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Sample records for adolescent hallux valgus

  1. Hallux valgus (bunions)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hallux valgus (bunions) are prominent and often inflamed metatarsal heads and overlying bursae. They are associated with valgus deviation of the great toe which moves towards the second toe. Hallux valgus is found in at least 2% of children aged 9 to 10 years, and almost half of adults, with greater prevalence in women. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of conservative treatments for hallux valgus (bunions)? What are the effects of osteotomy for hallux valgus (bunions)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 15 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: chevron osteotomy plus adductor tenotomy; distal metatarsal osteotomy; minimally invasive surgery (percutaneous distal metatarsal osteotomy, SERI [Simple, Effective, Rapid, Inexpensive] distal metatarsal osteotomy); phalangeal (Akin) osteotomy plus distal chevron osteotomy; proximal osteotomy; night splints; and orthoses (including antipronatory orthoses in children).

  2. Early results of the modified Peterson bunion procedure for adolescent hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Aronson, J; Nguyen, L L; Aronson, E A

    2001-01-01

    Adolescent hallux valgus has a high recurrence rate after conventional surgical corrections. Excellent results have been reported with a double osteotomy of the first metatarsal fixed with a 3/16" transarticular pin. The present study reports the early results of using a medial plate and screws with an osteoperiosteal distally based flap to correct metatarsophalangeal joint subluxation, decrease recurrence from laxity in the medial capsular repair, and avoid intra-articular damage. The study included 18 feet in 16 patients (8 males, 8 females). All osteotomies healed primarily without complications, though there was recurrence in 3 undercorrected feet (2 patients). The average preoperative hallux valgus angle of 34 degrees was reduced to 16 degrees at a minimum 1-year follow-up. The average intermetatarsal angle improved from 14 degrees (before operation) to 6 degrees. No patient has requested plate removal.

  3. [Hallux valgus : Etiology, diagnosis, and therapeutic principles].

    PubMed

    Zirngibl, B; Grifka, J; Baier, C; Götz, J

    2017-03-01

    Hallux valgus-the most common forefoot deformity-can cause both pain and decreased mobility. The development and progress of the hallux valgus is a multifactorial process. Different intrinsic and extrinsic causes are responsible. Various conservative and operative treatment options exist and have to been chosen regarding the stage of the disease. Conservative orthopedic measures may prevent a deterioration of hallux valgus only at an early stage of the disease. Concerning operative techniques, more than 150 different surgical procedures are described in the literature, which can be reduced to some common procedures. These are dependent on the manifestation of the bunion as well as on associated foot and ankle pathologies. Patients should be informed that postoperative follow-up treatment until complete recovery is time-consuming.

  4. The effectiveness of distal soft tissue procedures in hallux valgus

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Hasan; Agus, Haluk; Altay, Taskin; Hancerli, Ozgur

    2008-01-01

    Background Hallux valgus is a common disorder affecting mostly women population. Distal soft tissue procedure in the treatment of hallux valgus is one of the main operative techniques described. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of McBride’s distal soft tissue procedure in hallux valgus cases. Materials and methods This study includes 30 patients (27 women) having 31 hallux valgus, who were treated between 1999 and 2004. Modified McBride’s distal soft tissue procedure was carried out in all cases. Pain status of the cases was recorded by using VAS, clinical assessment described by Bonney and Macnab, and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society’s (AOFAS) score at the last follow up. Results The mean hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angles decreased from 31.4° and 13.8° to 13.5° and 10.5°, respectively, with an average follow-up period of 54.4 months. AOFAS’s score displayed significant improvement from 57 to 87. The mean VAS showed a significant decrease from 8.75 preoperatively to 2.1 at the last follow-up. According to Bonney and Macnab criteria, only one case was accepted as poor result due to 5° hallux varus. Conclusions McBride’s distal soft tissue procedure yields high rate of satisfaction for mild to moderate hallux valgus with no bony complications related to osteotomy. PMID:19384606

  5. Treatment of Pseudoarthrosis After Minimally Invasive Hallux Valgus Correction

    PubMed Central

    Cianforlini, Marco; Rosini, Cristina; Marinelli, Mario; de Palma, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Treatment of mild and moderate hallux valgus deformities. Discussion: Minimally invasive technique enables surgeons to treat mild and moderate hallux valgus deformities with excellent and good results in the majority of patients. Nonunion of first metatarsal, moreover, has only rarely been reported. Summary: We describe the essential steps of a surgical technique for the treatment of nonunions after miniinvasive subcapital first metatarsal osteotomy reconstructed using a tricortical iliac crest bone graft. PMID:25013553

  6. [The Kramer osteotomy in the treatment of hallux valgus].

    PubMed

    Muminagić, Sahib; Drljevic, Sanja; Granić, Amela; Kapidzić, Tarik; Kovacević, Mehmed; Hodzić, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    In 1973. J. Kramer published his own technique for the cure of hallux valgus (Orthopädische Praxis Heft 8/1982, 636-645). He corrects bad position of the first bone of the metatarsus with all the consequences which lie in the basis of the deformation. By osteotomy of the first bone of the metatarsus and re-instates functional equipise of the first foot instep in all the components. Having the experience of 550 operated patients he considered that this method has advantages over numerous described method, indicative range is practically wide, respecting the technique it is simply performed, post-operative cure does not require immobilisation, and in comparison with other methods, complications and bad results are practically unknown. On our ward, in the period between 1984 and 1988, we applied Kramer's osteotomy in 98 cases of hallux valgus. The results were satisfying, considerably better than after other methods of hallux valgus treatment.

  7. Sex-Related Differences in Outcomes after Hallux Valgus Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Gi Won; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Ji Wun; Park, Sung Bum; Kim, Jin Kak

    2015-01-01

    Purpose With differences between the sexes in foot bone anatomy and ligamentous laxity, there is the possibility that the results of hallux valgus surgery may also differ between the sexes. We aimed to compare the results of hallux valgus surgery between the sexes. Materials and Methods The authors retrospectively reviewed 60 males (66 feet) and 70 females (82 feet) who underwent distal or proximal chevron osteotomy for the treatment of hallux valgus deformity between June 2005 and December 2011. We compared the clinical and radiologic outcomes between the sexes. Results There were no statistically significant differences in demographics between the sexes. The mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score, visual analogue scale for pain, and patient satisfaction at the last follow-up did not differ significantly between the sexes. The mean preoperative hallux valgus angle (HVA) and inter-metatarsal angle (IMA) were not significantly different between the sexes. At the last follow-up, the mean HVA was significantly greater in females (p=0.003) than in males; mean IMA was not significantly different between the sexes. The mean correction of HVA in males was significantly greater than that in females (p=0.014). Conclusion There were no significant differences between the sexes regarding clinical outcomes after distal and proximal chevron osteotomy. However, male patients achieved greater correction of HVA than female patients. There is a possibility that sexual dimorphism of the foot may affect postoperative HVA. PMID:25683997

  8. Effect of toe-spread-out exercise on hallux valgus angle and cross-sectional area of abductor hallucis muscle in subjects with hallux valgus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Jung, Do-Young; Kwon, Oh-Yun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated whether the toe-spread-out exercise affects the hallux valgus angle, the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle, and the hallux valgus angle during active abduction. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects with hallux valgus were randomly assigned to orthosis and orthosis plus toe-spread-out exercise groups. The orthosis group wore the orthosis for 8 weeks, while the orthosis plus toe-spread-out group also performed the toe-spread-out exercise. The hallux valgus angle, the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle, and the hallux valgus angle during active abduction were measured initially and after 8 weeks by radiography and ultrasonography. [Results] While there were no significant changes in the three parameters in the orthosis group, there were significant differences in the orthosis plus toe-spread-out exercise group after 8 weeks. In addition there were significant differences in the three measures between the two groups. [Conclusion] The toe-spread-out exercise reduces the hallux valgus angle and hallux valgus angle during active abduction, and increases the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle. The toe-spread-out exercise is recommended for patients with mild to moderate hallux valgus. PMID:25995546

  9. Hallux valgus in dancers: a closer look at dance technique and its impact on dancers' feet.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Kathleen L; Simmel, Liane; Kadel, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Hallux valgus is a common deformity of the forefoot. There is no doubt that some dancers develop hallux valgus, but the question remains as to whether dancers are at greater risk than the general population for developing this deformity. Review of the literature reveals on-going debate regarding risk factors for hallux valgus, which may include increasing age, female gender, genetic predisposition, constrictive shoe wear, first ray hypermobility, foot architecture, tight Achilles tendon, and first metatarsal length. There is insufficient evidence to demonstrate conclusively that dancing, specifically pointe work, increases the prevalence or severity of hallux valgus; more research is needed. Treatment of hallux valgus in dancers should be conservative, with delay of surgical correction until retirement if possible.

  10. [Hallux valgus and hypermobility of the first ray--causal treatment using tarso-metatarsal reorientation arthrodesis].

    PubMed

    Klaue, K

    1991-12-01

    Today, bunion surgery is still very controversial. Considering that a bunion deformity is actually a result of multiple possible causes, the rationale of the currently applied techniques has not been conclusively demonstrated. Multiple techniques are still applied with uncertain outcome, as shown by the not insignificant recurrence rate. The tarsometatarsal reorientation arthrodesis addresses the deficient anteromedial buttress which is due to the most often concomittent hypermobile first ray. This is an important aspect of treating hallux valgus deformity and includes the sagittal alignment besides the horizontal reposition of the metatarsal over the sesamoid complex. Since in hallux valgus, the first metatarsal looses its position also by the insufficiency of the intrinsic musculature and the ligamento-capsular structures, the arthrodesis regulates the elasticity of the multiarticular first ray within the sagittal plane. Recurrences are less likely after this operation, even when performed on the adolescent hallux which is known as very difficult to be treated successfully.

  11. The hallux valgus angle of the margo medialis pedis as an alternative to the measurement of the metatarsophalangeal hallux valgus angle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, the metatarsophalangeal angle (hallux valgus angle) is measured based on radiographic images. However, using X-ray examinations for epidemiological or screening purposes would be unethical, especially in children. For this reason it is discussed to measure the hallux valgus angle of the margo medialis pedis (medial border of the foot) documented on foot outline drawings or foot scans. As a first step on the way to prove the validity of those approaches this study assesses the hallux valgus angle measured on the margo medialis pedis based on the same x-ray pictures as the metatarsophalangeal hallux valgus. Methods Radiographic images of the foot were obtained from patients with symptomatic hallux valgus malformation. Twelve sets of contact copies of the 63 originals were made, and were marked and measured according to three different methods, each one performed by two observers and with two repeated measurements. Thus, data sets from 756 individual assessments were entered into the multifactorial statistical analysis. Comparisons were made between the angle of the margo medialis pedis and the metatarsophalangeal angle, which was determined by two different methods. To determine the inter- and intraobserver reliability of the different methods, each assessment was conducted by two independent experts and repeated after a period of several weeks. Results The correlations between the hallux valgus angles determined by the three different methods were all above r = 0.89 (p < 0.001) and thus highly significant. The values obtained by measuring the margo medialis pedis angle, however, were on average 4.8 degrees smaller than the metatarsophalangeal angles. No significant differences were found between the observers. No systematic deviations for any observer between repeated measurements were detected. Conclusions Measurements of the radiographic hallux angle of the margo medialis pedis are reliable and show high correlation with the

  12. Joint Manipulation Under Anesthesia for Arthrofibrosis After Hallux Valgus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, Catherine; Weil, Lowell; Weil, Lowell Scott; Klein, Erin E; Argerakis, Nicholas; Fleischer, Adam E

    2016-01-01

    Arthrofibrosis is a known complication of hallux valgus surgery. Joint manipulation under anesthesia has been studied for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder; however, a paucity of published data exists on the use of this modality in the foot and ankle. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the outcomes of first metatarsophalangeal joint manipulation for arthrofibrosis that occurred as a complication of bunion surgery. The study population consisted of patients attending a single foot and ankle specialty clinic who were evaluated for arthrofibrosis after bunion surgery. Patients who underwent joint manipulation under anesthesia were asked to complete a research visit in which a clinical examination was performed and the presence and severity of joint pain were assessed. A total of 38 patients (34 females, 4 males, 53 feet), with a mean age of 55.7 ± 11.8 (range 30 to 83) years, agreed to participate. The mean follow-up period was 6.5 ± 3.4 (range 1 to 17) years. The visual analog scale scores improved significantly from baseline to the final follow-up visit (baseline 6.5 ± 1.5, range 2 to 10; final follow-up visit 2.3 ± 1.5, range 0 to 6; p < .001). Furthermore, joint motion had increased significantly (p < .001) for both dorsiflexion and plantarflexion at the final follow-up examination. The final range of motion (dorsiflexion, r = -0.431, p = .002; plantarflexion, r = -0.494, p < .001) correlated highly with patient self-reported pain in the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Our findings suggest that joint manipulation could be a useful modality for increasing first metatarsophalangeal joint mobility and alleviating pain in patients who experience arthrofibrosis after surgical correction of hallux valgus.

  13. Effects of balance taping using kinesiology tape in a patient with moderate hallux valgus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hallux valgus, an increased angle of lateral deviation in the big toe, can cause pain and difficulties in balancing and walking. This study aimed to investigate the effects of balance taping using elastic therapeutic tape on moderate hallux valgus. Methods: When she walked with shoes, she complained of pain over the medial eminence of the hallux metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. Balance taping using kinesiology tape was applied for 3 months (average, 16hours/d) to both big toes of a 26-year-old woman with moderate hallux valgus. Results: On the right side, the hallux valgus angle (HVA) decreased from 21° to 14° and the intermetatarsal angle (IMA) decreased from 15° to 14.5°. On the left side, the HVA decreased from 22° to 11° and the IMA decreased from 15° to 12°. Furthermore, the patient was able to walk long distances in shoes without pain in the medial eminence of the hallux metatarsophalangeal joint. Conclusion: This study suggested that repeated balance taping with kinesiology tape could be used as a complementary treatment method for moderate hallux valgus. PMID:27861365

  14. Mitchell's osteotomy in the management of hallux valgus: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Asif Nazir; Bhat, Javid Ahmed; Paljor, SD; Mir, Naseer Ahmed; Majid, Suhail

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hallux valgus is a common condition that affects the forefoot. A large number of procedures are described for managing this condition. Mitchell's osteotomy and its modifications are being widely used for treating hallux valgus. However, most of the studies describe the results from the developed world. We present results of the classic Mitchell's osteotomy in hallux valgus in Indian subcontinent. Materials and Methods: Forty eight adult patients (including 12 bilateral ones) in the age range of 18–60 years with hallux valgus were managed with the classic Mitchell's osteotomy. Pain over the bunion was the reason for surgery in 53 of 60 feet and cosmesis in the remaining 7 feet. Patients with hallux valgus angle more than 20° and not responding to a trial of conservative treatment were included. Patients having metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint osteoarthritis (Grade II and higher), hallux rigidus, rheumatoid arthritis, and with subluxation of MTP joint were excluded from the study. Further, patients with first metatarsal more than 3 mm shorter than second metatarsal were also excluded. Results: The average follow-up period is 3 yrs (range 18months – 6yrs). About 55 feet (83%) were painless after surgery. Forty-two (70%) patients were happy with the cosmetic results of the surgery. Metatarsalgia was the reason for dissatisfaction with the procedure in five patients. The average correction of hallux valgus and the intermetatarsal angles achieved was 19.7° and 6.9°, respectively. Using the Broughton and Winson scoring system, 37 (61.7%) feet had excellent results, 18 (30%) had good, and five (8.3%) feet had a poor results. Conclusion: The classic Mitchell's procedure is a simple procedure and gives good cosmetic and radiological results. PMID:19753185

  15. Hallux valgus inheritance: pedigree research in 350 patients with bunion deformity.

    PubMed

    Piqué-Vidal, Carlos; Solé, María T; Antich, Jaume

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to construct 3-generation pedigree charts from 350 patients with hallux valgus. During a 1-year period, all consecutive patients (n = 1174) with a painful bunion deformity evaluated roentgenographically were asked to complete a detailed 3-generation family history questionnaire. We studied 350 probands (22 men, 328 women; male/female ratio, 1:14.9; mean age, 47.8 years). Juvenile hallux valgus was diagnosed in 15 patients. Three or more affected members were observed in pedigrees from 244 probands, 2 affected members in 71, and 1 affected member in 35 (proband) (affected subjects per pedigree ranged from 1 to 16). Ninety percent of probands had at least 1 family member affected. The hallux valgus penetrance according to pedigrees from all probands was 56%. The female sex predominated with regard to the gender of parents with hallux valgus, affected branch of the family, and gender of relatives with bunion deformity. Severity of hallux valgus was not significantly influenced by gender, the affected branch of the family, or gender of the affected relatives. Family history of bunion deformity was present in 90% of probands, with vertical transmission affecting some family members across 3 generations, which is compatible with autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance.

  16. Hallux valgus-a case for a physiotherapist or only for a surgeon? Literature review.

    PubMed

    Mortka, Kamila; Lisiński, Przemysław

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] Hallux valgus is one of the most common deformations of the human foot, and it causes great difficulties for the patients. The aim of this paper was to review available medical literature in search of evidence which would justify implementation of physiotherapy, based on its effectiveness for patients with hallux valgus. [Subjects and Methods] The following databases were searched for applicable papers: PubMed, Google Scholar, Clinical Key and UpToDate. Full-text articles from the last 15 years were subjected to a review, which ultimately selected seven papers about hallux valgus therapy published over the past 12 years. These studies were grouped according to their design and level of evidence and classified depending on whether they concerned physiotherapy as postoperative therapy or as the only treatment. [Results] The studies included in the present analysis used the following interventions for patients with hallux valgus: exercise, manual therapy, gait training, taping and orthosis. All the studies showed beneficial effects and the most frequently observed results were reductions in pain and improvements in function. [Conclusion] The evidence found in the reviewed materials clearly indicates that patients with hallux valgus should not only be subject to surgical procedures but also undergo physiotherapeutic treatment.

  17. The podiatric treatment of hallux abducto valgus and its associated condition, bunion, with Tagetes patula.

    PubMed

    Khan, M T

    1996-07-01

    To assess the effectiveness of marigold therapy using Tagetes patula preparations, a double-blind placebo-controlled trial was designed to be carried out over a period of eight weeks. Sixty patients were entered in the trial. Twenty patients with bilateral hallux abducto valgus and its associated condition, bunion, were randomly selected from 37 subjects for group A. For group B, 40 patients with unilateral hallux abducto valgus and bunion were randomly selected from 69 subjects and subdivided into groups Ba and Bb. Patients with ulcerated conditions, those on medication and those who had undergone surgery for the condition were excluded. The results obtained were highly significant (P < 0.001), suggesting that T. patula preparations, plus protective pad, were effective in reducing the width of the lesion and level of pain of hallux abducto valgus.

  18. Radiological Characteristics and Anatomical Risk Factors in the Evaluation of Hallux Valgus in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hailin; Jin, Kaiji; Fu, Zhongguo; Ma, Mingtai; Liu, Zhongdi; An, Shuai; Jiang, Baoguo

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are no unified theories as to the anatomical changes that occur with hallux valgus, we investigated the radiological characteristics and anatomical risk factors for hallux valgus deformity in Chinese adults. Methods: We reviewed 141 patients with hallux valgus (206 feet; 15 males, 126 females; mean age, 58.5 years). These patients attended Peking University People's Hospital from April 2008 to March 2014. All feet had intact radiological data, obtained using the Centricity RIS/PACS system. We measured hallux valgus angle (HVA), 1–2 intermetatarsal angle (IMA), proximal articular set angle (PASA), distal articular set angle, hallux interphalangeal angle, metatarsocuneiform angle, size of the medial eminence of the distal first metatarsal, tibial sesamoid position, and joint congruity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ). Results: We found positive correlations between the HVA and IMA (r = 0.279, P < 0.01) and HVA and PASA (r = 0.358, P < 0.01), but not for IMA and PASA (P > 0.05). Feet were divided into three groups based on HVA severity. IMA (P < 0.05) and PASA (P < 0.05) in the mild group were significantly lower than that in the moderate and severe groups, with no significant difference determined for IMA or PASA between the moderate and severe groups (P > 0.05). Feet were then grouped based on the shape of the first metatarsal head. Using this grouping, HVA was significant higher in the rounded shape (19.92°) than in a flat shape (17.66°). The size of the medial eminence of the distal first metatarsal was positively correlated with HVA (r = 0.185, P < 0.01). The medial eminence in the moderate and severe groups was significantly larger than that in the mild group; moderate and severe groups were not significantly different. Conclusions: PASA enlargement is an adaptive change during early hallux valgus formation, and decompensation leads to subdislocation in the first MTPJ. A rounded first metatarsal head would thus predispose a

  19. The Mechanical Axis of the First Ray: A Radiographic Assessment in Hallux Abducto Valgus Evaluation.

    PubMed

    LaPorta, Guido A; Nasser, Ellianne M; Mulhern, Jennifer L; Malay, D Scot

    2016-01-01

    The present report describes a new method of hallux abducto valgus deformity correction planning using the mechanical axis of the medial column (mechanical axis planning). This method of radiographic evaluation identifies an ideal position for the first metatarsal after correction and is useful regardless of the surgical procedure chosen. We retrospectively reviewed 200 radiographs to identify a "normal" value for the mechanical axis angle. We reviewed 100 radiographs of patients with hallux abducto valgus deformity (deformity group) and 100 radiographs of patients without hallux abducto valgus deformity (control group). The deformity group revealed an M1-M2 anatomic axis angle of 13.5° ± 2.83° and an M1-M2 mechanical axis angle of 11.58° ± 1°. The control group revealed an M1-M2 anatomic axis angle of 7.5° ± 1.76° and an M1-M2 mechanical axis angle of 11.19° ± 0.9°. The differences in the M1-M2 anatomic axis angle and M1-M2 mechanical axis angle were statistically significant between the control and deformity groups. We sought to provide a reliable method for planning hallux abducto valgus deformity correction by aligning the mechanical axis of the medial column and the mechanical axis of the first ray to the "normal" value of 11° to reduce the deformity.

  20. Hallux valgus: comparative study between two surgical techniques of proximal addition osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Luiz Carlos Ribeiro; de Araujo, Bruno Vierno; Franco, Nelson; Hita, Roberto Minoru

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To clinically and radiographically compare the results of treatment of hallux valgus, by two addition osteotomy techniques: one using resected exostosis, and the other using a plate fixation for addition wedge. METHODS: We evaluated 24 feet of 19 patients, mean age 51.3 years, affected by hallux valgus, with a mean follow-up of 50.1 months. 13 feet underwent addition osteotomy with resected exostosis (AORE) and 11 patients (11 feet) underwent addition osteotomy with plate (AOP). The AOFAS score, intermetatarsal 1 and 2 angles, and hallux valgus angle were evaluated before and after surgery. RESULTS: In the AORE technique, the mean preoperative AOFAS was 46.6, with IMA 14o and HVA 32o, while in the postoperative AOFAS it was 81.3, with IMA 9o and HVA 25o, and 92.3% satisfactory results. In the AOP technique, the mean preoperative AOFAS was 42.1, with IMA 15o and HVA 29o while in the postoperative AOFAS it was 77.4, with IMA 11o and HVA 23o and 81.8% of satisfactory results. CONCLUSIONS: Both techniques proved to be effective in the treatment of hallux valgus, both clinically and radiografically, with no statistical difference between them. Level of evidence III, Retrospective comparative study. PMID:24453631

  1. Roger A. Mann Award . The reliability of angular measurements in hallux valgus deformities. .

    PubMed

    Coughlin, M J; Freund, E

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intraobserver and inter-observer reliability of physicians on a repetitive basis in making angular measurements of hallux valgus deformities. The hallux valgus angle, the 1-2 intermetatarsal angle, and the distal metatarsal articular angle and the assessment of congruency/subluxation of the first MTP joint were evaluated on a repetitive basis. Physicians were provided with a series of black and white photographs of radiographs with a hallux valgus deformity. Three different sets of photographs randomly ordered were sent at a minimum interval of six weeks to the participants. Participating physicians were extremely reliable in the measurement of the 1-2 metatarsal angle. 96.7% of the photographs were repeatedly measured within a range of 5 degrees or less. The angular measurements to determine the hallux valgus angle were slightly less reliable, but 86.2% of photos were repeatedly measured within a range of 5 degrees or less. In the measurement of the distal metatarsal articular angle, 58.9% of photographs were repeatedly measured within a range of 5 degrees or less. There was a wide range within physician evaluators who recognized very few congruent joints (2 of 21) and those who recognized several congruent joints (11 of 21). Most physicians appeared to be internally consistent in the assessment of MTP congruency; however, some photographs were much more difficult to assess than others. This study validates the reliability of the measurement of the hallux valgus and the 1-2 metatarsal angle. The interobserver reliability in the measurement of the distal metatarsal articular angle is questioned.

  2. Geometry of the Proximal Phalanx of Hallux and First Metatarsal Bone to Predict Hallux Abducto Valgus: A Radiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Perez Boal, Eduardo; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo; Fuentes Rodriguez, Miguel; Lopez Lopez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background Hallux abducto valgus (HAV) is one of the most common forefoot deformities in adulthood with a variable prevalence but has been reported as high as 48%. The study proposed that HAV development involves a skeletal parameter of the first metatarsal bone and proximal phalanx hallux (PPH) to determine if the length measurements of the metatarsal and PPH can be used to infer adult HAV. Methods All consecutive patients over 21 years of age with HAV by roentgenographic evaluation were included in a cross-sectional study. The control group included patients without HAV. The study included 160 individuals. We identified and assessed the following radiographic measurements to evaluate HAV: the distances from the medial (LDM), central (LDC), and lateral (LDL) aspects of the base to the corresponding regions of the head of the PPH. The difference between the medial and lateral aspect of PPH was also calculated. Results The reliability of the variables measured in 40 radiographic films show perfect reliability ranging from 0.941 to 1 with a small error ranging from 0.762 to 0. Also, there were no systematic errors between the two measurements for any variable (P > 0.05). The LDM PPH showed the highest reliability and lowest error. Conclusion It is more suitable to measure the LDM PPH instead of the LDC PPH when calculating the hallux valgus angle based on our reliability results. When the differences of the medial and lateral PPH are greater, the risk for developing HAV increases. PMID:27861517

  3. Evaluation of Hallux Valgus Correction With Versus Without Akin Proximal Phalanx Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Thorud, Jakob C; Martin, Lanster R; Plemmons, Britton S; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Although the efficacy of Akin proximal phalanx closing wedge osteotomy as a sole procedure for correction of hallux valgus deformity is questionable, when used in combination with other osseous corrective procedures, the procedure has been believed to be efficacious. However, a limited number of comparative studies have confirmed the value of this additional procedure. We identified patients who had undergone osseous hallux valgus correction with first metatarsal osteotomy or first tarsometatarsal joint arthrodesis with (n = 73) and without (n = 81) Akin osteotomy and evaluated their radiographic measurements at 3 points (preoperatively, within 3 months after surgery, and ≥6 months after surgery). We found that those people who had undergone the Akin procedure tended to have a larger hallux abduction angle and a more laterally deviated tibial sesamoid position preoperatively. Although the radiographic correction of the deformity was promising immediately after corrective surgery with the Akin osteotomy, maintenance of the correction was questionable in our cohort. The value of additional Akin osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity is uncertain.

  4. Tensile Properties of the Deep Transverse Metatarsal Ligament in Hallux Valgus

    PubMed Central

    Abdalbary, Sahar Ahmed; Elshaarawy, Ehab A.A.; Khalid, Bahaa E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The deep transverse metatarsal ligament (DTML) connects the neighboring 2 metatarsal heads and is one of the stabilizers connecting the lateral sesamoid and second metatarsal head. In this study, we aimed to determine the tensile properties of the DTML in normal specimens and to compare these results with hallux valgus specimens. We hypothesized that the tensile properties of the DTML would be different between the 2 groups of specimens. The DTML in the first interspace was dissected from 12 fresh frozen human cadaveric specimens. Six cadavers had bilateral hallux valgus and the other 6 cadavers had normal feet. The initial length (L0) and cross-sectional area (A0) of the DTML were measured using a digital caliper, and tensile tests with load failure were performed using a material testing machine. There were significant between-groups differences in the initial length (L0) P = 0.009 and cross-sectional area (A0) of the DTML P = 0.007. There were also significant between-groups differences for maximum force (N) P = 0.004, maximum distance (mm) P = 0.005, maximum stress (N/mm2) P = 0.003, and maximum strain (%) P = 0.006. The DTML is an anatomical structure for which the tensile properties differ in hallux valgus. PMID:26937914

  5. Mobility of the first tarsometatarsal joint in hallux valgus patients: a radiographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Faber, F W; Kleinrensink, G J; Mulder, P G; Verhaar, J A

    2001-12-01

    Hypermobility of the first tarsometatarsal (TMT 1) joint in the sagittal plane plays a role in the etiology and treatment of the hallux valgus complex. However, objective quantification of this mobility is still a problem. We performed a radiographic analysis of TMT 1 mobility in the sagittal plane in 94 hallux valgus patients aged 15 to 65 years. We examined 94 feet with symptomatic hallux valgus deformity requiring operative correction. Excluded were patients with osteoarthritis, inflammatory diseases or previous operations on the foot. The TMT 1 mobility was tested with a clinical test and by radiographic measurement using the modified Coleman block test. The mean mobility of the TMT 1 joint in the sagittal plane in the patient group was 12.9 degrees (SD 4.80). In addition, there was a statistically significant difference between two subgroups: patients with and without clinical TMT 1 hypermobility. No correlation of TMT 1 (hyper)mobility and radiographic second ray hypertrophy was found. This simple method can produce additional information to the clinical TMT 1 hypermobility test in the sagittal plane.

  6. Radiographic angles in hallux valgus: Comparison between protractor and iPhone measurements.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hong-Zheng; Zhang, Wei-Lin; Li, Xiu-Cheng; Yang, Mao-Wei

    2015-08-01

    Radiographic angles are used to assess the severity of hallux valgus deformity, make preoperative plans, evaluate outcomes after surgery, and compare results between different methods. Traditionally, hallux valgus angle (HVA) has been measured by using a protractor and a marker pen with hardcopy radiographs. The main objective of this study is to compare HVA measurements performed using a smartphone and a traditional protractor. The secondary objective was to compare the time taken between those two methods. Six observers measured major HVA on 20 radiographs of hallux valgus deformity with both a standard protractor and an Apple iPhone. Four of the observers repeated the measurements at least a week after the original measurements. The mean absolute difference between pairs of protractor and smartphone measurements was 3.2°. The 95% confidence intervals for intra-observer variability were ±3.1° for the smartphone measurement and ±3.2° for the protractor method. The 95% confidence intervals for inter-observer variability were ±9.1° for the smartphone measurement and ±9.6° for the protractor measurement. We conclude that the smartphone is equivalent to the protractor for the accuracy of HVA measurement. But, the time taken in smartphone measurement was also reduced.

  7. [Dynamic plantar pressure distribution after percutaneous hallux valgus correction using the Reverdin-Isham osteotomy].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Reyes, Gerardo; López-Gavito, Eduardo; Pérez-Sanpablo, Alberto Isaac; Galván Duque-Gastélum, Carlos; Alvarez-Camacho, Michelín; Mendoza-Cruz, Felipe; Parra-Téllez, Patricia; Vázquez-Escamilla, Jesús; Quiñones-Urióstegui, Ivett

    2014-07-01

    Percutaneous surgical techniques are suitable for the correction of the hallux valgus deformity. Satisfactory aesthetic and functional results obtained with the Reverdin- Isham osteotomy have been reported. The aim of this study was to describe dynamic plantar pressure redistribution after the correction of the deformity using this technique. A sample of 20 feet with mild or moderate hallux valgus was conformed and surgically treated using the Reverdin-Isham osteotomy. Clinical, radiological, surface and pressure assessments were performed pre and postoperatively. Postoperative mean (± SD) values of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, metatarsophalangeal, first intermetatarsal and proximal articular sect angles were 95.7 (3.3), 15.5° (5.4), 9.5° (1.5) y 5.3° (3.0), respectively. A significant decrease was observed in surface values of both lateral (P = 0.003) and medial (P = 0.001) masks of the forefoot. Mean pressure values of the lateral forefoot region denoted a significant increase (P < 0.001) while the medial forefoot region showed no change (P = 0.137). There is evidence that this particular surgical technique promotes a new plantar pressure pattern in the foot that might significantly favour the increase of the pressure observed under the lesser metatarsal heads and might not induce meaningful changes in the mean pressure registered under the first metatarsal head and hallux.

  8. Footwear modification following hallux valgus surgery: The all-or-none phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Cal; Bhosale, Abhijit; Pillai, Anand

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To define footwear outcomes following hallux valgus surgery, focusing on patient return to comfortable and heeled footwear and patterns of post-operative footwear selection. METHODS: Surgical intervention is indicated for symptomatic cases of hallux valgus unresponsive to conservative methods, with favourable reported outcomes. The return to various types of footwear post-operatively is reflective of the degree of correction achieved, and corresponds to patient satisfaction. Patients are expected to return to comfortable footwear post-operatively without significant residual symptoms. Many female patients will additionally attempt to return to high-heeled, narrow toe box shoes. However, minimal evidence exists to guide their expectations. Sixty-five female hallux valgus patients that had undergone primary surgery between 2011 and 2013 were retrospectively identified using our hospital surgical database. Patients were reviewed using a footwear-specific outcome questionnaire at a mean 18.5 mo follow-up. RESULTS: Eighty-six percent of patients were able to return to comfortable footwear post-operatively with minimal discomfort. Of those intending to resume wearing heeled footwear, 62% were able to do so, with 77% of these patients wearing these as or more frequently than pre-operatively. No significant difference was observed between pre- and post-operative heel size. Mean time to return to heeled footwear was 21.4 wk post-operation. Cosmetic outcomes were very high and did not adversely impact footwear selection. CONCLUSION: We report high rates of return to both comfortable and heeled shoes in female patients following primary hallux valgus surgery. We observed an “all-or-none phenomenon” where patients rejected a return to heeled footwear unless able to tolerate them at the same frequency and heel size as pre-operatively. A minority of patients were unable to return to comfortable footwear post-operatively, which had adverse ramifications on their quality

  9. The influence of personality traits on the subjective outcome of operative hallux valgus correction.

    PubMed

    Radl, Roman; Leithner, Andreas; Zacherl, Maximilian; Lackner, Ursula; Egger, Josef; Windhager, Reinhard

    2004-10-01

    We studied prospectively the influence of personality traits on the subjective outcome of a chevron osteotomy in 42 patients with hallux valgus. The mean age of patients was 48.3 (20-70) years. Personality traits were evaluated by the means of the Freiburg Personality Inventory (FPI-R). Three months postoperatively 37 patients were satisfied, and five patients not satisfied with the operative procedure. The preoperative AOFAS Score improved from an average of 48.7 (30-65) points to 87.9 (50-100) points. A comparison of satisfied and dissatisfied patients revealed statistically significant differences in the personality traits aggressiveness (p=0.003), extraversion (p=0.001) and health worries (p=0.04). The postoperative hallux valgus angle was 12.2+/-7.8 degrees and 13.4+/-8.3 degrees (p=0.74) among satisfied and not satisfied patients, respectively, and the intermetatarsal angle (I-II) was 7.4+/-2.5 degrees and 7.6+/-4 degrees (p=0.89), respectively. The results suggest that the patient's subjective result after the operative correction may be influenced by some individual, personality profiles.

  10. Cardan angle rotation sequence effects on first-metatarsophalangeal joint kinematics: implications for measuring hallux valgus deformity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There currently are no recommended standards for reporting kinematics of the first-metatarsophalangeal joint. This study compared 2 different rotation sequences of Cardan angles, with implications for understanding the measurement of hallux valgus deformity. Methods Thirty-one women (19 hallux valgus; 12 controls) participated. All were scanned in an open-upright magnetic resonance scanner, their foot posed to simulate the gait conditions of midstance, heel-off, and terminal stance. Using computer processes, selected tarsals were reconstructed into virtual bone models and embedded with principal-axes coordinate systems, from which the rotation matrix between the hallux and first metatarsal was decomposed into Cardan angles. Joint angles were then compared using a within factors (rotation sequence and gait condition) repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Only the transverse plane-first sequence consistently output incremental increases of dorsiflexion and abduction across gait events in both groups. There was an interaction (F ≥ 25.1; p < 0.001). Follow-up comparisons revealed angles were different (p < 0.05) at terminal stance. Conclusions Different rotation sequences yield different results. Extracting the first rotation in the transverse plane allows for the resting alignment of the hallux to deviate from the sagittal plane. Therefore, representing first-metatarsophalangeal joint kinematics with the transverse plane-first rotation sequence may be preferred, especially in cases of hallux valgus deformity. PMID:24839465

  11. Epidemiology of Shoe Wearing Patterns Over Time in Older Women: Associations With Foot Pain and Hallux Valgus

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Edward; Marshall, Michelle; Thomas, Martin J.; Rathod, Trishna; Peat, George M.; Croft, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Foot problems are prevalent in older women and are thought to be associated with footwear. This study examined women’s shoe wearing patterns over time and evaluated associations between footwear characteristics and foot pain and hallux valgus. Methods: Women aged 50–89 years (n = 2,627) completed a survey that included drawings of four toe-box shapes and four heel heights. For each life decade, participants indicated which footwear style they wore most of the time. Foot pain in the past 12 months and hallux valgus were documented by self-report. Logistic regression examined associations between heel height, toe-box shape, foot pain and hallux valgus. Results: Wearing shoes with a high heel and very narrow toe box between the ages of 20 and 29 was common, but decreased to less than 10% by the age of 40. Compared with women who had worn shoes with a very wide toe box, the likelihood of hallux valgus increased in those who had worn shoes with a wide (odds ratio [OR] 1.96, 95% CI 1.03–3.71), narrow (2.39, 1.29–4.42) and very narrow (2.70, 1.46–5.00) toe box between the ages of 20 and 29 and those who wore shoes with a very narrow toe box (1.93, 1.10–3.39) between the ages of 30 and 39. Conclusions: Women wear shoes with a lower heel and broader toe box as they age. Wearing constrictive footwear between the ages of 20 and 39 may be critical for developing hallux valgus in later life. PMID:26834078

  12. Modified Wilson’s Osteotomy for Hallux Valgus Deformity. A New Approach

    PubMed Central

    Xarchas, Konstantinos C; Mavrolias, Dimitrios; Kyriakopoulos, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new set of modifications and present the results from 48 patients (a total of 60 feet operated), who underwent this modified Wilson’s osteotomy for the correction of Hallux Valgus. Patients were of an average age of 52 years old (from 21 to 75 years of age) and were followed up for a mean of 12 months post-operatively. Patient evaluation was made with the symptom scoring system as presented by Kataraglis et al., with the final outcome being satisfactory in all of the cases. This set of modifications introduced to the original Wilson’s osteotomy, proved to offer a stable, predictable and satisfactory outcome in all cases and we strongly recommend it. PMID:25352929

  13. Point-Connecting Measurements of the Hallux Valgus Deformity: A New Measurement and Its Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jeong-Ho; Boedijono, Dimas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate new point-connecting measurements for the hallux valgus angle (HVA) and the first intermetatarsal angle (IMA), which can reflect the degree of subluxation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ). Also, this study attempted to compare the validity of midline measurements and the new point-connecting measurements for the determination of HVA and IMA values. Materials and Methods Sixty feet of hallux valgus patients who underwent surgery between 2007 and 2011 were classified in terms of the severity of HVA, congruency of the first MTPJ, and type of chevron metatarsal osteotomy. On weight-bearing dorsal-plantar radiographs, HVA and IMA values were measured and compared preoperatively and postoperatively using both the conventional and new methods. Results Compared with midline measurements, point-connecting measurements showed higher inter- and intra-observer reliability for preoperative HVA/IMA and similar or higher inter- and intra-observer reliability for postoperative HVA/IMA. Patients who underwent distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy (DCMO) had higher intraclass correlation coefficient for inter- and intra-observer reliability for pre- and post-operative HVA and IMA measured by the point-connecting method compared with the midline method. All differences in the preoperative HVAs and IMAs determined by both the midline method and point-connecting methods were significant between the deviated group and subluxated groups (p=0.001). Conclusion The point-connecting method for measuring HVA and IMA in the subluxated first MTPJ may better reflect the severity of a HV deformity with higher reliability than the midline method, and is more useful in patients with DCMO than in patients with proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy. PMID:26996576

  14. A comparison of hallux valgus angles assessed with computerised plantar pressure measurements, clinical examination and radiography in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hallux valgus deformity is a common musculoskeletal foot disorder with a prevalence of 3.5% in adolescents to 35.7% in adults aged over 65 years. Radiographic measurements of hallux valgus angles (HVA) are considered to be the most reproducible and accurate assessment of HVA. However, in European countries, many podiatrists do not have direct access to radiographic facilities. Therefore, alternative measurements are desired. Such measurements are computerised plantar pressure measurement and clinical goniometry. The purpose of this study was to establish the agreement of these techniques and radiographic assessments. Methods HVA was determined in one hundred and eighty six participants suffering from diabetes. Radiographic measurements of HVA were performed with standardised static weight bearing dorsoplantar foot radiographs. The clinical goniometry for HVA was measured with a universal goniometer. Computerised plantar pressure measurement for HVA was executed with the EMED SF-4® pressure platform and Novel-Ortho-Geometry software. The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and levels of agreement were analysed using Bland & Altman plots. Results Comparison of radiographic measurements to clinical goniometry for HVA showed an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.76 to 0.86; p<0.001). Radiographic measurement versus computerised plantar pressure measurement showed an ICC of 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.49 to 0.68; p<0.001). In addition, clinical goniometry versus computerised plantar pressure measurement showed an ICC of 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.82; p<0.001). The systematic difference of the computerised plantar pressure measurement compared with radiographic measurement and clinical goniometry was 7.0 degrees (SD 6.8) and 5.2 degrees (SD 5.0), respectively. The systemic difference of radiographic measurements compared with clinical goniometry was 1.8 degrees (SD 5.0). Conclusions The

  15. Ninety-Degree Chevron Osteotomy for Correction of Hallux Valgus Deformity: Clinical Data and Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matzaroglou, Charalambos; Bougas, Panagiotis; Panagiotopoulos, Elias; Saridis, Alkis; Karanikolas, Menelaos; Kouzoudis, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    Hallux valgus is a very common foot disorder, with its prevalence estimated at 33% in adult shoe-wearing populations. Conservative management is the initial treatment of choice for this condition, but surgery is sometimes needed. The 600 angle Chevron osteotomy is an accepted method for correction of mild to moderate hallux valgus in adults less than 60 years old. A modified 900 angle Chevron osteotomy has also been described; this modified technique can confer some advantages compared to the 600 angle method, and reported results are good. In the current work we present clinical data from a cohort of fifty-one female patients who had surgery for sixty-two hallux valgus deformities. In addition, in order to get a better physical insight and study the mechanical stresses along the two osteotomies, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was also conducted. FEA indicated enhanced mechanical bonding with the modified 900 Chevron osteotomy, because the compressive stresses that keep the two bone parts together are stronger, and the shearing stresses that tend to slide the two bone parts apart are weaker, compared to the typical 600 technique. Follow-up data on our patient cohort show good or excellent long-term clinical results with the modified 900 angle technique. These results are consistent with the FEA-based hypothesis that a 900 Chevron osteotomy confers certain mechanical advantages compared to the typical 600 procedure. PMID:20648223

  16. Impact of Hallux Valgus related of quality of life in Women.

    PubMed

    Palomo-López, Patricia; Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, Ricardo; Losa-Iglesias, Marta Elena; Rodríguez-Sanz, David; Calvo-Lobo, César; López-López, Daniel

    2016-12-07

    The purpose of this study is to analyse and compare the impact of hallux valgus (HV) in a sample of adult women with varying degrees of HV scores obtained with regard to foot health and health in general. A total 100 female patients of mean age 43·04 ± 16·84 years who attended a podiatric clinic were asked to answer a questionnaire. The degree of deformity, HV, was determined on both feet of the patients using the Manchester Scale tool and the scores from the Foot Health Status Questionnaire were compared. Participants with varying degrees of HV recorded lower scores in Section 1 for the footwear and general foot health and higher scores for foot pain and foot function. In Section 2, they obtained lower scores in physical activity and social capacity and higher scores in vigour and general health. Differences between the four groups were evaluated by means of a t-test for independent samples, showing statistical significance (P < 0·001). This study has detected measurable differences of association between varying degrees of HV with impaired quality of life related to foot health in women.

  17. Traumeel S® for pain relief following hallux valgus surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In spite of recent advances in post-operative pain relief, pain following orthopedic surgery remains an ongoing challenge for clinicians. We examined whether a well known and frequently prescribed homeopathic preparation could mitigate post-operative pain. Method We performed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of the homeopathic preparation Traumeel S® in minimizing post-operative pain and analgesic consumption following surgical correction of hallux valgus. Eighty consecutive patients were randomized to receive either Traumeel tablets or an indistinguishable placebo, and took primary and rescue oral analgesics as needed. Maximum numerical pain scores at rest and consumption of oral analgesics were recorded on day of surgery and for 13 days following surgery. Results Traumeel was not found superior to placebo in minimizing pain or analgesic consumption over the 14 days of the trial, however a transient reduction in the daily maximum post-operative pain score favoring the Traumeel arm was observed on the day of surgery, a finding supported by a treatment-time interaction test (p = 0.04). Conclusions Traumeel was not superior to placebo in minimizing pain or analgesic consumption over the 14 days of the trial. A transient reduction in the daily maximum post-operative pain score on the day of surgery is of questionable clinical importance. Trial Registration This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. # NCT00279513 PMID:20380750

  18. Rotational Osteotomy for Hallux Valgus. A New Technique for Primary and Revision Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Cristian; Wagner, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    More than 200 different surgical techniques exist for hallux valgus (HV). Some of them are designed for mild, moderate, or severe deformities depending on their correction power. Nevertheless, they all correct only the coronal and/or sagittal plane deformity. Just a handful of them correct the known axial malrotation that exists in most HV cases. This malrotation is one possible factor that could be the source of recurrence of an operated HV as it has been described. We describe a new technique which simultaneously corrects the metatarsal internal rotation and varus deformity by rotating the metatarsal through an oblique plane osteotomy. This is performed with no bone wedge resection. Also, there is a broader bone surface contact than on a transverse proximal osteotomy. This technique is easy to remember and relatively simple to perform in primary and revision cases. The authors results show that it is as safe and effective as other procedures, with some advantages to be discussed. Levels of Evidence: Diagnostic Level 5. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:28286430

  19. Comparison of Clinical Outcomes of Scarf and Chevron Osteotomies and the McBride Procedure in the Treatment of Hallux Valgus Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Fakoor, Mohammad; Sarafan, Naser; Mohammadhoseini, Payam; Khorami, Mohsen; Arti, Hamidreza; Mosavi, SeyedShahnam; Aghaeeaghdam, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hallux valgus deformity is a common chronic problem with a reported prevalence of 28.4% and its chief complaint is pain. Thus far, different surgical procedures with their proposed indications have been introduced. This study compared three current procedures, namely the chevron and scarf osteotomies and the McBride procedure. Methods: This retrospective cohort was conducted at the Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences on 44 patients with moderate hallux valgus deformity from 2010 and 2013. All of the patients underwent one of the three procedures (chevron, scarf or McBride). Preoperative and follow up radiographies were evaluated in terms of hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angle correction. The Foot and Ankle Disability Index was filled out to assess the functional outcome and the Visual Analogue Scale was used to evaluate pain. Also, satisfaction, aesthetics and the rate of recurrence was evaluated. Results: Hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle correction were significantly higher in scarf, but not in chevron and McBride. However, from amongst the three procedures, there was no significant difference in terms of the Foot and Ankle Disability Index score, aesthetics, satisfaction level, pain score and recurrence rate. Conclusions: Considering that scarf osteotomy had better results in this study, we think that scarf osteotomy can be considered as a first choice for the treatment of moderate hallux valgus deformity. PMID:25207310

  20. Ultrasound evaluation of intrinsic plantar muscles and fascia in hallux valgus: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lobo, César Calvo; Marín, Alejandro Garrido; Sanz, David Rodríguez; López, Daniel López; López, Patricia Palomo; Morales, Carlos Romero; Corbalán, Irene Sanz

    2016-11-01

    A cross-sectional area (CSA) and thickness reduction of the abductor hallucis (AbH) is shown in subjects with hallux valgus (HV). To date, other soft-tissue structures have not been researched in relation with HV. The aim of this study was to compare the CSA and thickness of the intrinsic plantar muscles and fascia (PF) between feet with and without HV. Therefore, a cross-sectional and case-control study was performed using B-mode with an iU22 Philips ultrasound system and a 5 to 17-MHz transducer. The CSA and thickness were measured for the AbH, flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), and also the thickness for the anterior, middle, and posterior PF portions. A convenience sample of 40 feet, 20 with HV and 20 without HV, was recruited from a clinical and research center. A multivariate regression analysis using linear regression was performed to evaluate the ultrasound imaging measurements (α = 0.05). Consequently, statistically significant differences were observed between the groups (P < 0.05) for the AbH and FHB thickness, and CSA reduction, and also the plantar fascia thickness increase in favor of the HV group. On the contrary, the FDB thickness and CSA did not show statistically significant differences (P ≥ 0.05). In conclusion, the CSA and thickness of the AbH and FHB intrinsic plantar muscles are reduced, whereas the thickness of the anterior, middle, and posterior PF portions are increased, in subjects with HV compared with those without HV.

  1. Factors Related to Prevalence of Hallux Valgus in Female University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Hiroto; Juman, Sachiko; Ueda, Ai; Miki, Tomohiro; Shima, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the prevalence of hallux valgus (HV) and examined its association with various factors in a cross-sectional study of Japanese female university students. Methods A questionnaire survey of foot symptoms, lifestyle, and body mass index (BMI) was administered to 343 women who provided informed consent at a women’s university. Footprints were obtained and bone density was measured. Associations of HV with various factors were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Results Big toe pain was reported in 26.5% of the women. HV (HV angle, ≥15°) was present in the left foot in 22.4%, the right foot in 20.7%, and unilaterally or bilaterally in 29.7% of women. Mild HV (HV angle, ≥15° to <20°) was noted in the left foot and right foot in 13.4% and 13.1% of women, respectively; no severe HV (HV angle, ≥40°) was observed. HV was associated with big toe pain (adjusted OR: 3.56, 95% CI: 2.01–6.32), history of HV in the mother or maternal grandmother (adjusted OR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.19–5.02), and history of HV in other family members (adjusted OR: 3.09, 95% CI: 1.35–7.06). Moderate HV was associated with big toe pain (adjusted OR: 4.58, 95% CI: 2.17–9.66) and history of HV in the mother or maternal grandmother (adjusted OR: 3.36, 95% CI: 1.40–8.07). The proportion of women with big toe pain increased significantly with HV severity. Conclusions HV was present in about 30% of female university students. Young women with big toe pain or a family history of HV should be evaluated for HV. PMID:24705646

  2. Ultrasound evaluation of intrinsic plantar muscles and fascia in hallux valgus

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, César Calvo; Marín, Alejandro Garrido; Sanz, David Rodríguez; López, Daniel López; López, Patricia Palomo; Morales, Carlos Romero; Corbalán, Irene Sanz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A cross-sectional area (CSA) and thickness reduction of the abductor hallucis (AbH) is shown in subjects with hallux valgus (HV). To date, other soft-tissue structures have not been researched in relation with HV. The aim of this study was to compare the CSA and thickness of the intrinsic plantar muscles and fascia (PF) between feet with and without HV. Therefore, a cross-sectional and case-control study was performed using B-mode with an iU22 Philips ultrasound system and a 5 to 17-MHz transducer. The CSA and thickness were measured for the AbH, flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), and also the thickness for the anterior, middle, and posterior PF portions. A convenience sample of 40 feet, 20 with HV and 20 without HV, was recruited from a clinical and research center. A multivariate regression analysis using linear regression was performed to evaluate the ultrasound imaging measurements (α = 0.05). Consequently, statistically significant differences were observed between the groups (P < 0.05) for the AbH and FHB thickness, and CSA reduction, and also the plantar fascia thickness increase in favor of the HV group. On the contrary, the FDB thickness and CSA did not show statistically significant differences (P ≥ 0.05). In conclusion, the CSA and thickness of the AbH and FHB intrinsic plantar muscles are reduced, whereas the thickness of the anterior, middle, and posterior PF portions are increased, in subjects with HV compared with those without HV. PMID:27828846

  3. Effects of hallux valgus deformity on rear foot position, pain, function, and quality of life of women

    PubMed Central

    Coşkun, Gürsoy; Talu, Burcu; Bek, Nilgün; Bayramlar, Kezban Yigiter

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the relationship between hallux valgus (HV) deformity and the position of rearfoot joints, and its effects on the quality of life, pain, and related functional status of women with bilateral hallux valgus (HV). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 27 right-dominant women. Demographic data, HV angle, weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing subtalar pronation (SP), and navicular height were recorded. Visual Analog Pain Scale, Foot Function Index (FFI), and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) first metatarsophalangeal- interphalangeal (MTP-IP) and AOFAS Mid foot (MF) Scales, and SF-36 were also used. [Results] HV angle, weight-bearing SP, and pain intensity of the left foot were higher. HV angle of left foot was correlated with all sub-scales of FFI, the pain parameter of AOFAS MTP-IP, and pain and total scores of AOFAS-MF Scale. HV angle of the left foot correlated with physical role, pain, and social function sub-domains of SF-36. Right HV angles were correlated with right foot pain and non-weight-bearing SP. [Conclusion] Increasing HV angle and pathomechanical changes in the rear foot are correlated, resulting in increasing pain and thus decreasing functional status as well as decreasing quality of life. Although all the participants were right-dominant, their left foot problems were more prominent. PMID:27134358

  4. Quality of Life Impact Related to Foot Health in a Sample of Older People with Hallux Valgus

    PubMed Central

    López, Daniel López; Callejo González, Lucía; Iglesias, Marta Elena Losa; Canosa, Jesús Luis Saleta; Sanz, David Rodríguez; Lobo, Cesar Calvo; de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo Becerro

    2016-01-01

    Hallux Valgus (HV) is a highly prevalent forefoot deformity in older people associated with progressive subluxation and osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint and it is believed to be associated with varying degrees of HV effect on the quality of life related to foot health. The aim of this study is to compare the impact of varying degrees of HV on foot health in a sample of older people. The sample consisted of 115 participants, mean age 76.7 ± 9.1, who attended an outpatient center where self-report data were recorded. The degree of HV deformity was determined in both feet using the Manchester Scale (MS) from stage 1 (mild) to 4 (very severe). Scores obtained on the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) were compared. This has 13 questions that assess 4 health domains of the feet, namely pain, function, general health and footwear. The stage 4 of HV shown lower scores for the footwear domain (11.23 ± 15.6); general foot health (27.62 ± 19.1); foot pain (44.65 ± 24.5); foot function (53.04 ± 27.2); vigour (42.19 ± 16.8); social capacity (44.46 ± 28.1); and general health (41.15 ± 25.5) compared with stage 1 of HV (P<0.05) and there were no differences of physical activity (62.81 ± 24.6). Often, quality of life decreases in the elderly population based in large part on their foot health. There is a progressive reduction in health in general and foot health with increasing severity of hallux valgus deformity which appears to be associated with the presence of greater degree of HV, regardless of gender. PMID:26816663

  5. OSTEOTOMY OF THE FIRST METATARSAL BASE ON THE TREATMENT OF MODERATE TO SEVERE HALLUX VALGUS RESULTS AFTER MEAN FOLLOW-UP TIME OF EIGHT YEARS

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Marco Túlio; de Almeida Pinto, Roberto Zambelli; Ferreira, Ricardo Cardenuto; Sakata, Minoru Alessandro; Frizzo, Gastāo Guilherme; Santin, Roberto Attílio Lima

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the result of the treatment of moderate to severe hallux valgus with osteotomy of the first metatarsal base associated to distal release of soft parts and medial capsuloplasty. Methods: 13 patients were assessed (15 feet) submitted to surgical treatment of hallux valgus moderate to severe. The mean follow-up time was 102 months; there were 12 female and 1 male patients, with mean age at the time of surgery of 49 years. The patients enrolled were interviewed according to the questionnaire developed by our service, clinically examined according to the AOFAS scale and submitted to X-ray tests for comparing the results with baseline images. Results: The mean score of the AOFAS scale obtained at the final assessment was 82 points. Nine of the 15 feet (60%) showed some late complications, with four (27%) varus deformities, three (20%) recurrences; two patients (13%) presenting with pain complaints with no associated deformity. In the hallux metatarsophalangeal joint, movement loss was 41° (57%); dorsiflexion movement was mostly affected, with a mean loss of 37° (60%). The range of motion on the contralateral intact side served as control group. Arthrosis progression was seen on the final X-ray evaluation. In all cases, shortening and lifting of the first metatarsal were noticed; however, we couldn't correlate the shortening and lifting with metatarsalgia, plant callosity or lower scoring on the AOFAS scale at the final evaluation. Conclusions: The osteotomy technique by the basis and with distal realignment of soft parts employed in the treatment of moderate to severe hallux valgus showed a high rate of late complications. Due to the high number of complications, we believe that adopting this technique for correcting hallux valgus deformities should be carefully considered. PMID:27004179

  6. L'ostéotomie de scarf dans le traitement de l'hallux valgus: à propos de 19 cas

    PubMed Central

    Boussakri, Hassan; Bachiri, Mohammed; Elidrissi, Mohammed; Shimi, Mohammed; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    L'ostéotomie de Scarf constitue une technique chirurgicale bien décrite, grâce à ses résultats excellents, elle est considérée comme un traitement de choix de l'hallux valgus. Le but de ce travail est de décrire le profil épidémiologique et radio-clinique des hallux valgus, ainsi qu’évaluer les résultats radiologiques et fonctionnels des patients traités par la technique classique d'ostéotomie de Scarf. Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective, concernant 22 ostéotomies de Scarf chez 19 patients, opérés d'hallux valgus entre mai 2009 et janvier 2013. Le recul moyen était de 22,5 mois (3-42 mois). L'âge moyen des patients au moment de l'intervention était de 49 ans, avec des extrêmes de 19 et 75 ans. Tous les patients ont bénéficié d'une évaluation clinique et radiologique préopératoire et postopératoire ainsi qu'une analyse statistique. Au dernier recul, selon des critères subjectifs, nos résultats étaient très satisfaisants dans 42%, satisfaisants dans 52% et déçus dans 6%, et en fonction du score de l'AOFAS, les résultats étaient nettement améliorée avec un AOFAS préopératoire de 57% à 84% en postopératoire. Concernant les résultats radiologiques, la déformation métatarsophalangienne (angle M1P1) a été corrigée (43,63 °-12,8°) avec une p très significative (p <0,001). D'autre part une amélioration de l'Angle moyen M1M2, passer de 18,18° préopératoire à 12,95° au dernier recul, avec une correction significative (p <0,001). Le valgus épiphysaire de premier métatarsien (AADM) a été statistiquement amélioré (p <0,001), passer de 24,45° à 7,91°. Concernant les complications nous avons noté un cas de sepsis précoce superficiel géré par une antibiothérapie adaptée, deux cas de névrome et un cas d'ostéonécrose. Par contre on n'a pas noté aucune fracture per opératoire du premier métatarsien. Nous concluons que l'ostéotomie de Scarf est une technique reproductible fiable, en pleine

  7. Functional restoration and risk of non-union of the first metatarsocuneiform arthrodesis for hallux valgus: A finite element approach.

    PubMed

    Wai-Chi Wong, Duo; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Ming; Kam-Lun Leung, Aaron

    2015-09-18

    First metatarsocuneiform arthrodesis is one of the surgical interventions to correct hallux valgus, especially those with hypermobile first ray. There is lacking of biomechanical investigations to assess this operation. The objective of this study was to explore the functional restoration and the risk of non-union after the surgery via finite element analysis. A three-dimensional foot model was constructed from a female aged 28 via magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty bones and encapsulated bulk tissue were modeled. Walking stance was simulated by the gait analysis data of the same participant. Parts of the first metatarsal and cuneiform were resected and the bone graft was assigned with the same stiffness as adjacent bones to resemble the surgery of first metatarsocuneiform arthrodesis. The third principal stress of the first metatarsal at midstance (25% stance) and push off (60% stance) was increased by 76% and 139% respectively after the operation, while that of the second metatarsal was decreased by 14% and 66%. The operation reduced the medial deviation of the first metatarsal head by about 3.5mm during initial push off (60% stance). Besides, the bone graft could experience tensile stress inferiorly (26.51MPa). In conclusion, the increase of stress on the first metatarsal and the reduced medial excursion of the first metatarsal head after the simulated operation reflected that metatarsocuneiform arthrodesis could restore the load-bearing function of the first ray. However, inter-fragmentary compression could not be guaranteed. The appropriate course of hardware and non-weight-bearing protocol should be noted and further investigated.

  8. Factors Associated with Hallux Valgus in a Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study of Adults with and without Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Golightly, Yvonne M.; Hannan, Marian T.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Renner, Jordan B.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether hallux valgus (HV) was associated with potential risk factors including foot pain in a large, bi-racial cohort of older men and women. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of cohort members of the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project of whom 1,502 had complete clinical and demographic data available (mean age 68 years, mean body mass index [BMI] 31.3 kg/m2, 68% women, 30% African American). The presence of HV was assessed visually using a validated examination. Multivariate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations for the total sample and for each sex and race subgroup were used to examine the effect of age, BMI, foot pain, pes planus, and knee or hip radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) on HV. Results HV was present in 64% of the total sample (African American men=69%, African American women=70%, Caucasian men=54%, Caucasian women=65%). The association between HV and foot pain was elevated but not statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.21, 95% confidence interval 0.99, 1.47). Women, African American, older individuals, and those with pes planus or knee/hip OA had significantly higher odds of HV (aORs 1.17–1.48). Participants with higher BMI had lower odds of HV compared to those with normal BMI (aORs 0.54–0.72). Overall, patterns of associations were similar across subgroups. Conclusion HV was associated with female sex, African American race, older age, pes planus, and knee/hip OA and inversely associated with higher BMI. Early prevention and intervention approaches may be needed in high-risk groups; longitudinal studies would inform these approaches. PMID:25418024

  9. Bunions (Hallux Abducto Valgus)

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...

  10. EVALUATION OF THE INTERMETATARSAL ANGLE AFTER THE ARTHRODESIS OF THE FIRST METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT FOR TREATMENT OF THE HALLUX VALGUS

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Marco Túlio; Neto, Douglas Lobato Lopes; Kojima, Fábio Henrique; Ferreira, Ricardo Cardenuto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correction of the intermetatarsal angle after arthrodesis of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the hallux. We believe that varus deformity of the first metatarsal can be corrected after arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, without the need for proximal osteotomy. Methods: Forty-three feet of patients who had undergone arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint between May 1997 and October 2009 were retrospectively analyzed by means of radiographs. The mean length of follow-up was 58 months. Measurements on the metatarsophalangeal angle, intermetatarsal angle and sesamoid dislocation were made using radiographs made before, immediately after and later on after the operation. Results: The mean metatarsophalangeal angle was 37.6 degrees preoperatively, 12.8 degrees immediately after the operation and 16.4 degrees later on after the operation. The mean intermetatarsal angle was 16 degrees preoperatively, 10 degrees immediately after the operation and 10.2 degrees later on after the operation. Regarding sesamoid dislocation, preoperative radiographs showed most feet to be classified as G3; immediately after the operation, most were classified as G2; and later on after the operation, most were G1. Conclusion: The intermetatarsal angle and sesamoid dislocation improved with arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, without the need for osteotomy at the base of the first metatarsal. PMID:27042648

  11. Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analyses to Identify Common Genetic Variants Associated with Hallux Valgus in Caucasian and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Liu, Youfang; Hannan, Marian T.; Maixner, William; Smith, Shad B.; Diatchenko, Luda; Golightly, Yvonne M.; Menz, Hylton B.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Doherty, Michael; Wilson, A.G.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hallux valgus (HV) affects ~36% of Caucasian adults. Although considered highly heritable, the underlying genetic determinants are unclear. We conducted the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) aimed to identify genetic variants associated with HV. Methods HV was assessed in 3 Caucasian cohorts (n=2,263, n=915, and n=1,231 participants, respectively). In each cohort, a GWAS was conducted using 2.5M imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Mixed-effect regression with the additive genetic model adjusted for age, sex, weight and within-family correlations was used for both sex-specific and combined analyses. To combine GWAS results across cohorts, fixed-effect inverse-variance meta-analyses were used. Following meta-analyses, top-associated findings were also examined in an African American cohort (n=327). Results The proportion of HV variance explained by genome-wide genotyped SNPs was 50% in men and 48% in women. A higher proportion of genetic determinants of HV was sex-specific. The most significantly associated SNP in men was rs9675316 located on chr17q23-a24 near the AXIN2 gene (p=5.46×10−7); the most significantly associated SNP in women was rs7996797 located on chr13q14.1-q14.2 near the ESD gene (p=7.21×10−7). Genome-wide significant SNP-by-sex interaction was found for SNP rs1563374 located on chr11p15.1 near the MRGPRX3 gene (interaction p-value =4.1×10−9). The association signals diminished when combining men and women. Conclusion Findings suggest that the potential pathophysiological mechanisms of HV are complex and strongly underlined by sex-specific interactions. The identified genetic variants imply contribution of biological pathways observed in osteoarthritis as well as new pathways, influencing skeletal development and inflammation. PMID:26337638

  12. [Austin's horizontal V-shaped sliding osteotomy of the metatarsal head [Chevron-osteotomy) in the treatment of hallux valgus].

    PubMed

    Steinböck, G

    1996-08-01

    From 1983 to 1995, 1587 patients suffering from hallux abductovalgus were treated with the Austin bunionectomy. The operation consists of a medial exostosis removal, a V-shaped laterally directed displacement osteotomy of the metatarsal head, lateral release and medial reefing of the capsulo-ligamentous structures. Lateral transposition is facilitated by performing a sufficient lateral release consisting of dissection of the lateral metatarsophalangeal ligament and separation of the adductor tendon from the base of the phalanx and the lateral sesamoid. In the case of intermetatarsal angles greater than 15 degrees, the metatarsal-sesamoid ligament is also severed just above the lateral sesamoid. The periosteum is stripped in a limited fashion dorsally and toward the plantar, leaving its insertion at the metatarsal head intact. After this procedure, reposition of the metatarsal head onto the sesamoids is usually possible and is maintained by reconstruction of the medial metatarsal-sesamoid ligament. In the author's own research material, metatarsophalangeal angles larger than 50 degrees and intermetatarsal angles of over 20 degrees could be corrected. Pronation of the toe is usually corrected by tenotomy of the abductor tendon near the base of the phalanx. Avascular necrosis is extremely rare with a careful operative technique. In our extensive research material, four cases of AVN were recognized. Provided there is free motion of the joint (60-0-20), mild radiological signs of osteoarthritis are no contraindication for the operation. Even in the aged, good results can be achieved provided there are no trophic problems. The Austin bunionectomy has proved to be a versatile method for treating bunion problems. The possibility of transposing the metatarsal head laterally, toward the plantar, proximally and distally by altering the direction of the osteotomy, as well as tilting it medially or laterally, has made this osteotomy an invaluable tool for addressing various

  13. The correlation between calcaneal valgus angle and asymmetrical thoracic-lumbar rotation angles in patients with adolescent scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaeyong; Lee, Sang Gil; Bae, Jongjin; Lee, Jung Chul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to provide a predictable evaluation method for the progression of scoliosis in adolescents based on quick and reliable measurements using the naked eye, such as the calcaneal valgus angle of the foot, which can be performed at public facilities such as schools. [Subjects and Methods] Idiopathic scoliosis patients with a Cobb’s angle of 10° or more (96 females, 22 males) were included in this study. To identify relationships between factors, Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient was computed. The degree of scoliosis was set as a dependent variable to predict thoracic and lumbar scoliosis using ankle angle and physique factors. Height, weight, and left and right calcaneal valgus angles were set as independent variables; thereafter, multiple regression analysis was performed. This study extracted variables at a significance level (α) of 0.05 by applying a stepwise method, and calculated a regression equation. [Results] Negative correlation (R=−0.266) was shown between lumbar lordosis and asymmetrical lumbar rotation angles. A correlation (R=0.281) was also demonstrated between left calcaneal valgus angles and asymmetrical thoracic rotation angles. [Conclusion] Prediction of scoliosis progress was revealed to be possible through ocular inspection of the calcaneus and Adams forward bending test and the use of a scoliometer. PMID:26834376

  14. The correlation between calcaneal valgus angle and asymmetrical thoracic-lumbar rotation angles in patients with adolescent scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaeyong; Lee, Sang Gil; Bae, Jongjin; Lee, Jung Chul

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to provide a predictable evaluation method for the progression of scoliosis in adolescents based on quick and reliable measurements using the naked eye, such as the calcaneal valgus angle of the foot, which can be performed at public facilities such as schools. [Subjects and Methods] Idiopathic scoliosis patients with a Cobb's angle of 10° or more (96 females, 22 males) were included in this study. To identify relationships between factors, Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient was computed. The degree of scoliosis was set as a dependent variable to predict thoracic and lumbar scoliosis using ankle angle and physique factors. Height, weight, and left and right calcaneal valgus angles were set as independent variables; thereafter, multiple regression analysis was performed. This study extracted variables at a significance level (α) of 0.05 by applying a stepwise method, and calculated a regression equation. [Results] Negative correlation (R=-0.266) was shown between lumbar lordosis and asymmetrical lumbar rotation angles. A correlation (R=0.281) was also demonstrated between left calcaneal valgus angles and asymmetrical thoracic rotation angles. [Conclusion] Prediction of scoliosis progress was revealed to be possible through ocular inspection of the calcaneus and Adams forward bending test and the use of a scoliometer.

  15. Observed changes in radiographic measurements of the first ray after frontal and transverse plane rotation of the hallux: does the hallux drive the metatarsal in a bunion deformity?

    PubMed

    Dayton, Paul; Feilmeier, Mindi; Kauwe, Merrell; Holmes, Colby; McArdle, Austin; Coleman, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the pathologic positions of the hallux and the first metatarsal in a bunion deformity are multiplanar. It is not universally understood whether the pathologic changes in the hallux or first metatarsal drive the deformity. We have observed that frontal plane rotation of the hallux can result in concurrent positional changes proximally in the first metatarsal in hallux abducto valgus. In the present study, we observed the changes in common radiographic measurements used to evaluate a bunion deformity in 5 fresh frozen cadaveric limbs. We measured the tibial sesamoid position, 1-2 intermetatarsal angle, and first metatarsal cuneiform angle on anteroposterior radiographs after frontal and transverse plane manipulation of the hallux. When the hallux was moved into an abducted and valgus position, a statistically significant increase was found in the tibial sesamoid position (p = .016). However, we did not observe a significant increase in the intermetatarsal angle (p = .070) or medial cuneiform angle (p = .309). When the hallux was manipulated into an adducted and varus position, a statistically significant decrease in the intermetatarsal angle (p = .02) and a decrease in the tibial sesamoid position (p = .016) was seen, with no significant change in the medial cuneiform angle (p = .360). We also observed a consistent rounding of the lateral aspect of the first metatarsal head and an increase in the concavity of the lateral metatarsal shaft, with valgus rotation of the hallux. From these observations, it is possible that the hallux could drive the proximal changes in the first ray that lead to metatarsus primus adducto valgus deformity.

  16. The surgical treatment of valgus flat foot in the adolescent by osteotomy of calcaneum associated with tenodesis of tibialis anterior and posterior.

    PubMed

    Chiappara, P; Verrina, F; Dagnino, G; Gulino, M T

    1989-06-01

    In the treatment of valgus flat foot in adolescent patients, when growth has nearly ceased (about 13 years in the female and 15 in the male) the operation of choice is varus osteotomy of the calcaneum, stabilised by a homoplastic bone wedge, together with tenodesis of tibialis anterior and posterior. At this age, skeletal growth is not sufficient to guarantee corrective evolution of the deformity after repositioning of the calcaneo-talar joint by any surgical technique. Varising osteotomy of the calcaneum offers the advantage of avoiding sacrifice of the calcaneo-talar joint, as in the Grice-Green arthrodesis, which although indicated for the paralytic valgus flat foot, is not appropriate in the idiopathic variety.

  17. Unilobed Rotational Flap for Plantar Hallux Interphalangeal Joint Ulceration Complicated by Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Boffeli, Troy J; Hyllengren, Shelby B

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes-related neuropathic ulcers located at the plantar aspect of the hallux interphalangeal joint are often chronic or recurrent and frequently become complicated by osteomyelitis. Once infected, treatment will typically involve hallux amputation. Although intended as a definitive procedure, amputation of the first toe is not desirable from a cosmetic or functional standpoint and often leads to transfer ulcers at adjacent locations of the foot. Reconstructive wound surgery, combined with limited bone resection, is possible if the infection is caught early before the local tissue and bone have become necrotic. In addition to neuropathy, biomechanical issues, including ankle equinus, hallux limitus, hallux extensus, and hallux valgus, predispose patients with diabetes mellitus to developing plantar hallux ulcers. We commonly employ a proximal based unilobed plantar rotational flap combined with hallux interphalangeal joint arthroplasty as an alternative to hallux amputation. We present a typical case with long-term follow-up to highlight our flap protocol, including patient selection criteria, flap design, surgical technique, bone resection and biopsy pearls, staging timeline, and a typical postoperative course. Periodic follow-up during the next 72 months for unrelated conditions allowed long-term monitoring with no recurrence of osteomyelitis or subsequent amputation. The foot remained ulcer free 6 years later. The benefits of this surgical approach include complete excision of the ulcer, adequate exposure for bone resection, early bone biopsy before the spread of infection or necrosis of local tissue, flap coverage with viable soft tissue, and partial offloading of mechanical pressure at the plantar interphalangeal joint.

  18. Increased hallux angle in children and its association with insufficient length of footwear: A community based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Wearing shoes of insufficient length during childhood has often been cited as leading to deformities of the foot, particularly to the development of hallux valgus disorders. Until now, these assumptions have not been confirmed through scientific research. This study aims to investigate whether this association can be statistically proven, and if children who wear shoes of insufficient length actually do have a higher risk of a more pronounced lateral deviation of the hallux. Methods 858 pre-school children were included in the study. The study sample was stratified by sex, urban/rural areas and Austrian province. The hallux angle and the length of the feet were recorded. The inside length of the children's footwear (indoor shoes worn in pre-school and outdoor shoes) were assessed. Personal data and different anthropometric measurements were taken. The risk of hallux valgus deviation was statistically tested by a stepwise logistic regression analysis and the relative risk (odds ratio) for a hallux angle ≥ 4 degrees was calculated. Results Exact examinations of the hallux angle could be conducted on a total of 1,579 individual feet. Only 23.9% out of 1,579 feet presented a straight position of the great toe. The others were characterized by lateral deviations (valgus position) at different degrees, equalling 10 degrees or greater in 14.2% of the children's feet. 88.8% of 808 children examined wore indoor footwear that was of insufficient length, and 69.4% of 812 children wore outdoor shoes that were too short. A significant relationship was observed between the lengthwise fit of the shoes and the hallux angle: the shorter the shoe, the higher the value of the hallux angle. The relative risk (odds ratio) of a lateral hallux deviation of ≥ 4 degrees in children wearing shoes of insufficient length was significantly increased. Conclusions There is a significant relationship between the hallux angle in children and footwear that is too short in length. The

  19. Calcaneo-valgus deformity.

    PubMed

    Evans, D

    1975-08-01

    A discussion of the essential deformity in calcaneo-valgus feet develops a theme originally put forward in 1961 on the relapsed club foot (Evans 1961). Whereas in the normal foot the medial and lateral columns are about equal in length, in talipes equino-varus the lateral column is longer and in calcaneo-valgus shorter than the medial column. The suggestion is that in the treatment of both deformities the length of the columns be made equal. A method is described of treating calcaneo-valgus deformity by inserting cortical bone grafts taken from the tibia to elongate the anterior end of the calcaneus.

  20. Hallux ulceration in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    ElMakki Ahmed, Mohamed; Tamimi, Abdulhakim O; Mahadi, Seif I; Widatalla, Abubakr H; Shawer, Mohamed A

    2010-01-01

    We undertook a prospective cohort study to assess risk factors associated with hallux ulceration, and to determine the incidence of healing or amputation, in consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus who were treated over the observation period extending from September 2004 to March 2005, at the Jabir Abu Eliz Diabetic Centre, Khartoum City, Sudan. There were 122 diabetic patients in the cohort (92 males and 30 females) with an overall mean age of 58 +/- 9 years. Fifty-three percent of patients had complete healing within 8 weeks and 43% healed within 20 weeks. The overall mean time to healing was 16 +/- 8 weeks. In 32 (26.2%) patients, osteomyelitic bone was removed, leaving a healed and boneless hallux. The hallux was amputated in 17 (13.9%) patients; in 2 (1.6%) patients it was followed by forefoot amputation and in 7 (5.7%) patients by below-the-knee amputation. In 90 (73.8%) patients the initial lesion was a blister. In conclusion, hallux ulceration is common in patients with diabetes mellitus and is usually preceded by a blister. Neuropathy, foot deformity, and wearing new shoes are common causative factors; and ischemia, osteomyelitis, any form of wound infection, and the size of the ulcer are main outcome determinants. Complete healing occurred in 103 (85%) of diabetic patients with a hallux ulcer. Vascular intervention is important relative to limb salvage when ischemia is the main cause of the ulcer.

  1. Influence of Hallux Rigidus on Reamputation in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus After Partial Hallux Amputation.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Noah G; Attinger, Christopher E; Steinberg, John S; Evans, Karen K; Vieweger, David; Kim, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration of the plantar hallux is a challenging condition and can require partial hallux amputation when complicated by infection. Lower extremity biomechanics play an important role in the development of hallux ulcers, and hallux rigidus (HR) could influence the outcomes after partial hallux amputation. We hypothesized that radiographic evidence of HR in patients with diabetes would be associated with greater ulcer recurrence and reamputation rates after partial hallux amputation. We performed a retrospective review of all patients with diabetes who had undergone a partial hallux amputation from January 2005 to December 2012. The subjects were divided into 2 cohorts according to the presence or absence of HR identified on preoperative radiographs. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were compared using a 2-sample Student's t test for continuous variables, and categorical variables were compared using the chi-square test for homogeneity and Fisher's exact test. A total of 52 patients were included, with 16 (31%) positive for radiographic evidence of HR at partial hallux amputation. Differences in the patient demographics and comorbidities were not significant between 2 cohorts with and without HR or reamputation. Reamputation was required in 5 subjects (31%) with HR and 2 (6%) without HR (p = .023). The average follow-up duration was 126 ± 89 weeks. Our results have demonstrated that the reamputation rate after partial hallux amputation is significantly greater in patients with than in those without radiographic evidence of HR. Surgeons should evaluate patients for HR when planning partial hallux amputation and use adjuvant methods of offloading when HR is evident to prevent recurrent ulceration and reamputation.

  2. Valgus Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis in Patient with Hypopituitarism

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hayashida, Tatsuro; Murakami, Koji; Makio, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuichi; Oka, Yoshinobu; Kim, Wook-Choel; Ogura, Taku; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2017-01-01

    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a common disease of adolescent and the epiphysis is positioned more posteromedially in relation to the femoral neck shaft with varus SCFE; however, posterolateral displacement of the capital epiphysis, valgus SCFE, occurs less frequently. We report a case of valgus SCFE in a 17-year-old boy with hypopituitarism. After falling down, he experienced difficulty in walking. The radiographs were inconclusive; however three-dimensional computed tomography images showed lateral displacement of the epiphysis on the right femoral head. Valgus SCFE was diagnosed. The patient underwent in situ pinning of both sides. In situ pinning on the left side was performed as a prophylactic pinning because of endocrine abnormalities. At the 1-year follow-up, he could walk without any difficulty and there were no signs of pain. The epiphysis is commonly positioned more posteromedially in relation to the femoral neck shaft with most SCFE, but, in this case, the epiphysis slipped laterally. Differential diagnosis included femoral neck fracture (Delbet-Colonna type 1); however, this was less likely due to the absence of other clinical signs. Therefore, we diagnosed the patient as SCFE. When children complain of leg pain and limp, valgus SCFE that may not be visualized on anteroposterior radiographs needs to be considered. PMID:28154765

  3. Surgical Treatment of Congenital Hallux Varus

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jong Sup; Koh, Kyoung Hwan; Lee, Do Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to report outcomes of congenital hallux varus deformity after surgical treatment. Methods We evaluated ten feet of eight patients with a congenital hallux varus deformity, including four feet combined with a longitudinal epiphyseal bracket (LEB). There were seven male patients and one female patient with a mean age of 33 months (range, 7 to 103 months) at the time of surgery. Two patients were bilaterally involved. The mean duration of follow-up was 5.9 years (range, 2.3 to 13.8 years). Clinical outcomes were assessed according to the criteria of Phelps and Grogan. Surgical procedures included the Farmer procedure, the McElvenny procedure or an osteotomy at the first metatarsal or proximal phalanx. Results The clinical results were excellent in two feet, good in six and poor in two feet. The LEB was associated with hallux varus in four feet and were treated by osteotomy alone or in conjunction with soft tissue procedure. Conclusions Congenital hallux varus was successfully corrected by surgery with overall favorable outcome. Preoperatively, a LEB should be considered as a possible cause of the deformity in order to prevent recurrent or residual varus after surgery. PMID:24900905

  4. The treatment of iatrogenic hallux varus.

    PubMed

    Davies, Mark B; Blundell, Chris M

    2014-06-01

    Though uncommon, iatrogenic hallux varus is most often the result of overresection of the medial eminence, overtranslation of an osteotomy, overrelease of the lateral soft tissues, or overtightening of the medial tissues. It is not always symptomatic, as the degree of deformity can be well tolerated. For soft-tissue reconstructions, releases have little role to play unless minor deformity is detected early on and the longevity of tendon transfer and tenodesis remains unknown. For bony reconstruction, arthrodesis is the recommended salvage technique.

  5. Clinical Presentation and Management of Hallux Rigidus.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Kamran S; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-09-01

    Hallux rigidus is the most commonly occurring arthritic condition of the foot and is marked by pain, limited motion in the sagittal plane of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and varying degrees of functional impairment. In conjunction with clinical findings, radiographic grading helps guide therapeutic choices. Nonsurgical management with anti-inflammatory medications, corticosteroid injections, or shoewear and activity modifications can be successful in appropriately selected patients. Patients with more severe disease or refractory to conservative management may benefit from surgical intervention. Operative options range from joint-preserving procedures (eg, cheilectomy with or without associated osteotomies) to joint-altering procedures (eg, arthroplasty or arthrodesis).

  6. Which osteotomy for a valgus knee?

    PubMed Central

    Cipolla, Massimo; Cerullo, Guglielmo; Franco, Vittorio; Giannì, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    A valgus knee is a disabling condition that can affect patients of all ages. Antivalgus osteotomy of the knee is the treatment of choice to correct the valgus, to eliminate pain in the young or middle age patient, and to avoid or delay a total knee replacement. A distal femoral lateral opening wedge procedure appears to be one of the choices for medium or large corrections and is particularly easy and precise if compared to the medial femoral closing wedge osteotomy. However, if the deformity is minimal, a tibial medial closing wedge osteotomy can be done with a faster healing and a short recovery time. PMID:19547972

  7. The crossover toe and valgus toe deformity.

    PubMed

    Sferra, James; Arndt, Steven

    2011-12-01

    Second toe problems are among the most common of all forefoot complaints. Its proximity to the hallux combined with limited motion at the second tarsometatarsal joint likely contributes to the second MTP joint being the most common to experience both pain and deformity. Many causes have been linked to this problem, which has lead to many surgical techniques to correct this deformity. Although many techniques have been described, a systematic approach relying first on soft tissue releases and plication followed by osteotomies as necessary has lead to satisfactory outcomes in the treatment of this difficult problem.

  8. Supramalleolar osteotomy for ankle valgus in myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Abraham, E; Lubicky, J P; Songer, M N; Millar, E A

    1996-01-01

    Fifty-five supramalleolar osteotomies were performed in 35 patients for progressive hindfoot valgus in myelomeningocele. All patients were ambulatory. The most common motor level of innervation was L3 in 42 limbs. The average age at surgery was 12 years. The average follow-up was 8 years. Preoperatively, all patients experienced progressive difficulty with brace use, and anteroposterior weight-bearing ankle radiographs showed a valgus tilt of the talotibial angle (TTA) of > or = 10 degrees with an average of 18 degrees. The average postoperative correction of TTA was 17 degrees. The results were graded as follows: excellent, 42 limbs; good, eight limbs; fair, three limbs; and poor, two limbs. The fair and poor limb results were the result of loss of correction or nonunion. The best results were seen when the TTA was corrected to 5 degrees of varus.

  9. Valgus Extension Overload in Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Franklin E; Villacis, Diego C; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive throwing, such as in baseball pitching, applies massive stress on the elbow. This can often lead to a predictable constellation of elbow injuries, such as valgus extension overload syndrome (VEO). The following review of VEO provides an understanding of relevant anatomy, explanation of pathomechanics, key aspects to clinical evaluation, effective treatment options, and indications for surgery. In addition, we provide the senior author's (CSA) preferred arthroscopic technique for cases of VEO refractory to conservative management.

  10. Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus☆

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Fabiano Rebouças; Takesian, Fernando Hovaguim; Bezerra, Luiz Eduardo Pimentel; Filho, Rômulo Brasil; Júnior, Antonio Carlos Tenor; da Costa, Miguel Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus are considered to be a special type fracture, since impaction of the humeral head on the metaphysis with maintenance of the posteromedial periosteum improves the prognosis regarding occurrences of avascular necrosis. This characteristic can also facilitate the reduction maneuver and increase the consolidation rate of these fractures, even in more complex cases. The studies included were obtained by searching the Bireme, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for those published between 1991 and 2013. The objective of this study was to identify the most common definitions, classifications and treatment methods used for these fractures in the orthopedic medical literature. PMID:27069878

  11. Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Fabiano Rebouças; Takesian, Fernando Hovaguim; Bezerra, Luiz Eduardo Pimentel; Filho, Rômulo Brasil; Júnior, Antonio Carlos Tenor; da Costa, Miguel Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus are considered to be a special type fracture, since impaction of the humeral head on the metaphysis with maintenance of the posteromedial periosteum improves the prognosis regarding occurrences of avascular necrosis. This characteristic can also facilitate the reduction maneuver and increase the consolidation rate of these fractures, even in more complex cases. The studies included were obtained by searching the Bireme, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for those published between 1991 and 2013. The objective of this study was to identify the most common definitions, classifications and treatment methods used for these fractures in the orthopedic medical literature.

  12. Comprehensive Review of Non-Operative Management of Hallux Rigidus

    PubMed Central

    Loh SY, James; Zheng, Qishi; Mehta, Kinjal V

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to provide an evidence-based literature review for the non-operative management of hallux rigidus. Currently, there is very little article on the evidence for the non-operative management of hallux rigidus. A comprehensive evidence-based literature review of the PubMed database conducted in November 2016, identified 11 relevant articles out of 560 articles assessing the efficacy of non-operative modalities for hallux rigidus. The 11 studies were then assigned to a level of evidence (I-IV). Individual studies were reviewed to provide a grade of recommendation (A-C, I) according to the Wright classification in support of or against the non-operative modality. Based on the results of this evidence-based review, there is poor evidence (grade C) to support use of intra-articular injections for pain relief for a period of three months and fair evidence (grade B) against the use of intra-articular injections for long term efficacy. There is poor evidence (grade C) to support manipulation and physical therapy and poor evidence (grade C) to support modifications in footwear, insoles and orthotics. There were no good evidence (grade A) recommending any interventions. In general, most of the interventions showed improvement. However, the evidence is poor in recommending orthosis, manipulation and intra-articular injections. There is a need for high-quality Level I randomized controlled trials with validated outcome measures to allow for stronger recommendations to be made. There is no study that looked solely at the use of pharmaceutical oral agents for the treatment of hallux rigidus. Non-operative management should still be offered, prior to surgical management. PMID:28229034

  13. Current surgical strategies for total arthroplasty in valgus knee

    PubMed Central

    Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Michos, Ioannis; Safos, George; Safos, Petros

    2015-01-01

    The majority of orthopaedic surgeons even currently agree that primary total arthroplasty in valgus knees with a deformity of more than ten degrees may prove challenging. The unique sets of bone and soft tissue abnormalities that must be addressed at the time of the operation make accurate axis restoration, component orientation and joint stability attainment a difficult task. Understanding the specific pathologic anatomic changes associated with the valgus knee is a prerequisite so as to select the proper surgical method, to optimize component position and restore soft-tissue balance. The purpose of this article is to review the valgus knee anatomical variations, to assess the best pre-operative planning and to evaluate how to choose the grade of constraint of the implant. It will also be underlying the up-to-date main approaches and surgical techniques be proposed in the English literature both for bone cuts and soft tissue management of valgus knees. PMID:26191494

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital hallux varus deformity associated with pericentric inversion of chromosome 9.

    PubMed

    Gürel, Sebahat Atar

    2015-04-01

    Congenital hallux varus is a rare deformity of the great toe characterized by adduction of the hallux and medial displacement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital hallux varus is presented herein. A 32-year-old woman was referred to our unit due to significant deviation of the fetal right great toe at 22(+2) weeks of pregnancy. Ultrasound examination revealed a thick and short great toe, which was significantly angulated medially on the right side. Amniocentesis was performed and the result was reported as inv(9) (p11;q12). After delivery, the clinical examination confirmed the prenatal diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported prenatal diagnosis of an isolated congenital hallux varus. Congenital hallux varus can be diagnosed easily in the prenatal period by 2-D and 4-D ultrasonography. Prenatal karyotyping should be taken into consideration, especially in the presence of associated anomalies, such as polydactyly and clubfoot.

  15. Metallic radial head arthroplasty improves valgus stability of the elbow.

    PubMed

    King, G J; Zarzour, Z D; Rath, D A; Dunning, C E; Patterson, S D; Johnson, J A

    1999-11-01

    The stabilizing influence of radial head arthroplasty was studied in eight medial collateral ligament deficient anatomic specimen elbows. An elbow testing apparatus, which used computer controlled pneumatic actuators to apply tendon loading, was used to simulate active elbow flexion. The motion pathways of the elbow were measured using an electromagnetic tracking device, with the forearm in supination and pronation. As a measure of stability, the maximum varus to valgus laxity over the range of elbow flexion was determined from the difference between varus and valgus gravity loaded motion pathways. After transection of the medial collateral ligament, the radial head was excised and replaced with either a silicone or one of three metallic radial head prostheses. Medial collateral ligament transection caused a significant increase in the maximum varus to valgus laxity to 18.0 degrees +/- 3.2 degrees. After radial head excision, this laxity increased to 35.6 degrees +/- 10.3 degrees. The silicone implant conferred no increase in elbow stability, with a maximum varus to valgus laxity of 32.5 degrees +/- 15.5 degrees. All three metallic implants improved the valgus stability of the medial collateral ligament deficient elbow, providing stability similar to the intact radial head. The use of silicone arthroplasty to replace the radial head in the medial collateral ligament deficient elbow must be questioned. Metallic radial head arthroplasty provides improved valgus stability, approaching that of an intact radial head.

  16. End-stage hallux rigidus: cheilectomy, implant, or arthrodesis?

    PubMed

    Peace, Ruth A; Hamilton, Graham A

    2012-07-01

    End-stage arthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) typically results in anexophytic process with marked limitation of motion. Pain may occur from the degenerative process itself and/or the bone spur formation that may become directly inflamed from shoe gear. The best surgical treatment for end-stage arthrosis of the big toe joint continues to be a controversial topic despite hallux rigidus being recognized clinically for more than 100 years. Although joint-sparing procedures are considered, arthrodesis is recommended, as this procedure is definitive and produces predictable results.

  17. Ultrasound-guided arthroscopic management of hallux rigidus

    PubMed Central

    Kruczyński, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of metatarso-phalangeal joint arthroscopy in the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans was first described in 1988. The technique produces good results. However, it can be difficult to enter a joint when it is deformed by degenerative disease. Sonography is a modern visualisation modality which can be used in orthopaedic surgery. Aim To describe a method of intraoperative sonographic navigation during first metatarso-phalangeal joint arthroscopy. Material and methods The modality was used in 3 patients. The joint was visualised in the ultrasound scanner. After confirming the intra-articular position of the guide needle, a medial portal was established. The procedure started with the removal and vaporisation of the hypertrophic synovium. Gradual resection of the osteophytes was then carried out. The procedure was terminated after the ultrasound image showed that a smooth upper surface of the metatarsal head had been achieved. Results All 3 patients were satisfied with the procedure and function of the treated feet. Average surgery time was 81 min. No complications were found. Conclusions Mini-invasive treatment of hallux rigidus with sonography-guided arthroscopic cheilectomy appears to be a reproducible procedure leading to good clinical results. We encourage surgeons familiar with ultrasound visualisation of the joints to use the technique described in this paper in the arthroscopic treatment of hallux rigidus. PMID:27829936

  18. Neuropathic foot ulcer prevention in diabetic American Indians with hallux limitus.

    PubMed

    Dannels, E

    1989-09-01

    Infected neuropathic ulcerations are the leading cause of diabetes-related partial foot amputations at the Phoenix Indian Medical Center. Ten hallucal ulcerations in seven American Indian patients with hallux limitus were resolved by local wound care and partial first metatarsophalangeal joint resection. The average length of postsurgical follow-up care was 28.8 months. There have been no recurrences of the plantar hallux ulcerations in any of the patients.

  19. Varus instability of the hallux interphalangeal joint in a taekwondo athlete.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Yeun Ho; Park, Moon Seok

    2007-12-01

    The hallux interphalangeal joint is stable in the transverse plane and there have been only a few reports of varus instability of this joint. A case is described of varus subluxation of the hallux interphalangeal joint in a taekwondo athlete and the surgical outcome after reconstruction of the collateral ligament. Taekwondo athletes, who require fast powerful kicks, should be warned about this type of forefoot injury.

  20. Varus instability of the hallux interphalangeal joint in a taekwondo athlete.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Yeun Ho; Park, Moon Seok

    2009-01-01

    The hallux interphalangeal joint is stable in the transverse plane and there have been only a few reports of varus instability of this joint. A case is described of varus subluxation of the hallux interphalangeal joint in a taekwondo athlete and the surgical outcome after reconstruction of the collateral ligament. Taekwondo athletes, who require fast powerful kicks, should be warned about this type of forefoot injury.

  1. Valgus slipped capital femoral epiphysis: subcapital growth plate orientation analysis.

    PubMed

    Koczewski, Paweł

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the risk factors of unusual, lateral direction of epiphyseal displacement in primarily unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) patients with a special focus on radiological parameters of an unaffected hip. A total of 115 patients (75 boys, 40 girls), mean age 13.2 years (8.4-18.6), were analyzed. The mean follow-up time was 11 years (2-29). The proportion of valgus slip among SCFE patients was 11 of 115 cases (9.6%). The patients with valgus slip compared with the classic ones were predominantly females (55 vs. 33%), were younger (11.1 vs. 13.4 years), had a greater epiphyseal-shaft angle (67.4 vs. 59.1°), smaller displacement in the frontal plane (absolute value 6.7 vs. 15°), and a lower risk of contralateral slip (27 vs. 65%). There was no difference in the neck-shaft angle and epiphyseal-neck angle value. A more horizontal orientation of the subcapital growth plate, assessed by epiphyseal-shaft angle, can be considered a conducive factor in the valgus direction of epiphyseal slip in SCFE. In valgus SCFE cases, there is a smaller degree of epiphyseal displacement in both the sagittal and the coronal plane and a lower risk of consecutive contralateral slip.

  2. Valgus osteotomy for nonunion and neglected neck of femur fractures.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Viju Daniel; Livingston, Abel; Boopalan, P R; Jepegnanam, Thilak S

    2016-05-18

    Nonunion neck of femur can be a difficult problem to treat, particularly in the young, and is associated with high complication rates of avascular necrosis due to the precarious blood supply and poor biomechanics. The various treatment options that have been described can be broadly divided according to the aim of improving either biology or biomechanics. Surgeries aimed at improving the biology, such as vascularized fibula grafting, have good success rates but require high levels of expertise and substantial resources. A popular surgical treatment aimed at improving the biomechanics-valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy-optimizes conditions for fracture healing by converting shear forces across the fracture site into compressive forces. Numerous variations of this surgical procedure have been developed and successfully applied in clinical practice. As a result, the proximal femoral orientation for obtaining a good functional outcome has evolved over the years, and the present concept of altering the proximal femoral anatomy as little as possible has arisen. This technical objective supports attaining union as well as a good functional outcome, since excessive valgus can lead to increased joint reaction forces. This review summarizes the historical and current literature on valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy treatment of nonunion neck of femur, with a focus on factors predictive of good functional outcome and potential pitfalls to be avoided as well as controversies surrounding this procedure.

  3. Valgus osteotomy for nonunion and neglected neck of femur fractures

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Viju Daniel; Livingston, Abel; Boopalan, P R; Jepegnanam, Thilak S

    2016-01-01

    Nonunion neck of femur can be a difficult problem to treat, particularly in the young, and is associated with high complication rates of avascular necrosis due to the precarious blood supply and poor biomechanics. The various treatment options that have been described can be broadly divided according to the aim of improving either biology or biomechanics. Surgeries aimed at improving the biology, such as vascularized fibula grafting, have good success rates but require high levels of expertise and substantial resources. A popular surgical treatment aimed at improving the biomechanics-valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy-optimizes conditions for fracture healing by converting shear forces across the fracture site into compressive forces. Numerous variations of this surgical procedure have been developed and successfully applied in clinical practice. As a result, the proximal femoral orientation for obtaining a good functional outcome has evolved over the years, and the present concept of altering the proximal femoral anatomy as little as possible has arisen. This technical objective supports attaining union as well as a good functional outcome, since excessive valgus can lead to increased joint reaction forces. This review summarizes the historical and current literature on valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy treatment of nonunion neck of femur, with a focus on factors predictive of good functional outcome and potential pitfalls to be avoided as well as controversies surrounding this procedure. PMID:27190758

  4. Lateral collateral ligament reconstruction for chronic varus instability of the hallux interphalangeal joint.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaeho

    2014-01-01

    Chronic varus instability of the hallux interphalangeal joint is a rare injury, and only a few reports of this injury have been published. In some studies, this injury has been related to taekwondo. Taekwondo is an essential martial art in the Korean military. We have described a case of varus instability of the hallux interphalangeal joint in a professional soldier who had practiced taekwondo for 5 years and the surgical outcome after reconstruction of the lateral collateral ligament with the fourth toe extensor tendon.

  5. Femoral neck non-union treatment by valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Yépez, Anthony Kerbes; Boschin, Leonardo Carbonera; Silva, Marcelo Faria

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy in femoral neck non-union. METHODS : Forty-two patients with femoral neck fractures with non-union treated using Pauwels' intertrochanteric osteotomy were reviewed. Demographics, time elapsed between fracture and surgery, follow--up, osteosynthesis used, Garden's classification, limb shortening, and x-rays were evaluated. RESULTS : Twenty-two men and 20 women were reviewed. The youngest patient was 18 years old and the oldest 65 years old, with a mean age of 42.4 years (±11.2). The minimum follow-up was 2 years, with a mean of 10.2 years. The average time elapsed between initial fracture and osteotomy was 6.5 months. Twel-ve cases were neglected femoral neck fractures. Nineteen patients were classified as Garden III, and 23 patients as Garden IV. After valgus osteotomy, non-union healing was observed in 38 patients (38/42; 90.4%). Healing of thirty-seven cases of pseudoarthrosis were obtained after the first-attempt osteotomy, and one case required two operations for healing. The osteotomy failed in four cases. Conside-ring the healed osteotomies, good to excellent functional results were achieved in 80.9% (34/42) of the patients. Total hip replacement was subsequently performed in 14.2% (6/42) of the patients for unfavoura-ble outcomes (two for cutting out, two for osteonecrosis, and two for osteoarthritis). CONCLUSIONS : Valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy has a high success rate in archiving healing in femoral neck non-union with good functional results. It is a biological and effective method. Level of Evidence IV, Therapeutic Study. PMID:27057146

  6. Tibiofemoral Joint Positioning for the Valgus Stress Test

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Patricia A.; Gieck, Joe H.; Hertel, Jay; Rijke, Arie M.; Ingersoll, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Recommendations on the positioning of the tibiofemoral joint during a valgus stress test to optimize isolation of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) from other medial joint structures vary in the literature. If a specific amount of flexion could be identified as optimally isolating the MCL, teaching and using the technique would be more consistent in clinical application. Objective: To determine the angle of tibiofemoral joint flexion between 0° and 20° that causes a difference in the slope of the force-strain line when measuring the resistance to a valgus force applied to the joint. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve healthy volunteers (6 men, 6 women: age  =  26.4 ± 5.6 years, height  =  170.9 ± 8.4 cm, mass  =  75.01 ± 14.6 kg). Intervention(s): Using an arthrometer, we applied a valgus force, over a range of 60 N, to the tibiofemoral joint in 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, and 20° of flexion. Main Outcome Measure(s): Force-strain measurements were obtained for 5 positions of tibiofemoral joint flexion. Results: As knee flexion angle increased, slope values decreased (F4,44  =  17.6, P < .001). The slope at full extension was not different from that at 5° of flexion, but it was different from the slopes at angles greater than 10° of flexion. Similarly, the slope at 5° of flexion was not different from that at 10° of flexion, but it was different from the slopes at 15° and 20° of flexion. Further, the slope at 10° of flexion was not different from that at 15° or 20° of flexion. Finally, the slope at 15° of flexion was not different from that at 20° of flexion. Conclusions: When performing the manual valgus stress test, the clinician should fully extend the tibiofemoral joint or flex it to 5° to assess all resisting medial tibiofemoral joint structures and again at 15° to 20° of joint flexion to further assess the MCL. PMID:20617910

  7. Medically important fungi found in hallux nails of university students from Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, María Inés; Caicedo, Luz Dary

    2007-06-01

    The presence of medically important fungi was studied in hallux nails scrapings obtained from 504 students (204 males, 300 females) of three universities in Cali. Specimens were examined by direct microscopic examination and fungal culture. Medically important fungi were found in 49 (9.7%) students, 24 (4.8%) had onychomycosis while the rest did not have nail lesions. Trichophyton rubrum was the most commonly isolated fungi in students with lesions, where as T. mentagrophytes predominated in healthy nails. Most of the students with fungi were males. The prevalence of fungi was higher in individuals between 26 and 35 years. No association was observed between fungi and practicing sports or undergoing pedicures. These results suggest that dermatophytes can be found in healthy hallux nails, which can be reservoirs of pathogenic fungi.

  8. [Post-operative iatrogenic hallux varus. Surgical treatment. Apropos of 19 cases].

    PubMed

    Groulier, P; Curvale, G; Coillard, J Y; Franceschi, J P

    1992-01-01

    The post operative iatrogenic hallux varus associates varus, big toe's dorsal flexion and supination. The pathogeny is dominated by musculo-tendinous lack of balance created by the initial operation and excessive exostosectomy. The authors have nineteen times surgically corrected this deformation. The procedure included in all cases, a medial arthrolysis; five times associated with a screwed capito-metatarsal osseous shelf (or graft) (when there was a metatarsal's head maiming); thirteen times associated with a metatarso-phalangeal arthrodesis (in cases of impaired joint surfaces). The authors analyse, besides, without excluding them the other surgical procedures for hallux varus, and particularly tendinous transfers. The results show the necessity of a perfect etiopathogenic analysis of the deformation.

  9. Total Knee Arthroplasty in Severe Valgus Osteoarthritis Excellent Early Results in a 90-Year-Old Patient with a Valgus Deformity of 47°

    PubMed Central

    Kernen, Rolf; Mueller, Sebastian Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Grade III valgus deformity (tibiofemoral alignment > 20°) is present in only 0.5% of patients receiving total knee arthroplasty. Furthermore, cases with a valgus deformity exceeding 40° are even rarer. Since they mostly affect elderly, polymorbid patients, successful outcome means a great challenge. We report on a case of a 90-year-old patient with a valgus deformity of 47°. The patient was preoperatively restricted to a wheel chair, unable to walk, and only able to stand for a few seconds. The maximal knee flexion was 100°, and there was an extension deficit of 15°. The WOMAC score was 91; the EQ-5D-5L Index was 0.048. She was treated with a constrained hinged prosthesis. Postoperatively, the axis was 6° valgus. After 3 months of rehabilitation, she was independent using a wheeled walker. The maximal flexion of the knee was 110° and there was no extension deficit. The WOMAC score was 45; the EQ-5D-5L Index was 0.813. This case demonstrates the possibility of a satisfactory result and an improvement in quality of life and mobility with a plausible timetable and with reasonable use of resources even in advanced age and severe valgus deformity. PMID:28386499

  10. Hallux amputation after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Oliveira, Sâmella Silva de; Sachett, Jacqueline de Almeida Gonçalves; Silva, Iran Mendonça da; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater stingray injuries are a common problem in the Brazilian Amazon, affecting mostly riverine and indigenous populations. These injuries cause severe local and regional pain, swelling and erythema, as well as complications, such as local necrosis and bacterial infection. Herein, we report a case of bacterial infection and hallux necrosis, after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon, which eventually required amputation. Different antimicrobial regimens were administered at different stages of the disease; however, avoiding amputation through effective treatment was not achieved.

  11. Fabella Fractures after Total Knee Arthroplasty with Correction of Valgus Malalignment

    PubMed Central

    Heggelman, Ben; Gaasbeek, Robert; Nix, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of fabella fractures is considered to be extremely low. This report presents two patients with femorotibial osteoarthritis and considerable preoperative valgus malalignment, who developed a fracture of the fabella (as demonstrated by radiography) after total knee arthroplasty with intraoperative correction of the valgus malalignment. Special attention should be paid to the fabella for not missing a fabella fracture in these patients. PMID:27340579

  12. Arthroscopic First Metatarsophalangeal Arthrodesis for Repair of Fixed Hallux Varus Deformity.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-01-01

    Arthroscopic first metatarsophalangeal arthrodesis for fixed hallux varus deformity can be very difficult because narrowing of the medial joint space results in difficult access. The abductor hallucis tendon and the medial capsule can be released through a small proximal plantar medial incision. This will convert the deformity into a flexible one and open up the medial joint space. This allows arthroscopic arthrodesis using the standard dorsolateral and medial portals. The plantar medial incision can also be used for arthroscopy of the metatarsosesamoid compartment and insertion of a screw for first metatarsophalangeal arthrodesis.

  13. The Effects of a Valgus Collapse Knee Position on In Vivo ACL Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Utturkar, G. M.; Irribarra, L. A.; Taylor, K. A.; Spritzer, C. E.; Taylor, D. C.; Garrett, W. E.; DeFrate, Louis E.

    2013-01-01

    There are conflicting data regarding what motions increase ACL injury risk. More specifically, the mechanical role of valgus collapse positions during ACL injury remains controversial. Our objective was to evaluate ACL elongation in a model that mimics knee movements thought to occur during ACL injury. Eight healthy male subjects were imaged using MR and biplanar fluoroscopy to measure the in vivo elongation of the ACL and its functional bundles during three static knee positions: full extension, 30° of flexion, and a position intended to mimic a valgus collapse position described in the literature. For this study, the valgus collapse position consisted of 30° of knee flexion, internal rotation of the hip, and 10° of external tibial rotation. ACL length decreased significantly from full extension (30.2 ± 2.6 mm) to 30° of flexion (27.1 ± 2.2 mm). ACL length further decreased in the valgus collapse position (25.6 ± 2.4 mm). Both functional bundles of the ACL followed similar trends with regards to decreases in length in each of the three positions. Since strain would follow patterns of ACL length, landing on an extended knee may be a more relevant risk factor for ACL injuries than the valgus collapse position in males. Future studies should evaluate the effects of dynamic motion patterns on in vivo ACL strains. PMID:22855117

  14. The effects of a valgus collapse knee position on in vivo ACL elongation.

    PubMed

    Utturkar, G M; Irribarra, L A; Taylor, K A; Spritzer, C E; Taylor, D C; Garrett, W E; Defrate, Louis E

    2013-01-01

    There are conflicting data regarding what motions increase ACL injury risk. More specifically, the mechanical role of valgus collapse positions during ACL injury remains controversial. Our objective was to evaluate ACL elongation in a model that mimics knee movements thought to occur during ACL injury. Eight healthy male subjects were imaged using MR and biplanar fluoroscopy to measure the in vivo elongation of the ACL and its functional bundles during three static knee positions: full extension, 30° of flexion, and a position intended to mimic a valgus collapse position described in the literature. For this study, the valgus collapse position consisted of 30° of knee flexion, internal rotation of the hip, and 10° of external tibial rotation. ACL length decreased significantly from full extension (30.2 ± 2.6 mm) to 30° of flexion (27.1 ± 2.2 mm). ACL length further decreased in the valgus collapse position (25.6 ± 2.4 mm). Both functional bundles of the ACL followed similar trends with regards to decreases in length in each of the three positions. Since strain would follow patterns of ACL length, landing on an extended knee may be a more relevant risk factor for ACL injuries than the valgus collapse position in males. Future studies should evaluate the effects of dynamic motion patterns on in vivo ACL strains.

  15. Three-dimensional reconstruction method for measuring the knee valgus angle of the femur in northern Chinese adults*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Chen-yu; Xiao, Jian-lin; Zhu, Lan-yu; Li, Xue-zhou; Qin, Yan-guo; Gao, Zhong-li

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a method for measuring the knee valgus angle from the anatomical and mechanical axes on three-dimensional reconstruction imaging models, and to use this method for estimating an average knee valgus angle value for northern Chinese adults. Computed tomographic angiography data in DICOM format for 128 normal femurs from 64 adult subjects were chosen for analysis. After the femur images were subjected to three-dimensional reconstruction, the deepest point in the intercondylar notch (point A), the midpoint of the medullary cavity 20 cm above the knee-joint line (point B), and the landmark of the femoral head rotation center (point C) were identified on each three-dimensional model. The knee valgus angle was defined as the angle enclosed by the distal femoral anatomical axis (line AB) and the femoral mechanical axis (line AC). The average (mean±SD) of knee valgus angle for the 128 femurs was 6.20°±1.20° (range, 3.05° to 10.64°). Significant positive correlations were found between the knee valgus angles of the right and left sides and between the knee valgus angle and age. During total knee arthroplasty, choosing a valgus cut angle of approximately 6° may achieve a good result in reestablishing the natural mechanical alignment of the lower extremity for patients of northern Chinese ethnicity. Larger valgus cut angles should be chosen for older patients. PMID:25091990

  16. Assessment of gait symmetry for Talus Valgus children based on experimental kinematic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth-Tascau, Mirela; Pasca, Oana; Vigaru, Cosmina; Rusu, Lucian

    2013-10-01

    The general purpose of this study was to assess the gait symmetry for Talus Valgus deformity based on experimental kinematic analysis. As this foot condition generally occurs in children, the study is focused on two children having five years old, one being healthy, as control subject, and the second one having bilateral Talus Valgus deformity. Kinematic experimental analysis was conducted using Zebris CMS-HS Measuring System. The bilateral symmetry was analyzed using two methods: index of symmetry (SI) calculated for spatio-temporal parameters (stance phase, swing phase, and step length) and kinematic parameter (maximum value of dorsiflexion - plantar flexion angle in the ankle joint), and an unpaired t-test to compare the variation of means values of dorsiflexion - plantar flexion angle in ankle joint for both left and right side. The study evidenced a good bilateral symmetry in case of the control subject and quantified the asymmetry in case of subject with Talus Valgus deformity.

  17. Carpal valgus in llamas and alpacas: Retrospective evaluation of patient characteristics, radiographic features and outcomes following surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Barbara; Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja F; Huber, Michael J; Parker, Jill E; Semevolos, Stacy A

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated outcomes of surgical treatment for carpal valgus in New World camelids and correlated successful outcome (absence of carpal valgus determined by a veterinarian) with patient characteristics and radiographic features. Univariable and multivariable analyses of retrospective case data in 19 camelids (33 limbs) treated for carpal valgus between 1987 and 2010 revealed that procedures incorporating a distal radial transphyseal bridge were more likely (P = 0.03) to result in success after a single surgical procedure. A greater degree of angulation (> 19°, P = 0.02) and younger age at surgery (< 4 months, P = 0.03) were associated with unsuccessful outcome. Overall, 74% of limbs straightened, 15% overcorrected, and 11% had persistent valgus following surgical intervention. To straighten, 22% of limbs required multiple procedures, not including implant removal. According to owners, valgus returned following implant removal in 4 limbs that had straightened after surgery.

  18. Stress shielding in the bony chain of leg in presence of varus or valgus knee

    PubMed Central

    Filardi, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Aims The aim was to assess how the stress shielding can influence the integrity and resistance of bones in presence of a misalignment. Methods Three finite elements models have been developed: a normal one, and two varus and valgus knee ones. Results The obtained results reveal interesting consequences deriving by a wrong disposition of parts which compose the skeletal chain of the leg. Conclusion The most dangerous conditions occur in the contact interface between pelvis and hip of the femur, for the valgus knee configuration, and for the varus one, at the contact interface around the knee zone. PMID:25972702

  19. SEVERE VALGUS DEFORMITY OF THE KNEE: DESCRIPTION OF NEW SURGICAL TECHNIQUE FOR ITS CORRECTION

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Robson Rocha; Matos, Marcos Almeida; Pimentel, Maurício; Martins, Bruno Jacomeli; Oliveira, Rafael Valadares

    2015-01-01

    Varus supracondylar osteotomy of the femur is the established procedure for treating painful knees that present lateral arthrosis and valgus deformity. In descriptions of the conventional surgical techniques, there are divergences regarding the location, access route, correction level, fixation type and area for synthesis insertion. This is most evident in cases of severe valgus with angles greater than 30° and distal femoral deformation, in association with hypoplasia of the lateral condyle. The authors describe a new surgical technique for distal femoral osteotomy, based on anatomical and geometrical criteria, which was developed in their clinic for treating severe valgus cases, and they present one of the cases treated. In the new technique, the wedge to be surgically resected has an oblique direction and the format of an isosceles triangle. This new proposal thus seeks to resolve problems that have been presented in such cases, through enabling valgus correction without causing any new deformity of the distal femur. Good cortical bone contact is promoted, and application of a stable synthesis system is made easier. However, the age limits for such patients and the degree of knee arthrosis that might contraindicate this procedure remain unknown. Hence, a larger sample and longer follow-up for operated cases are required. PMID:27042630

  20. A pictorial review of reconstructive foot and ankle surgery: hallux abductovalgus

    PubMed Central

    Meyr, Andrew J; Singh, Salil; Chen, Oliver; Ali, Sayed

    2015-01-01

    This pictorial review focuses on basic procedures performed within the field of podiatric surgery, specifically for the hallux abductovalgus or “bunion” deformity. Our goal is to define objective radiographic parameters that surgeons utilize to initially define deformity, lead to procedure selection and judge post-operative outcomes. We hope that radiologists will employ this information to improve their assessment of post-operative radiographs following reconstructive foot surgeries. First, relevant radiographic measurements are defined and their role in procedure selection explained. Second, the specific surgical procedures of the distal metatarsal, metatarsal shaft, metatarsal base, and phalangeal osteotomies are described in detail. Additional explanations of arthrodesis of the first metatarsal-phalangeal and metatarsal-cuneiform joints are also provided. Finally, specific plain film radiographic findings that judge post-operative outcomes for each procedure are detailed. PMID:26622935

  1. Hallux Rigidus

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...

  2. An evidence-based review of hip-focused neuromuscular exercise interventions to address dynamic lower extremity valgus

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kevin R; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Dischiavi, Steven L; Hegedus, Eric J; Zuk, Emma F; Taylor, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in proximal hip strength or neuromuscular control may lead to dynamic lower extremity valgus. Measures of dynamic lower extremity valgus have been previously shown to relate to increased risk of several knee pathologies, specifically anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and patellofemoral pain. Therefore, hip-focused interventions have gained considerable attention and been successful in addressing these knee pathologies. The purpose of the review was to identify and discuss hip-focused exercise interventions that aim to address dynamic lower extremity valgus. Previous electromyography, kinematics, and kinetics research support the use of targeted hip exercises with non-weight-bearing, controlled weight-bearing, functional exercise, and, to a lesser extent, dynamic exercises in reducing dynamic lower extremity valgus. Further studies should be developed to identify and understand the mechanistic relationship between optimized biomechanics during sports and hip-focused neuromuscular exercise interventions. PMID:26346471

  3. [Underfoot pressure distribution of a patient after fracture of the calcaneal bone and bilateral hallux amputation--case report].

    PubMed

    Lorkowski, Jacek; Trybus, Marek; Hładki, Waldemar; Brongel, Leszek

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate underfoot pressure distribution of a patient after bilateral hallux amputation and the unilateral calcaneal bone fracture on the left side at the end of orthopaedic end rehabilitation treatment. The pedobarographic examination during bipedal standing revealed localisation of maximal pressure at H region on the side of fracture and on MT1 and H foot regions on the other side. After the and of orthopaedic treatment underfoot pressure distribution changes persists in spite of pain regression.

  4. Greater Growth of Proximal Metatarsals in Bird Embryos and the Evolution of Hallux Position in the Grasping Foot.

    PubMed

    Botelho, João Francisco; Smith-Paredes, Daniel; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Núñez-León, Daniel; Palma, Verónica; Vargas, Alexander O

    2017-01-01

    In early theropod dinosaurs-the ancestors of birds-the hallux (digit 1) had an elevated position within the foot and had lost the proximal portion of its metatarsal. It no longer articulated with the ankle, but was attached at about mid-length of metatarsal 2 (mt2). In adult birds, the hallux is articulated closer to the distal end of mt2 at ground level with the other digits. However, on chick embryonic day 7, its position is as in early theropods at half-length of mt2. The adult distal location is acquired during embryonic days 8-10. To assess how the adult phenotype is acquired, we produced fate maps of the metatarsals of day 6 chicken embryos injecting the lipophilic tracer DiI. The fates of these marks indicate a larger expansion of the metatarsals at their proximal end, which creates the illusory effect that d1 moves distally. This larger proximal expansion occurs concomitantly with growth and early differentiation of cartilage. Histological analysis of metatarsals shows that the domains of flattened and prehypertrophic chondrocytes are larger toward the proximal end. The results suggest that the distal position of the hallux in the avian foot evolved as a consequence of an embryological period of expansion of the metatarsus toward the proximal end. It also brings attention to the developmental mechanisms leading to differential growth between epiphyses and their evolutionary consequences.

  5. Trunk kinematics and the influence on valgus knee stress in persons with high sacral level myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajan T; Vankoski, Stephen; Novak, Robert A; Dias, Luciano S

    2005-01-01

    Historically, trunk movement has been thought to be reactionary to lower body motions. The excessive trunk movement in patients with myelomeningocele may be a primary mechanism during ambulation. The purpose of this study was to quantify three-dimensional trunk movement in patients with myelomeningocele. Patients walked with ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs), both with and without crutches. Data were collected in reference to global and pelvic coordinates. Patients who walked with AFOs and crutches showed less trunk dynamic range of motion than patients without crutches. Between the two patient groups, there was a significant difference in trunk obliquity but not in trunk tilt or rotation. There is a good correlation between maximum trunk obliquity and coronal plane valgus knee stress. Overall, coronal plane valgus knee stress is multifactorial and trunk motion and external tibial torsion are major contributors. However, when using trunk kinematics to describe dynamic motion, both global and pelvic coordinate systems are important reference frames.

  6. Growth modulation with a medial malleolar screw for ankle valgus deformity

    PubMed Central

    Rupprecht, Martin; Spiro, Alexander S; Breyer, Sandra; Vettorazzi, Eik; Ridderbusch, Karsten; Stücker, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Growth modulation with a medial malleolar screw is used to correct ankle valgus deformity in children with a wide spectrum of underlying etiologies. It is unclear whether the etiology of the deformity affects the angular correction rate with this procedure. Patients and methods 79 children (20 girls) with ankle valgus deformity had growth modulation by a medial malleolar screw (125 ankles). To be included, patients had to have undergone screw removal at the time of skeletal maturity or deformity correction, or a minimum follow-up of 18 months, and consistent radiographs preoperatively and at the time of screw removal and/or follow-up. The patients were assigned to 1 of 7 groups according to their underlying diagnoses. The lateral distal tibial angle (LDTA) was analyzed preoperatively, at screw removal, and at follow-up. Results Mean age at operation was 11.7 (7.4–16.5) years. The average lateral distal tibial angle normalized from 80° (67–85) preoperatively to 89° (73–97) at screw removal. The screws were removed after an average time of 18 (6–46) months, according to an average rate of correction of 0.65° (0.1–2.2) per month. No significant differences in the correction rate per month were found between the groups (p = 0.3). Interpretation Growth modulation with a medial malleolar screw is effective for the treatment of ankle valgus deformity in patients with a wide spectrum of underlying diagnoses. The individual etiology of the ankle valgus does not appear to affect the correction rate after growth modulation. Thus, the optimal timing of growth modulation mainly depends on the remaining individual growth and on the extent of the deformity. PMID:25909385

  7. Biomechanical effects of valgus knee bracing: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Moyer, R F; Birmingham, T B; Bryant, D M; Giffin, J R; Marriott, K A; Leitch, K M

    2015-02-01

    To review and synthesize the biomechanical effects of valgus knee bracing for patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). Electronic databases were searched from their inception to May 2014. Two reviewers independently determined study eligibility, rated study quality and extracted data. Where possible, data were combined into meta-analyses and pooled estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated. Thirty studies were included with 478 subjects tested while using a valgus knee brace. Various biomechanical methods suggested valgus braces can decrease direct measures of medial knee compressive force, indirect measures representing the mediolateral distribution of load across the knee, quadriceps/hamstring and quadriceps/gastrocnemius co-contraction ratios, and increase medial joint space during gait. Meta-analysis from 17 studies suggested a statistically significant decrease in the external knee adduction moment (KAM) during walking, with a moderate-to-high effect size (SMD = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.83; P < 0.001). Meta-regression identified a near-significant association for the KAM effect size and duration of brace use only (β, -0.01; 95% CI: -0.03, 0.0001; P = 0.06); with longer durations of brace use associated with smaller treatment effects. Minor complications were commonly reported during brace use and included slipping, discomfort and poor fit, blisters and skin irritation. Systematic review and meta-analysis suggests valgus knee braces can alter knee joint loads through a combination of mechanisms, with moderate-to-high effect sizes in biomechanical outcomes.

  8. Impaired varus-valgus proprioception and neuromuscular stabilization in medial knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alison H; Lee, Song Joo; Zhao, Heng; Ren, Yupeng; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2014-01-22

    Impaired proprioception and poor muscular stabilization in the frontal plane may lead to knee instability during functional activities, a common complaint in persons with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Understanding these frontal plane neuromechanical properties in KOA will help elucidate the factors contributing to knee instability and aid in the development of targeted intervention strategies. The objectives of the study were to compare knee varus-valgus proprioception, isometric muscle strength, and active muscular contribution to stability between persons with medial KOA and healthy controls. We evaluated knee frontal plane neuromechanical parameters in 14 participants with medial KOA and 14 age- and gender-matched controls, using a joint driving device (JDD) with a customized motor and a 6-axis force sensor. Analysis of covariance with BMI as a covariate was used to test the differences in varus-valgus neuromechanical parameters between these two groups. The KOA group had impaired varus proprioception acuity (1.08±0.59° vs. 0.69±0.49°, p<0.05), decreased normalized varus muscle strength (1.31±0.75% vs. 1.79±0.84% body weight, p<0.05), a trend toward decreased valgus strength (1.29±0.67% vs. 1.88±0.99%, p=0.054), and impaired ability to actively stabilize the knee in the frontal plane during external perturbation (4.67±2.86 vs. 8.26±5.95 Nm/degree, p<0.05). The knee frontal plane sensorimotor control system is compromised in persons with medial KOA. Our findings suggest varus-valgus control deficits in both the afferent input (proprioceptive acuity) and muscular effectors (muscle strength and capacity to stabilize the joint).

  9. EVIDENCE OF GENDER-SPECIFIC MOTOR TEMPLATES TO RESIST VALGUS LOADING AT THE KNEE

    PubMed Central

    Cammarata, Martha L.; Dhaher, Yasin Y.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in neuromuscular control of the lower extremity may contribute to increased injury risk in females, but the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear. In this study, we sought to explore the effect of gender on volitional and reflex neuromuscular responses to a rapid valgus perturbation at the knee applied under “intervene” and “do not intervene” conditions. Multiple 7° ramp-and-hold valgus perturbations were applied at the neutrally extended knee of 12 male and 12 female healthy subjects, while surface electromyography over the quadriceps and hamstrings recorded the neuromuscular response. Volitional responses did not vary between groups, perhaps reflecting the relative novelty of the loading direction. However, reflex responses observed under the “do not intervene” paradigm did vary by gender. Males demonstrated much more frequent and consistent reflex muscle activation than females. Moreover, muscle activation patterns were gender-specific. Diminished responses in female subjects may indicate that the position-based valgus perturbation did not produce the necessary mechanical stimulus to elicit reflexes. These gender differences in reflex control of the knee provide new insight into the control of frontal-plane knee joint movement and loading and may elucidate the neuromechanical underpinnings associated with neuromuscular control. PMID:19918763

  10. Parametric study of orthopedic insole of valgus foot on partial foot amputation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-Chao; Wang, Li-Zhen; Chen, Wei; Du, Cheng-Fei; Mo, Zhong-Jun; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic insole was important for partial foot amputation (PFA) to achieve foot balance and avoid foot deformity. The inapposite insole orthosis was thought to be one of the risk factors of reamputation for foot valgus patient, but biomechanical effects of internal tissues on valgus foot had not been clearly addressed. In this study, plantar pressure on heel and metatarsal regions of PFA was measured using F-Scan. The three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of partial foot evaluated different medial wedge angles (MWAs) (0.0°-10.0°) of orthopedic insole on valgus foot. The effect of orthopedic insole on the internal bone stress, the medial ligament tension of ankle, plantar fascia tension, and plantar pressure was investigated. Plantar pressure on medial heel region was about 2.5 times higher than that of lateral region based on the F-Scan measurements. FE-predicted results showed that the tension of medial ankle ligaments was the lowest, and the plantar pressure was redistributed around the heel, the first metatarsal, and the lateral longitudinal arch regions when MWA of orthopedic insole ranged from 7.5° to 8.0°. The plantar fascias maintained about 3.5% of the total load bearing on foot. However, the internal stresses from foot bones increased. The simulation in this study would provide the suggestion of guiding optimal design of orthopedic insole and therapeutic planning to pedorthist.

  11. Hallux rigidus: Joint preserving alternatives to arthrodesis - a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Polzer, Hans; Polzer, Sigmund; Brumann, Mareen; Mutschler, Wolf; Regauer, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Hallux rigidus describes the osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. It was first mentioned in 1887. Since then a multitude of terms have been introduced referring to the same disease. The main complaints are pain especially during movement and a limited range of motion. Radiographically the typical signs of osteoarthritis can be observed starting at the dorsal portion of the joint. Numerous classifications make the comparison of the different studies difficult. If non-operative treatment fails to resolve the symptoms operative treatment is indicated. The most studied procedure with reproducible results is the arthrodesis. Nevertheless, many patients refuse this treatment option, favouring a procedure preserving motion. Different motion preserving and joint sacrificing operations such as arthroplasty are available. In this review we focus on motion and joint preserving procedures. Numerous joint preserving osteotomies have been described. Most of them try to relocate the viable plantar cartilage more dorsally, to decompress the joint and to increase dorsiflexion of the first metatarsal bone. Multiple studies are available investigating these procedures. Most of them suffer from low quality, short follow up and small patient numbers. Consequently the grade of recommendation is low. Nonetheless, joint preserving procedures are appealing because if they fail to relief the symptoms an arthrodesis or arthroplasty can still be performed thereafter. PMID:24649409

  12. Open physeal fracture of the distal phalanx of the hallux: Case study, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Morris, Brandon; Mullen, Scott; Schroeppel, Paul; Vopat, Bryan

    2017-02-06

    Open physeal fractures of the distal phalanx of the hallux are the lesser described counterpart to the same fracture of the finger, known by its eponym as a "Seymour fracture". Displaced Salter-Harris phalangeal fractures present with a concomitant nailbed or soft tissue injury. Often these fractures occur in the summer months when open-toe footwear can be worn, however, they may occur indoors as well. Frequently, the injury results from direct axial load of the toe, or "stubbing", which causes the fracture and associated soft tissue injury. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment is necessary to prevent negative sequelae such as osteomyelitis, malunion, nonunion, or premature growth arrest. In this article, we present a 12year-old male who sustained an open physeal fracture of the distal phalanx when he "stubbed" his great toe on a bed post. His injury was initially misdiagnosed at an urgent care facility, thereby delaying appropriate intervention and necessitating an operative surgical procedure. Additionally, we review the existing literature discussing these infrequently reported injuries, as well as present key points as they pertain to the diagnosis and management of this injury in the emergency department.

  13. The Effect of Thigh Marker Placement on Knee Valgus Angles in Vertical Drop Jumps and Sidestep Cutting.

    PubMed

    Mok, Kam-Ming; Kristianslund, Eirik; Krosshaug, Tron

    2015-08-01

    Knee valgus angles measured in sidestep cutting and vertical drop jumps are key variables in research on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury causation. These variables are also used to quantify knee neuromuscular control and ACL injury risk. The aims of the current study were to (1) quantify the differences in the calculated knee valgus angles between 6 different thigh marker clusters, (2) investigate the trial ranking based on their knee valgus angles, and (3) investigate the influence of marker clusters on the cross-talk effect. Elite female handball and football players (n = 41) performed sidestep cutting and vertical drop jumping motions. We found systematic differences up to almost 15° of peak valgus between the marker sets in the drop jump test. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient varied from .505 to .974 among the 6 marker sets. In addition, the cross-talk effect varied considerably between the marker clusters. The results of the current study indicate that the choice of thigh marker cluster can have a substantial impact on the magnitude of knee valgus angle, as well as the trial ranking. A standardized thigh marker cluster, including nonanatomical landmark, is needed to minimize the variation of the measurement.

  14. High Knee Valgus in Female Subjects Does Not Yield Higher Knee Translations During Drop Landings: A Biplane Fluoroscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Torry, Michael R.; Shelburne, Kevin B.; Myers, Casey; Giphart, J. Erik; Pennington, W. Wesley; Krong, Jacob P.; Peterson, Daniel S.; Steadman, J. Richard; Woo, Savio L-Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effects of peak knee valgus angle and peak knee abductor moment on the anterior, medial, and lateral tibial translations (ATT, MTT, LTT) in the ‘at risk’ female knee during drop landing. Fifteen female subjects performed drop landings from 40 cm. 3D knee motion was simultaneously recorded using a high speed, biplane fluoroscopy system and a video-based motion analysis system. Valgus knee angles and knee abduction moments were stratified into low, intermediate and high groups and peak ATT, MTT and LTT were compared between these groups with ANOVA (α = .05). Significant differences were observed between stratified groups in peak knee valgus angle (p < .0001) and peak knee abduction moment (p < .0001). However, no corresponding differences in peak ATT, LTT and MTT between groups exhibiting low to high peak knee valgus angles (ATT: p = .80; LTT: p = .25; MTT: p = .72); or, in peak ATT (p = .61), LTT (p = .26) and MTT (p = .96) translations when stratified according to low to high knee abduction moments, were found. We conclude that the healthy female knee is tightly regulated with regard to translations even when motion analysis derived knee valgus angles and abduction moments are high. PMID:22968826

  15. Developing a 6-DOF robot to investigate multi-axis ACL injuries under valgus loading coupled with tibia internal rotation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yupeng; Jacobs, Benjamin J; Nuber, Gordon W; Koh, Jason L; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have become more common in recent years as more young people participate in risky sporting activities [1]. Most ACL injuries occur as a result of noncontact mechanisms. Previous in vitro studies of ACL strain have found significant increases in ACL strain primarily with anterior directed force on the tibia relative to the femur and with internal rotation and often with valgus torque [2,3]. However, there remains significant controversy over the mechanisms of ACL failure and the forces on the knee that lead to injury. Some studies have also shown that isolated valgus loading may not load the ACL strongly. The goal of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying valgus-related ACL injuries. An improved understanding of ACL failure may lead to improved ACL injury prevention programs. A novel 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) knee driving robot was developed in this study with a unique multi-axis simultaneous torque/position control. It was found that pure valgus torque caused a torque that internally rotated the tibia and thus increased ACL strain markedly, which may be an important mechanism underlying the rather common seemingly valgus-related ACL injuries.

  16. High knee valgus in female subjects does not yield higher knee translations during drop landings: a biplane fluoroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Torry, Michael R; Shelburne, Kevin B; Myers, Casey; Giphart, J Erik; Pennington, W Wesley; Krong, Jacob P; Peterson, Daniel S; Steadman, J Richard; Woo, Savio L-Y

    2013-02-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effects of peak knee valgus angle and peak knee abductor moment on the anterior, medial, and lateral tibial translations (ATT, MTT, LTT) in the "at risk" female knee during drop landing. Fifteen female subjects performed drop landings from 40 cm. Three-dimension knee motion was simultaneously recorded using a high speed, biplane fluoroscopy system, and a video-based motion analysis system. Valgus knee angles and knee abduction moments were stratified into low, intermediate, and high groups and peak ATT, MTT, and LTT were compared between these groups with ANOVA (α = 0.05). Significant differences were observed between stratified groups in peak knee valgus angle (p < 0.0001) and peak knee abduction moment (p < 0.0001). However, no corresponding differences in peak ATT, LTT, and MTT between groups exhibiting low to high-peak knee valgus angles (ATT: p = 0.80; LTT: p = 0.25; MTT: p = 0.72); or, in peak ATT (p = 0.61), LTT (p = 0.26) and MTT (p = 0.96) translations when stratified according to low to high knee abduction moments, were found. We conclude that the healthy female knee is tightly regulated with regard to translations even when motion analysis derived knee valgus angles and abduction moments are high.

  17. Geometric pattern of the hominoid hallucal tarsometatarsal complex. Quantifying the degree of hallux abduction in early hominids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berillon, Gilles

    1999-05-01

    The degree of hallux abduction in extant and fossil hominoids is analysed in terms of geometric relationships between the first metatarsal and the medial cuneiform and quantified by angular data, in relation to grasping ability and locomotor pattern. The 'australopithecine' pattern corresponds to an abducted first podal ray with some grasping abilities and seems to be derived from a ' Proconsul-like' pattern rather than a 'living African great ape-like' pattern. The Olduvai Hominid 8 condition closely resembles that of the modern human which corresponds to a full bipedalism.

  18. PROXIMAL FEMURAL VALGUS SUBTROCHANTERIC OSTEOTOMY FOR NON UNION OF TROCHANTERIC FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Paulo; Coelho, Danilo Lopes; Curi, Calim; de Oliveira, Leandro Alves; de Moraes, Frederico Barra; do Amaral, Rogério Andrade; Rebello, Percival Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate valgus subtrochanteric osteotomy for the treatment of trochanteric non-union. Methods: A retrospective study of cases series. From 1998 September to 2009 January, seventeen (17) cases with a diagnosis of non-union of trochanteric fracture were re-operated by the hip group of the Ortophaedic And Traumatology service of the Hospital Geral de Goiania (HGG). The patients presented pain at the fracture site, a femoral varus angle of less than 120°, and non-union of the fracture in the 3rd months after the initial surgery. Results: Patients with ages ranging from 30 to 73 years, with a maximum follow-up of 09 years and minimum of 09 years. The mean time from first surgery to osteotomy was six months. Bone union was observed in 16 patients, with a mean union time of 12 weeks after surgery. The mean hip varus angle was 1050 (1200 to 900). After surgery, the mean hip valgus angle was 1440 (1550 to 1350). We had one unsuccessful case; a 78-year old patient who had osteogtomy, fixed with DHS of 1500, with valgization to 1540. After six months of follow-up without union of the fracture, it was decided to perform total cemented hip artroplasthy, without complications. Conclusion: Valgus subtrochanteric osteotomies can be indicated for the treatment of trochanteric treatment of pseudoarthroses, with good final results for bone union, avoiding the need for total hip artroplasthy and maintaining biological fixation, as well as reestablishing the mechanical and anatomical axis of the affected limb. PMID:27027080

  19. Guided Growth With Temporary Hemiepiphysiodesis to Treat Ankle Valgus in a Skeletally Immature Individual: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    LaPorta, Guido A; Susek, Mehgan M

    2016-01-01

    Guided growth is useful in correcting pediatric angular deformities. Ankle valgus is a coronal plane deformity and is often seen in skeletally immature patients with congenital or acquired lower extremity pathologic features. Temporary hemiepiphysiodesis with a percutaneous transphyseal medial malleolar screw is a surgical treatment capable of correcting the angular deformity and can offer effective correction. In the present case study, a 12-year-old male with dorsal-lateral peritalar subluxation and ankle valgus underwent a reconstructive procedure and temporary hemiepiphysiodesis with a percutaneous medial malleolar screw. After removal of the screw, reduction of his peritalar subluxation was achieved, improving his lateral-distal tibial angle from 81° preoperatively to 89° at the final follow-up examination. The patient returned to his preoperative sporting activities and ambulated comfortably and pain free in sneakers with orthotics. In conclusion, temporary hemiepiphysiodesis with a transphyseal medial malleolar screw is an effective treatment option for ankle valgus in a skeletally immature individual.

  20. Fixation of Intertrochanteric Valgus Osteotomy with T Plate in Treatment of Developmental Coxa Vara

    PubMed Central

    Khairy, Hosam Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the valgus subtrochanteric osteotomy is considered as a standard surgical treatment for coxa vara, there is no consensus on the optimal method of fixation and osteotomy technique. Fixation of the osteotomy has been achieved by various methods including external fixation and internal fixation with pins and cerclage and a variety of plates. The aim of this study is the evaluation of the results of developmental coxa treated by Y intertrochanteric valgus osteotomy fixed with a T-buttress plate compared with other methods of fixation in the literature. Methods Eighteen corrective valgus intertrochanteric femoral osteotomies were performed in 18 patients (18 hips) for treatment of unilateral developmental coxa vara deformity and fixed with a T plate. There were 12 males and 6 females. The right hip was affected in 10 patients and the left hip in 8 patients. Clinically, patients were evaluated by Larson hip score. Radiographically, anteroposterior view of the pelvis and frog leg lateral views of the affected hip were taken preoperatively and compared with the findings at the final follow-up. Results The average follow-up was 29 months (range, 24 to 36 months). Clinical results showed improvement of the mean Larson hip score from 57.8 to 97.0 (p < 0.001). Radiological results showed that all osteotomies were completely united in 2.4 months (range, 2 to 3 months) with the achievement of the planned correction angle. The average correction of Hilgenreiner's epiphyseal angle improved from 78.2° to 27.8° (p < 0.001) at the final follow-up. The femoral neck shaft angle was improved from 93.7° to 129.9° (p < 0.001) at the final follow-up. Shortening of the affected limb was corrected from 2.8 cm to 1.3 cm (p < 0.001) at the last follow-up. No major serious complications were recorded in the present study. Conclusions Intertrochanteric valgus osteotomy of the proximal femur fixed with a T plate may be efficient for treatment of developmental coxa vara

  1. Growth arrest of the proximal tibial physis with recurvatum and valgus deformity of the knee.

    PubMed

    Domzalski, Marcin; Mackenzie, William

    2009-10-01

    Two cases of asymmetrical closure of the proximal tibial epiphysis without a clear aetiological factor were presented. In both cases premature closure of the growth plate resulted in progressive recurvatum and valgus deformity of the knee with leg length discrepancy. The correction of deformity was obtained using Taylor Spatial frame with excellent results at 2 years follow-up. We hypothesize that repetitive trauma or chronic overloading during sports activities might be a factor of growth arrest in reported cases. Orthopedic surgeons should be aware of the possibility of subtle physeal injuries, causing angular deformities, in the cases of even minor knee trauma in skeletally immature population.

  2. Techniques for managing varus and valgus malalignment during total ankle replacement.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Jin; Yoon, Hang Seob; Lee, Jin Woo

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate goal of primary total ankle replacement is to provide a well-balanced soft-tissue envelope around a well-aligned, well-fixated implant. Some surgeons have emphasized that good outcomes in total ankle replacement are more dependent on ligament balancing, along with the procedure itself, than the extent of preoperative coronal deformity in the ankle. Thus, it is imperative that the surgeon be familiar with additional procedures to address the varus, valgus, and other associated deformities commonly encountered in primary total ankle replacement.

  3. Injury tolerance and moment response of the knee joint to combined valgus bending and shear loading.

    PubMed

    Bose, Dipan; Bhalla, Kavi S; Untaroiu, Costin D; Ivarsson, B Johan; Crandall, Jeff R; Hurwitz, Shepard

    2008-06-01

    Valgus bending and shearing of the knee have been identified as primary mechanisms of injuries in a lateral loading environment applicable to pedestrian-car collisions. Previous studies have reported on the structural response of the knee joint to pure valgus bending and lateral shearing, as well as the estimated injury thresholds for the knee bending angle and shear displacement based on experimental tests. However, epidemiological studies indicate that most knee injuries are due to the combined effects of bending and shear loading. Therefore, characterization of knee stiffness for combined loading and the associated injury tolerances is necessary for developing vehicle countermeasures to mitigate pedestrian injuries. Isolated knee joint specimens (n=40) from postmortem human subjects were tested in valgus bending at a loading rate representative of a pedestrian-car impact. The effect of lateral shear force combined with the bending moment on the stiffness response and the injury tolerances of the knee was concurrently evaluated. In addition to the knee moment-angle response, the bending angle and shear displacement corresponding to the first instance of primary ligament failure were determined in each test. The failure displacements were subsequently used to estimate an injury threshold function based on a simplified analytical model of the knee. The validity of the determined injury threshold function was subsequently verified using a finite element model. Post-test necropsy of the knees indicated medial collateral ligament injury consistent with the clinical injuries observed in pedestrian victims. The moment-angle response in valgus bending was determined at quasistatic and dynamic loading rates and compared to previously published test data. The peak bending moment values scaled to an average adult male showed no significant change with variation in the superimposed shear load. An injury threshold function for the knee in terms of bending angle and shear

  4. Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Valgus Deformity Undergoing Minimally Invasive Total Knee Arthroplasty Through the Medial Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hamahashi, Kosuke; Mitani, Genya; Takagaki, Tomonori; Serigano, Kenji; Mochida, Joji; Sato, Masato; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes between patients with a valgus or varus deformity undergoing minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty through the medial approach. Methods: The patients were classified into 2 groups according to the preoperative femorotibial angle measured on an anteroposterior long leg roentgenogram. The valgus group comprised of 26 knees in 21 patients with a femorotibial angle <170° (163.5 ± 5.7), and the varus group comprised of 24 knees in 21 patients with a femorotibial angle >190° (195.9 ± 5.5). The following background variables were compared between the groups: age at the time of the operation, sex, causative disease, preoperative femoral mechanical–anatomical angle, and postoperative knee range of motion, Knee Society score, femorotibial angle, and implant position. Results: There were significant differences between the valgus and varus groups in the age (68.0 ± 6.9 vs 75.8 ± 6.2 years), percentage of males (23.8% vs 0%), percentage with rheumatoid arthritis (61.9% vs 4.8%), and preoperative femoral mechanical–anatomical angle (6.2 ± 1.0° vs 7.4 ± 2.1°). Clinical outcome variables of postoperative femorotibial angle (173.1 ± 3.9° vs 175.2 ± 1.6°) and α angle (96.6 ± 3.1° vs 95.0 ± 1.9°) also differed. Conclusion: It was assumed that over-valgus resection of the femur is a contributory factor to residual valgus alignment. However, knee range of motion and Knee Society score did not differ between the groups. We suggest that minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty through the medial approach is one of the treatment options for patients with valgus deformity. PMID:28144381

  5. Is deltoid and lateral ligament reconstruction necessary in varus and valgus ankle osteoarthritis, and how should these procedures be performed?

    PubMed

    Hogan, Macalus V; Dare, David M; Deland, Jonathan T

    2013-09-01

    Varus and valgus ankle deformities represent a challenge to the foot and ankle surgeons. The presence of degenerative changes of the tibiotalar joint articular surfaces introduces an additional layer of complexity. Reconstruction of such deformities requires a customized approach to each patient. Surgical intervention often requires joint-sparing realignment, arthroplasty, and/or arthrodesis, depending on the severity of deformity and the joint surface integrity. The ligamentous stability of the ankle plays an essential role in the preservation and optimization of function. This article reviews the role of deltoid and lateral ligament reconstruction in the treatment of varus and valgus ankle osteoarthritis.

  6. Clarification of functional differences between the hallux and lesser toes during the single leg stance: immediate effects of conditioning contraction of the toe plantar flexion muscles.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Junya; Tojima, Michio; Torii, Suguru

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the functional differences of the plantar flexion muscles of the hallux and lesser toes during the single leg stance by comparing postural sway in different conditioning contraction interventions. [Subjects] Thirty-four healthy, young males and females participated in this study. [Methods] The front-back and right-left direction components of maximal displacement and postural sway velocity during the single leg stance were measured in various conditioning contraction interventions for the plantar flexion muscles of the hallux or lessor toes. [Results] The main findings of this study were as follows: 1) the front-back direction component of maximal displacement was reduced by conditioning contraction of the plantar flexion muscles of the hallux, and 2) the front-back direction component of the postural sway velocity was reduced by conditioning contraction of the plantar flexion muscles of the lesser toes during the single leg stance. [Conclusion] The plantar flexion muscles of the lesser toes control the postural sway velocity. Furthermore, the plantar flexion muscles of the hallux appear to control the amplitude of postural sway.

  7. Results in the treatment of paralytic calcaneus-valgus feet with the Westin technique

    PubMed Central

    Svartman, Celso; Santili, Cláudio; De Assumpção, Rodrigo MontezumaC.; de Almeida Leite, Leonardo Felicissimo; Quialheiro, Leonardo Silva; de Carvalho Fabricio, Sidney

    2006-01-01

    Between 1988 and 2003, 23 patients with paralytic calcaneus-valgus feet were submitted to the Westin procedure and 17 patients (25 feet) were re-evaluated. Nine patients were male and eight were female. The mean age at the surgical procedure was 8±5 years. The aetiology of paralysis was sequelae of poliomyelitis in 6 patients (8 feet) and of myelomeningocele in 11 patients (17 feet). The mean follow-up period was 6±6 years. The results were analysed clinically and radiographically considering the decrease of the retropulsion, the patient’s satisfaction, and the increase of the lateral tibiocalcaneal angle. Results were considered satisfactory when the patients showed a decrease of the retropulsion during gait, improvement of the gait pattern, and an increase of the tibiocalcaneal angle. As an overall result, 16 patients (94.2%) were satisfied and 1 patient (two feet) dissatisfied with the outcome. The increase of the tibiocalcaneal angle was significant for the myelomeningocele patients (P=0.001), but not for poliomyelitis (P=0.053). No statistical relation between the follow-up period and the increase of the tibiocalcaneal angle was found (r=0.04). The authors concluded that the Westin procedure is a good technique for the treatment of paralytic calcaneus valgus feet with myelomeningocele. PMID:16933136

  8. DISTAL FEMORAL VARUSING FOR OSTEOARTHRITIS OF VALGUS KNEE: A LONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Marco Antônio Percope de; Gomes, Davi Coutinho Fonseca Fernandes; Portugal, André Lopes; Silva, Guilherme Moreira de Abreu e

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Assess the long-term results of distal femoral varusing osteotomy and try to establish predictive criteria that could help on selecting patients to be submitted to this technique. Methods: Fifteen patients with lateral compartment osteoarthritis and valgus deformity of the knee were submitted to distal femoral “V” varusing osteotomy fixated with lateral plate, pursuing knee alignment at 0° on the anatomical axis. The mean follow-up period was 81.4 months, ranging from 43 to 132 months. The Knee Society Rating System protocol was employed. Additional assessed variables were the following: patient age, follow-up time, and postoperative anatomical angle. Results: 11 results were regarded as excellent or good (73%) and four as fair or poor (27%). Conclusion: Distal femoral “V” varusing osteotomy constitutes a good treatment alternative for patients with lateral compartment osteoarthritis and valgus knee. The following variables have not been confirmed: patient age at the time of surgery, follow-up time, and postoperative anatomical angle as predictive factors for the results. PMID:27022518

  9. Results in the treatment of paralytic calcaneus-valgus feet with the Westin technique.

    PubMed

    Fucs, Patrícia M de Moraes Barros; Svartman, Celso; Santili, Cláudio; De Assumpção, Rodrigo Montezuma C; de Almeida Leite, Leonardo Felicissimo; Quialheiro, Leonardo Silva; de Carvalho Fabricio, Sidney

    2007-08-01

    Between 1988 and 2003, 23 patients with paralytic calcaneus-valgus feet were submitted to the Westin procedure and 17 patients (25 feet) were re-evaluated. Nine patients were male and eight were female. The mean age at the surgical procedure was 8+/-5 years. The aetiology of paralysis was sequelae of poliomyelitis in 6 patients (8 feet) and of myelomeningocele in 11 patients (17 feet). The mean follow-up period was 6+/-6 years. The results were analysed clinically and radiographically considering the decrease of the retropulsion, the patient's satisfaction, and the increase of the lateral tibiocalcaneal angle. Results were considered satisfactory when the patients showed a decrease of the retropulsion during gait, improvement of the gait pattern, and an increase of the tibiocalcaneal angle. As an overall result, 16 patients (94.2%) were satisfied and 1 patient (two feet) dissatisfied with the outcome. The increase of the tibiocalcaneal angle was significant for the myelomeningocele patients (P=0.001), but not for poliomyelitis (P=0.053). No statistical relation between the follow-up period and the increase of the tibiocalcaneal angle was found (r=0.04). The authors concluded that the Westin procedure is a good technique for the treatment of paralytic calcaneus valgus feet with myelomeningocele.

  10. Valgus-Varus Deformity of the Intertarsal Joint in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Julian, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    A lateral or medial angulation of the shaft of the distal tibiotarsal bone resulting in deviation of the lower part of the leg and frequently with bending of the proximal shaft of the tarsometatarsus is the most common leg deformity in broiler chickens. This lateral or medial deviation of the legs in broiler chickens, which has been described by many workers, deserves a specific name such as angular bone deformity or valgus-varus deformity of intertarsal joint, so that it may be separated from other varieties of lameness in broilers. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2A.Figure 2B.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figures 5A and 5B.Figures 5A and 5B.Figures 6A and 6B.Figures 6A and 6B.Figures 7A and 7B.Figures 7A and 7B.Figure 8. PMID:17422417

  11. Bilateral carpal valgus deformity in hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Bell, Katherine M; van Zyl, Malan; Ugarte, Claudia E; Hartman, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Four hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus) exhibited progressively severe bilateral valgus deformity of the carpi (CV) during the weaning period. Radiographs of the thoracic limbs suggested normal bone ossification, and serum chemistry was unremarkable. All affected cubs developed CV shortly after the onset of gastroenteritis, which was treated medically, and included use of a prescription diet. A sudden decrease in growth rate was associated with gastrointestinal disease. Before gastroenteritis and CV, affected cubs had higher growth rates than unaffected cubs, despite similar mean daily energy intake. Return to normal thoracic limb conformation was consequent to dietary manipulation (including a reduction in energy intake and vitamin and mineral supplementation), as well as decreased growth rates and recovery from gastroenteritis. The cause of the CV is likely to have been multi-factorial with potentially complex physiological interactions involved.

  12. Progressive valgus angulation of the ankle secondary to loss of fibular congruity treated with medial tibial hemiepiphysiodesis and fibular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lesiak, Alex C; Esposito, Paul W

    2014-06-01

    The fibula is an important stabilizer of the lateral ankle. Discontinuity of the fibular shaft can lead to progressive pain and shortening of the fibula, ultimately causing loss of lateral support to the ankle. Two children, who sustained segmental bone loss of the shaft of the fibula, developed progressive symptomatic valgus of the ankle with widening of the mortice and lateral subluxation of the talus. Both patients were treated with fibular plating and grafting with tricalcium sulfate with acute reconstitution of fibular length. Distal medial tibial hemiepiphysiodesis was simultaneously performed. One patient required revision plating and grafting 14 months after the index surgery because of plate failure. The valgus angulation and the widened medial mortice were corrected in the ankles of both patients, who returned to full activities. The patients were followed to maturity; the correction has been maintained, and they remain asymptomatic. The technique used in these cases can correct valgus angulation secondary to loss of fibular congruity rather than only halting progression of the deformity.

  13. Pesamosca osteoplasty: surgical procedure for the spatial correction of cubitus varus or valgus post malunited supracondylar fractures of the humerus

    PubMed Central

    Burnei, G; Gavriliu, Ş; Nepaliuc, I; Vlad, C; Drăgoescu, M; Georgescu, I; Ghita, RA; Muntean, L; Pârvan, AA; Dughilă, C; Ţiripa, I; Hamei, Ş; Klinaku, I

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Supracondylar fractures of the humerus represent a current concern in the child’s and adolescent’s osteo-articular pathology. Even though orthopedic reductions are made correctly, fractures can become displaced when managed only by cast immobilization and complications may arise. The most frequent complications encountered in “Prof. Dr. Alexandru Pesamosca” Clinique, Bucharest, Romania, due to supracondylar humeral fractures, are valgus or varus deviations with angles that can sometimes exceed 40 degrees as a result of malunion. Varus or valgus deformations were rarely encountered after surgical treatment. The goal of this study is to present an alternative surgical technique to correct varus and valgus deformations as well as malrotation. Material and method. The study is a retrospective analysis of a 96 children study group surgically managed during 1985 and 2013. In the first period, various surgical techniques have been performed: cuneiform resections, step-cut osteotomies, open wedge osteotomies with external fixation, epiphysiodesis, hemichondrodiatasis and Pesamosca metaphyseal diaphyseal osteoplasty. Starting with 2005, all the cases that presented such complications – 28 out of 96 (29.1%) – were managed with the Pesamosca procedure. Due to the malunion of supracondylar humeral fractures only varus or valgus deformities were admitted in the study. The malunion due to the pathologic fractures encountered in osteogenesis imperfecta or fibrous dysplasia was precluded. The experience accumulated with the other surgical techniques used in 68 out of 96 patients (70.9%) determined us to exclusively use the Pesamosca osteoplasty following the year 2005, seeing the simplicity and the efficiency of this procedure. Results. The outcome was very good. In 5 cases out of the 28 (17%) an apparent residual elbow was encountered and one case of relapse (3%) was noted due to inadequate term of cast immobilization. The elbow’s mobility was

  14. Valgus knee stress in lumbosacral myelomeningocele: a gait-analysis evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lim, R; Dias, L; Vankoski, S; Moore, C; Marinello, M; Sarwark, J

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-five independent community-ambulating patients with lumbosacral-level myelomeningocele (N = 50 limbs) underwent gait analysis. The limbs of these patients were divided into two groups based on thigh-foot angle (TFA): Group I (n = 20) had marked external tibial torsion, TFA > or = 20 degrees, and group II had TFA between 10 and 20 degrees. Ten limbs were excluded because of neutral or internal alignment. Twenty normal limbs with TFA = 10 degrees served as controls. An abnormal internal varus knee stress during stance was identified in all group I limbs and 12 (70%) of 20 limbs group II limbs compared with controls, which demonstrated an internal valgus stress. This internal varus moment was greater in group I limbs than in the abnormal limbs in group II (p < 0.05). Knee flexion was the only other parameter found to correlate with this stress and only in group I limbs. We conclude that (a) in this patient group, increased external tibial torsion is likely to result in an abnormal internal varus knee stress; (b) TFA > 20 degrees appears significantly to increase this stress; and (c) knee flexion is an important related parameter, but only in limbs with TFA between 10 and 20 degrees. We believe that this abnormal stress may predispose the knee to late arthrosis and that derotational osteotomies to normalize the TFA may prove to have a favorable long-term effect.

  15. Physiological coxa varus-genu valgus influences internal knee and ankle joint moments in females during crossover cutting.

    PubMed

    Nyland, J A; Caborn, D N M

    2004-07-01

    This study evaluated the ankle and knee electromyographic, kinematic, and kinetic differences of 20 nonimpaired females with either neutral (group 1) or coxa varus-genu valgus (group 2) alignment during crossover cutting stance phase. Two-way mixed model ANOVA (group, session) assessed mean differences ( p<0.05) and correlation analysis further delineated relationships. During impact absorption, group 2 displayed earlier peak horizontal braking (anterior-posterior) ground reaction force timing, decreased and earlier peak internal knee extension moments (eccentric function), and earlier peak internal ankle dorsiflexion moment timing (eccentric function). During the pivot phase, group 2 displayed later and eccentrically-biased peak ankle plantar flexion moments, increased peak internal knee flexion moments (eccentric function), and later peak knee internal rotation timing. Correlation analysis revealed that during impact absorption, subjects with coxa varus-genu valgus alignment (group 2) displayed a stronger relationship between knee internal rotation velocity and peak internal ankle dorsiflexion moment onset timing ( r= -0.64 vs r = -0.26) and between peak horizontal braking ground reaction forces and peak internal ankle dorsiflexion moment onset timing ( r= 0.61 vs r= 0.24). During the pivot phase these subjects displayed a stronger relationship between peak horizontal braking ground reaction forces and peak internal ankle plantar flexion moment onset timing ( r= -0.63 vs r= -0.09) and between peak horizontal braking forces and peak internal ankle plantar flexion moments ( r= -0.72 vs r= -0.26). Group differences suggest that subjects with coxa varus-genu valgus frontal-plane alignment have an increased dependence on both ankle dorsiflexor and plantar flexor muscle group function during crossover cutting. Greater dependence on ankle muscle group function during the performance of a task that requires considerable 3D dynamic knee joint control suggests a greater

  16. Surgical treatment of severe hindfoot valgus by medial displacement osteotomy of the os calcis in children with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Torosian, C M; Dias, L S

    2000-01-01

    This is a retrospective review of 27 patients with severe hindfoot valgus who were treated with a medial sliding osteotomy of the os calcis. The group consisted of 38 feet in 27 patients with myelomeningocele, ranging in age from 7 to 17 years. Follow-up averaged >5 years. The amount of hindfoot deformity, problems with brace and shoe wear, and overall patient satisfaction were analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the patients were completely satisfied. Most had complete correction of the hindfoot deformity. There was one superficial pin site infection and no nonunions.

  17. A comparison of men's and women's strength to body mass ratio and varus/valgus knee angle during jump landings.

    PubMed

    Haines, Tracie L; McBride, Jeffrey M; Triplett, N Travis; Skinner, Jared W; Fairbrother, Kimberly R; Kirby, Tyler J

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare valgus/varus knee angles during various jumps and lower body strength between males and females relative to body mass. Seventeen recreationally active females (age: 21.94 ± 2.59 years; height: 1.67 ± 0.05 m; mass: 64.42 ± 8.39 kg; percent body fat: 26.89 ± 6.26%; squat one-repetition maximum: 66.18 ± 19.47 kg; squat to body mass ratio: 1.03 ± 0.28) and 13 recreationally active males (age: 21.69 ± 1.65 years; height: 1.77 ± 0.07 m; mass: 72.39 ± 9.23 kg; percent body fat: 13.15 ± 5.18%; squat one-repetition maximum: 115.77 ± 30.40 kg; squat to body mass ratio: 1.59 ± 0.31) performed a one-repetition maximum in the squat and three of each of the following jumps: countermovement jump, 30 cm drop jump, 45 cm drop jump, and 60 cm drop jump. Knee angles were analysed using videography and body composition was analysed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to allow for squat to body mass ratio and squat to fat free mass ratio to be calculated. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were found between male and female one-repetition maximum, male and female squat to body mass ratio, and male and female squat to fat free mass ratio. Significant differences were found between male and female varus/valgus knee positions during maximum flexion of the right and left leg in the countermovement jump, drop jump from 30 cm, drop jump from 45 cm, and drop jump from 60 cm. Correlations between varus/valgus knee angles and squat to body mass ratio for all jumps displayed moderate, non-significant relationships (countermovement jump: r = 0.445; drop jump from 30 cm: r = 0.448; drop jump from 45 cm: r = 0.449; drop jump from 60 cm: r = 0.439). In conclusion, males and females have significantly different lower body strength and varus/valgus knee position when landing from jumps.

  18. Carcinome epidermoide de l'appareil ungueal de l'Hallux sans atteinte osseuse: une observation chez un patient traité par amputation

    PubMed Central

    Krah, Koffi Léopold; Karray, Mohamed Béchir; Nefiss, Mouadh; Darga, Christian; Bouabdellah, Mohamed; Kooli, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Le diagnostic tardif du carcinome épidermoïde de l'hallux a nécessité une amputation trans phalangienne proximale chez un patient âgée pris en charge en seconde main. C'est une lésion rare aux orteils qui peut mettre en jeu le pronostic fonctionnel du pied. Nous rapportons ce cas clinique dans le but de mettre en évidence les difficultés du diagnostic et les bases de l'amputation avec une revue de la littérature. PMID:27642450

  19. Q-angle in patellofemoral pain: relationship with dynamic knee valgus, hip abductor torque, pain and function☆

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; Silva, Ana Paula de Moura Campos Carvalho e; França, Fábio Jorge Renovato; Magalhães, Maurício Oliveira; Burke, Thomaz Nogueira; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the q-angle and anterior knee pain severity, functional capacity, dynamic knee valgus and hip abductor torque in women with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Methods This study included 22 women with PFPS. The q-angle was assessed using goniometry: the participants were positioned in dorsal decubitus with the knee and hip extended, and the hip and foot in neutral rotation. Anterior knee pain severity was assessed using a visual analog scale, and functional capacity was assessed using the anterior knee pain scale. Dynamic valgus was evaluated using the frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) of the knee, which was recorded using a digital camera during step down, and hip abductor peak torque was recorded using a handheld dynamometer. Results The q-angle did not present any significant correlation with severity of knee pain (r = −0.29; p = 0.19), functional capacity (r = −0.08; p = 0.72), FPPA (r = −0.28; p = 0.19) or isometric peak torque of the abductor muscles (r = −0.21; p = 0.35). Conclusion The q-angle did not present any relationship with pain intensity, functional capacity, FPPA, or hip abductor peak torque in the patients with PFPS. PMID:27069887

  20. Variations in dynamic knee valgus and gluteus medius onset timing in non-athletic females related to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Guilherme Manna; Pereira, Vanessa Santos; Santiago, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Benze, Benedito Galvão; da Costa, Paula Hentshel Lobo; Amorim, César Ferreira; Serrão, Fabio Viadanna

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that activities of daily living could contribute to the occurrence of ACL injury in females. Currently, no studies have focused on the lower extremity behavior of a non-athletic population to compare or understand the lower extremity adeptness towards daily movements that mimic athletic tasks. Our hypothesis was that increased knee valgus angles would occur during the late follicular phase of the menstrual cycle accompanied by different onset timing of the gluteus medius muscle. In a controlled laboratory study, 23 non-athletic collegiate females participated and 15 subjects comprised the final sample for statistical analysis. Subjects performed a single leg drop landing maneuver while 3-D knee kinematics and gluteus medius muscle onset timing were assessed throughout three distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, confirmed by blood hormone analysis. In general, knee valgus angles were significantly less in the luteal phase compared to both follicular phases (p<0.005), while differences were not observed for gluteus medius onset timing (p=0.936). As a decreased knee joint valgus angle was observed during the luteal phase, it was hypothesized that the hormone progesterone could significantly influence knee kinematics during a dynamic task. However, such influence was not observed for gluteus medius EMG onset timing as a significant correlation between gluteus medius onset timing and knee valgus angle could not be determined.

  1. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  2. Adolescent Images of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falchikov, Nancy

    1989-01-01

    Examined extent to which Scottish adolescents (N=40) were influenced by negative images of adolescence present in the culture, investigating self-images by means of Q sort. Eleven factors emerged from analysis, six of which met criterion that distinguishes common factors. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents were influenced by…

  3. Reliability and concurrent validity between two-dimensional and three-dimensional evaluations of knee valgus during drop jumps

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Alexis; Rosario-Canales, Martin; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Seda, Alexie; Figueroa, Carla; Venegas-Ríos, Heidi L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to establish the concurrent validity and reliability of four different two-dimensional (2D) video-based techniques for quantifying frontal plane knee kinematics during a 40 cm double-legged drop jump. Participants and methods A convenience sample of 16 healthy participants (nine males and seven females; age: [mean ± standard deviation] 25.5±2 years; body mass index: 24.33±2.98 kg/m2) participated in this investigation. A total of five trials during a 40 cm drop jump maneuver with a countermovement jump were used as the functional task. Four knee valgus measures, such as two different frontal plane projection angle measures, knee-to-ankle separation ratio (KASR), and knee separation distance (KSD), were measured using 2D and three-dimensional (3D) systems. To generalize to the greater population of possible evaluators, the testers performing the biomechanical analyses were three novice physical therapists. Intra- and intertester intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were estimated for 2D analysis variables. ICCs were estimated for all measures between systems to determine concurrent validity of the 2D system. Results All four 2D measures showed good to excellent reliability (ICC: 0.89–0.99). KASR and KSD showed excellent correlation (ICC: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.82–0.98 and ICC: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.90–0.96, respectively) with the 3D system, while both methods of frontal plane projection angle showed poor to moderate correlation (ICC: 0–0.57) with the 3D system. Conclusion 2D KASR and KSD measures are cost effective, reliable, and highly correlated with the same measures using 3D techniques for the evaluation of knee valgus. PMID:27313480

  4. Salter-Harris type III and IV displaced fracture of the hallux in young gymnasts: A series of four cases at 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Perugia, Dario; Fabbri, Mattia; Guidi, Marco; Lepri, Marco; Masi, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe four exceptional cases of Salter-Harris type III and IV fractures of the proximal phalanx of the hallux in young high-level gymnasts. All gymnasts underwent the same mechanism of injury of hyperadduction, which indicates a role of the abductor hallucis muscle in the genesis and displacement of these fractures. An open reduction and internal fixation was performed to achieve an anatomical reduction and avoid chronic disability. At 1-year follow-up, all patients had an excellent American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score (100 points), and there was no shortening or angulation of the first ray and no evidence of degenerative joint disease on X-ray. Moreover, all the gymnasts had returned to pre-injury levels of sporting activity. To our knowledge, there are no previous studies that address these types of injuries and how they are handled in gymnasts.

  5. [Dome shaped osteotomy combined with transposition of the ulnar nerve as a treatment for post-traumatic ulnar valgus in a pediatric patient].

    PubMed

    Pino-Almero, L; Mínguez-Rey, M F; Gomar-Sancho, F

    2015-01-01

    A sequel of supracondylar fractures of distal humerus in children is the angular deformity. It is usually more frequent cubitus varus, but there are reported cases of cubitus valgus. The latter may be the cause of the occurrence of a late ulnar nerve neuropathy, which will require treatment. There is controversy as to whether it is possible to successfully treat both problems at the same surgical procedure. This article describes the case of a girl of 11 years old, who has a cubitus valgus deformity secondary to supracondylar fracture of distal humerus of right elbow at the age of seven years, associated with progressive symptoms of ulnar nerve neuropathy. This patient was treated successfully by a single procedure for corrective dome-shaped supracondilar osteotomy associated with subcutaneous anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve through a posterior approach.

  6. A benign form of congenital anterolateral bowing of the tibia associated with ipsilateral polydactyly of the hallux: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiuhui; Qu, Lei; Li, Yazhou; Luo, Junzhong; Cao, Jinchao; Zhao, Wanyu

    2012-07-01

    Congenital anterolateral bowing of the tibia is generally considered a precursor of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT), which is usually associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common autosomal dominant genetic disorder. In many cases, NF1 is initially suspected following the presentation of a child with anterolateral tibial bowing. The prognosis of CPT is poor, and amputation may be required. Congenital anterolateral bowing of the tibia combined with ipsilateral polydactyly of the hallux (CABTP) is a rare entity that resembles the anterolateral tibial bowing that occurs in association with CPT, and may be misdiagnosed as NF1. However, spontaneous correction of the tibial bowing with an almost normal fibula has been described in all previously reported cases. Here, we report three patients with CABTP and discuss the physical and imaging characteristics and follow-up results. We suggest that given the spontaneous resolution of bowing, the absence of neurocutaneous signs and the relatively favorable prognosis, CABTP is a distinct entity that merits its own place within the field of anterolateral bowing of the tibia and has no association with CPT or NF1. This should help avoid unnecessary investigations and interventions for NF1. This article shows for the first time tibial duplication in the area of bowing, with two medullary canals surrounded by well-defined cortex on CT.

  7. Correction of static axial alignment in children with knee varus or valgus deformities through guided growth: Does it also correct dynamic frontal plane moments during walking?

    PubMed

    Böhm, Harald; Stief, Felix; Sander, Klaus; Hösl, Matthias; Döderlein, Leonhard

    2015-09-01

    Malaligned knees are predisposed to the development and progression of unicompartmental degenerations because of the excessive load placed on one side of the knee. Therefore, guided growth in skeletally immature patients is recommended. Indication for correction of varus/valgus deformities are based on static weight bearing radiographs. However, the dynamic knee abduction moment during walking showed only a weak correlation to malalignment determined by static radiographs. Therefore, the aim of the study was to measure the effects of guided growth on the normalization of frontal plane knee joint moments during walking. 15 legs of 8 patients (11-15 years) with idiopathic axial varus or valgus malalignment were analyzed. 16 typically developed peers served as controls. Instrumented gait analysis and clinical assessment were performed the day before implantation and explantation of eight-plates. Correlation between static mechanical tibiofemoral axis angle (MAA) and dynamic frontal plane knee joint moments and their change by guided growth were performed. The changes in dynamic knee moment in the frontal plane following guided growth showed high and significant correlation to the changes in static MAA (R=0.97, p<0.001). Contrary to the correlation of the changes, there was no correlation between static and dynamic measures in both sessions. In consequence two patients that had a natural knee moment before treatment showed a more pathological one after treatment. In conclusion, the changes in the dynamic load situation during walking can be predicted from the changes in static alignment. If pre-surgical gait analysis reveals a natural load situation, despite a static varus or valgus deformity, the intervention must be critically discussed.

  8. Medial percutaneous hemi-epiphysiodesis improves the valgus tilt of the femoral head in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) type-II avascular necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Agus, Haluk; Kazimoglu, Cemal; Reisoglu, Ali; Kalenderer, Onder

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a major cause of disability after treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), leading to femoral head deformity, acetabular dysplasia, and osteoarthritis in adult life. Type-II AVN is characterized by retarded growth in the lateral aspect of the physis or by premature lateral fusion, which produces a valgus deformity of the head on the neck of the femur. We investigated the effect of medial percutaneous hemi-epiphysiodesis as a novel technique in the treatment of late-diagnosed type-II AVN. Patients and methods 9 patients (11 hips) with a diagnosis of type-II AVN who underwent medial percutaneous hemi-epiphysiodesis after the surgical treatment for DDH were included in the study. 10 patients (12 hips) with the same diagnosis but who did not undergo hemi-epiphysodesis were chosen as a control group. Preoperative and postoperative articulotrochanteric distances, head-shaft angles, CE (center-edge) angles, and physeal inclination angles were measured. The treatment group underwent medial hemi-epiphysodesis at a mean age of 8 years. The mean ages of the treatment group and the control group at final follow-up were 14 and 12 years respectively. The mean duration of follow-up was 5.7 years in the treatment group and 8.3 years in the control group. Results Preoperative articulotrochanteric distance, head-shaft angle, and functional outcome at the final follow-up assessment were similar in the 2 groups. However, preoperative and postoperative CE angles and physeal inclination angles differed significantly in the treatment group (p < 0.05). The final epiphyseal valgus angles were better in the treatment group than in the control group (p = 0.05). The treatment group improved after the operation. Interpretation Medial percutaneous epiphysiodesis performed through a mini-incision under fluoroscopic control is a worthwhile modality in terms of changing the valgus tilt of the femoral head. PMID:25907982

  9. Acute hyperextension/valgus trauma to the elbow in top-level adult male water polo goalkeepers: a cause of osteochondritis disecans of the capitellum?

    PubMed

    Rod, Eduard; Ivkovic, Alan; Boric, Igor; Jankovic, Sasa; Radic, Andrej; Hudetz, Damir

    2013-09-01

    We report on 2 cases of hyperextension/valgus elbow injuries in two adult male national team water polo goalkeepers. Both were healthy and had never sustained any major injuries of the elbow. Mechanism and type of injury in both of them was identical. Different medical treatment protocols of these injuries possibly have led to different outcomes, with one of them developing osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). Inadequate medical treatment of acute impact elbow injuries could lead to osteochondritis disecans of the elbow in top-level adult male water polo goalkeepers.

  10. The role of foot morphology on foot function in diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Guiotto, Annamaria; Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of foot morphology, related with respect to diabetes and peripheral neuropathy in altering foot kinematics and plantar pressure during gait. Healthy and diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy with different foot types were analyzed. Three dimensional multisegment foot kinematics and plantar pressures were assessed on 120 feet: 40 feet (24 cavus, 20 with valgus heel and 11 with hallux valgus) in the control group, 80 feet in the diabetic (25 cavus 13 with valgus heel and 13 with hallux valgus) and the neuropathic groups (28 cavus, 24 with valgus heel and 18 with hallux valgus). Subjects were classified according to their foot morphology allowing further comparisons among the subgroups with the same foot morphology. When comparing neuropathic subjects with cavus foot, valgus heel with controls with the same foot morphology, important differences were noticed: increased dorsiflexion and peak plantar pressure on the forefoot (P<0.05), decreased contact surface on the hindfoot (P<0.03). While results indicated the important role of foot morphology in altering both kinematics and plantar pressure in diabetic subjects, diabetes appeared to further contribute in altering foot biomechanics. Surprisingly, all the diabetic subjects with normal foot arch or with valgus hallux were no more likely to display significant differences in biomechanics parameters than controls. This data could be considered a valuable support for future research on diabetic foot function, and in planning preventive interventions.

  11. Adolescent Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Leftwich, Heidi K; Alves, Marcus Vinicius Ortega

    2017-04-01

    Adolescent pregnancy, although on the decline, represents a significant public health concern. Often adolescents present late to prenatal care, either from lack of knowledge, fear of consequences, limited access, stigma, or all of the above. Although multifaceted, there are many risks both to mother and child that are increased in adolescent pregnancy. Many are unintended and are at risk for repeat adolescent pregnancy, especially within the first 2 years. Risks include but are not limited to: low birth weight, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and preeclampsia, as well as feelings of social isolation, delayed or neglected educational goals, and maternal depression.

  12. Clarification of the anatomic definition of the bunion deformity.

    PubMed

    Dayton, Paul; Kauwe, Merrell; Feilmeier, Mindi

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of the terminology applied to the bunion deformity has progressed in parallel with our changing understanding of the deformity itself. Along this path of progression have been multiple terms, sometimes with multiple meanings. Hallux valgus and metatarsus primus varus are 2 of the most common terms for the deformity. Although commonly used, these descriptors can have multiple meanings, and inconsistencies in interpretation can lead to confusion. We propose a more detailed terminology to provide a more accurate description of the entire bunion deformity in 3 planes and for both the hallux and the metatarsal component of the deformity. The term we propose is hallux abducto valgus with metatarsus primus adducto valgus. An accurate understanding of the multiplanar position of the deformed foot is important for planning deformity correction. The descriptors in the terminology proposed will keep in the forefront the aspects of correction required for the first ray and hallux to be returned to an anatomically correct position.

  13. Adolescent care

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Andrée; Maheux, Brigitte; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Haley, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate how often family physicians see adolescents with mental health problems and how they manage these problems. DESIGN Mailed survey completed anonymously. SETTING Province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS All 358 French-speaking family physicians who practise primarily in local community health centres (CLSCs), including physicians working in CLSC youth clinics, and 749 French-speaking practitioners randomly selected from private practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Frequency with which physicians saw adolescents with mental health problems, such as depression, suicidal thoughts, behavioural disorders, substance abuse, attempted suicide, or suicide, during the last year or since they started practice. RESULTS Response rate was 70%. Most physicians reported having seen adolescents with mental health problems during the last year. About 10% of practitioners not working in youth clinics reported seeing adolescents with these disorders at least weekly. Anxiety was the most frequently seen problem. A greater proportion of physicians working in youth clinics reported often seeing adolescents for all the mental health problems examined in this study. Between 8% and 33% of general practitioners not working in youth clinics said they had not seen any adolescents with depression, behavioural disorders, or substance abuse. More than 80% of physicians had seen adolescents who had attempted suicide, and close to 30% had had adolescent patients who committed suicide. CONCLUSION Family physicians play a role in adolescent mental health care. The prevalence of mental health problems seems higher among adolescents who attend youth clinics. Given the high prevalence of these problems during adolescence, we suggest on the basis of our results that screening for these disorders in primary care could be improved. PMID:17279202

  14. Adolescent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, Jacy, Ed.; Steele, Jennifer L., Ed.; Samson, Jennifer F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Adolescent Literacy" initially appeared as a special issue of the "Harvard Educational Review". It explores key issues and debates in the adolescent literacy crisis, the popular use of cognitive strategies, and disciplinary and content-area literacy. Also examined are alternative forms of literacy, afterschool interventions, new instruction…

  15. Adolescent Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  16. Adolescent Loneliness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Sheila

    Research has suggested that the incidence of loneliness peaks at adolescence and decreases with age. Changes in the determinants of loneliness during adolescence were investigated for grade 8, grade 11, and university students. Subjects (N=410) completed a written questionnaire which included ten items from the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the…

  17. Adolescent Turmoil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offer, Daniel

    1982-01-01

    Examines recent empirical evidence to test theories postulated in separate works by G. Stanley Hall and Anna Freud that adolescents must experience psychological turbulence in the transition to adulthood. Concludes that turmoil is no longer a necessary condition of adolescence and that those who do experience it need psychiatric attention.…

  18. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  19. Greater Hip Extension but Not Hip Abduction Explosive Strength Is Associated With Lesser Hip Adduction and Knee Valgus Motion During a Single-Leg Jump-Cut

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Baker; Johnson, Samuel T.; Chang, Eunwook; Pollard, Christine D.; Norcross, Marc F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The relationships between hip abductor and extensor strength and frontal plane hip and knee motions that are associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury risk are equivocal. However, previous research on these relationships has evaluated relatively low-level movement tasks and peak torque rather than a time-critical strength measure such as the rate of torque development (RTD). Hypothesis: Females with greater hip abduction and extension RTD would exhibit lesser frontal plane hip and knee motion during a single-leg jump-cutting task. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Forty recreationally active females performed maximal isometric contractions and single-leg jump-cuts. From recorded torque data, hip extension and abduction RTD was calculated from torque onset to 200 ms after onset. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to quantify frontal plane hip and knee kinematics during the movement task. For each RTD measure, jump-cut biomechanics were compared between participants in the highest (high) and lowest (low) RTD tertiles. Results: No differences in frontal plane hip and knee kinematics were identified between high and low hip abduction RTD groups. However, those in the high hip extension RTD group exhibited lower hip adduction (high, 3.8° ± 3.0°; low, 6.5° ± 3.0°; P = .019) and knee valgus (high, –2.5° ± 2.3°; low, –4.4° ± 3.2°; P = .046) displacements during the jump-cut. Conclusion: In movements such as cutting that are performed with the hip in a relatively abducted and flexed position, the ability of the gluteus medius to control hip adduction may be compromised. However, the gluteus maximus, functioning as a hip abductor, may take on a pivotal role in controlling hip adduction and knee valgus motion during these types of tasks. Clinical Relevance: Training with a specific emphasis on increasing explosive strength of the hip extensors may be a means through which to improve frontal plane hip and knee

  20. Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Mary N.; Peterson, John; Sheldon, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Depression in adolescence and adulthood is common, afflicting up to 20 percent of these populations. It represents a significant public health concern and is associated with considerable suffering and functional impairment. Adolescent-onset depression tends to be a particularly malignant and recalcitrant condition, increasing the likelihood of recurrence and chronicity in adulthood. Clinical presentations for various medical and psychiatric conditions, as well as reactions to psychosocial stressors, can mimic or confound the picture of depression in adolescents. Therefore, careful assessment and differential diagnosis is essential. Effective treatments, both pharmacological and psychosocial in nature, exist, and so early detection and intervention is paramount. This article presents an overview of optimal prevention, assessment, and clinical decision-making strategies for managing depression in adolescents. PMID:19855857

  1. Adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Grant, L M; Demetriou, E

    1988-12-01

    The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions.

  2. Valgus and varus deformity after wide-local excision, brachytherapy and external beam irradiation in two children with lower extremity synovial cell sarcoma: case report

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Daniel T; Warner, William C; Neel, Michael D; Merchant, Thomas E

    2004-01-01

    Background Limb-salvage is a primary objective in the management of extremity soft-tissue sarcoma in adults and children. Wide-local excision combined with radiation therapy is effective in achieving local tumor control with acceptable morbidity and good functional outcomes for most patients. Case Presentation Two cases of deformity after wide-local excision, brachytherapy and external beam irradiation for lower-extremity synovial cell sarcoma are presented and discussed to highlight contributing factors, time course of radiation effects and orthopedic management. In an effort to spare normal tissues from the long-term effects of radiation therapy, more focal irradiation techniques have been applied to patients with musculoskeletal tumors including brachytherapy and conformal radiation therapy. As illustrated in this report, the use of these techniques results in the asymmetric irradiation of growth plates and contributes to the development of valgus or varus deformity and leg-length discrepancies. Conclusions Despite good functional outcomes, progressive deformity in both patients required epiphysiodesis more than 3 years after initial management. There is a dearth of information related to the effects of radiation therapy on the musculoskeletal system in children. Because limb-sparing approaches are to be highlighted in the next generation of cooperative group protocols for children with musculoskeletal tumors, documentation of the effects of surgery and radiation therapy will lead to improved decision making in the selection of the best treatment approach and in the follow-up of these patients. PMID:15333137

  3. A rare pathogen for subacute osteomyelitis in adolescent: Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Turgut, Necmettin; Akgul, Turgut; Arzu, Ufuk; Batıbay, Sefa Giray; Ekinci, Mehmet; Şen, Cengiz; Korkmaz, Murat

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION There are various pathogens reported for osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis is bone infection which produces pain and fever, also threatens bone instability. It can lead to nonunion. The purpose of this report was to describe a case with union delay of the tibia due to serratia marcescens osteomyelitis. Serratia marcescens is an unexpected pathogen for subacute osteomyelitis in adolescence. Because of difficulty of diagnosis, treatment can be delayed or the situation can cause complications like nonunion or loss of function. PRESENTATION OF CASE Serratia marcescens is an unexpected pathogen for subacute osteomyelitis in adolescence. Because of difficulty of diagnosis, treatment can be delayed or cause complications like nonunion or loss of function. We present a meningomyelocele female adolescent operated with distal tibia varus osteotomy for correcting ankle valgus deformity. Insufficient healing was determined at osteotomy side on radiographs. The patient's erythrocyte sedimentation rate and CRP level was slightly higher with minimal clinical inflammation. MRI examination showed abscess formation at T2 imaging. Debridement, grafting and circular external fixation was performed. Sulperazon was started for drug therapy. Union was achieved after compression and distraction osteogenesis by circular external fixator. Orthopedic surgeons should be aware of opportunistic infections like serratia and keep in mind as a probable cause of disease. DISCUSSION Osteomyelitis is one of our main problems in orthopedics. Serratia does not come to mind as a causative factor when we learn the patient has osteomyelitis. We give treatment for the most expected pathogens like staphylococcus species firstly. This shows us the importance of bone biopsies and wound culture tests. Presented case is diagnosed as serratia osteomyelitis after culture results and given treatment with antibiotics and debridement. CONCLUSION Orthopedic surgeons should be aware of opportunistic infections

  4. A comparison between metatarsal head-resurfacing hemiarthroplasty and total metatarsophalangeal joint arthroplasty as surgical treatments for hallux rigidus: a retrospective study with short- to midterm follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mermerkaya, Musa Ugur; Adli, Houman

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the short- to midterm outcomes of metatarsal head-resurfacing hemiarthroplasty and total metatarsophalangeal joint arthroplasty (total joint replacement [TJR]) as surgical treatments for advanced-stage hallux rigidus (HR). Patients and methods From 2012 to 2014, all data from patients who underwent surgery for the treatment of grades 2–3 HR were retrospectively reviewed, and 45 patients were included in this study. Of these patients, 26 underwent metatarsal head-resurfacing hemiarthroplasty (Group I) and 19 underwent TJR (Group II). All patients were clinically graded prior to surgery and at their final follow-up visits using the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society’s (AOFAS) hallux metatarsophalangeal–interphalangeal scale, a visual analog scale (VAS), and the “first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion” (MTPJ ROM) score. Results Metatarsal head resurfacing was performed on 26 patients. Two patients underwent bilateral procedures, yielding a total of 28 cases in Group I. TJR was performed on 19 patients in Group II. Of the 26 Group I patients, 12 (46.2%) were male and 14 (53.8%) were female, with a mean age of 56.3±4.5 years (range: 47–63 years); the mean follow-up duration was 29.9±5.2 months. Of the 19 Group II patients, eight (42.1%) were male and eleven (57.9%) were female, with a mean age of 57.1±5.8 years (range: 45–66 years); the mean follow-up duration was 27.1±7.5 months. Significant improvements were evident in the AOFAS scores, and the VAS scores decreased, in both groups. No significant difference was evident between groups I and II. Conclusion After failure of conservative treatment in patients with moderate-to-severe HR, both MTPJ hemiarthroplasty and TJR were associated with effective recovery of toe function and MTPJ ROM, as well as good short- to midterm functional outcomes. PMID:28008240

  5. Treating Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...

  6. Adolescent violence.

    PubMed

    Williams-Evans, Shiphrah A; Myers, Joy Sher'ron

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the rising occurrences of adolescent violence in the American school systems and how various theories can be used to assist in understanding this phenomenon. The authors have become increasingly interested in this topic, after direct involvement in the summer of 2001. There were a number of students who were attending summer school as a result of consistent out-of-school suspensions for violent acts. The procedure to process through the system with these students was to suspend them, resulting in the student subsequently failing their present grade. The school was located in a community known for its high rate of violence and criminal activity. Various types of adolescent violence exist in our schools. Studies have reported that violent adolescents may come from familial environments that are full of social and interpersonal conflicts (Gray & Foshee, 1999). This paper discusses the development of a research plan to investigate the number and type of adolescent violent occurrences in a southern middle school setting.

  7. Adolescent homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Stronski Huwiler, S M; Remafedi, G

    1998-01-01

    Homosexuality has existed in all civilizations, but societal disapproval and cultural taboos have negatively influenced its recognition. A significant percentage of youths identify themselves as homosexual, and even more experience sex with the same sex or are confused about sexual feelings. A unifying etiological theory attributes the expression of sexual orientation to genes that shape the central nervous system's development, organization, and structure via prenatal sex steroids. Environmental factors may influence the expression of genetic potential. Several models of psychosocial development describe initial stages of awareness and confusion about same-sex attractions, followed by acknowledgement of homosexuality, disclosure to others, and eventual integration of sexual identity into a comprehensive sense of self. Stressors related to isolation, stigma, and violence may predispose homosexual adolescents to impaired social, emotional, and physical health, resulting in depression and suicide, school problems, substance abuse, running away eating disorders, risky sexual behavior, and illegal conduct. As with all adolescents, the overall goals in the care of homosexual youth are to promote normal adolescent development, social and emotional well-being, and physical health. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach is required to address medical, mental health, and psychosocial issues within the context of the adolescents' community and culture.

  8. The pathophysiology of the juvenile bunion.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, M J; Mann, R A

    1987-01-01

    While the surgeon may tend to use one procedure in the repair of a hallux valgus deformity, versatility is most important when treating the juvenile bunion. Using a distal soft-tissue repair when subluxation is solely at the metatarsophalangeal joint is an acceptable approach. A metatarsal or cuneiform osteotomy is necessary if the intermetatarsal angle is abnormally large. It is important not to stretch the indications for a bunion technique in order to correct the hallux valgus deformity. If a more severe deformity is present, a more aggressive technique must be used to correct the abnormality. That varying success rates are reported with different techniques testifies to the fact that the juvenile bunion is not suited for a standard hallux valgus repair. The surgical technique used to repair a specific juvenile bunion depends upon the anatomic and physiologic abnormalities present in each patient.

  9. [What's new in forefoot surgery].

    PubMed

    Ray, Adrien; Crevoisier, Xavier; Assal, Mathieu

    2010-12-22

    New implants and instruments have recently emerged in foot surgery. However, an additional and important development is the technique of minimally invasive surgery. As a result of new surgical approaches some common foot deformities can be corrected in a percutaneous manner. The benefits include improved wound healing, less pain, faster recovery, and less need for outpatient care. The main indications for such a technique are hallux valgus, correction of the lesser metatarsals, hallux rigidus, and some diabetic foot deformities.

  10. Adolescent sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Braverman, P K; Strasburger, V C

    1993-11-01

    Adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages. One half of the adolescents in the United States are sexually active. This article reviews adolescent sexual activity, including rates of sexual activity, sexual practices, gay and lesbian youth, and factors affecting the initiation of sexual activity. In addition, adolescent pregnancy, with possible outcomes and effects on teen parents and their offspring, is discussed.

  11. Adolescent and School Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Adolescent and School Health Note: Javascript is disabled or ... help strengthen their capacity to improve child and adolescent health. More > DASH Home About DASH At A ...

  12. Adolescent attraction to cults.

    PubMed

    Hunter, E

    1998-01-01

    This article details the reasons behind adolescents' attraction to cults. It is recommended that parents, teachers, and counselors familiarize themselves with the warning signs. Suggestions are offered on how to make adolescents less vulnerable to cult overtures.

  13. Adolescent health psychology.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paula G; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Greenley, Rachel Neff

    2002-06-01

    In this article, a biopsychosocial model of adolescent development is used as an organizing framework for a review of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention research with adolescent populations. During adolescence many critical health behaviors emerge, affecting future disease outcomes in adulthood. In addition, most of the predominant causes of morbidity and mortality in adolescence are unique to this period of development, indicating that health-focused interventions must be tailored specifically to adolescents. Moreover, it is during adolescence that lifelong patterns of self-management of and adjustment to chronic health conditions are established. Thus, an increased focus on adolescence in health psychology research is important both to improve the health of adolescents per se and to optimize health trajectories into adulthood.

  14. Adolescence and Mythology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitris; Soumaki, Eugenia; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    The article begins with a brief exploration of the various aspects of adolescent's psychic qualities as these are described in Greek mythology. It is argued that myths are an integral part of the way that adolescence is perceived and myths play an important role in adolescents' psychic and external world, as well as in their mythological thinking.…

  15. Demystifying the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the nature of brain development in adolescence helps explain why adolescents can vacillate so often between mature and immature behavior. Early and middle adolescence, in particular, are times of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior because the brain's reward center is easily aroused, but the systems that control…

  16. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  17. The Adolescent Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, William A., Jr.

    Written to orient the physician and paramedical personnel to the adolescent patient, the book provides information concerning the changes of adolescence, and age-related problems and illnesses. Part 1 discusses the essence of adolescence by describing physical, mental, and emotional growth and development. Part 2, the major section, consists of 21…

  18. 2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Periodically, Maryland's sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders are surveyed to determine the nature, extent, and trend of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents. The "2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey (MAS)" presents the latest findings regarding ATOD use by Maryland's adolescents and compares State and local…

  19. Adolescents and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasburgber, Victor C., Ed.; Comstock, George A., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    In the 1990s, the media represent the single most easily modifiable influence on children and adolescents. This series of articles offers medically oriented practitioners a review of current research on the influence of the media on children and adolescents. The 13 articles are: (1) "Children, Adolescents, and the Media: Five Crucial…

  20. Health for Adolescents and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamps, Jean-Pierre; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the health of adolescents and youth in the tropics. The report is divided into five sections. The first section defines adolescence, youth, the duration of adolescence, the age group and its problems, and societies in adolescence. The second section discusses adolescence in relation to society and culture and focuses on the…

  1. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ott, Mary A; Sucato, Gina S

    2014-10-01

    A working knowledge of contraception will assist the pediatrician in both sexual health promotion as well as treatment of common adolescent gynecologic problems. Best practices in adolescent anticipatory guidance and screening include a sexual health history, screening for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, counseling, and if indicated, providing access to contraceptives. Pediatricians' long-term relationships with adolescents and families allow them to help promote healthy sexual decision-making, including abstinence and contraceptive use. Additionally, medical indications for contraception, such as acne, dysmenorrhea, and heavy menstrual bleeding, are frequently uncovered during adolescent visits. This technical report provides an evidence base for the accompanying policy statement and addresses key aspects of adolescent contraceptive use, including the following: (1) sexual history taking, confidentiality, and counseling; (2) adolescent data on the use and side effects of newer contraceptive methods; (3) new data on older contraceptive methods; and (4) evidence supporting the use of contraceptives in adolescent patients with complex medical conditions.

  2. Adolescent childbearing.

    PubMed

    Vernon, M

    1991-05-01

    The concern for the consequences of adolescent pregnancy are discussed. Childbirth among unmarried teenagers results in a higher incidence of low birth weight babies, a higher infant mortality and morbidity rate, a higher percentage of childbirth complications, a decreased likelihood of completing school, a higher risk of unemployment and welfare dependency, limited vocational opportunities, larger families, and vulnerability to psychological problems and distress. In 1988, 66% of all births to teens occurred outside of marriage. Out of wedlock live births to teens 14 years rose from 80.8% in 1970 to 92.5% in 1986, and for teens 15-19 years, 29.5% to 60.8%. 70% have a repeat pregnancy within the 1st year following their 1st childbirth. 50% have a 2nd child within 3 years. Most 2nd pregnancies occur in teenagers who are not using effective contractive methods, and the pregnancy is frequently unplanned and unwanted. The factors affecting the rate of 2nd pregnancy are age, race, marital status, education, and economic status. Teenage mothers tend to come from disadvantaged backgrounds, and childbearing compounds the poverty. Aid to families with dependent children 50% of payments were to teen mothers for the birth of their 1st child. Teen fathers are usually low income providers. The public costs are high. Some teen fathers abandon their children after birth, but many are interested in supporting their child. Specific programs to help prepare fathers are needed. Teenage mothers are stressed by child care arrangements, living arrangements, employment, school, relationships with peers, relationships with parents, housework and errands, health, finances, job counseling, community services, and child care information. Parents play an important role in guiding sexual involvement and early childbearing, and need to understand why teens get pregnant and to keep channels of communication open. Teens are influenced by media, peer pressure, lack of self-esteem, unhappiness

  3. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    Contraception is a pillar in reducing adolescent pregnancy rates. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians develop a working knowledge of contraception to help adolescents reduce risks of and negative health consequences related to unintended pregnancy. Over the past 10 years, a number of new contraceptive methods have become available to adolescents, newer guidance has been issued on existing contraceptive methods, and the evidence base for contraception for special populations (adolescents who have disabilities, are obese, are recipients of solid organ transplants, or are HIV infected) has expanded. The Academy has addressed contraception since 1980, and this policy statement updates the 2007 statement on contraception and adolescents. It provides the pediatrician with a description and rationale for best practices in counseling and prescribing contraception for adolescents. It is supported by an accompanying technical report.

  4. Pregnancy in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Black, Amanda Y; Fleming, Nathalie A; Rome, Ellen S

    2012-04-01

    Adolescent pregnancy remains a public health issue with significant medical, emotional, and societal consequences for the adolescent mother, her child, and her family. Teenage pregnancies are at higher risk of many adverse outcomes, including preterm delivery, low birth weight, and neonatal and infant mortality. Teen pregnancy and motherhood may have detrimental effects on the teen mother and her child; antenatal and postpartum care need to be adapted to meet the special needs of pregnant adolescents because standard obstetrical environments may not do so. This comprehensive review of adolescent pregnancy will highlight global statistics, factors contributing to adolescent pregnancy, social implications of adolescent pregnancy, obstetrical and neonatal outcomes, and the importance of multidisciplinary antenatal and postnatal care.

  5. Turkish adolescents' loneliness.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, Aynur Bütün; Simşek, Sükran; Aral, Neriman; Baran, Gülen

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize loneliness among adolescents with respect to socioeconomic level, sex, and mothers' and fathers' education. General information about the 400 adolescents and their families were obtained. The UCLA Loneliness Scale was administered. Results of a hierarchical multiple regression showed that mothers' educational level explained a slight but statistically significant amount of variance in adolescents' loneliness scores while sex, socioeconomic level and fathers' educational level did not.

  6. Nutrition in the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Wahl, R

    1999-02-01

    This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article.

  7. Providing Contraception to Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand.

  8. Suicide in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The recent trend in suicide mortality has made it the second-most-common cause of death in adolescence. The recognition of depressed adolescents, especially males, is made difficult by their low utilization of health services and by the variety of modes of presentation. The family physician's ability to play an effective role in helping the depressed adolescent and preventing the occurrence of suicide depends on the establishment of rapport, obtaining a detailed history, and being prepared to offer continuity of care. In most depressed adolescents there is limited need for hospitalization, medication or psychiatric treatment. PMID:21267225

  9. Adolescent pregnancy options.

    PubMed

    Resnick, M D

    1992-09-01

    The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions.

  10. Adolescent Literature, Adolescent Reading and the English Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Ken, Ed.

    1972-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona English Bulletin contains articles discussing literature that adolescents read and literature that they might be encouraged to read. Thus there are discussions both of literature specifically written for adolescents and the literature adolescents choose to read. The term adolescent is understood to include young people in…

  11. [Contraception in adolescents].

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    The proportion of women aged 15-19 in Colombia who are mothers declined from 14% in 1985 to 10% in 1990, but the actual number of cases increased due to population growth. Some 1,780,000 adolescents who have had children or are pregnant require family planning services. An additional, unknown number of adolescent pregnancies are terminated by abortion. It is estimated that 95% of adolescent pregnancies diagnosed or followed by PROFAMILIA's center for young people were unwanted. Reasons for making family planning services available to adolescents include the ever young age at initiation of sexual activity, the very low rates of contraceptive usage among sexually active adolescents, the lack of information of adolescents concerning reproduction and contraception, and their fear and guilt surrounding their sexual activity and contraceptive usage. Obstetrical services appear reluctant to furnish adolescent mothers with information on contraception, and the pharmacists and their employees who provide such information may not be aware of contraindications for this age group or whether adolescents are adequately instructed in use of the method. The rising age at marriage increases the span of time that adolescents are at risk of unwanted pregnancy. Adolescents who are well informed about sexuality and contraception and trained in decision making, self-esteem, and responsible parenthood are likely to postpone sexual activity. Information on contraception and family planning services needs to be made available to adolescents in a way that will actually motivate use. Information on sex and contraception should be made available at puberty and should include the form of use, contraindications, and advantages and disadvantages of all methods appropriate to adolescents. Orientation and assistance in selecting the best method should be individually tailored and should be provided in schools or other places accessible to young people, in a language they can understand. Rhythm and

  12. Adolescent Steroid Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

  13. Motivating Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormeli, Rick

    2014-01-01

    This author acknowledges that teachers agree that "adolescents aren't always interested in the topics adults consider important for them to learn." It is easy for adults who have forgotten the wonder and uncertainty of the adolescent years to declare that students today are more uninterested in school and undisciplined in life than…

  14. Adolescent Rebellion and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeus, Wim

    1988-01-01

    Examination of 352 Dutch secondary school students reveals that adolescents with high-level education who endorse adolescent rebellion have a more distinctly left-wing profile--in both their political party preferences and their political views--than those with low-level education, who more often ratified political intolerance. (BJV)

  15. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Padilla, Teresita M., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document comprises the two 1999 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent heath and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…

  16. THE "BRAIN INJURED" ADOLESCENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GORDON, SOL

    WRITTEN FOR PARENTS, THIS BOOKLET DESCRIBES THE BRAIN INJURED ADOLESCENT AND THE PROBLEMS AND EXPERIENCES FACED BY THE ADOLESCENT AND HIS PARENTS. EIGHTEEN QUESTIONS ASKED BY PARENTS OF THESE CHILDREN ARE DISCUSSED. THE AREAS COVERED ARE-- (1) SOCIAL EXPERIENCES, (2) GUIDED INDEPENDENCE, (3) SOCIAL SKILLS, (4) SUCCESS EXPERIENCES, (5) LEISURE TIME…

  17. Inside the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Stacy S.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Jay Giedd says that the main alterations in the adolescent brain are the inverted U-shaped developmental trajectories with late childhood/early teen peaks for gray matter volume among others. Giedd adds that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to substances that artificially modulate dopamine levels since its reward system is in a state of flux.

  18. The Changing Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Aaron M.

    2005-01-01

    Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, a period during which an individual acquires the skills necessary to survive on his or her own, away from parents or other caregivers. Adolescence can be a very confusing time. They experience changes in sleep, diet, mood, weight and attitude and a decreased pleasure from daily activities.…

  19. On "Passing" through Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttermohlen, T. L.

    1997-01-01

    The author, born with a severe visual impairment, addresses the tendency of adolescents with visual impairments to try to hide the disability and "pass" as unimpaired with their peers. It is suggested that these adolescents be helped to find a comfortable balance between taking excessive risks and allowing visual impairment or blindness to be an…

  20. Cigars, Cigarettes, and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Ashley; Larkin, Elizabeth M. Gaier; Kishore, Sonal; Frank, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine public health implications of adolescent use of cigars only, cigarettes only, and both cigarettes and cigars. Methods: A cross-sectional health risk survey was administered to a random sample of 4486 high school students in a Midwestern county. Results: More adolescents reported using both cigarettes and cigars (10.6%) than…

  1. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Padilla, Teresita M., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document comprises the two 2000 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…

  2. Adolescents, Sex, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Adele D.

    1977-01-01

    Examining historical shifts in the nature of parental authority, minors' rights, and sexual morality along with accompanying shifts in adolescent coital behavior, the author, a physician and Director of the Adolescent Medical Unit at New York's Bellevue Hospital, concludes that greater sexual freedom is a mark of social advance requiring a new…

  3. The Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, B. J.; Getz, Sarah; Galvan, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by suboptimal decisions and actions that give rise to an increased incidence of unintentional injuries and violence, alcohol and drug abuse, unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Traditional neurobiological and cognitive explanations for adolescent behavior have failed to…

  4. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Espada-Carlos, Lichelle Dara, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document comprises the two 2001 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…

  5. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Espada-Carlos, Lichelle Dara, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of the two 2002 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue includes news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…

  6. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, Dave; Golden, Larry

    This book deals with the realities of adolescent suicide. It consists of 15 chapters organized under 5 major headings: The Problem of Adolescent Suicide (chapters 1 and 2); A Profile of the Attempter (chapters 3-6); Assessing Lethality (chapters 7 and 8); Prevention and Intervention (chapters 9-14); and Legal Issues (chapter 15). Individual…

  7. Adolescents, Egocentrism, and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Jennie L.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents are often described as egocentric, but a major source of this external behavior is the internal fear of adolescents have about feeling invisible, being different, and even their own mortality. Facing this fear through a curricular focus on death can help to combat this behavior. This can be accomplished through novel studies of books…

  8. Key Data on Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, John

    In order to counteract widespread stereotyping of adolescents and to provide a historical perspective on the lives of youth in Great Britain, this report compiles statistical data in six areas regarding adolescents and youth. Chapter 1, "Population, Families and Households," presents information on the population of the United Kingdom…

  9. Adolescence and Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  10. Adolescent Prejudice: A Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Jane R.

    "Adolescent Prejudice" by Glock, Wuthnow, Piliavin, and Spencer was the central focus for the conference at which this paper was presented. The first objective of this paper was to discuss the implications of that research paper for the social systems characteristics of schools. It was observed that to a considerable extent adolescents form ethnic…

  11. Classifying Adolescent Perfectionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Gilman, Rich

    2011-01-01

    A large school-based sample of 9th-grade adolescents (N = 875) completed the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Mobley, Trippi, Ashby, & Johnson, 1996). Decision rules and cut-scores were developed and replicated that classify adolescents as one of two kinds of perfectionists (adaptive or maladaptive) or as nonperfectionists. A…

  12. Gender and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  13. Early Adolescent Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)

  14. Loneliness and Adolescent Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1988-01-01

    Examines factors contributing to and determining adolescent drinking disorders, synthesizing ideas from Fromm-Reishmann, Fromm, and Erikson. Discusses ideas within the framework of Freud's speculative postulation of the "oceanic feeling." Addresses empirically oriented treatment of concrete features exhibited in adolescent alcoholism. (Author/BH)

  15. Puberty and adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan.

  16. [Adolescent brain maturation].

    PubMed

    Holzer, L; Halfon, O; Thoua, V

    2011-05-01

    Recent progress in neuroscience has yielded major findings regarding brain maturation during adolescence. Unlike the body, which reaches adult size and morphology during this period, the adolescent brain is still maturing. The prefrontal cortex appears to be an important locus of maturational change subserving executive functions that may regulate emotional and motivational issues. The recent expansion of the adolescent period has increased the lag between the onset of emotional and motivational changes activated by puberty and the completion of cognitive development-the maturation of self-regulatory capacities and skills that are continuing to develop long after puberty has occurred. This "disconnect" predicts risk for a broad set of behavioral and emotional problems. Adolescence is a critical period for high-level cognitive functions such as socialization that rely on maturation of the prefrontal cortex. Intervention during the period of adolescent brain development provides opportunities and requires an interdisciplinary approach.

  17. Contributions of Parent-Adolescent Negative Emotionality, Adolescent Conflict, and Adoption Status to Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Bibiana D.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Although most adopted children are well adjusted, research has consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. The present investigation tested a model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors.…

  18. Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility across Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Weymouth, Bridget B.; Buehler, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51% girls, 91% European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships. PMID:26346035

  19. Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility Across Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Weymouth, Bridget B; Buehler, Cheryl

    2016-04-01

    Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51 % girls, 91 % European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships.

  20. Atopic dermatitis in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Giampaolo; Bellini, Federica; Dondi, Arianna; Patrizi, Annalisa; Pession, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that typically occurs during childhood especially in the first year of life, with a variable frequency from 10% to 30%. Recent studies have shown that in Europe among 10–20% of children with AD suffer from this disorder also in adolescence. AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a typical onset in the first years of life and with a 10–30% prevalence among young children. AD prevalence in adolescence has been estimated around 5–15% in European countries. AD persists from childhood through adolescence in around 40% of cases and some risk factors have been identified: female sex, sensitization to inhalant and food allergens, allergic asthma and/or rhinoconjunctivitis, the practice of certain jobs. During adolescence, AD mainly appears on the face and neck, often associated with overinfection by Malassezia, and on the palms and soles. AD persistence during adolescence is correlated with psychological diseases such as anxiety; moreover, adolescents affected by AD might have problems in the relationship with their peers. Stress and the psychological problems represent a serious burden for adolescents with AD and cause a significant worsening of the patients' quality of life (QoL). The pharmacological treatment is similar to other age groups. Educational and psychological approaches should be considered in the most severe cases. PMID:25386309

  1. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using quadriceps tendon autograft for adolescents with open physes- a technical note

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One major concern in the treatment of ACL lesions in children and adolescents with open physes is the risk of iatrogenic damage to the physes and a possibly resulting growth disturbance. Purpose The primary purpose of this article is to describe our technique of a transphyseal ACL reconstruction using quadriceps tendon-bone autograft in children and adolescents with open growth plates. The secondary aim is to report our early results in terms of postoperative growth disturbances which are considered to be a major concern in this challenging group of patients. It was our hypothesis that with our proposed technique no significant growth disturbances would occur. Methods From January 1997 to December 2007 49 consecutive children and adolescents with open growth plates were treated for a torn ACL using the aforementioned surgical technique. The patients (28 males and 21 females) with a median age at surgery of 13 (range 8-15) years were retrospectively evaluated. Outcome measures were follow-up radiographs (weight-bearing long leg radiographs of the injured and uninjured knee, anteroposterior and lateral views, a tangential view of the patella and a tunnel view of the injured knee) and follow-up notes (6 weeks, 3, 6, 12 months and until closing of physes) for occurrence of any tibial and/or femoral growth changes. Results: All of the 49 patients had a sufficient clinical and radiological follow-up (minimum 5 years, rate 100%). 48 cases did not show any clinical and radiological growth disturbance. One case of growth disturbance in a 10.5 years old girl was observed. She developed a progressive valgus-flexion deformity which was attributed to a malplacement of the autograft bone block within the femoral posterolateral epiphyseal plate leading to an early localized growth stop. None of the patients were reoperated due to ACL graft failure. Five of the patients underwent revision ACL surgery due to another adequate sports trauma after the growth-stop. The

  2. Marijuana use in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin, Roger S

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of marijuana use by adolescents has fluctuated in recent decades, but, overall, has increased significantly. In a study of adolescent health status and risk behaviours among students in grades 7 to 12 in British Columbia, it was found that the patterns of marijuana use had changed, especially among early adolescents. An earlier age of onset of use and an increased frequency of use were noted. The present paper examines the clinical and psychosocial implications of early age of onset of marijuana use, and reports important differences in risky behaviours between users and nonusers. The prevailing attitude that marijuana is a ‘safe, recreational’ drug is challenged. PMID:20046275

  3. Graffiti and adolescent personality.

    PubMed

    Peretti, P O; Carter, R; McClinton, B

    1977-01-01

    Graffiti has been studied for many years from many viewpoints. They have been used to explain accounts of people, styles of life, and assumed relationships. The present paper reports an attempt to analyze graffiti as outward manifestations of adolescent personality. Results suggested that different forms of graffiti could be interpreted from five characterizations of early adolescent personality: sexual maturity, self-identity, idealism, iconoclasm, and rebelliousness. Significant differences were found between boys and girls in numbers of inscriptions for each category. Further, the graffiti were analyzed in relation to early adolescent stages of development.

  4. Adolescent androgenic alopecia.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Patrick Henry; Schwartz, Robert A

    2011-10-01

    Adolescent androgenic alopecia is pattern hair loss occurring in boys and girls younger than 18 years, whereas early-onset androgenic alopecia refers to pattern hair loss before 35 years of age. A number of studies published in the last decade have helped to elucidate the prevalence of adolescent androgenic alopecia, have clarified the genetic as well as physiologic mechanisms underlying hair loss, and have revealed the associated psychologic and systemic morbidities. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of adolescent androgenic alopecia.

  5. Adolescent Egocentrism in Early and Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Robert D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    To assess adolescent egocentrism-sociocentrism, an instrument was devised to measure Elkind's constructs (the imaginary audience, the personal fable, and general self-absorption), plus nonsocial focuses and political focuses. Subjects were ten males and ten females each from three age groups: sixth-grade, eighth-grade, and college. (Author/SJL)

  6. Adolescent Development and Sexuality. Adolescent Decisions Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brion-Meisels, Steven; And Others

    This teacher's manual is one volume in a six volume curriculum for the secondary level, designed to provide a systematic, group-oriented approach to decision-making in areas crucial to adolescent development: sexuality and social relationships, drug (substance) use and abuse, work, juvenile law, and people and government. An introductory section…

  7. Abortion in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, D E; Railsback, L D

    1985-09-01

    This article reviews the difficult but complex subject of abortion in adolescents. Methods of abortion are outlined and additional aspects are presented: psychological effects, counseling issues, and legal parameters. It is our conclusion that intense efforts should be aimed at education of youth about sexuality and prevention of pregnancy, utilizing appropriate contraceptive services. When confronted with a youth having an unwanted pregnancy, all legal options need to be carefully explored: delivery, adoption, or abortion. The decision belongs to the youth and important individuals in her environment. Understanding developmental aspects of adolescence will help the clinician deal with the pregnant teenagers. If abortion is selected, a first trimester procedure is best. Finally, physicians are urged to be aware of the specific, ever changing legal dynamics concerning this subject which are present in their states. Abortion is a phenomenon which has become an emotional but undeniably important aspect of adolescent sexuality and adolescent health care, in this country and around the world.

  8. Health counseling of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Joffe, A; Radius, S M

    1991-05-01

    Health counseling is a fundamental aspect of health care for adolescents and is a natural extension of the concept of anticipatory guidance. It is a dynamic process involving active participation by adolescents. Pediatricians are a valued source of health-relevant information, but must also recognize how their attitudes and beliefs can affect the counseling process. Knowledge of the multitude of changes occurring during adolescence and an understanding of the role of health-risking behaviors in meeting various developmental needs are critical to successful counseling. Particular attention must be focused on ways to help adolescents develop the skills necessary to maintain health-promoting lifestyles and to resist peer pressure to engage in health-risking behaviors.

  9. Adolescent pregnancy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Clear, specific information about sexual behavior and its consequences is frequently not provided to adolescents by their families, schools and communities. The "sex education" that many receive comes from misinformed or uninformed peers.

  10. Treatment of Borderline Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Maurice R.

    1983-01-01

    Describes characteristics of borderline adolescents and reviews diagnostic issues. Uses two case studies to illustrate general treatment strategies that could be useful to clinicians in mental health programs and family courts. (JAC)

  11. PCP Use among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    This article, aimed at professionals in the field of adolescent psychology, briefly reviews the use of phencyclidine (PCP), its pharmacology, clinical effects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. (Author/BN)

  12. Adolescents and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, J S

    1991-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development

  13. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    PubMed

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  14. Adolescent and parent perceptions of media influence on adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay; Fitzharris, Jennifer Lynn; Morrissey, Kathleen M

    2004-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that television and other media influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. Much of the research in this area is based on surveys in which adolescents are asked to rank the relative importance of a fixed set of factors such as parents, peers, and media. We reviewed data from focus groups conducted with adolescents and their parents to examine the extent to which adolescents identify--without prompting--media as a source of influence on sexual behavior. Adolescents seemed indifferent to media influence (e.g., media influence was mentioned in only one adolescent focus group), but their parents expressed significant concern about media influence. Future research should investigate the extent to which influences exist outside of adolescents' consciousness. For now, parents and sexuality educators may need to convince adolescents that concerns about the media are valid before trying to change media-influenced behavior.

  15. Iron nutrition in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mesías, Marta; Seiquer, Isabel; Navarro, M Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing adequate iron bioavailability to favor element utilization and thus be sufficient for needs at this stage of life. Currently, many adolescents consume monotonous and unbalanced diets which may limit mineral intake and/or bioavailability, leading to iron deficiency and, consequently, to ferropenic anemia, a nutritional deficit of worldwide prevalence. Iron deficiency, apart from provoking important physiological repercussions, can adversely affect adolescents' cognitive ability and behavior. Accordingly, promoting the consumption of a varied, adjusted, and balanced diet by adolescents will facilitate iron utilization, benefiting their health both at present and in adulthood. This review discusses how physiological changes during adolescence can cause iron requirements to increase. Consequently, it is important that diet should contribute an appropriate amount of this mineral and, moreover, with an adequate bioavailability to satisfy needs during this special period of life.

  16. Agreement between Parent and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillicuddy, Neil; Rychtarik, Robert G.; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T.; Burke-Storer, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the correspondence between parent and adolescent reports of the adolescent's substance use in a population of parents concerned about, and experiencing problems resulting from, their teen's substance use. Seventy-five parents and their adolescents (76% not in treatment; 24% in treatment) were interviewed separately regarding…

  17. Biplanar chevron osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Nery, Caio; Barroco, Rui; Réssio, Cibele

    2002-09-01

    Results of biplanar chevron osteotomy performed on patients with mild-to-moderate hallux valgus deformity with an increased distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA) are shown. The study included clinical data of 32 patients (54 feet) who had completed a 2-year follow-up, and radiological data of these 32 and other 29 patients (50 feet) for a total of 61 patients (104 feet, 53 right and 51 left). There were 59 females and two males with ages varying from 11 to 66 years. According to the AOFAS Hallux Rating, the preoperative average score (50) improved to 90 (average score after the surgery). The hallux valgus angle was improved from an average of 25 degrees to 14 degrees, the first intermetatarsal angle from 12 degrees to 8 degrees and the DMAA from 15 degrees to 5 degrees. At the end of treatment, 94% of patients were classified as having grade 0 or 1 sesamoid lateral sub-luxation. Given improvement in angles and 90% of patients satisfied with an average AOFAS postoperative score of 90, the technique seems indicated for treatment of symptomatic hallux valgus deformity with increased DMAA.

  18. Of Adolescent Cultures and Subcultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deiulio, Anthony M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics of adolescent graffiti, analyzes recent trends in graffiti content, and argues that graffiti tend to reflect the same feelings and concerns uncovered by formal studies of adolescents conducted by sociologists and pollsters. (JG)

  19. Motivational Interviewing and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilallo, John J.; Weiss, Gony

    2009-01-01

    The use of motivational interviewing strategies in the practice of adolescent psychopharmacology is described. Motivational interviewing is an efficient and collaborative style of clinical interaction and this helps adolescent patients to integrate their psychiatric difficulties into a more resilient identity.

  20. On Variations in Adolescent Subcultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise B.

    1978-01-01

    The attributes of adolescents involved in marihuana and nonmarihuana-using peer groups are described. Adolescent subcultures are highly differentiated and involvement with peers does not necessarily entail rejection and estrangement from parents. (Author/AM)

  1. Psychotherapies for Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts for Families Guide Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents: Different Types No. 86; updated February 2017 Psychotherapy ... Therapy (DBT) can be used to treat older adolescents who have chronic suicidal feelings/thoughts, engage in ...

  2. Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions and Answers about Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents This publication defines scoliosis and provides information about ... it is diagnosed and treated in children and adolescents. You may be interested in contacting one or ...

  3. Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chats with Experts Clinical Trials Share Child and Adolescent Mental Health Overview Teen Depression Study: Understanding Depression ... Continue reading Recruitment Begins for Landmark Study of Adolescent Brain Development September 13, 2016 • Press Release The ...

  4. Self-Injury in Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spanish Facts for Families Guide Self-Injury In Adolescents No. 73; July 2013 Self-injury is the ... to have become more popular lately, especially in adolescents. The causes and severity of self-injury can ...

  5. Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication.

    PubMed

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2016-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior among adolescents is a major public health concern with potentially long-lasting consequences, including pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV/AIDS. Researchers have demonstrated that parent-adolescent sexual communication can mitigate adolescent risky sexual behaviors; the development of interventions that support this process are vital. This column examines a recent study that evaluated a parent-adolescent sexual communication intervention.

  6. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  7. Brief Therapy: An Adolescent Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Article states that brief, effective therapy with adolescents can occur by integrating the structure of solution-focused approaches with expressive qualities of art therapy within the framework of adolescent development. The three fundamentals of successful adolescent therapy are addressed. (Author/JDM)

  8. Adolescent Psychology around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book paints a portrait of adolescent psychology in 4 major regions: Africa/the Middle East, Asia, the Americas, and Europe. Featuring 24 revised and updated chapters from the "International Encyclopedia of Adolescence" (2007), readers are introduced to the way the majority of the world's adolescents actually live. Most contributors…

  9. Facts on Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Judy Shepps

    Adolescent use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs is currently increasing. Three out of four adolescents report regular drinking. Significant alcohol, inhalant, and cigarette use is reported as early as fourth grade, and alcohol experimentation increases from 6 to 17 percent between fourth and sixth grades. Adolescence is a high risk stage for…

  10. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  11. Team Education for Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Helen; Casto, Glendon

    Project TEAM (Team Education for Adolescent Mothers) is a support program designed to counteract the socioeconomic consequences of early childbearing, by developing a model for providing high-quality care services for pregnant adolescents, adolescent parents, their infants, and their extended families. The project has four site locations:…

  12. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Raymond; Clayton, Mark D.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between maternal employment and adolescent development is enormously complex, and no simple generalizations are possible. Many intervening variables alter the impact that maternal employment has on adolescent development. There is an urgent need to discover what impact this arrangement has on adolescent development. (CJ)

  13. Depression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Noel M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, depression has been recognized widely in children and adolescents. However, even with what is known today about depression, many children and adolescents remain undiagnosed. Early recognition is imperative to prevent further episodes that may continue into adulthood. Depression in children and adolescents affects social…

  14. Latino Adolescents' Adjustment, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and the Mother-Adolescent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Rosalie; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Romo, Laura F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined associations between adolescent behaviors, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-adolescent relationships. Latina mothers and adolescents (111 dyads) completed questionnaires and participated in videotaped discussions. Mothers' depressive symptoms related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors and family…

  15. Application of distal metaphyseal osteotomy for treatment of high intermetatarsal angle bunion deformities.

    PubMed

    Oloff, L M; Bocko, A P

    1998-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of 10 patients (13 feet) with moderate to severe hallux valgus who underwent a chevron or modified chevron osteotomy with multiple adjunctive soft-tissue releases for surgical treatment. Radiographic and subjective results were evaluated with an average follow-up of 24 months (range, 10-41). Preoperative criteria included an intermetatarsal (IM) angle of greater than 16 degrees (average of 18.4 degrees) and painful hallux valgus deformity. Average preop hallux abductus was 35.4 degrees (range, 25 degrees-48 degrees). The average reduction in the actual IM angle was (-) 5.2 degrees with a relative IM correction of (-) 11.6 degrees. Average postoperative hallux abductus angle was 7.0 degrees (range, 0 degree-22 degrees). Subjectively, all patients were satisfied with their results and stated they would have the procedure again. No complications were noted in this patient population, including, infection, avascular necrosis, hallux varus, and recurrence of deformity. The chevron osteotomy was found to be successful in this population with high intermetatarsal angles when appropriate consideration was given to correction of soft-tissue-deforming forces and contractures.

  16. Adolescent male health

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years. PMID:19119350

  17. Adolescent contraception: nonhormonal methods.

    PubMed

    Kulig, J W

    1989-06-01

    A comparison of the advantages, disadvantages, and costs of each method is presented in Table 1. Barrier methods of contraception offer adolescents protection against both pregnancy and STDs, but innovative approaches are needed to enhance availability and acceptability. Condom use in conjunction with a vaginal spermicide would provide optimal protection. The "female condom" may prove to be an effective alternative. Diaphragms and cervical caps can be prescribed for well-educated, highly motivated adolescents comfortable with insertion and removal. The vaginal contraceptive sponge provides many of the advantages of the diaphragm and cap without the need for an examination and fitting and also may be used as a backup method with the condom. Vaginal spermicides used alone are significantly less effective than in combination with a mechanical barrier. The IUD is not considered appropriate for most adolescents due to its association with an increased risk of pelvic infection. Periodic abstinence requires accurate identification of the fertile period, extensive education, and partner cooperation. Sterilization is rarely considered an option in adolescents. Alternate forms of sexual expression are available to adolescents who choose to abstain from intercourse.

  18. Adolescent bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Daniel S; Fallon, Sara C; Brandt, Mary L

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric obesity has increased from a relatively uncommon problem to one of the most important public health problems facing children today. Typical "adult" diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, have become increasingly prevalent in the pediatric population. The earlier presentation of these comorbidities will have a significant impact for the future because this population of children will require more medical resources at an earlier age and will have a significantly decreased life expectancy. The significant morbidity of obesity in the pediatric population has led to consideration of more aggressive treatment protocols for obesity in children, including the introduction of surgical management at an earlier age. Surgery for obesity in adolescents has particular risks and benefits that must be accounted for when considering this approach. The unique psychological and emotional needs of adolescent patients make the patient selection process and perioperative management substantially different from those of adult patients. Initial outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents are comparable to those seen in adults in the short term. However, the long-term effects of these procedures on the adolescent population are not known. This review discusses the epidemiology of pediatric obesity, the indications for operative therapy in adolescent patients, the common surgical procedures used for weight loss, the reported outcomes of these procedures, and the importance of multidisciplinary management for this unique patient population.

  19. Adolescents and their music. Insights into the health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brown, E F; Hendee, W R

    During adolescence, teenagers are expected to develop standards of behavior and reconcile them with their perceptions of adult standards. In this context, music, a powerful medium in the lives of adolescents, offers conflicting values. The explicit sexual and violent lyrics of some forms of music often clash with the themes of abstinence and rational behavior promoted by adult society. Identification with rock music, particularly those styles that are rejected by adults, functions to separate adolescents from adult society. Some forms of rock music extend well beyond respectability in fulfilling this definitional role. Total immersion into a rock subculture, such as heavy metal, may be both a portrait of adolescent alienation and an unflattering reflection of an adolescent's perception of the moral and ethical duplicity of adult society. Physicians should be aware of the role of music in the lives of adolescents and use music preferences as clues to the emotional and mental health of adolescents.

  20. The Adolescent Experience: European and American Adolescents in the 1990s. Research Monographs in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsaker, Francoise D., Ed.; Flammer, August, Ed.

    Scholars are increasingly recognizing that adolescent development is best understood by acknowledging and examining adolescents' cultural, social, historical, and political contexts. The Euronet for Research on Adolescence in the Context of Social Change project, begun in 1991, is a collaborative effort among research teams from European countries…

  1. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III

    2007-01-01

    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  2. Adolescents and sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Yarber, W L; Parrillo, A V

    1992-09-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a serious health problem for adolescents, occurring in an estimated one-quarter of sexually active teen-agers. Many of the health problems--including STDs--result from specific risk-taking behaviors. Determinants of STD risks among adolescents include behavioral, psychological, social, biological, institutional factors. Education is an important component in STD control in adolescents. The goal of education is to increase adolescent self-efficiency in practicing STD prevention and risk-reduction. A comprehensive approach including quality, theory-based education, accessible and effective health clinics, and improved social and economic conditions has the most promise of controlling STDs in adolescents.

  3. Adolescent (in)vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Quadrel, M J; Fischhoff, B; Davis, W

    1993-02-01

    Three groups of subjects were asked to judge the probability that they and several target others (a friend, an acquaintance, a parent, a child) would experience various risks. Subjects were middle-class adults, their teenage children, and high-risk adolescents from treatment homes. All three groups saw themselves as facing somewhat less risk than the target others. However, this perception of relative invulnerability was no more pronounced for adolescents than for adults. Indeed, the parents were viewed as less vulnerable than their teenage children by both the adults and those teens. These results are consistent with others showing small differences in the cognitive decision-making processes of adolescents and adults. Underestimating teens' competence can mean misdiagnosing the sources of their risk behaviors, denying them deserved freedoms, and failing to provide needed assistance.

  4. Religion and adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Stayton, W R

    1985-06-01

    The health professional can be helpful to the adolescent, the adolescent's family, and the community through participating in and initiating local sex education programs. Religious settings provide a great potential for sexuality education within a value framework. A helpful curriculum will include the meaning of sexuality; developing a positive concept of sexuality, and a healthy sexual identity; present the issues of adolescent sexuality, including the various health issues; and an understanding of quality relationships within the family and among peers. If health professions and the community religious institutions can joint together, they can reach the goals of most programs in human sexuality, namely, "learning to appreciate our sexuality as a positive potential for self-expression, fulfillment and intimacy; respect for the personhood and well-being of others; and responsible decision-making."

  5. Foot and ankle problems in dancers.

    PubMed

    Kadel, Nancy

    2014-11-01

    The dancer's foot and ankle are subjected to high forces and unusual stresses in training and performance. Injuries are common in dancers, and the foot and ankle are particularly vulnerable. Ankle sprains, ankle impingement syndromes, flexor hallucis longus tendonitis, cuboid subluxation, stress fractures, midfoot injuries, heel pain, and first metatarsophalangeal joint problems including hallux valgus, hallux rigidus, and sesamoid injuries will be reviewed. This article will discuss these common foot and ankle problems in dancers and give typical clinical presentation and diagnostic and treatment recommendations.

  6. ADHD and Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Ahsan; Mansour, Miriam; Gross, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the child and adolescent population. It is characterized by impairment in attention/concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, all of which can impact performance of athletes. ADHD treatment within the athletic population is a unique challenge. The research in this field has been relatively limited. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and International Olympic Committee both regulate the use of psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD due to their performance-enhancing effects. In this article, authors have discussed the screening methods, pharmacological treatment, side effects, and behavioral approaches for the treatment of ADHD in adolescent athletes. PMID:24987666

  7. Bone Health in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Carey, Dennis E; Golden, Neville H

    2015-08-01

    Osteoporosis occurs during childhood and adolescence as a heritable condition such as OI, with acquired disease (eg, IBD), or iatrogenically as a result of high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. However, the number of children affected by osteoporosis during youth is small compared to the numbers who will develop osteoporosis in adulthood. Prevention of adult osteoporosis requires that an optimal environment for the achievement of peak bone mass be established during the growing years. Detection of low BMD can be achieved using modalities such as DXA and pQCT. Standard radiologic studies, especially vertebral radiography, may also be helpful in children and adolescents at high risk for osteoporosis. It is critical to the development of healthy bones that adolescents have proper nutrition with adequate calcium and vitamin D intake and that they participate in regular physical activity (especially weight-bearing exercise). In the recent past, the dual goals of proper nutrition and exercise were not being achieved by many, if not most, adolescents. Those caring for adolescents should strive to educate teens and their families on the importance of dietary calcium and vitamin D as well as advocate for supportive environments in schools and communities that foster the development of healthy habits with regard to diet and exercise. In order to help identify the population at risk for osteoporosis, a bone health screen with assessment of calcium intake and determination of family history of adult osteoporosis (hip fracture, kyphosis) should be a routine part of adolescent health care. Universal screening of healthy adolescents with serum 25OHD levels is not recommended. Adolescents with conditions associated with reduced bone mass should undergo bone densitometry or other studies as a baseline, and BMD should be monitored at intervals no more frequently than yearly. Although controversy remains regarding the optimum dose of vitamin D for treatment of osteoporosis, all would

  8. Television and adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S

    1990-01-01

    Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored.

  9. Subtypes of Stalking (Obsessional Following) in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Joseph T.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses three cases of adolescent obsessional following. These cases indicate that stalking/obsessional following occurs in adolescents and important similarities and differences appear to exist between adult and adolescent offenders. (Author/JDM)

  10. Genetics Home Reference: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions adolescent idiopathic scoliosis adolescent idiopathic scoliosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the ...

  11. The Emotionally Sensitive Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Lehtonen, Kimmo

    This paper provides a list of signs, symptoms, and indicators of emotionally sensitive adolescents includes clinging behavior, withdrawn behavior, shy/inhibited behavior, represses anger, poor reaction to criticism, makes self-disparaging statements, low self-esteem, "can't forgive self or others," ruined by a small critical comment, exploding…

  12. The Adolescent Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; And Others

    The Adolescent Worker Study was designed to provide an in-depth analysis of the job experiences and related life histories of out-of-school working youth. To do this, a team of investigators first identified work sites across a range of industrial sectors that were currently engaged in hiring young workers between the ages of 17 and 21. Then, the…

  13. Internet Addiction among Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargin, Nurten

    2012-01-01

    Each innovation brings along many risks. One of the risks related with the Internet use is Internet addiction. The aim of this study is to examine Internet addiction in adolescence in terms of gender, Internet access at home and grades. The research design used was survey method. The study population consisted of second stage students attending…

  14. [Chronic disease and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Bühlmann, U

    1992-01-25

    Chronic disease is not a strictly defined term and includes a large number of illnesses ranging from physical to mental impairment. It is estimated that between 10% and 20% of adolescents have a chronic disease. Independence and new relations, acceptance of a new body image and sexuality, career plans and cognitive maturation are core topics in development to adulthood. Chronic disease may interfere with these developmental tasks. Most often there is no specific psychopathology, but the type of impairment, its influence on family life and functioning, age at onset, gender, and other factors will interact with psychosocial maturation. Because of the important role of the family, not only the adolescent patient him/herself, but also parents and siblings need to be included in all major decisions. As hospitalizations may be disruptive they must be planned, taking in account the patient's plans and opinions. Chronic disease may lead to death during the period of adolescence. It is believed that the concept of one's own mortality develops at age 14 to 17 years, a fact that will influence care during the terminal stage of a disease. Whatever the problems and questions raised by the family, the developmental stage of the adolescent has always to be considered when dealing with specific issues of chronic disease. Periodic reassessment of psychosocial development is therefore one of the main tasks of the primary care physician. Counselling will address not only the disease but also the developmental tasks of any teenager.

  15. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  16. Moral Development in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Daniel; Carlo, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Themes in the papers in this special issue of the "JRA" on moral development are identified. We discuss the intersection of moral development research with policy concerns, the distinctive qualities of moral life in adolescence that warrant investigation, the multiple connotations of "moral", the methods typical of moral development research, and…

  17. Psychopathological Development across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Daniel Offer's seminal writings in the 1960s led to a realization that normal adolescence was not characterized by turmoil and upheaval, the then prevailing view that derived from studies of clinical samples. In this paper, the research findings that have appeared over the last four decades are reviewed with respect to the overall features of…

  18. Evaluating Adolescent Catechesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaster, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Systematic program evaluations of adolescent catechesis curricula are seldom completed and rarely published. This makes it very challenging to understand what is working and what is not. This case study describes the findings of a program evaluation of the Youth in Theology and Ministry curriculum of Saint John's School of Theology and Seminary in…

  19. Adolescents' Demonstrative Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfilova, Gulfiya G.; Karimova, Lilia Sh.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of demonstrative behavior is very topical among teenagers and this issue has become the subject of systematic scientific research. Demonstrative manifestations in adolescents disrupt the favorable socialization; therefore, understanding, prevention and correction of demonstrative behavior at this age is relevant and requires special…

  20. Gender dysphoria in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, Scott; de Vries, Annelou L C

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents presenting with gender-related concerns are increasingly seeking support from providers from a variety of disciplines within health care settings across the world. For those treating young people who meet the criteria for the DSM 5 diagnosis of gender dysphoria (GD), complex decisions in clinical care are common. Defining best practice with this population with respect to interventions that span mental health, physical, and surgical domains can be challenging, given a relative dearth of empirical data available; yet practice guidelines have emerged from different professional organizations which can aid with this. For this review paper, a broad literature search was performed to identify relevant studies pertaining to the care of adolescents with GD. In addition, an overview of trends in clinical practice, including shifts in conceptualization of how clinicians and patients define care that is considered affirming when working with this population, is described. This paper explores the characteristics of referral patterns to specialized clinics, provides a brief overview of gender identity development in adolescence, and then describes the phenomenology of known aetiological factors and co-occurring psychiatric issues in adolescents with GD. Additionally, clinical management considerations that detail assessment aims and common treatment interventions across disciplines will be explored.

  1. Sexual Behavior of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Hilmar

    1978-01-01

    Confined to discussion of heterosexual activities, this article examines adolescent sexual behavior in terms of promiscuity; the search for a sexual behavior code; the impact of the media; and the influence of peer groups, religious identification, and the adult double standard. (JC)

  2. The Future of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchen, Irving H.

    This paper summarizes various theories of youth activism and makes a projection of what adolescence may be like by the year 2000. The major objective is to aid social scientists and futurists as they attempt to interpret the role of youth in social and cultural change. The hypothesis is that observation and analysis of recent and contemporary…

  3. Adolescent Program for Stutterers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepp, Daniel S.; Kiernan, Bonnie M.

    Written for speech-language clinicians in the school setting, the manual describes therapy techniques used in the Keystone Adolescent Program for Stutterers (KAPS). KAPS emphasizes the Airflow Technique, a self-regulatory approach consisting of two parts: (1) a quiet breathing in and out allowing the breath to flow out a distance before initiating…

  4. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  5. Adolescents and Graffiti.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Koon-Hwee

    2001-01-01

    Describes the different types of graffiti: (1) private forms of graffiti (doodling and latrinalia); and (2 public forms (gang graffiti, tags, and pieces). Uses teenage psychology to interpret adolescents' involvement in graffiti. Examines graffiti art in relation to its educational implications for secondary art education. (CMK)

  6. Adolescent Development: Body Blues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Alayne; Brodkin, Adele M.

    1994-01-01

    When early adolescents equate body image with self-image, they risk eating and exercise disorders, with dangerous results. Interviews with two experts present information to help middle school teachers understand the problem and intervene with students whose preoccupation with appearance or prowess can, taken to the extreme, be fatal. (SM)

  7. Governing Adolescent Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvinen, Margaretha; Ostergaard, Jeanette

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the drinking habits of Danish adolescents and the upbringing ideals and alcohol rules of their parents. It is based on three different data sets: a survey of 2,000 Danish young people born in 1989, a survey with the parents of these young people, and two waves of focus group interviews (in all 28)…

  8. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  9. Adolescent Loneliness Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Minzi, Maria Cristina Richaud; Sacchi, Carla

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a loneliness scale for adolescents in order to assess their perceptions of the quality of their relationships with parents and peers. The scale was administered to 1,233 Argentine secondary school students, aged 13-16 years. Factor analyses (principal axes, oblimin solution) were conducted. Four factors…

  10. Nutrient Requirements in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKigney, John I,; Munro, Hamish N.

    It is important to understand the nutrient requirements and the significance of nutrition both in pubescence and adolescence. The pubescent growth spurt is characterized by an increase in body size and a change in proportion of different tissues. Both of these factors are of great nutritional importance, since there is reason to believe that the…

  11. Abortion among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  12. Adolescent Sociopaths. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple, Eliot D.

    Presented is the final report of a research project on the programed training and placement of nonpsychotic disturbed adolescents. Eleven chapters cover topics which include the following: psychiatry and the sociopaths and psychopaths; boys dealt with in the project; development of the programed interaction diagnostic interview; disturbances to…

  13. Adolescent Attraction to Cults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Eagan

    1998-01-01

    Details the reasons behind adolescents' attraction to cults. and distinguishes functions of cults and the term "cult." Identifies various cults, and describes the process of involvement. Notes that in the absence of authentic, stabilizing standards, some youth are especially vulnerable. Provides recommendations for adults working with…

  14. [Adolescent psychosocial development].

    PubMed

    Gaete, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article.

  15. The Adolescent Suicide Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    The suicide rate of young people in the United States rose 237 percent between 1960 and 1980. This paper addresses three related issues: epidemic versus artifact; stress in adolescence; and the distinctive traits of the lifestyles or careers of a random sample of young Chicago suicides. (Author/BL)

  16. Listening to Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGolyer, John H.; Misik, Martha C.

    Generally, teenage pregnancy is considered a detriment to society. Louisiana has the third highest rate of adolescent pregnancy of any state in the nation. The Louisiana Sex Education in Public Schools Act (1979) effectively prohibits information about the human reproductive system until the seventh grade. The basic "Choices and Changes" program…

  17. Adolescence: Season of Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philibert, Paul J.

    1982-01-01

    Delineates Sigmund Freud's theories of symbolic relations, Jean Piaget's theories of cognitive development, and Eric Erickson's concept of identity crisis to analyze and explain the characteristics and phenomena of adolescent development. Suggests roles and tasks for teachers and parents in promoting healthy development. (WL)

  18. Brief Interventions for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C

    2016-01-01

    Public health concerns regarding adolescent alcohol and other drug involvement emphasize the need for continuing research to develop and evaluate preventive interventions for use in a variety of settings. This focus includes research on brief interventions. This short commentary piece provides an overview of the brief intervention literature and highlights future directions PMID:27182561

  19. Reading, Writing, and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Margaret, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Noting that most junior high level curricula do not take into account students' rapid mental and physical changes, the articles in this focused journal issue recommend works and teaching strategies that harmonize with these student needs. The titles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Adolescent Development and the Growth of Writing…

  20. Entrepreneurship and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana Vega, Lidia E.; González-Morales, Olga; Feliciano García, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This work studied the entrepreneurial aspirations of 3,987 adolescents regarding self-employment and the influence of gender, age, nationality, type of school, location of the school, educational level and performance. The Logit model is used to analyze the data. The results indicate that the pupils' aspirations to be self-employed increase in the…

  1. Interparental Boundary Problems, Parent-Adolescent Hostility, and Adolescent-Parent Hostility: A Family Process Model for Adolescent Aggression Problems

    PubMed Central

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Lippold, Melissa; Feinberg, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study tests interparental boundary problems (IBPs), parent hostility with adolescents, and adolescent hostility with parents within a reciprocal influence model and tests each as risk factors for adolescent aggression problems. Prospective, longitudinal analyses were conducted with multi-informant data from 768 adolescents and their families, from 6th to 9th grade. Guided by spillover and social learning perspectives, our findings suggest that IBPs have a robust, negative influence on both parent and adolescent hostility. In turn, adolescent hostility was the best predictor of global adolescent aggression problems. Two indirect effects were found that link IBPs and adolescent aggression problems; however, findings indicate that adolescent hostile behavior in the family is the key risk indicator for adolescents' later aggression problems. Model invariance tests revealed that this model was not different for boys and girls, or for adolescents in families with two biological parents and youth in families with two caregivers (e.g. stepparent families). PMID:25844271

  2. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population.

  3. Multitasking With Television Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Claire G; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S; Rich, Michael

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents' television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents' likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents' likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to TV. Demographic characteristics do not predict TV multitasking. In TV-multitasking moments, primary attention to TV was more likely if adolescents experienced negative affect, watched a drama, or attended to people; it was less likely if they used computers or video games.

  4. Family planning and adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ramiro Cartes; Roca, Carolina Gonzalez; Zamorano, Jorge Sandoval; Araya, Electra Gonzales

    2010-04-01

    High adolescent fecundity principally affects developing countries. In spite of a decrease in the incidence of pregnancies in the developing countries over the past 13 years, the differences that exist with respect to developed countries turn adolescent fecundity into an indicator of the level of development of countries. The impact of adolescent pregnancy is evident in maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Nonetheless, in addition to the age involved in precocious pregnancy, it also reflects previous conditions such as malnutrition, infectious diseases and deficiencies in the health care given to pregnant adolescents. The most important impact lies in the psychosocial area: it contributes to a loss of self-esteem, a destruction of life projects and the maintenance of the circle of poverty. This affects both adolescent mothers and fathers; the latter have been studied very little. Intervention with comprehensive health services and the maintenance of the education of adolescent mothers and fathers prevents repeat pregnancies. Evidence shows success in the prevention of the first pregnancy when the intervention includes comprehensive sexual education, the existence of preferential sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents, the handout of modern contraceptives gauged to the adolescence stage of the subjects and the existence of an information network. There is little research in contraception for adolescents, and for this reason, the indications given are projections of data obtained from adults.

  5. Initiation into Adolescent Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship of three domains (personality/attitudinal orientations, peer relationships, and family socialization factors) with initiation into adolescent marihuana use. (Author/DB)

  6. Adolescent drinking, social identity, and parenting for safety: Perspectives from Australian adolescents and parents.

    PubMed

    Berends, Lynda; Jones, Sandra C; Andrews, Kelly

    2016-03-01

    We explored young people and parents' views on adolescent drinking and safety in the locations where drinking may occur. Focus groups with adolescents and parents showed that many believed adolescent drinking and drunkenness is normative. Younger adolescents had more negative views of adolescent drinkers than their older peers. Adolescent drinking occurred in private settings and parents made decisions about allowing their adolescent children to attend social events based on the level of safety attributed to the location. If adolescent drinking was likely then home was the preferred location as it provided scope for risk minimisation. Positive portrayals of non-drinking adolescents and information to assist parents' decision-making are needed.

  7. Retropharyngeal cellulitis in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Inokuchi, Ryota; Namai, Yoshiyuki; Yahagi, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    A healthy 10-year-old boy presented with fever and progressively worsening sore throat and dysphagia. Physical examination showed pharyngeal erythema with tender left cervical lymphadenopathy. Radiography revealed 9 mm deep prevertebral soft tissues at the C2 level, and contrast-enhanced CT showed fluid collection with no major ring enhancement in the retropharyngeal space. He was diagnosed with retropharyngeal cellulitis and treated with intravenous antibiotics. Retropharyngeal cellulitis or abscess is a relatively rare infection in adolescents but is more frequent in 2–4-year-old children. Retropharyngeal cellulitis may rapidly extend caudally, with fatal consequences. For adolescents, physicians need to be aware of this clinical entity and carefully evaluate imaging findings even when only the mild pharyngeal physical findings are noted. PMID:23687369

  8. [Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis].

    PubMed

    2016-12-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a 3D spinal deformity in frontal, sagittal and axial planes, with high relevance in the pediatric population especially in adolescents and females between 10 years of age and the end of growth spurt and skeletal maturity. The radiographic manifestation is a curve greater than 10° measured by Cobb method associated with vertebral rotation. "Idiopathic" diagnosis has to be done after neuroanatomical anomalies of the posterior cerebral fosa and spinal canal have been ruled out. The physical finding of a thoracic or lumbar hump is the clinical manifestation of vertebral rotation seen in a forward bending test (Adam's Test). It is recommended that all curves with a magnitude greater than 20° have to be controlled and treated by a spinal surgeon being observation, bracing and surgery the different treatment options based on the extent, progression of deformity and basically the clinical condition of the patient.

  9. Role of the Father-Adolescent Relationship in Shaping Adolescents Attitudes toward Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risch, Sharon C.; Jodl, Kathleen M.; Eccles, Jaquelynne S.

    2004-01-01

    The quality of father-adolescent relationships, especially for non-traditional fathers, has been neglected in investigating adolescents beliefs. Closeness of father-adolescent relationships was examined as a predictor of adolescents attitudes toward divorce. A sample of European and African American adolescents N=300 reported on the quality of…

  10. Maternal and Adolescent Temperament as Predictors of Maternal Affective Behavior during Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…

  11. Older Adolescents' Positive Attitudes toward Younger Adolescents as Sexual Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegna, Kristinn; Mossige, Svein; Wichstrom, Lars

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger sexual partners was investigated through three measures of self-reported hypothetical likelihood of having sex with preadolescents and younger adolescents (LSA), using a school-based cluster sample of 710 Norwegian 18- to 19-year-olds attending nonvocational high schools in…

  12. Patterns of Parenting during Adolescence: Perceptions of Adolescents and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Sharon E.; Sputa, Cheryl L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores differences in maternal and paternal parenting styles and involvement, the differences between parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and involvement, and changes in parenting style and involvement between the adolescents' 9th and 12th grade years. Subjects were 244 ninth graders from the Southeast and Midwest. Discusses…

  13. Adolescent and Parent Perceptions of Media Influence on Adolescent Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay; Fitzharris, Jennifer Lynn; Morrissey, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that television and other media influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. Much of the research in this area is based on surveys in which adolescents are asked to rank the relative importance of a fixed set of factors such as parents, peers, and media. We reviewed data from focus groups conducted with adolescents…

  14. [What happens with adolescents?].

    PubMed

    Monseny Bonifasi, José

    2004-02-01

    To worry about adolescents is a characteristic of our times, either due to its logical effects but moreover for other effects which border on being psychopathological disorders. Eating disorders, the topic of this month's special issue, together with violence, school failure or addiction, are some of these disorders. The hand of an expert guides us on the route to understanding, giving voice to ideas somewhat diffuse which each of us may have.

  15. [School difficulties in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Schwarzenberg, T L; Buffone, M R; Scardia, C; Facente, C

    2002-12-01

    Loss, failure and desertion are those words, which better describe the most frequent difficulties incurred by teenagers, and their relation to the school environment, and indicate, as well, the lack of connection between individual aspirations and school achievements obtained. Despite the likelihood of school difficulties throughout the entire educational career, from the kindergarten to the college, we are able to recognize certain specific "disturbances" which come out during the adolescence, basically relating to the school experiences. School failure, school desertion and school abandonment are, in fact, issues mainly discussed in coincidence with the beginning of the adolescent age and the attending of the high school. The aetiopathogenesis of school discomfort is mostly determined by more than only one factor: psychological, physical, cognitive and environmental aspects, all together, contribute in various ways, to the rise and persisting of the above described problems. Suggesting a univocal characterization of the adolescent with school difficulties, is indeed a hard task, since school failure is not an exclusive feature of only one kind of personality or the expression of only one type of conflict. Once identified the individuals more subject to risk, and the warning signs of actual uneasiness, it is important therefore to intervene timely and in different ways in order to avoid the worsening or the excessive extension of the school difficulties and of their frequent and serious consequences on the teenagers' individual and domestic well-being. Such type of prevention definitely belongs to the Adolescent Medicine, and must be developed on different levels, by involving not only the teenagers, but also their families, the school, and the whole social environment in which the teenagers live and with which they interact.

  16. Endometriosis and the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Dovey, Serena; Sanfilippo, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    The majority of women with endometriosis report symptoms starting in adolescence, yet endometriosis is often a delayed diagnosis in this patient population. Given that endometriosis is felt to be a progressive disease with increasing morbidities over time, such as structural defects and infertility, being more aggressive with pursuing the diagnosis is warranted. Once the diagnosis of endometriosis is made, various medical and surgical treatment modalities are available, and this article will review the most current treatment recommendations.

  17. Overweight and constipation in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The association between overweight and gastrointestinal symptoms has been recently studied in the literature; however, few studies have evaluated the association between overweight and constipation in adolescents in a community-based sample. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of constipation and its association with being overweight in a community-based survey with adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,077 adolescents who were enrolled in five schools in the city of Sao José dos Campos, Brazil. Constipation was defined according to modified and combined Rome III criteria for adolescents and adults. Being overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI) that was equal to or greater than that of the 85th percentile for age and gender. Results Constipation was diagnosed in 18.2% (196/1077) of the included adolescents. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of constipation in males and females who were both younger and older than 14 years. Fecal incontinence was observed in 25 adolescents, 22 (88.0%) of whom were diagnosed as being constipated. The prevalence of being overweight was found in 13.5% (145/1077) of the study population. The prevalence of constipation was observed to be similar in adolescents who were (19.4%; 28/144) and were not (18.0%; 168/933) overweight (p = 0.764; OR = 1.10). Fecal incontinence that was associated with constipation was more frequent in adolescents who were overweight (37.0%; 8/28) than in adolescents who were not overweight (8.5%; 14/168; p = 0.005; OR = 4.40). Conclusions The prevalence of constipation was high among the investigated adolescents. There was no association between being overweight and constipation; however, an association between being overweight and fecal incontinence in constipated adolescents was confirmed. PMID:21496346

  18. Media multitasking in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cain, Matthew S; Leonard, Julia A; Gabrieli, John D E; Finn, Amy S

    2016-12-01

    Media use has been on the rise in adolescents overall, and in particular, the amount of media multitasking-multiple media consumed simultaneously, such as having a text message conversation while watching TV-has been increasing. In adults, heavy media multitasking has been linked with poorer performance on a number of laboratory measures of cognition, but no relationship has yet been established between media-multitasking behavior and real-world outcomes. Examining individual differences across a group of adolescents, we found that more frequent media multitasking in daily life was associated with poorer performance on statewide standardized achievement tests of math and English in the classroom, poorer performance on behavioral measures of executive function (working memory capacity) in the laboratory, and traits of greater impulsivity and lesser growth mindset. Greater media multitasking had a relatively circumscribed set of associations, and was not related to behavioral measures of cognitive processing speed, implicit learning, or manual dexterity, or to traits of grit and conscientiousness. Thus, individual differences in adolescent media multitasking were related to specific differences in executive function and in performance on real-world academic achievement measures: More media multitasking was associated with poorer executive function ability, worse academic achievement, and a reduced growth mindset.

  19. [Imaginary companion in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Sawa, Takako; Oae, Hiroyuki; Abiru, Takeshi; Furuhashi, Tadaaki

    2002-01-01

    The phenomenon of imaginary companions, which is usually regarded as normal in children, but which when encountered in adolescence suggests a psychopathologic condition, appears to have had limited investigation. This study indicates some psychopathologic characteristics of imaginary companions by interviewing adolescent patients. Imaginary companions are experienced as one or more invisible persons who have some conversations with patients directly and mutually for a period of time. They consist of vivid images which range between pure perceptions and pure images. The position of these images is not specified, and includes images perceived internally and externally by the patient. Adolescent patients sense the reality of these images and think of them as other persons, but recognize that these are not real people. Generally, imaginary companions are beneficial to the patients. These characteristics indicate that the phenomenon of imaginary companions has a mainly pathologic structure, but some characteristics, such as the patients' recognition of the imaginary aspect of the companion and the benefit for patients, does not fall under the category of psychopathology. We suppose that elucidation of this phenomenon would lead us to productive research in the psychopathologic field.

  20. Adolescent suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Novick, Lloyd F; Cibula, Donald A; Sutphen, Sally M

    2003-05-01

    This case-prevention of adolescent suicide-is one of a series of teaching cases in the Case-Based Series in Population-Oriented Prevention (C-POP). It has been developed for use in medical school and residency prevention curricula. The complete set of cases is presented in this supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. This teaching case examines the issue of prevention of adolescent and young adult suicide both at an individual and at a population or community level, using data from the Onondaga County Health Department. In the first section of the case, students are asked to determine whether five deaths related to falling or jumping at a local shopping mall should be considered to be suicidal deaths. Students then develop skills in the reporting as well as in the epidemiology of adolescent suicidal deaths in Onondaga County. As the case progresses, students analyze the results of a local surveillance study of suicidal attempts and ideation. The case concludes with students evaluating a hypothetical screening study intended to reduce the risk of suicidal death and discussing a research design to examine the effectiveness of this prevention strategy.

  1. Single absorbable polydioxanone pin fixation for distal chevron bunion osteotomies.

    PubMed

    Deorio, J K; Ware, A W

    2001-10-01

    The distal chevron osteotomy is a well-established technique for correction of symptomatic mild to moderate metatarsus primus varus with hallux valgus deformity. Fixation of the osteotomy ranges from none to bone pegs, Kirschner wires, screws, or absorbable pins. We evaluated one surgeon's (J.K.D.) results of distal chevron osteotomy fixation with a single, nonpredrilled, 1.3-mm poly-p-dioxanone pin and analyzed any differences in patients with unilateral or bilateral symptomatic metatarsus primus varus with hallux valgus deformities. All osteotomies healed without evidence of infection, osteolysis, nonunion, or necrosis. Equal correction was achieved in unilateral and bilateral procedures. The technique is quick and easy, and adequate fixation is achieved.

  2. Osteochondroma of the Tibial Sesamoid: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Kazuo; Hakozaki, Michiyuki; Kikuchi, Shin-Ichi; Yabuki, Shoji; Konno, Shin-Ichi

    2017-02-15

    Osteochondroma, one of the most common benign bone tumors, frequently occurs in the metaphysis of the long bones. We report an extremely rare case of osteochondroma that occurred in the tibial sesamoid. The patient was a 62-year-old Japanese male. He presented with a 1-year history of pain and a hard mass on the plantar aspect of the right forefoot sole. The osteochondroma protruded toward the sole from the tibial sesamoid, leading to pain on weightbearing. After tibial sesamoidectomy, the patient's symptoms were eliminated, and no pain or complications such as hallux valgus occurred after the surgery. Although a potential risk exists of postoperative hallux valgus deformity, tibial sesamoidectomy seems to be an appropriate surgical option for both osteochondroma and bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation to avoid residual pain or local recurrence.

  3. Hypermobility of the first ray in ballet dancer.

    PubMed

    Biz, Carlo; Favero, Laura; Stecco, Carla; Aldegheri, Roberto

    2012-10-01

    Hypermobility of the first ray, which is caused by an instability of the first metatarsocuneiform joint, is one of the factors that induces hallux valgus and can be caused by technical mistakes in ballet practice. Correlation between ballet practice and hypermobility of the first ray. Using a modified Klaue device, mobility of the first metatarsocuneiform joint was measured (hypermobility ≥ 10mm) in both dorsal and dorso-medial directions in 264 feet in 2 groups of people: ballet dancers (non professional) and a control group of non-dancers. 45° mobility is statistically higher than dorsal mobility, and mobility in the ballet dancer group is higher than in the control group, but there is no correlation between hours of ballet and en-pointe shoe practice, and hypermobility of the first ray. First ray hypermobility, and even hallux valgus, in ballet practice is related to anatomical-hereditary factors and to incorrect technical execution.

  4. Marital and Birth Expectations of Urban Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward A.; Zabin, Laurie S.

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes the responses of 1,344 African-American and 580 white female adolescents, and 852 African-American and 520 white male adolescents to questions regarding their perceived ideal ages for marriage and first birth. Findings reveal differences between white and African-American adolescents' responses. Comparisons suggest that the adolescents'…

  5. Creative Counseling Interventions for Grieving Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slyter, Marty

    2012-01-01

    This article provides information on adolescent developmental issues and developmentally appropriate interventions that can help mental health practitioners work with adolescents grieving a death loss. Specific areas that are initially covered include core adolescent developmental issues that must be understood, including adolescent developmental…

  6. Assessment of Parental and Adolescent Verbal Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Rhydonia H.; And Others

    Verbal interactions between adolescents and their parents may affect adolescents' self-esteem and self-concept. The current development of an instrument, the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (VIQ), was designed to measure adolescents' perceptions of their parents verbal interactions with them. Noting that the relationship between adolescents'…

  7. Is Older Better? Adolescent Parenthood and Maltreatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massat, Carol Rippey

    1995-01-01

    Analyzed findings of previous studies of the adolescent parent population to determine the relationship between age of parent and maltreatment, and whether adolescent parents are overrepresented within the maltreating and foster care populations. Found that adolescents are not overrepresented, suggesting that programs for adolescents should focus…

  8. Work Values of Singaporean Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Esther

    This study attempted to determine the predominant work values among Singaporean students, possible changes in the work values of adolescents as they proceed from early to late adolescence, and the role of gender in forming work values. Using a cross-sectional design and stratified random sampling techniques, a sample of 645 boys and 735 girls was…

  9. Literacy Perceptions of Runaway Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair-Larsen, Susan M.

    A study investigated the literacy needs of adolescents staying in short-term crisis intervention centers--shelters for teens who have run away or are otherwise homeless. During a 6-month period, interviews were conducted in a non-threatening, informal environment; the adolescents responded to open-ended questions about their histories of reading…

  10. Adolescent Behavior Change: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Educational Programs and Studies Information Service.

    This focus paper contains reprints of 11 articles intended to provide an overview of the key issues in the area of adolescent behavior change as it relates to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) education. Included are: (1) "Preventing HIV Infection and AIDS in Children and Adolescents" (J.…

  11. Adolescent Brain Development and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Arria, Amelia

    2011-01-01

    Research now suggests that the human brain is still maturing during adolescence. The developing brain may help explain why adolescents sometimes make decisions that are risky and can lead to safety or health concerns, including unique vulnerabilities to drug abuse. This article explores how this new science may be put to use in our prevention and…

  12. Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

  13. Single Parenting of the Adolescent.

    PubMed

    Carroll

    1991-06-01

    This article discusses issues that are of interest and concern to all parents of adolescents, but that may be particularly difficult for single parents to manage. It also provides a framework for examining the areas of similarity as well as difference between the adolescent and the single parent. Attention is paid to the potential advantages of single-parent status.

  14. Noise Exposures of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humann, Michael; Sanderson, Wayne; Flamme, Greg; Kelly, Kevin M.; Moore, Genna; Stromquist, Ann; Merchant, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This project was conducted to characterize the noise exposure of adolescents living in rural and agricultural environments. Methods: From May to October, 25 adolescents ages 13 through 17, living either on a farm or a rural nonfarm, were enrolled in the study. Subjects received training on the correct operation and use of personal noise…

  15. Adolescent Alienation: Assessment and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetro, Joyce V.

    Adolescents struggle to establish their own identities and become independent in making the transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescent alienation can result from changes in family structure from traditional two-parent families to one-parent families, decreased family stability, increased mobility of society, population increases,…

  16. Online Communication and Adolescent Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Greenfield, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, technology has become increasingly important in the lives of adolescents. As a group, adolescents are heavy users of newer electronic communication forms such as instant messaging, e-mail, and text messaging, as well as communication-oriented Internet sites such as blogs, social networking, and sites for sharing photos and…

  17. Adolescent Literacy: More than Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biancarosa, Gina

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of adolescent literacy involves more than providing remediation for students who have not mastered basic reading skills. To become successful learners, adolescents must master complex texts, understand the diverse literacy demands of the different content areas, and navigate digital texts. In this article, Biancarosa reviews what the…

  18. Narcissism--An Adolescent Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Margot

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that the adolescent process needs to be accorded its own particularity of reference, especially where narcissism is concerned. The paper draws on literary and clinical examples to describe what is termed the "adolescent organisation". In many ways, this organisation reflects post-Kleinian theory of what constitutes narcissistic…

  19. Ego and Leadership among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thangarajathi, S.

    2010-01-01

    The period of adolescence is designated as the period of storm and stress and age of revolt. This is considered as being one of the most difficult stage in the life of any individual. Thus adolescence is the most critical stage with a distinct phase of rapid physical, psychological and social behavioral changes and emotional disturbances. As Ego…

  20. Adolescence: A Time That Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    Noting that there are an estimated 1.2 billion 10- to 19-year-olds in the world, this report examines the challenges faced by adolescents in both developing and developed nations. The report describes adolescence as a complex transition during which youth take on new responsibilities and experiment with independence. The importance of the…

  1. Handbook of Adolescent Literacy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenbury, Leila, Ed.; Bomer, Randy, Ed.; Smagorinsky, Peter, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The first comprehensive research handbook of its kind, this volume showcases innovative approaches to understanding adolescent literacy learning in a variety of settings. Distinguished contributors examine how well adolescents are served by current instructional practices and highlight ways to translate research findings more effectively into…

  2. An Assertiveness Scale for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dong Yul; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Developed a 33-item, situation-specific instrument that measures assertiveness of adolescents. Based on data from 682 elementary and secondary school students, adequate reliability and validity of the Assertiveness Scale for Adolescents (ASA) were obtained when tested against several variables about which predictions could be made. (BH)

  3. The Public Image of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    The public image of adolescents tends to be very negative, and there is a disconnect between adults and youth. However, numerous examples of what is right with today's youth exist. Many communities are formally or informally involved in youth initiatives. Stresses the importance of adult involvement in adolescents' lives, noting social norms about…

  4. Self-Mutilation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Self-mutilation is not a new trend or phenomenon in adolescents. Self-mutilation can be divided into three categories: major, stereotypic, and moderate/superficial. Moderate/superficial self-mutilation is the most common type in adolescents and includes cutting, burning, and carving. School nurses are positioned to identify, to assist, and to…

  5. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  6. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  7. Neighborhood Poverty and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride Murry, Velma; Berkel, Cady; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Nation, Maury

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of studies conducted over the past decade on the effects of neighborhood and poverty on adolescent normative and nonnormative development. Our review includes a summary of studies examining the associations between neighborhood poverty and adolescent identity development followed by a review of studies…

  8. Best Practices for Adolescent ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rance-Roney, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent English language learners present particular challenges for schools. The population of adolescent ELLs is diverse, and their educational needs are affected by differences in immigration status, quality of educational background, native language, cultural distance from U.S. culture, future plans, and economic status. The article offers…

  9. Postdivorce Father-Adolescent Closeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mindy E.; Booth, Alan; King, Valarie; Johnson, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that closeness of the father-child bond following parental divorce is associated with better outcomes for children and adolescents. Unlike other investigations, this study takes a long-term developmental approach to understanding stability and change in postdivorce father-adolescent relationship closeness. Drawing on Add Health…

  10. Parenting and Adolescents' Sexual Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longmore, Monica A.; Eng, Abbey L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2009-01-01

    This study draws on social control and social learning theories to examine the role of dating-specific attitudes and practices as predictors of adolescents' sexual initiation. We include attention to the adolescent's reaction to control attempts as a further means of assessing family dynamics (i.e., frequency of dating disagreements). The study…

  11. Adolescents' Intentional Self-Mutilation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laskite, A.; Laskene, S.

    2011-01-01

    In Lithuania, suicide is among the top three causes of death; between twenty and thirty-three school-age children take their own lives every year, and the overwhelming majority of adolescents do not seek help in connection with situations that prompt them to engage in self-mutilation. Research indicates adolescents think that if more attention is…

  12. Troubled Adolescents and HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, John O., Ed.; And Others

    This report on adolescents, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and Human Immune Virus (HIV) infection had its beginning in the Knowledge Development Workshop "Issues in the Prevention and Treatment of AIDS Among Adolescents with Serious Emotional Disturbance," held June 9-10, 1988 in the District of Columbia. These papers are included:…

  13. Supporting Adolescents Exposed to Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Anne K.; Vernberg, Eric; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents possess numerous strengths and vulnerabilities based on their unique stage of development. When youth experience a disaster, whether natural or human-caused, there are certain considerations to be taken into account when providing them with support. This article describes common adolescent reactions to the impact phase of disasters as…

  14. Contraception and the Adolescent Diabetic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennoy, Ilene

    1989-01-01

    Data from a study of 11 teenage diabetics suggests that pregnancy among adolescent diabetics is more frequent than among the general population, at a time when diabetic control is poor because of psychosocial factors associated with adolescence. Current recommendations regarding contraception for diabetic women, focusing on barrier methods, are…

  15. Diabetes as Experienced by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meldman, Linda S.

    1987-01-01

    Explored adolescents' perspective of their diabetic management by interviewing 12 adolescent counselors-in-training at a diabetic youth camp. Interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method; themes were further grouped into three categories: psychosocial, developmental, and clinical. A striking finding throughout the data was the…

  16. Antidepressants and the adolescent brain.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Lesley; Goodyer, Ian M

    2015-05-01

    Major unipolar depression is a significant global health problem, with the highest incident risk being during adolescence. A depressive illness during this period is associated with negative long-term consequences including suicide, additional psychiatric comorbidity, interpersonal relationship problems, poor educational performance and poor employment attainment well into adult life. Despite previous safety concerns, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) remain a key component of the treatment of moderate to severe depression episodes in adolescents. The impact of SSRIs on the developing adolescent brain, however, remains unclear. In this review we first consider what is currently known about the developing brain during adolescence and how these development processes may be affected by a depressive illness. We then review our understanding of the action of SSRIs, their effects on the brain and how these may differ between adults and adolescents. We conclude that there is currently little evidence to indicate that the human adolescent brain is at developmental risk from SSRIs. Furthermore, there is no clear-cut evidence to support the concerns of marked suicidal adverse side effects accruing in depressed adolescents being treated with SSRIs. Neither, however, is there irrefutable evidence to dismiss all such concerns. This makes SSRI prescribing a matter of medical judgement, ensuring the benefits outweigh the risks for the individual patients, as with so much in therapeutics. Overall, SSRIs show clinical benefits that we judge to outweigh the risks to neurodevelopment and are an important therapeutic choice in the treatment of moderate to severe adolescent depression.

  17. Re/Mediating Adolescent Literacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, John, Ed.; Luke, Allan, Ed.

    Suggesting that teaching in New Times requires that educators read and re/mediate the social relations, the cultural knowledges, and the relationships of power between adolescents and their social, biological, and semiotic universes, this collection of essays offers new ways of seeing and talking about adolescents and their literacies. Most of the…

  18. Depression in Urban Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles-Pina, Rebecca A.; DeFrance, Emily; Cox, Deborah; Woodward, April

    2005-01-01

    Depression in urban Hispanic adolescents can have negative influences on their ability to acquire a sound education. This study was conducted on 191 urban Hispanic adolescents ages 13-18. The findings indicated that (a) Hispanic females were more depressed than Hispanic males, (b) 42% of the participants had been retained a grade, (c) 7% had…

  19. Aspects of Spirituality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Arndt; Foller-Mancini, Axel; Gidley, Jennifer; Heusser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses which aspects of spirituality are valued by adolescents, and how they are interconnected with youths' life satisfaction and "self-centeredness". The participants were 254 adolescents (11th grade) of four different high schools from west Germany. After re-validation of the 6-factorial student's version of the ASP…

  20. Adolescent Mothers Leaving Multigenerational Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberlander, Sarah E.; Shebl, Fatma M.; Magder, Laurence S.; Black, Maureen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how the developmental processes of autonomy and relatedness are related to changes in the residential status of 181 first-time, adolescent, urban, low-income, African American mothers over the first 24 months postpartum. Although adolescent mothers were eager to live independently, few made a clear transition out of the…

  1. Adolescent Motherhood and Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…

  2. Birth Defects and Adolescent Pregnancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, James

    1975-01-01

    Home economists who work with adolescents can help prepare them for responsible parenthood later in life by explaining the known causes of various birth defects; providing basic information about human genetics, prenatal nutrition, and drug and alcohol effects; and motivating adolescents to exercise increased responsibility in their sexual…

  3. Cluster Analysis of Adolescent Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Lin, Chun-Hung; Chen, Feng-Yi; Peng, Ping-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Emerging web applications and networking systems such as blogs have become popular, and they offer unique opportunities and environments for learners, especially for adolescent learners. This study attempts to explore the writing styles and genres used by adolescents in their blogs by employing content, factor, and cluster analyses. Factor…

  4. Adolescent mothers leaving multigenerational households.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Sarah E; Shebl, Fatma M; Magder, Laurence S; Black, Maureen M

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how the developmental processes of autonomy and relatedness are related to changes in the residential status of 181 first-time, adolescent, urban, low-income, African American mothers over the first 24 months postpartum. Although adolescent mothers were eager to live independently, few made a clear transition out of the multigenerational household; 56% lived in the household of origin continuously (IN), 21% left and never returned (OUT), and 23% had multiple moves in and out of the household (IN/OUT). Older adolescent maternal age, less supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relations, and high household density were associated with leaving the household of origin. The IN/OUT group had difficulty adopting the roles of adult and parent. Helping adolescent mothers and grandmothers negotiate roles to reduce conflict may promote autonomy and relatedness, allowing mothers to learn parenting skills, qualify for public assistance, and continue their education.

  5. Adolescent pregnancy: a regional tragedy.

    PubMed

    Conner, S L

    1992-12-01

    Adolescent childbearing increased 16% over 1986-90 in the Southern region of the US from 38.4 to 44.6 births/1000 girls aged 15-17; adolescent birth rates declined only in Oklahoma at the rate of 1%. Southern states spent more than $5.7 billion in Aid to Families with Dependent Children, Medicaid, and food stamps in 1991 to support families started by adolescent mothers, but federal and state spending combined for the primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy totalled only $110 million in the same states. Public expenditures related to adolescent childbearing in Alabama in fiscal year 1991 totalled more than $117 million, yet less than $1.5 million is spent on preventing teen pregnancy. The author stresses the need for stronger state commitment, leadership, and funds for programs to prevent pregnancy. Thus far, Alabama has definitely not done enough to address the HIV and AIDS pandemic.

  6. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    PubMed Central

    Arain, Mariam; Haque, Maliha; Johal, Lina; Mathur, Puja; Nel, Wynand; Rais, Afsha; Sandhu, Ranbir; Sharma, Sushil

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain’s region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone), which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also significantly impact maturation of the adolescent brain. Pharmacological interventions to regulate adolescent behavior have been attempted with limited success. Since several factors, including age, sex

  7. Foot problems in middle-aged patients: keeping active people up to speed.

    PubMed

    Coady, C M; Gow, N; Stanish, W

    1998-05-01

    Most of the common foot problems that bother active middle-aged people are self-limiting and easily treated if detected early. Reviewed here are the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of hallux valgus and rigidus, lesser-toe deformities, corns, Morton's neuroma, metatarsal stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, posterior tibialis tenosynovitis and rupture, acquired pes planus, tarsal tunnel syndrome, and foot problems related to rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. In most cases, conservative treatment will enable patients to return to activity relatively quickly.

  8. Anatomy of the triceps surae: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Dalmau-Pastor, Miquel; Fargues-Polo, Betlem; Casanova-Martínez, Daniel; Vega, Jordi; Golanó, Pau

    2014-12-01

    Gastrocnemius contracture has recently gained relevance owing to its suggested relationship with foot disorders such as metatarsalgia, plantar fasciopathy, hallux valgus, and others. Consequently this has induced a renewed interest in surgical lengthening techniques, including proximal gastrocnemius release, to resolve gastrocnemius contracture in patients with foot disorders. This article describes and discusses the general anatomy of the triceps surae and the surgical anatomy of the gastrocnemius.

  9. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies Regarding Adolescents' Peer-Related Loneliness: Associations with Adolescent Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Spithoven, Annette W M; Vanhalst, Janne; Lodder, Gerine; Bijttebier, Patricia; Goossens, Luc

    2017-05-01

    Because loneliness is a subjective experience, it is often examined using self-reports. Yet, researchers have started to use other-reports to examine loneliness. As previous research suggests that discrepancies between self- and other views might have important implications for adolescents' mental health, the current study examines discrepancies in multi-informant reports on adolescents' loneliness in relation with prosocial behavior, aggression, and adolescents' parent-related loneliness. The sample consisted of 374 mother-adolescent dyads and 318 father-adolescent dyads (41.80% male, M age  = 15.67 years, SD = 1.25). Results indicated that informants used different reference points to assess adolescents' peer-related loneliness, but were otherwise comparable. Moreover, informant discrepancies were associated with greater adolescents' reported parent-related loneliness. The current study did not provide evidence that discrepancies were related to prosocial or aggressive behavior. The current study adds to the notion that other-reports on loneliness show substantial convergence with self-reports. In addition, this study indicates that the discrepancy between other- and self-reports on loneliness holds valuable information for adolescent socio-emotional adjustment.

  10. The MAPI as a Treatment Outcome Measure for Adolescent Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piersma, Harry L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Administered Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory at admission and discharge to 215 hospitalized adolescent psychiatric patients. Found significant mean score differences for both internalizing (affective disorder) and externalizing (disruptive behavior disorder) adolescents. Internalizing adolescents reported significantly greater distress at…

  11. Reproductive health in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H L

    1994-01-01

    The health and well-being of adolescents is closely intertwined with their physical, psychological and social development, but this is put at risk by sexual and reproductive health hazards which are increasing in much of the world. Changes in population growth and distribution, the rise of telecommunications, the increase in travel and a decline in the family, as well as a generally earlier start of menarche and later age of marriage are contributing to an increase in unprotected sexual relations before marriage. This, combined with risks from early marriage, result in too early or unwanted pregnancy and childbirth, induced abortion in hazardous circumstances and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection leading to AIDS. With more than half the world's population below the age of 25, and 4 out of 5 young people living in developing countries with inadequate access to prevention and care, there is an urgent need for action. Young women are particularly vulnerable. Mortality and morbidity from early pregnancy whether ending in childbirth or abortion, is much higher for the younger adolescent. Young women, especially those who have less formal education, are more vulnerable to pressures for marriage, or sexual relations before marriage, often with older men. Young people generally lack adequate knowledge about their own development and information on how to get help. Those who could help are rarely trained for working with adolescents, and services which are generally designed for adults or children often deter young people from getting help when they most need it. Policy and legislation relating to sexual and reproductive health issues are often contradictory, and unclear or unenforced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Parental employment status and adolescents' health: the role of financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescents' resilience.

    PubMed

    Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Benka, Jozef; Orosova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with parental employment status and its relationship to adolescents' self-reported health. It studies the role of the financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent resilience in the relationship between parental employment status and adolescents' self-rated health, vitality and mental health. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse questionnaire data obtained from 2799 adolescents (mean age 14.3) in 2006. The results show a negative association of the father's, but not mother's unemployment or non-employment with adolescents' health. Regression analyses showed that neither financial strain nor a poor parent-adolescent relationship or a low score in resilience accounted for the relationship between the father's unemployment or non-employment and poorer adolescent health. Furthermore, resilience did not work as a buffer against the negative impact of fathers' unemployment on adolescents' health.

  13. Adolescent alcohol exposure: Are there separable vulnerable periods within adolescence?

    PubMed

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2015-09-01

    There are two key alcohol use patterns among human adolescents that confer increased vulnerability for later alcohol abuse/dependence, along with neurocognitive alterations: (a) early initiation of use during adolescence, and (b) high rates of binge drinking that are particularly prevalent late in adolescence. The central thesis of this review is that lasting neurobehavioral outcomes of these two adolescent exposure patterns may differ. Although it is difficult to disentangle consequences of early use from later binge drinking in human studies given the substantial overlap between groups, these two types of problematic adolescent use are differentially heritable and hence separable to some extent. Although few studies using animal models have manipulated alcohol exposure age, those studies that have have typically observed timing-specific exposure effects, with more marked (or at least different patterns of) lasting consequences evident after exposures during early-mid adolescence than late-adolescence/emerging adulthood, and effects often restricted to male rats in those few instances where sex differences have been explored. As one example, adult male rats exposed to ethanol during early-mid adolescence (postnatal days [P] 25-45) were found to be socially anxious and to retain adolescent-typical ethanol-induced social facilitation into adulthood, effects that were not evident after exposure during late-adolescence/emerging adulthood (P45-65); exposure at the later interval, however, induced lasting tolerance to ethanol's social inhibitory effects that was not evident after exposure early in adolescence. Females, in contrast, were little influenced by ethanol exposure at either interval. Exposure timing effects have likewise been reported following social isolation as well as after repeated exposure to other drugs such as nicotine (and cannabinoids), with effects often, although not always, more pronounced in males where studied. Consistent with these timing

  14. Adolescent sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Spigarelli, Michael G

    2007-12-01

    Sexual orientation has been defined as the patterns of sexual thoughts, fantasies, and attractions that an individual has toward other persons of the same or opposite gender. Throughout childhood and approaching adolescence, children try to understand their own sexuality and sexual orientation in the context of the society in which they live. Typically, this attempt to understand first occurs in thoughts of a sexual nature and later through actions, usually before sexual orientation is clearly defined. How these experiences are handled, by the individual and close friends and relatives, helps to define how an individual views and accepts their sexual orientation ultimately as an adult.

  15. Social networking and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fuld, Gilbert L

    2009-04-01

    Online social networking is a 21st century innovation increasingly embraced by today's young people. It provides new opportunities for communication that expand an adolescent's world. Yet adults, often suspicious of new trends and technologies initially embraced by youth, often see these new environments as perilous places to visit. These fears have been accentuated by media hype, especially about sexual predators. How dangerous are they? Because the rush to go on these sites is a new phenomenon, research is as yet scant. This review explores current beliefs and knowledge about the dangers of social networking sites.

  16. [Obesity, migration and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Chamay-Weber, Catherine; Shehu-Brovina, Shqipe; Narring, Françoise

    2012-06-13

    Weight management interventions during adolescence are challenging. Migration adds complexity to this problem, making migrant families more vulnerable. Teenagers confront families to new values transmitted by the host society: opulence, junk food, video games. Obesity should not be seen as a single issue of calories-excess, but must be considered as being part of a larger problem, which takes into account the context of the familial and societal life of the migrants. The caregivers must have an overall view of the situation to provide appropriate approaches to weight management.

  17. [Migrant adolescents and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Renteria, Saira-Christine

    2012-06-13

    Besides its emotional, hormonal and physical components, sexuality has also an important social function. Analyzing these interactions in immigrant adolescents who are challenged at the same time by developmental changes and modified cultural and social rules--especially if they differ from the rules assimilated during childhood--might help professionals to access better comprehension. Personal experience, individual and external resources, whether they are family oriented or professional, are prone to influence on behavior, perception and outcome related to sexual health. The subject is discussed on the base of scientific literature and medical practice.

  18. [Feeding and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Dain, E

    2012-09-01

    Adolescence is a transition period during which young people face many changes. Their desire to assert and differentiate themselves is reflected even in their food choices. These choices may have impacts until their adult lives. Moreover the media affect them in contradictory ways from images of extreme thinnesses to enticing advertisements of calorie food. A lack of self-esteem may appear, and in case of fertile ground may cause either diet, either addiction, or eating disorder. A comforting family as well as empathetic physicians have a main role in the medical care.

  19. Genetic influences on adolescent behavior.

    PubMed

    Dick, Danielle M; Adkins, Amy E; Kuo, Sally I-Chun

    2016-11-01

    Adolescence is a transitional, developmental phase with marked shifts in behavior, particularly as related to risk-taking and experimentation. Genetic influences on adolescent behavior also show marked changes across this developmental period; in fact, adolescence showcases the dynamic nature of genetic influences on human behavior. Using the twin studies literature on alcohol use and misuse, we highlight several principles of genetic influence on adolescent behavior. We illustrate how genetic influences change (increase) across adolescence, as individuals have more freedom to express their predispositions and to shape their social worlds. We show how there are multiple genetic pathways to risk, and how the environment can moderate the importance of genetic predispositions. Finally, we review the literature aimed at identifying specific genes involved in adolescent behavior and understanding how identified genes impact adolescent outcomes. Ultimately, understanding how genetic predispositions combine with environmental influences to impact pathways of risk and resilience should be translated into improved prevention and intervention efforts; this remains a rich area for future research.

  20. Nicotine and the adolescent brain.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Menglu; Cross, Sarah J; Loughlin, Sandra E; Leslie, Frances M

    2015-08-15

    Adolescence encompasses a sensitive developmental period of enhanced clinical vulnerability to nicotine, tobacco, and e-cigarettes. While there are sociocultural influences, data at preclinical and clinical levels indicate that this adolescent sensitivity has strong neurobiological underpinnings. Although definitions of adolescence vary, the hallmark of this period is a profound reorganization of brain regions necessary for mature cognitive and executive function, working memory, reward processing, emotional regulation, and motivated behavior. Regulating critical facets of brain maturation are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, perturbations of cholinergic systems during this time with nicotine, via tobacco or e-cigarettes, have unique consequences on adolescent development. In this review, we highlight recent clinical and preclinical data examining the adolescent brain's distinct neurobiology and unique sensitivity to nicotine. First, we discuss what defines adolescence before reviewing normative structural and neurochemical alterations that persist until early adulthood, with an emphasis on dopaminergic systems. We review how acute exposure to nicotine impacts brain development and how drug responses differ from those seen in adults. Finally, we discuss the persistent alterations in neuronal signaling and cognitive function that result from chronic nicotine exposure, while highlighting a low dose, semi-chronic exposure paradigm that may better model adolescent tobacco use. We argue that nicotine exposure, increasingly occurring as a result of e-cigarette use, may induce epigenetic changes that sensitize the brain to other drugs and prime it for future substance abuse.

  1. Motivational interviewing in adolescent treatment.

    PubMed

    Naar-King, Sylvie

    2011-11-01

    This paper briefly reviews the research literature on motivational interviewing (MI) and behaviour change in adolescents and then discusses the implications of adolescent cognitive and social-emotional developmental processes for the relational and technical components of MI. Research suggests that MI is efficacious in improving substance use in adolescents. Research has been slower to emerge in other behaviours, but available randomized controlled trials suggest that MI has great promise for improving mental and physical health outcomes in this developmental period. The relational and technical components of MI are highly relevant for the adolescent developmental period, and studies have shown that these components are related to outcomes in this population. There are several ways to include MI in clinical interventions for adolescents, ranging from MI in brief settings to using MI as a platform from which all other treatments are offered. Future research is necessary to test the effects of MI in adolescent group settings and the full integration of MI into other adolescent treatment approaches.

  2. [Bunion foot].

    PubMed

    Vukašinović, Zoran; Mikić, Nadan

    2012-01-01

    Hallux valgus deformity is a complex chronic progressive disease primarily characterized by a lateral great toe deviation and deformity of the first metatarsophalageal joint. Numerous etiological factors are related with the expression of this disease, and they are divided into two categories: endogenous and exogenous. Complexity of the hallux valgus deformity is reflected with the progression of the disease that gives rise to numerous forefoot deformities. The diagnosis is first of all affirmed by clinical examination and x-ray of the feet in a standing position. Treatment could be either operative or conservative. Conservative treatment has shown to be totally unsuccessful. Before decision making on the type of operative treatment, the patient's complaints, age, profession, clinical and x-ray findings must be taken into consideration. Until now, over two hundred different operative procedures have been described, which clearly supports the observation that there is no single method which could resolve all clinical varieties of this deformity. Therefore, today, when making a choice on the surgical procedure of hallux valgus deformity, the utilization of surgical algorithm is recommended.

  3. Effects of the lapidus arthrodesis and chevron bunionectomy on plantar forefoot pressures.

    PubMed

    King, Christy M; Hamilton, Graham A; Ford, Lawrence A

    2014-01-01

    Hallux valgus with or without first ray insufficiency has been strongly implicated as a contributing factor in lesser metatarsal overload. The principle goals of a bunionectomy are to relieve the pain, correct the deformity, and restore first metatarsophalangeal joint congruity. Until now, little evidence has been available to assess the effects of bunionectomy procedures on forefoot pressure. The primary aim of the present prospective study was to evaluate the preoperative and postoperative plantar pressures after 2 specific bunionectomies: the chevron bunionectomy and Lapidus arthrodesis. A total of 68 subjects, 34 in each group, were included for radiographic and pedographic evaluation. Both procedures demonstrated radiographic improvements in the mean intermetatarsal and hallux abductus angles. The mean hallux plantar pressure decreased significantly in both procedure groups (p < .001). However, Lapidus group exhibited an increase in the mean fifth metatarsal head plantar pressure (p = .008) and pressure under the fifth metatarsal as a percentage of the total forefoot pressure (p = .01). Furthermore, the pressure under the second metatarsal as a percentage of the total forefoot pressure decreased significantly (p = .01). This study suggests that the Lapidus arthrodesis and chevron bunionectomy both provide correction for hallux valgus deformity, but when comparing forefoot load sharing pressures, the Lapidus arthrodesis appeared to have greater influence on the load sharing distribution of forefoot pressure than did the bunionectomy employing the chevron osteotomy.

  4. Contraceptive needs of the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Petrus S; Goldstuck, Norman D

    2014-08-01

    The provision of contraception to adolescents requires specific attention. Adolescents require contraceptive methods which are safe, effective and simple to use. While long-acting reversible contraceptive methods are preferable, they should have a choice and not be forced or mandated especially in situations where this may compromise safety. After counselling they should have the ability to choose any method of contraception. Under the appropriate circumstances, each method of contraception may have a place. This chapter will be devoted to evaluating the most current scientific rationale for the indication for use of each method of contraception in adolescents.

  5. The role of parental and adolescent attributions in adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Guion, Kimberly; Mrug, Sylvie

    2012-09-01

    Previous literature has demonstrated the separate contributions of parental attributions and adolescent attributions to psychosocial adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness. However, it is unknown whether parental attributions affect adolescents' mental health directly or indirectly by influencing the youths' attributional style. This study evaluated the direct and indirect (through adolescent attributions) effects of parental attributions on internalizing and externalizing problems of adolescents with chronic illness. Adolescents (N = 128; M = 14.7 years) diagnosed with cystic fibrosis or diabetes and their caregivers completed measures of attributional style and adolescent adjustment. Parents' optimistic attributions were associated with fewer adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. These effects were partly mediated by adolescent attributions. These results suggest that targeting both adolescent and parent attributions may be important for improving adolescents' adjustment to a chronic illness.

  6. What Is Adolescence?: Adolescents Narrate Their Lives in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Angela M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsui, Amy O.; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the lives of Peruvian adolescents in a low-income human settlement outside of Lima. Twenty 12–17 year olds were asked to narrate their own life stories using the life history narrative research method. Holistic content analysis was coupled with a grounded theory approach to explore these data. Intergenerational responsibility, family tensions, economic pressures, racism and violence emerged without prompting and dominated the narrators’ life stories, underscoring the degree to which these adolescents lack access to the supportive individuals and structures that are key to positive adolescent development. The challenges faced by these and the other 5.8 million 10 to 19 year olds in Peru requires increased attention to the role of families, peers and communities in ensuring that adolescents are able to maintain their well-being and achieve their future expectations. PMID:20207410

  7. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yen, Sophia; Martin, Susanne

    2013-02-01

    CME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES: 1.Identify and explain the four currently available methods of emergency contraception.2.Discuss the risk and benefits of intrauterine devices as a first-line option for contraception in adolescents.3.Review strategies for explaining the most common contraceptive methods to an adolescent. The US has the highest pregnancy rate of any industrialized nation, approximately twice that of Canada, four times that of France, and eight times that of Japan or Italy.1 In recent years, the rate has declined, partially due to delayed coitarche (age of onset of vaginal sexual intercourse) but mainly due to greater use of contraception.2 Per the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (a national survey of about 15,000 youth in schools), 33% of high school freshmen, 44% of sophomores, 53% of juniors, and 63% of seniors have had vaginal sexual intercourse. To prevent unplanned and unwanted teenage pregnancies, which have negative consequences on a teenager's health and future, pediatricians must be able to provide birth control or at least know where to refer their patients in need.

  8. Obesity in children & adolescents.

    PubMed

    Raj, Manu; Kumar, R Krishna

    2010-11-01

    Worldwide, obesity trends are causing serious public health concern and in many countries threatening the viability of basic health care delivery. It is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The last two decades have witnessed an increase in health care costs due to obesity and related issues among children and adolescents. Childhood obesity is a global phenomenon affecting all socio-economic groups, irrespective of age, sex or ethnicity. Aetiopathogenesis of childhood obesity is multi-factorial and includes genetic, neuroendocrine, metabolic, psychological, environmental and socio-cultural factors. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, psychological, orthopaedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary and renal disorders are seen in association with childhood obesity. The treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents requires a multidisciplinary, multi-phase approach, which includes dietary management, physical activity enhancement, restriction of sedentary behaviour, pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery. A holistic approach to tackle the childhood obesity epidemic needs a collection of activities including influencing policy makers and legislation, mobilizing communities, restructuring organizational practices, establishing coalitions and networks, empowering providers, imparting community education as well as enriching and reinforcing individual awareness and skills. The implications of this global phenomenon on future generations will be serious unless appropriate action is taken.

  9. Contributions of parent-adolescent negative emotionality, adolescent conflict, and adoption status to adolescent externalizing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Koh, Bibiana D; Rueter, Martha A

    2011-01-01

    Although most adopted children are well adjusted, research has consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. The present investigation tested a model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors. The study included 616 families with at least one parent and two adolescent siblings with a maximum 5-year age difference. The analyses used data from the mothers (M age = 45.56, SD = 4.23), fathers (M age = 48.23, SD = 4.42), and the elder sibling (M age = 16.14, SD = 1.5). Findings support two conflict-mediated family processes that contributed to externalizing behaviors: one initiated by parent-adolescent traits and one by adoption status. Findings also underscore the salience of conflict in families and the significance of aggressive traits and negative emotionality. Contrary to previous research, we found that adoption status did not directly add to our explanation of adolescent externalizing behaviors beyond our proposed process. Instead, adoption status was indirectly associated with externalizing problems through a conflict-mediated relationship.

  10. Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder

    MedlinePlus

    ... to view results Return to Home Page Copyright ©2016 - American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. All Rights Reserved. Contact Us | Disclaimer | Privacy Statement Developed by Armstrong Enterprise Communication {1} ##LOC[OK]## {1} ##LOC[OK]## ## ...

  11. Discrimination against Muslim American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aroian, Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This descriptive qualitative study complements the few existing studies on Muslim American adolescents by obtaining in-depth description of the discrimination they encounter. The sample was 14 Muslim American adolescents who participated in one of two gender-specific focus groups about their discrimination experiences. Findings identified school settings as rife with discrimination toward Muslims, portrayed Muslim girls as at risk for harassment by strangers in public places, and illustrated how Muslim youth cope with discrimination. The study findings sensitize school nurses to the nature of the problem and provide direction for intervention.

  12. Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... and friends, have trouble concentrating, and develop low self-esteem. Some may develop depression and think about suicide ... to keep it secret. Gay, lesbian or bisexual adolescents should be allowed to decide when and to ...

  13. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)

  14. Social Justice, Research, and Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stephen T

    2016-03-01

    In what ways might research on adolescence contribute to social justice? My 2014 Presidential Address identified strategies for social justice in our field. First, we need research that is conscious of biases, power, and privilege in science, as well as in our roles as scholars. Second, we need research that attends to inequities in lives of adolescents, and as scholars we need to question the ways that our research may unwittingly reinforce those inequalities. Third, we need research that attends to urgencies, that is, issues or conditions that influence adolescents' well-being which demand attention and action. I draw from a range of concepts and theoretical perspectives to make the case for a framework of social justice in research on adolescence.

  15. Management of fractures in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Shital N; Wells, Lawrence; Mehlman, Charles T; Scherl, Susan A

    2011-01-01

    There are well-established treatment standards for adults who sustain fractures; however, these treatment standards are not always applicable when treating adolescents with similar fractures because of the presence of physes. Fractures in adolescents are treated by pediatric orthopaedic surgeons, adult orthopaedic traumatologists, or general orthopaedic surgeons. It is imperative that the principles of fracture management are well defined and discussed in both the pediatric and adult orthopaedic community. Controversial topics include the youngest age at which an adolescent can be treated as an adult and acceptable fracture reduction criteria. The general principles of managing fractures in adolescents regarding classification, treatment options, complications, and estimating skeletal age should be understood by the treating physician.

  16. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.

  17. Skin Diseases and the Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Marjorie

    1970-01-01

    Discusses such concerns as acne, syphilis, drug abuse, and tatoos. Indicates need for physician not only to treat skin diseases but to help adolescents to accept themselves and find constructive directions. (CJ)

  18. Fear, Fiction, and the Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grixti, Joe

    1982-01-01

    The popularity of horror fiction among adolescents is discussed in terms of the use of grammar for social interaction, personal development, and emotional therapy during a developmental stage characterized by fear and emotional upheaval. (MSE)

  19. Endometriosis in the Adolescent Patient.

    PubMed

    Stuparich, Mallory A; Donnellan, Nicole M; Sanfilippo, Joseph S

    2017-01-01

    The recognition and management of endometriosis in the adolescent patient is challenging. A strong clinical suspicion for endometriosis should be maintained in the adolescent who suffers from acyclic pelvic pain as well as absenteeism from school and lack of participation in daily activities. Risk factors include the presence of an obstructive Mullerian anomaly, a family history of endometriosis, and conditions that prolong exposure to endogenous and exogenous estrogens. Empiric medical therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and combined oral contraceptive pills may be considered in most adolescents with endometriosis. Failure of empiric therapy may warrant diagnostic laparoscopy, which affords a concomitant opportunity for treatment via excision of endometriosis. Endometriotic implants in the adolescent tend to be more atypical, appearing red/flame-like, clear/polypoid, or vesicular. Endometriosis tends to recur more often in adolescents when compared with adults, and the role of postoperative medical therapy for the suppression of disease progression is not entirely clear. Current knowledge on the impact of adolescent endometriosis on future fertility is limited but overall reassuring.

  20. Cannabis and adolescent brain development.

    PubMed

    Lubman, Dan I; Cheetham, Ali; Yücel, Murat

    2015-04-01

    Heavy cannabis use has been frequently associated with increased rates of mental illness and cognitive impairment, particularly amongst adolescent users. However, the neurobiological processes that underlie these associations are still not well understood. In this review, we discuss the findings of studies examining the acute and chronic effects of cannabis use on the brain, with a particular focus on the impact of commencing use during adolescence. Accumulating evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that regular heavy use during this period is associated with more severe and persistent negative outcomes than use during adulthood, suggesting that the adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of cannabis exposure. As the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in brain development, it is plausible that prolonged use during adolescence results in a disruption in the normative neuromaturational processes that occur during this period. We identify synaptic pruning and white matter development as two processes that may be adversely impacted by cannabis exposure during adolescence. Potentially, alterations in these processes may underlie the cognitive and emotional deficits that have been associated with regular use commencing during adolescence.

  1. Differentiating Adolescent Self-Injury from Adolescent Depression: Possible Implications for Borderline Personality Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hsiao, Ray C.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Yaptangco, Mona; Linehan, Marsha M.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Self-inflicted injury (SII) in adolescence marks heightened risk for suicide attempts, completed suicide, and adult psychopathology. Although several studies have revealed elevated rates of depression among adolescents who self injure, no one has compared adolescent self injury with adolescent depression on biological, self-, and informant-report…

  2. Reciprocal Effects between Parental Solicitation, Parental Control, Adolescent Disclosure, and Adolescent Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan J. T.; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim

    2010-01-01

    This two-wave multi-informant study examined the bidirectional associations of parental control and solicitation with adolescent disclosure and delinquency. Participants were 289 adolescents (150 females and 139 males, modal age 14) and both parents. Parental solicitation and control did not predict adolescent delinquency, but adolescents'…

  3. Who's That Adolescent in Your Class?: Understanding the Psychosocial World of the Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, M. I.

    1982-01-01

    The psychosocial characteristics of adolescents are described in order to assist teachers in interacting more effectively with their students. Examination of students about the presence of pathology in adolescence reveals that the typical adolescent is not a stereotypically impulse-ridden, uncontrollable person. Many of an adolescent's…

  4. Adolescents' Emotional Experiences of Mother-Adolescent Conflict Predict Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith L.; Powers, Sally I.

    2008-01-01

    Research on adolescent emotion has generally focused on expressions of emotion; however, there are reasons to believe that adolescents' experiences of emotion may be related to adolescent development in unique and important ways. This study examined the relation of adolescents' emotional experiences of conflict with their mothers to their…

  5. Parent-Adolescent Communication and Its Relationship to Adolescent Depression and Suicide Proneness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Cathie

    1988-01-01

    Adolescents (N=53) and both parents completed Parent-Adolescent Communication Inventory (PACI) and Suicide-Depression Inventory (SDI). Found significant relationships between mother's and adolescent's scores, not between father's and adolescent's scores. When other independent variables were controlled, neither parents' scores were significantly…

  6. America's Adolescents: How Healthy Are They? Volume 1. Profiles of Adolescent Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Janet E.; And Others

    Many adolescent health problems are linked with educational performance, family relationships, poverty, and the general lifestyles that adolescents experience in their communities. Although serious, chronic medical and psychiatric disorders affect about 6 percent of the adolescent population, many more adolescents are at risk for death and for…

  7. Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Autonomy as Predictors of Psychosocial Adjustment among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Mia Smith; Kotchick, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of mother-adolescent relationship quality and autonomy in the psychosocial outcomes in a sample of African American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The results indicated that positive mother-adolescent relationship quality and greater autonomy were associated with higher…

  8. [Endometriosis and surviving adolescence].

    PubMed

    Belaisch, J; Allart, J-P

    2006-03-01

    Endometriosis is a recurrent and painful disease which sometimes disturbs severely the quality of life of women who suffer from it. It is then logical to include a psychological back-up to its medical and surgical treatment. Nevertheless this support is not often offered to patients. One can hypothesize another and completely different way of seeing the problem: the mood swings and depression of endometriotic patients could possibly be, at least in some of them, the cause of the graft of endometrial cells and not the effect of pain and infertility. The mechanism of the development of endometriotic lesions could be related to a lowering of immune defences due to an alteration of the psycho-neuro-endocrino-immunologic network, resulting from difficult life experiences which mostly happen during adolescence. This concept may have beneficial effects for the patient whose case would be more understood in depth. But very few medical teams consider it worthwhile to include in their practices.

  9. Condom availability for adolescents.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    Although abstinence should be stressed as the certain way to prevent STDs and pregnancy, sexually active teens, male and female, must nonetheless be taught to use condoms properly, effectively, and consistently. The latex condom should be made widely available to young people. Ideally, young persons should have access to education and counseling when contraception is dispensed. However, condoms should be made easily available without any requirement for education. Condoms should be available not only through families, medical facilities, and commercial channels, but also through other appropriate and informed persons, without cost if possible, at sites where adolescents congregate. These sites may include schools, clubs, and other youth-serving agencies. A clear message from the medical community supporting condom use will enhance compliance.

  10. Update in adolescent dermatology.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Arthur N; Shwayder, Tor A

    2013-04-01

    This dermatology article serves as a quick reference for the physician treating adolescents. We first review the diagnostic approach to a dermatologic problem: configuration, color, pattern, and distribution. The next section discusses diagnosis and management of the most common clinical situations encountered in everyday practice, including skin infections, infestations, dermatitis, hypersensitivity reactions, and papulosquamous disorders. The following section covers conditions that should be managed with the help of a dermatologist, including difficult acute situations such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and necrotizing fasciitis; other chronic situations, including refractory common conditions such as acne and psoriasis, are also considered. We then discuss conditions that should be managed exclusively by a dermatologist, including malignancies, bullous disorders, and less common types of ichthyosis. The final section alerts the physician to dermatologic conditions that may be manifestations of other disorders, necessitating appropriate referral to a different specialist. Examples are immunologic and endocrine disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, collagen vascular disease, and malignancies.

  11. Pregnancy in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Davis, S

    1989-06-01

    The United States must improve its efforts to reduce teen pregnancy. We occupy an alarming position in the developed world from the standpoint of the magnitude of the pregnancy issue. While our society promotes sexuality to sell all sorts of consumer goods, it still refuses for the most part to make contraceptives familiar and available to sexually active teens. The youngest adolescents, 10 to 14 years, are having sex and babies at an increasing rate. Their children will have limited futures. Only by stepping up our efforts to prevent early pregnancy will we make possible a life of opportunity and choice for the young people of our country. Consequences will be costly and tragic if we do not.

  12. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations With Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Rosiers, Sabrina Des; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (mean age 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning. PMID:23848416

  13. Latino Parents' and Adolescents' Perceptions of the Needs and Issues of Adolescents in Their Community.

    PubMed

    de Anda, Diane; Franke, Todd M; Becerra, Rosina M

    2009-10-01

    Data from The Community Needs Assessment Survey were examined to understand the issues parents and adolescents felt were most important to address for the adolescents in their community. The sample of 1,784 Latino respondents consisted of 892 parent/adolescent dyads. Factor analyses found parents and adolescents identified and prioritized the same six factors: education and career planning, abuse and victimization, adolescent behavior problems, adolescent sexuality, socioeconomic stressors, and relationships. However, parent ratings for all factors were higher, indicating a higher level of concern. The article analyzes differences by age/generation (parents versus adolescents), by immigrant versus native status, and by type of dyad based on the latter (i.e., US born adolescent/US born parent, US born adolescent/immigrant parent, immigrant adolescent/immigrant parent). The authors discuss the complex interaction of these factors and the implications for practice and research.

  14. Developmental trajectories of acculturation in Hispanic adolescents: associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Unger, Jennifer B; Knight, George P; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (Mage  = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning.

  15. Children, adolescents, and television.

    PubMed

    Dietz, W H; Strasburger, V C

    1991-01-01

    As we have indicated, children's television has either a documented or probable effect on a variety of health-related behaviors in children and adolescents in the United States. Studies of cognitive development indicate that television provides a stimulus for learning and that children learn from television. The adverse effects of television appear related to both the time spent watching television and the content of the programs that are viewed. The reviewed observations suggest that a variety of initiatives are warranted to alter the time children spend watching television, the content of programs, and the types of programs for children and adolescents that are produced and broadcast. These initiatives require the development of effective techniques and materials for counseling parents, as well as continued political and legislative activities at the local and national level. We must promote the conviction that time spent in activities other than television viewing will provide our children with the values necessary to understand and interact with an increasingly complex world. Effective governmental action on behalf of children to change television will require a reaffirmation and enforcement of the Public Interest Standard. For half a century, the broadcast media have been licensed to use the airwaves in the public interest. The diversity and magnitude of the adverse effects of television on the health of children strongly suggest that the use of television has not been in the public interest. Although cable television offers multiple alternatives, less than 60% of American households receive cable. Broadcast television still represents the only alternative for 40% of American children. Substantial regulatory change by the current administration is unlikely. Therefore, legislative activity to mandate broadcast practices responsive to the needs of children appears the most appropriate national approach.

  16. Dextromethorphan Abuse in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018

  17. Trends in Psychopathology across the Adolescent Years: What Changes When Children become Adolescents, and When Adolescents become Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, E. Jane; Copeland, William; Angold, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about changes in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders between childhood and adolescence, and adolescence and adulthood. Methods: We reviewed papers reporting prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders separately for childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. Both longitudinal and cross-sectional papers published in…

  18. Understanding Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families Guide - Search Spanish Facts for Families Guide Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents No. 55; December ... is a great concern about the incidence of violent behavior among children and adolescents. This complex and ...

  19. Impact of Newspaper Reading on Adolescent Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; Moschis, George P.

    1981-01-01

    The results from a study of adolescents' newspaper reading habits and consumer attitudes and behaviors indicate that newspapers play an important role in the acquisition of consumer behaviors during adolescence. (RL)

  20. Panic Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Families Guide Panic Disorder In Children And Adolescents No. 50; Updated July 2013 Panic disorder is a common and treatable disorder. Children and adolescents with panic disorder have unexpected and repeated periods ...

  1. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  2. Training Adolescents in the Working World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chris

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the differences between training adolescents and adults and stresses the importance of designing effective programs for adolescents. Describes programs used by 7-11, Burger King, and Six Flags Over Texas. (JOW)

  3. Jungian Feminine Psychology and Adolescent Prostitutes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton-Ruddy, Lara; Handelsman, Mitchell M.

    1986-01-01

    Explores Jungian feminine psychology and its application in the treatment of adolescent prostitutes. Discusses Wolff's (1956) work on feminine functions and Leonard's (1982) work with father-daughter wounds. Explores techniques for applying these concepts with adolescent prostitutes. (Author)

  4. Contributions of Parent-Adolescent Negative Emotionality, Adolescent Conflict, and Adoption Status to Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Bibiana D.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2012-01-01

    Although most adopted children are well adjusted, decades of descriptive research have consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. Yet we have little understanding of the specific contributing factors that help explain this increased risk. Therefore, the present investigation tested a process model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors. The study included 616 families from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS; McGue et al., 2007). The proposed model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Findings support two conflict-mediated family processes that contributed to externalizing behaviors: one initiated by parent-adolescent traits, and one by adoption status. Findings also underscore the salience of conflict in families and the significance of aggressive traits over the other lower order traits (alienation, stress reactivity) and higher order negative emotionality in our proposed process. Contrary to previous research, we found that adoption status did not directly add to our explanation of adolescent externalizing behaviors beyond our proposed process. Instead, adoption status was indirectly associated with externalizing problems through a conflict-mediated relationship. PMID:22023274

  5. Adolescent fathers: an approach for intervention.

    PubMed

    Joshi, N P; Battle, S F

    1990-01-01

    Many myths exist concerning the needs and problems confronting adolescent fathers. Research on adolescent pregnancy has proliferated in the last decade. We now have a substantial body of empirically-based findings in this area. Unfortunately, few substantive findings are available on adolescent fathers, yet the magnitude of this problem has reached epidemic proportion. This article will provide an overview of current research on adolescent fathers and their needs and offer suggestions for appropriate intervention.

  6. Barriers that influence eating behaviors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Sandra; Horner, Sharon D

    2005-08-01

    Adolescence is a time of rapid growth and development with biologic, psychological, and emotional changes occurring simultaneously. We conducted a critical review of the literature to analyze key topics in the study of adolescents' eating behaviors and to identify barriers to healthy eating experienced by adolescents. The literature documents that nutritional deficits and poor eating established during adolescence have long-term health, growth, and developmental consequences. Gaps in the literature are identified and recommendations for future studies are proposed.

  7. Parental divorce, adolescents' feelings toward parents and drunkenness in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness and the contribution of adolescents' feelings toward their parents to this association. Cross-sectional data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3, 49.0% males; response rate 93%) were obtained. Respondents completed questionnaires on how often they had been drunk in the previous 4 weeks, whether their parents were divorced and a measure of their feelings toward their parents. Parental divorce was found to have an effect on adolescent drunkenness in the previous month, as were the high rates of negative and low rates of positive feelings toward both parents. The effect of divorce on drunkenness strongly decreased if adjusted for the affect of the adolescent toward the father, but not the mother. Our findings indicate that to keep the father positively involved after divorce might be a protective factor with regard to a higher probability of adolescent drunkenness in divorced families.

  8. Multiple maltreatment experiences and adolescent behavior problems: adolescents' perspectives.

    PubMed

    McGee, R A; Wolfe, D A; Wilson, S K

    1997-01-01

    By adolescence, appraisal of one's past life experience becomes critical to the stage-salient issue of identity formation. This study examined adolescents' perceptions of their maltreatment experiences. It scrutinized the combined and unique contribution of five maltreatment types (i.e., physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, neglect, and exposure to family violence) to variance in adolescent adjustment. It was predicted that these maltreatment types would account for significant variance in adjustment when controlling for the context variables of age, sex, socioeconomic status, IQ, and stressful life events. Adolescents (N = 160, aged 11-17) were randomly selected from the open caseload of a child protection agency. Participants completed global severity ratings regarding their experiences of the five types of maltreatment, as well as a battery of measures assessing self- and caretaker-reported externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. The youths' maltreatment ratings significantly predicted self-reported adjustment, even when controlling for all context variables. Psychological maltreatment was the most predictively potent maltreatment type, and enhanced the predictive utility of other maltreatment types. Significant sex differences in the sequelae of perceived maltreatment were evident. Also, interactions between youths' ratings and those obtained from CPS files were detected. The findings were consistent with recent research in child maltreatment, and contribute to our understanding of developmental psychopathology among adolescents.

  9. Smoking Media Literacy in Vietnamese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Huong, Nguyen T.; Chi, Hoang K.; Tien, Truong Q.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Smoking media literacy (SML) has been found to be independently associated with reduced current smoking and reduced susceptibility to future smoking in a sample of American adolescents, but not in other populations of adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess SML in Vietnamese adolescents and to determine the…

  10. Adolescent Services & the TC. Chapter 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains seven papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TCs) that deal with adolescent clients and TCs. Papers include: (1) Preliminary Consideration on "Adolescence and the TC" (David Deitch); (2) "Daytop's Full Service Adolescent Treatment Program" (Charles Devlin and Lois Morris); (3)…

  11. Anchors of Religious Commitment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Emily; Dollahite, David C.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores adolescent religious commitment using qualitative data from a religiously diverse (Jewish, Christian, Muslim) sample of 80 adolescents. A new construct, "anchors of religious commitment," grounded in interview data, is proposed to describe what adolescents commit to as a part of their religious identity. Seven anchors of…

  12. Adolescent Literature Revisited after Four Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Ken, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    The articles collected in this bulletin survey a wide range of topics concerning adolescent literature. Some of the titles included are "Seven Myths about Adolescent Literature" (Paul B. Janeczko), "The Book as Enemy" (Thomas Weaver), "Popular Non-Fiction Titles for Adolescents" (Noma Russell), "Values and Paperback Power" (Nel Ward), "An Approach…

  13. Designing Deeply Engaging Online Communities for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurzick, David

    2009-01-01

    American adolescents have experienced growth in their use of online communities; yet, it was unknown whether the current understanding of online-community design applied to the design of communities specific to adolescents. This study bridged this gap, examining (a) How adolescents interact in an online community designed in accordance with…

  14. Executive Function in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanfranchi, S.; Jerman, O.; Dal Pont, E.; Alberti, A.; Vianello, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present work is aimed at analysing executive function (EF) in adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS). So far, EF has been analysed mainly in adults with DS, showing a pattern of impairment. However, less is known about children and adolescents with this syndrome. Studying adolescents with DS might help us better understand whether…

  15. Literature for Adolescents: Gold or Dross?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauck, Philomena

    1984-01-01

    Considers the differences between adolescent novels and adult novels. Traces the development of adolescent literature, focusing on early adolescent novels; new influences and directions; the "New Realism"; British, Canadian, and Australian writers; science fiction, and historical fiction. Raises questions about reviewing and selecting appropriate…

  16. Adolescent Male Attitudes about Singing in Choir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence adolescent males to enroll in school choir as an elective class and to assess their attitudes about singing in general, self-concept of their own voices, and perception of others' view of adolescent males' participation in choir. Data were obtained from 101 adolescent males…

  17. [Adolescent Fertility]. Facts-at-a-Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A., Comp.

    This fact sheet reports the most recent information available on adolescent fertility in the United States. The following information is included: (1) the number of births to all adolescents, except those 14 years old and younger, has declined between 1980 and 1986; (2) the smaller number of births is due to a smaller number of adolescents and a…

  18. Adolescent Sexuality in a Changing American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilman, Catherine S.

    All aspects of adolescent sexuality may be viewed as primarily sexual. The primary fact about adolescence is that the young person becomes capable of reproduction. Biological changes interact with psychological ones; the cognitive, motivational, social and emotional aspects are all directed toward becoming a sexual human being. In adolescence,…

  19. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention…

  20. Adolescent Pregnancy in America: Causes and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Desirae M.; Jones, Karen H.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy has occurred throughout America's history. Only in recent years has it been deemed an urgent crisis, as more young adolescent mothers give birth outside of marriage. At-risk circumstances associated with adolescent pregnancy include medical and health complications, less schooling and higher dropout rates, lower career…

  1. The Development of Ethnic Identity during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Sabine Elizabeth; Seidman, Edward; Allen, LaRue; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    The development of ethnic identity is a critical facet of adolescence, particularly for adolescents of color. In order to examine the developmental trajectory of ethnic identity, African American, Latino American, and European American early and middle adolescents (N=420) were assessed over 3 years. Two components of ethnic identity were…

  2. Commitment among Arab Adolescents in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Ari, Adital Tirosh; Azaiza, Faisal

    1998-01-01

    Examines 662 Arab adolescents' commitments to their own self-development, family, Arab people, and village along with the order in which these commitments are structured. Reveals that the two prevalent patterns of adolescent commitment, individualistic and collectivistic, demonstrate the adolescents' struggle with these value systems and the…

  3. Text-Bullying among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskauskas, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    Increased availability of cell-phones has provided new avenues through which adolescents can bully their peers. Text-bullying is an emerging form of bullying which may threaten the emotional well-being of early adolescents. In this study 565 early adolescents (10-13 years old) completed questionnaires regarding their experiences with bullying…

  4. Ego Identity of Adolescent Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Teichman, Meir

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the issue of ego identity among adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers. Forty-four adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers, age of 15-18, constituted the sample. They were drawn from public alcohol treatment center in Israel. The control group included 60 adolescents none of their parents is known as an alcoholic, sampled from…

  5. Behavioral Risk Factors for AIDS among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstein, Susan G.

    This document examines the incidence of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among adolescents in the United States and identifies several risk factors for AIDS among this population. It classifies adolescents' risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by the degree to which adolescents engage in behaviors that are…

  6. Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Steroid Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Kent F.; Kleiman, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    Used Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory and Profile of Mood States to assess psychological characteristics in 72 adolescent males: 24 adolescent athletes who reported steroid use, 24 athletes with no steroid use, and 24 nonathletes. Although some personality variables differentiated between athletes and nonathletes, no personality variables…

  7. Adolescent Rites of Passage: An Experiential Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venable, Stephen F.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the origins and context of adolescence as a cultural phenomenon and illustrates how rites of passage can nurture healthy developmental changes in adolescents. Describes and evaluates the application of a rite of passage during a backpacking experience that was designed to usher teens from adolescence to adulthood in a Christian context.…

  8. Toward an Understanding of Adolescent Parasuicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Lynn Franklin, Jr.

    In the 1960s suicide was the fifth leading cause of death among adolescents. In the 1980s suicide is second only to accidents as a cause of adolescent death. In their 1966 study of 50 adolescents who had attempted suicide, Teicher and Jacobs conceptualized suicide as the end product of progressive isolation from meaningful relationships. From…

  9. Cognitive Profiles of Chinese Adolescents with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David W.; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to identify cognitive abilities that might distinguish Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with and without dyslexia and examined the cognitive profile of dyslexic adolescents in order to better understand this important problem. The performance of 27 Chinese adolescents with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia was compared with 27…

  10. Michigan Early Adolescent Survey: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Joanne; And Others

    This document contains the final report from the Michigan Early Adolescent Survey, a study undertaken to: (1) develop a profile of Michigan early adolescents that focused on out-of-school time and included biological, psychological, and sociological information; (2) develop a profile of families which included early adolescents; (3) assess the…

  11. Risk Assessment with Adolescent Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulides, T. E.; Richardson, G.; Graham, F.; Kennedy, P. J.; Kelly, T. P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes an evaluation of a risk assessment tool's effectiveness in distinguishing adolescent sexual offenders who had committed further sexual offences from those who had not. The sample consisted of 50 male adolescent sexual offenders referred to a forensic outpatient service within a healthcare setting. The adolescents within the…

  12. Sleep Disturbance Preceding Completed Suicide in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Brent, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined sleep difficulties preceding death in a sample of adolescent suicide completers as compared with a matched sample of community control adolescents. Sleep disturbances were assessed in 140 adolescent suicide victims with a psychological autopsy protocol and in 131 controls with a similar semistructured psychiatric interview. Rates of…

  13. Program Strategies for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Deborah J.; Wider, Lottchen Crane; Hardin, Sally B.; Horrocks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    School nurses who work with adolescents are in an ideal position to promote smoking cessation. This opportunity is important because research suggests teens who smoke are likely to become habitual smokers. This study characterizes adolescents' patterns and levels of smoking, describes adolescents' perceptions toward smoking, and delineates quit…

  14. The Maltreated Adolescent: Patterns of Physical Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farber, Edward D.; Joseph, Jack A.

    1985-01-01

    The study explored family characteristics and behavioral-emotional reactions of 77 physically maltreated adolescents. Six different patterns of adolescent reaction to abuse were identified: acting-out, depression, generalized anxiety, extreme adolescent adjustment, emotional-thought disturbance, and helplessness-dependency. (Author/CL)

  15. Adolescent Parent Relationships and Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zook, Joan M.; Repinski, Daniel J.

    This study examined associations between parent-child relationships and adolescents' academic performance. Adolescents in 7th and 10th grade completed self-report questionnaires assessing 6 features of parent-adolescent relationships: time spent together, number of activities, degree of influence, frequency of experiencing positive emotions,…

  16. Self-Injury among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Moya; Dedrick, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas much attention has been focused on adolescent risk behaviors such as substance use, much less has been devoted to self-injury in the general adolescent population. Purpose: This study had two purposes: (1) describe the prevalence of self-injury among early adolescents in the general middle school population, and (2) identify…

  17. Adolescent Help-Seeking from the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Lubell, Keri; Kleinman, Marjorie; Parker, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    During the past decade there has been increased interest in help-seeking behavior among adolescents. This reflects the recognition that while many psychiatric problems increase markedly during adolescence, the majority of disturbed teenagers do not receive mental health services. Nearly half of all adolescents have reported using the Internet to…

  18. Parents' Role in Adolescents' Educational Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimkute, Laura; Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which mothers' and fathers' expectations for their offspring's future education, their level of education, and adolescents' academic achievement predict adolescents' educational expectations. To investigate this, 230 adolescents were examined twice while they were in comprehensive school (in the 7th and 9th…

  19. A Guide to Adolescent Health Care EPSDT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Care Financing Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This document provides guidelines for individuals giving health care to adolescents through the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) Program. Chapter One briefly indicates needs of adolescents and outlines legal aspects of health care for adolescents such as age of majority, informed consent, confidentiality, disclosure of…

  20. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Adolescents' Competence and the Balance of Adolescent Autonomy and Adolescent and Parent Well-Being in the Context of Type 1 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butner, Jonathan; Berg, Cynthia A.; Osborn, Peter; Butler, Jorie M.; Godri, Carine; Fortenberry, Katie T.; Barach, Ilana; Le, Hai; Wiebe, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether intrafamily discrepancies in perceptions of the adolescent's competence and independence were associated with autonomy and well-being for adolescents and parents. The ways in which mothers and fathers consistently differed from their adolescent across measures of independence and competence regarding Type 1 diabetes, a…

  1. Early Adolescence: Social/Psychological Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitz, Joan

    It is the misfortune of young adolescents that just at the point in their lives when they are seeking definition, two areas of confusion and ignorance converge: confusion about the purposes of schooling for young adolescents and ignorance about early adolescence as a critical developmental stage in the life span. Some myths which prohibit better…

  2. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  3. Adolescent Family Context and Adult Identity Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Janel E.; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the links between adolescent family context and coming to see oneself as an adult. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors investigate how adolescent family structure, resources, and processes together influence adult identity and whether they do so similarly for men and women. The…

  4. Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with Vision Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared psychological adjustment of 158 adolescents with vision impairment and 158 sighted adolescents with a matched-pair design using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent self-reports and teacher reports on emotional problems, peer problems, and total difficulties showed higher scores in students with…

  5. Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

    Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

  6. Fiction for Adolescents: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James E., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    The 12 articles in this publication discuss the following topics: an author's considerations in writing a novel for adolescents; the teacher as fictional character in adolescent literature; such themes of adolescent novels as institutional values, the illegitimate heroine, and the war experience; the importance of a cumulative study of literature…

  7. The Importance of Child and Adolescent Psychopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrington, David P.

    2005-01-01

    In commenting on the five articles in this special issue, this paper discusses (1) the concept of child and adolescent psychopathy, and whether adolescent psychopaths are qualitatively distinct from other young people; (2) the measurement of adolescent psychopathy; (3) the relationship between psychopathy and other personality dimensions; (4)…

  8. Anxiety Levels in Adolescents Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Maloney, Kristy; Meyer, Crystal; Qualls, Constance Dean

    2007-01-01

    High levels of anxiety can negatively affect the lives of children and adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents who stutter and 36 adolescents who do not stutter were administered standardized scales for anxiety and self-esteem. Significant differences were found for the total T-scores for "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale" for the two groups,…

  9. Oral contraceptive compliance during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Serfaty, D

    1997-06-17

    A review of the available literature suggests that adolescent lack of compliance with oral contraceptives (OCs) is a multifactorial problem that requires a multifactorial solution. Because of their lack of experience with contraception, higher frequency of intercourse, higher intrinsic fertility, and pattern of frequent stopping or switching of methods, adolescents experience higher OC failure rates than do adult women. Adolescents also are more likely to forget to take the pill or to discontinue due to side effects, without consulting their physician. A survey of European young women identified contraceptive protection without weight gain as the most necessary change in OCs. Adolescents must be counseled not to miss a single pill, observe the pill-free interval, take phasic formulations in the right order, and use a back-up method in case of diarrhea and vomiting or when certain medications (e.g., antibiotics and anti-epileptics) are used concurrently, and be informed of steps to take in the event of side effects and unprotected intercourse. The quality of the counseling appears to be more important to compliance than the quantity of information provided. Pharmacists should complete the counseling initiated by the physician and explain prescription use. The most significant predictor of consistent OC use is the adolescent's motivation.

  10. Epidemic suicide among Micronesian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, D H

    1983-01-01

    Suicide rates since 1960 in Micronesia (the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) have undergone an epidemic-like increase. This phenomenon is focused narrowly within the 15--24-year male age-group. Extremely high rates and culturally patterned motives and methods are now characteristic of this group. Survey research throughout Micronesia suggests that the epidemic increase in adolescent male suicide is a cohort effect among the first post-war generation. Traditional adolescent socialization in pre-war Micronesia largely involved village-level subsistence activities organized around communal lineage-houses. This extra-familial level of socialization served as a cultural solution to the residential and psychological distance post-pubertal males maintained from their domestic families. With the post-war social change in Micronesia, the communal village-level of organization has largely disintegrated, causing adolescent socialization functions to be absorbed by the nuclear family. The resulting situations of intergenerational domestic discord appear the primary social triggers for adolescent suicide. At the same time, suicides have acquired subcultural significance among male youth, giving rise to fad-like and imitative acts. A 3-year research project is now being undertaken to conduct an ethnographic study of factors contributing to adolescent stress and suicide in one Micronesian community.

  11. Gender identity development in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Steensma, Thomas D; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; de Vries, Annelou L C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This article aims to provide an outline of what is currently known on trajectories, and contributing factors to gender identity development in adolescence. We give a historical overview of the concept of gender identity, and describe general identity development in adolescence, gender identity development in the general population and in gender variant youth. Possible psychosocial (such as child and parental characteristics) and biological factors (such as the effects of prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones and the role of genetics) contributing to a gender variant identity are discussed. Studies focusing on a number of psychosocial and biological factors separately, indicate that each of these factors influence gender identity formation, but little is known about the complex interplay between the factors, nor about the way individuals themselves contribute to the process. Research into normative and gender variant identity development of adolescents is clearly lagging behind. However, studies on persons with gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development, show that the period of adolescence, with its changing social environment and the onset of physical puberty, seems to be crucial for the development of a non-normative gender identity.

  12. Familial influences on adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2003-05-01

    The family unit is the primary source of transmission of basic social, cultural, genetic, and biological factors that may underlie individual differences in smoking. Existing information on the role of familial factors in tobacco use is characterized by two separate, but somewhat overlapping, lines of research: genetic epidemiological studies and risk-factor research. The present paper summarizes and evaluates studies assessing the association between adolescent smoking and parent and sibling smoking behaviors. A review of 87 studies reveals that methods are limited by a lack of standardized instruments, failure to measure important confounding and mediating factors, reliance on cross-sectional designs and the use of inconsistent definitions of tobacco-related behavior and assessment procedures. Moreover, there are no systematic family studies of the acquisition and continuation of smoking that have employed contemporary methodological standards for examining familial aggregation of tobacco behaviors among adolescents. Findings across studies show weak and inconsistent associations between parent and adolescent smoking; inconsistent findings may be attributed to methodological issues or associated factors that may complicate the relation between parent and adolescent smoking. Sibling and peer smoking show greater associations with adolescent smoking. Suggestions for future research include contemporary family studies that delineate meaningful phenotypes of tobacco use and prospective work on the later stages of tobacco use and the timing of the influence and valence of parent and family factors. Integration of the risk factor approach within the family study design may enrich both approaches to elucidate familial influences on smoking.

  13. [Psychopathy in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Petermann, F; Remschmidt, H

    2013-12-01

    Personality disorders manifest themselves in stable deviations of personality traits that especially arise in negative interactions with others. Those typical dysfunctional interactions can be observed particularly in dissocial and antisocial personality disorders: adults with severe forms of personality disorders often showed specific symptoms in childhood and adolescence. Clinical researchers therefore demand a respective diagnosis of childhood and adolescent psychopathy. There is an extensive body of research on dissocial and borderline personality disorders in children and adolescents. To date the severe form of dissocial personality disorders, psychopathy, cannot be specifically classified. The transfer of this diagnosis to childhood and adolescence is crucial: based on the assumption of persistence and the risk of stigmatisation many clinicians refuse to diagnose psychopathy at a young age. On the other hand there are positive treatment outcomes that aim at symptom reduction from a very early age. The specification of dissocial personality disorders in childhood and adolescence may encourage the development of new treatments and the de-stigmatisation as well as qualify the dogged assumption of persistence of personality disorders.

  14. Pregnancy threat to adolescent health.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) is investigating factors which affect the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Benin, Cameroon, Ecuador, Guatemala, India, Jamaica, Mexico, Nepal, and the Philippines. The research is funded through the US Agency for International Development's Office of Nutrition. 22.5% of women in Nepal marry before they reach age 14 years, with most marrying before age 18. The research in the country has found pregnancy to be a burden among these young women which threatens their nutritional and health status as well as that of their offspring. Unequal distribution of food in the household and heavy workloads increase the level of risk faced by adolescent females. Postponing pregnancy in adolescents, however, delays the onset of increased nutritional needs in girls who are already likely to be undernourished. Delayed pregnancy also gives girls more time to complete their physical growth and avoids the risk of medical emergencies in childbirth, such as hemorrhage which, if survived, can lead to anemia which is aggravated by nutritional deficiencies. The ICRW has therefore proposed four strategies for postponing first births among female adolescents: encouraging later marriage, providing family planning and reproductive health services specially for adolescents, providing family life education about options for the future, and increasing educational opportunities for girls.

  15. Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Deborah A

    2003-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a relatively common disorder among adolescent women. The typical clinical features including menstrual irregularities and hirsutism are usually not apparent until middle to late adolescence. Yet studies suggest that PCOS may begin in early puberty. Young women with premature pubarche, a family history of PCOS, Caribbean Hispanic and African American ancestry, and/or obesity are more likely to develop PCOS. Adolescents with PCOS may have elevated total or free testosterone, androstenedione, and luteinizing hormone levels; insulin resistance; and hyperinsulinemia. The laboratory evaluation and management of the adolescent with suspected PCOS should be individualized on the basis of the clinical features and symptoms. The cornerstone of most treatment strategies includes either a combination oral contraceptive or progestin to decrease testosterone levels and regulate the menstrual cycle. Consideration of insulin-sensitizing agents, antiandrogens, topical treatments for acne and excess facial hair, and hair removal is dependent on the patient's symptoms and concerns. A healthy approach to eating, in some cases weight loss, and exercise is encouraged to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Management of the adolescent with PCOS is challenging and often requires a supportive, multidisciplinary team approach for optimal results.

  16. Economic hardship and Mexican-origin adolescents' adjustment: examining adolescents' perceptions of hardship and parent-adolescent relationship quality.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Melissa Y; Killoren, Sarah E; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2013-10-01

    Studies examining economic hardship consistently have linked family economic hardship to adolescent adjustment via parent and family functioning, but limited attention has been given to adolescents' perceptions of these processes. To address this, the authors investigated the intervening effects of adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship and of parent-adolescent warmth and conflict on the associations between parental economic hardship and adolescent adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, risky behaviors, and school performance) in a sample of 246 Mexican-origin families. Findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' reports of economic hardship were positively related to adolescents' reports of economic hardship, which in turn, were negatively related to parent-adolescent warmth and positively related to parent-adolescent conflict with both mothers and fathers. Adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship were indirectly related to (a) depressive symptoms through warmth with mothers and conflict with mothers and fathers, (b) involvement in risky behaviors through conflict with mothers and fathers, and (c) GPA through conflict with fathers. Our findings highlight the importance of adolescents' perceptions of family economic hardship and relationships with mothers and fathers in predicting adolescent adjustment.

  17. Adolescent romance: between experience and relationships.

    PubMed

    Shulman, S; Seiffge-Krenke, I

    2001-06-01

    This concluding and integrative paper calls attention to several features and conceptual issues addressed by the contributors of this special issue. The first issue pertains to developmental perspectives in the study of how adolescent romance evolves. The second deals with the various features and concepts of adolescent romance. The third topic discusses the association of adolescent romance with other close relationships occurring during this time span. The fourth topic highlights the importance of the diversity of developmental contexts in shaping romantic relationships. Finally, conceptual issues in the study of adolescent romance are reviewed and the need for future studies of early adolescent romantic experiences is discussed.

  18. Attitudes of adolescents and parents of adolescents concerning condom advertisements on television.

    PubMed

    Buchta, R M

    1989-05-01

    The major television networks have considered airing condom advertisements. A Louis-Harris poll entitled "Attitudes About Television, Sex and Contraceptive Advertising" conducted in early 1987 concluded that at least 60% of adult Americans were in favor of such advertisements. To better understand the attitudes of adolescents and parents of adolescents in a private practice setting toward contraceptive advertisement on television, the present study was performed. Between March and June 1987, 108 parents of adolescents, 100 adolescent females, and 90 adolescent males filled out a questionnaire asking their opinions of such advertisements. Eighty-three percent of the parents, 89% of adolescent females, and 92% of adolescent males approved of such advertisements. The data suggest that a majority of adults and adolescents approve of condom advertisements on television. The use of the media to take advantage of the present opportunity to educate and promote birth control and disease prevention to our adolescent population may be beneficial.

  19. Acculturation influences on AAPI adolescent-mother interactions and adolescents' sexual initiation.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis of data is to examine relationships among Asian American Pacific Islanders (AAPI) adolescents' level of acculturation, maternal influences, and age of sexual initiation. Selected predictive variables are based on the theoretical frameworks and literature review. The results indicate that for these adolescents speaking English at home was positively associated with maternal sexual discussion, mothers' perceptions of connectedness with their adolescents, adolescents' perceived maternal sexual expectations, and later sexual initiation at Wave 1. Adolescents' years of U.S. residency are positively associated with adolescents' level of perceived connectedness with their mothers and later sexual initiation at Wave 2. Adolescents' level of acculturation influence how they interacted with their mothers, perceived their mothers' sexual expectations, and when they decided to initiate sexual intercourse. Interventions to delay AAPI adolescents' sexual debut should consider factors related to AAPI adolescents' and their mothers' levels of acculturation.

  20. Adolescence and asthma management: the perspective of adolescents receiving primary health care☆

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Alisson; Rocha, Regina Lunardi; Alvim, Cristina Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of adolescence characteristics on asthma management. Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted in the city of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. Data were collected through semistructured interviews guided by a questionnaire with seven asthmatic adolescents followed-up in the primary public health care service of the city. Results: Using content analysis, three thematic categories were observed in the adolescents' responses: 1) family relationships in the treatment of asthma in adolescence; 2) the asthmatic adolescents and their peers; and 3) the role of the school for the asthmatic adolescents. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that peers, family, and school should be more valued by health professionals and by health care services when treating asthmatic adolescents, as these social relationships are closely associated with the adolescent and have an important role in asthma management. Attempts to meet the demands of adolescents contribute to improve asthma management. PMID:25479845

  1. Developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of relationships with their parents.

    PubMed

    De Goede, Irene H A; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2009-01-01

    This 4-wave longitudinal study examines developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of parent-adolescent relationships by assessing parental support, conflict with parents, and parental power. A total of 951 early adolescents (50.4% boys) and 390 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Univariate and multivariate growth curve analyses showed that support declined from early to middle adolescence for boys and girls and increased from middle to late adolescence for girls, while stabilizing for boys. Conflict was found to temporarily increase during middle adolescence. Parental power (relative power and dominance of parents) decreased from early to late adolescence. Results indicated that: (1) parent-adolescent relationships become more egalitarian during adolescence, (2) parents perceived by adolescents as powerful are viewed as supportive, especially in early adolescence, and (3) perceived conflict with parents is related to but not an impetus for changes in parent-adolescent relationships towards more equality.

  2. Delinquency Among Adolescents with Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Dennis P.

    2013-01-01

    This study expands upon previous research by utilizing nationally representative data and multivariate analyses to examine the relationship between an adolescent’s disability status and their likelihood of engaging in a spectrum of delinquent behaviors through age 16. Logistic regression models of 7,232 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 are used to investigate the association between the presence of a learning disability or emotional condition, chronic health condition, sensory condition, physical disability, or multiple conditions and ten delinquent acts, including violence-related delinquency, property crimes, drug offenses, and arrest. Additional analyses explore differences in delinquency prevalence by more specific types of limiting conditions. Results indicate that adolescents with learning disabilities or emotional conditions are particularly at risk of committing delinquent acts. Findings suggest that disability status is important to consider when examining adolescent delinquency; however, not all youth with disabilities have equal experiences. PMID:24273625

  3. Poverty and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Butler, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on non-Hispanic White children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,056) were used to examine whether the relationship between poverty (early childhood poverty, poverty persistence, and current poverty) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Internalizing Index) can be explained by the mother's own childhood depression and family characteristics measured during the child's first year of life. Associations between poverty and depressive symptoms among adolescents were explained by mother's childhood depression and whether the adolescent had lived with both parents during the first year of life. The findings highlight the need for appropriate treatment of childhood depression so as to reduce the adverse consequences in adulthood and for the next generation.

  4. Social Justice, Research, and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    In what ways might research on adolescence contribute to social justice? My 2014 Presidential Address identified strategies for social justice in our field. First, we need research that is conscious of biases, power, and privilege in science, as well as in our roles as scholars. Second, we need research that attends to inequities in lives of adolescents, and as scholars we need to question the ways that our research may unwittingly reinforce those inequalities. Third, we need research that attends to urgencies, that is, issues or conditions that influence adolescents’ well-being which demand attention and action. I draw from a range of concepts and theoretical perspectives to make the case for a framework of social justice in research on adolescence. PMID:27307689

  5. [Nutritional problems of female adolescents].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-07-18

    Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view.

  6. Migraine headache prophylaxis in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2014-01-01

    Migraine headache is estimated to affect up to 28 percent of adolescents, most of whom are female. Chronic migraine in this population has been associated with reduced quality of life and academic disruption due to missed school days. Historically, migraine headache was treated episodically as it occurred. In March 2014 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved an existing medication, topiramate (Topamax®), for migraine prophylaxis in adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17. This is the first FDA approval of a drug for migraine prevention in this population. There are several possible adverse effects of taking topiramate, some potentially serious, so adequate education for adolescents and their families on all the potential benefits and risks is imperative.

  7. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Choudhry, Muhammad Naghman; Ahmad, Zafar; Verma, Rajat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scoliosis refers to deviation of spine greater than 10 degrees in the coronal plane. Idiopathic Scoliosis is the most common spinal deformity that develops in otherwise healthy children. The sub types of scoliosis are based on the age of the child at presentation. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) by definition occurs in children over the age of 10 years until skeletal maturity. Objective: The objective of this review is to outline the features of AIS to allow the physician to recognise this condition and commence early treatment, thereby optimizing patient outcome. Method: A thorough literature search was performed using available databases, including Pubmed and Embase, to cover important research published covering AIS. Conclusion: AIS results in higher incidence of back pain and discontent with body image. Curves greater than 50 degrees in thoracic region and greater than 30 degrees in lumbar region progress at a rate of 0.5 to 1 degree per year into adulthood. Curves greater than 60 degrees can lead to pulmonary functional deficit. Therefore once the disease is recognized, effective treatment should be instituted to address the deformity and prevention of its long-term sequelae. PMID:27347243

  8. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Rinsky, Lawrence A.; Gamble, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the single most common form of spinal deformity seen in orthopedic practice. Our knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, natural history, and treatment has recently increased dramatically. The incidence of small curves is rather high (2% of the population), whereas severe curves are much less common (<0.1%), but we cannot always predict which curve will progress. Abnormalities of the neuromuscular system and of calcium metabolism, and certain growth, genetic, and mechanical factors may all play roles in the pathogenesis of the disorder. The physiologic secondary effects of severe scoliosis relate to restrictive lung disease, but most patients do not have a deformity great enough to affect their cardiorespiratory function. The psychological and social effects of scoliosis are significant for patients but difficult to quantitate. For most patients with moderate scoliosis—that is, more than 25 to 30 degrees—treatment with an underarm brace or electrical stimulation is adequate to “control” progression of the curve. Surgical fusion allows actual correction of the curve but is indicated in only a small percentage of patients—usually those with more than 50 degrees of deformity. Images PMID:3279708

  9. Parent and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Parental Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mandy; Johnston, Charlotte; Sheeber, Lisa; Leve, Craig

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether negative parental attributions for adolescent behaviour mediate the association between parental and adolescent depressive symptoms, and whether this relationship is moderated by adolescent gender. Mothers and fathers and 124 adolescents (76 girls and 48 boys; ages 14 to 18) participated. Adolescents were primarily…

  10. Adolescent pregnancy: an intervention challenge.

    PubMed

    Trad, P V

    1993-01-01

    Even in the best of circumstances, pregnancy is a time of emotional upheaval. This is especially true for pregnant adolescents who are also attempting to adjust to pubertal status and to establish an identity independent from their family. Although research has focused on the etiology of teenage pregnancy, relatively few interventions consider the developmental obstacles encountered when treating pregnant teenagers. In particular, adolescents are cognitively unprepared to predict long-term outcomes, a skill essential for confronting the challenges of pregnancy. One new intervention, known as previewing, seeks to overcome this deficit. Previewing encourages expectant teenage mothers to represent future scenarios with the infant as a means of predicting and rehearsing adaptive outcomes.

  11. Risk Factors in Adolescent Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, D. Rose; Haldeman, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex and multifaceted disease, with many contributing factors. While diet and nutrition are important influences, the confounding effects of overweight and obesity, metabolic and genetic factors, racial and ethnic predispositions, socioeconomic status, cultural influences, growth rate, and pubertal stage have even more influence and make diagnosis quite challenging. The prevalence of hypertension in adolescents far exceeds the numbers who have been diagnosed; studies have found that 75% or more go undiagnosed. This literature review summarizes the challenges of blood pressure classification in adolescents, discusses the impact of these confounding influences, and identifies actions that will improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes. PMID:27335997

  12. Addiction and "Generation Me:" Narcissistic and Prosocial Behaviors of Adolescents with Substance Dependency Disorder in Comparison to Normative Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Rebecca R.; Johnson, Shannon M.; Exline, Julie J.; Post, Stephen G.; Pagano, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore narcissistic and prosocial behaviors as reported by adolescents with and without substance dependency disorder (SDD). This study employs a quasi-experimental design using SDD adolescents compared with two normative samples of adolescents. In comparison to normative adolescents, adolescents with SDD were…

  13. Alcohol Prevalence and Attitudes among Adults and Adolescents: Their Relation to Early Adolescent Alcohol Use in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Laura; Boljevac, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Although research has identified numerous neighborhood mechanisms influencing urban adolescent risk behaviors, less is known about how community contexts influence rural adolescents. This study explores perceived controls against adolescent drinking (i.e., tolerance of community adolescent alcohol use), adolescent perceptions of community…

  14. What Is Adolescence?: Adolescents Narrate Their Lives in Lima, Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Angela M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsui, Amy O.; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the lives of Peruvian adolescents in a low-income human settlement outside of Lima. Twenty 12-17 year olds were asked to narrate their own life stories using the life history narrative research method. Holistic content analysis was coupled with a grounded-theory approach to explore these data. Intergenerational responsibility,…

  15. [Adolescents with diabetes type 1 in adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Walter, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity, family and biographical risk factors, and individual motivational aspects influence the therapeutic adherence and treatment motivation in Diabetes Type 1. The article provides basis diabetological knowledge for adolescent psychotherapists and describes practical out- and inpatient experiences and deliberations with especially problematic comorbid patients. In psychiatrically comorbid patients family conflicts and individual psychopathology is often reflected and manifested in selfharming diabetes management.

  16. Academic Motivation of Adolescents. Adolescence and Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajares, Frank, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.

    Academically motivated students engage their schoolwork with confidence and interest, are less likely to drop out of school, suffer fewer disciplinary problems, and are more resilient in the face of setbacks than less motivated students. This book presents the work of numerous scholars of adolescent academic motivation and represents the varied…

  17. Parental alcohol involvement and adolescent alcohol expectancies predict alcohol involvement in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cranford, James A; Zucker, Robert A; Jester, Jennifer M; Puttler, Leon I; Fitzgerald, Hiram E

    2010-09-01

    Current models of adolescent drinking behavior hypothesize that alcohol expectancies mediate the effects of other proximal and distal risk factors. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that the effects of parental alcohol involvement on their children's drinking behavior in mid-adolescence are mediated by the children's alcohol expectancies in early adolescence. A sample of 148 initially 9-11 year old boys and their parents from a high-risk population and a contrast group of community families completed measures of drinking behavior and alcohol expectancies over a 6-year interval. We analyzed data from middle childhood (M age = 10.4 years), early adolescence (M age = 13.5 years), and mid-adolescence (M age = 16.5 years). The sample was restricted only to adolescents who had begun to drink by mid-adolescence. Results from zero-inflated Poisson regression analyses showed that 1) maternal drinking during their children's middle childhood predicted number of drinking days in middle adolescence; 2) negative and positive alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted odds of any intoxication in middle adolescence; and 3) paternal alcoholism during their children's middle childhood and adolescents' alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted frequency of intoxication in middle adolescence. Contrary to predictions, child alcohol expectancies did not mediate the effects of parental alcohol involvement in this high-risk sample. Different aspects of parental alcohol involvement, along with early adolescent alcohol expectancies, independently predicted adolescent drinking behavior in middle adolescence. Alternative pathways for the influence of maternal and paternal alcohol involvement and implications for expectancy models of adolescent drinking behavior were discussed.

  18. Parent-adolescent report correspondence on adolescent substance abuse among teens in residential rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    McGillicuddy, Neil B; Eliseo-Arras, Rebecca K

    2012-04-01

    Research on the correspondence between adolescent and parent reports of adolescent substance abuse has typically been conducted on adolescent outpatient treatment samples, or on non-treatment samples. In the current study, fifty adolescents receiving residential substance abuse treatment, and their parents were assessed separately regarding the teen's substance use (e.g., cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drugs) during the 90 days preceding adolescent treatment entry. Correspondence between reporters was for the most part fair to excellent, with observed discrepancies generally due to parents providing lower estimates of use than did adolescents. Multiple regression analysis revealed that higher discrepancy between reporters occurred when the parent was younger, when the parent encountered fewer problems due to the teen's substance use, when the adolescent attended more probation or parole meetings, the fewer the number of days the adolescent was incarcerated, and the fewer days the adolescent lived at home prior to treatment. Results from exploratory analyses suggest that parents and adolescents are more discrepant when the assessment occurs later in the adolescent's treatment program. Overall, results suggest that in the absence of a cooperative teen, parental report of the adolescent's previous substance use could serve as a good proxy among families in which the adolescent is entering residential substance abuse treatment.

  19. [Contraception and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Amate, P; Luton, D; Davitian, C

    2013-06-01

    The mean age of first sexual intercourse is still around 17 in France, but a lot of teenagers are concerned by contraception before, with approximately 25% of sexually active 15-year-old girls. The contraceptive method must take into consideration some typical features of this population, as sporadic and non-planned sexual activity, with several sexual partners in a short period of time. In 2004, the "Haute Autorité de santé" has recommended, as first-line method, combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills, in association with male condoms. Copper-containing intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) and etonogestrel-containing subcutaneous implant have been suggested but not recommended. However, oral contraceptive pill, as a user-based method, carries an important typical-use failure rate, because remembering taking a daily pill, and dealing with stop periods, may be challenging. Some easier-to-use method should be kept in mind, as 28-day COC packs, transdermal contraceptive patches, and vaginal contraceptive rings. Moreover, American studies have shown that long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), i.e. IUCD and implant, have many advantages for teenagers: very effective, safe, invisible. They seem well-fitted for this population, with high satisfaction and continuation rates, as long as side effects are well explained. Thus, LARC methods should be proposed more widely to teenagers. Anyway, before prescribing a contraceptive method, it is important to determine the specific situation of every teenager, to let them choose the method that they consider as appropriate in their own case, and to think about the availability of the chosen method. It is necessary to explain how to handle mistakes or misses with user-based contraceptive methods, and emergency contraception can be anticipated and prescribed in advanced provision. The use of male condoms should be encouraged for adolescents, with another effective contraceptive method, in order to reduce the high risk

  20. Adolescent Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muuss, Rolf E.

    1985-01-01

    Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…