAL EXPERIENCES, (2) GUIDED INDEPENDENCE, (3) SOCIAL SKILLS, (4) SUCCESS EXPERIENCES, (5) LEISURE TIME…
Drury, Stacy S.
Dr. Jay Giedd says that the main alterations in the adolescent brain are the inverted U-shaped developmental trajectories with late childhood/early teen peaks for gray matter volume among others. Giedd adds that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to substances that artificially modulate dopamine levels since its reward system is in a state of flux.
White, Aaron M.
Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, a period during which an individual acquires the skills necessary to survive on his or her own, away from parents or other caregivers. Adolescence can be a very confusing time. They experience changes in sleep, diet, mood, weight and attitude and a decreased pleasure from daily activities.…
Uttermohlen, T. L.
The author, born with a severe visual impairment, addresses the tendency of adolescents with visual impairments to try to hide the disability and "pass" as unimpaired with their peers. It is suggested that these adolescents be helped to find a comfortable balance between taking excessive risks and allowing visual impairment or blindness to be an…
Brooks, Ashley; Larkin, Elizabeth M. Gaier; Kishore, Sonal; Frank, Scott
Objective: To examine public health implications of adolescent use of cigars only, cigarettes only, and both cigarettes and cigars. Methods: A cross-sectional health risk survey was administered to a random sample of 4486 high school students in a Midwestern county. Results: More adolescents reported using both cigarettes and cigars (10.6%) than…
Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Padilla, Teresita M., Ed.
This document comprises the two 2000 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…
Hofmann, Adele D.
Examining historical shifts in the nature of parental authority, minors' rights, and sexual morality along with accompanying shifts in adolescent coital behavior, the author, a physician and Director of the Adolescent Medical Unit at New York's Bellevue Hospital, concludes that greater sexual freedom is a mark of social advance requiring a new…
Casey, B. J.; Getz, Sarah; Galvan, Adriana
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by suboptimal decisions and actions that give rise to an increased incidence of unintentional injuries and violence, alcohol and drug abuse, unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Traditional neurobiological and cognitive explanations for adolescent behavior have failed to…
Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Espada-Carlos, Lichelle Dara, Ed.
This document comprises the two 2001 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…
Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Espada-Carlos, Lichelle Dara, Ed.
This document consists of the two 2002 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue includes news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…
Capuzzi, Dave; Golden, Larry
This book deals with the realities of adolescent suicide. It consists of 15 chapters organized under 5 major headings: The Problem of Adolescent Suicide (chapters 1 and 2); A Profile of the Attempter (chapters 3-6); Assessing Lethality (chapters 7 and 8); Prevention and Intervention (chapters 9-14); and Legal Issues (chapter 15). Individual…
Hanna, Jennie L.
Adolescents are often described as egocentric, but a major source of this external behavior is the internal fear of adolescents have about feeling invisible, being different, and even their own mortality. Facing this fear through a curricular focus on death can help to combat this behavior. This can be accomplished through novel studies of books…
In order to counteract widespread stereotyping of adolescents and to provide a historical perspective on the lives of youth in Great Britain, this report compiles statistical data in six areas regarding adolescents and youth. Chapter 1, "Population, Families and Households," presents information on the population of the United Kingdom…
Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…
Mercer, Jane R.
"Adolescent Prejudice" by Glock, Wuthnow, Piliavin, and Spencer was the central focus for the conference at which this paper was presented. The first objective of this paper was to discuss the implications of that research paper for the social systems characteristics of schools. It was observed that to a considerable extent adolescents form ethnic…
Rice, Kenneth G.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Gilman, Rich
A large school-based sample of 9th-grade adolescents (N = 875) completed the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Mobley, Trippi, Ashby, & Johnson, 1996). Decision rules and cut-scores were developed and replicated that classify adolescents as one of two kinds of perfectionists (adaptive or maladaptive) or as nonperfectionists. A…
Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.
This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…
James, Michael A.
Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)
Examines factors contributing to and determining adolescent drinking disorders, synthesizing ideas from Fromm-Reishmann, Fromm, and Erikson. Discusses ideas within the framework of Freud's speculative postulation of the "oceanic feeling." Addresses empirically oriented treatment of concrete features exhibited in adolescent alcoholism. (Author/BH)
Flum, H; Porton, H
The process of identity formation in adolescence, specifically, the relational context of identity formation, is examined through the prism of the story of an adolescent boy's development during the Second World War at a boarding school in New Hampshire, USA--John Knowles's A Separate Peace. The discussion focuses on mirroring, on the adolescent's need to be validated and the simultaneous fear of transparency, and on idealization and deidealization. Using the book as a narrative example of the transformation of connections that are essential to the process of development, the authors discuss the complexity of male adolescent growth.
Córdova, David; Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Villamar, Juan A; Soto, Daniel W; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lee, Tae Kyoung; Meca, Alan; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Oshri, Assaf; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Romero, Andrea J
Parent-adolescent discrepancies in family functioning play an important role in HIV risk behaviors among adolescents, yet longitudinal research with recent immigrant Hispanic families remains limited. This study tested the effects of trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies on HIV risk behaviors among recent-immigrant Hispanic adolescents. Additionally, we examined whether and to what extent trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies vary as a function of gender. We assessed family functioning of 302 Hispanic adolescents (47 % female) and their parent (70 % female) at six time points over a three-year period and computed latent discrepancy scores between parent and adolescent reports at each timepoint. Additionally, adolescents completed measures of sexual risk behaviors and alcohol use. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to determine the feasibility of collapsing parent and adolescent reported family functioning indicators onto a single latent discrepancy variable, tested model invariance over time, and conducted growth mixture modeling (GMM). GMM yielded a three-class solution for discrepancies: High-Increasing, High-Stable, and Low-Stable. Relative to the Low-Stable class, parent-adolescent dyads in the High-Increasing and High-Stable classes were at greater risk for adolescents reporting sexual debut at time 6. Additionally, the High-Stable class was at greater risk, relative to the Low-Stable class, in terms of adolescent lifetime alcohol use at 30 months post-baseline. Multiple group GMM indicated that trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning trajectories did not vary by gender. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Fortenberry, J Dennis
This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan.
Holzer, L; Halfon, O; Thoua, V
Recent progress in neuroscience has yielded major findings regarding brain maturation during adolescence. Unlike the body, which reaches adult size and morphology during this period, the adolescent brain is still maturing. The prefrontal cortex appears to be an important locus of maturational change subserving executive functions that may regulate emotional and motivational issues. The recent expansion of the adolescent period has increased the lag between the onset of emotional and motivational changes activated by puberty and the completion of cognitive development-the maturation of self-regulatory capacities and skills that are continuing to develop long after puberty has occurred. This "disconnect" predicts risk for a broad set of behavioral and emotional problems. Adolescence is a critical period for high-level cognitive functions such as socialization that rely on maturation of the prefrontal cortex. Intervention during the period of adolescent brain development provides opportunities and requires an interdisciplinary approach.
Alteration in bone geometric and mechanical properties, histomorphometrical parameters of trabecular bone, articular cartilage, and growth plate in adolescent rats after chronic co-exposure to cadmium and lead in the case of supplementation with green, black, red and white tea.
Tomaszewska, Ewa; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Tomczyk, Agnieszka; Muszyński, Siemowit; Radzki, Radosław
Adolescent male Wistar rats were used to check whether regular consumption of black, red, white, or green tea would have a protective effect on femur development during 12-week exposure to Cd and Pb (7mg Cd and 50mg Pb in 1kg of the diet). The animals were randomly divided (n=12) into a positive control (without Cd, Pb and teas), a negative control group (Cd and Pb), and groups supplemented additionally with green (GT), black (BT), red (RT), and white tea (WT). Heavy metals reduced the geometric and densitometric parameters and the total thickness of articular cartilage irrespective of tea administration and influenced mechanical endurance, growth plate thickness, and trabecular histomorphometry depending on the tea type. It is difficult to indicate which tea has the best protective effects on bone and hyaline cartilage against heavy metal action.
Donatti, Teresinha L; Koch, Vera H; Fujimura, Maria D; Okay, Yassuhiko
The statural growth of 85 patients with steroid-responsive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, attending the Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Children's Institute, Hospital das Clínicas School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, with a minimum follow-up of 3 years, was evaluated. Analysis of the patient population as a group did not show any significant alterations in the height Z score and the mean height percentile between the first (-0.59 and 33.9, respectively) and last consultation (-0.57 and 34.8, respectively). Analysis of each individual patient allowed the definition of two subgroups. Subgroup A, which achieved growth improvement, was composed of 47 children-initial Z score and mean initial height percentile of -0.91 and 24.0, respectively; final Z score and mean height percentile of -0.30 and 40.7, respectively ( P=0.00). Subgroup B, which showed growth retardation, was composed of 38 children-initial Z score and mean initial height percentile of -0.19 and 46.2, respectively; final Z score and mean height percentile of -0,9 and 27.5, respectively ( P=0.00). The following factors were significantly different when both subgroups were compared: (1) total duration of prednisone therapy and total prednisone dose were greater in subgroup B; (2) the final chronological age of patients using prednisone was higher in subgroup B; (3) the pubertal growth spurt in subgroup B showed attenuation and retardation.
Koh, Bibiana D.; Rueter, Martha A.
Although most adopted children are well adjusted, research has consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. The present investigation tested a model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors.…
Bass, Shona; Delmas, Pierre D.; Pearce, Georgina; Hendrich, Elke; Tabensky, Aaron; Seeman, Ego
The differing tempo and direction of growth of the periosteal and endocortical surfaces, and the differing tempo of growth of the axial and appendicular skeleton, may predispose to regional deficits in bone size, bone mineral content (BMC), and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). These traits were measured during 2 years by dual x-ray absorptiometry in 109 girls. By 7 years of age, bone size was approximately 80% of its maturational peak, and BMC was approximately 40% of its peak. Before puberty, the legs grew more rapidly than the trunk. During puberty, the growth spurt was truncal. Between 7 and 17 years, femoral and lumbar spine BMC increased by 50–150% because bone size increased. vBMD increased by 10–30%. Thus, growth builds a bigger, but only moderately denser, skeleton. Regions growing rapidly, or distant from their peak, may be more severely affected by illness than those growing slowly or nearer completion of growth. Depending on the age of exposure to disease, deficits may occur in limb dimensions (prepuberty), spine dimensions (early puberty), or vBMD by interference with mineral accrual (late puberty). As vBMD is independent of age before puberty, the position of an individual’s vBMD in the population distribution is established early in life. Bone fragility in old age may have its foundations in growth. PMID:10491415
Alberga, A S; Sigal, R J; Goldfield, G; Prud'homme, D; Kenny, G P
This paper discusses the critical period of adolescence and its potential role in the development and persistence of obesity. The adolescent years are characteristic of changes in body composition (location and quantity of body fat), physical fitness and decreased insulin sensitivity during puberty. This period of growth and maturation is also marked with behavioural changes in diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and psychological health. Physical activity and sport participation decline during adolescence especially in teenage girls, while sedentary behaviour, risk for depression and body esteem issues increase during the teenage years. These physiological and behavioural changes during adolescence warrant the attention of health practitioners to prevent the onset and continuation of obesity throughout the lifespan.
Gulati, Sonia; Paterson, Margo; Medves, Jennifer; Luce-Kapler, Rebecca
This study aimed to understand how adolescents with disabilities can assume greater control over their rehabilitation and participation within a community-based rehabilitation programme in the urban slums of North India. A critical ethnographical approach using multiple qualitative and participatory data collection methods was adopted. Fieldwork was conducted from January to May 2005 and October 2006 to March 2007 with 21 adolescents with and 11 adolescents without disabilities (aged 12 to 18 years), and 10 community-based rehabilitation staff members. A conceptual framework called the 'Adolescent Group Empowerment Pyramid' was developed. Four themes informed the framework: group participation, group demonstration, group recognition and the socio-cultural environment's interaction with disability. Group empowerment, achieved through group-centred occupations, encourages adolescents to work together to address their rehabilitation challenges and agendas. Three external support factors and 10 areas for nurturing the group empowerment process also emerged. A limitation of this study is the lack of data on how the familial and local political and economic environment impact adolescents' ability to make decisions about their rehabilitation. Further research might explore group occupations and occupational recognition, and what this means for social change and the personal and collective growth of adolescents in underserviced communities.
Weymouth, Bridget B.; Buehler, Cheryl
Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51% girls, 91% European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships. PMID:26346035
Weymouth, Bridget B; Buehler, Cheryl
Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51 % girls, 91 % European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships.
French, Doran C; Christ, Sharon; Lu, Ting; Purwono, Urip
Changes in religiosity, problem behavior, and their friends' religiosity over a 2-year period were assessed in a sample of five hundred and fifty-nine 15-year-old Indonesian Muslim adolescents. Adolescents self-reported their religiosity, problem behavior, and friendships; the religiosity of mutual friends came from friends' self-reports. A parallel process analysis of growth curves showed that adolescents' religiosity trajectories covaried with both problem behavior and friends' religiosity. Using a cross-lagged model in which prior levels were controlled, religiosity at 10th and 11th grades predicted friends' religiosity 1 year later, suggesting that adolescents select friends of similar religiosity. This study provides evidence that religion is intertwined with other aspects of adolescent development and illustrates the importance of contextualizing adolescent religiosity within an ecological framework.
Schwartz, Seth J; Mason, Craig A; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José
The present study was designed to investigate trajectories of identity development and their relationship to family functioning in a sample of Hispanic adolescents and their primary caregivers. Two hundred fifty adolescents completed measures of identity coherence and confusion and of family functioning, and parents completed measures of family functioning. Significant variability over time and across individuals emerged in identity confusion, but not in identity coherence. As a result, the present analyses focused on identity confusion. Changes in adolescent-reported, but not parent-reported, family functioning were significantly related to changes in identity confusion. Follow-up analyses suggested that family functioning primarily influences identity confusion in early adolescence, but that identity confusion begins to exert a reciprocal effect in middle adolescence. Exploratory latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) analyses produced three classes of adolescents based on their baseline values and change trajectories in identity confusion. The potential for family-strengthening interventions to affect identity development is discussed.
Luyckx, Koen; Ramsey, Meagan A; Kelly, Caitlin S; Wiebe, Deborah J; Mello, Daniel; Oris, Leen; Prikken, Sofie; Verschueren, Margaux; Berg, Cynthia A
Identity formation constitutes a core developmental task during adolescence, but may be challenged when having a chronic illness such as type 1 diabetes. The present study examined whether viewing positive benefits to one's diabetes across adolescence was related to greater identity exploration and commitment later in time. A total of 55 adolescents (10-14 years; 47% female) with type 1 diabetes participated in a six-wave study spanning 3 years (with six-month measurement intervals). Through latent growth curve modeling, Time 6 identity scores were regressed on intercept and slope terms of benefit finding through Times 1-4, simultaneously controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Identity exploration (but not commitment) at Time 6 was positively predicted by the intercept and slope of benefit finding: adolescents who find benefits in diabetes are more inclined to explore different alternatives later on in adolescence. Benefit finding may constitute a resource facilitating identity formation in adolescents with diabetes.
Hu, Junmin; Ai, Hongshan
There is a trend of rapid growth in both the level and occurrence of depression when people reach adolescence. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the parent-adolescent relationship on depression in adolescents, and mainly focused on the confirmation of the mediator role of self-esteem. A total of 364 senior middle school students accomplished the Parent-Adolescent Relationship Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. The results suggested that both parent-adolescent relationship and self-esteem were significantly correlated with depression. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between parent-adolescent relationship and depression.
Daly, Robin M.; Bass, Shona; Caine, Dennis; Howe, Warren
Adolescent athletes may be at risk of restricted growth and delayed maturation when combining intense training with insufficient energy intake. Because catch-up growth commonly occurs with reduced training, final adult stature is generally not compromised. However, in athletes with long-term, clinically delayed maturation, catch-up growth may be…
Smith, Chad E; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Lieberth, Ann
Adolescent health and health literacy are critical health topics recognized in Healthy People 2020. Evidence indicates that adolescents who are d/Deaf have unique health-related needs, yet health communication efforts have not reached them. Despite the Internet's exponential growth and the growth of online health information-seeking behavior among adolescents, reliable information devoted specifically to d/Deaf adolescents who communicate primarily in ASL is rare. D/deaf adolescent females face numerous challenges accessing web-based health information to enhance their decision making about important health issues such as body image, physical activity and nutrition, puberty, and relationships. A strong need exists for interdisciplinary professionals to investigate the health interests and online health information-seeking behaviors of this group in order to effectively plan, implement, and evaluate a web-based health repository that delivers content in ASL. This Call to Action represents a first step in addressing that need.
Ricci, Giampaolo; Bellini, Federica; Dondi, Arianna; Patrizi, Annalisa; Pession, Andrea
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that typically occurs during childhood especially in the first year of life, with a variable frequency from 10% to 30%. Recent studies have shown that in Europe among 10–20% of children with AD suffer from this disorder also in adolescence. AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a typical onset in the first years of life and with a 10–30% prevalence among young children. AD prevalence in adolescence has been estimated around 5–15% in European countries. AD persists from childhood through adolescence in around 40% of cases and some risk factors have been identified: female sex, sensitization to inhalant and food allergens, allergic asthma and/or rhinoconjunctivitis, the practice of certain jobs. During adolescence, AD mainly appears on the face and neck, often associated with overinfection by Malassezia, and on the palms and soles. AD persistence during adolescence is correlated with psychological diseases such as anxiety; moreover, adolescents affected by AD might have problems in the relationship with their peers. Stress and the psychological problems represent a serious burden for adolescents with AD and cause a significant worsening of the patients' quality of life (QoL). The pharmacological treatment is similar to other age groups. Educational and psychological approaches should be considered in the most severe cases. PMID:25386309
Rassart, Jessica; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Eva; Apers, Silke; Moons, Philip
The present study examined associations between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) using a longitudinal trajectory approach. Adolescents with CHD were selected from the database of pediatric and congenital cardiology of the University Hospitals Leuven. A total of 429 adolescents (M age = 16 at T1) participated in the present study, comprising four measurement waves spanning approximately 3 years. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify trajectory classes of parenting and perceived health. Whereas adolescents from democratic households reported the most favorable health outcomes, adolescents from authoritarian, overprotective, and psychologically controlling families (all characterized by relatively high levels of psychological control) showed an increased risk for poor perceived health over time. Hence, the present study found substantial developmental associations between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with CHD. Future research should investigate whether working on the parent-adolescent relationship can foster patients' health.
Tonkin, Roger S
The prevalence of marijuana use by adolescents has fluctuated in recent decades, but, overall, has increased significantly. In a study of adolescent health status and risk behaviours among students in grades 7 to 12 in British Columbia, it was found that the patterns of marijuana use had changed, especially among early adolescents. An earlier age of onset of use and an increased frequency of use were noted. The present paper examines the clinical and psychosocial implications of early age of onset of marijuana use, and reports important differences in risky behaviours between users and nonusers. The prevailing attitude that marijuana is a ‘safe, recreational’ drug is challenged. PMID:20046275
Peretti, P O; Carter, R; McClinton, B
Graffiti has been studied for many years from many viewpoints. They have been used to explain accounts of people, styles of life, and assumed relationships. The present paper reports an attempt to analyze graffiti as outward manifestations of adolescent personality. Results suggested that different forms of graffiti could be interpreted from five characterizations of early adolescent personality: sexual maturity, self-identity, idealism, iconoclasm, and rebelliousness. Significant differences were found between boys and girls in numbers of inscriptions for each category. Further, the graffiti were analyzed in relation to early adolescent stages of development.
McDonough, Patrick Henry; Schwartz, Robert A
Adolescent androgenic alopecia is pattern hair loss occurring in boys and girls younger than 18 years, whereas early-onset androgenic alopecia refers to pattern hair loss before 35 years of age. A number of studies published in the last decade have helped to elucidate the prevalence of adolescent androgenic alopecia, have clarified the genetic as well as physiologic mechanisms underlying hair loss, and have revealed the associated psychologic and systemic morbidities. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of adolescent androgenic alopecia.
Connell, Arin M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby
This 4-year study of 698 young adolescents examined the covariates of early onset substance use from Grade 6 through Grade 9. The youth were randomly assigned to a family-centered Adolescent Transitions Program (ATP) condition. Variable-centered (zero-inflated Poisson growth model) and person-centered (latent growth mixture model) approaches were…
Enright, Robert D.; And Others
To assess adolescent egocentrism-sociocentrism, an instrument was devised to measure Elkind's constructs (the imaginary audience, the personal fable, and general self-absorption), plus nonsocial focuses and political focuses. Subjects were ten males and ten females each from three age groups: sixth-grade, eighth-grade, and college. (Author/SJL)
Brion-Meisels, Steven; And Others
This teacher's manual is one volume in a six volume curriculum for the secondary level, designed to provide a systematic, group-oriented approach to decision-making in areas crucial to adolescent development: sexuality and social relationships, drug (substance) use and abuse, work, juvenile law, and people and government. An introductory section…
Stortelder, Frans; Ploegmakers-Burg, Marian
The psychoanalytic view of adolescence as a phase of turbulence and reorganization occupied a central position in child and adolescent psychiatry until about 1980. The view of adolescence as a silent-transition phase then prevailed and diverged from the psychoanalytic perspective. This article reviews infant and adolescent development using an interdisciplinary, neuro-psychoanalytic model in which psychoanalytic, neurobiological, and developmental perspectives converge and complement each other. Recent empirical research focuses attention on adolescence as a phase in which a far-reaching neurobiological and psychological reorganization takes place. According to the ontogenetic principle of psychoanalysis, the development and organization of the basic psychic functions occur in the first five years of life, while a reorganization takes place in adolescence. Neurobiological research confirms that the basic growth and maturation of the brain occurs in the first five years of life, and that a substantial reorganization in brain development transpires in adolescence. Research also verifies the clinical psychoanalytic concept that neurobiological and psychological maturation in adolescence remain unfinished till approximately age 23. The long-term and late biopsychosocial maturation in adolescence implies that adequate monitoring by parents and school remains necessary. The view that adolescents need to separate, and discover their individuality and independence alone, is unsupported by recent findings. The adolescent must acquire his independence, personal identity, and self-agency ("scaffolding") step by step. It is important that the adolescent knows that his parents are in the background monitoring and intervening as necessary; that he is not entirely alone, adrift and at risk for potential fragmentation. The long-term plasticity of the brain in adolescence implies greater vulnerability for the development of psychopathology, but offers opportunity for
Hill, Kathleen M.; Braun, Michelle; Kern, Mark; Martin, Berdine R.; Navalta, James W.; Sedlock, Darlene A.; McCabe, Linda; McCabe, George P.; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M.
Context: The relationship between calcium (Ca) intake and Ca retention in adolescent boys was recently reported. Objective: This study evaluated the influence of Ca intake, serum hormone levels, biomarkers of bone metabolism, habitual physical activity, habitual Ca intake, and physical fitness on Ca retention in the same sample. Design: This study was a randomized, cross-over design that consisted of two 3-wk metabolic balance periods. Setting: The study took place on a university campus as a summer camp. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 31 American white boys (13–15 yr) participated in the study. Interventions: Each subject consumed a controlled diet with one of five high-low Ca intake pairs that ranged from 670-2003 mg/d, which was manipulated utilizing a fortified beverage. Main Outcome Measures: Ca retention was determined by Ca intake minus urinary and fecal Ca excretion during each balance period. Results: Ca intake explained 21.7% of the variability in Ca retention, and serum IGF-I concentration explained an additional 11.5%. Other serum hormone levels did not significantly add to the model. Biomarkers of bone metabolism, habitual physical activity, habitual Ca intake, and physical fitness were not significant predictors of Ca retention in adolescent boys. Conclusions: IGF-I, a regulator of growth during puberty, is an important predictor of Ca retention in adolescent boys. However, dietary Ca intake is an even greater predictor of Ca retention during this period of growth. PMID:18840643
Greydanus, D E; Railsback, L D
This article reviews the difficult but complex subject of abortion in adolescents. Methods of abortion are outlined and additional aspects are presented: psychological effects, counseling issues, and legal parameters. It is our conclusion that intense efforts should be aimed at education of youth about sexuality and prevention of pregnancy, utilizing appropriate contraceptive services. When confronted with a youth having an unwanted pregnancy, all legal options need to be carefully explored: delivery, adoption, or abortion. The decision belongs to the youth and important individuals in her environment. Understanding developmental aspects of adolescence will help the clinician deal with the pregnant teenagers. If abortion is selected, a first trimester procedure is best. Finally, physicians are urged to be aware of the specific, ever changing legal dynamics concerning this subject which are present in their states. Abortion is a phenomenon which has become an emotional but undeniably important aspect of adolescent sexuality and adolescent health care, in this country and around the world.
Joffe, A; Radius, S M
Health counseling is a fundamental aspect of health care for adolescents and is a natural extension of the concept of anticipatory guidance. It is a dynamic process involving active participation by adolescents. Pediatricians are a valued source of health-relevant information, but must also recognize how their attitudes and beliefs can affect the counseling process. Knowledge of the multitude of changes occurring during adolescence and an understanding of the role of health-risking behaviors in meeting various developmental needs are critical to successful counseling. Particular attention must be focused on ways to help adolescents develop the skills necessary to maintain health-promoting lifestyles and to resist peer pressure to engage in health-risking behaviors.
Clear, specific information about sexual behavior and its consequences is frequently not provided to adolescents by their families, schools and communities. The "sex education" that many receive comes from misinformed or uninformed peers.
Green, Maurice R.
Describes characteristics of borderline adolescents and reviews diagnostic issues. Uses two case studies to illustrate general treatment strategies that could be useful to clinicians in mental health programs and family courts. (JAC)
Young, Thomas J.
This article, aimed at professionals in the field of adolescent psychology, briefly reviews the use of phencyclidine (PCP), its pharmacology, clinical effects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. (Author/BN)
Sanfilippo, J S
Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development
Syed, Moin; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge
This longitudinal study analyzed personality development using an individual approach by examining changes in ego development across the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Specifically, the study mapped the heterogeniety in ego development growth trajectories and linked the different trajectories to the family context in adolescence and identity development in emerging adulthood. Participants were 98 families with a child who were followed from age 14 to age 24. Latent class growth analysis identified 4 distinct trajectories of growth in ego development of the children over the 10-year period. The results indicated that growth was more rapid during adolescence and tended to taper off in emerging adulthood. In addition, promotion of personal growth within the family and parents' ego development were particulary instrumental in children's ego developmental gains in adolescence. Finally, youth who demonstrated continued ego development into emerging adulthood also demonstrated heightened levels of identity exploration.
Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay; Fitzharris, Jennifer Lynn; Morrissey, Kathleen M
Empirical evidence suggests that television and other media influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. Much of the research in this area is based on surveys in which adolescents are asked to rank the relative importance of a fixed set of factors such as parents, peers, and media. We reviewed data from focus groups conducted with adolescents and their parents to examine the extent to which adolescents identify--without prompting--media as a source of influence on sexual behavior. Adolescents seemed indifferent to media influence (e.g., media influence was mentioned in only one adolescent focus group), but their parents expressed significant concern about media influence. Future research should investigate the extent to which influences exist outside of adolescents' consciousness. For now, parents and sexuality educators may need to convince adolescents that concerns about the media are valid before trying to change media-influenced behavior.
Zsakai, Annamaria; Karkus, Zsolt; Utczas, Katinka; Bodzsar, Eva B.
In adolescence, the complexity of human ontogenesis embraces biological growth and maturation as well as mental, affective, and cognitive progress, and adaptation to the requirements of society. To accept our morphological constellation as part of our gender may prove a problem even to a child of average rate of maturation. The main purposes of…
Because children and adolescents are not just miniature adults, it is important to know that children might be vulnerable to injury and may not respond positively to certain types or intensities of training. It is also important to recognize how training can positively affect growth and development, so it can be judiciously applied at critical…
This research investigates whether first sexual intercourse during adolescence is associated with increased risk of first marriage dissolution and tests whether the results are consistent with causal or selection explanations. Drawing on a sample of 3,793 ever-married women from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, this study estimated…
Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.
Although numerous studies have established a link between alcohol use and partner violence in adulthood, little research has examined this relation during adolescence. The current study used multivariate growth models to examine relations between alcohol use and dating aggression across Grades 8 through 12, controlling for shared risk factors…
Mkhize, Duduzile Rosemary
Learners' participation in mathematics decreases during their transition from primary to high school. This is despite adolescents' cognitive growth equipping them with enhanced cognitive ability; to learn mathematics. Hence low participation in mathematics does not result from cognitive deficiency. Rather, lack of motivation to learn mathematics…
Selected highlights of the VIII International Symposium of Clinicians for Endocrinopathies in Thalassemia and Adolescent Medicine (ICET-A) on Growth, Puberty and Endocrine Complications in Thalassaemia. Auditorium of the Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) Muscat (Sultanate of Oman), 20th of December 2014.
De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf T; Wali, Yasser; Elsedfy, Heba; Daar, Shahina; Al-Yaarubi, Saif A H; Mevada, Surekha Tony; Tony, Surekha; Elshinawy, Mohamed; Fawzy, Hanan; Al-Subhi, Taimoora; Al-Rawas, Abulhakim; Al-Muslehi, Muhanna; El Kholy, Mohamed
The VIII ICET-A International Symposium was held in Muscat (Sultanate of Oman) on the 20th of December, 2014. The symposium included four sessions on a wide range of topics covering growth disorders and endocrine complications in thalassaemia. Despite the fact that endocrine complications are very common in multi-transfused thalassaemia patients a recent survey conducted by the International Network of Clinicians for Endocrinopathies in Thalassemia and Adolescent Medicine (ICET-A) in 2014 in Acitrezza (Catania, Italy) showed that the major difficulties reported by hematologists or pediatricians experienced in thalassaemias or thalassaemia syndromes in following endocrine complications included: Lack of familiarity with medical treatment of endocrine complications, interpretation of endocrine tests, lack of collaboration and on-time consultation between thalassaemic centres supervised by haematologists and endocrinologists. Endocrine monitoring of growth, pubertal development, reproductive ability and endocrine function in general are essential to achieve a good quality of life as well as controlling the pain which results from the defects of bone structure, all of which increase with the age of patients. Such comprehensive care is best provided by coordinated, multidisciplinary teams working in expert centres. The multidisciplinary team must include an endocrinologist, preferably someone experienced in the management of hormonal deficiencies caused early in life by transfusion-induced iron overload.
Bober, Michael B; Niiler, Tim; Duker, Angela L; Murray, Jennie E; Ketterer, Tara; Harley, Margaret E; Alvi, Sabah; Flora, Christina; Rustad, Cecilie; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Bicknell, Louise S; Wise, Carol; Jackson, Andrew P
Microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD) is a class of disorders characterized by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), impaired postnatal growth and microcephaly. Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is one of the more common conditions within this group. MOPD II is caused by truncating mutations in pericentrin (PCNT) and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Detailed growth curves for length, weight, and OFC are presented here and derived from retrospective data from 26 individuals with MOPD II confirmed by molecular or functional studies. Severe pre- and postnatal growth failure is evident in MOPD II patients. The length, weight, and OFC at term (when corrected for gestational age) were -7.0, -3.9, and -4.6 standard deviation (SD) below the population mean and equivalent to the 50th centile of a 28-29-, 31-32-, and 30-31-week neonate, respectively. While at skeletal maturity, the height, weight, and OFC were -10.3, -14.3, and -8.5 SD below the population mean and equivalent to the size of 3-year 10- to 11-month-old, a 5-year 2- to 3-month-old, and 5- to 6-month-old, respectively. During childhood, MOPD II patients grow with slowed, but fairly constant growth velocities and show no evidence of any pubertal growth spurt. Treatment with human growth hormone (n = 11) did not lead to any significant improvement in final stature. The growth charts presented here will be of assistance with diagnosis and management of MOPD II, and should have particular utility in nutritional management of MOPD II during infancy.
Heyman, Melvin B
The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition presents an updated review of lactose intolerance in infants, children, and adolescents. Differences between primary, secondary, congenital, and developmental lactase deficiency that may result in lactose intolerance are discussed. Children with suspected lactose intolerance can be assessed clinically by dietary lactose elimination or by tests including noninvasive hydrogen breath testing or invasive intestinal biopsy determination of lactase (and other disaccharidase) concentrations. Treatment consists of use of lactase-treated dairy products or oral lactase supplementation, limitation of lactose-containing foods, or dairy elimination. The American Academy of Pediatrics supports use of dairy foods as an important source of calcium for bone mineral health and of other nutrients that facilitate growth in children and adolescents. If dairy products are eliminated, other dietary sources of calcium or calcium supplements need to be provided.
The pediatrician is often expected by families to deal with sexual problems of children and adolescents. The physician should be able to identify problems and to guide parents in more meaningful communication and education of their children. Hopefully, he will be able to identify family conflicts and make the appropriate intervention or referral. He should be aware of his own sexual attitudes so as to avoid having his bias interfere with treatment. The childs behavior should not be isolated, but considered in the context of his family, his peers, and his own growth and development. Often, it is more useful to advise the family than to work with a young child. Adolescents present particular problems because of their conflicts over sexual identity, their reluctance to admit to problems, and frequently a mistrust of adults. They often feel a need for a trusting relationship with an adult, however, and are able to relate to a sensitive, non-judgmental professional.
Koning, Ina M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E E; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
Previous studies on general parenting have demonstrated the relevance of strict parenting within a supportive social context for a variety of adolescent behaviors, such as alcohol use. Yet, alcohol-specific parenting practices are generally examined as separate predictors of adolescents' drinking behavior. The present study examined different developmental profiles of alcohol-specific parenting (rule-setting, quality and frequency of communication about alcohol use) and how these patterns relate to the initiation and growth of adolescents' drinking. A longitudinal sample of 883 adolescents (47 % female) including four measurements (between ages 12 and 16) was used. Latent class growth analysis revealed that five classes of parenting could be distinguished. Communication about alcohol appeared to be fairly stable over time in all parenting classes, whereas the level of rule-setting declined in all subgroups of parents as adolescents grow older. Strict rule-setting in combination with a high quality and frequency of communication was associated with the lowest amount of drinking; parents scoring low on all these behaviors show to be related to the highest amount of drinking. This study showed that alcohol-specific rule-setting is most effective when it coincides with a good quality and frequency of communication about alcohol use. This indicates that alcohol-specific parenting behaviors should be taken into account as an alcohol-specific parenting context, rather than single parenting practices. Therefore, parent-based alcohol interventions should not only encourage strict rule setting, the way parents communicate with their child about alcohol is also of major importance.
... gland problem or disease. The pituitary gland makes growth hormone, which stimulates the growth of bone and other ... of it may be very short. Treatment with growth hormone can stimulate growth. People can also have too ...
McGillicuddy, Neil; Rychtarik, Robert G.; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T.; Burke-Storer, Michelle R.
This study examined the correspondence between parent and adolescent reports of the adolescent's substance use in a population of parents concerned about, and experiencing problems resulting from, their teen's substance use. Seventy-five parents and their adolescents (76% not in treatment; 24% in treatment) were interviewed separately regarding…
Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Mesch, Gustavo
On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges.
Deiulio, Anthony M.
Discusses the characteristics of adolescent graffiti, analyzes recent trends in graffiti content, and argues that graffiti tend to reflect the same feelings and concerns uncovered by formal studies of adolescents conducted by sociologists and pollsters. (JG)
Dilallo, John J.; Weiss, Gony
The use of motivational interviewing strategies in the practice of adolescent psychopharmacology is described. Motivational interviewing is an efficient and collaborative style of clinical interaction and this helps adolescent patients to integrate their psychiatric difficulties into a more resilient identity.
Kandel, Denise B.
The attributes of adolescents involved in marihuana and nonmarihuana-using peer groups are described. Adolescent subcultures are highly differentiated and involvement with peers does not necessarily entail rejection and estrangement from parents. (Author/AM)
... Facts for Families Guide Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents: Different Types No. 86; updated February 2017 Psychotherapy ... Therapy (DBT) can be used to treat older adolescents who have chronic suicidal feelings/thoughts, engage in ...
... Questions and Answers about Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents This publication defines scoliosis and provides information about ... it is diagnosed and treated in children and adolescents. You may be interested in contacting one or ...
... Chats with Experts Clinical Trials Share Child and Adolescent Mental Health Overview Teen Depression Study: Understanding Depression ... Continue reading Recruitment Begins for Landmark Study of Adolescent Brain Development September 13, 2016 • Press Release The ...
... Spanish Facts for Families Guide Self-Injury In Adolescents No. 73; July 2013 Self-injury is the ... to have become more popular lately, especially in adolescents. The causes and severity of self-injury can ...
Edwards, Lisa M.; Fehring, Richard J.; Jarrett, Keyona M.; Haglund, Kristin A.
The purpose of this study was to determine the main and interactive effects of religiosity, gender, and language preference acculturation on sexual activity among 570 Latino/a adolescents from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Results indicated that adolescents who viewed religion as very important, had frequent church attendance, and had…
Needham, Belinda L.
This study applies latent growth curve analysis to data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 10,828) and finds that symptoms of depression and social support interact with one another in a dynamic fashion across the transition from adolescence (mean age at Wave 1 = 15.28 years) to young adulthood (mean age…
Hildick-Smith, Gordon J; Pesko, Michael F; Shearer, Lee; Hughes, Jenna M; Chang, Jane; Loughlin, Gerald M; Ipp, Lisa S
We present guidance on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) for health care professionals who care for adolescents. ENDS provide users with inhaled nicotine in an aerosolized mist. Popular forms of ENDS include e-cigarettes and vape-pens. ENDS range in disposability, customization, and price. Growth of ENDS usage has been particularly rapid in the adolescent population, surpassing that of conventional cigarettes in 2014. Despite surging use throughout the United States, little is known about the health risks posed by ENDS, especially in the vulnerable adolescent population. These products may potentiate nicotine addiction in adolescents and have been found to contain potentially harmful chemicals. The growth in these products may be driven by relaxed purchasing restrictions for minors, lack of advertising regulations, and youth friendly flavors. Taken together, ENDS represent a new and growing health risk to the adolescent population, one that health care professionals should address with their patients. We suggest a patient centered strategy to incorporate ENDS use into routine substance counseling.
Harris, Allyssa L
Risky sexual behavior among adolescents is a major public health concern with potentially long-lasting consequences, including pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV/AIDS. Researchers have demonstrated that parent-adolescent sexual communication can mitigate adolescent risky sexual behaviors; the development of interventions that support this process are vital. This column examines a recent study that evaluated a parent-adolescent sexual communication intervention.
Nelson, O A; Buchanan, J R; Harrison, C S
Four cases of arrest of distal ulnar physeal growth occurring in children ages 7 to 13 years had follow-up for 2 to 10 years. Each patient developed bowing of the radial diaphysis, ulnar translation of the distal radial epiphysis, and increased ulnar angulation of the distal radiocarpal joint surface. Growth discrepancies were documented in both the ulna (range 2.2 to 3.9 cm) and to a lesser extent the radius (range 0.2 to 1.6 cm) when compared to the opposite forearm in each patient. The progression of deformity appeared to be greatest during adolescence. Radial deviation and pronation were limited to varying degrees in each case. No patient had significant pain or functional impairment, but the cosmetic appearance was always displeasing. Indications for surgical treatment include increasing ulnar angulation of the distal radial articular surface, progressive loss of motion, and displeasing cosmetic appearance.
Keijsers, Loes; Frijns, Tom; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim
This 4-wave study among 309 Dutch adolescents and their parents examined changes in adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control and their links with the development of delinquent activities. Annually, adolescents and both parents reported on adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control, and adolescents reported on delinquent activities and parental support. Latent growth curve analyses revealed a linear decline in parental control between ages 13 and 16. Adolescent disclosure decreased gradually in adolescent reports and showed an L-shaped pattern in father reports and a V-shaped pattern in mother reports. A stronger increase in delinquent activities was related to a stronger decrease in disclosure in mother and adolescent reports and to lower levels of disclosure in father reports. The linkages between levels of disclosure and delinquent activities were stronger in families with high parental support than in families with lower support. Furthermore, in lower parental support families, a stronger decrease in paternal control was related to a stronger increase in delinquent activities. In high parental support families, however, a stronger decrease in adolescent-reported parental control was related to a less strong increase in delinquent activities.
Takano, Hiroyuki; Aizawa, Toshimi; Irie, Taichi; Itoi, Eiji; Kokubun, Shoichi; Roach, Helmtrud I
Endochondral bone formation at epiphyseal growth plate consists of the synchronized processes of chondrogenesis and cartilage ossification. Estrogen, the major female sex hormone, plays an important role in this process, particularly during the pubertal growth spurt. However, its effects on the growth plate are not completely understood. The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of estrogen on the kinetics of chondrocytes in the growth plates of 10- to 25-week-old female rabbits by studying the effects of ovariectomy or high-dose administration of estrogen on the balance between cell proliferation and death. Forty-eight Japanese white rabbits were divided into three groups: sham operated, ovariectomized, or ovariectomized with subsequent weekly injection of high dose estrogen from 10 weeks. The chondrocyte kinetics was investigated by histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry, using antibodies for caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, and for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Both ovariectomized and estrogen-injected rabbits showed a declination of the chondrocyte number although the latter animals indicated a more dramatic effect. Estrogen-injected rabbits showed a decrease in the cell proliferating ability together with an increase in chondrocytes undergoing apoptosis while ovariectomy mainly reduced the cell proliferating ability. Given the known importance of estrogen for bone growth, one would expect that ovariectomy and high-dose administration of estrogen would have opposite effects. However, the present study indicated that both low and high concentration had a similar effect: a decrease in the chondrocyte number compared with control, suggesting that estrogen has to be maintained within a narrow range for optimal bone growth.
Ray, Shannon L.
Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…
Article states that brief, effective therapy with adolescents can occur by integrating the structure of solution-focused approaches with expressive qualities of art therapy within the framework of adolescent development. The three fundamentals of successful adolescent therapy are addressed. (Author/JDM)
Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen, Ed.
This book paints a portrait of adolescent psychology in 4 major regions: Africa/the Middle East, Asia, the Americas, and Europe. Featuring 24 revised and updated chapters from the "International Encyclopedia of Adolescence" (2007), readers are introduced to the way the majority of the world's adolescents actually live. Most contributors…
Battle, Judy Shepps
Adolescent use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs is currently increasing. Three out of four adolescents report regular drinking. Significant alcohol, inhalant, and cigarette use is reported as early as fourth grade, and alcohol experimentation increases from 6 to 17 percent between fourth and sixth grades. Adolescence is a high risk stage for…
Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa
Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…
Mitchell, Helen; Casto, Glendon
Project TEAM (Team Education for Adolescent Mothers) is a support program designed to counteract the socioeconomic consequences of early childbearing, by developing a model for providing high-quality care services for pregnant adolescents, adolescent parents, their infants, and their extended families. The project has four site locations:…
Montemayor, Raymond; Clayton, Mark D.
The relationship between maternal employment and adolescent development is enormously complex, and no simple generalizations are possible. Many intervening variables alter the impact that maternal employment has on adolescent development. There is an urgent need to discover what impact this arrangement has on adolescent development. (CJ)
Davis, Noel M.
During the past 20 years, depression has been recognized widely in children and adolescents. However, even with what is known today about depression, many children and adolescents remain undiagnosed. Early recognition is imperative to prevent further episodes that may continue into adulthood. Depression in children and adolescents affects social…
Corona, Rosalie; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Romo, Laura F.
This study examined associations between adolescent behaviors, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-adolescent relationships. Latina mothers and adolescents (111 dyads) completed questionnaires and participated in videotaped discussions. Mothers' depressive symptoms related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors and family…
Jolly, Kim; Weiss, Josie A; Liehr, Patricia
Recognizing adolescents as unique individuals increases the potential for trust and openness and provides a foundation for giving them voice. Giving voice to adolescents by listening to their stories of what really matters may enable prudent health choices in the midst of complicated life challenges. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of adolescent voice as a means of improving health care for teens and as a basis for further research. Freire's philosophical perspective guided thinking and Story Theory provided structure for gathering the health story of an adolescent. Freire proposes dialogue as a conversation between equal partners, which can be liberating. Story Theory proposes story gathering through intentional dialogue to learn what really matters to the person sharing the story. The convergence of Freire's philosophy and the adolescent story results in a definition of adolescent voice: the power to express self through dialogue with a nonjudgmental listener who gives and receives feedback. Adolescence is a time of growth and change, and a time when adolescents often make risky choices. Paying attention to adolescent voice could promote positive interactions with health-care providers, leading to safer decision-making. Recognizing adolescents as unique individuals and listening to their stories increases the potential for trust and openness with health-care providers. Giving voice to what really matters to them may assist adolescents in making positive health choices in the midst of complicated life challenges. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of adolescent voice as a means of improving health care for teens and as a basis for further research.
Damian, Melissa Feres; Cechinato, Fernando; Molina, Rafael Dagnese; Woitchunas, Fábio Eduardo
Quantification of the expectation of craniofacial growth during the pubertal growth spurt (PGS) is helpful in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Thus, this study investigated whether the stages of the vertebral maturation index (VMI) would be valid for estimating cranial and mandibular growth during the initial stages of PGS, testing the null hypothesis that these structures do not demonstrate differential growth dependent on the maturation stage. A study population of 45 patients of both genders with 2 lateral cephalometric radiographs, taken at a 12-month interval, was selected from files. All patients should not have been previously submitted to orthodontic treatment and should be before or during the peak stage of PGS. The S-N and Co-Gn cephalometric measurements were traced on both radiographs of each patient, by computed cephalometric tracings, for evaluation of skull and mandible, respectively. The growth of these structures was established by the difference between the measurements obtained on both tracings. The VMI stage was also estimated on the radiographs, determining the position of patients on the PGS curve at two periods, baseline and after 12 months. Cephalometric tracings and VMI estimates were performed by two calibrated examiners. Descriptive statistics revealed that both cephalometric measurements increased during the study period, especially Co-Gn, which demonstrated (ANOVA and Tukey's test; 5% significance level), a statistically significant peak of development (p = 0.001), when the patient was in the VMI stage representing the PGS peak. It was concluded that the VMI stages were valid for the analysis of cranial growth and especially of mandibular growth at the initial stages of PGS, thus rejecting the null hypothesis. PMID:19089113
Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge
Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years. PMID:19119350
Kulig, J W
A comparison of the advantages, disadvantages, and costs of each method is presented in Table 1. Barrier methods of contraception offer adolescents protection against both pregnancy and STDs, but innovative approaches are needed to enhance availability and acceptability. Condom use in conjunction with a vaginal spermicide would provide optimal protection. The "female condom" may prove to be an effective alternative. Diaphragms and cervical caps can be prescribed for well-educated, highly motivated adolescents comfortable with insertion and removal. The vaginal contraceptive sponge provides many of the advantages of the diaphragm and cap without the need for an examination and fitting and also may be used as a backup method with the condom. Vaginal spermicides used alone are significantly less effective than in combination with a mechanical barrier. The IUD is not considered appropriate for most adolescents due to its association with an increased risk of pelvic infection. Periodic abstinence requires accurate identification of the fertile period, extensive education, and partner cooperation. Sterilization is rarely considered an option in adolescents. Alternate forms of sexual expression are available to adolescents who choose to abstain from intercourse.
Hsia, Daniel S; Fallon, Sara C; Brandt, Mary L
Pediatric obesity has increased from a relatively uncommon problem to one of the most important public health problems facing children today. Typical "adult" diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, have become increasingly prevalent in the pediatric population. The earlier presentation of these comorbidities will have a significant impact for the future because this population of children will require more medical resources at an earlier age and will have a significantly decreased life expectancy. The significant morbidity of obesity in the pediatric population has led to consideration of more aggressive treatment protocols for obesity in children, including the introduction of surgical management at an earlier age. Surgery for obesity in adolescents has particular risks and benefits that must be accounted for when considering this approach. The unique psychological and emotional needs of adolescent patients make the patient selection process and perioperative management substantially different from those of adult patients. Initial outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents are comparable to those seen in adults in the short term. However, the long-term effects of these procedures on the adolescent population are not known. This review discusses the epidemiology of pediatric obesity, the indications for operative therapy in adolescent patients, the common surgical procedures used for weight loss, the reported outcomes of these procedures, and the importance of multidisciplinary management for this unique patient population.
Brown, E F; Hendee, W R
During adolescence, teenagers are expected to develop standards of behavior and reconcile them with their perceptions of adult standards. In this context, music, a powerful medium in the lives of adolescents, offers conflicting values. The explicit sexual and violent lyrics of some forms of music often clash with the themes of abstinence and rational behavior promoted by adult society. Identification with rock music, particularly those styles that are rejected by adults, functions to separate adolescents from adult society. Some forms of rock music extend well beyond respectability in fulfilling this definitional role. Total immersion into a rock subculture, such as heavy metal, may be both a portrait of adolescent alienation and an unflattering reflection of an adolescent's perception of the moral and ethical duplicity of adult society. Physicians should be aware of the role of music in the lives of adolescents and use music preferences as clues to the emotional and mental health of adolescents.
Alsaker, Francoise D., Ed.; Flammer, August, Ed.
Scholars are increasingly recognizing that adolescent development is best understood by acknowledging and examining adolescents' cultural, social, historical, and political contexts. The Euronet for Research on Adolescence in the Context of Social Change project, begun in 1991, is a collaborative effort among research teams from European countries…
Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III
Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…
Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K
Social responsibility is a value orientation, rooted in democratic relationships with others and moral principles of care and justice, that motivates certain civic actions. Given its relevance for building stronger relationships and communities, the development of social responsibility within individuals should be a more concerted focus for developmental scholars and youth practitioners. During childhood and adolescence, the developmental roots of individuals' social responsibility lie in the growth of executive function, empathy and emotion regulation, and identity. Efforts to cultivate children and adolescents' social responsibility in the proximal settings of their everyday lives should emphasize modeling prosocial behaviors, communicating concerns for others, and creating opportunities to practice civic skills.
Yarber, W L; Parrillo, A V
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a serious health problem for adolescents, occurring in an estimated one-quarter of sexually active teen-agers. Many of the health problems--including STDs--result from specific risk-taking behaviors. Determinants of STD risks among adolescents include behavioral, psychological, social, biological, institutional factors. Education is an important component in STD control in adolescents. The goal of education is to increase adolescent self-efficiency in practicing STD prevention and risk-reduction. A comprehensive approach including quality, theory-based education, accessible and effective health clinics, and improved social and economic conditions has the most promise of controlling STDs in adolescents.
Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Zeiders, Katharine H.
This study examined trajectories of ethnic-racial identity (ERI) and autonomy development among Mexican-origin adolescent females in the U.S. (N = 181; Mage at Wave 1 = 16.80 years, SD = 1.00) as they transitioned through the first five years of parenthood. Trajectories of ERI and autonomy also were examined in relation to psychosocial functioning. Unconditional latent growth models indicated significant growth in autonomy, ERI resolution, and ERI affirmation from middle to late adolescence. Conditional latent growth models indicated that autonomy and ERI exploration growth trajectories were positively associated with psychosocial adjustment. Although adolescent mothers are experiencing transitions that are not normative during adolescence, they also engage in normative developmental processes, and their engagement in such processes is linked with better adjustment. PMID:26450526
Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B; Zeiders, Katharine H
This study examined trajectories of ethnic-racial identity (ERI) and autonomy development among Mexican-origin adolescent females in the United States (N = 181; M(age) at Wave 1 = 16.80 years, SD = 1.00) as they transitioned through the first 5 years of parenthood. Trajectories of ERI and autonomy also were examined in relation to psychosocial functioning. Unconditional latent growth models indicated significant growth in autonomy, ERI resolution, and ERI affirmation from middle to late adolescence. Conditional latent growth models indicated that autonomy and ERI exploration growth trajectories were positively associated with psychosocial adjustment. Although adolescent mothers are experiencing transitions that are not normative during adolescence, they also engage in normative developmental processes, and their engagement in such processes is linked with better adjustment.
Quadrel, M J; Fischhoff, B; Davis, W
Three groups of subjects were asked to judge the probability that they and several target others (a friend, an acquaintance, a parent, a child) would experience various risks. Subjects were middle-class adults, their teenage children, and high-risk adolescents from treatment homes. All three groups saw themselves as facing somewhat less risk than the target others. However, this perception of relative invulnerability was no more pronounced for adolescents than for adults. Indeed, the parents were viewed as less vulnerable than their teenage children by both the adults and those teens. These results are consistent with others showing small differences in the cognitive decision-making processes of adolescents and adults. Underestimating teens' competence can mean misdiagnosing the sources of their risk behaviors, denying them deserved freedoms, and failing to provide needed assistance.
Stayton, W R
The health professional can be helpful to the adolescent, the adolescent's family, and the community through participating in and initiating local sex education programs. Religious settings provide a great potential for sexuality education within a value framework. A helpful curriculum will include the meaning of sexuality; developing a positive concept of sexuality, and a healthy sexual identity; present the issues of adolescent sexuality, including the various health issues; and an understanding of quality relationships within the family and among peers. If health professions and the community religious institutions can joint together, they can reach the goals of most programs in human sexuality, namely, "learning to appreciate our sexuality as a positive potential for self-expression, fulfillment and intimacy; respect for the personhood and well-being of others; and responsible decision-making."
Dimeglio, Linda A.; Wang, JiaJia; Siberry, George K.; Miller, Tracie L.; Geffner, Mitchell E.; Hazra, Rohan; Borkowsky, William; Chen, Janet S.; Dooley, Laurie; Patel, Kunjal; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Fielding, Roger A.; Gurmu, Yared; Jacobson, Denise L.
Objective To estimate prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) in perinatally HIV infected (HIV+) and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children, and to determine predictors of BMD in HIV+. Design Cross-sectional analysis within a 15-site United States and Puerto Rico cohort study. Methods Total body (TB) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD were measured using dual energy-xray absorptiometry. BMD Z-scores accounted for bone age and sex. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate differences in Z-scores by HIV status and for predictors of BMD in HIV+. Results 350 HIV+ and 160 HEU were enrolled. Mean age was 12.6 and 10.7 years for HIV+ and HEU, respectively. Most (87%) HIV+ were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). More HIV+ than HEU had TB and LS Z-scores < -2.0 (TB: 7% vs. 1%, p=0.008; LS: 4% vs. 1%, p=0.08). Average differences in Z-scores between HIV+ and HEU were attenuated after height and/or weight adjustment. Among HIV+, TB Z-scores were lower in those with higher CD4% and in those who ever used boosted protease inhibitors or lamivudine. LS Z-scores were lower with higher peak viral load and CD4%, more years on HAART, and ever use of indinavir. Conclusions Rates of low BMD in HIV+ children were greater than expected based on normal population distributions. These differences were partially explained by delays in growth. Since most HIV+ children in this study had not entered their pubertal growth spurt, prepubertal factors associated with BMD, magnified or carried forward, may result in sub-optimal peak BMD in adulthood. PMID:23032412
Gaur, A.; Ambey, R.; Gaur, B. K.
Gitelman's syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesaemia, hypocalciuria, hyperreninemia and without hypertension. Gitelman's syndrome is caused by mutations of the SLC12A3 gene, which encodes the Na/Cl co-transporter (NCCT) in the distal convoluted tubule. Majority of cases manifest during adolescence or adulthood and growth retardation is not the common feature. We report a rare presentation of Gitelman's syndrome in a four-year-old boy with growth retardation. PMID:24574637
Choi, Hyeonhae; Choi, Yuri; Kim, Jisook; Bae, Jaeman; Roh, Jaesook
We showed previously that caffeine adversely affects longitudinal bone growth and disrupts the histomorphometry of the growth plate during the pubertal growth spurt. However, little attention has been paid to the direct effects of caffeine on chondrocytes. Here, we investigated the direct effects of caffeine on chondrocytes of the growth plate in vivo and in vitro using a rapidly growing young rat model, and determined whether they were related to the adenosine receptor signaling pathway. A total of 15 male rats (21 days old) were divided randomly into three groups: a control group and two groups fed caffeine via gavage with 120 and 180 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 4 weeks. After sacrifice, the tibia processed for the analysis of the long bone growth and proliferation of chondrocytes using tetracycline and BrdU incorporation, respectively. Caffeine-fed animals showed decreases in matrix mineralization and proliferation rate of growth plate chondrocytes compared with the control. To evaluate whether caffeine directly affects chondrocyte proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation, primary rat chondrocytes were isolated from the growth plates and cultured in either the presence or absence of caffeine at concentrations of 0.1-1 mm, followed by determination of the cellular proliferation or expression profiles of cellular differentiation markers. Caffeine caused significant decreases in extracellular matrix production, mineralization, and alkaline phosphatase activity, accompanied with decreases in gene expression of the cartilage-specific matrix proteins such as aggrecan, type II collagen and type X. Our results clearly demonstrate that caffeine is capable of interfering with cartilage induction by directly inhibiting the synthetic activity and orderly expression of marker genes relevant to chondrocyte maturation. In addition, we found that the adenosine type 1 receptor signaling pathway may be partly involved in the detrimental effects of caffeine on
Nazeer, Ahsan; Mansour, Miriam; Gross, Kathleen A.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the child and adolescent population. It is characterized by impairment in attention/concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, all of which can impact performance of athletes. ADHD treatment within the athletic population is a unique challenge. The research in this field has been relatively limited. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and International Olympic Committee both regulate the use of psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD due to their performance-enhancing effects. In this article, authors have discussed the screening methods, pharmacological treatment, side effects, and behavioral approaches for the treatment of ADHD in adolescent athletes. PMID:24987666
Carey, Dennis E; Golden, Neville H
Osteoporosis occurs during childhood and adolescence as a heritable condition such as OI, with acquired disease (eg, IBD), or iatrogenically as a result of high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. However, the number of children affected by osteoporosis during youth is small compared to the numbers who will develop osteoporosis in adulthood. Prevention of adult osteoporosis requires that an optimal environment for the achievement of peak bone mass be established during the growing years. Detection of low BMD can be achieved using modalities such as DXA and pQCT. Standard radiologic studies, especially vertebral radiography, may also be helpful in children and adolescents at high risk for osteoporosis. It is critical to the development of healthy bones that adolescents have proper nutrition with adequate calcium and vitamin D intake and that they participate in regular physical activity (especially weight-bearing exercise). In the recent past, the dual goals of proper nutrition and exercise were not being achieved by many, if not most, adolescents. Those caring for adolescents should strive to educate teens and their families on the importance of dietary calcium and vitamin D as well as advocate for supportive environments in schools and communities that foster the development of healthy habits with regard to diet and exercise. In order to help identify the population at risk for osteoporosis, a bone health screen with assessment of calcium intake and determination of family history of adult osteoporosis (hip fracture, kyphosis) should be a routine part of adolescent health care. Universal screening of healthy adolescents with serum 25OHD levels is not recommended. Adolescents with conditions associated with reduced bone mass should undergo bone densitometry or other studies as a baseline, and BMD should be monitored at intervals no more frequently than yearly. Although controversy remains regarding the optimum dose of vitamin D for treatment of osteoporosis, all would
Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S
Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored.
Vitamin D is essential for bone growth and development in children and adolescents. Vitamin D deficiency leads to rickets, characterized by defective bone formation, in infants and children. Vitamin D prophylaxis during the first years of life has empirically shown to be effective in combating rickets in infants in some countries. Vitamin D insufficiency can have negative effects on bone health in older children and in adolescents. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to have an effect on bone mineral density at least in vitamin D deprived older children and adolescents but not in those with a normal vitamin D status. A good vitamin D status during pregnancy seems to be important for bone health in the off-spring later in life, but randomized controlled studies are needed to establish an effect of vitamin D during pregnancy on bone and other health outcomes in the offspring. Vitamin D supplementation during childhood may offer protection against diabetes type 1, but randomized controlled trials are needed to ascertain causality.
Wosu, Roxanne; Sergerie, Kim; Lévesque, Martin; Villemure, Isabelle
The objectives of this study were to extract the intrinsic mechanical properties of the growth plate at four different stages of growth and to compare two different methods of extracting these properties. Porcine distal ulnar growth plate samples were obtained from newborn, 4-, 8-, and 18-week (W) pigs and were tested using stress relaxation tests under unconfined compression. A four-parameter curve fitting procedure was developed to extract mechanical properties using the Transversely Isotropic Biphasic Elastic model(TIBPE) (Cohen et al. in J Biomech Eng Trans Asme 120(4):491-496, 1998) and the Differential Evolution (DE) optimization algorithm (Price et al. Natural computing series, Springer, Germany 2005). Optimization was done on all experimental curves for the first method and on one average experimental curve per developmental stage in the second. The 4-week stage was studied in two subgroups (a) and (b) due to distinct differences in mechanical properties. Intrinsic mechanical properties of the growth plate varied nonlinearly with developmental stage. Both methods showed that transverse and out-of-plane Young's moduli (E (1), E (3)) decrease with developmental stage, whereas transverse permeability (k (1)) increases. The exception is a sharp increase in stiffness and reduction in permeability at the 4W(a) stage, which may be associated with rapid porcine developmental changes at the 3-4 week period. The second method provides a more reliable representation of the average mechanical behavior, whereas the first method allows statistical comparison of optimized mechanical properties. This study characterizes, for the first time, the variation in growth plate mechanical properties for the same animal (porcine) and bone (ulna) model with developmental stage and provides new insight into the progression of musculoskeletal diseases during growth spurts in response to mechanical loading.
Gale, Catharine R.; O'Callaghan, Finbar J.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Law, Catherine M.; Martyn, Christopher N.
There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in childhood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We…
Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli A.
Growth curve models examined changes in adolescent self-reported parent-child communication conditional on family meal frequency over a 3.5 year period among a population of racially-diverse, low-income adolescents from an urban environment (n = 4750). Results indicated that although both family dinner frequency and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication scores were characterized by negative linear growth over time (both p < .0001), family dinner frequency was positively associated with adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication scores over time (p < .0001). Study findings suggest that families with teenagers may enhance parent-child communication and ultimately promote healthy adolescent development by making family dinner a priority. Additionally, the communication benefits of family dinner at the beginning of 6th grade may be protective through 8th grade. PMID:20545399
Armenta, Brian E.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Gentzler, Kari C.
Drawing on the Prototype/Willingness Model of Adolescent Risk Behavior we used longitudinal data collected from North American Indigenous early adolescents (ages 10–12 years) to examine the interactive effects of favorable drinker prototypes, perceived drinking norms, and past year drinking behavior on subsequent drinking behavior (i.e., drinking behavior 1 year later and growth in drinking behavior from 1–5 years later). We found that the positive association between favorable drinker prototypes and drinking one year later was strongest for adolescents who were high in past year drinking and perceived low drinking norms. The interaction pattern for growth in drinking was more complex and suggested an important pattern; specifically, favorable drinker prototypes were positively associated with drinking five years later, but only for adolescents who reported no past year drinking and perceived low drinking norms. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26999351
Crocetti, Elisabetta; Klimstra, Theo; Keijsers, Loes; Hale, William W; Meeus, Wim
The aim of this five-wave longitudinal study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety and adolescent identity development. Participants were 1,313 adolescents who annually completed measures of anxiety and identity. Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM) analyses demonstrated that the adolescent population was best typified by two latent growth trajectory classes: a low anxiety class (n = 1,199) characterized by a low initial level of anxiety that decreased over time and a high anxiety class (n = 114) characterized by a higher initial level of anxiety that increased over time. To answer our research question, we tested a model in which the anxiety classes predicted initial levels and rates of change of three identity dimensions: commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. Findings indicated that the high anxiety adolescents displayed a more troublesome identity development than their low anxiety peers, since their commitments became weaker with age, and they reconsidered them intensively.
... function and also play a role in growth. Hypothyroidism can cause slow growth because the thyroid gland ... to support normal growth. A major symptom of hypothyroidism is feeling tired or sluggish. A blood test ...
Agostoni, Carlo; Fattore, Giovanni
Increasing evidence points to a fundamental role of early nutrition on rates of growth and development, and later health. We may identify three major fields of scientific interest and clinical application. (1) In developing countries poor growth is associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, mainly lower respiratory infections and diarrhea. In these settings, failure to promote compensatory growth may have negative short-term consequences, and the nutritionist's task is the primary prevention of nutrient deficiencies to promote the full expression of the individual genetic potential, while allowing for recovery of early secondary functional deficiencies. (2) A second challenge for nutritionists is represented by the approach to growth impairments in rare disorders, ranging from congenital disorders to chronic infections. Most disorders are favorably influenced by improved nutritional status and better growth, and patients may satisfactorily reach adolescence, pubertal and reproductive age, up to ageing. Even for the less positive conditions, an improvement in the quality of life for families is in any case a rewarding aim. (3) A third challenge is represented by the definition of the role of nutrition on growth in physiological conditions for all individuals. Concern has been raised about the potential adverse long-term consequences of accelerated child growth rates, possibly resulting in a predisposition to develop non-communicable chronic diseases in the adult age. Accordingly, this hypothesis might explain the benefits of breastfeeding in terms of slower early growth, and the fetal origins hypothesis in terms of adverse postnatal catch-up growth in infants born small. Therefore, growth as viewed by a pediatric nutritionist perspective is a complex matter, ranging from the early stages of intrauterine development up to adult ages and ageing processes. Cost/benefit analyses of interventions on growth such as cost per DALYs
Melka, Melkaye G; Gillis, Jesse; Bernard, Manon; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Leonard, Gabriel T; Perron, Michel; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Heinz, Andreas; Garavan, Hugh; Brühl, Rüdiger; Mann, Karl; Artiges, Eric; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Lathrop, Mark; Loth, Eva; Schwartz, Yannick; Frouin, Vincent; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen; Struve, Maren; Lattka, Eva; Waldenberger, Melanie; Schumann, Gunter; Pavlidis, Paul; Gaudet, Daniel; Paus, Tomás; Pausova, Zdenka
Genetic variations in fat mass- and obesity (FTO)-associated gene, a well-replicated gene locus of obesity, appear to be associated also with reduced regional brain volumes in elderly. Here, we examined whether FTO is associated with total brain volume in adolescence, thus exploring possible developmental effects of FTO. We studied a population-based sample of 598 adolescents recruited from the French Canadian founder population in whom we measured brain volume by magnetic resonance imaging. Total fat mass was assessed with bioimpedance and body mass index was determined with anthropometry. Genotype-phenotype associations were tested with Merlin under an additive model. We found that the G allele of FTO (rs9930333) was associated with higher total body fat [TBF (P = 0.002) and lower brain volume (P = 0.005)]. The same allele was also associated with higher lean body mass (P = 0.03) and no difference in height (P = 0.99). Principal component analysis identified a shared inverse variance between the brain volume and TBF, which was associated with FTO at P = 5.5 × 10(-6). These results were replicated in two independent samples of 413 and 718 adolescents, and in a meta-analysis of all three samples (n = 1729 adolescents), FTO was associated with this shared inverse variance at P = 1.3 × 10(-9). Co-expression networks analysis supported the possibility that the underlying FTO effects may occur during embryogenesis. In conclusion, FTO is associated with shared inverse variance between body adiposity and brain volume, suggesting that this gene may exert inverse effects on adipose and brain tissues. Given the completion of the overall brain growth in early childhood, these effects may have their origins during early development.
Toomey, Russell B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B
Using longitudinal data collected at four time points from 191 dyads of Mexican-origin adolescent first-time mothers and their mother figures, we examined changes in and socialization of traditional gender role attitudes across the transition to parenthood using latent growth curve modeling and actor-partner interdependence modeling. Longitudinal growth models indicated that, regardless of nativity status, adolescent mothers' and their foreign-born mother figures' gender role attitudes became more egalitarian across adolescents' transition to parenthood, spanning from the 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum. Furthermore, actor-partner interdependence modeling suggested that adolescents' and their mother figures' gender role attitudes during adolescents' third trimester of pregnancy equally contributed to subsequent increases in one another's gender role attitudes at 10 months postpartum. Importantly, this reciprocal socialization process was not moderated by adolescent mothers' nor by their mother figures' nativity status. Findings suggest that it is important to understand the cultural and intergenerational family processes that contribute to the development of gender role attitudes during the transition to parenthood for adolescent mothers and their mother figures in Mexican-origin families.
McCann, Joseph T.
Discusses three cases of adolescent obsessional following. These cases indicate that stalking/obsessional following occurs in adolescents and important similarities and differences appear to exist between adult and adolescent offenders. (Author/JDM)
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chen, Qi; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang
Acculturation plays a critical role in the adjustment of Asian Americans, as a large proportion of them are immigrants in the US. However, little is known about how acculturation influences Asian American adolescents' academic trajectories over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 444 Chinese American families (54% female children), the current study explored the effect of mothers', fathers', and adolescents' individual acculturation profiles and parent-child acculturation dissonance on adolescents' academic trajectories from 8th to 12th grade. Academic performance was measured by grade point average (GPA), and by standardized test scores in English language arts (ELA) and Math every year. Latent growth modeling analyses showed that adolescents with a Chinese-oriented father showed faster decline in GPA, and Chinese-oriented adolescents had lower initial ELA scores. Adolescents whose parents had American-oriented acculturation profiles tended to have lower initial Math scores. These results suggest that Chinese and American profiles may be disadvantageous for certain aspects of academic performance, and bicultural adolescents and/or adolescents with bicultural parents are best positioned to achieve across multiple domains. In terms of the role of parent-child acculturation dissonance on academic trajectories, the current study highlighted the importance of distinguishing among different types of dissonance. Adolescents who were more Chinese-oriented than their parents tended to have the lowest initial ELA scores, and adolescents experiencing more normative acculturation dissonance (i.e., who were more American-oriented than their parents) had the highest initial ELA scores. No effects of parent-child acculturation dissonance were observed for GPAs or standardized Math scores. Altogether, the current findings add nuances to the current understanding of acculturation and adolescent adjustment.
Pouwels, J Loes; Salmivalli, Christina; Saarento, Silja; van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N
The aim of this study was to determine how trajectory clusters of social status (social preference and perceived popularity) and behavior (direct aggression and prosocial behavior) from age 9 to age 14 predicted adolescents' bullying participant roles at age 16 and 17 (n = 266). Clusters were identified with multivariate growth mixture modeling (GMM). The findings showed that participants' developmental trajectories of social status and social behavior across childhood and early adolescence predicted their bullying participant role involvement in adolescence. Practical implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Tsang, Anna; Moriarty, Carmel; Towns, Susan
With survival now into the fourth decade and rapid growth of the adolescent and adult population of people with cystic fibrosis CF sexual and reproductive health issues are integral to the management of adolescents and adults with CF. Education and counseling for sexual health related issues must be included in the daily routine of CF care. With advances in genetic counseling, contraception, assisted reproductive technology and collaborative management adolescents and young adults with CF realizing their sexual and reproductive potentials safely and realistically can be possible .
Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Lehtonen, Kimmo
This paper provides a list of signs, symptoms, and indicators of emotionally sensitive adolescents includes clinging behavior, withdrawn behavior, shy/inhibited behavior, represses anger, poor reaction to criticism, makes self-disparaging statements, low self-esteem, "can't forgive self or others," ruined by a small critical comment, exploding…
Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; And Others
The Adolescent Worker Study was designed to provide an in-depth analysis of the job experiences and related life histories of out-of-school working youth. To do this, a team of investigators first identified work sites across a range of industrial sectors that were currently engaged in hiring young workers between the ages of 17 and 21. Then, the…
Each innovation brings along many risks. One of the risks related with the Internet use is Internet addiction. The aim of this study is to examine Internet addiction in adolescence in terms of gender, Internet access at home and grades. The research design used was survey method. The study population consisted of second stage students attending…
Chronic disease is not a strictly defined term and includes a large number of illnesses ranging from physical to mental impairment. It is estimated that between 10% and 20% of adolescents have a chronic disease. Independence and new relations, acceptance of a new body image and sexuality, career plans and cognitive maturation are core topics in development to adulthood. Chronic disease may interfere with these developmental tasks. Most often there is no specific psychopathology, but the type of impairment, its influence on family life and functioning, age at onset, gender, and other factors will interact with psychosocial maturation. Because of the important role of the family, not only the adolescent patient him/herself, but also parents and siblings need to be included in all major decisions. As hospitalizations may be disruptive they must be planned, taking in account the patient's plans and opinions. Chronic disease may lead to death during the period of adolescence. It is believed that the concept of one's own mortality develops at age 14 to 17 years, a fact that will influence care during the terminal stage of a disease. Whatever the problems and questions raised by the family, the developmental stage of the adolescent has always to be considered when dealing with specific issues of chronic disease. Periodic reassessment of psychosocial development is therefore one of the main tasks of the primary care physician. Counselling will address not only the disease but also the developmental tasks of any teenager.
Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood
Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…
Hart, Daniel; Carlo, Gustavo
Themes in the papers in this special issue of the "JRA" on moral development are identified. We discuss the intersection of moral development research with policy concerns, the distinctive qualities of moral life in adolescence that warrant investigation, the multiple connotations of "moral", the methods typical of moral development research, and…
Daniel Offer's seminal writings in the 1960s led to a realization that normal adolescence was not characterized by turmoil and upheaval, the then prevailing view that derived from studies of clinical samples. In this paper, the research findings that have appeared over the last four decades are reviewed with respect to the overall features of…