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Sample records for adolescent health outcomes

  1. Adolescent health and adult labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Petter; Nilsson, Anton; Rooth, Dan-Olof

    2014-09-01

    Whereas a large literature has shown the importance of early life health for adult socioeconomic outcomes, there is little evidence on the importance of adolescent health. We contribute to the literature by studying the impact of adolescent health status on adult labor market outcomes using a unique and large-scale dataset covering almost the entire population of Swedish males. We show that most types of major conditions have long-run effects on future outcomes, and that the strongest effects result from mental conditions. Including sibling fixed effects or twin pair fixed effects reduces the magnitudes of the estimates, but they remain substantial.

  2. Adolescence as a gateway to adult health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence has long been regarded as a transition from childhood to adulthood. More recently it is become a concern of those wishing to avoid adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. Most of this effort has been focused on behavioural risk factors such as tobacco and excessive alcohol use, physical exercise habits, dietary habits, as well as sexual and injury-related behaviours. The concern is that these habits are established during adolescence, continue into adulthood, and come to constitute ongoing risk factors for adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. There is good reason to criticize this approach. These behaviours are themselves shaped by adolescents' living and working conditions and even then constitute a small proportion of the variance predicting adverse health outcomes during adulthood. More complex models of how adolescence serves as a gateway to adult health outcomes are presented. These are the socio-environmental, public policy, and political economy approaches. The argument is made that adolescence is a period during which public policy plays an especially important role in predicting future health outcomes. Yet, these public policies influence health all across the life span with adolescence providing only one of many important periods during which public policy shapes health prospects during middle and later adulthood. Ultimately one should consider a range of approaches ranging from the behavioural to the political to examine how adolescence serves as a gateway towards future adult prospects. An Adolescent Gateway Towards Adult Health Model is provided to assist in this process.

  3. Preliminary Findings on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents in an Inpatient Secure Adolescent Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jenny; Wheatley, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    To date there is limited research examining the use of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) with adolescents in secure care. The aim of this article is to examine the inter-rater reliability, concurrent validity and clinical utility of HoNOSCA in an adolescent secure psychiatric unit. Twenty-four…

  4. Availability of Reproductive Health Care Services at Schools and Subsequent Birth Outcomes among Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madkour, Aubrey S.; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adverse birth outcomes are more common among adolescent versus adult mothers, but little is known about school-based services that may improve birth outcomes in this group. Methods: Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Girls and women who gave birth to singleton live infants…

  5. Measurement of Religiosity/Spirituality in Adolescent Health Outcomes Research: Trends and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    McGrady, Meghan E.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between religious/spiritual (R/S) factors and adolescent health outcomes has been studied for decades; however, the R/S measurement tools used may not be developmentally relevant for adolescents. A systematic literature review was conducted to review and evaluate trends in measuring R/S in adolescent health outcomes research. In this review a total of 100 articles met criteria for inclusion. Relatively few (n = 15) included adolescent-specific R/S measures or items accounting for developmentally relevant issues such as parental religiosity or age-appropriate language. Future R/S and health research with adolescents would be strengthened by incorporating developmentally relevant R/S measurement tools, psychometrics, and multidimensional measures. PMID:20127172

  6. Risk Behaviors and Negative Health Outcomes for Adolescents With Late Bedtimes

    PubMed Central

    McGlinchey, Eleanor L.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2014-01-01

    Late bedtimes in adolescence may be a serious risk factor for later poor health and functional outcomes. The current study sought to extend existing cross sectional data by examining whether late bedtimes in adolescence predicts poor outcomes in young adulthood. Data from wave 2 (1996) and wave 3 (2001-2002) of the nationally representative sample of US youth (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) was used to examine the longitudinal relationship between late bedtime, and several risk behaviors and negative health outcomes following 3,843 adolescents into young adulthood. At Wave 2 the mean age was 16 with 52.1% female. At wave 3 the mean age was 21.8. In cross sectional analyses, late bedtime was associated with 1.5 to over 3 times greater odds of involvement in risk behaviors and negative health outcomes, including emotional distress, suicidality, criminal and violent activity, and use of cigarettes, alcohol and illicit drugs. In longitudinal analyses, late bedtime assessed at wave 2 predicted a number of serious health outcomes at wave 3, with late bedtime in adolescence associated with around 1.5 greater odds of involvement in health jeopardizing behaviors such as criminal activity, alcohol abuse, cigarette use, illicit drug use and emotional distress in young adulthood. There was also a dose effect, such that the later the bedtime in adolescence, the greater the risk of involvement in risk behaviors in young adulthood. This research suggests that late bedtime in adolescence predicts multiple serious risk behaviors and health outcomes in young adulthood. PMID:24599733

  7. Psychological outcomes and health beliefs in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer and controls.

    PubMed

    Kazak, Anne E; Derosa, Branlyn Werba; Schwartz, Lisa A; Hobbie, Wendy; Carlson, Claire; Ittenbach, Richard F; Mao, Jun J; Ginsberg, Jill P

    2010-04-20

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare adolescent and young adult (AYA) pediatric cancer survivors and peers without a history of serious illness on psychological distress, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), health beliefs; examine age at diagnosis and cancer treatment intensity on these outcomes; and examine relationships between number of health problems and the outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS AYA cancer survivors (n = 167) and controls (n = 170), recruited during visits to a cancer survivorship clinic and primary care, completed self-report questionnaires of distress, health problems, and health beliefs. For survivors, providers rated treatment intensity and health problems. Results There were no statistically significant differences between survivors and controls in psychological distress or HRQOL. Cancer survivors had less positive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed as adolescents had significantly greater psychological distress and fewer positive health beliefs than those diagnosed earlier. Survivors with the highest level of treatment intensity had greater anxiety and fewer positive health beliefs than those with less intense treatments. Provider report of current health problems related to survivors' beliefs and mental HRQOL only, whereas patient report of health problems correlated significantly with most psychosocial outcomes and beliefs. CONCLUSION AYA cancer survivors did not differ from peers in psychological adjustment but did endorse less adaptive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed during adolescence and who had more intensive cancer treatments evidenced poorer psychosocial outcomes. Beliefs about health may be identified and targeted for intervention to improve quality of life, particularly when patient perceptions of current health problems are considered.

  8. Province-Level Income Inequality and Health Outcomes in Canadian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of provincial income inequality (disparity between rich and poor), independent of provincial income and family socioeconomic status, on multiple adolescent health outcomes. Methods Participants (aged 12–17 years; N = 11,899) were from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Parental education, household income, province income inequality, and province mean income were measured. Health outcomes were measured across a number of domains, including self-rated health, mental health, health behaviors, substance use behaviors, and physical health. Results Income inequality was associated with injuries, general physical symptoms, and limiting conditions, but not associated with most adolescent health outcomes and behaviors. Income inequality had a moderating effect on family socioeconomic status for limiting conditions, hyperactivity/inattention, and conduct problems, but not for other outcomes. Conclusions Province-level income inequality was associated with some physical and mental health outcomes in adolescents, which has research and policy implications for this age-group. PMID:25324533

  9. Clustering of health-related behaviors, health outcomes and demographics in Dutch adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these behavioral patterns to health-related outcomes. This paper presents an analysis of the clustering of a broad range of health-related behaviors with relevant demographic factors and several health-related outcomes in adolescents. Methods Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 2,690 Dutch high school adolescents. Behavioral patterns were deducted via Principal Components Analysis. Subsequently a Two-Step Cluster Analysis was used to identify groups of adolescents with similar behavioral patterns and health-related outcomes. Results Four distinct behavioral patterns describe the analyzed individual behaviors: 1- risk-prone behavior, 2- bully behavior, 3- problematic screen time use, and 4- sedentary behavior. Subsequent cluster analysis identified four clusters of adolescents. Multi-problem behavior was associated with problematic physical and psychosocial health outcomes, as opposed to those exerting relatively few unhealthy behaviors. These associations were relatively independent of demographics such as ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status. Conclusions The results show that health-related behaviors tend to cluster, indicating that specific behavioral patterns underlie individual health behaviors. In addition, specific patterns of health-related behaviors were associated with specific health outcomes and demographic factors. In general, unhealthy behavior on account of multiple health-related behaviors was associated with both poor psychosocial

  10. A meta-analysis of active video games on health outcomes among children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gao, Z; Chen, S; Pasco, D; Pope, Z

    2015-09-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes current literature concerning the effects of active video games (AVGs) on children/adolescents' health-related outcomes. A total of 512 published studies on AVGs were located, and 35 articles were included based on the following criteria: (i) data-based research articles published in English between 1985 and 2015; (ii) studied some types of AVGs and related outcomes among children/adolescents and (iii) had at least one comparison within each study. Data were extracted to conduct comparisons for outcome measures in three separate categories: AVGs and sedentary behaviours, AVGs and laboratory-based exercise, and AVGs and field-based physical activity. Effect size for each entry was calculated with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software in 2015. Mean effect size (Hedge's g) and standard deviation were calculated for each comparison. Compared with sedentary behaviours, AVGs had a large effect on health outcomes. The effect sizes for physiological outcomes were marginal when comparing AVGs with laboratory-based exercises. The comparison between AVGs and field-based physical activity had null to moderate effect sizes. AVGs could yield equivalent health benefits to children/adolescents as laboratory-based exercise or field-based physical activity. Therefore, AVGs can be a good alternative for sedentary behaviour and addition to traditional physical activity and sports in children/adolescents. PMID:25943852

  11. A meta-analysis of active video games on health outcomes among children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gao, Z; Chen, S; Pasco, D; Pope, Z

    2015-09-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes current literature concerning the effects of active video games (AVGs) on children/adolescents' health-related outcomes. A total of 512 published studies on AVGs were located, and 35 articles were included based on the following criteria: (i) data-based research articles published in English between 1985 and 2015; (ii) studied some types of AVGs and related outcomes among children/adolescents and (iii) had at least one comparison within each study. Data were extracted to conduct comparisons for outcome measures in three separate categories: AVGs and sedentary behaviours, AVGs and laboratory-based exercise, and AVGs and field-based physical activity. Effect size for each entry was calculated with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software in 2015. Mean effect size (Hedge's g) and standard deviation were calculated for each comparison. Compared with sedentary behaviours, AVGs had a large effect on health outcomes. The effect sizes for physiological outcomes were marginal when comparing AVGs with laboratory-based exercises. The comparison between AVGs and field-based physical activity had null to moderate effect sizes. AVGs could yield equivalent health benefits to children/adolescents as laboratory-based exercise or field-based physical activity. Therefore, AVGs can be a good alternative for sedentary behaviour and addition to traditional physical activity and sports in children/adolescents.

  12. Health, Functioning, and Participation of Adolescents and Adults with Cerebral Palsy: A Review of Outcomes Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Dana; Msall, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    With medical advances, more individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) syndromes who reside in developed countries are surviving to adolescence and adulthood. However, there continues to be a paucity of research examining long-term health, functional activities, and participatory outcomes over their life-course. This article reviews the current…

  13. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  14. School-level variation in health outcomes in adolescence: analysis of three longitudinal studies in England.

    PubMed

    Hale, Daniel R; Patalay, Praveetha; Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Hargreaves, Dougal S; Bond, Lyndal; Görzig, Anke; Wolpert, Miranda; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Viner, Russell M

    2014-08-01

    School factors are associated with many health outcomes in adolescence. However, previous studies report inconsistent findings regarding the degree of school-level variation for health outcomes, particularly for risk behaviours. This study uses data from three large longitudinal studies in England to investigate school-level variation in a range of health indicators. Participants were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England, the Me and My School Study and the Research with East London Adolescent Community Health Survey. Outcome variables included risk behaviours (smoking, alcohol/cannabis use, sexual behaviour), behavioural difficulties and victimisation, obesity and physical activity, mental and emotional health, and educational attainment. Multi-level models were used to calculate the proportion of variance in outcomes explained at school level, expressed as intraclass correlations (ICCs) adjusted for gender, ethnicity and socio-economic status of the participants. ICCs for health outcomes ranged from nearly nil to .28 and were almost uniformly lower than for attainment (.17-.23). Most adjusted ICCs were smaller than unadjusted values, suggesting that school-level variation partly reflects differences in pupil demographics. School-level variation was highest for risk behaviours. ICCs were largely comparable across datasets, as well as across years within datasets, suggesting that school-level variation in health remains fairly constant across adolescence. School-level variation in health outcomes remains significant after adjustment for individual demographic differences between schools, confirming likely effects for school environment. Variance is highest for risk behaviours, supporting the utility of school environment interventions for these outcomes. PMID:23793374

  15. Adolescents' mental health outcomes according to different types of exposure to ongoing terror attacks.

    PubMed

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verté, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid

    2009-07-01

    This study investigates the impact of several types of exposure to terror attacks on adolescents' psychological outcomes in the context of ongoing terror. A total of 913 adolescents (51% girls) aged 12 to 18 years (12-13.6 = 33%; 13.7-15.6 = 38%; 15.7-18 = 28%) took part in the study. Detailed data were collected concerning objective, subjective and "mixed" types of exposure to terror, as well as demographics, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), emotional and behavioral problems and overall psychological and psychiatric difficulties. Subjective exposure was found to be the most important contributor to adolescents' post-traumatic stress and other mental health problems in this context. Gender also had important effects. The effects of objective and mixed types of exposure, as well as age, were less prominent. We did find, however, that the more adolescents consulted media, the less they experienced behavioral and emotional problems. Given that subjective experiences appear to be the best factor in explaining mental health outcomes when adolescents are confronted with persistent terror, the cognitive and emotional dynamics along with the coping behavior linked to such experiences merit further investigation.

  16. To tweet, or not to tweet: gender differences and potential positive and negative health outcomes of adolescents' social internet use.

    PubMed

    Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa; Park, M Jane

    2010-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults are avid Internet users. Online social media, such as social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), blogs, status updating sites (e.g., Twitter) and chat rooms, have become integral parts of adolescents' and young adults' lives. Adolescents are even beginning to enter the world of online dating with several websites dedicated to "teenage online dating." This paper reviews recent peer-reviewed literature and national data on 1) adolescents use of online social media, 2) gender differences in online social media and 3) potential positive and negative health outcomes from adolescents' online social media use. We also examine parental monitoring of adolescents' online activities. Given that parental supervision is a key protective factor against adolescent risk-taking behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that unmonitored Internet use may place adolescents' at significant risk, such as cyberbullying, unwanted exposure to pornography, and potentially revealing personal information to sexual predators.

  17. To tweet, or not to tweet: gender differences and potential positive and negative health outcomes of adolescents' social internet use.

    PubMed

    Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa; Park, M Jane

    2010-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults are avid Internet users. Online social media, such as social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), blogs, status updating sites (e.g., Twitter) and chat rooms, have become integral parts of adolescents' and young adults' lives. Adolescents are even beginning to enter the world of online dating with several websites dedicated to "teenage online dating." This paper reviews recent peer-reviewed literature and national data on 1) adolescents use of online social media, 2) gender differences in online social media and 3) potential positive and negative health outcomes from adolescents' online social media use. We also examine parental monitoring of adolescents' online activities. Given that parental supervision is a key protective factor against adolescent risk-taking behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that unmonitored Internet use may place adolescents' at significant risk, such as cyberbullying, unwanted exposure to pornography, and potentially revealing personal information to sexual predators. PMID:20164062

  18. The effects of positive and negative parenting practices on adolescent mental health outcomes in a multicultural sample of rural youth.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R

    2015-06-01

    The quality of parent-child relationships has a significant impact on adolescent developmental outcomes, especially mental health. Given the lack of research on rural adolescent mental health in general and rural parent-child relationships in particular, the current longitudinal study explores how rural adolescents' (N = 2,617) perceptions of parenting practices effect their mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, aggression, self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction) over a 1 year period. Regression models showed that current parenting practices (i.e., in Year 2) were strongly associated with current adolescent mental health outcomes. Negative current parenting, manifesting in parent-adolescent conflict, was related to higher adolescent anxiety, depression, and aggression and lower self-esteem, and school satisfaction. Past parent-adolescent conflict (i.e., in Year 1) also positively predicted adolescent aggression in the present. Current positive parenting (i.e., parent support, parent-child future orientation, and parent education support) was significantly associated with less depression and higher self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction. Past parent education support was also related to current adolescent future optimism. Implications for practice and limitations were discussed. PMID:24880498

  19. The effects of positive and negative parenting practices on adolescent mental health outcomes in a multicultural sample of rural youth.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R

    2015-06-01

    The quality of parent-child relationships has a significant impact on adolescent developmental outcomes, especially mental health. Given the lack of research on rural adolescent mental health in general and rural parent-child relationships in particular, the current longitudinal study explores how rural adolescents' (N = 2,617) perceptions of parenting practices effect their mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, aggression, self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction) over a 1 year period. Regression models showed that current parenting practices (i.e., in Year 2) were strongly associated with current adolescent mental health outcomes. Negative current parenting, manifesting in parent-adolescent conflict, was related to higher adolescent anxiety, depression, and aggression and lower self-esteem, and school satisfaction. Past parent-adolescent conflict (i.e., in Year 1) also positively predicted adolescent aggression in the present. Current positive parenting (i.e., parent support, parent-child future orientation, and parent education support) was significantly associated with less depression and higher self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction. Past parent education support was also related to current adolescent future optimism. Implications for practice and limitations were discussed.

  20. Using Process Data to Explain Outcomes. An Illustration from the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Sarah A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Data from the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health, a school-based field trial, are used to illustrate the use of process evaluation for understanding study outcomes. Teacher characteristics and fidelity to the program model had direct and independent effects on student outcomes from the program. (SLD)

  1. Media Use and Health Outcomes in Adolescents: Findings from a Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Casiano, Hygiea; Kinley, D. Jolene; Katz, Laurence Y.; Chartier, Mariette J.; Sareen, Jitender

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the association between quantity of media use and health outcomes in adolescents. Method: Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted with the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.1 (youth aged 12–19 (n=9137)) to determine the association between hours of use of television/videos, video games, and computers/Internet, and health outcomes including depression, alcohol dependence, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, help-seeking behaviour, risky sexual activity, and obesity. Results: Obesity was associated with frequent television/video use (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 1.10). Depression and risky sexual behaviour were less likely in frequent video game users (AOR 0.87 and 0.73). Binge drinking was less likely in frequent users of video games (AOR 0.92) and computers/Internet (AOR 0.90). Alcohol dependence was less likely in frequent computer/Internet users (AOR 0.89). Conclusions: Most health outcomes, except for obesity, were not associated with using media in youth. Further research into the appropriate role of media will help harness its full potential. PMID:23133464

  2. Predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential predictors, and a range of health outcomes, at 2 time points separated by 1 year. Longitudinal change regression models showed that perceived body acceptance by others (positively), self-objectification and social comparison (negatively), and body appreciation (positively) prospectively predicted intuitive eating 1 year later, consistent with the acceptance model of intuitive eating. Perceived body acceptance by others was the only proposed predictor to prospectively predict an increase in body appreciation over time. Time 1 body appreciation prospectively predicted a decrease in dieting, alcohol, and cigarette use, and an increase in physical activity 1 year later. In particular, girls with low body appreciation were more likely than girls with high body appreciation to take up alcohol and cigarette use between time points. The results highlight body appreciation as an important target for interventions designed to prevent or delay the uptake of alcohol and cigarette consumption among girls. More broadly, they suggest that a positive body image can confer considerable benefit for adolescent girls. PMID:26727595

  3. Predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential predictors, and a range of health outcomes, at 2 time points separated by 1 year. Longitudinal change regression models showed that perceived body acceptance by others (positively), self-objectification and social comparison (negatively), and body appreciation (positively) prospectively predicted intuitive eating 1 year later, consistent with the acceptance model of intuitive eating. Perceived body acceptance by others was the only proposed predictor to prospectively predict an increase in body appreciation over time. Time 1 body appreciation prospectively predicted a decrease in dieting, alcohol, and cigarette use, and an increase in physical activity 1 year later. In particular, girls with low body appreciation were more likely than girls with high body appreciation to take up alcohol and cigarette use between time points. The results highlight body appreciation as an important target for interventions designed to prevent or delay the uptake of alcohol and cigarette consumption among girls. More broadly, they suggest that a positive body image can confer considerable benefit for adolescent girls.

  4. Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes According to Different Types of Exposure to Ongoing Terror Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verte, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of several types of exposure to terror attacks on adolescents' psychological outcomes in the context of ongoing terror. A total of 913 adolescents (51 girls) aged 12 to 18 years (12-13.6 = 33%; 13.7-15.6 = 38%; 15.7-18 = 28%) took part in the study. Detailed data were collected concerning objective, subjective…

  5. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  6. Prevalence and Mental Health Outcomes of Homicide Survivors in a Representative US Sample of Adolescents: Data from the 2005 National Survey of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zinzow, Heidi; Hawkins, Alesia; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Each homicide leaves behind several friends and family members, or homicide survivors. However, limited information is available on the impact of homicide on adolescent survivors. The purpose of the current study was to identify the prevalence of homicide survivorship and to determine mental health outcomes within a sample of US…

  7. Personality and adolescent pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the relationship between personality, pregnancy and birth outcomes in adolescents Background Personality has been shown to be a strong predictor of many health outcomes. Adolescents who become pregnant have worse birth outcomes than adults. Design Cross-sectional study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (baseline, 1994-1995; follow-up, 2007-2008). Methods The study sample was 6529 girls, 820 of whom reported on pregnancy outcomes for a teenage birth. Personality data was taken from the Mini International Personality Item Pool personality tool, which measures the five-factor personality traits of neuroticism, conscientiousness, intellect/imagination, extraversion and agreeableness. Logistic regression was used to predict teen pregnancy and linear regression was used to predict birth weight and gestational age with adjustment for confounders and stratification by race. Results Agreeableness and intellect/imagination were associated with a reduced likelihood of becoming pregnant as an adolescent, while neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion were all associated with an increased likelihood of becoming pregnant. Higher neuroticism was associated with lower birth weight and gestational age among Black girls, but not non-Black. Conscientiousness was associated with lower gestational age among non-Black girls. No relationships were found with extraversion or agreeableness and birth outcomes. Receiving late or no prenatal care was associated with higher intellect/imagination. Conclusions Personality is understudied with respect to pregnancy and birth outcomes compared with other health outcomes. Such research could help professionals and clinicians design and target programs that best fit the characteristics of the population most likely to need them, such as those with high neuroticism. PMID:25040691

  8. Adolescent premarital sex and health outcomes among Taiwanese youth: perception of best friends' sexual behavior and the contextual effect.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chi; Yi, Chin-Chun

    2011-09-01

    This study explores premarital sex among adolescents and its health outcomes in a typical East Asian society, Taiwan. As a collective society in terms of cultural heritage, a particular target of this study was perceived peer pressure and its contextual influence. The data were taken from the Taiwan Youth Project, 2004 and 2007, and never married youth aged 20 years constituted our sample (N=3530). Best friends' sexual behavior and other context-related factors, such as school attendance and community participation, are presumed to influence adolescent premarital sex as well as their health status. Logistic regression models show a positive and significant association between the perception of friends' sexual behavior and the likelihood of adolescent premarital sex engagement, after adjusting for the youth's own sex-related experience and attitudes, individual characteristics, and family background. The analysis also confirms that school attendance and community participation are significantly associated with a lower likelihood of having premarital sex. Furthermore, adolescent premarital sex was found to be linked to the perceived health status of the youth (self-rated health, smoking, and drinking), as expected. These findings demonstrate the importance of peers and social context, which suggests that HIV prevention and health promotion programs for youth need to take friendship networks and social context into consideration. PMID:21562995

  9. Contraception for Adolescents: Focusing on Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives (LARC) to Improve Reproductive Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy rates in the U.S. have reached an all-time low from their peak in the 1980s and 1990s. However, the U.S. maintains the highest rate of teenage pregnancy among developed nations. Adolescents experience higher typical use failure rates for user-dependent contraceptives compared to their adult counterparts. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), IUDs and implants, have failure rates that are both very low and independent of user age. In settings where the most effective methods are prioritized and access barriers are removed, the majority of adolescents initiate LARC. Use of LARC by adolescents significantly reduces rates of overall and repeat teen pregnancy. All methods of contraception are safe for use in teens, including IUDs and DMPA. Dual use of LARC and barrier methods to reduce risk of sexually transmitted infection, is the optimal contraceptive strategy for most adolescents. Adolescent access to evidence-based and confidential contraceptive services, provided in a manner that respects autonomy, is a vital public health goal.

  10. Contraception for Adolescents: Focusing on Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives (LARC) to Improve Reproductive Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy rates in the U.S. have reached an all-time low from their peak in the 1980s and 1990s. However, the U.S. maintains the highest rate of teenage pregnancy among developed nations. Adolescents experience higher typical use failure rates for user-dependent contraceptives compared to their adult counterparts. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), IUDs and implants, have failure rates that are both very low and independent of user age. In settings where the most effective methods are prioritized and access barriers are removed, the majority of adolescents initiate LARC. Use of LARC by adolescents significantly reduces rates of overall and repeat teen pregnancy. All methods of contraception are safe for use in teens, including IUDs and DMPA. Dual use of LARC and barrier methods to reduce risk of sexually transmitted infection, is the optimal contraceptive strategy for most adolescents. Adolescent access to evidence-based and confidential contraceptive services, provided in a manner that respects autonomy, is a vital public health goal. PMID:27635305

  11. Brief report: identity processes in Filipino late adolescents and young adults: parental influences and mental health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pesigan, Ivan Jacob Agaloos; Luyckx, Koen; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2014-07-01

    This study focused on a process-oriented approach to identity formation using a sample of Filipino late adolescents and young adults (17-30 years; N = 779). Indirect relations between parenting and mental health via identity formation processes were examined. Two parenting dimensions (psychological control and support), two types of mental health outcomes (depression and psychological well-being), and five identity dimensions (commitment making (CM), identification with commitment (IC), exploration in breadth (EB), exploration in depth (ED), and ruminative exploration (RE)) were assessed. Recursive path analysis showed indirect relations between parenting and mental health via EB, ED, RE, and IC. Model differences between late adolescents (17-21 year olds) and young adults (22-30 year olds) were examined using multigroup path analysis. Results showed that the direct effect of psychological control on RE, and its indirect effect on depression through RE differed between the age groups. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  12. Three-Year Chemical Dependency and Mental Health Treatment Outcomes Among Adolescents: The Role of Continuing Care

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Stacy; Chi, Felicia; Campbell, Cynthia; Weisner, Constance

    2010-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the effects of treatment factors, including the types of services [chemical dependency (CD), psychiatric, or both], on long-term outcomes among adolescents following CD treatment, and whether receiving continuing care may contribute to better outcomes. This study examines the effect of the index CD and ongoing CD and psychiatric treatment episodes, 12-step participation, and individual characteristics such as CD and mental health (MH) severity and gender, age, and ethnicity, on 3-year CD and MH outcomes. Methods Participants were 296 adolescents aged 13 to 18 seeking treatment at 4 CD programs of a nonprofit, managed care, integrated health system. We surveyed participants at intake, 1 year, and 3 years, and examined survey and administrative data, and CD and psychiatric utilization. Results At 3 years, 29.7% of the sample reported total abstinence from both alcohol and drugs (excluding tobacco). Compared with girls, boys had only half the odds of being abstinent (OR = 0.46, p = 0.0204). Gender also predicted Externalizing severity at 3 years (coefficients 18.42 vs. 14.77, p < 0.01). CD treatment readmission in the second and third follow-up years was related to abstinence at 3 years (OR = 0.24, p = 0.0066 and OR = 3.33, p = 0.0207, respectively). Abstinence at 1 year predicted abstinence at 3 years (OR = 4.11, p < 0.0001). Those who were abstinent at 1 year also had better MH outcomes (both lower Internalizing and Externalizing scores) than those who were not (11.75 vs. 15.55, p = 0.0012 and 15.13 vs. 18.06, p = 0.0179, respectively). Conclusions A CD treatment episode resulting in good 1-year CD outcomes may contribute significantly to both CD and MH outcomes 3 years later. The findings also point to the value of providing a continuing care model of treatment for adolescents. PMID:19413644

  13. The use of routine outcome measures in two child and adolescent mental health services: a completed audit cycle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Routine outcome measurement (ROM) is important for assessing the clinical effectiveness of health services and for monitoring patient outcomes. Within Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in the UK the adoption of ROM in CAMHS has been supported by both national and local initiatives (such as government strategies, local commissioning policy, and research). Methods With the aim of assessing how these policies and initiatives may have influenced the uptake of ROM within two different CAMHS we report the findings of two case-note audits: a baseline audit conducted in January 2011 and a re-audit conducted two years later in December 2012-February 2013. Results The findings show an increase in both the single and repeated use of outcome measures from the time of the original audit, with repeated use (baseline and follow-up) of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) scale increasing from 10% to 50% of cases. Re-audited case-notes contained more combined use of different outcome measures, with greater consensus on which measures to use. Outcome measures that were applicable across a wide range of clinical conditions were more likely to be used than symptom-specific measures, and measures that were completed by the clinician were found more often than measures completed by the service user. Conclusions The findings show a substantial improvement in the use of outcome measures within CAMHS. These increases in use were found across different service organisations which were subject to different types of local service priorities and drivers. PMID:24139139

  14. Sexual Orientation, Adult Connectedness, Substance Use, and Mental Health Outcomes Among Adolescents: Findings From the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seil, Kacie S.; Desai, Mayur M.; Smith, Megan V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined associations between identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) and lacking a connection with an adult at school on adolescent substance use and mental health outcomes including suicidality. Methods We analyzed data from the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 8910). Outcomes of interest included alcohol use, marijuana use, illicit drug use, depressive symptomatology, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Results The prevalence of each outcome was significantly higher among LGB adolescents than heterosexual adolescents and among those who lacked an adult connection at school than among those who did have such a connection. Even when LGB adolescents had an adult connection at school, their odds of most outcomes were significantly higher than for heterosexual adolescents. Those LGB adolescents who lacked a school adult connection had the poorest outcomes (about 45% reported suicide ideation; 31% suicide attempt). Conclusions Adolescents who are LGB, particularly those who lack a connection with school adults, are at high risk for substance use and poorer mental health outcomes. Interventions should focus on boosting social support and improving outcomes for this vulnerable group. PMID:25121812

  15. Sexual Orientation, Adult Connectedness, Substance Use, and Mental Health Outcomes Among Adolescents: Findings From the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seil, Kacie S.; Desai, Mayur M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) and lacking a connection with an adult at school on adolescent substance use and mental health outcomes including suicidality. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 8910). Outcomes of interest included alcohol use, marijuana use, illicit drug use, depressive symptomatology, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Results. The prevalence of each outcome was significantly higher among LGB adolescents than heterosexual adolescents and among those who lacked an adult connection at school than among those who did have such a connection. Even when LGB adolescents had an adult connection at school, their odds of most outcomes were significantly higher than for heterosexual adolescents. Those LGB adolescents who lacked a school adult connection had the poorest outcomes (about 45% reported suicide ideation; 31% suicide attempt). Conclusions. Adolescents who are LGB, particularly those who lack a connection with school adults, are at high risk for substance use and poorer mental health outcomes. Interventions should focus on boosting social support and improving outcomes for this vulnerable group. PMID:25121812

  16. [Outcome quality in the mental health rehabilitation of children and adolescents ].

    PubMed

    Winkler, Roman; Piso, Brigitte

    2014-11-01

    The range of mental health rehabilitation (MHR) available to children and adolescents with mental health disorders differs internationally. While MHR programs have been already implemented for this target group in Germany, in Austria such services are still in the planning phase. With regard to the quality assurance of potential MHR programs, however, ongoing evaluation approaches are needed already in the course of program design. This review focuses on indicators and measurement methods used in MHR program evaluations. Through a systematic literature search, we identified six studies providing information on five evaluation indicators (clinical symptoms, quality of life, functionality, rehabilitation progress, and rehabilitation satisfaction). By measuring these endpoints, the studies included mainly reported on instruments that had been used throughout different indication groups ("generic tools"). In addition to children and adolescents with mental-health disorders, the parents were usually also included in the evaluations. Thus, the self-assessments of the children and adolescents (e.g., regarding the development of behavioral problems and strengths) were complemented by external assessments. Most evaluation studies included several subsequent time-points of measurement ("longitudinal studies"). The indicators may play a central role in future evaluation projects, since their range of topics provides comprehensive insights into rehabilitation results. However, with regard to the measurement methods, the psychometric quality criteria require proper reviews and consideration. PMID:25335521

  17. Associations between evidence-based practice and mental health outcomes in child and adolescent mental health services.

    PubMed

    Deighton, Jessica; Argent, Rachel; De Francesco, Davide; Edbrooke-Childs, Julian; Jacob, Jenna; Fleming, Isobel; Ford, Tamsin; Wolpert, Miranda

    2016-04-01

    The effectiveness of evidence-based practice in the treatment of children with conduct disorder (n = 186) or emotional disorders (n = 490) in routine care was examined using naturalistic, previously collected data from 30 child and adolescent mental health services. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to compare the outcomes of children who received parent training for conduct disorder and cognitive behavioural therapy for emotional disorders (evidence-based practice) with children who did not receive these treatments (non-evidence-based practice). There was a relatively low occurrence of evidence-based practice, particularly for children with conduct disorder. Both the evidence-based practice and non-evidence-based practice groups improve over time, with moderate effect sizes, and there were greater improvements associated with evidence-based practice for children with emotional disorders, based on child self-reported symptoms but not on parent report. In the present sample, significant differences were not found for conduct disorder. Findings provide tentative support for evidence-based practice for the treatment of emotional disorders in routine care settings.

  18. Health Outcomes of Information System Use Lifestyles among Adolescents: Videogame Addiction, Sleep Curtailment and Cardio-Metabolic Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Obesity is a rising problem among adolescents in modern societies; it results in long-term cardio-metabolic problems. Possible overlooked drivers of obesity and its consequent cardio-metabolic deficits include videogame addiction and the resulting curtailed sleep; both are growing problems among adolescents. The objective of this study is to examine possible associations among these concepts in adolescents, as a means to point to plausible interventions. Methods Data were collected from 94 adolescents who play videogames and are enrolled in outpatient clinics, using surveys, wearable sleep monitors (FitBit), physical exams, and blood tests at three points in time. These data were subjected to structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses and bootstrapping-based mediation testing procedures. Results Videogame addiction among adolescents was negatively associated with sleep duration (β = -0.24). Sleep duration was negatively associated with obesity (β = -0.30), which in turn was associated with elevated blood pressure (β = 0.26), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = -0.18), high triglycerides (β = 0.61), and high insulin resistance (β = 0.39). The model explained 36.2% of the variation in sleep duration, 32.7% of the variation in obesity, and between 12.8% and 28.1% of the variation in cardio-metabolic indicators. Post-hoc analyses indicated that curtailed sleep is a possible full mediator of the association between videogame addiction, abdominal obesity and the associated cardio-metabolic deficits. Conclusion The findings point to possible information systems use lifestyle-health links, which behooves researchers and practitioners to pay closer attention to possible adverse health outcomes of technology-related addictions. Interventions that target problematic video-gaming and sleep should be devised as a possible means for improving adolescents’ long-term cardio-metabolic health. PMID:27149512

  19. Puzzling Findings in Studying the Outcome of “Real World” Adolescent Mental Health Services: The TRAILS Study

    PubMed Central

    Jörg, Frederike; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Jansen, Daniëlle E. M. C.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The increased use and costs of specialist child and adolescent mental health services (MHS) urge us to assess the effectiveness of these services. The aim of this paper is to compare the course of emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents with and without MHS use in a naturalistic setting. Method and Findings Participants are 2230 (pre)adolescents that enrolled in a prospective cohort study, the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Response rate was 76%, mean age at baseline 11.09 (SD 0.56), 50.8% girls. We used data from the first three assessment waves, covering a six year period. Multiple linear regression analysis, propensity score matching, and data validation were used to compare the course of emotional and behavioural problems of adolescents with and without MHS use. The association between MHS and follow-up problem score (β 0.20, SE 0.03, p-value<0.001) was not confounded by baseline severity, markers of adolescent vulnerability or resilience nor stressful life events. The propensity score matching strategy revealed that follow-up problem scores of non-MHS-users decreased while the problem scores of MHS users remained high. When taking into account future MHS (non)use, it appeared that problem scores decreased with limited MHS use, albeit not as much as without any MHS use, and that problem scores with continuous MHS use remained high. Data validation showed that using a different outcome measure, multiple assessment waves and multiple imputation of missing values did not alter the results. A limitation of the study is that, although we know what type of MHS participants used, and during which period, we lack information on the duration of the treatment. Conclusions The benefits of MHS are questionable. Replication studies should reveal whether a critical examination of everyday care is necessary or an artefact is responsible for these results. PMID:23028584

  20. Adolescent over-general memory, life events and mental health outcomes: Findings from a UK cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Catherine; Heron, Jon; Gunnell, David; Lewis, Glyn; Evans, Jonathan; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggesting that over-general memory (OGM) may moderate the effect of life events on depressive symptoms and suicidality has sampled older adolescents or adults, or younger adolescents in high-risk populations, and has been conducted over relatively short follow-up periods. The authors examined the relationship between OGM at age 13 and life events and mental health outcomes (depression, self-harm, suicidal ideation and planning) at age 16 years within a sample of 5792 adolescents participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), approximately 3800 of whom had also provided data on depression and self-harm. There was no clear evidence of either direct or interactive effects of OGM at age 13 on levels of depression at age 16. Similarly there was no clear evidence of either direct or interactive effects of OGM on suicidal ideation and self-harm. Although there was some evidence that over-general autobiographical memory was associated with reduced risk of suicidal planning and increased risk of self-harm, these associations were absent when confounding variables were taken into account. The findings imply that although OGM is a marker of vulnerability to depression and related psychopathology in high-risk groups, this cannot be assumed to generalise to whole populations. PMID:25716137

  1. Adolescent over-general memory, life events and mental health outcomes: Findings from a UK cohort study.

    PubMed

    Crane, Catherine; Heron, Jon; Gunnell, David; Lewis, Glyn; Evans, Jonathan; Williams, J Mark G

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggesting that over-general memory (OGM) may moderate the effect of life events on depressive symptoms and suicidality has sampled older adolescents or adults, or younger adolescents in high-risk populations, and has been conducted over relatively short follow-up periods. The authors examined the relationship between OGM at age 13 and life events and mental health outcomes (depression, self-harm, suicidal ideation and planning) at age 16 years within a sample of 5792 adolescents participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), approximately 3800 of whom had also provided data on depression and self-harm. There was no clear evidence of either direct or interactive effects of OGM at age 13 on levels of depression at age 16. Similarly there was no clear evidence of either direct or interactive effects of OGM on suicidal ideation and self-harm. Although there was some evidence that over-general autobiographical memory was associated with reduced risk of suicidal planning and increased risk of self-harm, these associations were absent when confounding variables were taken into account. The findings imply that although OGM is a marker of vulnerability to depression and related psychopathology in high-risk groups, this cannot be assumed to generalise to whole populations.

  2. Neighborhoods, Social Support, and African American Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes: A Multilevel Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood characteristics may relate to African American adolescents' internalizing symptoms via adolescents' social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Participants included 571 urban, African American adolescents (52% female; "M" age = 17.8). A multilevel path analysis testing both direct and indirect…

  3. Adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in adolescent pregnancies: The Global Network’s Maternal Newborn Health Registry study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent girls between 15 and 19 years give birth to around 16 million babies each year, around 11% of births worldwide. We sought to determine whether adolescent mothers are at higher risk of maternal and perinatal adverse outcomes compared with mothers aged 20–24 years in a prospective, population-based observational study of newborn outcomes in low resource settings. Methods We undertook a prospective, population-based multi-country research study of all pregnant women in defined geographic areas across 7 sites in six low-middle income countries (Kenya, Zambia, India, Pakistan, Guatemala and Argentina). The study population for this analysis was restricted to women aged 24 years or less, who gave birth to infants of at least 20 weeks’ gestation and 500g or more. We compared adverse pregnancy maternal and perinatal outcomes among pregnant adolescents 15-19 years, <15 years, and adults 20-24 years. Results A total of 269,273 women were enrolled from January 2010 to December 2013. Of all pregnancies 11.9% (32,097/269,273) were in adolescents 15-19 years, while 0.14% (370/269,273) occurred among girls <15 years. Pregnancy among adolescents 15-19 years ranged from 2% in Pakistan to 26% in Argentina, and adolescent pregnancies <15 year were only observed in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Compared to adults, adolescents did not show increased risk of maternal adverse outcomes. Risks of preterm birth and LBW were significantly higher among both early and older adolescents, with the highest risks observed in the <15 years group. Neonatal and perinatal mortality followed a similar trend in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, with the highest risk in early adolescents, although the differences in this age group were not significant. However, in South Asia the risks of neonatal and perinatal death were not different among adolescents 15-19 years compared to adults. Conclusions This study suggests that pregnancy among adolescents is not associated

  4. Young Adult Outcomes of Children Growing up with Chronic Illness: An analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Gary R.; Haydon, Abigail; Ford, Carol Ann; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine young adult outcomes in a nationally representative US cohort of young adults who grew up with a chronic illness. Design Secondary analysis of nationally representative data from Wave III (2001) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Setting United States Participants The analytic sample included 13,236 young adults 18–28 years old at Wave III. Main Exposure Self-report of a chronic physical illness (asthma, cancer, diabetes or epilepsy) in adolescence. Respondents with (1) asthma or (2) non-asthma chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy) were compared to subjects without these conditions. Main Outcome Measures Self-report of high school graduation, ever having a job, having a current job, living with parents, and ever receiving public assistance. Results Three percent of young adults had non-asthma chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy) and 16% had asthma. The majority of young adults with chronic illness graduated high school (81%) and were currently employed (60%). However, compared to healthy young adults, those with a non-asthma chronic illness were significantly less likely to graduate high school, ever have a job, or have a current job and were more likely to receive public assistance. When compared to young adults with asthma, young adults with non-asthma chronic illness again had significantly worse young adult outcomes on all measures. Conclusions Most young adults growing up with chronic illness graduate high school and are employed. However, these young adults are significantly less likely than their healthy peers to achieve these important educational and vocational milestones. PMID:21383274

  5. Family Rejection, Social Isolation, and Loneliness as Predictors of Negative Health Outcomes (Depression, Suicidal Ideation, and Sexual Risk Behavior) among Thai Male-to-Female Transgender Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadegarfard, Mohammadrasool; Meinhold-Bergmann, Mallika E.; Ho, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of family rejection, social isolation, and loneliness on negative health outcomes among Thai male-to-female transgender adolescents. The sample consisted of 260 male respondents, of whom 129 (49.6%) were self-identified as transgender and 131 (50.4%) were self-identified as cisgender (nontransgender). Initial…

  6. Using a Framework to Explore Associations between Parental Substance Use and the Health Outcomes of Their Adolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Shelley A.

    2011-01-01

    Risk-taking behavior plays a significant role in the lives of adolescents. Adolescents engaging in risk behaviors such as substance use and risky sexual activity are at increased risk for contracting STDs, unplanned pregnancy, and other health problems. Consequently, children of substance abusers are at even greater risk for engaging in…

  7. The influence of 2 weeks of low-volume high-intensity interval training on health outcomes in adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Barker, Alan R; Day, Josephine; Smith, Aaron; Bond, Bert; Williams, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to establish whether 2 weeks of high-intensity interval training would have a beneficial effect on aerobic fitness, fat oxidation, blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) in healthy adolescent boys. Ten adolescent boys (15.1 ± 0.3 years, 1.3 ± 0.2 years post-estimated peak height velocity) completed six sessions of Wingate-style high-intensity interval training over a 2-week period. The first session consisted of four sprints with training progressed to seven sprints in the final session. High-intensity interval training had a beneficial effect on maximal O2 uptake (mean change, ±90% confidence intervals: 0.19 L · min(-1), ±0.19, respectively), on the O2 uptake at the gas exchange threshold (0.09 L · min(-1), ±0.13) and on the O2 cost of sub-maximal exercise (-0.04 L · min(-1), ±0.04). A beneficial effect on the contribution of lipid (0.06 g · min(-1), ±0.06) and carbohydrate (-0.23 g · min(-1), ±0.14) oxidation was observed during sub-maximal exercise, but not for the maximal rate of fat oxidation (0.04 g · min(-1), ±0.08). Systolic blood pressure (1 mmHg, ±4) and BMI (0.1 kg · m2, ±0.1) were not altered following training. These data demonstrate that meaningful changes in health outcomes are possible in healthy adolescent boys after just six sessions of high-intensity interval training over a 2-week period.

  8. Adolescent and School Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Adolescent and School Health Note: Javascript is disabled or ... behaviors now JAMA Viewpoint: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents New MMWR Article Learn What State and Local ...

  9. Acculturation-Related Stress and Mental Health Outcomes among Three Generations of Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Padilla, Amado M.; Napper, Lucy E.; Goldbach, Jeremy T.

    2013-01-01

    Stress associated with acculturation and minority status among Hispanic youth is understudied. Using survey data from the Hispanic Stress Inventory-Adolescent Version (HSI-A), we examined psychosocial stress across eight domains including family economic stress and acculturation-gap stress in a national sample of three generations (first, second,…

  10. [Adolescent health in numbers].

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent health is not a priority to public health services. The physical, psychological and social changes lived by youngsters expose these individuals to several health risks and events that are determinant to their actual and future health status. The main health problems in adolescents are infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases but traumatisms are very important in males. Female adolescents demand services related to their reproductive life and link to early and not desired pregnancies. Another important health problem is overweight and obesity in both sexes. The main causes of death in this age group are malignant tumors, specially leukemias, and accidents. We do not have information related to health risks like addictions and mental health. Data show how important adolescents health should be to the public health sector specially because it will be more easy to tackle their health risks and negative health life-styles at this age than further in their lives.

  11. Research in child and adolescent telemental health.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kathleen M; Palmer, Nancy B; Geyer, John R

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade telepsychiatry, and more broadly telemental health (TMH), services with children and adolescents have been implemented with diverse populations in many geographic areas across the United States. The feasibility and acceptability of child and adolescent TMH have been well demonstrated, but little research exists on the efficacy and effectiveness of TMH in improving the mental health care and outcomes for underserved youth. This article summarizes the state of research in child and adolescent telemental health TMH and examines studies in other areas of telemedicine that may inspire and guide child and adolescent telepsychiatrists to collect data on the process and outcomes of their own work.

  12. Dairy product intake in children and adolescents in developed countries: trends, nutritional contribution, and a review of association with health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H

    2014-02-01

    Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, consumption of milk and dairy products by children and adolescents in many countries has waned in recent decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source of multiple micronutrients, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iodine, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B12 , and riboflavin (vitamin B2 ). In addition, dairy products provide children with energy, high-quality protein, and essential and nonessential fatty acids. A review of evidence was conducted to evaluate associations between milk or dairy product intake and health outcomes in children and adolescents. Results suggest a neutral or inverse association between consumption of milk and dairy products in children and adolescents and indicators of adiposity, incidence of dental caries, and hypertension. Available data indicate that dairy products are important for linear growth and bone health during childhood. Additional research--in particular, controlled intervention trials and long-term prospective cohort studies--is warranted to better understand how dairy intake affects health outcomes in children and adolescents.

  13. Colorism and Educational Outcomes of Asian Americans: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryabov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Using a nationally representative longitudinal data set, the current study examines the link between colorism and educational attainment of Asian American young adults. Three levels of educational attainment are used as outcomes: high school diploma, some college and a Bachelor's degree or higher. Independent variables include skin tone, ethnic…

  14. Perceptions of Vietnamese fathers' acculturation levels, parenting styles, and mental health outcomes in Vietnamese American adolescent immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Peter V

    2008-10-01

    Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. MostVietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Inventory, this exploratory study surveyed 290Vietnamese American adolescents in a major metropolitan area to examine the relationship between their fathers' acculturation levels and parenting styles and the relationships among parenting styles and self-esteem levels and depression scores of the adolescents. Findings revealed that most of the adolescents perceived that their fathers have not acculturated to the U.S. culture and continue to practice the traditional authoritarian parenting style, regardless of the amount of time spent in the United States. Furthermore, results indicate that adolescents who perceived their fathers as using the authoritarian parenting style reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher depression scores when compared with those who perceived their fathers as using the authoritative parenting style. PMID:18853670

  15. Perceptions of Vietnamese fathers' acculturation levels, parenting styles, and mental health outcomes in Vietnamese American adolescent immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Peter V

    2008-10-01

    Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. MostVietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Inventory, this exploratory study surveyed 290Vietnamese American adolescents in a major metropolitan area to examine the relationship between their fathers' acculturation levels and parenting styles and the relationships among parenting styles and self-esteem levels and depression scores of the adolescents. Findings revealed that most of the adolescents perceived that their fathers have not acculturated to the U.S. culture and continue to practice the traditional authoritarian parenting style, regardless of the amount of time spent in the United States. Furthermore, results indicate that adolescents who perceived their fathers as using the authoritarian parenting style reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher depression scores when compared with those who perceived their fathers as using the authoritative parenting style.

  16. Perceptions of Vietnamese Fathers' Acculturation Levels, Parenting Styles, and Mental Health Outcomes in Vietnamese American Adolescent Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Peter V.

    2008-01-01

    Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. Most Vietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity…

  17. A qualitative process evaluation of electronic session-by-session outcome measurement in child and adolescent mental health services

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular monitoring of patient progress is important to assess the clinical effectiveness of an intervention. Recently, initiatives within UK child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) have advocated the use of session-by-session monitoring to continually evaluate the patient’s outcome throughout the course of the intervention. However, the feasibility and acceptability of such regular monitoring is unknown. Method Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with clinicians (n = 10), administrative staff (n = 8) and families (n = 15) who participated in a feasibility study of an electronic session-by-session outcome monitoring tool, (SxS), which is based on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). This study took place in three CAMHS clinics in Nottinghamshire. The interview transcripts were thematically analysed. Results We found clinicians accepted the need to complete outcome measures, particularly valuing those completed by the patient. However, there were some difficulties with engaging clinicians in this practice and in the training offered. Generally, patients were supportive of completing SxS in the waiting room prior to the clinic session and assistance with the process from administrative staff was seen to be a key factor. Clinicians and families found the feedback reports created from SxS to be helpful for tracking progress, facilitating communication and engagement, and as a point of reflection. The use of technology was considered positively, although some technological difficulties hindered the completion of SxS. Clinicians and families appreciated the brevity of SxS, but some were concerned that a short questionnaire could not adequately encapsulate the complexity of the patient’s issues. Conclusions The findings show the need for appropriate infrastructure, mandatory training, and support to enable an effective system of session-by-session monitoring. Our findings indicate that clinicians

  18. Health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, S

    1992-01-01

    Adolescents are the future adults of the world. While adolescence is typically regarded as a period of life relatively free from health problems, adolescents are actually in need of the attention of health professionals and health services, especially with regard to sexual health. A trend of decreasing age at menarche and increasing age at marriage presents adolescents with a substantial number of years in which they will experiment with their developing reproductive organs and sexuality. Substantial psychological and physical change takes place during this period. Inconsistent and suboptimal users of contraception, youths are at high risk for reproductive health problems and sexually transmitted diseases. Substance abuse, unintentional and intentional injuries and their sequelae, academic underachievement and illiteracy, and obesity may also be problematic for adolescents. Adolescents are, however, most damaged by internalized and externalized homophobia. The authors point out that adolescents may be persuaded to learn and change their behaviors more readily than adults. Appropriate messages could be conveyed through targeted information, education, and communication strategies to complement medical and health care services which are available, accessible, and acceptable. PMID:12318653

  19. Aluminium exposure from parenteral nutrition in preterm infants and later health outcomes during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, Mary S; Edmonds, Caroline J; Isaacs, Elizabeth; Bishop, Nick J; Lucas, Alan

    2011-08-01

    Aluminium is the most common metallic element, but has no known biological role. It accumulates in the body when protective gastrointestinal mechanisms are bypassed, renal function is impaired, or exposure is high - all of which apply frequently to preterm infants. Recognised clinical manifestations of aluminium toxicity include dementia, anaemia and bone disease. Parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions are liable to contamination with aluminium, particularly from acidic solutions in glass vials, notably calcium gluconate. When fed parenterally, infants retain >75% of the aluminium, with high serum, urine and tissue levels. Later health effects of neonatal intravenous aluminium exposure were investigated in a randomised trial comparing standard PN solutions with solutions specially sourced for low aluminium content. Preterm infants exposed for >10 d to standard solutions had impaired neurologic development at 18 months. At 13-15 years, subjects randomised to standard PN had lower lumbar spine bone mass; and, in non-randomised analyses, those with neonatal aluminium intake above the median had lower hip bone mass. Given the sizeable number of infants undergoing intensive care and still exposed to aluminium via PN, these findings have contemporary relevance. Until recently, little progress had been made on reducing aluminium exposure, and meeting Food and Drug Administration recommendations (<5 μg/kg per d) has been impossible in patients <50 kg using available products. Recent advice from the UK Medicines and Healthcare regulatory Authority that calcium gluconate in small volume glass containers should not be used for repeated treatment in children <18 years, including preparation of PN, is an important step towards addressing this problem.

  20. Sexual Health for America's Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Debra W.

    1996-01-01

    The National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health developed a professional consensus statement about adolescent sexual health. Its report for policymakers recommends that adults face the facts about adolescent sexuality and that public policies on adolescent sexual health be based on appropriate knowledge, accurate data, current theory, ongoing…

  1. Smoking and adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621

  2. Health for Adolescents and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamps, Jean-Pierre; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the health of adolescents and youth in the tropics. The report is divided into five sections. The first section defines adolescence, youth, the duration of adolescence, the age group and its problems, and societies in adolescence. The second section discusses adolescence in relation to society and culture and focuses on the…

  3. Expanding the Oncofertility Workforce: Training Allied Health Professionals to Improve Health Outcomes for Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Woodruff, Teresa K; Knapp, Caprice A; Bowman, Meghan Lorraine; Reinecke, Joyce; Vadaparampil, Susan T

    2016-09-01

    As cancer survivors live longer, fertility and reproductive health become important health concerns. Like other secondary effects of cancer treatment, these anticipated health risks should be addressed before the initiation of cancer treatment. While existing and emerging technologies may prevent or reduce risk of infertility (e.g., sperm, oocyte, embryo, or tissue banking), the lack of a trained workforce knowledgeable about oncology and reproductive health poses a barrier to care. The allied health professional (AHP) is a target of opportunity because of the direct and sustained patient relationships. Thus, developing tailored educational programs for nurses, social workers, psychologists, and physician assistants is an urgent unmet need toward field building. In this report, we outline results from a pilot study evaluating AHP perceptions of an oncology and reproductive health curriculum originally developed for nurses and adapted to meet the needs of several other AHP groups. PMID:26978683

  4. Promoting adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kristina Berg

    2007-10-01

    The aim is to discuss why paediatricians should be involved in adolescent health care and provide youth-friendly-health-services. Global epidemiological data on morbidity and mortality demonstrate that much of ill health in the short and long run are connected to adolescent behaviour and in theory available for prevention. Young people seemingly lose their heads and do not consider dangers. Recent research on brain development provides us with an understanding how this may have a biological base. Also psychology has long taught us how adolescents use experimental behaviours as means to satisfy developmental needs and explore identity. Prevention and health promotion are areas of research where much more needs to be done. There is also a lack of venues for publishing even excellent studies in this field.

  5. DOES RURAL-TO-URBAN MIGRATION PLACE ADOLESCENTS AT RISK OF DELETERIOUS SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH OUTCOMES? EVIDENCE FROM HAITI.

    PubMed

    Heckert, Jessica

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the links between migration and sexual and reproductive health among rural-to-urban migrant youth in Haiti. It evaluates behavioural, knowledge and attitudinal components from the perspective of three competing explanations for migrants' behaviours: adaptation, disruption and selection. Discrete-time event history analysis is employed to compare these hypotheses using Haiti Demographic and Health Survey data (N=1215 adolescent girls, N=829 adolescent boys). Multi-level models are used to compare changes in knowledge and attitudes in individuals using data from the Haiti Youth Transitions Study (N=223). The findings reveal that disruption is the most plausible explanation for the timing of migration and first sex among girls. However, contrary to the assumption that migrant youth risk experiencing first sex earlier, girls are less likely to experience first sex near the time they migrate, and rural-to-urban migrant boys may experience first sex at later ages. The high aspirations of migrant youth provide a likely explanation for these findings. Furthermore, male migrants accumulate less protective knowledge, which is consistent with the disruption hypothesis, and migrants endorse premarital sex similarly to non-migrants. Sexual and reproductive health curricula should be adapted to the unique needs of migrant youth, and youth should be targeted before they migrate.

  6. FastStats: Adolescent Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Adolescent Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Health status Percent of adolescents 12-17 years of age who are in ...

  7. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  8. A Systematic Review Protocol to Assess the Effects of Physical Activity on Health and Quality of Life Outcomes in Adolescent Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Wurz, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background The benefits of physical activity for child and adult cancer survivors have been summarized in previous systematic reviews. However, no review has summarized the evidence for adolescent cancer survivors. Objective This paper describes the design of a protocol to conduct a systematic review of published studies examining the effects of physical activity on health and quality of life outcomes for adolescent cancer survivors. Methods Several guidelines informed the development of this protocol. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols guidelines provided the structure by which to conduct and report the protocol; though some adaptations were made with regards to search terms, data synthesis, and evaluating the risk of bias. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions was used to guide research question development, search term selection, and the data extraction form. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines helped inform the data extraction form. Lastly, the Guidance on the Conduct of Narrative Synthesis in Systematic Reviews informed the data synthesis. Ten electronic databases were identified and a search strategy was developed using a combination of Medical Subject Headings terms and keywords that were developed by the authors and peer reviewed by a university librarian. Both authors independently screened eligible studies for final inclusion, and data were abstracted using a form developed by the research team. A decision was made to synthesize all data narratively. Results The review has now been completed, peer-reviewed, and accepted for publication in a forthcoming issue of JMIR Cancer. Conclusions As this will be the first systematic review on this topic, outlining the protocol ensures transparency for the completed review. Further, this protocol illustrates how elements from several guidelines were incorporated to answer the research question (ie, what is the effect of

  9. Effect of folate supplementation on folate status and health outcomes in infants, children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lohner, Szimonetta; Fekete, Katalin; Berti, Cristiana; Hermoso, Maria; Cetin, Irene; Koletzko, Berthold; Decsi, Tamás

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to collect all available randomized controlled trials on the effect of folate supplementation on folate status and health outcomes within the paediatric age group. The method included a structured search strategy on MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane databases, with formal inclusion/exclusion criteria and data extraction procedure. We included 26 studies. We conclude that both serum and erythrocyte folate values reflect folate intake; however, serum folate reacts more rapidly to folate intake than erythrocyte folate. As to health outcomes, we found no evidence indicating that additional intake of folate can influence haematological parameters in non-anaemic paediatric patients. We were unable to find evidence of a favourable effect of folate supplementation on the growth of infants. However, the limited data available suggest that supplementing the diet of low-birth-weight infants with folic acid may moderate the rapid fall of serum and red cell folate in the first months of life.

  10. Improving adolescent maternal health.

    PubMed

    Baxter, C; Moodley, D

    2015-11-01

    Each year thousands of adolescent girls and young women in South Africa (SA) become pregnant and many die from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. Although women of all ages are susceptible, girls<15 years of age are five times as likely, and those aged 15-19 years twice as likely, to die from complications related to childbirth than women in their 20s. In SA, non-pregnancy-related infections (e.g. HIV), obstetric haemorrhage and hypertension contributed to almost 70% of avoidable maternal deaths. In addition to the implementation of standardized preventive interventions to reduce obstetric haemorrhage and hypertension, better reproductive health services for adolescents, access to HIV care and treatment for women infected with HIV, and improved access to and uptake of long-acting reversible contraception are important ingredients for reducing maternal mortality among adolescents. PMID:26937508

  11. Can the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents predict the necessity of inpatient stay during assertive community treatment?

    PubMed

    Urben, Sébastien; Mantzouranis, Gregory; Baier, Vanessa; Halfon, Olivier; Villard, Eva; Holzer, Laurent

    2016-08-30

    Understanding the trajectories of youths within Child and Adolescents Mental Health Service (CAMHS) is of primary importance. Our objective is to assess the usefulness of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) to predict inpatient (IP) stay for youths followed by assertive community treatment (ACT) teams. 82 youths followed exclusively by ACT and 42 who needed IP were assessed with the HoNOSCA at admission to the program. The HoNOSCA allowed the computing of three scores: a total score, an externalizing symptoms (Ext) score and an emotional problems (Emo) score. Logistic regressions revealed that the three HoNOSCA scores at admission of ACT predicted later need for hospitalization. Using ROC curve analyses, we set up cut off scores with appropriate sensitivity and specificity for the HoNOSCA Total and Ext to optimally predict the need for hospitalization. This study revealed that the HoNOSCA may be a useful tool to predict the need for later IP during ACT. Such knowledge is important to set up the best therapeutic strategies. PMID:27341331

  12. Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…

  13. Protocol for: Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHOT): A randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy and mental health outcomes in obese adolescents [ISRCNT83888112

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Amanda J; Copeland, Robert J; Wright, Neil P; Wales, Jerry KH

    2005-01-01

    Background While obesity is known to have many physiological consequences, the psychopathology of this condition has not featured prominently in the literature. Cross-sectional studies have indicated that obese children have increased odds of experiencing poor quality of life and mental health. However, very limited trial evidence has examined the efficacy of exercise therapy for enhancing mental health outcomes in obese children, and the Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHOT) will provide evidence of the efficacy of supervised exercise therapy in obese young people aged 11–16 years versus usual care and an attention-control intervention. Method/design SHOT is a randomised controlled trial where obese young people are randomised to receive; (1) exercise therapy, (2) attention-control intervention (involving body-conditioning exercises and games that do not involve aerobic activity), or (3) usual care. The exercise therapy and attention-control sessions will take place three times per week for eight weeks and a six-week home programme will follow this. Ninety adolescents aged between 11–16 years referred from a children's hospital for evaluation of obesity or via community advertisements will need to complete the study. Participants will be recruited according to the following criteria: (1) clinically obese and aged 11–16 years (Body Mass Index Centile > 98th UK standard) (2) no medical condition that would restrict ability to be active three times per week for eight weeks and (3) not diagnosed with insulin dependent diabetes or receiving oral steroids. Assessments of outcomes will take place at baseline, as well as four (intervention midpoint) and eight weeks (end of intervention) from baseline. Participants will be reassessed on outcome measures five and seven months from baseline. The primary endpoint is physical self-perceptions. Secondary outcomes include physical activity, self-perceptions, depression, affect, aerobic fitness and BMI. PMID:16259624

  14. Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity/Expression Related Peer Victimization in Adolescence: A Systematic Review of Associated Psychosocial and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Kate L.; van Beusekom, Gabriël; Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews research on psychosocial and health outcomes associated with peer victimization related to adolescent sexual orientation and gender identity or expression. Using four electronic databases and supplementary methods, we identified 39 relevant studies. These studies were published between 1995 and 2012 and conducted in 12 different countries. The studies were diverse in terms of their approaches to sampling participants, assessing participants’ sexual orientation, operationalizing peer victimization, and with regard to the psychosocial and health outcomes studied in relation to peer victimization. Despite the methodological diversity across studies, there is fairly strong evidence that peer victimization related to sexual orientation and gender identity or expression is associated with a diminished sense of school belonging and higher levels of depressive symptoms; findings regarding the relationship between peer victimization and suicidality have been more mixed. Peer victimization related to sexual orientation and gender identity or expression is also associated with disruptions in educational trajectories, traumatic stress, and alcohol and substance use. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed. PMID:23480074

  15. Sexual orientation and gender identity/expression related peer victimization in adolescence: a systematic review of associated psychosocial and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Collier, Kate L; van Beusekom, Gabriël; Bos, Henny M W; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews research on psychosocial and health outcomes associated with peer victimization related to adolescent sexual orientation and gender identity or expression. Using four electronic databases and supplementary methods, we identified 39 relevant studies. These studies were published between 1995 and 2012 and conducted in 12 different countries. The studies were diverse in terms of their approaches to sampling participants, assessing participants' sexual orientation, operationalizing peer victimization, and with regard to the psychosocial and health outcomes studied in relation to peer victimization. Despite the methodological diversity across studies, there is fairly strong evidence that peer victimization related to sexual orientation and gender identity or expression is associated with a diminished sense of school belonging and higher levels of depressive symptoms; findings regarding the relationship between peer victimization and suicidality have been more mixed. Peer victimization related to sexual orientation and gender identity or expression is also associated with disruptions in educational trajectories, traumatic stress, and alcohol and substance use. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed.

  16. Childhood precursors of adolescent outcomes in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cameron, F J; Northam, E A

    2005-03-01

    Contemporary outcome measures of chronic illnesses such as type 1 diabetes mellitus are broader than those clinical outcomes traditionally assessed in therapeutic encounters. A holistic approach emphasises quality of life and emotional well-being as well as the achievement of optimal disease management. This paper reviews current knowledge about growth, metabolic control, diabetes complications, neurocognitive and psychological outcomes as well as health-related quality of life in childhood diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that the antecedents of adverse diabetes and psychological outcomes in adolescence lie in the years prior to adolescence. The model of care in childhood diabetes mellitus must be focussed on earlier screening and intervention if adverse outcomes are to be reduced. PMID:15813600

  17. Homeless but connected: the role of heterogeneous social network ties and social networking technology in the mental health outcomes of street-living adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rice, Eric; Kurzban, Seth; Ray, Diana

    2012-12-01

    Although social integration tends to have positive effects on the mental health of housed adolescents, the role of homeless adolescents' social networks is more ambiguous. Social network data were collected from 136 homeless adolescents in Hollywood, California to examine how network ties are associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Face-to-face relationships with street-based peers were a risk factor for both anxiety and depression, while contacting home-based friends through social networking technology was found to be protective for depression. Community-based and public agencies serving homeless adolescents should consider facilitating the maintenance of these protective relationships by providing internet access.

  18. Reproductive health in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H L

    1994-01-01

    The health and well-being of adolescents is closely intertwined with their physical, psychological and social development, but this is put at risk by sexual and reproductive health hazards which are increasing in much of the world. Changes in population growth and distribution, the rise of telecommunications, the increase in travel and a decline in the family, as well as a generally earlier start of menarche and later age of marriage are contributing to an increase in unprotected sexual relations before marriage. This, combined with risks from early marriage, result in too early or unwanted pregnancy and childbirth, induced abortion in hazardous circumstances and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection leading to AIDS. With more than half the world's population below the age of 25, and 4 out of 5 young people living in developing countries with inadequate access to prevention and care, there is an urgent need for action. Young women are particularly vulnerable. Mortality and morbidity from early pregnancy whether ending in childbirth or abortion, is much higher for the younger adolescent. Young women, especially those who have less formal education, are more vulnerable to pressures for marriage, or sexual relations before marriage, often with older men. Young people generally lack adequate knowledge about their own development and information on how to get help. Those who could help are rarely trained for working with adolescents, and services which are generally designed for adults or children often deter young people from getting help when they most need it. Policy and legislation relating to sexual and reproductive health issues are often contradictory, and unclear or unenforced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Activity Spaces and Urban Adolescent Substance Use and Emotional Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Korpela, Kalevi

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed routine locations (activity spaces) of urban adolescents enrolled in a substance abuse treatment program to understand the relationship between their spatial lives and health outcomes such as substance use and mental health. Sixty-eight adolescents were interviewed and produced a list of 199 locations identified as most…

  20. Dietary Intake among Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country: An Outcome from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (the MyHeARTs Study)

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Ying, Sim Pei; Su, Tin Tin; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years) attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor) and Northern (Perak) Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical assessment of habitual food intakes. Facilitated by flipcharts and household measurement tools, detailed information on portion sizes and meal contents were recorded. Nutritionist Pro™ Diet Analysis software was also used to analyze the dietary records.The mean age of the adolescents was 12.86 ± 0.33 y; the mean energy intake was 1659.0 ± 329.6 kcal/d. Males had significantly (P < .001) higher energy intake than females (1774.0 ± 369.8 vs 1595.2 ± 320.6 kcal/d); adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and cholesterol (P < .001) compared to adolescents in urban schools (1706.1 ± 377.7 kcal/d and 244.1 ± 100.2 mg/d, respectively). Obese adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and sugar (1987.6 ± 374.0 kcal/d and 48.9 ± 23.0 g/d) (p-value <0.001).The dietary intake of normal weight versus obese adolescents differs by the location of their school. Thus, the implementation of a structured and tailored intervention is recommended to help minimize this nutritional inequality. PMID:27187889

  1. Dietary Intake among Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country: An Outcome from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (the MyHeARTs Study).

    PubMed

    Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Ramli, Liyana; Ying, Sim Pei; Su, Tin Tin; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Abdul Mohsein, Nabilla Al-Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years) attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor) and Northern (Perak) Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical assessment of habitual food intakes. Facilitated by flipcharts and household measurement tools, detailed information on portion sizes and meal contents were recorded. Nutritionist Pro™ Diet Analysis software was also used to analyze the dietary records.The mean age of the adolescents was 12.86 ± 0.33 y; the mean energy intake was 1659.0 ± 329.6 kcal/d. Males had significantly (P < .001) higher energy intake than females (1774.0 ± 369.8 vs 1595.2 ± 320.6 kcal/d); adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and cholesterol (P < .001) compared to adolescents in urban schools (1706.1 ± 377.7 kcal/d and 244.1 ± 100.2 mg/d, respectively). Obese adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and sugar (1987.6 ± 374.0 kcal/d and 48.9 ± 23.0 g/d) (p-value <0.001).The dietary intake of normal weight versus obese adolescents differs by the location of their school. Thus, the implementation of a structured and tailored intervention is recommended to help minimize this nutritional inequality.

  2. Dietary Intake among Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country: An Outcome from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (the MyHeARTs Study).

    PubMed

    Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Ramli, Liyana; Ying, Sim Pei; Su, Tin Tin; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Abdul Mohsein, Nabilla Al-Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years) attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor) and Northern (Perak) Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical assessment of habitual food intakes. Facilitated by flipcharts and household measurement tools, detailed information on portion sizes and meal contents were recorded. Nutritionist Pro™ Diet Analysis software was also used to analyze the dietary records.The mean age of the adolescents was 12.86 ± 0.33 y; the mean energy intake was 1659.0 ± 329.6 kcal/d. Males had significantly (P < .001) higher energy intake than females (1774.0 ± 369.8 vs 1595.2 ± 320.6 kcal/d); adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and cholesterol (P < .001) compared to adolescents in urban schools (1706.1 ± 377.7 kcal/d and 244.1 ± 100.2 mg/d, respectively). Obese adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and sugar (1987.6 ± 374.0 kcal/d and 48.9 ± 23.0 g/d) (p-value <0.001).The dietary intake of normal weight versus obese adolescents differs by the location of their school. Thus, the implementation of a structured and tailored intervention is recommended to help minimize this nutritional inequality. PMID:27187889

  3. Analysing health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dowie, J

    2001-08-01

    If we cross-classify the absolutist-consequentialist distinction with an intuitive-analytical one we can see that economists probably attract the hostility of those in the other three cells as a result of being analytical consequentialists, as much as because of their concern with "costs". Suggesting that some sources of utility (either "outcome" or "process" in origin) are to be regarded as rights cannot, says the analytical consequentialist, overcome the fact that fulfilling and respecting rights is a resource-consuming activity, one that will inevitably have consequences, in resource-constrained situations, for the fulfillment of the rights of others. Within the analytical consequentialist framework QALY-type measures of health outcome have the unique advantage of allowing technical and allocative efficiency to be addressed simultaneously, while differential weighting of QALYs accruing to different groups means that efficiency and equity can be merged into the necessary single maximand. But what if such key concepts of the analytical consequentialist are not part of the discursive equipment of others? Are they to be disqualified from using them on this ground? Is it ethical for intuition to be privileged in ethical discourse, or is the analyst entitled to "equal opportunities" in the face of "analysisism", the cognitive equivalent of "racism" and "sexism"?

  4. Impact of Mentors During Adolescence on Outcomes Among Gay Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Drevon, Daniel D; Almazan, Elbert P; Jacob, Susan; Rhymer, Katrina N

    2016-06-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study datasets, this study examined whether natural mentoring relationships during adolescence were associated with young adult outcomes among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons. Outcomes in three domains were investigated: education and employment, psychological wellbeing, and substance use and abuse. Results indicated that LGB persons reporting natural mentors during adolescence were about three times as likely to graduate from high school as those without. Discussion surrounds strategies to foster mentoring relationships within the school environment or community. PMID:26566579

  5. Can Social Support Protect Bullied Adolescents from Adverse Outcomes? A Prospective Study on the Effects of Bullying on the Educational Achievement and Mental Health of Adolescents at Secondary Schools in East London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothon, Catherine; Head, Jenny; Klineberg, Emily; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which social support can have a buffering effect against the potentially adverse consequences of bullying on school achievement and mental health. It uses a representative multiethnic sample of adolescents attending East London secondary schools in three boroughs. Bullied adolescents were less likely to…

  6. Health Literacy and Health Outcomes

    MedlinePlus

    ... When compared to those with adequate health literacy skills, studies have shown that patients with limited health literacy ... literacy skills. 12 Back to Top Health status Studies demonstrate that persons with limited health literacy skills are significantly more likely than persons with adequate ...

  7. A Systematic Review of Oral Health Behavior Research in American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…

  8. Can social support protect bullied adolescents from adverse outcomes? A prospective study on the effects of bullying on the educational achievement and mental health of adolescents at secondary schools in East London

    PubMed Central

    Rothon, Catherine; Head, Jenny; Klineberg, Emily; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which social support can have a buffering effect against the potentially adverse consequences of bullying on school achievement and mental health. It uses a representative multiethnic sample of adolescents attending East London secondary schools in three boroughs. Bullied adolescents were less likely to achieve the appropriate academic achievement benchmark for their age group and bullied boys (but not girls) were more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms compared to those not bullied. High levels of social support from family were important in promoting good mental health. There was evidence that high levels of support from friends and moderate (but not high) family support was able to protect bullied adolescents from poor academic achievement. Support from friends and family was not sufficient to protect adolescents against mental health difficulties that they might face as a result of being bullied. More active intervention from schools is recommended. PMID:20637501

  9. Peer Influences on Adolescent Alcohol and Other Drug Use Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Rhonda; Hinman, Agatha; Sterling, Stacy; Weisner, Constance; Campbell, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the role of family environment and peer networks in abstinence outcomes for adolescents 1 year after intake to alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment. Design Survey of 419 adolescents 13 to 18 years of age at consecutive intakes to AOD treatment programs at four sites of a large health system, with telephone follow-up survey 1 year after intake. Methods Examined association of 1-year abstinence with baseline characteristics. Using logistic regression, we examined characteristics predicting 1-year abstinence and predicting having fewer than four substance-using friends at 1 year. Results We found that family environment scores related to family conflict, limit setting, and positive family experiences, were not related to abstinence outcomes, but peer networks were related. Adolescents with fewer (less than four) AOD-using friends were more likely to be abstinent than those with four or more AOD-using friends (65% vs. 41%, p = .0002). Having fewer than four AOD-using friends at intake predicted abstinence at 1 year (odds ratio [OR] = 2.904, p = .0002) and also predicted having fewer than four AOD-using friends at 1 year (OR = 2.557, p = 0.0007). Conclusions Although family environment is an important factor in the development of AOD problems in adolescents, it did not play a significant role in treatment success. The quality of adolescent peer networks did independently predict positive outcomes. Clinical Relevance For physicians, advanced practice registered nurses, and other primary and behavioral care providers who screen and care for adolescents with AOD and other behavioral problems, our finding suggest the importance of focusing on improving the quality of their peer networks. PMID:22339982

  10. Healthy sex and sexual health: new directions for studying outcomes of sexual health.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Eva S; Vasilenko, Sara A

    2014-01-01

    Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social health, and identity outcomes; examining both intraindividual and interindividual differences in outcomes; recognizing the romantic relationship context of sexual behavior; and understanding how sexual media may impact sexual health outcomes. We suggest new directions for studying sexual health outcomes, such as studying behaviors beyond vaginal sex and condom use, new methodologies such as latent class analysis, sophisticated longitudinal designs, and collection and analysis of dyadic data. We recommend research on populations underrepresented in sexual health research such as late adolescents who do not attend traditional universities and adolescents from ethnic/racial minorities. Finally, we consider future directions for sexuality education and prevention efforts. PMID:24962364

  11. Healthy sex and sexual health: new directions for studying outcomes of sexual health.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Eva S; Vasilenko, Sara A

    2014-01-01

    Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social health, and identity outcomes; examining both intraindividual and interindividual differences in outcomes; recognizing the romantic relationship context of sexual behavior; and understanding how sexual media may impact sexual health outcomes. We suggest new directions for studying sexual health outcomes, such as studying behaviors beyond vaginal sex and condom use, new methodologies such as latent class analysis, sophisticated longitudinal designs, and collection and analysis of dyadic data. We recommend research on populations underrepresented in sexual health research such as late adolescents who do not attend traditional universities and adolescents from ethnic/racial minorities. Finally, we consider future directions for sexuality education and prevention efforts.

  12. Adolescent HIV disclosure in Zambia: barriers, facilitators and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mburu, Gitau; Hodgson, Ian; Kalibala, Sam; Haamujompa, Choolwe; Cataldo, Fabian; Lowenthal, Elizabeth D; Ross, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As adolescents living with HIV gain autonomy over their self-care and begin to engage in sexual relationships, their experiences of being informed about their HIV status and of telling others about their HIV status may affect their ability to cope with having the disease. Methods In 2010, we conducted a qualitative study among adolescents aged 10–19 living with HIV in Zambia, and with their parents and health care providers. Through interviews and focus group discussions, we explored the disclosure of HIV status to adolescents living with HIV; adolescents’ disclosure of their status to others; and the impact of both forms of disclosure on adolescents. Results Our study identified three main barriers to disclosure of HIV status: local norms that deter parents from communicating with their children about sexuality; fear of HIV stigma; and an underlying presumption that adolescents would not understand the consequences of a HIV diagnosis on their lives and relationships. With regard to adolescents’ disclosure of their HIV status to their sexual partners, our study identified fear of rejection as a common barrier. In rare cases, open family conversations about HIV helped adolescents come to terms with a HIV diagnosis. Findings indicated that disclosure had various outcomes at the individual and interpersonal levels. At the individual level, some adolescents described being anxious, depressed and blaming themselves after being told they had HIV. At the interpersonal level, disclosure created opportunities for adolescents to access adherence support and other forms of psychosocial support from family members and peers. At the same time, it occasionally strained adolescents’ sexual relationships, although it did not always lead to rejection. Conclusions There is a need for public health interventions that guide adolescents living with HIV, their parents and families through the disclosure process. Such interventions should help parents to assess and

  13. Adult Arrests Records and Court Outcomes of Adolescents with Serious Emotional Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Maryann; Cooper, Deborah K.

    This study used archival data to examine adult charges and court outcomes for 82 individuals who had been treated in public mental health programs as adolescents. Subjects' clinical records from their adolescent day treatment (18 percent), residential (23 percent) or hospital program (58 percent) were reviewed for sociodemographics, clinical…

  14. The Effect of Early Noncognitive Skills on Social Outcomes in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coneus, Katja; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of early noncognitive skills on social outcomes in adolescence. The child's attention span, approach, prevailing mood and distractibility in early childhood may be crucial predictors for school achievements, health risk behavior, delinquency and autonomy as adolescent. We investigate this issue using a…

  15. Paternal Involvement in Multisystemic Therapy: Effects on Adolescent Outcomes and Maternal Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervan, Shannon; Granic, Isabela; Solomon, Tracy; Blokland, Kirsten; Ferguson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The association between paternal involvement in therapy, adolescent outcomes and maternal depression was examined within the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an empirically supported, family- and community-based treatment for antisocial adolescents. Ninety-nine families were recruited from five mental health agencies providing MST. We…

  16. Adolescent Mental Health Consumers' Self-Stigma: Associations with Parents' and Adolescents' Illness Perceptions and Parental Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tally

    2010-01-01

    Currently, little is known about adolescents' self-stigma experiences as mental health (MH) treatment recipients. Hence, this study addresses the following two questions: (a) what are adolescents' and parents' perceptions of stigma and perceptions of the cause, controllability, and anticipated outcome (illness perceptions) of adolescents' MH…

  17. Comparisons between Thai Adolescent Voices and Thai Adolescent Health Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; McElmurry, Beverly J.

    2006-01-01

    Thai adolescents are hesitant to openly talk to adults; however, they are avid users of the Internet. In 2002, faculty of the Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Nopparat Vajira, Thailand, established a webboard to reach out to high school students for questions and answers on adolescent health. Adolescents pose health questions, which are answered…

  18. Adolescent Outcomes for Hyperactive Children--Perspectives on General and Specific Patterns of Childhood Risk for Adolescent Educational, Social, and Mental Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Nadine M.

    An interactional model explaining predisposition to hyperactivity asserts that being identified, diagnosed, and treated as hyperactive is a function of biological factors, early health and temperament, family characteristics, and the quality of the home environment. A longitudinal study involving 367 subjects, aged 17-18, tested the interactional…

  19. Academic performance, educational aspiration and birth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a national longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal educational attainment has been associated with birth outcomes among adult mothers. However, limited research explores whether academic performance and educational aspiration influence birth outcomes among adolescent mothers. Methods Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used. Adolescent girls whose first pregnancy occurred after Wave I, during their adolescence, and ended with a singleton live birth were included. Adolescents’ grade point average (GPA), experience of ever skipping a grade and ever repeating a grade, and their aspiration to attend college were examined as predictors of birth outcomes (birthweight and gestational age; n = 763). Univariate statistics, bivariate analyses and multivariable models were run stratified on race using survey procedures. Results Among Black adolescents, those who ever skipped a grade had higher offspring’s birthweight. Among non-Black adolescents, ever skipping a grade and higher educational aspiration were associated with higher offspring’s birthweight; ever skipping a grade was also associated with higher gestational age. GPA was not statistically significantly associated with either birth outcome. The addition of smoking during pregnancy and prenatal care visit into the multivariable models did not change these associations. Conclusions Some indicators of higher academic performance and aspiration are associated with better birth outcomes among adolescents. Investing in improving educational opportunities may improve birth outcomes among teenage mothers. PMID:24422664

  20. Improving the Mental Health, Healthy Lifestyle Choices, and Physical Health of Hispanic Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; O'Haver, Judith; Small, Leigh; Mays, Mary Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity and mental health disorders are 2 major public health problems in American adolescents, with prevalence even higher in Hispanic teens. Despite the rapidly increasing incidence and adverse health outcomes associated with overweight and mental health problems, very few intervention studies have been conducted with adolescents to…

  1. Homelessness and health in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Haldenby, Amy M; Berman, Helene; Forchuk, Cheryl

    2007-11-01

    Despite an abundance of resources, many of the world's wealthiest nations have a large homeless population. People at all stages of development are affected by this problem, but adolescents who are homeless face a unique set of challenges. In this critical narrative study the authors examined the experiences of homeless adolescents with particular attention to the role of gender and public policy, health experiences and perceptions, and barriers to health care services. Six girls and 7 boys participated in semistructured dialogic interviews. Their stories revealed that living without a home had a substantial impact on their health and wellness. The findings from this study support the need for health care professionals to work in collaboration with homeless youth so that more effective care that is sensitive to their unique health needs can be provided.

  2. Adolescent mental health in China.

    PubMed

    McClure, G M

    1988-03-01

    Adolescent Mental Health in China is the responsibility of the wider society and is supported by social, educational and health care resources. With limited facilities, China emphasizes community mental health care, with prevention and health promotion as priorities. Mental health is considered in the context of an orderly socialist society with stable family life supported by the state. Society is currently influenced by a mixture of Communist ideology, ancient tradition and newer Western approaches. Difficulties in reconciling these factors are affecting the attitudes and behaviour of China's youth. PMID:3290295

  3. Predictors of Parenting and Infant Outcomes for Impoverished Adolescent Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Melissa L.; Martinez, Andrew; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent mothers and their children are at risk for a myriad of negative outcomes. This study examined risk and protective factors and their impact on a sample (N = 172) of impoverished adolescent mothers. Multiple regression analyses revealed that depressed adolescent mothers report higher levels of parenting stress and that their children are…

  4. Sexuality-Related Outcomes of Adolescent Children of Teen Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between being an adolescent child of a teen mother and sexuality-related outcomes was investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents whose mothers were teenagers at first birth were more likely to have had sex by age 16 than other adolescents. Gender moderated this effect, as this relationship…

  5. Facing Facts: Sexual Health for America's Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Debra W., Ed.

    This report summarizes the deliberations, findings, and recommendations of the National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health. The report defines the characteristics of a sexually healthy adolescent, provides a foundation for understanding the three developmental stages of adolescents (early, middle, and late adolescence), and offers…

  6. Government health expenditures and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bokhari, Farasat A S; Gai, Yunwei; Gottret, Pablo

    2007-03-01

    This paper provides econometric evidence linking a country's per capita government health expenditures and per capita income to two health outcomes: under-five mortality and maternal mortality. Using instrumental variables techniques (GMM-H2SL), we estimate the elasticity of these outcomes with respect to government health expenditures and income while treating both variables as endogenous. Consequently, our elasticity estimates are larger in magnitude than those reported in literature, which may be biased up. The elasticity of under-five mortality with respect to government expenditures ranges from -0.25 to -0.42 with a mean value of -0.33. For maternal mortality the elasticity ranges from -0.42 to -0.52 with a mean value of -0.50. For developing countries, our results imply that while economic growth is certainly an important contributor to health outcomes, government spending on health is just as important a factor.

  7. Abnormalities in orbitofrontal cortex gyrification and mental health outcomes in adolescents born extremely preterm and/or at an extremely low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Ganella, Eleni P; Burnett, Alice; Cheong, Jeanie; Thompson, Deanne; Roberts, Gehan; Wood, Stephen; Lee, Katherine; Duff, Julianne; Anderson, Peter J; Pantelis, Christos; Doyle, Lex W; Bartholomeusz, Cali

    2015-03-01

    Extremely preterm (EP, <28 weeks) and/or extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) infants are at high risk of aberrant neurodevelopment. Sulcogyral folding patterns of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are determined during the third trimester, however little is known about OFC patterning in EP/ELBW cohorts, for whom this gestational period is disturbed. This study investigated whether the distribution of OFC pattern types and frequency of intermediate and/or posterior orbital sulci (IOS/POS) differed between EP/ELBW and control adolescents. This study also investigated whether OFC pattern type was associated with mental illness or executive function outcome in adolescence. Magnetic resonance images of 194 EP/ELBW and 147 full term (>37 completed weeks) and/or normal birth weight (> 2500 g) adolescents were acquired, from which the OFC pattern of each hemisphere was classified as Type I, II, or III. Compared with controls, more EP/ELBW adolescents possessed a Type II in the left hemisphere (P = 0.019). The EP/ELBW group had fewer IOS (P = 0.024) and more POS (P = 0.021) in the left hemisphere compared with controls. OFC pattern type was not associated with mental illness, however in terms of executive functioning, Type III in the left hemisphere was associated with better parent-reported metacognition scores overall (P = 0.008) and better self-reported behavioral regulation scores in the control group (P = 0.001) compared with Type I. We show, for the first time that EP/ELBW birth is associated with changes in orbitofrontal development, and that specific patterns of OFC folding are associated with executive function at age 18 years in both EP/ELBW and control subjects.

  8. Adolescent health in Asia: insights from India.

    PubMed

    Basker, Mona M

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents living in the Indian subcontinent form a significant proportion of the general population. India is home to 236 million adolescents, who make up one-fifth of the total population of India. Adolescent health is gradually considered an important issue by the government of India. Awareness is increasing about adolescent needs. Health care professionals in particular are becoming more interested in the specific needs of adolescent age. Adolescent medicine as a subspecialty of pediatrics has also gained importance gradually over the last decade. In a hospital setting, adolescent-specific needs are met, albeit not in a uniform manner in all the health centers. After having been trained in adolescent medicine in India and abroad, I present this paper as a bird's eye view of the practice of adolescent health and medicine in India. PMID:27447203

  9. Rural Adolescent Health: The Importance of Prevention Services in the Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Alexa C.; Waters, Catherine M.; Brindis, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Context: Adolescence is a pivotal developmental period for the establishment of positive health and health practices. However, developmentally propelled risk behaviors coinciding with barriers to health services may increase the propensity for untoward health outcomes in adolescence. In addition, the sociocultural context of the rural environment…

  10. An unfinished agenda on adolescent health: Opportunities for interventions.

    PubMed

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Wazny, Kerri; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-08-01

    The Millennium Development Goal era has resulted in improvements in maternal and child health worldwide. As more children are surviving past their fifth birthday, the population of adolescents is increasing. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental transition; adolescence sets the stage for adult health through risks taken and beneficial and detrimental habits that are formed and it is thus an optimal time to target health interventions. Beginning interventions in adolescence or even earlier in childhood maximizes the impact on the individual's health in adult life. Evidence suggests that interventions to promote sexual and reproductive health, physical activity and healthy lifestyle, mental health and wellbeing, safe and hazard-free environment, improving access to nutritious and healthy foods, and minimizing exposure to substance abuse can improve health outcomes in young adolescents. School-based delivery strategies appear to be the most highly evaluated for improving adolescent health; they have been used to deliver interventions such as sexual health, substance abuse prevention, and nutritional interventions. Use of social media and information technologies, cash transfers, social protection, and micro-finance initiatives are promising strategies; however, given the lack of rigorous evaluations, there is a need for further research. Additional research is also warranted to strengthen the evidence base by establishing causality, understanding the differential impacts of adolescent health in different contexts particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In addition, research and evaluation in the domain of adolescent health must focus on how to implement interventions effectively at-scale, sustain the impacts over time and ensure equitable outcomes.

  11. An unfinished agenda on adolescent health: Opportunities for interventions.

    PubMed

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Wazny, Kerri; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-08-01

    The Millennium Development Goal era has resulted in improvements in maternal and child health worldwide. As more children are surviving past their fifth birthday, the population of adolescents is increasing. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental transition; adolescence sets the stage for adult health through risks taken and beneficial and detrimental habits that are formed and it is thus an optimal time to target health interventions. Beginning interventions in adolescence or even earlier in childhood maximizes the impact on the individual's health in adult life. Evidence suggests that interventions to promote sexual and reproductive health, physical activity and healthy lifestyle, mental health and wellbeing, safe and hazard-free environment, improving access to nutritious and healthy foods, and minimizing exposure to substance abuse can improve health outcomes in young adolescents. School-based delivery strategies appear to be the most highly evaluated for improving adolescent health; they have been used to deliver interventions such as sexual health, substance abuse prevention, and nutritional interventions. Use of social media and information technologies, cash transfers, social protection, and micro-finance initiatives are promising strategies; however, given the lack of rigorous evaluations, there is a need for further research. Additional research is also warranted to strengthen the evidence base by establishing causality, understanding the differential impacts of adolescent health in different contexts particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In addition, research and evaluation in the domain of adolescent health must focus on how to implement interventions effectively at-scale, sustain the impacts over time and ensure equitable outcomes. PMID:26162972

  12. A Multilevel Model to Examine Adolescent Outcomes in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare: The Parent Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Katie Massey; Hoag, Matthew J.; Roberts, Sean D.; Javorski, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare (OBH) has arisen to fill a gap in mental health treatment. While research shows large positive changes in adolescent self-reports, little is known about predictors of change, longitudinal outcomes, and parent-reports of change. Objective This study sought to identify treatment outcomes up to 18 months…

  13. A Guide to Adolescent Health Care EPSDT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Care Financing Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This document provides guidelines for individuals giving health care to adolescents through the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) Program. Chapter One briefly indicates needs of adolescents and outlines legal aspects of health care for adolescents such as age of majority, informed consent, confidentiality, disclosure of…

  14. Examining Relations between Negative Life Events, Time Spent in the United States, Language Use, and Mental Health Outcomes in Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubens, Sonia L.; Fite, Paula J.; Gabrielli, Joy; Evans, Spencer C.; Hendrickson, Michelle L.; Pederson, Casey A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the growing number of Latino youth in the US, little research has examined factors that influence the development of mental health symptoms among this population, including factors related to immigration. Objectives: This study examined the link between negative life events (NLEs) and two outcomes, symptoms of anxiety and…

  15. Teaching adolescents about adolescence: experiences from an interdisciplinary adolescent health course.

    PubMed

    Aronowitz, Teri

    2006-01-01

    As abstract reasoning increases in complexity, adolescents may face dissonance between new thoughts and prior beliefs. Students in the health professions may be forced to resolve these dissonances in order to execute their professional responsibilities. In developing an undergraduate interdisciplinary course on adolescent health, the authors anticipated challenges in teaching adolescents about adolescence. Over the course of the semester, the anticipated challenges became reality. The author discusses pertinent developmental theories and their application in facilitating late adolescent identity formation and professional role development.

  16. Cultural diversity in adolescent health care.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David L; Chown, Peter; Kang, Melissa S-L

    2005-10-17

    In Australia, where about 16% of young people are born overseas and 24% are from a non-English-speaking background, adolescent health care is a multicultural challenge. "Cultural competency" involves challenging one's own cultural assumptions and beliefs, developing empathy for people from other cultures, and applying specific communication and interaction skills in clinical encounters. For health professionals, sensitivity to the cultural, ethnic, linguistic and social diversity among young people helps to avert problems and misunderstandings, improves satisfaction for all concerned and leads to better outcomes. Engaging the family and gaining the trust of parents is critical in treating young people from cultural backgrounds in which participation in health care is a family concern rather than an individual responsibility.

  17. Linking online sexual activities to health outcomes among teens.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Lucia F

    2014-01-01

    New digital technologies are highly responsive to many of the developmental needs of adolescents, including their need for intimate connection and social identity. This chapter explores adolescents' use of web-based sexual information, texting and "sexting," online dating sites, role-playing games, and sexually explicit media, and presents new data comparing the interpersonal and intrapersonal health outcomes among youth who engage in online sexual activities to those who do not. Despite the media-stoked concerns surrounding adolescents' participation in online sexual activities, the ubiquity of online activities and close overlap between online and offline activities indicate that this type of behavior should not be pathologized or used as a metric of problem behavior. The chapter concludes with implications for parents, educators, researchers, counselors, and health care providers, a call to challenge our deep discomfort around adolescent sexuality and to harness these technologies in ways that help promote growth and positive development.

  18. Linking online sexual activities to health outcomes among teens.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Lucia F

    2014-01-01

    New digital technologies are highly responsive to many of the developmental needs of adolescents, including their need for intimate connection and social identity. This chapter explores adolescents' use of web-based sexual information, texting and "sexting," online dating sites, role-playing games, and sexually explicit media, and presents new data comparing the interpersonal and intrapersonal health outcomes among youth who engage in online sexual activities to those who do not. Despite the media-stoked concerns surrounding adolescents' participation in online sexual activities, the ubiquity of online activities and close overlap between online and offline activities indicate that this type of behavior should not be pathologized or used as a metric of problem behavior. The chapter concludes with implications for parents, educators, researchers, counselors, and health care providers, a call to challenge our deep discomfort around adolescent sexuality and to harness these technologies in ways that help promote growth and positive development. PMID:24962361

  19. Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Use by Adolescents Mental Health Sexual & Reproductive Health Sports Medicine Substance Use Transition to Adult Care Related ... Puberty/Normal Development Eating Disorders and Nutrition LGBT Health Media Use by ... Medicine Substance Abuse Transition to Adult Care Clinical ...

  20. Addressing the mental health needs of pregnant and parenting adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, Stacy; Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of the mental health challenges associated with teen parenthood, barriers that often prevent teen mothers from seeking mental health services, and interventions for this vulnerable population that can be integrated into primary care services. Pediatricians in the primary care setting are in a unique position to address the mental health needs of adolescent parents because teens often turn to them first for assistance with emotional and behavioral concerns. Consequently, pediatricians can play a pivotal role in facilitating and encouraging teen parents' engagement in mental health treatment. PMID:24298010

  1. Adolescent Health in the United States, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay, Andrea P.; Duran, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This report presents data on the current status of adolescent health. Many of the measures of health status are shown by single year of age or by 2- or 3-year age intervals to highlight the changes that occur in health status as adolescents move through this important developmental period. Summary measures combining 5- or 10-year age groups (the…

  2. Ethnic Issues in Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffman, Arlene Rubin, Ed.; Davis, Larry E., Ed.

    The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mental health of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mental health in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mental health problems. The book is divided…

  3. Food Insecurity And Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Craig; Ziliak, James P

    2015-11-01

    Almost fifty million people are food insecure in the United States, which makes food insecurity one of the nation's leading health and nutrition issues. We examine recent research evidence of the health consequences of food insecurity for children, nonsenior adults, and seniors in the United States. For context, we first provide an overview of how food insecurity is measured in the country, followed by a presentation of recent trends in the prevalence of food insecurity. Then we present a survey of selected recent research that examined the association between food insecurity and health outcomes. We show that the literature has consistently found food insecurity to be negatively associated with health. For example, after confounding risk factors were controlled for, studies found that food-insecure children are at least twice as likely to report being in fair or poor health and at least 1.4 times more likely to have asthma, compared to food-secure children; and food-insecure seniors have limitations in activities of daily living comparable to those of food-secure seniors fourteen years older. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) substantially reduces the prevalence of food insecurity and thus is critical to reducing negative health outcomes.

  4. Food Insecurity And Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Craig; Ziliak, James P

    2015-11-01

    Almost fifty million people are food insecure in the United States, which makes food insecurity one of the nation's leading health and nutrition issues. We examine recent research evidence of the health consequences of food insecurity for children, nonsenior adults, and seniors in the United States. For context, we first provide an overview of how food insecurity is measured in the country, followed by a presentation of recent trends in the prevalence of food insecurity. Then we present a survey of selected recent research that examined the association between food insecurity and health outcomes. We show that the literature has consistently found food insecurity to be negatively associated with health. For example, after confounding risk factors were controlled for, studies found that food-insecure children are at least twice as likely to report being in fair or poor health and at least 1.4 times more likely to have asthma, compared to food-secure children; and food-insecure seniors have limitations in activities of daily living comparable to those of food-secure seniors fourteen years older. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) substantially reduces the prevalence of food insecurity and thus is critical to reducing negative health outcomes. PMID:26526240

  5. Adolescence: a foundation for future health.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Susan M; Afifi, Rima A; Bearinger, Linda H; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Dick, Bruce; Ezeh, Alex C; Patton, George C

    2012-04-28

    Adolescence is a life phase in which the opportunities for health are great and future patterns of adult health are established. Health in adolescence is the result of interactions between prenatal and early childhood development and the specific biological and social-role changes that accompany puberty, shaped by social determinants and risk and protective factors that affect the uptake of health-related behaviours. The shape of adolescence is rapidly changing-the age of onset of puberty is decreasing and the age at which mature social roles are achieved is rising. New understandings of the diverse and dynamic effects on adolescent health include insights into the effects of puberty and brain development, together with social media. A focus on adolescence is central to the success of many public health agendas, including the Millennium Development Goals aiming to reduce child and maternal mortality and HIV/AIDS, and the more recent emphases on mental health, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. Greater attention to adolescence is needed within each of these public health domains if global health targets are to be met. Strategies that place the adolescent years centre stage-rather than focusing only on specific health agendas-provide important opportunities to improve health, both in adolescence and later in life.

  6. Does Smoking Intervention Influence Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Mark G.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2008-01-01

    Although tobacco use is reported by the majority of substance use disordered (SUD) youth, little work has examined tobacco focused interventions with this population. The present study is an initial investigation of the effect of a tobacco use intervention on adolescent SUD treatment outcomes. Participants were adolescents in SUD treatment taking…

  7. Early Adult Outcomes of Adolescents Who Deliberately Poisoned Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Richard; Pickles, Andrew; Aglan, Azza; Harrington, Val; Burroughs, Heather; Kerfoot, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the early adult psychopathological and social outcomes of adolescents who deliberately poisoned themselves. Method: Prospective cohort study with a 6-year follow-up of 132 of 158 (84%) adolescents who, between ages 11 and 16 years, had taken part in a randomized trial of a brief family intervention after deliberate…

  8. Suicidality and Its Relationship to Treatment Outcome in Depressed Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbe, Remy P.; Bridge, Jeffrey; Birmaher, Boris; Kolko, David; Brent, David A.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of suicidality on treatment outcome in 107 depressed adolescents who participated in a clinical trial, and received either cognitive-behavioral (CBT), systemic-behavioral-family (SBFT), or non-directive-supportive therapy (NST). Suicidal depressed adolescents had a higher dropout rate and were more likely to be…

  9. Differential Outcomes of Adolescents with Chronically Ill and Healthy Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children grow up with a parent who has been diagnosed with a chronic medical condition (CMC) and seem to be at risk for adjustment difficulties. We examined differences in behavioral, psychosocial and academic outcomes between 161 adolescents from 101 families with a chronically ill parent and 112 adolescents from 68 families…

  10. Adolescent interpersonal violence: implications for health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Duke, Naomi Nichele; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2014-09-01

    Violence involvement is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescents. This review provides a summary of the burden of adolescent violence and violence-related behavior, risk, and protective factors for violence outcomes. The importance of screening for violence involvement in the primary care setting and examples of online resources to support providers in advocating, assessing, and intervening on behalf of youth are also reviewed. The article draws attention to bullying and dating/relationship violence, not as new forms of violence-related behavior, but as behaviors with health outcomes that have recently received increased attention.

  11. Adolescent interpersonal violence: implications for health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Duke, Naomi Nichele; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2014-09-01

    Violence involvement is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescents. This review provides a summary of the burden of adolescent violence and violence-related behavior, risk, and protective factors for violence outcomes. The importance of screening for violence involvement in the primary care setting and examples of online resources to support providers in advocating, assessing, and intervening on behalf of youth are also reviewed. The article draws attention to bullying and dating/relationship violence, not as new forms of violence-related behavior, but as behaviors with health outcomes that have recently received increased attention. PMID:25124212

  12. Social protection: potential for improving HIV outcomes among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cluver, Lucie D; Hodes, Rebecca J; Sherr, Lorraine; Mark Orkin, F; Meinck, Franziska; Lim Ah Ken, Patricia; Winder-Rossi, Natalia E; Wolfe, Jason; Vicari, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Advances in biomedical technologies provide potential for adolescent HIV prevention and HIV-positive survival. The UNAIDS 90–90–90 treatment targets provide a new roadmap for ending the HIV epidemic, principally through antiretroviral treatment, HIV testing and viral suppression among people with HIV. However, while imperative, HIV treatment and testing will not be sufficient to address the epidemic among adolescents in Southern and Eastern Africa. In particular, use of condoms and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remain haphazard, with evidence that social and structural deprivation is negatively impacting adolescents’ capacity to protect themselves and others. This paper examines the evidence for and potential of interventions addressing these structural deprivations. Discussion New evidence is emerging around social protection interventions, including cash transfers, parenting support and educational support (“cash, care and classroom”). These interventions have the potential to reduce the social and economic drivers of HIV risk, improve utilization of prevention technologies and improve adherence to ART for adolescent populations in the hyper-endemic settings of Southern and Eastern Africa. Studies show that the integration of social and economic interventions has high acceptability and reach and that it holds powerful potential for improved HIV, health and development outcomes. Conclusions Social protection is a largely untapped means of reducing HIV-risk behaviours and increasing uptake of and adherence to biomedical prevention and treatment technologies. There is now sufficient evidence to include social protection programming as a key strategy not only to mitigate the negative impacts of the HIV epidemic among families, but also to contribute to HIV prevention among adolescents and potentially to remove social and economic barriers to accessing treatment. We urge a further research and programming agenda: to actively combine

  13. Adolescent health, stress and life satisfaction: the paradox of indulgent parenting.

    PubMed

    Coccia, Catherine; Darling, Carol A; Rehm, Marsha; Cui, Ming; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2012-08-01

    A survey of adolescents aged 15 to 16 years was used to examine the relationship between their perceptions of indulgent parenting and adolescent weight status to overall satisfaction with life, as associated with adolescent perceptions of body image, health and stress. In addition, perceptions of parental indulgence were examined in terms of their association with adolescent eating behaviours and health. The results revealed a paradox related to indulgent parenting, with both positive and negative outcomes for adolescents. Structural equation analyses showed that parental indulgence was not only related to lower stress and higher life satisfaction, but also to unhealthy eating behaviours. Path analysis indicated that both positive and negative eating outcomes for adolescents were related to parental indulgence. This research has many implications for both parent and adolescent health education, focusing on parenting styles, stress and healthy lifestyles. PMID:22281841

  14. Adolescent health, stress and life satisfaction: the paradox of indulgent parenting.

    PubMed

    Coccia, Catherine; Darling, Carol A; Rehm, Marsha; Cui, Ming; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2012-08-01

    A survey of adolescents aged 15 to 16 years was used to examine the relationship between their perceptions of indulgent parenting and adolescent weight status to overall satisfaction with life, as associated with adolescent perceptions of body image, health and stress. In addition, perceptions of parental indulgence were examined in terms of their association with adolescent eating behaviours and health. The results revealed a paradox related to indulgent parenting, with both positive and negative outcomes for adolescents. Structural equation analyses showed that parental indulgence was not only related to lower stress and higher life satisfaction, but also to unhealthy eating behaviours. Path analysis indicated that both positive and negative eating outcomes for adolescents were related to parental indulgence. This research has many implications for both parent and adolescent health education, focusing on parenting styles, stress and healthy lifestyles.

  15. Pre-testing. Adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Mariano, C S; Alvarez, R O

    1994-03-01

    Sex and contraception are still taboo topics in the Philippines, distorted and kept in the dark by the media, the Roman Catholic Church, and fundamentalist groups. Adolescents therefore generally learn about sex education from peers who are often equally misinformed. Myths abound about the realities of sex and sexuality. Uninformed though they may be, Filipino adolescents still experiment with sexuality and sexual intercourse, and have generated a high incidence of unwanted teen pregnancy and maternal mortality. 50% of pregnant women below the age of 15 die from pregnancy- and childbirth-related complications. The Japan Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) and MEXFAM jointly produced three animated films for Latin American adolescents and young couples. The Institute for Social Studies in Action (ISSA) and JOICFP conducted a series of focus group discussions between the months of July and August 1993 to see whether these films would also be effective and appropriate among Filipino counterparts. The ISSA is a nongovernmental organization promoting women's reproductive health in the Philippines. "The Blue Pigeon" focuses upon sexual changes which take place in the minds and bodies of boys and girls and graphically explains the processes of sexual intercourse, contraception, pregnancy, and childbirth. "Music for Two" features a girl in pursuit of love who imagines a variety of male-female relationships. Finally, "Best Wishes" focuses on the importance of good communication between partners and sharing household responsibilities.

  16. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage.

  17. Promoting Adolescent Help-Seeking for Mental Health Problems: Strategies for School-Based Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy M.; Music, Ajlana

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research suggests that adolescence is a critical developmental period, especially when it comes to factors that influence mental health problems. Systematic efforts to promote adolescent help-seeking are essential for improving long-term mental health outcomes. Defined as a "behavior of actively seeking help from other people,"…

  18. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Melissa Hough; Ourada, Joanne

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and other drug abuse, and the consequences of those behaviors. This publication summarizes approximately 250 laws and resolutions concerning adolescent health and related issues passed by the 50 states and the District…

  19. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendell, Nicole

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and drug abuse, and the consequences of these behaviors. This publication summarizes laws and resolutions on adolescent health issues passed in 1997 state and territory legislative sessions. No 1997 legislative session…

  20. Mothers' union histories and the mental and physical health of adolescents born to unmarried mothers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Frech, Adrianne; Addo, Fenaba; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    As nonmarital childbearing becomes a dominant pathway to family formation, understanding its long-term consequences for children's well-being is increasingly important. Analysis of linked mother-child data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicates a negative association of having been born to a never-married mother with adolescent self-assessed health but not with depressive symptoms. We also consider the role of mothers' subsequent union histories in shaping the adolescent health outcomes of youth born to unmarried mothers. With two exceptions, unmarried mothers' subsequent unions appear to have little consequence for the health of their offspring during adolescence. Adolescents whose mothers subsequently married and remained with their biological fathers reported better health, yet adolescents whose mothers continuously cohabited with their biological fathers without subsequent marriage reported worse adolescent mental health compared with adolescents whose mothers remained continually unpartnered.

  1. Childhood victimization: relationship to adolescent pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Simon, C; McAnarney, E R

    1994-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a common antecedents of adolescent pregnancy. We studied the pregnancies of 127 poor, black, 12- to 18-year-olds; 42 (33%) of whom reported that they had been physically or sexually abused prior to conception. We hypothesized that during pregnancy: (a) Previously abused adolescents report more stress and depression and less adequate social support than do nonabused adolescents; and (b) Previously abused adolescents obtain less prenatal care, gain less weight, engage in more substance abuse, and give birth to smaller babies than do nonabused adolescents. Consistent with the first study hypothesis, we found that abused adolescents scored significantly higher on stress and depression scales and rated their families as less supportive than did nonabused adolescents. Although there were no group differences in the rate of weight gain or the quantity of prenatal care obtained during pregnancy, abused adolescents were more likely to report substance use during pregnancy and gave birth to significantly smaller, (2,904 +/- 676 vs. 3,198 +/- 443 grams; p = .01), less mature (38.0 +/- 3.4 vs. 39.1 +/- 1.7 weeks; p = .05) infants. Our finding demonstrate the importance of asking pregnant adolescents about abuse. PMID:7922731

  2. Relationships between Adolescent Sexual Outcomes and Exposure to Sex in Media: Robustness to Propensity-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven C.; Elliott, Marc N.; Miu, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent sexual health is a substantial problem in the United States, and two recent studies have linked adolescent sexual behavior and/or outcomes to youths' exposure to sex in the media. Both studies had longitudinal survey designs and used covariate-adjusted regression analysis. Steinberg and Monahan (2011) reanalyzed data from one of these…

  3. Running Away from Home: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Risk Factors and Young Adult Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the adolescent risk factors and young adult health-related outcomes associated with running away from home. We examined these correlates of running away using longitudinal data from 4,329 youth (48% female, 85% white) who were followed from Grade 9 to age 21. Nearly 14% of the sample reported running away in the past year at…

  4. Early Parenting Practices and Outcomes for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Amy; Dunham, Mardis

    2011-01-01

    This study compared early parenting practices and adolescent behavior to determine whether parental attachment-promoting behaviors in the first year of life were associated with psychosocial adjustment in teenagers. The mothers of 22 adolescents completed a behavioral assessment of their teenager and an inventory of their recollected parenting…

  5. Moral Identity as Moral Ideal Self: Links to Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Sam A.; Walker, Lawrence J.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Woodbury, Ryan D.; Hickman, Jacob R.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes.…

  6. Adolescent sexuality, contraceptive health and STD.

    PubMed

    Irmak, Y; Jainudeen, M R; Irvin, R P

    1986-10-01

    Major topics addressed by this article on adolescent sexuality include adolescent festivals, adolescent reproductive psychophysiology, contraception for adolescents, the World Federation of Contraception and Health, sexually transmitted diseases, and recommendations for research. The purpose of adolescent festivals is to increase communication between young people and their parents on subjects such as sexuality. Of particular concern is the traumatic emotional, physical, and financial impact of adolescent pregnancy, both in developed and developing countries. Contraceptive methods considered to be most appropriate for use in developing countries are injectable Depo-Provera and the Norplant contraceptive implant system. To reduce the problem of adolescent pregnancy, television programs need to portray responsible sexuality, family responsibility and involvement must be strengthended, funds for education and prevention programs should be increased, and there must be more intraprofessional collaboration. The World Federation of Contraception and Health, a nonprofit multicenter institution, has been created to make recommendations on how current resources can be utilized to address problems of adolescent sexuality. Adolescent clubs are being set up to provide adolescents and their families with computer support and information. Another concern is the spread of sexually transmitted diseases that cause infections in the genitourinary tract and threaten to impair future fertility. The incidence of diseases such as chlamydia trachomatis and nongonococcal urethritis is especially high in teenagers. Needed in the future are more multicenter studies conducted by microbiologists, pathophysiologists, family planning experts, epidemiologists, venereologists, gynecologists, obstetricians, and dermatologists on the many aspects of adolescent sexuality.

  7. Contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behavior and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shneyderman, Yuliya; Schwartz, Seth J

    2013-08-01

    The present study was designed to test a model of contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behaviors and of sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. Using Waves I and II from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimated a structural model in which intrapersonal factors such as adolescents' attitudes about sex, perceived parental norms, knowledge about sexual health, and birth-control self-efficacy partially mediated the effects of contextual factors such as parent-adolescent relationship quality, school connectedness, and exposure to AIDS and pregnancy education on a number of risky sexual behaviors and outcomes: early sex initiation, sex under the influence of substances, condom use at last intercourse, and having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection. Different patterns of direct and mediated effects emerged for each sexual outcome. Results are discussed in terms of the complex interplay between environment and individual and in terms of how, when, and with whom to intervene in order to improve adolescent sexual health outcomes.

  8. Parent-child Relationships, Parental Attitudes towards Sex, and Birth Outcomes among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Study objective To examine how parent-child relationships, parental control, and parental attitudes towards sex were related to pregnancy outcomes among adolescent mothers. Design Prospective cohort study. Parental report of relationship satisfaction, disapproval of adolescent having sex, discussion around sexual health, and sexual communication attitudes, and adolescent report of relationship satisfaction, parental control, and parental disapproval of sex were examined as predictors of self-reported birth outcomes. Weighted multivariable linear regression models were run incorporating interactions by race. Setting United States Participants 632 females who participated in Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally-representative sample of students enrolled in grades 7–12 in 1994–95 and followed up in 2007–2008 Main Outcome Measures birthweight and gestational age Results For Black adolescents, better parent-child relationship was associated with higher birthweight (0.14 kg, p<0.05) and gestational age (0.75 weeks, p<0.01), while higher parental disapproval of having sex (adjusted beta 0.15 kg, p<0.05) were associated with higher birthweight. For non-Black adolescents, a moderate amount of discussion of birth control was associated with higher birthweight (0.19 kg, p<0.01 and lower child-perceived parental disapproval of having sex was associated with higher birthweight (0.08 kg, p<0.05) and gestational age (0.37 weeks, p<0.05). Higher parental control was associated with a reduced likelihood of smoking during pregnancy and a greater likelihood of early prenatal care. Conclusion Parent-child relationships and attitudes about sex affect outcomes of pregnant adolescents. PMID:25023982

  9. Trajectories of Family Management Practices and Early Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Stage– environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in family management practices and adolescents’ behavioral outcomes and to detect predictors of interindividual differences in initial status and rate of change. The sample comprised approximately 1,000 adolescents between ages 11 years and 15 years. The results indicated that adolescents’ antisocial behaviors and substance use increased and their positive behavioral engagement decreased over time. As adolescent age increased, parental knowledge of their adolescent’s activities decreased, as did parental rule making and support. The level and rate of change in family management and adolescent behavioral outcomes varied by family structure and by gender. Reciprocal longitudinal associations between parenting practices and adolescent problem behavior were found. Specifically, parenting practices predicted subsequent adolescent behavior, and adolescent behavior predicted subsequent parenting practices. In addition, parental warmth moderated the effects of parental knowledge and rule making on adolescent antisocial behavior and substance use over time. PMID:21688899

  10. Early Adolescent Relationship Predictors of Emerging Adult Outcomes: Youth with and without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Vicki S.; Palladino, Dianne K.; Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging adulthood is a high-risk period for mental health problems and risk behaviors for youth generally and for physical health problems among those with type 1 diabetes. Purpose To examine whether adolescents’ relationships with parents and friends predict health and risk behaviors during emerging adulthood. Method Youth with and without diabetes were enrolled at average age 12 and followed for 7 years. Parent and friend relationship variables, measured during adolescence, were used to predict emerging adulthood outcomes: depression, risk behavior, and, for those with diabetes, diabetes outcomes. Results Parent relationship quality predicted decreased depressive symptoms and, for those with diabetes, decreased alcohol use. Parent control predicted increased smoking, reduced college attendance, and, for control participants, increased depressive symptoms. For those with diabetes, parent control predicted decreased depressive symptoms and better self-care. Friend relationship variables predicted few outcomes. Conclusions Adolescent parent relationships remain an important influence on emerging adults’ lives. PMID:24178509

  11. Who Adolescents Trust May Impact Their Health: Findings from Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Mmari, Kristin; Marshall, Beth; Lantos, Hannah; Blum, Robert Wm

    2016-06-01

    This study is one of the first to explore the relevance of trust to the health of adolescents living in a disadvantaged urban setting. The primary objectives were to determine the differences in the sociodemographic characteristics between adolescents who do and do not trust and to examine the associations between trust and health. Data were drawn from the Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study, which is a cross-sectional global study of adolescents in very low-income urban settings conducted in 2011-2013. This paper focused on 446 adolescents in Baltimore as it was the primary site where trust was explicitly measured. For the main analyses, six health outcomes were examined: (1) self-rated health; (2) violence victimization; (3) binge drinking; (4) marijuana use; (5) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); and (6) condom use at last sex. Independent variables included sociodemographic variables (age, gender, current school enrolment, perceived relative wealth, and family structure) and two dimensions of trust: community trust (trust in individuals/groups within neighborhood) and institutional trust (trust in authorities). The results show that more than half the sample had no trust in police, and a high proportion had no trust in other types of authority. Among girls, those with higher levels of community trust were less likely to be victimized and involved in binge drinking. Meanwhile, girls with higher levels of institutional trust were more likely to use a condom and less likely to have used marijuana. Among boys, those with higher levels of community trust were more likely to use a condom, while those with higher levels of institutional trust were less likely to use marijuana, but more likely binge drink. Overall, this study highlights the importance of trust for adolescent health. Most surprising were the differences in the associations between boys and girls with regard to the type of trust and specific health outcome that was

  12. Adolescent Hope as a Mediator between Parent-Child Connectedness and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Hardy, Sam A.; Christensen, Katherine J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines adolescent hope as a mediator between connectedness to mother and father, and positive and negative child outcomes. Participants included 489 adolescents aged 9 to 14 years (M = 11.29; SD = 1.01) and their parents from the "Flourishing Families Project", and data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results…

  13. Feasibility and Preliminary Outcomes From a Pilot Study of an Integrated Health-Mental Health Promotion Program in School Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    George, Melissa W.; Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Wilson, Dawn K.; McDaniel, Heather L.; Schiele, Bryn; Prinz, Ron; Weist, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of unmet health and mental health needs among youth has spurred the growing consensus to develop strategies that integrate services to promote overall well-being. This pilot study reports on the feasibility and outcomes of a theory-driven, family-focused, integrated health-mental health promotion program for underserved adolescents receiving school mental health services. Parent and adolescent assessments conducted prior to and following the brief, 6-session promotion program showed significant improvements in family support, youth self-efficacy, health behaviors, and mental health outcomes. Clinician reports contributed to a characterization of the feasibility, acceptability, and future recommendations for the integrated program. PMID:24297005

  14. Health of adolescent refugees resettling in high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Kajal; Payne, Donald; Mutch, Raewyn; Cherian, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Adolescent refugees are a vulnerable population with complex healthcare needs that are distinct from younger and older age groups. Physical health problems are common in this cohort with communicable diseases being the focus of attention followed by an emphasis on nutritional deficiencies and other chronic disorders. Adolescent refugees have also often experienced multiple traumatic stressors and are at a heightened risk of developing mental health problems. Navigating these problems at the time of pubertal development adds further challenges and can exacerbate or lead to the emergence of health risk behaviours. Educational difficulties and acculturation issues further compound these issues. Adolescents who have had experiences in detention or are unaccompanied by parents are particularly at risk. Despite a constantly growing number of adolescent refugees resettling in high-income countries, knowledge regarding their specific healthcare needs is limited. Research data are largely extrapolated from studies conducted within paediatric and adult cohorts. Holistic management of the medical and psychological issues faced by this group is challenging and requires an awareness of the socioeconomic factors that can have an impact on effective healthcare delivery. Legal and ethical issues can further complicate their management and addressing these in a culturally appropriate manner is essential. Early identification and management of the healthcare issues faced by adolescent refugees resettling in high-income countries are key to improving long-term health outcomes and future healthcare burden. This review article aims to increase knowledge and awareness of these issues among paediatricians and other health professionals.

  15. Widening the aim of health promotion to include the most disadvantaged: vulnerable adolescents and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Mohajer, Nicole; Earnest, Jaya

    2010-06-01

    Growing numbers of adolescents are marginalized by social factors beyond their control, leading to poor health outcomes for their families and future generations. Although the role of the social determinants of health has been recognized for many years, there is a gap in our knowledge about the strategies needed to address these factors in health promotion. Drawing on a review of literature on health promotion for marginalized and out-of-school adolescents, this paper highlights some urgent areas of focus for researchers and policy makers addressing adolescent health. Social determinants of health affecting marginalized adolescents identified by the review were education, gender, identity, homelessness, poverty, family structure, culture, religion and perceived racism, yet there is little solid evidence as to how to best address these factors. More systematic research, evaluation and global debate about long-term solutions to chronic poverty, lack of education and social marginalization are needed to break the cycle of ill health among vulnerable adolescents.

  16. Moral identity as moral ideal self: links to adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sam A; Walker, Lawrence J; Olsen, Joseph A; Woodbury, Ryan D; Hickman, Jacob R

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes. Data came from a local school sample (Data Set 1: N = 510 adolescents; 10-18 years of age) and a national online sample (Data Set 2: N = 383 adolescents; 15-18 years of age) of adolescents and their parents. All outcome measures were parent-report (Data Set 1: altruism, moral personality, aggression, and cheating; Data Set 2: environmentalism, school engagement, internalizing, and externalizing), whereas other variables were adolescent-report. The 20-item Moral Ideal Self Scale showed good reliability, factor structure, and validity. Structural equation models demonstrated that, even after accounting for moral identity internalization, in Data Set 1 moral ideal self positively predicted altruism and moral personality and negatively predicted aggression, whereas in Data Set 2 moral ideal self positively predicted environmentalism and negatively predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Further, purpose and social responsibility mediated most relations between moral ideal self and the outcomes in Data Set 2. Moral ideal self was unrelated to age but differentially predicted some outcomes across age. Girls had higher levels of moral ideal self than boys, although moral identity did not differentially predict outcomes between genders. Thus, moral ideal self is a salient element of moral identity and may play a role in morally relevant adolescent outcomes. PMID:23895167

  17. Moral identity as moral ideal self: links to adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sam A; Walker, Lawrence J; Olsen, Joseph A; Woodbury, Ryan D; Hickman, Jacob R

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes. Data came from a local school sample (Data Set 1: N = 510 adolescents; 10-18 years of age) and a national online sample (Data Set 2: N = 383 adolescents; 15-18 years of age) of adolescents and their parents. All outcome measures were parent-report (Data Set 1: altruism, moral personality, aggression, and cheating; Data Set 2: environmentalism, school engagement, internalizing, and externalizing), whereas other variables were adolescent-report. The 20-item Moral Ideal Self Scale showed good reliability, factor structure, and validity. Structural equation models demonstrated that, even after accounting for moral identity internalization, in Data Set 1 moral ideal self positively predicted altruism and moral personality and negatively predicted aggression, whereas in Data Set 2 moral ideal self positively predicted environmentalism and negatively predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Further, purpose and social responsibility mediated most relations between moral ideal self and the outcomes in Data Set 2. Moral ideal self was unrelated to age but differentially predicted some outcomes across age. Girls had higher levels of moral ideal self than boys, although moral identity did not differentially predict outcomes between genders. Thus, moral ideal self is a salient element of moral identity and may play a role in morally relevant adolescent outcomes.

  18. Acculturation and Adjustment in Latino Adolescents: How Cultural Risk Factors and Assets Influence Multiple Domains of Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smokowski, Paul; Buchanan, Rachel L.; Bacallao, Martica L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among risk factors, cultural assets, and Latino adolescent mental health outcomes. We extend past research by using a longitudinal design and evaluating direct and moderated acculturation effects across a range of internalizing, externalizing, and academic engagement outcomes. The sample…

  19. School Start Times, Sleep, Behavioral, Health, and Academic Outcomes: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheaton, Anne G.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy…

  20. The neighborhood context of adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Aneshensel, C S; Sucoff, C A

    1996-12-01

    Mental health disorders in adolescence are pervasive, often carry into adulthood, and appear to be inversely associated with social status. We examine how structural aspects of neighborhood context, specifically, socioeconomic stratification and racial/ethnic segregation, affect adolescent emotional well-being by shaping subjective perceptions of their neighborhoods. Using a community-based sample of 877 adolescents in Los Angeles County, we find that youth in low socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhoods perceive greater ambient hazards such as crime, violence, drug use, and graffiti than those in high SES neighborhoods. The perception of the neighborhood as dangerous, in turn, influences the mental health of adolescents: the more threatening the neighborhood, the more common the symptoms of depression, anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Social stability and, to a lesser extent, social cohesion, also emerge as contributors to adolescent disorder. This investigation demonstrates that research into the mental health of young people should consider the socioeconomic and demographic environments in which they live.

  1. Electromagnetic fields and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Knave, B

    2001-09-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in the biological effects and possible health outcomes of weak, low-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Epidemiological studies on magnetic fields and cancer, reproduction and neurobehavioural reactions have been presented. More recently, neurological, degenerative and heart diseases have also been reported to be related to such electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, the increased use of mobile phones worldwide has focussed interest on the possible effects of radiofrequency fields of higher frequencies. In this paper, a summary is given on electromagnetic fields and health outcomes and what policy is appropriate--"no restriction to exposure", "prudent avoidance" or "expensive interventions"? The results of research studies have not been unambiguous; studies indicating these fields as being a health hazard have been published and so were studies indicating no risk at all. In "positive" studies, different types of effects have been reported despite the use of the same study design, e.g., in epidemiological cancer studies. There are uncertainties as to exposure characteristics, e.g., magnetic field frequency and exposure intermittence, and not much is known about possible confounding or effect-modifying factors. The few animal cancer studies reported have not given much help in risk assessment; and in spite of a large number of experimental cell studies, no plausible and understandable mechanisms have been presented by which a carcinogenic effect could be explained. Exposure to electromagnetic fields occurs everywhere: in the home, at work, in school, etc. Wherever there are electric wires, electric motors and electronic equipment, electromagnetic fields are created. This is one of the reasons why exposure assessment is difficult. For epidemiologists, the problems is not on the effect side as registers of diseases exist in many countries today. The problem is that epidemiologists do not know the relevant

  2. Children, adolescents, and the media: health effects.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed

    2012-06-01

    The media can be a powerful teacher of children and adolescents and have a profound impact on their health. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem in the United States, but they do contribute to a variety of pediatric and adolescent health problems. Given that children and teens spend >7 hours a day with media, one would think that adult society would recognize its impact on young people's attitudes and behaviors. Too little has been done to protect children and adolescents from harmful media effects and to maximize the powerfully prosocial aspects of modern media.

  3. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving.

  4. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving. PMID:26613696

  5. Achieving Quality Health Services for Adolescents.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    This update of the 2008 statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics redirects the discussion of quality health care from the theoretical to the practical within the medical home. This statement reviews the evolution of the medical home concept and challenges the provision of quality adolescent health care within the patient-centered medical home. Areas of attention for quality adolescent health care are reviewed, including developmentally appropriate care, confidentiality, location of adolescent care, providers who offer such care, the role of research in advancing care, and the transition to adult care. PMID:27432849

  6. Developmental Outcomes of Extremely Preterm Infants Born to Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Bann, Carla; Higgins, Rosemary; Vohr, Betty

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extremely preterm infants and infants born to adolescent mothers are at risk for adverse developmental. The objectives were to evaluate development and behavior outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born to adolescent mothers <20 compared with adult mothers ≥20 years and to identify socioeconomic risk factors that affect outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of 211 infants >27 weeks of adolescent mothers and 1723 infants of adult mothers at Neonatal Research Network centers from 2008 to 2011. Groups were compared and regression models were run to predict 18- to 22-month adverse outcomes. Primary outcomes were Bayley-III scores, neurodevelopmental impairment, and Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment problem scores (BITSEA/P) ≥75th percentile. RESULTS: Adolescent mothers were more often single, Hispanic, less educated, and had public insurance. By 18 to 22 months, their children had significantly increased rates of having lived ≥3 places (21% vs 9%), state supervision (7% vs 3%), rehospitalization (56% vs 46%), and BITSEA/P ≥75th percentile (50% vs 32%) and nonsignificant Bayley-III language scores <85 (56% vs 49%, P = .07). In regression analysis, children of adolescent mothers were more likely to have BITSEA/P ≥75th percentile (relative risk 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.08–2.07). Living ≥3 places and nonwhite race were predictors of adverse behavior. State supervision was an independent predictor of each Bayley-III composite <70 and neurodevelopmental impairment. CONCLUSIONS: ELBW infants of adolescent mothers experience high social and environmental risks that are associated with adverse behavior outcomes. These findings inform the need for comprehensive follow-up, coordinated care services, and behavior interventions for ELBW infants of adolescent mothers. PMID:25963007

  7. Can Social Protection Improve Sustainable Development Goals for Adolescent Health?

    PubMed Central

    Orkin, F. Mark; Meinck, Franziska; Boyes, Mark E.; Yakubovich, Alexa R.; Sherr, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Background The first policy action outlined in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is the implementation of national social protection systems. This study assesses whether social protection provision can impact 17 indicators of five key health-related SDG goals amongst adolescents in South Africa. Methods We conducted a longitudinal survey of adolescents (10–18 years) between 2009 and 2012. Census areas were randomly selected in two urban and two rural health districts in two South African provinces, including all homes with a resident adolescent. Household receipt of social protection in the form of ‘cash’ (economic provision) and ‘care’ (psychosocial support) social protection, and health-related indicators within five SDG goals were assessed. Gender-disaggregated analyses included multivariate logistic regression, testing for interactions between social protection and socio-demographic covariates, and marginal effects models. Findings Social protection was associated with significant adolescent risk reductions in 12 of 17 gender-disaggregated SDG indicators, spanning SDG 2 (hunger); SDG 3 (AIDS, tuberculosis, mental health and substance abuse); SDG 4 (educational access); SDG 5 (sexual exploitation, sexual and reproductive health); and SDG 16 (violence perpetration). For six of 17 indicators, combined cash plus care showed enhanced risk reduction effects. Two interactions showed that effects of care varied by poverty level for boys’ hunger and girls’ school dropout. For tuberculosis, and for boys’ sexual exploitation and girls’ mental health and violence perpetration, no effects were found and more targeted or creative means will be needed to reach adolescents on these challenging burdens. Interpretation National social protection systems are not a panacea, but findings suggest that they have multiple and synergistic positive associations with adolescent health outcomes. Such systems may help us rise to the challenges of health and

  8. Comparison of Substance Use Typologies as Predictors of Sexual Risk Outcomes in African American Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve S

    2016-01-01

    African American female adolescents have a disproportionate risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other adverse sexual health outcomes. Both alcohol and marijuana use have been shown to predict sexual risk among young African American women. However, no studies have attempted to differentiate alcohol and marijuana typologies use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes exclusively among adolescents who use these substances. This study compared recent alcohol and/or marijuana use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes over 18 months among 182 African American female adolescents. African American females (14-20 years) completed interviews at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-months. At each assessment, pregnancy testing was conducted and self-collected vaginal swab specimens were assayed for Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using DNA amplification. Logistic subject-specific random-intercept models compared sexual risk outcomes during follow-up among adolescents who reported recent use of alcohol only (AO), marijuana only (MO) or both substances (A + M) at the baseline assessment. Relative to baseline AO use, baseline MO use predicted condom non-use at last sex. Relative to AO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy. Relative to MO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy and acquisition of T. vaginalis and any STI. The results suggest that African American female adolescents who use A + M may represent a priority population for STI, HIV, and pregnancy prevention efforts. PMID:25929200

  9. Comparison of Substance Use Typologies as Predictors of Sexual Risk Outcomes in African American Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve S

    2016-01-01

    African American female adolescents have a disproportionate risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other adverse sexual health outcomes. Both alcohol and marijuana use have been shown to predict sexual risk among young African American women. However, no studies have attempted to differentiate alcohol and marijuana typologies use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes exclusively among adolescents who use these substances. This study compared recent alcohol and/or marijuana use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes over 18 months among 182 African American female adolescents. African American females (14-20 years) completed interviews at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-months. At each assessment, pregnancy testing was conducted and self-collected vaginal swab specimens were assayed for Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using DNA amplification. Logistic subject-specific random-intercept models compared sexual risk outcomes during follow-up among adolescents who reported recent use of alcohol only (AO), marijuana only (MO) or both substances (A + M) at the baseline assessment. Relative to baseline AO use, baseline MO use predicted condom non-use at last sex. Relative to AO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy. Relative to MO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy and acquisition of T. vaginalis and any STI. The results suggest that African American female adolescents who use A + M may represent a priority population for STI, HIV, and pregnancy prevention efforts.

  10. Adolescent Health in Hawai'i: The Adolescent Health Network's Teen Health Advisor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Health, Honolulu. Maternal and Child Health Branch.

    This publication reports on a survey to develop a profile of adolescent health in Hawaii in order to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies. The survey covered: general health status; family, peer, and school problems; depression and suicide; use of licit and illicit substances; sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases; and…

  11. The Association between IQ in Adolescence and a Range of Health Outcomes at 40 in the 1979 US National Longitudinal Study of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Der, Geoff; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.

    2009-01-01

    A link between pre-morbid intelligence and all cause mortality is becoming well established, but the aetiology of the association is not understood. Less is known about links with cause specific mortality and with morbidity. The aim of this study is to examine the association between intelligence measured in adolescence and a broad range of health…

  12. Dairy product intake in children and adolescents in developed countries: trends, nutritional contribution, and a review of association with health outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, milk and dairy product consumption by children and adolescents in many countries has waned over the past decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source o...

  13. AD/HD Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire Completed by Children or Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Deborah; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Assessing health-related quality of life (HQOL) for children or adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) to corroborate a diagnosis and monitor treatment outcomes, is usually relegated to parent, teacher and physician observation of the child/adolescent. Allowing adults to act as proxy reporters for children/adolescents…

  14. Social Determinants of Health for Native Hawaiian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alameda, Christian K

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Traditional Hawaiian thought places children in a position of prominence in the family. Yet in Hawai‘i, Native Hawaiian children and adolescents face significant inequity in health outcomes. From prenatal alcohol and tobacco use, late or no prenatal care, macrosomia as well as low birth rates, to exclusive breastfeeding rates at 6 months, and high rates of infant mortality, Native Hawaiians face inequities in pre and early childhood indicators. During childhood and adolescence, Native Hawaiians experience high rates of obesity, and physical, mental and sexual abuse. This review examines the determinants behind the health inequities encountered by Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, and contextualizes those inequities s in a human rights-based approach to health. Methods A literature review was conducted for relevant research on Native Hawaiian and other indigenous children and adolescents. Existing data sources were also reviewed for relevant Native Hawaiian data. Results There is a significant dearth of data on the determinants of health for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents. Some prenatal data is available from the Prenatal Risk Assessment Monitoring System, while selected youth data is available from the Youth Behavioral Risk Factor system. Available data show significant inequities for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, compared to other groups in Hawai‘i. Based on comparisons with other indigenous and marginalized peoples, the etiology of these disparities may be a lack of health equity, deriving from multigenerational trauma and discrimination as well as poverty and inequities of housing, education, environment, healthcare access, and social capital. Conclusions The significant barriers facing Native Hawaiian children and adolescents achieving their full potential constitute a challenge to the fulfillment of the human right to health. Future research needs to more fully articulate the linkage between the health status of

  15. Predictors of Adolescent Health Care Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Wade, Terrance; Seeley, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This study, using Andersen's health care utilization model, examined how predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need, personal health practices, and psychological factors influence health care utilization using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of Canadian adolescents. Second, this study examined whether this process…

  16. Sex, race/ethnicity, and romantic attractions: multiple minority status adolescents and mental health.

    PubMed

    Consolacion, Theodora B; Russell, Stephen T; Sue, Stanley

    2004-08-01

    This study examined the association between multiple minority statuses and reports of suicidal thoughts, depression, and self-esteem among adolescents. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine mental health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups for same-sex-attracted youths and female youths. Hispanic/Latino, African American, and White female adolescents reported more suicidal thoughts, higher depression, and lower self-esteem compared with male adolescents in their racial/ethnic group. Same-sex-attracted youths did not consistently demonstrate compromised mental health across racial/ethnic groups. Follow-up analyses show that White same-sex-attracted female adolescents reported the most compromised mental health compared with other White adolescents. However, similar trends were not found for racial/ethnic minority female youths with same-sex attractions. PMID:15311974

  17. Adolescent Health Research Updates: Supplement to the Adolescent Health Plan, Numbers 1-6, December 1996-November 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleich, Ley, Ed.

    This document contains the first six research updates to "Alaska's Adolescents: A Plan for the Future," a comprehensive 1994 report on adolescent health issues prepared by the multiagency Alaska Adolescent Health Advisory Committee. "The Media and Adolescent Health: Television's Impact on Certain Teen Behaviors" (Elizabeth Hatton) examines the…

  18. Use of harsh physical discipline and developmental outcomes in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bender, Heather L; Allen, Joseph P; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Antonishak, Jill; Moore, Cynthia M; Kelly, Heather O'Beirne; Davis, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    A history of exposure to harsh physical discipline has been linked to negative outcomes for children, ranging from conduct disorder to depression and low self-esteem. The present study extends this work into adolescence, and examines the relationship of lifetime histories of harsh discipline to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing symptoms and to their developing capacities for establishing autonomy and relatedness in family interactions. Adolescent and parent reports of harsh discipline, independently coded observations of conflictual interactions, and adolescent reports of symptoms were obtained for 141 adolescents at age 16. Both parents' use of harsh discipline was related to greater adolescent depression and externalizing behavior, even when these effects were examined over and above the effects of other parenting measures known to account for these symptoms. Adolescents exposed to harsh discipline from mothers were also less likely to appear warm and engaged during an interaction task with their mothers. It is suggested that a history of harsh discipline is associated not only with social and emotional functioning, but also with the developmental task of autonomy and relatedness.

  19. A Critical Review of Psychotherapy Outcome Studies with Adolescents: 1978-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Barton J.; Borduin, Charles M.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews methods and findings of adolescent psychotherapy outcome studies published from 1978 to 1988. Concludes that evaluations of individual psychotherapy with adolescents generally reveal positive short-term outcomes, but long-term outcomes are still to be determined; evaluations of systemic therapies with adolescents often reveal positive…

  20. [Internet use and adolescents' sexual health].

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ying-Hua; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2012-12-01

    Internet use is an important part of the daily life of adolescents. The ease of searching the internet for information makes finding information on sex, a topic of particular interest to adolescents, easy. Although the internet is replete with sexual information, the influence of internet use on adolescents' sexual health is analogous to a double-edged sword. This article identifies the four main sexual dilemmas facing Taiwan adolescents and analyzes the pros and cons of internet use with regard to adolescents' sexual health. Cons include the predominance of internet pornography and the potential risks of making friends online. Pros include the internet's role as an optimal communications platform and tool for sex-related research. We suggest that nurses have a unique role and functions to play in promoting adolescent sexual health. We also offer recommendations for school health nursing and clinical nursing. Further internet-based quantitative and qualitative research is necessary to clarify relevant sexual health issues. Finally, we offer design suggestions for sexual education homepages. PMID:23212259

  1. Mental Health Disorders. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2013-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…

  2. Child Health and Young Adult Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Janet; Stabile, Mark; Manivong, Phongsack; Roos, Leslie L.

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown a strong connection between birth weight and future outcomes. We ask how health problems after birth affect outcomes using data from public health insurance records for 50,000 children born between 1979 and 1987 in the Canadian province of Manitoba. We compare children to siblings born an average of three years apart. We find…

  3. Protective factors in adolescent health behavior.

    PubMed

    Jessor, R; Turbin, M S; Costa, F M

    1998-09-01

    The role of psychosocial protective factors in adolescent health-enhancing behaviors--healthy diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, good dental hygiene, and seatbelt use--was investigated among 1,493 Hispanic, White, and Black high school students in a large, urban school district. Both proximal (health-related) and distal (conventionality-related) protective factors have significant positive relations with health-enhancing behavior and with the development of health-enhancing behavior. In addition, in cross-sectional analyses, protection was shown to moderate risk. Key proximal protective factors are value on health, perceived effects of health-compromising behavior, and parents who model health behavior. Key distal protective factors are positive orientation to school, friends who model conventional behavior, involvement in prosocial activities, and church attendance. The findings suggest the importance of individual differences on a dimension of conventionality-unconventionality. Strengthening both proximal and distal protective factors may help to promote healthful behaviors in adolescence. PMID:9781412

  4. Update: Health Insurance and Utilization of Care among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probst, Janice C.; Moore, Charity G.; Baxley, Elizabeth G.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Adolescence is critical for the development of adult health habits. Disparities between rural and urban adolescents and between minority and white youth can have life-long consequences. Purpose: To compare health insurance coverage and ambulatory care contacts between rural minority adolescents and white and urban adolescents. Methods:…

  5. Adolescent cigarette smoking and health risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Busen, N H; Modeland, V; Kouzekanani, K

    2001-06-01

    During the past 30 years, tobacco use among adolescents has substantially increased, resulting in major health problems associated with tobacco consumption. The purpose of this study was to identify adolescent smoking behaviors and to determine the relationship among smoking, specific demographic variables, and health risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 93 self-selecting adolescents. An ex post facto design was used for this study and data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. Findings included a statistically significant relationship between lifetime cigarette use and ethnicity. Statistically significant relationships were also found among current cigarette use and ethnicity, alcohol use, marijuana use, suicidal thoughts, and age at first sexual intercourse. Nurses and other providers must recognize that cigarette smoking may indicate other risk behaviors common among adolescents.

  6. Long-Term Caregiver Mental Health Outcomes Following a Predominately Online Intervention for Adolescents With Complicated Mild to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Shari L.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Cassedy, Amy; Stancin, Terry; Kirkwood, Michael W.; Maines Brown, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of counselor-assisted problem solving (CAPS) in improving long-term caregiver psychological functioning following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adolescents. Methods This randomized clinical trial compared CAPS (n = 65), a predominantly online problem-solving intervention, with an Internet resource comparison (n = 67) program. Families of adolescents with TBI completed a baseline assessment and follow-up assessments 6, 12, and 18 months later. General linear mixed models were used to examine longitudinal changes in caregiver global psychological distress, depressive symptoms, and caregiving self-efficacy. Family income and injury severity were examined as moderators of treatment efficacy. Results Family income moderated long-term changes in caregiver psychological distress. For lower-income caregivers, the CAPS intervention was associated with lower levels of psychological distress at 6, 12, and 18 months post baseline. Conclusions These findings support the utility of Web-based interventions in improving long-term caregiver psychological distress, particularly for lower-income families. PMID:25682211

  7. A closer look at the developmental interplay between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Rassart, Jessica; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Eva; Apers, Silke; Moons, Philip

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined associations between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) using a longitudinal trajectory approach. Adolescents with CHD were selected from the database of pediatric and congenital cardiology of the University Hospitals Leuven. A total of 429 adolescents (M age = 16 at T1) participated in the present study, comprising four measurement waves spanning approximately 3 years. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify trajectory classes of parenting and perceived health. Whereas adolescents from democratic households reported the most favorable health outcomes, adolescents from authoritarian, overprotective, and psychologically controlling families (all characterized by relatively high levels of psychological control) showed an increased risk for poor perceived health over time. Hence, the present study found substantial developmental associations between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with CHD. Future research should investigate whether working on the parent-adolescent relationship can foster patients' health. PMID:24819301

  8. Use of harsh physical discipline and developmental outcomes in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    BENDER, HEATHER L.; ALLEN, JOSEPH P.; McELHANEY, KATHLEEN BOYKIN; ANTONISHAK, JILL; MOORE, CYNTHIA M.; KELLY, HEATHER O’BEIRNE; DAVIS, STEVEN M.

    2012-01-01

    A history of exposure to harsh physical discipline has been linked to negative outcomes for children, ranging from conduct disorder to depression and low self-esteem. The present study extends this work into adolescence, and examines the relationship of lifetime histories of harsh discipline to adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing symptoms and to their developing capacities for establishing autonomy and relatedness in family interactions. Adolescent and parent reports of harsh discipline, independently coded observations of conflictual interactions, and adolescent reports of symptoms were obtained for 141 adolescents at age 16. Both parents’ use of harsh discipline was related to greater adolescent depression and externalizing behavior, even when these effects were examined over and above the effects of other parenting measures known to account for these symptoms. Adolescents exposed to harsh discipline from mothers were also less likely to appear warm and engaged during an interaction task with their mothers. It is suggested that a history of harsh discipline is associated not only with social and emotional functioning, but also with the developmental task of autonomy and relatedness. PMID:17241492

  9. Do psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predict mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial, including criminal outcomes, over the subsequent 5 years?

    PubMed

    Hemphälä, Malin; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-01-01

    Objectif : Déterminer si les traits psychopathiques évalués à la mi-adolescence prédisent les résultats de santé mentale, psychosociaux, et antisociaux (y compris criminels) 5 ans plus tard et procurent par le fait même des avantages par rapport au diagnostic du trouble des conduites (TC). Méthode : Quatre-vingt-six femmes et 61 hommes ont été évalués à la mi-adolescence lors de leur première visite à une clinique pour abus de substances et ont été réévalués 5 ans plus tard. Les évaluations à l’adolescence comprennent la liste de psychopathie—version pour adolescents (PCL-YV), et selon leur âge, l’échelle des troubles affectifs pour enfants et de schizophrénie pour enfants d’âge scolaire, ou l’entrevue clinique structurée pour le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, 4e édition (SCID). Les évaluations au début de l’âge adulte comprenaient la SCID, les auto-déclarations du fonctionnement psychologique, du comportement agressif, de la criminalité et d’autres casiers judiciaires officiels. Résultats : Le score à l’élément antisocial prédisait positivement le nombre de symptômes d’anxiété et la probabilité de recevoir un traitement pour troubles d’utilisation de substances (TUS). Les scores aux éléments mode de vie et antisocial prédisaient négativement les scores à l’évaluation globale de fonctionnement. Par contre, le score interpersonnel et le sexe masculin prédisaient indépendamment et positivement le nombre de mois de travail ou d’études, tout comme l’interaction du mode de vie avec le sexe indiquait chez les hommes, mais pas chez les femmes, qu’une augmentation du score à l’élément mode de vie était associée à moins de temps de travail ou d’études. Les scores interpersonnel et antisocial prédisaient positivement le décrochage scolaire. Les scores à l’élément antisocial prédisaient le nombre de symptômes du trouble de la personnalité antisociale

  10. Adolescent outcomes and opportunities in a Canadian province: looking at siblings and neighbors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Well-organized administrative data with large numbers of cases (building on linked files from several government departments) and a population registry facilitate new studies of population health and child development. Analyses of family relationships and a number of outcomes--educational achievement, health, teen pregnancy, and receipt of income assistance--are relatively easy to conduct using several birth cohorts. Looking both at means/proportions and at sibling correlations enriches our study of opportunity and well-being in late adolescence. With observational research possibly exaggerating the causal effects of risk factors, sibling comparisons involving individuals sharing both many family characteristics and many genes help deal with such criticisms. Methods This paper uses a rich dataset from one Canadian province (Manitoba) covering a wide range of geographical areas (cities to rural regions). Influences on opportunity and well-being are analyzed looking at both means/proportions and sibling correlations. We measure a variety of outcomes that may reflect different causal influences. A creative application of linear programming advances the use of data on residential location. Results Predicting educational achievement using available variables was much easier than predicting adolescent health status (R-square of .200 versus R-square of .043). Low levels of educational achievement, high levels of teenage pregnancy, and high sibling correlations outside Winnipeg and within Winnipeg’s lower income areas highlight inequalities across socioeconomic and geographic backgrounds. Stratifying our analyses by different variables, such as income quintiles, reveals differences in means and correlations within outcomes and across groups. Particular events--changes in mother’s marital status and in place of residence--were associated with less favorable outcomes in late adolescence. Conclusion Our findings suggest a paradox: Canadian developmental

  11. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Joanne; Rollins, Kathy

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and other drug abuse, and the consequences of those behaviors. This publication summarizes approximately 200 child health-related laws and resolutions passed in the 50 states, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and the U.S.…

  12. Mental Health Services for Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    This article reviews the progress made in meeting United States' existing mental health goals for adolescents, and identifies issues that will have to be considered in setting new goals. The article examines the substantial need for child mental health services, particularly among young, socioeconomically disadvantaged youth. The unmet need for…

  13. Media Literacy and Health Promotion for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsma, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    The mass media rank among the most important socialization agents influencing the health behaviors of today's youth, with some researchers estimating that youth spend 33-50% of their waking hours with some form of media (Strasburger and Wilson 2002). The impact of the media on health and the large amount of time adolescents spend with media make…

  14. Relationship between Frequency and Intensity of Physical Activity and Health Behaviors of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Tony T.; Werch, Chudley E.; Wong, Alvin H.; Bian, Hui; Weiler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background: While studies have determined the importance of physical activity in advancing health outcomes, relatively few have explored the relationship between exercise and various health behaviors of adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between frequency and intensity of physical activity and both health risk…

  15. Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social Context.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future.

  16. Optimizing bone health in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Golden, Neville H; Abrams, Steven A

    2014-10-01

    The pediatrician plays a major role in helping optimize bone health in children and adolescents. This clinical report reviews normal bone acquisition in infants, children, and adolescents and discusses factors affecting bone health in this age group. Previous recommended daily allowances for calcium and vitamin D are updated, and clinical guidance is provided regarding weight-bearing activities and recommendations for calcium and vitamin D intake and supplementation. Routine calcium supplementation is not recommended for healthy children and adolescents, but increased dietary intake to meet daily requirements is encouraged. The American Academy of Pediatrics endorses the higher recommended dietary allowances for vitamin D advised by the Institute of Medicine and supports testing for vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents with conditions associated with increased bone fragility. Universal screening for vitamin D deficiency is not routinely recommended in healthy children or in children with dark skin or obesity because there is insufficient evidence of the cost-benefit of such a practice in reducing fracture risk. The preferred test to assess bone health is dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, but caution is advised when interpreting results in children and adolescents who may not yet have achieved peak bone mass. For analyses, z scores should be used instead of T scores, and corrections should be made for size. Office-based strategies for the pediatrician to optimize bone health are provided. This clinical report has been endorsed by American Bone Health. PMID:25266429

  17. Health outcomes research on Hispanics/Latinos.

    PubMed

    Giachello, A L

    1996-10-01

    Outcomes research studies the impact of the health and medical interventions on the health status and quality of life of the population. This paper discusses some of the issues and challenges involved in conducting health and medical outcomes research on the Latino population in the U. S., and also provides some solutions or strategies to overcome some of the most common problems in studying this population.

  18. Parental employment status and adolescents' health: the role of financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescents' resilience.

    PubMed

    Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Benka, Jozef; Orosova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with parental employment status and its relationship to adolescents' self-reported health. It studies the role of the financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent resilience in the relationship between parental employment status and adolescents' self-rated health, vitality and mental health. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse questionnaire data obtained from 2799 adolescents (mean age 14.3) in 2006. The results show a negative association of the father's, but not mother's unemployment or non-employment with adolescents' health. Regression analyses showed that neither financial strain nor a poor parent-adolescent relationship or a low score in resilience accounted for the relationship between the father's unemployment or non-employment and poorer adolescent health. Furthermore, resilience did not work as a buffer against the negative impact of fathers' unemployment on adolescents' health.

  19. Parents' work patterns and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Dockery, Alfred; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth

    2009-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that non-standard work schedules undermine the stability of marriage and reduce family cohesiveness. Limited research has investigated the effects of parents working non-standard schedules on children's health and wellbeing and no published Australian studies have addressed this important issue. This paper contributes to bridging this knowledge gap by focusing on adolescents aged 15-20 years and by including sole parent families which have been omitted in previous research, using panel data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. Multilevel linear regression models are estimated to analyse the association between parental work schedules and hours of work and measures of adolescents' mental health derived from the SF-36 Health Survey. Evidence of negative impacts of parents working non-standard hours upon adolescent wellbeing is found to exist primarily within sole parent families.

  20. Childhood and adolescence: challenges in mental health.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Saurabh Rambiharilal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2013-05-01

    Mental health is an integral and essential component of health. The World Health Organization (WHO) constitution states: "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." More than 450 million people suffer from mental disorders worldwide. In India, mental health services, especially for children and adolescents, are limited both in terms of number of facilities as well as trained professionals. The majority of mental health services are restricted to urban areas, that is, medical colleges or regional mental health institutes. Mere presence of a treatment facility does not guarantee that all children/adolescents suffering from mental illness will utilize such services. In fact, most of the time there is a significant delay from the patient side in accessing mental health services either because of lack of awareness or associated stigma. It is high time to promote positive mental health in children, adolescents and their parents through health education. Parental counseling is of utmost importance in order to avoid the delay in treatment seeking.

  1. A Global Study on the Influence of Neighborhood Contextual Factors on Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Mmari, Kristin; Lantos, Hannah; Blum, Robert; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Sangowawa, Adesola; Yu, Chunyan; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study uses data collected as part of the Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study to: 1) compare the perceptions of neighborhood-level factors among adolescents across five different urban sites; 2) examine the associations between factors within the physical and social environments; and 3) examine the influence of neighborhood-level factors on two different health outcomes -- violence victimization in the past 12 months and ever smoked. Methods Across five urban sites (Baltimore, New Delhi, Johannesburg, Ibadan, and Shanghai), 2320 adolescents aged 15-19 years completed a survey using ACASI technology. To recruit adolescents, each site used a respondent-driven sampling method, which consisted of selecting adolescents as ‘seeds’ to serve as the initial contacts for recruiting the entire adolescent sample. All analyses were conducted with Stata 13.1 statistical software, using complex survey design procedures. To examine associations between neighborhood-level factors, as well as among our two outcomes, violence victimization and ever smoked, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results Across sites, there was great variability in how adolescents perceived their neighborhoods. Overall, adolescents from Ibadan and Shanghai held the most positive perceptions about their neighborhoods, while adolescents from Baltimore and Johannesburg held the poorest. In New Delhi, despite females having positive perceptions about their safety and sense of social cohesion, they had the highest sense of fear, as well as the poorest perceptions about their physical environment. The study also found that one of the most consistent neighborhood-level factors across sites and outcomes was witnessing community violence, which was significantly associated with smoking among adolescents in New Delhi and Johannesburg, and with violence victimization across nearly every site except Baltimore. No other neighborhood-level factor exerted

  2. Environmental conditions and reproductive health outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposures range across multiple domains to affect human health. In an effort to learn how environmental factors combine to contribute to health outcomes we constructed a multiple environmental domain index (MEDI) for use in health research. We used principal compone...

  3. Delay Discounting Predicts Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Catherine; Ryan, Stacy R.; Fu, Hongyun; Landes, Reid D.; Jones, Bryan A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Budney, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify predictors of delay discounting among adolescents receiving treatment for marijuana abuse or dependence, and to test delay discounting as a predictor of treatment outcome. Participants for this study were 165 adolescents (88% male) between the ages of 12 and 18 (M =15.8; SD = 1.3) who enrolled in a clinical trial comparing three behavioral treatments for adolescent marijuana abuse or dependence. Participants completed a delay discounting task at treatment onset for $100 and $1,000 of hypothetical money and marijuana. Overall, smaller magnitude rewards were discounted more than larger magnitude rewards. Delay discounting rates were concurrently related to demographic variables (SES, race). Delay discounting of $1,000 of money predicted during treatment abstinence outcomes among adolescent marijuana abusers, over and above the effects of type of treatment received. Teens who show higher levels of discounting of the future may be an important subgroup to identify at treatment onset. Youth with a greater tendency to discount the future may require different intervention strategies that address their impulsivity (e.g., targeting executive function or inhibitory control) and/or different schedules of reinforcement to address their degree of preference for immediate rewards. PMID:22182419

  4. The mass media and American adolescents' health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jane D; Witherspoon, Elizabeth M

    2002-12-01

    American teens today grow up in a world saturated with the mass media. In general, the media depict a world in which unhealthy behaviors such as physical aggression, unprotected sex, smoking, and drinking are glamorous and risk-free. We summarize what is known about the media's effects on four adolescent health issues that have been studied most comprehensively: violence and aggression; sex; obesity, nutrition, and eating disorders; and alcohol and tobacco use. A number of approaches that have potential for helping turn the media into more positive forces for adolescents' health are discussed

  5. Familism as a Predictor of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Developmental Outcomes for Adolescents in Armenian American Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Supple, Andrew J.; Plunkett, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated associations between familism, parent-adolescent relationships, and developmental outcomes for a sample of 97 Armenian adolescents in immigrant families. Our results suggested that adolescents emphasizing family needs over their own were more likely to report conformity to parents' wishes, respect for parental authority, and…

  6. Health Promotion and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…

  7. Subjective Health and Mental Well-Being of Adolescents and the Health Promoting School: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Kate; Inchley, Jo; Currie, Dorothy; Currie, Candace

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the health promoting school (HPS) on adolescent well-being. Design/methodology/approach: Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland were analysed using multilevel linear regression analyses for outcome measures: happiness, confidence,…

  8. Widening the Aim of Health Promotion to Include the Most Disadvantaged: Vulnerable Adolescents and the Social Determinants of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohajer, Nicole; Earnest, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Growing numbers of adolescents are marginalized by social factors beyond their control, leading to poor health outcomes for their families and future generations. Although the role of the social determinants of health has been recognized for many years, there is a gap in our knowledge about the strategies needed to address these factors in health…

  9. Addressing Structural and Environmental Factors for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Marni; Mmari, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    A deeper understanding of how structure and environment shape the sexual and reproductive health vulnerabilities of youths across a range of outcomes has implications for the development of successful policies and programs. We have discussed some of the key structural and environmental factors that influence the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, and the importance of engaging adolescents in identifying solutions. We have highlighted 2 case studies that describe structural or environmental approaches to improving adolescent sexual and reproductive health and made recommendations to more systematically incorporate attention to structure and environment to improve global adolescent health. PMID:26270290

  10. Do adolescents' own intentions regarding healthy behaviours affect outcome? A two-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Berg-Kelly, K; Kullander, K

    1999-09-01

    Adolescents' own intentions regarding health behaviours, in addition to their context, are believed to be important for the health habits they chose. This was studied prospectively over a 2-y period. A total of 552 students, 391 aged 13 y and 161 aged 15 y, reported their health and problem behaviours, socioeconomic background and intentions regarding health behaviours through questionnaires in 1991 and in 1993. Outcome dealt with three domains: health habits; acquisition of adult lifestyles; and problem behaviours. The material was analysed for correlations. Significant results were entered into multiple regression stepwise procedures. As expected, already having initiated adult lifestyles or problem behaviours were the most important factors associated with such behaviours 2 y later. Further analyses were then limited to those students who had not started such lifestyles, in order to determine what factors kept them from doing so in a 2-y span. Key predictors for healthy behaviours were adolescents' own decisions not to engage in adult lifestyles or risky behaviours, family processes consistent with support and school satisfaction. Association with peer groups where smoking and drinking were commonplace predicted less optimal behaviours. Gender or socioeconomic factors were not predictive. The results support a comprehensive approach to health promotion during adolescence.

  11. Prospective comparison of parent and adolescent report of health-related quality of life in adolescent solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Devine, Katie A; Reed-Knight, Bonney; Simons, Laura E; Mee, Laura L; Blount, Ronald L

    2010-12-01

    This 18-month prospective investigation sought to examine changes in HRQOL over time for adolescent solid organ transplant recipients. Additionally, this study examined the relationship between adolescent and parent report of HRQOL and compared parent report of HRQOL to published normative data. Forty-eight adolescent-parent dyads completed the CHQ, a measure of HRQOL, at two time periods. Parent and adolescent reports of HRQOL were stable over time. ICCs between parent and adolescent reports were significant and moderate across most domains of HRQOL, with the exception of family cohesion, physical functioning, and bodily pain. However, mean differences indicated that parents perceived significantly worse self-esteem and general health perceptions compared to their adolescents. Compared to normative data, parents reported significantly lower HRQOL across several domains, including adolescents' physical functioning and the emotional impact of their adolescent's condition on themselves. However, parents also reported higher levels of family cohesion. Results indicate that assessment of HRQOL for transplant recipients should include multiple reporters and that HRQOL as reported by adolescents and parents is generally stable over time without intervention. Further research is needed to understand factors related to differential HRQOL outcomes.

  12. Health of the world's adolescents: a synthesis of internationally comparable data.

    PubMed

    Patton, George C; Coffey, Carolyn; Cappa, Claudia; Currie, Dorothy; Riley, Leanne; Gore, Fiona; Degenhardt, Louisa; Richardson, Dominic; Astone, Nan; Sangowawa, Adesola O; Mokdad, Ali; Ferguson, Jane

    2012-04-28

    Adolescence and young adulthood offer opportunities for health gains both through prevention and early clinical intervention. Yet development of health information systems to support this work has been weak and so far lagged behind those for early childhood and adulthood. With falls in the number of deaths in earlier childhood in many countries and a shifting emphasis to non-communicable disease risks, injuries, and mental health, there are good reasons to assess the present sources of health information for young people. We derive indicators from the conceptual framework for the Series on adolescent health and assess the available data to describe them. We selected indicators for their public health importance and their coverage of major health outcomes in young people, health risk behaviours and states, risk and protective factors, social role transitions relevant to health, and health service inputs. We then specify definitions that maximise international comparability. Even with this optimisation of data usage, only seven of the 25 indicators, covered at least 50% of the world's adolescents. The worst adolescent health profiles are in sub-Saharan Africa, with persisting high mortality from maternal and infectious causes. Risks for non-communicable diseases are spreading rapidly, with the highest rates of tobacco use and overweight, and lowest rates of physical activity, predominantly in adolescents living in low-income and middle-income countries. Even for present global health agendas, such as HIV infection and maternal mortality, data sources are incomplete for adolescents. We propose a series of steps that include better coordination and use of data collected across countries, greater harmonisation of school-based surveys, further development of strategies for socially marginalised youth, targeted research into the validity and use of these health indicators, advocating for adolescent-health information within new global health initiatives, and a

  13. Hospital outcomes management: the Care Continuum and Health Outcomes Project.

    PubMed

    Shadbolt, B; McCallum, J; Bourne, M; Singh, M

    1998-01-01

    The Care Continuum and Health Outcomes Project is part of a national initiative to build an outcomes management approach in health care. This paper examines the baseline performance of the study. In 1995-96, 7154 Australian Capital Territory hospital inpatients were selected to take part in a five-wave survey over six months. In addition to the survey, the project involved the unit record linkage of routine data collections. A total of 5668 people (79%) agreed to participate in the survey, with 85% of these people agreeing to release their Medicare data. There were significant variations in participation rates between hospitals and wards. Factors contributing to these variations included patient socioeconomic status, disease type and illness severity. In conclusion, the success in establishing the project indicates that it is possible to conduct a broad scientific study within the health system, and that there are strong implications that ongoing scientific evaluations can be embedded within routine clinical practice. PMID:10185682

  14. Cultivating Health: An Agenda for Adolescent Farmworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Aurora Camacho de

    Nearly 20 percent of all migrant farmworkers are adolescents, and as many as half of these may be unaccompanied by their families. These youth clearly have special health and educational needs that require commitment from social institutions and agencies. In June 1991, a conference held in Delray Beach, Florida by the National Coalition of…

  15. Income Shocks and Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Sarah; de Hoop, Jacobus; Ozler, Berk

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of a positive income shock on mental health among adolescent girls using evidence from a cash transfer experiment in Malawi. Offers of cash transfers strongly reduced psychological distress among baseline schoolgirls. However, these large beneficial effects declined with increases in the transfer amount offered to the…

  16. Early Adolescents Perceptions of Health and Health Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen L.; Teufel, James A.; Birch, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Health illiteracy is a societal issue that, if addressed successfully, may help to reduce health disparities. It has been associated with increased rates of hospital admission, health care expenditures, and poor health outcomes. Because of this, much of the research in the United States has focused on adults in the health care system.…

  17. Health-risk behaviors in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama

    2011-01-01

    The major morbidities and mortalities of adolescents are related to preventable risky behaviors, but how, when, and in whom these behaviors develop in early adolescence is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which set of risk factors and protective resources of school-age children were best predictors of health-risk behaviors in early adolescence. A longitudinal, cohort sequential design was used with a diverse sample of 1,934 children in grades 4 through 8. Parents provided demographic and neighborhood data for children through a mailed survey. Children completed valid scales annually at schools, using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) technology. Significant gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in carrying a weapon and using alcohol. Higher perceived levels of stress increased the risk for alcohol use as did riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. Health behaviors exhibited while in 4th through 6th grades protected early adolescents from alcohol use and riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. A parent's education and perceived safety in neighborhood protected against carrying a weapon and smoking. Many findings are similar to those of national samples, but others show positive differences in this localized sample, over 50% of whom were Latino. Protective resources suggest numerous nursing interventions to promote healthy adolescent development.

  18. Direct and indirect effects of caregiver social support on adolescent psychological outcomes in two South African AIDS-affected communities

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M.; Wild, Lauren G.

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures peer problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, emotional symptoms and child prosocial behavior. Hierarchical linear regressions and multiple mediation analyses, using bootstrapping procedures, were conducted to assess for: a) direct effects of more caregiver social support on better adolescent psychosocial wellbeing; and b) indirect effects mediated by better parenting and caregiver mental health. Direct associations (p<.001), and indirect associations mediated through better parenting, were found for all adolescent outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance of social support components within parenting interventions but also point to scope for positive intervention on adolescent psychosocial wellbeing through the broader family social network. PMID:25623784

  19. Improving adolescent health policy: incorporating a framework for assessing state-level policies.

    PubMed

    Brindis, Claire D; Moore, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Many US policies that affect health are made at the state, not the federal, level. Identifying state-level policies and data to analyze how different policies affect outcomes may help policy makers ascertain the usefulness of their public policies and funding decisions in improving the health of adolescent populations. A framework for describing and assessing the role of federal and state policies on adolescent health and well-being is proposed; an example of how the framework might be applied to the issue of teen childbearing is included. Such a framework can also help inform analyses of whether and how state and federal policies contribute to the variation across states in meeting adolescent health needs. A database on state policies, contextual variables, and health outcomes data can further enable researchers and policy makers to examine how these factors are associated with behaviors they aim to impact.

  20. A Media Literacy Education Approach to Teaching Adolescents Comprehensive Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scull, Tracy Marie; Malik, Christina V.; Kupersmidt, Janis Beth

    2014-01-01

    As states are moving toward comprehensive sexual health education, educators require engaging and effective curricula. This pre-post study (N = 64) examined the feasibility of a comprehensive, media literacy education program for influencing adolescents' sexual health and media literacy outcomes. After the program, participants were more…

  1. Cognitive Ability and Health-Related Behaviors during Adolescence: A Prospective Study across Five Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Skinner, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal research on the links between intelligence and health behaviors among adolescents is rare. We report longitudinal data in which we assessed the relationships between intelligence as assessed in Grade 7 and consequential health outcomes in Grade 11. The mean age of respondents (N = 420; 188 males, 232 females) was 12.30 years (SD =…

  2. Promoting Teen Health and Reducing Risks: A Look at Adolescent Health Services in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens' Committee for Children of New York, NY.

    This study examined data from focus groups with New York City adolescents and interviews with health care providers serving New York City adolescents (hospital based clinics, school based health centers, child health clinics, community health centers, and a multi-service adolescent center) in order to determine how to promote health and reduce…

  3. Health Literacy: An Educationally Sensitive Patient Outcome.

    PubMed

    Yin, H Shonna; Jay, Melanie; Maness, Leslie; Zabar, Sondra; Kalet, Adina

    2015-09-01

    We have previously proposed that by identifying a set of Educationally Sensitive Patient Outcomes (ESPOs), medical education outcomes research becomes more feasible and likely to provide meaningful guidance for medical education policy and practice. ESPOs are proximal outcomes that are sensitive to provider education, measurable, and linked to more distal health outcomes. Our previous model included Patient Activation and Clinical Microsystem Activation as ESPOs. In this paper, we discuss how Health Literacy, defined as "the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions," is another important ESPO. Between one-third and one-half of all US adults have limited health literacy skills. Providers can be trained to adopt a "universal precautions approach" to addressing patient health literacy, through the acquisition of specific skills (e.g., teachback, "chunking" information, use of plain language written materials) and by learning how to take action to improve the "health literacy environment." While there are several ways to measure health literacy, identifying which measurement tools are most sensitive to provider education is important, but challenging and complex. Further research is needed to test this model and identify additional ESPOs. PMID:26173523

  4. Functional Health Literacy and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varekojis, Sarah M.; Miller, Larry; Schiller, M. Rosita; Stein, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the relationship between functional health literacy level and smoking cessation outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Participants in an inpatient smoking cessation program in a mid-western city in the USA were enrolled and the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults was administered while the…

  5. Newcomer Immigrant Adolescents: A Mixed-Methods Examination of Family Stressors and School Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sita G.; Clarke, Annette V.; Eltareb, Fazia; Macciomei, Erynn E.; Wickham, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Family stressors predict negative psychological outcomes for immigrant adolescents, yet little is known about how such stressors interact to predict school outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive role of family stressors on school outcomes for newcomer adolescent immigrants. Using a convergent parallel mixed-methods…

  6. Creating a new framework for promoting the health of African-American female adolescents: beyond risk taking.

    PubMed

    Roberts, L

    1999-01-01

    African-American female adolescents bear a disproportionate burden of poor health outcomes compared to young white women. The racial and gender disparities in adolescent health are readily apparent in the reported rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, poor nutrition, victimization and exposure to traumatic violence, incarceration, and mortality among young African-American women, especially those who are poor and living in inner cities. Risk behavior, the dominant construct explaining adolescent morbidity and mortality, is inadequate because it assumes that all adolescents develop similarly when, in fact, gender, race, and socioeconomic status force different developmental patterns and health outcomes. The author calls for interdisciplinary collaborations examining the structural inequities and combined consequences of sexism, racism, and inner-city poverty for young women of color in order to inform public health interventions to improve the health of African-American female adolescents.

  7. Telemental health for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gloff, Nicole E; LeNoue, Sean R; Novins, Douglas K; Myers, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Most children and adolescents across the USA fail to receive adequate mental health services, especially in rural or underserved communities. The supply of child and adolescent psychiatrists is insufficient for the number of children in need of services and is not anticipated to grow. This calls for novel approaches to mental health care. Telemental health (TMH) offers one approach to increase access. TMH programmes serving young people are developing rapidly and available studies demonstrate that these services are feasible, acceptable, sustainable and likely as effective as in-person services. TMH services are utilized in clinical settings to provide direct care and consultation to primary care providers (PCPs), as well as in non-traditional settings, such as schools, correctional facilities and the home. Delivery of services to young people through TMH requires several adjustments to practice with adults regarding the model of care, cultural values, participating adults, rapport-building, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Additional infrastructure accommodations at the patient site include space and staffing to conduct developmentally appropriate evaluations and treatment planning with parents, other providers, and community services. For TMH to optimally impact young people's access to mental health care, collaborative models of care are needed to support PCPs as frontline mental health-care providers, thereby effectively expanding the child and adolescent mental health workforce.

  8. Telemental health for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gloff, Nicole E; LeNoue, Sean R; Novins, Douglas K; Myers, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Most children and adolescents across the USA fail to receive adequate mental health services, especially in rural or underserved communities. The supply of child and adolescent psychiatrists is insufficient for the number of children in need of services and is not anticipated to grow. This calls for novel approaches to mental health care. Telemental health (TMH) offers one approach to increase access. TMH programmes serving young people are developing rapidly and available studies demonstrate that these services are feasible, acceptable, sustainable and likely as effective as in-person services. TMH services are utilized in clinical settings to provide direct care and consultation to primary care providers (PCPs), as well as in non-traditional settings, such as schools, correctional facilities and the home. Delivery of services to young people through TMH requires several adjustments to practice with adults regarding the model of care, cultural values, participating adults, rapport-building, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Additional infrastructure accommodations at the patient site include space and staffing to conduct developmentally appropriate evaluations and treatment planning with parents, other providers, and community services. For TMH to optimally impact young people's access to mental health care, collaborative models of care are needed to support PCPs as frontline mental health-care providers, thereby effectively expanding the child and adolescent mental health workforce. PMID:26540584

  9. Influence of Mental Health and Substance Use Problems and Criminogenic Risk on Outcomes in Serious Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Carol A.; Mulvey, Edward P.; Glasheen, Cristie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relations among certain mental health problems (MHPs; affective, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], and substance use disorders), criminogenic risk, and outcomes in a sample of serious adolescent offenders. Method: Using data from a longitudinal study of serious adolescent offenders (N = 949;…

  10. Adolescent health care education and training: insights from Israel.

    PubMed

    Kerem, Nogah C; Hardoff, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    There is a growing need for health care professionals to extend their knowledge in adolescent health care. Formal training curricula in adolescent medicine have been established in the United States, Canada, and Australia, yet many other countries have developed shorter training programs to enable interested physicians to further pursue knowledge and practical experience in delivering improved quality health care for adolescents. The Israeli experience in building an infrastructure that allows students and physicians to learn about adolescent medicine and to train in the field is described. It includes a series of lectures and seminars for medical students during medical school and at the clinical rotations in pediatric wards; the development of hospital-based and community-based multidisciplinary adolescent health services where residents can practice adolescent health care; a 3-year diploma course in adolescent medicine for specialists in pediatrics and family medicine; mini courses in adolescent medicine for pediatricians and family practitioners working in community settings; and a simulated patient-based program regarding communication with adolescents, aimed for all professional levels - medical students, residents, and specialists. This infrastructure has been developed to create a leading group of physicians, who are able to operate adolescent clinics and to teach adolescent medicine. Recently, a formal fellowship program in adolescent medicine has been approved by the Scientific Council of the Israel Medical Association. The Israeli experience described here could be applied in countries, where formal training programs in adolescent health care are not yet established. PMID:27341557

  11. Adolescence and asthma management: the perspective of adolescents receiving primary health care☆

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Alisson; Rocha, Regina Lunardi; Alvim, Cristina Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of adolescence characteristics on asthma management. Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted in the city of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. Data were collected through semistructured interviews guided by a questionnaire with seven asthmatic adolescents followed-up in the primary public health care service of the city. Results: Using content analysis, three thematic categories were observed in the adolescents' responses: 1) family relationships in the treatment of asthma in adolescence; 2) the asthmatic adolescents and their peers; and 3) the role of the school for the asthmatic adolescents. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that peers, family, and school should be more valued by health professionals and by health care services when treating asthmatic adolescents, as these social relationships are closely associated with the adolescent and have an important role in asthma management. Attempts to meet the demands of adolescents contribute to improve asthma management. PMID:25479845

  12. Welfare state regimes, health and health inequalities in adolescence: a multilevel study in 32 countries.

    PubMed

    Richter, Matthias; Rathman, Katharina; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Zambon, Alessio; Boyce, William; Hurrelmann, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    Comparative research on health and health inequalities has recently started to establish a welfare regime perspective. The objective of this study was to determine whether different welfare regimes are associated with health and health inequalities among adolescents. Data were collected from the 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children' study in 2006, including 11- to 15-year-old students from 32 countries (N = 141,091). Prevalence rates and multilevel logistic regression models were calculated for self-rated health (SRH) and health complaints. The results show that between 4 per cent and 7 per cent of the variation in both health outcomes is attributable to differences between countries. Compared to the Scandinavian regime, the Southern regime had lower odds ratios for SRH, while for health complaints the Southern and Eastern regime showed high odds ratios. The association between subjective health and welfare regime was largely unaffected by adjusting for individual socioeconomic position. After adjustment for the welfare regime typology, the country-level variations were reduced to 4.6 per cent for SRH and to 2.9 per cent for health complaints. Regarding cross-level interaction effects between welfare regimes and socioeconomic position, no clear regime-specific pattern was found. Consistent with research on adults this study shows that welfare regimes are important in explaining variations in adolescent health across countries.

  13. Adolescents' Views regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old.…

  14. Adolescents' Views Regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education.

    PubMed

    Selkie, Ellen M; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan

    2011-07-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old. Facilitators asked participants for their views regarding use of social networking web sites (SNSs) and text messaging for sexual health education. Tape-recorded data was transcribed; transcripts were manually evaluated then discussed to determine thematic consensus. RESULTS: A total of 29 adolescents participated in 5 focus groups. Participants were 65.5% female. Three themes emerged from our data. First, adolescents preferred sexual health education resources that are accessible. Second, adolescents preferred online resources that are trustworthy. Third, adolescents discussed preference for "safe" resources. DISCUSSION: Adolescents were enthusiastic and insightful regarding technology for enhancing sexual health education. The themes that influence adolescents' preferences in sexual health education using technology are similar to barriers that exist in other aspects of adolescent health communication. TRANSLATION TO HEALTH EDUCATION PRACTICE: Findings suggest ways in which health organizations can understand adolescents' views and concerns about how their interactions with professionals take place regarding sexual health.

  15. Adolescents' Views Regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education.

    PubMed

    Selkie, Ellen M; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan

    2011-07-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old. Facilitators asked participants for their views regarding use of social networking web sites (SNSs) and text messaging for sexual health education. Tape-recorded data was transcribed; transcripts were manually evaluated then discussed to determine thematic consensus. RESULTS: A total of 29 adolescents participated in 5 focus groups. Participants were 65.5% female. Three themes emerged from our data. First, adolescents preferred sexual health education resources that are accessible. Second, adolescents preferred online resources that are trustworthy. Third, adolescents discussed preference for "safe" resources. DISCUSSION: Adolescents were enthusiastic and insightful regarding technology for enhancing sexual health education. The themes that influence adolescents' preferences in sexual health education using technology are similar to barriers that exist in other aspects of adolescent health communication. TRANSLATION TO HEALTH EDUCATION PRACTICE: Findings suggest ways in which health organizations can understand adolescents' views and concerns about how their interactions with professionals take place regarding sexual health. PMID:22229150

  16. Health Concerns of Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobal, Jeffery

    1987-01-01

    Examined health concerns of 278 urban junior high school students. Highest levels of concerns pertained to dental health, friendships, nutrition, and sex; lowest levels pertained to smoking, birth control, pregnancy, and homosexuality. Younger, female, and less healthy students expressed greater health concerns. (Author/NB)

  17. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS.

  18. Predictors of life satisfaction among Asian American adolescents- analysis of add health data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Yen; Wang, Kuan-Yuan; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Life satisfaction correlates with adolescent risk taking behavior and their outcomes in adulthood. Despite the fast rise in numbers of Asian adolescents in the U.S., the predictors of their life satisfaction are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between several demographic and contextual factors and global life satisfaction among this population. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative probability sample of US adolescents. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to evaluate hypothesized predictors of global life satisfaction of Asian American adolescents. All analyses were conducted using STATA version 11. After exclusion of cases with missing values, 1021 Asian American adolescents were studied. Self- rated health, self-esteem, perceived neighborhood quality, parental support and peer support were significantly and positively related to better global life satisfaction. However, after controlling for other factors, only self-esteem (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.86-8.33) and perceived peer support (aOR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.33-5.76) significantly predicted higher life satisfaction. Peer support and adolescents' self-concept are strongly correlated with Asian American adolescents' subjective well-being. To promote the wellness of this population, culturally sensitive strategies in developing peer relationship and healthy self-concept may be effective. More studies are needed for subgroup comparison of various ethnicities among Asian American adolescents. PMID:25992312

  19. Predictors of life satisfaction among Asian American adolescents- analysis of add health data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Yen; Wang, Kuan-Yuan; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Life satisfaction correlates with adolescent risk taking behavior and their outcomes in adulthood. Despite the fast rise in numbers of Asian adolescents in the U.S., the predictors of their life satisfaction are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between several demographic and contextual factors and global life satisfaction among this population. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative probability sample of US adolescents. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to evaluate hypothesized predictors of global life satisfaction of Asian American adolescents. All analyses were conducted using STATA version 11. After exclusion of cases with missing values, 1021 Asian American adolescents were studied. Self- rated health, self-esteem, perceived neighborhood quality, parental support and peer support were significantly and positively related to better global life satisfaction. However, after controlling for other factors, only self-esteem (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.86-8.33) and perceived peer support (aOR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.33-5.76) significantly predicted higher life satisfaction. Peer support and adolescents' self-concept are strongly correlated with Asian American adolescents' subjective well-being. To promote the wellness of this population, culturally sensitive strategies in developing peer relationship and healthy self-concept may be effective. More studies are needed for subgroup comparison of various ethnicities among Asian American adolescents.

  20. Pre-pregnancy Dating Violence and Birth Outcomes among Adolescent Mothers in a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although infants born to adolescent mothers are at increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, little is known about contributors to birth outcomes in this group. Given past research linking partner abuse to adverse birth outcomes among adult mothers, we explored associations between pre-pregnancy verbal and physical dating violence and the birthweight and gestational age of infants born to adolescent mothers. Methods Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Waves I (1995/96), II (1996), and IV (2007/08) were analyzed. Girls whose first singleton live births occurred after Wave II interview and before age 20 (n=558) self-reported infants’ birth weight and gestational age at Wave IV. Dating violence victimization (verbal and physical) in the 18 months prior to Wave II interview was self-reported. Controls included Wave I age; parent education; age at pregnancy; time between reporting abuse and birth; and childhood physical and sexual abuse. Weighted multivariable regression models were performed separately by race (Black/non-Black). Results On average, births occurred two years after Wave II interview. Almost one in four mothers reported verbal dating violence victimization (23.6%), and 10.1% reported physical victimization. Birthweight and prevalence of verbal dating violence victimization were significantly lower in Black compared to non-Black teen mothers. In multivariable analyses, negative associations between physical dating abuse and birth outcomes became stronger as time increased for Black mothers. For example, pre-pregnancy physical dating abuse was associated with 0.79 kilograms lower birthweight (p<.001) and 4.72 fewer weeks gestational age (p<0.01) for Black mothers who gave birth two years post-reporting abuse. Physical dating abuse was unassociated with birth outcomes among non-Black mothers, and verbal abuse was unassociated with birth outcomes for all mothers. Conclusions Reducing physical dating violence in

  1. Health-related quality of life and body mass index among US adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zack, Matthew M.; Wethington, Holly

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the magnitude of differences in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) by body mass index (BMI) in a population-based sample of United States adolescents overall and by sex, and to provide national prevalence estimates of reported HRQOL outcomes for not only obese and overweight but also underweight adolescents. Methods From the 2001 through 2010 cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, we estimated the percentages of four HRQOL outcomes—self-rated health, physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, and activity limitation days—in four BMI categories—obese, overweight, normal weight, and underweight—of approximately 6,000 US adolescents aged 12–17 years. We also estimated the percentages for boys and girls separately. Results Substantial gaps in self-rated health exist between normal-weight adolescents and those who are obese and overweight, but not underweight. Eighteen percent (95 % CI 15–22) of obese adolescents reported fair or poor health compared to only 5 % (95 % CI 4–7) of normal-weight adolescents. Thirty-seven percent (95 % CI 33–42) of obese adolescents reported excellent or very good health, compared to 65 % (94 % CI 63–67) of normal-weight adolescents. However, all BMI groups reported similar percentages of physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, and activity limitation days. The associations between HRQOL and BMI groups did not vary by sex. Boys generally reported significantly better self-rated health and mental health than girls. Specifically, obese boys reported better self-rated health, mental health, and fewer activity limitation days than obese girls. Conclusions Substantially, significant differences in some domains of HRQOL are found between above normal-weight and normal-weight US adolescents. This relationship between BMI and HRQOL is robust and observed among both boys and girls. PMID:24526296

  2. Is it ok 2 txt? Reaching out to adolescents about sexual and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Malbon, Katherine; Romo, Dina

    2013-09-01

    As the number of adolescents in the population is growing, it is even more important that healthcare practitioners are provided with the tools and resources that can best educate and connect with those patients at risk in this population, particularly with regard to sexual health behaviours. Notoriously, adolescents are difficult to engage in their own healthcare. However, with the advancement of technology and the ubiquitous use of cell phones, emerging studies suggest that there may be benefits to using text messaging within the adolescent health arena to encourage engagement, compliance and improve health knowledge. The use of text messaging has been implemented within adolescent healthcare in multiple ways but studies are needed to evaluate the content of messages, dosage and efficacy of text messaging in improving health outcomes in this population.

  3. Detained Adolescents: Mental Health Needs, Treatment Use, and Recidivism.

    PubMed

    White, Laura M; Lau, Katherine S L; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2016-06-01

    Although approximately 60 to 70 percent of detained adolescents meet criteria for a mental disorder, few receive treatment upon community re-entry. Given that mental health treatment can reduce recidivism, we examined detained adolescents' mental health needs and their postdetention mental health treatment and recidivism. Altogether, 1,574 adolescents (≤18 years) completed a mental health screening at a detention center. Scores on the screening, mental health treatment utilization (60 days after detention), and recidivism (6 months after detention) were measured. About 82.2 percent of adolescents had elevated scores on the mental health screening, but only 16.4 percent obtained treatment and 37.2 percent reoffended. Logistic regression models revealed adolescents with insurance and higher angry-irritable scores were significantly more likely to obtain treatment, whereas males, black and older adolescents, and those endorsing a trauma history were less likely. Black adolescents, insured adolescents, and those with higher alcohol and drug use scores were significantly more likely to reoffend. Mental health treatment increased the likelihood of recidivism. The prevalence of mental health needs among detained adolescents was high, but treatment utilization was low, with notable treatment disparities across race, gender, and age. The use of mental health treatment predicted recidivism, suggesting that treatment acts as a proxy measure of mental health problems. Future research should assess the impact of timely and continuous mental health services on recidivism among detained adolescents.

  4. Detained Adolescents: Mental Health Needs, Treatment Use, and Recidivism.

    PubMed

    White, Laura M; Lau, Katherine S L; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2016-06-01

    Although approximately 60 to 70 percent of detained adolescents meet criteria for a mental disorder, few receive treatment upon community re-entry. Given that mental health treatment can reduce recidivism, we examined detained adolescents' mental health needs and their postdetention mental health treatment and recidivism. Altogether, 1,574 adolescents (≤18 years) completed a mental health screening at a detention center. Scores on the screening, mental health treatment utilization (60 days after detention), and recidivism (6 months after detention) were measured. About 82.2 percent of adolescents had elevated scores on the mental health screening, but only 16.4 percent obtained treatment and 37.2 percent reoffended. Logistic regression models revealed adolescents with insurance and higher angry-irritable scores were significantly more likely to obtain treatment, whereas males, black and older adolescents, and those endorsing a trauma history were less likely. Black adolescents, insured adolescents, and those with higher alcohol and drug use scores were significantly more likely to reoffend. Mental health treatment increased the likelihood of recidivism. The prevalence of mental health needs among detained adolescents was high, but treatment utilization was low, with notable treatment disparities across race, gender, and age. The use of mental health treatment predicted recidivism, suggesting that treatment acts as a proxy measure of mental health problems. Future research should assess the impact of timely and continuous mental health services on recidivism among detained adolescents. PMID:27236176

  5. Surgical Outcome of Children and Adolescents with Tethered Cord Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hida, Kazutoshi; Yano, Shunsuke; Sasamori, Toru; Hamauch, Shuji; Koyanagi, Izumi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Purpose To compare long-term results of surgery with the outcomes of symptomatic and asymptomatic tethered cord syndrome (TCS) in children and adolescents and to assess the surgery duration for those with TCS. Overview of Literature Pediatric patients with TCS continue to pose significant diagnostic and management challenges. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 31 patients (16 males, 15 females) with TCS, including 21 with lumbosacral lipoma. All were surgically treated between 1989 and 2015. They were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic TCS groups. The results of the treatment were summarized and analyzed using a non-parametric Mann–Whitney U test. Results Nineteen patients had symptomatic TCS and 12 had asymptomatic TCS. Patients had a median age of 34 months (range, 0–201 months). The median follow-up period was 116 months (range, 7–223 months). Of the 19 symptomatic TCS patients, preoperative deficits improved after surgery in two (10.5%) and remained stable in 17 (89.5%) patients. One of the 12 asymptomatic TCS (8.3%) patients showed an exacerbated illness after surgery, and one in 11 patients remained stable (11.7%). There were significant differences in monthly age at surgery, preoperative bowel and bladder dysfunction, neurological function, presence/absence of clean intermittent catheterization introduction, and presence/absence of motor disorder at final follow-up (all p<0.05). In the univariate analysis, the presence/absence of preoperative bowel and bladder dysfunction, and symptoms were strongly associated with the risk of children and adolescents with TCS (p<0.05). Conclusions Early accurate diagnosis and adequate surgical release might lead to successful outcomes in children and adolescents with TCS. Surgical untethering is a safe and effective method for treatment of children with TCS. PMID:27790325

  6. Annual Research Review: Optimal outcomes of child and adolescent mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Costello, E. Jane; Maughan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background ‘Optimal outcomes’ of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders may mean the best possible outcome, or the best considering a child’s history. Most research into the outcomes of child and adolescent psychiatric disorder concentrates on the likelihood of adult illness and disability given an earlier history of psychopathology. Methods In this article we review the research literature (based on a literature search using PubMed, RePORT and Google Advanced Scholar databases) on optimal outcomes for young people with a history of anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, or substance use disorders in childhood or adolescence. We consider three types of risks that these children may run later in development: future episodes of the same disorder, future episodes of a different disorder, and functional impairment. The impact of treatment or preventative interventions on early adult functioning is briefly reviewed. Results We found that very few studies enabled us to answer our questions with certainty, but that in general about half of adults with a psychiatric history were disorder-free and functioning quite well in their 20s or 30s. However, their chance of functioning well was less than that of adults without a psychiatric history, even in the absence of a current disorder. Conclusions Among adults who had a psychiatric disorder as a child or adolescent, about half can be expected to be disorder-free as young adults, and of these about half will be free of significant difficulties in the areas of work, health, relationships, and crime. Optimal outcomes are predicted by a mixture of personal characteristics and environmental supports. PMID:25496295

  7. Outcome mapping for health system integration

    PubMed Central

    Tsasis, Peter; Evans, Jenna M; Forrest, David; Jones, Richard Keith

    2013-01-01

    Health systems around the world are implementing integrated care strategies to improve quality, reduce or maintain costs, and improve the patient experience. Yet few practical tools exist to aid leaders and managers in building the prerequisites to integrated care, namely a shared vision, clear roles and responsibilities, and a common understanding of how the vision will be realized. Outcome mapping may facilitate stakeholder alignment on the vision, roles, and processes of integrated care delivery via participative and focused dialogue among diverse stakeholders on desired outcomes and enabling actions. In this paper, we describe an outcome-mapping exercise we conducted at a Local Health Integration Network in Ontario, Canada, using consensus development conferences. Our preliminary findings suggest that outcome mapping may help stakeholders make sense of a complex system and foster collaborative capital, a resource that can support information sharing, trust, and coordinated change toward integration across organizational and professional boundaries. Drawing from the theoretical perspectives of complex adaptive systems and collaborative capital, we also outline recommendations for future outcome-mapping exercises. In particular, we emphasize the potential for outcome mapping to be used as a tool not only for identifying and linking strategic outcomes and actions, but also for studying the boundaries, gaps, and ties that characterize social networks across the continuum of care. PMID:23526058

  8. Adolescent Health Care Use: Investigating Related Determinants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannakopoulos, George; Tzavara, Chara; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis

    2010-01-01

    The frequency of health care use is crucial for adolescent well-being and health systems. The present study was the first to test a set of variables in a representative sample of Greek adolescents in order to identify factors that predict health care use and contribute to improving health service planning. Questionnaires were administered to a…

  9. Factors Associated with Physician Discussion of Health Behaviors with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2006-01-01

    Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues…

  10. Adolescent and young adult health in the United States in the past decade: little improvement and young adults remain worse off than adolescents.

    PubMed

    Park, M Jane; Scott, Jazmyn T; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E

    2014-07-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are unique developmental periods that present opportunities and challenges for improving health. Health at this age can affect health throughout the lifespan. This review has two aims: (1) to examine trends in key indicators in outcomes, behaviors, and health care over the past decade for U.S. adolescents and young adults; and (2) to compare U.S. adolescents and young adults on these indicators. The review also assesses sociodemographic differences in trends and current indicators. Guided by our aims, previous reviews, and national priorities, the present review identified 21 sources of nationally representative data to examine trends in 53 areas and comparisons of adolescents and young adults in 42 areas. Most health and health care indicators have changed little over the past decade. Encouraging exceptions were found for adolescents and young adults in unintentional injury, assault, and tobacco use, and, for adolescents, in sexual/reproductive health. Trends in violence and chronic disease and related behaviors were mixed. Review of current indicators demonstrates that young adulthood continues to entail greater risk and worse outcomes than adolescence. Young adults fared worse on about two-thirds of the indicators examined. Differences among sociodemographic subgroups persisted for both trends and current indicators.

  11. First-birth outcomes and timing of second births: a statewide case management program for adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Sangalang, Bernadette B; Barth, Richard P; Painter, John S

    2006-02-01

    This study examines a case management intervention for first-time pregnant and parenting adolescents. It compares a sample of 1,260 first-time adolescent mothers in the Adolescent Parenting Program (APP) in North Carolina with 1,260 first-time adolescent mothers who did not participate in the program (non-APP). Using birth certificate data, logistic regression and survival analyses were used to compare prenatal care use, birth outcomes, and subsequent births, adjusting for age, race, marital status, and tobacco use during pregnancy. The groups had similar rates of prenatal care use. Participation in APP, however, was associated with an increased likelihood of normal birthweight (more than 2,500 grams [5.5 pounds]) and full-term birth (at or more than 37 weeks). Adolescents ages 12 to 16 in the APP group also delayed second births significantly longer than the non-APP group. Study implications point to case management and direct services provided by social workers and health service professionals as instrumental to helping adolescent mothers achieve favorable birth outcomes and postpone subsequent births during adolescence. PMID:16550848

  12. Adolescent exposure to violence and adult physical and mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Franzese, Robert J; Covey, Herbert C; Tucker, Abigail S; McCoy, Leah; Menard, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Evidence on the relationship of adolescent exposure to violence (AEV) with adult physical and mental health problems is limited, with studies often focusing on earlier childhood rather than adolescence, and also on short term rather than long term outcomes. Information specifically on the relationship of AEV to seeking help for mental health problems in adulthood from either formal sources such as mental health professionals or informal sources such as friends and clergy is even more difficult to find. The present study investigates how adolescent exposure to violence (AEV), in the form of parental physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and exposure to violence in the neighborhood, are related to self-reported adult physical problems and seeking formal or informal assistance with mental health, controlling for more general adolescent violent victimization and for self-reports and parent reports of mental health problems in adolescence. This study adds to the literature on AEV and adult physical problems, and provides a rare look at the relationship of AEV to adult help-seeking for mental health problems. The results suggest that AEV is associated with mental health problems in adolescence for both females and males, that for females AEV is related to physical problems and to seeking help for mental health problems in adulthood, but for males the only significant relationship involves inconsistent reports of witnessing parental violence and adult physical problems.

  13. Parental violence and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Kirsi; Ellonen, Noora; Larsen, Helmer B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2010-11-01

    Being the target of parental violent acts decreases child adjustment and increases the likelihood of mental health problems in childhood and adolescence. Our study analyses how different types of parental violence ranging from verbal threats and swearing to hitting and kicking a child, are associated with child adjustment, indicated by strengths and difficulties scale (SDQ) total problem score, internalizing and externalizing problems as well as prosocial behaviour. We also study whether girls and boys and youths in two Nordic countries respond differently to parental violence. The data consists of a large-scale community sample of 15-16-year old Finnish (n = 5,762) and Danish (n = 3,943) adolescents. The representative data of continental Finland and its Finnish and Swedish speaking ninth graders as well as representative data of Danish ninth grade pupils were collected by the Police College of Finland and in Denmark by the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark. The results show a clear dose-response effect between parental violent behaviour and the adolescent's problems. The more severe forms of parental violence were associated with higher levels of SDQ total difficulties and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. There was also a connection between parental violence and the deterioration of prosocial behaviour. The association was gender and nationality specific. The findings imply a high prevalence of parental violence and adverse mental health among the affected Finnish and Danish adolescents. Though the laws have been set in motion to prevent the use of parental physical violence the challenges remain in several domains of child protection, general health care, prevention and intervention. PMID:20821263

  14. Heterogeneity of Depressive Symptom Trajectories through Adolescence: Predicting Outcomes in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Chaiton, Michael; Contreras, Gisèle; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M.; O’Loughlin, Erin; Low, Nancy C. P.; Karp, Igor; Barnett, Tracie A.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study describes developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms in adolescents and examines the association between trajectory group and mental health outcomes in young adulthood. Methods: Depressive symptoms were self-reported every three months from grade seven through grade 11 by 1293 adolescents in the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study and followed in young adulthood (average age 20.4, SD=0.7, n=865). Semi-parametric growth modeling was used to identify sex-specific trajectories of depressive symptoms. Results: Three distinct trajectory groups were identified: 50% of boys and 29% of girls exhibited low, decreasing levels of depressive symptoms; 14% of boys and 28% of girls exhibited high and increasing levels; and 36% of boys and 43% of girls exhibited moderate levels with linear increase. Trajectory group was a statistically significant independent predictor of depression, stress, and self-rated mental health in young adulthood in boys and girls. Boys, but not girls, in the high trajectory group had a statistically significant increase in the likelihood of seeking psychiatric care. Conclusions: Substantial heterogeneity in changes in depressive symptoms over time was found. Because early depressive symptoms predict mental health problems in young adulthood, monitoring adolescents for depressive symptoms may help identify those most at risk and in need of intervention. PMID:23667355

  15. A qualitative study on adolescence, health and family

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Family is important to both health and adolescence. Adolescence is a time of peak health, but there are some important family based risk factors. The aim of this study was to explore the perspective of adolescent Iranians on issues of family and their health. We used descriptive, qualitative methodology and purposeful sampling and interviews for collecting the data. Forty‐one participants explained their perspectives on health and family. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Analysis revealed three categories of risk factors: a widening generation gap, effective parenting and family financial situation. To have healthy adolescents, both children and parents need more knowledge and better skills about adolescent health and development and about social trends. To understand adolescents in a more realistic way, parents should develop healthy communication to avoid family health problems. PMID:22477907

  16. Brief report: Physical health of adolescent perpetrators of sibling aggression.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Rebellon, Cesar

    2015-12-01

    We describe adolescents' perpetration of sibling aggression and its link to physical health two years later. In-school surveys at Time 1 (N = 331) and Time 2 (two-years later, N = 283) were administered to adolescents (at Time 1, Mage = 15.71 years, SD = .63; 52% female) living in the United States querying about perpetration of aggression toward a sibling closest in age and perceived physical health. The majority of adolescents perpetrated aggression towards their sibling (74%). Adolescents who were part of brother-brother pairs reported the most aggression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that perpetrating sibling aggression more often at Time 1 was predictive of lower physical health at Time 2 controlling for Time 1 physical health and demographic characteristics. Perpetration of aggression toward a sibling is common and has negative health consequences in late adolescence suggesting this issue should be targeted to improve adolescents' sibling dynamics and physical health.

  17. Relationship Between Parental and Adolescent eHealth Literacy and Online Health Information Seeking in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chiang, Jeng-Tung; Pan, Ying-Chun

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental and adolescent eHealth literacy and its impact on online health information seeking. Data were obtained from 1,869 junior high school students and 1,365 parents in Taiwan in 2013. Multivariate analysis results showed that higher levels of parental Internet skill and eHealth literacy were associated with an increase in parental online health information seeking. Parental eHealth literacy, parental active use Internet mediation, adolescent Internet literacy, and health information literacy were all related to adolescent eHealth literacy. Similarly, adolescent Internet/health information literacy, eHealth literacy, and parental active use Internet mediation, and parental online health information seeking were associated with an increase in adolescent online health information seeking. The incorporation of eHealth literacy courses into parenting programs and school education curricula is crucial to promote the eHealth literacy of parents and adolescents.

  18. Parenting, Community, and Religious Predictors of Positive and Negative Developmental Outcomes among Muslim Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamzah, Azimi; Ismail, Ismi Arif; Suandi, Turiman; Hamzah, Siti Raba'ah; Dahalan, Dzuhailmi; Idris, Fazilah

    2014-01-01

    Despite existing research on the contribution of social context and religiosity to adolescent behavioral outcomes, few studies have attempted to explore this topic among Muslim adolescents in non-Western settings, looking at both positive and negative outcomes. In response to this gap, the current study explored the effects of three dimensions of…

  19. Health impairments and labour market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Drydakis, Nick

    2010-10-01

    Our analysis is based on the 2008 Athens Area Study and exploits detailed information regarding health impairments and labour market outcomes for Greek males. Distinguishing between healthy and heath-impaired employees who have or do not have work limitations, the unobserved productivity effect of health is separated from discrimination. We then estimate a regression model that includes terms to correct for employment selection and endogenous stratification of self-reported health condition. A penalty for productivity limitation exists. Evidence of wage discrimination is also found. Both findings are statistically significant and highlight the necessity for instituting active policies against unequal treatment. PMID:19771458

  20. Oral Sexual Experience among Young Adolescents Receiving General Health Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekeloo, Bradley O.; Howard, Donna E.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed young adolescents receiving general health examinations regarding oral sex occurrence. Overall, 18 percent reported having oral sex, and of that 18 percent, 25 percent reported no vaginal sex. Few adolescents used barrier protection during oral sex. Most adolescents thought that penile-anal sex could transmit HIV, but only 68 percent…

  1. Energy Drinks: A New Health Hazard for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Nicole; Johnson, Molly; Delaney, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    A new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. Specific effects that have been reported by adolescents include jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, gastrointestinal upset, and…

  2. Parenting Style, Individuation, and Mental Health of Egyptian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.

    2006-01-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…

  3. Adolescent Health Promotion Groups: A Primer for Milieu Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puskar, Kathryn; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Stark, Kirsti Hetager; Frazier, Leann

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents who are required to live away from their families of origin face many challenges that can affect mood and mental health. Milieu therapists (mental health associates) working with adolescents in a residential treatment center may be expected to provide group activities that promote mental health. It is important for new group leaders to…

  4. Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…

  5. Immunization Services for Adolescents within Comprehensive School Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Mary E.; Bryan, Gloria; Hunt, Pete; Allensworth, Diane; Bradley, Beverly

    1997-01-01

    Discusses school health services, adolescent immunization, current school immunization practices, and support for school-based immunization programs. Children and adolescents can receive preventive health services, including immunizations and monitoring of immunization levels. Expanding school health services could improve the immunization levels…

  6. Addressing Safety in Schools: CDC's Division of Adolescent & School Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the Division of Adolescent and School Health (DASH) is to prevent the most serious health risks among children, adolescents, and young adults. Its goal is to prevent unintentional injuries and violence by enabling the nation's schools to address safety through coordinated school health programs. It attempts to achieve this goal…

  7. Parenting style, individuation, and mental health of Egyptian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E

    2006-02-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. In urban communities, on the other hand, the authoritarian style was more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. The connectedness of all female adolescents with their family was stronger than that of male adolescents. The connectedness of girls was found to be more emotional and financial in villages and to be more functional in town. Female adolescents reported a higher frequency of psychological disorders. Mental health was associated with authoritative parenting, but not with authoritarian parenting. It seems that authoritarian parenting within an authoritarian culture is not as harmful as within a liberal culture.

  8. CDC Grand Rounds: Adolescence - Preparing for Lifelong Health and Wellness.

    PubMed

    Banspach, Stephen; Zaza, Stephanie; Dittus, Patricia; Michael, Shannon; Brindis, Claire D; Thorpe, Phoebe

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 42 million adolescents aged 10-19 years, representing 13% of the population, resided in the United States in 2014 (1). Adolescence is characterized by rapid and profound physical, intellectual, emotional, and psychological changes (2), as well as development of healthy or risky behaviors that can last a lifetime. Parents have strong influence on their adolescent children's lives, and family-based programs can help parents support healthy adolescent development. Because schools are natural learning environments, implementing and improving school-based policies and programs are strategic ways to reinforce healthy behaviors and educate adolescents about reducing risky behaviors. Health care during adolescence should be tailored to meet the changing developmental needs of the adolescent while providing welcoming, safe, and confidential care. Parents, educators, care providers, public health officials, and communities should collaborate in fostering healthy environments for all adolescents, now and into the future. PMID:27491062

  9. Different stressors, different strategies, different outcomes: how domain-specific stress responses differentially predict depressive symptoms among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, Katey A; Laney, Tyler; Mezulis, Amy H

    2013-08-01

    As a time of notably increased stress and a marked rise in depressive symptoms, adolescence is a key period in which to examine how stress is related to mental health outcomes. Many studies examine stress as a unitary construct; however, research suggests that how adolescents respond to stress within different domains may differentially predict depression. The current study used an 8-week weekly diary design to assess how adolescents' cognitive appraisals, rumination, and co-rumination in response to dependent, independent, social, and nonsocial stressors differentially predicted depressive symptoms. Participants were 111 high school students (72% female) ages 14-19 years (mean age 16.4). Results indicated that rumination and co-rumination about dependent and social events, rather than independent or nonsocial events, prospectively predicted depressive symptoms. Negative cognitive appraisals prospectively predicted depressive symptoms regardless of domain. This study provides support for the hypothesis that adolescents' responses to stress in different domains differentially predict depressive symptoms. PMID:23180072

  10. Different stressors, different strategies, different outcomes: how domain-specific stress responses differentially predict depressive symptoms among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, Katey A; Laney, Tyler; Mezulis, Amy H

    2013-08-01

    As a time of notably increased stress and a marked rise in depressive symptoms, adolescence is a key period in which to examine how stress is related to mental health outcomes. Many studies examine stress as a unitary construct; however, research suggests that how adolescents respond to stress within different domains may differentially predict depression. The current study used an 8-week weekly diary design to assess how adolescents' cognitive appraisals, rumination, and co-rumination in response to dependent, independent, social, and nonsocial stressors differentially predicted depressive symptoms. Participants were 111 high school students (72% female) ages 14-19 years (mean age 16.4). Results indicated that rumination and co-rumination about dependent and social events, rather than independent or nonsocial events, prospectively predicted depressive symptoms. Negative cognitive appraisals prospectively predicted depressive symptoms regardless of domain. This study provides support for the hypothesis that adolescents' responses to stress in different domains differentially predict depressive symptoms.

  11. Intergroup Contact and Social Outcomes for Mainstreamed EMR Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stager, Susan Ferencz; Young, Richard David

    1981-01-01

    The prediction of the contact hypothesis, that contact between nonretarded and educable mentally retarded (EMR) adolescents would result in the EMR adolescents being viewed as more competent, likeable, and socially acceptable, was examined with 26 mainstreamed ERM adolescents. (Author)

  12. Facing facts: sexual health for America's adolescents: the report of the National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    Haffner, D W

    1995-01-01

    Compared to life in the 1950s, today's teenagers become physically mature earlier and marry later. There is a steady increase in the proportion of adolescents having sexual intercourse, and in the percentage doing so at younger ages. Moreover, almost all teens experiment with some type of sex, with largely similar patterns of sexual activity among males and females, and young people from different ethnic, socioeconomic, and religious groups. There is, however, little public, professional, or political consensus about what is sexually healthy for teenagers. SIECUS convened the National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health in 1994. The commission believes that there is an urgent need for a new approach to adolescent sexual health, one in which adults help young people avoid unprotected and unwanted sexual behavior. Individual adults and society in general must help adolescents develop the values, attitudes, maturity, and skills to become sexually healthy adults. On June 21, 1995, SIECUS released its report on adolescent sexual health in America. This condensed version highlights key findings and recommendations of the National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health. Sections consider adolescent development, adolescent sexual behavior in the 1990s, abstinence and sexual intercourse, the adult role in promoting adolescent sexual health, and recommendations for policymakers. A consensus statement on adolescent sexual health endorsed by 48 national organizations and the commission, as well as a listing of characteristics of a sexually healthy adolescent are also presented. PMID:12319704

  13. Physical activity and health in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhavesh; Robinson, Rebecca; Till, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Adolescence represents a critical period of development during which personal lifestyle choices and behaviour patterns establish, including the choice to be physically active. Physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and low cardiorespiratory fitness are strong risk factors for the development of chronic diseases with resulting morbidity and mortality, as well as economic burden to wider society from health and social care provision, and reduced occupational productivity. Worrying trends in adverse physical activity behaviours necessitate urgent and concerted action. Healthcare professionals caring for adolescents and young adults are ideally placed and suited to deliver powerful messages promoting physical activity and behaviour change. Every encounter represents an opportunity to ask about physical activity, provide advice, or signpost to appropriate pathways or opportunities. Key initial targets include getting everyone to reduce their sedentary behaviour and be more active, with even a little being more beneficial than none at all.

  14. Polygamy and mental health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Sami; Auerbach, Judy; Apter, Alan

    2009-12-01

    The objective is to study the influence of polygamous versus monogamous marriage on the mental health of adolescents in an Israeli Bedouin population. Pupils aged 11-18 years attending schools in Bedouin Arab communities in southern Israel were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire and a panel of psychological instruments measuring competence and behavioral problems, anxiety and depression. Findings were compared between pupils of families with one wife and pupils of families with more than one wife. The population comprised 406 pupils of mean age 14.5 years; 56% were female. Fifty-three percent were from polygamous marriages and 47% from monogamous marriages. After allowing for the influence of socioeconomic factors, there were no differences between offspring of polygamous marriages and those of monogamous marriages for any of the psychological scales. When polygamy is the accepted practice in a particular social milieu, it does not have a deleterious psychological effect on adolescents. PMID:19551327

  15. Polygamy and mental health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Sami; Auerbach, Judy; Apter, Alan

    2009-12-01

    The objective is to study the influence of polygamous versus monogamous marriage on the mental health of adolescents in an Israeli Bedouin population. Pupils aged 11-18 years attending schools in Bedouin Arab communities in southern Israel were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire and a panel of psychological instruments measuring competence and behavioral problems, anxiety and depression. Findings were compared between pupils of families with one wife and pupils of families with more than one wife. The population comprised 406 pupils of mean age 14.5 years; 56% were female. Fifty-three percent were from polygamous marriages and 47% from monogamous marriages. After allowing for the influence of socioeconomic factors, there were no differences between offspring of polygamous marriages and those of monogamous marriages for any of the psychological scales. When polygamy is the accepted practice in a particular social milieu, it does not have a deleterious psychological effect on adolescents.

  16. Newcomer immigrant adolescents: A mixed-methods examination of family stressors and school outcomes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sita G; Clarke, Annette V; Eltareb, Fazia; Macciomei, Erynn E; Wickham, Robert E

    2016-06-01

    Family stressors predict negative psychological outcomes for immigrant adolescents, yet little is known about how such stressors interact to predict school outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive role of family stressors on school outcomes for newcomer adolescent immigrants. Using a convergent parallel mixed-methods design, we used quantitative methods to explore interactions between family separation, acculturative family conflict, and family life events to predict 2 school outcomes, academic achievement (via grade point average [GPA]), and externalizing problems (student- and teacher-reported). The sample included 189 newcomer immigrant public high school students from 34 countries of origin. Quantitative measures included the Multicultural Events Scale for Adolescents, Family Conflicts Scale, and the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Qualitative data were collected through a semi-structured interview. Quantitative results found that more family life events were associated with lower GPA, but this association was weaker for participants who had been separated from their parents. More family conflict was associated with more externalizing symptoms (both youth- and teacher-reported). However, the association between family conflict and teacher-reported externalizing symptoms was found only among participants reporting a greater than average number of life events. Qualitative results show that separation from extended family networks was among the most stressful of experiences, and demonstrate the highly complex nature of each family stressor domain. At a time when immigration is rapidly changing our school system, a better understanding of early risk factors for new immigrants can help teachers, administrators, and mental health practitioners to identify students with greatest need to foster behavioral, academic, and emotional well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243242

  17. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva

    2015-03-01

    Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.

  18. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva

    2015-03-01

    Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents. PMID:25859714

  19. Victimization among Peruvian Adolescents: Insights into Mental/Emotional Health from the Young Lives Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lister, Cameron E.; Merrill, Ray M.; Vance, David L.; West, Joshua H.; Hall, Parley C.; Crookston, Benjamin T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a global problem among children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to explore bully victimization in Peru and to identify potential adverse mental health and social outcomes resulting from bully victimization. Methods: This study analyzed data from an ongoing prospective cohort of children taking part in the…

  20. School Connectedness, Mental Health, and Well-Being of Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romo, Laura F.; Nadeem, Erum

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe recent research on risk factors associated with adolescent mothers' mental health outcomes. They outline the consequences associated with three major risk factors that impact the teen mother's adjustment to her new parental role: lack of social support, caregiver stress, and feelings of low self-efficacy. The…

  1. Adolescent prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc: Management strategies and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Pragyan; Thirupathi, Rajan Thanga; Srinivas, Dwarakanath; Somanna, Sampath

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (LIVDH) is rare in children and adolescents when compared to adults. In literature, children generally constitute around 0.5–3% of surgically treated LIVDH. Though much rarer, they are less likely to respond to conservative treatment than adults. In this study, we analyze our experience in the management of adolescent LIVDH (ALIVDH) (age group 12–18 years) including the demographic, clinico-radiological features; surgical management strategies and outcome. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis constituted all patients between 12 and 18 years, who underwent surgery for LIVDH at our institute over a period of 15 years from January 1999 to June 2014. The records of these patients were retrieved, and demographic features, clinical picture, radiological features, operative findings, and postoperative events were evaluated. Follow-up data were obtained either through direct clinical evaluation or mailed self-report questionnaire and telephone conversations. The long-term outcome was analyzed by using standardized and condition specific outcome scales in addition to routine clinical follow-up evaluation. The long-term outcome was analyzed by using the short form-36 (SF-36). Results: There were a total of 32 patients (26 males, eight females) with an average age of 15.64 years. Trauma was a significant etiological factor 57.14% (n = 16/28). Vertebral anomalies were present in 35.7% (n = 10/28) cases. Majority had a neurological deficit at presentation (n = 20/28). The most commonly involved level was the L4–L5 level (n = 18/128) in this series. Multiple level disc degeneration was present in eight patients (28.6%). Immediate postoperative relief was achieved in all but one patient. At long-term follow-up twenty patients were pain-free (71.4%). At follow-up, the physical functioning scale of SF-36 was significantly lower in patients with gross motor deficit prior to surgery. Conclusions: Early diagnosis and

  2. Perceptions of mental health among recently immigrated Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carolyn M; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2007-01-01

    Rates of anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation are high among Latino adolescents in the U.S., many of whom are immigrants. Immigration during adolescence creates risk factors for mental health problems. The purpose of this study was to explore the health-related perceptions of Mexican-origin immigrant adolescents to inform the design of culturally and developmentally appropriate mental health services. This focused ethnography was guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological framework and symbolic interactionism. Fourteen adolescents were recruited from two non-health-based community settings. Data from one-to-one semi-structured interviews and a visual narrative project were coded and analyzed inductively. Three thematic patterns were identified: "mentally healthy," "mentally unhealthy," and "health promotion." Increased awareness of cultural influences and immigration on Latino adolescents' mental health is needed. Mental health nurses are in a unique position to educate and to influence accessibility of services. PMID:17130006

  3. Outcome in adolescence of brachial plexus birth palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hulleberg, Gunn; Elvrum, Ann-Kristin G; Brandal, Merethe; Vik, Torstein

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — The frequency and severity of a permanent lesion after brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) and its impact on activities of daily living are not well documented. We therefore investigated the outcome of BPBP in adolescents, regarding arm function and consequences for activity and participation. Participants and methods — Of 30,574 babies born at St. Olavs University Hospital in 1991–2000, 91 had BPBP (prevalence 3 per 1,000), and 69 of these individuals were examined at a median age of 14 (10–20) years. The examination included the modified Mallet classification, range of motion, shoulder rotation and grip strength, Assisting Hand Assessment, and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Of the 22 subjects who were not examined, 3 could not be traced and 19 reported having no problems in the affected arm. Results — At follow-up, 17 adolescents had a permanent lesion (i.e. individual Mallet subscore below 4) with a median Mallet total score of 15 (9–19), while 52 had good or normal shoulder function (median Mallet total score 25 (23–25)). All participants with a permanent lesion had reduced active shoulder rotation (≤ 15°), 16 had elbow extension deficit, and 10 had subnormal grip strength. External rotation was considerably weaker in the affected shoulder. In addition, they had ineffective use of the affected arm in bimanual activities. Even so, all except 1 were independent in activities of daily living, although 15 experienced minor difficulties. Interpretation — Every fourth to fifth child with BPBP had a permanent lesion as an adolescent. External rotation was the most impaired movement. Despite ineffective use of the affected arm in bimanual activities, all of the participants except one were independent in activities of daily living. PMID:25238434

  4. Pediatric and adolescent obesity: management, options for surgery, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zitsman, Jeffrey L; Inge, Thomas H; Reichard, Kirk W; Browne, Allen F; Harmon, Carroll M; Michalsky, Marc P

    2014-03-01

    The past four decades have witnessed a marked rise in the number of children and adolescents with obesity. Severe obesity has also become increasingly prevalent. More young patients who have obesity are being referred for weight management and weight loss surgery, thus posing new challenges to both the medical personnel who care for them as well as the institutions in which that care is provided. This manuscript is generated from the material presented at the Education Day symposium entitled "Surgical Care of the Obese Child" held at the 42nd Annual Meeting of the American Pediatric Surgical Association in Palm Desert, CA, on May 22, 2011. Herein the presenters at the symposium update the material addressing evaluation of a young person for weight loss surgery (including the team approach to patient evaluation and institutional infrastructure and responsibilities). The procedures most frequently available to young patients with obesity are identified, and current outcomes, trends, and future direction are also discussed.

  5. Adolescent Healthful Foods Inventory: Development of an Instrument to Assess Adolescents' Willingness to Consume Healthful Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuerty, Amber B.; Cater, Melissa; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2016-01-01

    Interventions to increase adolescents' healthful food and beverage consumption often fail to demonstrate change. An alternative is to measure a shift in willingness to consume these items as an indicator of movement toward change. A survey was developed to estimate willingness to consume a variety of foods and beverages. Twenty items were…

  6. An investigation of adolescent health from China.

    PubMed

    Liu, G R

    1997-04-01

    In a senior high school in the Weicheng District of Weifang City, we studied the health of a total 445 students. The age of the first emission was 15.22 +/- 2.24 years, and the age of menarche was 13.56 +/- 2.26 years. Because 47.9% of boys and 63.8% of girls did not have previous knowledge about puberty, 39.9% of boys and 52.2% of girls felt puzzled and disgusted with the onset of puberty. About 18% of boys and about 2% of girls reported masturbation. The average frequency of masturbation was 3.5 times a month in the boys and two times monthly in girls. Adolescents acquired sexual knowledge and information predominantly from magazines (25.8% of boys and 28.0% of girls). About 64% of boys and 44% of girls wanted to be given educational programs on sex. About 43% of boys and 1% of girls smoked cigarettes and 83.5% of boys and 54.9% of girls drank alcohol. The survey suggested that it is essential to teach the senior high school students about the psychosocial and behavioral characteristics of adolescence and promote research on adolescent medicine.

  7. Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Charisse L

    2014-01-01

    Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents’ health and well-being. A plethora of correlational studies have demonstrated a cogent relationship between adolescents’ involvement in cyberbullying and negative health indices. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. Mediating/moderating processes have been found to influence the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed. PMID:25177157

  8. Adolescent Health in Hong Kong: Disturbing Socio-Demographic Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Y. K.; Ip, W. C.

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between self-assessed health status and socio-demographic variables were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong, a modern society with traditional Chinese ethno-cultural origin. Health status was self-rated in four aspects: overall health, physical health, mental health, and health effects on…

  9. LGBTQ adolescents and young adults raised within a Christian religious context: positive and negative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Angie L; Galliher, Renee V

    2012-12-01

    Religious contexts have traditionally been understood as protective for a variety of psychosocial health outcomes. However, the generalizability of these findings to youth who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or queer (LGBTQ) is questioned due to denominational teachings on same-sex attractions and sexual behavior. Eight adolescents (15-17 years) and 11 young adults (19-24 years) who identify as LGBTQ raised in Christian religious affiliations (16 participants raised in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 2 participants raised Catholic and 1 participant raised Presbyterian) participated in individual in-depth interviews, journal writings, and focus groups to provide greater insight into the lived experiences of LGBTQ individuals raised within a Christian religious environment. Findings suggest the religious context is related to both positive and negative outcomes. Eight themes are explored using participant's own words and experiences. Directions for future research and implications are discussed. PMID:22910195

  10. Adolescent Obesity and Young Adult Psychosocial Outcomes: Gender and Racial Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merten, Michael J.; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Williams, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample of 7,881 African American (915 males and 1,073 females) and White (2,864 males and 3,029 females) adolescents from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the psychosocial consequences that obese adolescents encounter as they reach young adulthood. Results indicate that obesity…

  11. Consumerism: its impact on the health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Austin, S B; Rich, M

    2001-10-01

    Marketplace practices are integral to the larger economic and social context of adolescent health risk behaviors. To corporations and marketers, adolescents represent a gold mine of current and future profits. Adolescent incomes increased by almost a third in the 1990s. The annual spending of the U.S. adolescent population is estimated now to have reached 155 billion US dollars. The sheer size of the adolescent population and its spending power are of keen interest to corporations and marketers. This chapter presents a brief history of youth-targeted marketing and examines the major avenues in the media and inside schools that marketers and corporations use today to reach adolescents with their messages and products. It outlines the impact of consumerism and marketing on adolescent health using five case examples: tobacco, alcohol, cosmetic surgery, laxatives, and diet pills. It then concludes with a discussion of resistance efforts, led by health advocates, policy makers, parents, and youth themselves to restrict sales of harmful products to youth and curtail advertisers' access to adolescents in schools. A critical role for adolescent health researchers and advocates is to contribute a public health perspective into ongoing debates over regulating business practices that negatively affect the health of young people.

  12. Beyond Self-Rated Health: The Adolescent Girl's Lived Experience of Health in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…

  13. Health Concerns Associated with Adolescent Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Cathie

    Just as infants and the elderly have special health care needs based on their stages in the life cycle, adolescents also have particular health needs. While some of those needs are simply a result of the bodily changes that define adolescence, others are true medical conditions which are most commonly found in this age group. Among achievements…

  14. [Child and adolescent workers: a commitment for collective health

    PubMed

    Minayo-Gomez; Meirelles

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents some issues pertaining to child and adolescent labor and their impact on health, pointing out the main structural characteristics which are responsible for and socially justify the early incorporation of this segment into the labor market. In Brazil, legislation governing adolescent labor is frequently ignored, showing the need to implement health surveillance programs involving both public institutions and civil rights movements.

  15. Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

    A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

  16. Informed-Consent Issues with Adolescent Health Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, R. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify the informed-consent issues when conducting adolescent health behavior research. Methods: A literature review was conducted across diverse academic fields about the informed-consent issues that were relevant to adolescent health behavior research. Results: Issues included defining consent, assent and permission, minimal…

  17. Adolescent Health Problems: Behavioral Perspectives. Advances in Pediatric Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…

  18. Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…

  19. Social Integration and the Mental Health of Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim's social integration theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative…

  20. The Core Competencies for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfers, John; Carlton, Lidia; Gibson, Paul; Puffer, Maryjane; Smith, Sharla; Todd, Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group commissioned the development of core competencies that define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for all providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This article describes the background and rationale for this set of competencies, the history and use of competencies, and the process…

  1. Testing the theory of holism: A study of family systems and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Valerie; Pickett, William; King, Nathan; Davison, Colleen

    2016-12-01

    Holism is an ancient theory that can be applied contemporarily to adolescent health and its determinants. This theory suggests that there is value in considering factors that influence health together as integrated wholes, in addition to consideration of individual components. Characteristics of families are fundamental determinants of health and provide opportunity for exploration of this theory. In a "proof-of-concept" analysis we therefore: (1) developed a multidimensional, composite (holistic) measure to be used to characterize family systems; and (2) related this measure and its individual components to adolescent health outcomes, in order to test the theory of holism. Cross-sectional analyses of survey reports from the 2014 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (weighted n = 19,333) were performed. Factor analysis was used to confirm the psychometric properties of the holistic measure to describe a family system (the "holistic measure"). Associations between this holistic measure, its individual components, and various indicators of health were examined descriptively and using binomial regression. The holistic measure (4 items, α = 0.62; RMSEA = .04; SRMR = 0.01; AGFI = 0.99) included components describing family: material wealth, meal practices, neighbourhood social capital, and social connections. It was consistently associated with various health behaviours, and social and emotional health outcomes. In 22/24 comparisons, this holistic measure related to positive health outcomes more strongly than did its individual components; for negative health outcomes this occurred in 20/24 comparisons. Study findings suggest that it is possible to assess family systems holistically. Such systems are strongly associated with adolescent health outcomes, and there is etiological and theoretical value in considering family systems as integrated wholes. PMID:27486561

  2. The impact of parent involvement in an effective adolescent risk reduction intervention on sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Koci, Veronica; Lunn, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Parent involvement in prevention efforts targeting adolescents increases the impact of such programs. However, the majority of risk-reduction intervention programs that are implemented through schools do not include parents, in part because most existing parental interventions require significant time commitment by parents. We designed a brief parent-adolescent sexual risk communication intervention to be delivered with an effective HIV prevention intervention as part of a randomized, controlled trial among 2564 grade 10 students and their parents in The Bahamas. Mixed effects modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of the brief parent-adolescent communication intervention using four waves of longitudinal data. Results indicate that a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention is effective in improving parent-adolescent communication on sex-related issues and perceived parental monitoring as well as the youth's condom use skills and self-efficacy. There is a marginal effect on consistent condom use. In addition, there is an apparent dose effect of the brief parent intervention on perceived parent-adolescent sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes. These findings suggest that adolescent risk reduction interventions should include a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention which should be reinforced by periodic boosters in order to enhance the impact of adolescent HIV prevention programs. PMID:25490732

  3. The impact of parent involvement in an effective adolescent risk reduction intervention on sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Koci, Veronica; Lunn, Sonja

    2014-12-01

    Parent involvement in prevention efforts targeting adolescents increases the impact of such programs. However, the majority of risk-reduction intervention programs that are implemented through schools do not include parents, in part because most existing parental interventions require significant time commitment by parents. We designed a brief parent-adolescent sexual risk communication intervention to be delivered with an effective HIV prevention intervention as part of a randomized, controlled trial among 2,564 grade 10 students and their parents in the Bahamas. Mixed effects modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of the brief parent-adolescent communication intervention using four waves of longitudinal data. Results indicate that a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention is effective in improving parent-adolescent communication on sex-related issues and perceived parental monitoring as well as the youth's condom use skills and self-efficacy. There is a marginal effect on consistent condom use. In addition, there is an apparent dose effect of the brief parent intervention on perceived parent-adolescent sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes. These findings suggest that adolescent risk reduction interventions should include a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention that should be reinforced by periodic boosters in order to enhance the impact of adolescent HIV prevention programs. PMID:25490732

  4. The Perceptions of Adolescents, Parents and Teachers on the Same Adolescent Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Joy; Salili, Farideh; Ho, S. Y.; Mak, K. H.; Lai, M. K.; Lam, T. H.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and compare the views of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents, parents and teachers on the same adolescent health issues. A total of 22 focus groups were conducted with Form 1 students (aged from 11 to 13) who attended the Basic Life Skills Training program organized by the Student Health Service, Department of Health…

  5. Does adolescent self-esteem predict later life outcomes? A test of the causal role of self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Boden, Joseph M; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between self-esteem in adolescence and later mental health, substance use, and life and relationship outcomes in adulthood. The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of approximately 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Lower levels of self-esteem at age 15 were associated with greater risks of mental health problems, substance dependence, and lower levels of life and relationship satisfaction at ages 18, 21, and 25. Adjustment for potentially confounding factors reduced the strength of these associations to either moderate or statistically nonsignificant levels. It was concluded that the effects of self-esteem during adolescence on later developmental outcomes were weak, and largely explained by the psychosocial context within which self-esteem develops. PMID:18211740

  6. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  7. Adolescent health issues: what is our role?

    PubMed

    Elders, M J

    1991-05-01

    The state of US children's health and recommendations for improvement are reported. The 1st table identifies youth as risk, i.e., at the current rate, 1 in 10 women will give birth by the time they turn 18. Among black children, white children 1-4 years, and blacks 15-24 years, death rates actually increased from 1985 to 1987. Injuries, particularly due to violence, have replaced communicable diseases as the primary cause of death among adolescents. Since 1976, immunization has deteriorated. There is a refusal to recognize sexually active adolescents, in spite of 2.5 million cases of sexually transmitted disease. The 6 strategies discussed intervention begin with providing high quality preschool education programs for all children. The 2nd urges educational programs from kindergarten through 12th grade that help children make healthy choices, improve their self-esteem, and accept as much responsibility for their own lives as possible. Parenting education, as the 3rd strategy, promotes the education and support of parents, especially for young and poor parents. The 4th strategy involves male responsibility and instruction on obligations in pregnancy and parenthood, including a requirement of financial commitment from fathers and identification of the father by Social Security number on an infant's birth certificate. The 5th strategy is the provision for school-based health services, including family life counseling and contraceptive services for adolescents. The 6th strategy is to provide free college tuition and books at a state supported school for students with at least a B average, good citizenship record, and a family income of $20,000. It is cheaper to offer children opportunity than to pay the costs of the consequences of poverty.

  8. Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Consent to Psychiatric Mental Health Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, Anthony James; Kjervik, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a small-scale study in which the decision-making process of adolescents who consent to psychiatric mental health treatment was examined. Sixteen (16) adolescents were interviewed about their decisions related to initial and continued treatment, along with their understanding of minor consent laws. Interviews were audio-recorded, and transcripts were analyzed through concept analysis. Findings are presented in the context of the decision-making steps and research questions. Most adolescents did not recognize consequences related to psychiatric mental health treatment and did not assimilate and integrate information provided to them about treatment choices. Adolescents disagreed with current minor consent laws that allow minors to consent to certain healthcare treatments without the required consent of the parent. Further, adolescents reported that a collaborative approach in making decisions about the adolescent's psychiatric mental health treatment was most facilitative of achieving the goals of treatment. PMID:22474581

  9. Development of the Health Literacy Assessment Scale for Adolescents (HAS-A)

    PubMed Central

    Manganello, Jennifer A.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Davis, Terry C.; Schottler-Thal, Carrin

    2016-01-01

    Background Health literacy has been found to be a crucial component of successful communication and navigation in health care. Various tools have been developed to measure health literacy skills, but few have been developed specifically for adolescents, and most require in-person administration. This study sought to develop a self-report health literacy scale for adolescents to assess four key health literacy domains: the ability to obtain, communicate, understand, and process health information. Methods We collected data from 272 youth aged 12–19 recruited from a pediatrics clinic (37%) and the community (63%). We administered the Rapid Estimate of Adolescent Literacy in Medicine-Teen, Newest Vital Sign, and three surveys, and used factor analysis to identify scale items. Results Using multiple health literacy assessments, it was clear that many teens struggle with low health literacy skills. When identifying items that can be used as self-report items in future research, factor analysis identified three subscales; a 5-item communication scale (alpha = 0.77), a 4-item confusion scale (alpha = 0.73), and a 6-item functional health literacy scale (alpha = 0.76). The scales performed reasonably well when compared with validation items. Conclusions Self-report items can be used to assess health literacy skills for adolescents when in-person administration is not possible or feasible. Such items will allow for greater study of how health literacy impacts communication in not only health care settings, but for all levels of health communication. The tool will also allow researchers to better understand how adolescent health literacy is related to a variety of health outcomes. Further testing of these scales with different populations is warranted.

  10. The health of Swiss adolescents and its implications for training of health professionals in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Meynard, Anne; Rutishauser, Christoph; Thomi, Mirjam; Stronski Huwiler, Suzanne M

    2016-08-01

    Swiss adolescents generally enjoy satisfying life conditions. Nonetheless, violence, suicide and mental health are the main concerns together with injuries, chronic conditions and eating disorders. Adolescents still face barriers to access the care they need. Adequate training can improve practitioners' skills when dealing with adolescents. The last two decades have seen the development of innovative adolescent health units and networks in various regions of Switzerland as well as research and public health programmes. Training programmes in adolescent health (continuous medical education, post-graduate or pre-graduate) for physicians and nurses are developing but still patchy in Switzerland. Adolescent health is not a sub-specialty as such. Efforts have to be made in order to link with professional associations and institutions to implement adolescent health curricula more efficiently. PMID:26124048

  11. Outcome Domains in Child Mental Health Research Since 1996: Have They Changed and Why Does It Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Jensen, Peter S.; Acri, Mary C.; Olin, S. Serene; Lewandowski, R. Eric; Herman, Rachel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Child mental health treatment and services research yields more immediate public health benefit when they focus on outcomes of relevance to a broader group of stakeholders. We reviewed all experimental studies of child and adolescent treatment and service effectiveness published in the last 15 years (1996-2011) and compared the…

  12. Promoting the Health of Adolescents: New Directions for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstein, Susan G., Ed.; And Others

    The three parts of this book, "The Adolescent, Health, and Society,""Topical Areas for Promoting Health," and "The Future of Adolescent Health Promotion: Next Steps," offer a new framework for examining the status of adolescent health in the United States. Contributing authors have provided the following chapters: (1) "Adolescent Health Promotion:…

  13. Victimization, polyvictimization, and health in Swedish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Nikolas; Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. PMID:27616895

  14. Victimization, polyvictimization, and health in Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aho, Nikolas; Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16-20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. PMID:27616895

  15. Victimization, polyvictimization, and health in Swedish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Nikolas; Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization.

  16. Adolescents' health identities: a qualitative and theoretical study of health education courses.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, D; Rasmussen, K K

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we highlight the role of health identity in health education for adolescents. In school-based approaches to health education, it is often difficult to present health information and health communication in ways that make sense and appeal to adolescents. The concept of health identity has the potential of providing an analytical framework as well as practical recommendations for these issues and problem areas. The paper reports on an empirical study of elements of health identity in the context of health courses for adolescents--using interview data, observation studies and a theoretical construction focussing on self-observation, horizons of significance, expectational structures and social imaginaries. We present our findings in four main themes: 1) Adolescents' health identities are observed and developed when things matter, 2) Adolescents' health identities are observed and developed in relational contexts, 3) Adolescents' health identities are developed on the basis of observations of past, present and future health and 4) Adolescents' health identities are clearly defined. The paper provides health practitioners with important knowledge about why and how health-educational approaches should focus on health identity in order to provide conditions that create a significant health educating effect for all adolescents--not just for those who are already healthy.

  17. A focus on adolescence to reduce neurological, mental health and substance-use disability.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Leslie L; Grigorenko, Elena L; Boivin, Michael J; Rapa, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan

    2015-11-19

    Globally, there is a crucial need to prioritize research directed at reducing neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders in adolescence, which is a pivotal age for the development of self-control and regulation. In adolescence, behaviour optimally advances towards adaptive long-term goals and suppresses conflicting maladaptive short-lived urges to balance impulsivity, exploration and defiance, while establishing effective societal participation. When self-control fails to develop, violence, injury and neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders can result, further challenging the development of self-regulation and impeding the transition to a productive adulthood. Adolescent outcomes, positive and negative, arise from both a life-course perspective and within a socioecological framework. Little is known about the emergence of self-control and regulation in adolescents in low- and middle-income countries where enormous environmental threats are more common (for example, poverty, war, local conflicts, sex trafficking and slavery, early marriage and/or pregnancy, and the absence of adequate access to education) than in high-income countries and can threaten optimal neurodevelopment. Research must develop or adapt appropriate assessments of adolescent ability and disability, social inclusion and exclusion, normative development, and neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders. Socioecological challenges in low- and middle-income countries require innovative strategies to prevent mental health, neurological and substance-use disorders and develop effective interventions for adolescents at risk, especially those already living with these disorders and the consequent disability.

  18. A focus on adolescence to reduce neurological, mental health and substance-use disability.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Leslie L; Grigorenko, Elena L; Boivin, Michael J; Rapa, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan

    2015-11-19

    Globally, there is a crucial need to prioritize research directed at reducing neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders in adolescence, which is a pivotal age for the development of self-control and regulation. In adolescence, behaviour optimally advances towards adaptive long-term goals and suppresses conflicting maladaptive short-lived urges to balance impulsivity, exploration and defiance, while establishing effective societal participation. When self-control fails to develop, violence, injury and neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders can result, further challenging the development of self-regulation and impeding the transition to a productive adulthood. Adolescent outcomes, positive and negative, arise from both a life-course perspective and within a socioecological framework. Little is known about the emergence of self-control and regulation in adolescents in low- and middle-income countries where enormous environmental threats are more common (for example, poverty, war, local conflicts, sex trafficking and slavery, early marriage and/or pregnancy, and the absence of adequate access to education) than in high-income countries and can threaten optimal neurodevelopment. Research must develop or adapt appropriate assessments of adolescent ability and disability, social inclusion and exclusion, normative development, and neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders. Socioecological challenges in low- and middle-income countries require innovative strategies to prevent mental health, neurological and substance-use disorders and develop effective interventions for adolescents at risk, especially those already living with these disorders and the consequent disability. PMID:26580322

  19. Changes in Weight and Comorbidities among Adolescents Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: 1-Year Results from the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database

    PubMed Central

    Messiah, Sarah E.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Winegar, Deborah; Sherif, Bintu; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Reichard, Kirk W.; Michalsky, Marc P.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Miller, Tracie L.; Livingstone, Alan S.; De La Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor

    2012-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is one of the few effective treatments for morbid obesity but the weight loss and other health related outcomes for this procedure in large, diverse adolescent patient populations are not well characterized. Objective To analyze the prospective Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database (BOLD) to determine the weight loss and health related outcomes in adolescents. Setting BOLD data is collected from 423 surgeons at 360 facilities in the United States. Methods Main outcome measures included anthropometric and comorbidity status at baseline (n=890) and at 3 (n=786), 6 (n=541), and 12 (n=259) months after surgery. Adolescents (75% female; 68% non-Hispanic white, 14% Hispanic, 11% non-Hispanic black, and 6% other) age 11-to-19 years were included in the analyses. Results The overall one year mean weight loss for those who underwent gastric bypass surgery was more than twice that of those who underwent adjustable gastric band surgery (48.6 kg versus 20 kg, P<0.001). Similar results were found for all other anthropometric changes and comparisons over one year between surgery types (P<0.001). In general, gastric bypass patients reported more improvement versus adjustable gastric band patients in comorbidities one year after surgery. There were a total of 45 readmissions among gastric bypass patients and 10 among adjustable gastric band patients with 29 and 8 reoperations required, respectively. Conclusions Weight loss at 3-, 6-, and 12-months after surgery is approximately double in adolescent males and females who underwent gastric bypass surgery versus those who underwent adjustable gastric band surgery. Bariatric surgery can safely and substantially reduce weight and related comorbidities in morbidly obese adolescents for at least 1 year. PMID:22542199

  20. Occupational Therapy and Sexual and Reproductive Health Promotion in Adolescence: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Gontijo, Daniela Tavares; de Sena e Vasconcelos, Anna Carolina; Monteiro, Rosana Juliet Silva; Facundes, Vera Lúcia Dutra; Trajano, Maria de Fátima Cordeiro; de Lima, Luciane Soares

    2016-03-01

    Occupational therapy can contribute to sexual and reproductive health through health education. The purpose of this study was to describe an occupational therapy intervention aimed at sexual and reproductive health promotion in adolescents. Fifty-eight adolescents were involved in the study, before, during and after the interventions. Educative activities such as puzzles, storytelling, mime and board games were used, which occupational therapy faculty and students had constructed. The games were employed as mediators for gaining knowledge in sexual and reproductive health. Outcome was measured using a questionnaire, audio recordings and field diaries. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis. The results showed the adolescents' increased knowledge of sexual and reproductive health information immediately after the intervention. The thematic analysis was grouped into three categories: the adolescents' initial expectations regarding the project, reflections on the process experienced during the interventions and use of educational games by occupational therapists. The importance of rapport and dialogue was highlighted in the construction of interventions based on participatory methods. The absence of a longitudinal follow-up is a limitation in this study. Further research is important to systematically assess sexual health promotion strategies in adolescence.

  1. Occupational Therapy and Sexual and Reproductive Health Promotion in Adolescence: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Gontijo, Daniela Tavares; de Sena e Vasconcelos, Anna Carolina; Monteiro, Rosana Juliet Silva; Facundes, Vera Lúcia Dutra; Trajano, Maria de Fátima Cordeiro; de Lima, Luciane Soares

    2016-03-01

    Occupational therapy can contribute to sexual and reproductive health through health education. The purpose of this study was to describe an occupational therapy intervention aimed at sexual and reproductive health promotion in adolescents. Fifty-eight adolescents were involved in the study, before, during and after the interventions. Educative activities such as puzzles, storytelling, mime and board games were used, which occupational therapy faculty and students had constructed. The games were employed as mediators for gaining knowledge in sexual and reproductive health. Outcome was measured using a questionnaire, audio recordings and field diaries. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis. The results showed the adolescents' increased knowledge of sexual and reproductive health information immediately after the intervention. The thematic analysis was grouped into three categories: the adolescents' initial expectations regarding the project, reflections on the process experienced during the interventions and use of educational games by occupational therapists. The importance of rapport and dialogue was highlighted in the construction of interventions based on participatory methods. The absence of a longitudinal follow-up is a limitation in this study. Further research is important to systematically assess sexual health promotion strategies in adolescence. PMID:26174484

  2. Brief Motivational Interviewing and Normative Feedback for Adolescents: Change Language and Alcohol Use Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jordan P; Houck, Jon M; Rowell, Lauren N; Benson, Jennifer G; Smith, Douglas C

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of adolescent change language on substance use treatment outcomes and even fewer have examined how adolescents respond to normative feedback. The purpose of this study was to understand the influence normative feedback has on adolescent change language and subsequent alcohol and cannabis use 3months later. We examined how percent change talk (PCT) was associated with subsequent alcohol and drug use outcomes. Adolescents (N=48) were randomly assigned to receive brief motivational interviewing (MI) or MI plus normative feedback (NF). Audio recordings were coded with high interrater reliability. Adolescents with high PCT who received MI+NF had significantly fewer days of alcohol and binge drinking at follow up. There were no differences between groups on cannabis use or treatment engagement. Findings indicate that NF may be useful for adolescents with higher amount of change talk during sessions and may be detrimental for individuals with higher sustain talk. PMID:26710670

  3. The Relationship between Parent Expectations and Postschool Outcomes of Adolescents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doren, Bonnie; Gau, Jeff M.; Lindstrom, Lauren E.

    2012-01-01

    A secondary analysis was conducted of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 to examine (a) main effects of parents' school and postschool outcome expectations on the actual outcomes achieved, (b) demographic moderators, and (c) adolescent autonomy as a mediator of parent expectations and outcomes. Parent expectations were found to…

  4. Adolescent Health Literacy: The Importance of Credible Sources for Online Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaddar, Suad F.; Valerio, Melissa A.; Garcia, Carolyn M.; Hansen, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little research has examined adolescent health literacy and its relationship with online health information sources. The purpose of this study is to explore health literacy among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent population and to investigate whether exposure to a credible source of online health information, MedlinePlus[R], is…

  5. Improving Health Outcomes for Low Health Literacy Heart Failure Patients.

    PubMed

    Friel, Catherine J

    2016-09-01

    According to the National Assessment of Adult Literacy (2003), only 12% of U.S. adults have a proficient level of health literacy, with adults 65 years and older more likely to have a below basic or a basic health literacy level. An estimated 5.8 million individuals in the United States have heart failure (HF) and it is one of the most common reasons for those aged 65 and over to be hospitalized. Many patients with HF are at risk for poor health outcomes due to low health literacy. This article reviews the literature with regard to the effectiveness of methods used to address low health literacy among HF patients and describes a pilot study implemented by a home care agency in the northeast to address high HF readmission rates. PMID:27580282

  6. Innovations in adolescent reproductive and sexual health education in Santiago de Chile: effects of physician leadership and direct service.

    PubMed

    Grizzard, Tarayn; González, Electra; Sandoval, Jorge; Molina, Ramiro

    2004-01-01

    Reproductive and sexual health (RSH) education is a key component of most family planning programs around the world and is particularly important for adolescents, for whom parenthood is more likely to have difficult or dangerous health outcomes. A lack of comprehensive RSH education targeted at adolescents may augment the poor outcomes associated with early pregnancy by creating barriers to optimal care. This article discusses the creation of the Centro de Medicina Reproductiva y Desarrollo Integral de la Adolescencia clinic, a comprehensive adolescent reproductive health center in Santiago de Chile, and its RSH education programs. In particular, the role of the physician in originating and leading the RSH education efforts, the controversy associated with RSH education in Chile, and the effects of comprehensive RHS education on the local and regional adolescent populations are discussed.

  7. Active relatives and health-related physical fitness in European adolescents: the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Marcos, Ascensión; Béghin, Laurent; Kafatos, Anthony; González-Gross, Marcela; Zaccaria, Maria; Molnár, Dénes; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J

    2012-01-01

    High physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is positively associated with favourable health-related outcomes. Our aim was to examine the relationship between relatives' (father, mother, brother, sister, and best friend) physical activity engagement and encouragement on adolescents' physical fitness. Adolescents were part of the HELENA study, a multi-centre study conducted in 10 cities from nine European countries in 2006-2008. Participants were 3288 adolescents (48% boys, 52% girls) aged 12.5-17.5 years with valid data on at least one of the three fitness variables studied: muscular strength (standing long jump), speed/agility (4×10 m shuttle run), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run). The adolescents reported their relatives' physical activity engagement and encouragement. Analysis of covariance showed that relatives' physical activity engagement (father, mother, brother, and best friend) was positively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (P < 0.05); and mother's and sisters' physical activity engagement were positively associated with higher muscular strength in adolescents (P < 0.05). Furthermore, father's physical activity encouragement was positively linked to physical fitness (all fitness components) in adolescents (P < 0.05). Interventions aimed at improving physical fitness in young people might be more successful when family members, particularly mothers and fathers, are encouraged to engage in physical activity and support adolescents' physical activity.

  8. Caregiver word reading literacy and health outcomes among children treated in a pediatric nephrology practice

    PubMed Central

    Rak, Eniko C.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Belsante, Michael J.; Burnett, Otis; Layton, Bradley; Tauer, David; Mantoo, Bradley; DeWalt, Darren; Ferris, Maria E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Caregivers play a major role in the healthcare of pediatric patients, particularly during childhood and adolescence. This study examined the impact of caregivers' functional literacy on the health outcomes of adolescents with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Methods Caregiver–child dyads in a Southeastern US pediatric nephrology clinic participated in this cross-sectional study. We collected demographic information, data on caregivers' functional literacy skills (Wechsler Individual Achievement Test Word Reading Subtest) and child health outcomes (healthcare utilization and adherence). Negative binomial regression analyses were used to test the relationships. Results A total of 98 pediatric patients and their caregivers participated. Caregivers' word reading literacy was associated with their children's healthcare utilization. Patients whose caregivers had lower word reading literacy skills (<7th grade) had greater incidence of emergency room (ER) visits (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 2.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.007, 4.177, P < 0.05) after adjusting for major demographic factors. Patients' hospitalization rates and adherence to medication/diet/appointments were comparable in the two groups. Conclusions Low caregiver functional word reading literacy was negatively related to health outcomes of adolescents with CKD/ESKD as reflected by greater ER visits. Educational materials and teaching strategies (dialysis training protocols, patient education materials) adjusted for low literacy levels may contribute to better outcomes. PMID:27274841

  9. Energy drinks: a new health hazard for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Nicole; Johnson, Molly; Delaney, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Mary Beth

    2010-10-01

    A new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. Specific effects that have been reported by adolescents include jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, gastrointestinal upset, and insomnia. Health care providers report that they have seen the following effects from the consumption of energy drinks: dehydration, accelerated heart rates, anxiety, seizures, acute mania, and strokes. This article is a comprehensive literature review on the health effects of energy drinks. Findings from this article indicate the need for educational intervention to inform adolescents of the consequences of consuming these popular drinks. School nurses are in a unique position to teach adolescents about the side effects and possible health issues that can occur when energy drinks are consumed.

  10. How to Improve the Health of American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2015-11-01

    The major threats to the health of American teenagers are behavioral-risky and reckless things adolescents do that threaten their well-being and that of others. The primary approach to preventing adolescent risk taking has been classroom-based health education. Yet, most systematic research indicates that even the best programs are successful mainly at changing adolescents' knowledge but not in altering their behavior. Research on adolescent brain development has revolutionized our understanding of this stage of life, but our approach to deterring adolescent risk taking remains grounded in old, antiquated, and erroneous views of the period. Classroom-based health education is an uphill battle against evolution and endocrinology, and it is not a fight we are likely to win. Instead of trying to change teenagers into something they are not, we should try to reduce the risks they are exposed to. We should spend less money and effort trying to influence how adolescents think, and focus more on limiting opportunities for their inherently immature judgment to hurt themselves or others. Although there is evidence that some programs aimed at strengthening adolescents' self-regulation may also deter risky behavior, our public health policies should emphasize changing the context in which adolescents live, rather than solely attempting to change adolescents themselves.

  11. How to Improve the Health of American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2015-11-01

    The major threats to the health of American teenagers are behavioral-risky and reckless things adolescents do that threaten their well-being and that of others. The primary approach to preventing adolescent risk taking has been classroom-based health education. Yet, most systematic research indicates that even the best programs are successful mainly at changing adolescents' knowledge but not in altering their behavior. Research on adolescent brain development has revolutionized our understanding of this stage of life, but our approach to deterring adolescent risk taking remains grounded in old, antiquated, and erroneous views of the period. Classroom-based health education is an uphill battle against evolution and endocrinology, and it is not a fight we are likely to win. Instead of trying to change teenagers into something they are not, we should try to reduce the risks they are exposed to. We should spend less money and effort trying to influence how adolescents think, and focus more on limiting opportunities for their inherently immature judgment to hurt themselves or others. Although there is evidence that some programs aimed at strengthening adolescents' self-regulation may also deter risky behavior, our public health policies should emphasize changing the context in which adolescents live, rather than solely attempting to change adolescents themselves. PMID:26581723

  12. Is sexual behavior healthy for adolescents? A conceptual framework for research on adolescent sexual behavior and physical, mental, and social health.

    PubMed

    Vasilenko, Sara A; Lefkowitz, Eva S; Welsh, Deborah P

    2014-01-01

    Although research has increasingly emphasized how adolescent sexual behavior may be associated with aspects of health beyond unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, no current theoretical or conceptual model fully explains associations between sexual behavior and multiple facets of health. We provide a conceptual model that explicates possible processes of how adolescent sexual behavior may influence physical, mental, and social health. Next, we review the current literature consistent with this conceptual model, demonstrating that although early sexual behavior can be associated with some negative outcomes, sex may be, on average, a positive experience in late adolescence. Finally, we discuss important future directions for research in these areas, including how individuals' attitudes about and perceptions of sexual behavior influence outcomes of sex.

  13. 'Mum's the word': Predictors and outcomes of weight concerns in pre-adolescent and early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ng, Johan Yau Yin; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Vlachopoulos, Symeon; Katartzi, Ermioni S; Nikitaras, Nikitas

    2016-03-01

    Predictors and outcomes of weight concerns in pre-adolescent and adolescent girls are well known, but few models have incorporated concerns reported directly by mothers as a predictor, and both eating and exercise outcomes. Using questionnaires, a comprehensive model of 232 pre-adolescent and early adolescent girls' weight concerns, eating restraint, and exercise behavior was tested. Structural equation modeling showed that daughters' weight concerns were predicted primarily by their perceptions of their mothers' concerns about the daughters' weight, as well as by daughters' BMI, appearance conversations with friends, and perceived media pressure. Mothers' concerns with their daughters' weight were indirectly associated with daughters' own concerns, via the daughters' perceptions of their mothers' concerns. Daughters' concerns with their weight were a strong predictor of eating restraint, but not exercise behavior. PMID:26803392

  14. Family Context, Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers' Parenting Knowledge, and Children's Subsequent Developmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jahromi, Laudan B.; Guimond, Amy B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Toomey, Russell B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parenting knowledge among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 191; M age = 16.26 years), family contextual factors associated with adolescents' parenting knowledge, and toddlers' (M age = 2.01 years) subsequent developmental outcomes. Data came from home interviews and direct child assessments. Adolescents both under- and over-estimated children's developmental timing, and showed differences in their knowledge of specific developmental domains. Instrumental support from mother figures was positively linked to adolescents' knowledge accuracy, whereas emotional support was negatively related to adolescents' knowledge confidence. Furthermore, whereas mother figures' autonomy-granting was positively linked to knowledge confidence, psychological control was associated with less accurate adolescent parenting knowledge. Toddlers of adolescents with more accurate knowledge showed positive developmental functioning. Intervention implications are discussed. PMID:24004448

  15. Impact of maternal and paternal preconception health on birth outcomes using prospective couples’ data in Add Health

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Jennifer L.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Retrospective studies of preconception health have demonstrated that parents’ health conditions and behaviors can impact a newborn’s birth outcomes and, subsequently, future health status. This study sought to examine the impact of preconception health, measured prospectively, among both mothers and fathers, on two important birth outcomes: birthweight and gestational age. Methods Data came from Add Health (the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health), which included interviews with original participants and a subsample of their partners in 2001–02. In 2008, the original respondents again completed an interview for Add Health. For 372 eligible infants born to these couples, birth outcomes (measured in 2008) were regressed on preconception health conditions and behaviors among non-pregnant heterosexual partners (measured in 2001–02). Results Mean birthweight was 3399 grams, and mean gestational age was 39 weeks. Birthweight was higher for infants born to mothers with diabetes or high blood pressure, and for mothers who drank alcohol at least once per month, and lower for infants born to fathers with diabetes (p < .05). Infant gestational age was marginally lower for infants born to mothers with higher levels of depression (p < .10), and lower for infants born to fathers with diabetes and with higher levels of fast food consumption (p < .05). Conclusions Both maternal and paternal preconception health conditions and behaviors influenced infant birth outcomes. Interventions to promote preconception health should focus on prevention of diabetes and high blood pressure, as well as minimizing consumption of alcohol and fast food. PMID:25367598

  16. Antisocial Propensity, Adolescent School Outcomes, and the Risk of Criminal Conviction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savolainen, Jukka; Hughes, Lorine A.; Mason, W. Alex; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma K.; Kivivuori, Janne; Taanila, Anja M.

    2012-01-01

    Data from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study (n = 4,645) were used to examine the influence of mid-adolescent (age 15) school outcomes on late-adolescent (ages 17-19) risk of criminal conviction. Consistent with social-developmental theories of offending, we found that poor academic performance and reduced school attachment increase the…

  17. Baseline Depressive Symptoms Predict Poor Substance Use Outcome Following Adolescent Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Stitzer, Maxine A.; Clemmey, Philip; Kolodner, Ken; Fishman, Marc J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To characterize baseline depressive symptoms among substance-abusing adolescents and determine their association with post residential treatment substance use outcomes. Method: In total, 153 adolescents (mean age 6.6 years, plus or minus 0.11) entering residential treatment were assessed at intake and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Beck…

  18. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake,…

  19. Alliance and Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Kaplinski, Heather Crisp; McMakin, Dana L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Fifty-four adolescents met criteria for a depressive disorder and were treated in school-based clinics. Alliance was measured after the third session from both therapist and…

  20. Functional Outcomes of Child and Adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Young Adult Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…

  1. Adolescent and Parent Alliance and Treatment Outcome in Multidimensional Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelef, Karni; Diamond, Gary M.; Diamond, Guy S.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the relation between adolescent and parent therapeutic alliances and treatment outcome among 65 substance-abusing adolescents receiving multidimensional family therapy. Observer ratings of parent alliance predicted premature termination from treatment. Observer ratings, but not self-report, of adolescent…

  2. Interpersonal Theory and Depressed Adolescents: An Overview of Method and Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellin, Elizabeth Anne

    In an attempt of fill the gap in theoretical and empirical information available for treatment of adolescent depression, interpersonal therapy for adolescents (IPT-A) was developed. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a brief, time-limited therapy originally developed for use with adults diagnosed with major depression. Several outcome studies…

  3. Comparison of Long-Term Outcomes in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa Treated with Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, James; Couturier, Jennifer; Agras, W. Stewart

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the relative effectiveness of a short versus long course of family-based therapy (FBT) for adolescent anorexia nervosa at long-term follow-up. Method: This study used clinical and structured interviews to assess psychological and psychosocial outcomes of adolescents (ages 12-18 years at baseline) who were previously treated…

  4. Associations between motor vehicle crashes and mental health problems: data from the National Survey of Adolescents-Replication.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joah L; Rheingold, Alyssa A; Knowlton, Alice W; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2015-02-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of physical injuries and mortality among children and adolescents in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between having an MVC and mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and drug and alcohol misuse in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. A sample of 3,604 adolescents, aged 12-17 years, was assessed as part of the 2005 National Survey of Adolescents-Replication (NSA-R) study. Data were weighted according to the 2005 U.S. Census estimates. Within this sample, 10.2% of adolescents reported having at least 1 serious MVC. The prevalence of current PTSD and depression among adolescents having an MVC was 7.4% and 11.2%, respectively. Analyses revealed that an MVC among adolescents aged 15 years and younger was independently associated with depression (OR = 2.17) and alcohol abuse (OR = 2.36) after adjusting for other risk factors, including a history of interpersonal violence. Among adolescents aged 16 years and older, an MVC was associated only with alcohol abuse (OR = 2.08). This study was the first attempt to explore adverse mental health outcomes associated with MVCs beyond traumatic stress symptoms among adolescents in a nationally representative sample. PMID:25613484

  5. The economic impact of adolescent health promotion policies and programs.

    PubMed

    Aratani, Yumiko; Schwarz, Susan Wile; Skinner, Curtis

    2011-12-01

    Adolescence is a critical period in the human lifecycle, a time of rapid physical and socioemotional growth and a time when individuals establish lifestyle habits and health behaviors that often endure into and have lasting effects in adulthood. Adolescent health promotion programs play a critical role in helping youth establish healthy lifestyles. In this article, we present a socio-ecological model as a framework for identifying effective policy and program areas that have a positive impact on adolescent health behaviors. Our discussion focuses on 4 key areas: reproductive health; obesity prevention; mental health and substance use, including smoking; and injury and violence prevention. We proceed with an overview of the current status of state-led adolescent health promotion policies and programs from a newly created policy database and then examine the evidence on the cost of preventable adolescent health problems and the cost-effectiveness of health promotion programs and policies. We conclude by discussing the threat posed to adolescent health promotion services and state-led policy initiatives by proposed and implemented federal and state-level budget cuts and examine the possible health and economic repercussions of reducing or eliminating these programs.

  6. Focusing on reproductive health for adolescents.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    JOICFP is producing a still photo video consisting of three segments from photos shot in Bangladesh (April 22 - May 2), Thailand (May 2-15), and Mexico (June 29 - July 7) in 1995. The first segment highlights the daily life of a husband, aged 20, and his wife, Moni, aged 14. Moni married at age 13, before the onset of menstruation, and now serves and feeds her husband's large extended family. The Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), the local implementing agent of the Sustainable Community-based Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project with Special Focus on Women, which is supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and executed by JOICFP, introduced Moni to the concept of reproductive health and encouraged her to join other women in activities designed to improve their health and raise their economic status. The second segment depicts the life of a former commercial sex worker who is undergoing occupational skill development training promoted by the Population and Community Development Association. The girl is now a leader of teenagers in her village; she works to change attitudes that sent her to work as a prostitute with an estimated 150,000 other poor rural teenage women. The third segment focuses on teen pregnancy and the efforts of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) in the areas of health care and education for adolescents.

  7. Focusing on reproductive health for adolescents.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    JOICFP is producing a still photo video consisting of three segments from photos shot in Bangladesh (April 22 - May 2), Thailand (May 2-15), and Mexico (June 29 - July 7) in 1995. The first segment highlights the daily life of a husband, aged 20, and his wife, Moni, aged 14. Moni married at age 13, before the onset of menstruation, and now serves and feeds her husband's large extended family. The Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), the local implementing agent of the Sustainable Community-based Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project with Special Focus on Women, which is supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and executed by JOICFP, introduced Moni to the concept of reproductive health and encouraged her to join other women in activities designed to improve their health and raise their economic status. The second segment depicts the life of a former commercial sex worker who is undergoing occupational skill development training promoted by the Population and Community Development Association. The girl is now a leader of teenagers in her village; she works to change attitudes that sent her to work as a prostitute with an estimated 150,000 other poor rural teenage women. The third segment focuses on teen pregnancy and the efforts of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) in the areas of health care and education for adolescents. PMID:12289887

  8. Adolescent reproductive health. What are CBHC programmes doing about it?

    PubMed

    Odembo, E A

    1992-09-01

    The first Inter-African Conference on Adolescent Health, entitled "Adolescent Health in sub-Saharan Africa: Present and Future" and held in Nairobi on March 24-27, 1992, addressed major issues on adolescent fertility, sexuality, and family planning services. Delegates from 40 countries joined to: 1) discuss problems in adolescents; 2) formulate a plan of action for tackling these problems; 3) examine ways of linking research and service activities; and 4) create a supportive network for individuals and groups working in this area. Statistics demonstrate the increasing number of births to adolescents in the developing world. These births have enormous social consequences, particularly for young women, whose education and future employment potential is often diminished. The consequences compromise a country's goals for socioeconomic development. A community-based health care (CBHC) program is needed to address adolescent reproductive health as a national issue. The program focuses on the following aspects of an integrated adolescent health policy: education on family life, sex and AIDS; training of special education teachers; renting skills education; sexually transmitted diseases (treatment and prevention); individual counseling; information, education and communication; general media attention to adolescents and their children; prenatal care and family planning; youth participation in programs; research and dissemination on data; primary schools and adult literacy programs; and youth serving organizations.

  9. Sexual risk behavior and STI health literacy among ethnic minority adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Dimmitt Champion, Jane; Harlin, Badia; Collins, Jennifer L

    2013-11-01

    Although information is available for prevention of sexually transmitted infection (STI/HIV), adolescents continue to engage in high risk sexual behavior particularly ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of STI or abuse. A description therefore of STI/HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among these women is indicated for modification of prevention efforts for sexual health promotion. African-American (n=94) and Mexican-American (n=465) adolescent women 14-18 years of age were included in the study. Assessments of sexual risk behavior and STI/HIV knowledge among these adolescent women described Mexican-American women as at higher risk of STI, pregnancy, substance use and abuse with lower levels of STI/HIV knowledge, previous HIV testing and perceptions of risk than African-American women. A focus on Mexican-American adolescent women with histories of STI and abuse is indicated for translation of community-based health promotion interventions for amelioration of potential adverse sexual health outcomes among ethnic minority adolescent women.

  10. Sexual Attraction and Trajectories of Mental Health and Substance Use during the Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Belinda L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual minority youth have poorer health-related outcomes than their heterosexual peers. The purpose of this study is to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in mental health and substance use increase, decrease, or remain the same during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Data are from Waves…

  11. How adolescents perceive their communities: a qualitative study that explores the relationship between health and the physical environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study was conducted among adolescents aged 15-19 years in Baltimore, Ibadan, Johannesburg, New Delhi, and Shanghai to examine perceived factors related to their health. A preliminary analysis of the data, unexpectedly, revealed that the influence of the physical environment on adolescent health was a dominant theme across every site examined. To explore this further, this paper analyzed the specific components of the physical environment that were perceived to influence health, and how they contributed to various health outcomes across sites. Methods Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of ‘health’ in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Results Findings showed that while there was surprising uniformity in how adolescents characterized their physical environment, perceived health outcomes related to the physical environment varied by site and gender. In Baltimore and Johannesburg, vacant homes and the lack of recreation facilities were perceived to impact on sexual and reproductive health problems for girls, while among boys they contributed to drugs and violence. In Shanghai, New Delhi, and Ibadan, garbage and trash observed in their communities were perceived to have a higher impact on infectious and chronic diseases. Conclusions As the world continues to urbanize, our study points to a strong need to examine how the physical aspects of a living environment contribute to the health of adolescents. Specific aspects, such as housing, safety, garbage, and recreational spaces must all be examined as possible pathways for making improvements to health of adolescents

  12. Adolescent health care in Italy: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, V; Filati, G; Fiscina, B; Marsciani, A; Piacentini, G; Timoncini, G; Reggiani, L; Zucchini, A

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this mini-review is to present the National Health System and services available for adolescents in Italy, and to review the most relevant data on morbidity and mortality in Italian teens. Adolescent medicine in Italy is not a separate speciality, but there are some distinct services for adolescents in paediatric departments or gynaecologic wards, mostly in large cities where university hospitals or hospital of national relevance are located. Primary health care in Italy is provided mainly by general practitioners (GPs) and pediatricians, and on-call physicians (Guardia Medica) for after-hours medical care and services. The number of centres providing care for adolescents in Italy is 4097 (50% of these are in the North of Italy, 20% in the Central regions and 20% in the South and Islands). The population of Italy on January 1st 2011 was approximately 60,477,881 and the number of adolescents, aged 10 to 19 years, was 6,214,000. The most frequent causes of death in adolescents are motor vehicle accidents - more than half of which are related to drug or alcohol use - followed by cancer and suicide. In primary care, adolescents present with a large number of issues, particularly upper respiratory infections, musculoskeletal problems, pain syndromes, obesity, eating disorders, dermatological issues, mood and somatoform disorders, school and mental health problems, and chronic fatigue, many of which require a coordinated, multidisciplinary management approach. The estimated population with a chronic illness is 8%. There are no specific protocols for the transition to adult medicine physicians for patients with chronic diseases or special health needs. In order to improve the quality and quantity of education in adolescent health for paediatricians and GPs, the Study Group of Emilia and Romagna Region for Adolescent Health Care (SGA-ER) is going to organize, beginning in 2012, a two year educational intervention course in adolescent health.

  13. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at ages 8–11 in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) were created by combining the highest rating for each item across mother and teacher reports. Longitudinal analyses were conducted using Latent Curve Models of RAgg with PAgg as a time-varying covariate, with all parameters allowed to vary by gender. Boys and girls had different growth parameters of RAgg. Girls’ RAgg intercept was higher and the slope was not different from zero; boys’ RAgg intercept was lower and the slope declined. Mother-child conflict in early childhood predicted RAgg intercept for both boys and girls, but maternal harsh control and sensitivity were also uniquely predictive for girls, whereas center care was uniquely predictive for boys. RAgg intercept predicted adolescent self-reports of depression for girls and delinquency and risk-taking for both boys and girls; the magnitude of the association with risk-taking was significantly greater for boys. PMID:22665946

  14. Effective strategies to provide adolescent sexual and reproductive health services and to increase demand and community support.

    PubMed

    Denno, Donna M; Hoopes, Andrea J; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2015-01-01

    Access to youth friendly health services is vital for ensuring sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and well-being of adolescents. This study is a descriptive review of the effectiveness of initiatives to improve adolescent access to and utilization of sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS) in low- and middle-income countries. We examined four SRHS intervention types: (1) facility based, (2) out-of-facility based, (3) interventions to reach marginalized or vulnerable populations, (4) interventions to generate demand and/or community acceptance. Outcomes assessed across the four questions included uptake of SRHS or sexual and reproductive health commodities and sexual and reproductive health biologic outcomes. There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of initiatives that simply provide adolescent friendliness training for health workers. Data are most ample (10 initiatives demonstrating weak but positive effects and one randomized controlled trial demonstrating strong positive results on some outcome measures) for approaches that use a combination of health worker training, adolescent-friendly facility improvements, and broad information dissemination via the community, schools, and mass media. We found a paucity of evidence on out-of-facility-based strategies, except for those delivered through mixed-use youth centers that demonstrated that SRHS in these centers are neither well used nor effective at improving SRH outcomes. There was an absence of studies or evaluations examining outcomes among vulnerable or marginalized adolescents. Findings from 17 of 21 initiatives assessing demand-generation activities demonstrated at least some association with adolescent SRHS use. Of 15 studies on parental and other community gatekeepers' approval of SRHS for adolescents, which assessed SRHS/commodity uptake and/or biologic outcomes, 11 showed positive results. Packages of interventions that train health workers, improve facility adolescent friendliness

  15. Effective strategies to provide adolescent sexual and reproductive health services and to increase demand and community support.

    PubMed

    Denno, Donna M; Hoopes, Andrea J; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2015-01-01

    Access to youth friendly health services is vital for ensuring sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and well-being of adolescents. This study is a descriptive review of the effectiveness of initiatives to improve adolescent access to and utilization of sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS) in low- and middle-income countries. We examined four SRHS intervention types: (1) facility based, (2) out-of-facility based, (3) interventions to reach marginalized or vulnerable populations, (4) interventions to generate demand and/or community acceptance. Outcomes assessed across the four questions included uptake of SRHS or sexual and reproductive health commodities and sexual and reproductive health biologic outcomes. There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of initiatives that simply provide adolescent friendliness training for health workers. Data are most ample (10 initiatives demonstrating weak but positive effects and one randomized controlled trial demonstrating strong positive results on some outcome measures) for approaches that use a combination of health worker training, adolescent-friendly facility improvements, and broad information dissemination via the community, schools, and mass media. We found a paucity of evidence on out-of-facility-based strategies, except for those delivered through mixed-use youth centers that demonstrated that SRHS in these centers are neither well used nor effective at improving SRH outcomes. There was an absence of studies or evaluations examining outcomes among vulnerable or marginalized adolescents. Findings from 17 of 21 initiatives assessing demand-generation activities demonstrated at least some association with adolescent SRHS use. Of 15 studies on parental and other community gatekeepers' approval of SRHS for adolescents, which assessed SRHS/commodity uptake and/or biologic outcomes, 11 showed positive results. Packages of interventions that train health workers, improve facility adolescent friendliness

  16. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  17. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  18. Examining multiracial youth in context: ethnic identity development and mental health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Sycarah; Reynolds, Jennifer L; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Barnes, Jessica; Tyler, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    Although multiracial individuals are the fastest growing population in the United States, research on the identity development of multiracial adolescents remains scant. This study explores the relationship between ethnic identity, its components (affirmation, exploration), and mental health outcomes (anxiety, depressive symptoms) within the contexts of schools for multiracial adolescents. The participants were multiracial and monoracial minority and majority high school students (n = 4,766; 54.6% female). Among the participants, 88.1% were Caucasian, 7.4% were African American, and 4.5% were multiracial. The research questions examined the relationship between ethnic identity exploration and affirmation on mental health outcomes and explored the role school context plays in this relationship. The findings suggested that multiracial youth experience more exploration and less affirmation than African Americans, but more than Caucasians. In addition, multiracial youth were found to have higher levels of mental health issues than their monoracial minority and majority peers. Specifically, multiracial youth had higher levels of depressive symptoms than their African American and Caucasian counterparts. Multiracial and Caucasian youth had similar levels of anxiety but these levels were significantly higher than African Americans. School diversity did not influence mental health outcomes for multiracial youth. These findings provide insight into the experiences of multiracial youth and underscore the importance of further investigating factors that contribute to their mental health outcomes.

  19. Child and adolescent mental health emergency services in Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Releva, M; Boskovska, M; Apceva, A; Polazarevska, M; Novotni, A; Bonevski, D; Sargent, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of child and adolescent mental health emergency services in Macedonia since 1993. The evolution of services through the Mental Crisis Centre for Children and Adolescents, funded by the Open Society Institute, and located in six cities is outlined. The paper also defines traditional services, the nature of child mental health emergencies, the evaluation process, follow-up care and training and supervision. It concludes with concern that the mental health emergency system is not sufficient to meet the needs of the child and adolescent population, particularly in the face of the Kosovar refugee crisis. Recommendations for the future are made. PMID:11508566

  20. Mental Health Stigma among Adolescents: Implications for School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranke, Derrick; Floersch, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents with a mental health diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to…

  1. Peer Approach in Adolescent Reproductive Health Education: Some Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This package is one of a series of repackaged products aimed at alerting UNESCO users to a wealth of highly valuable educational resources that exist in the field of adolescent reproductive and sexual health. This document focuses on what research says is the impact of peer education in promoting necessary changes among adolescents in attitudes…

  2. Declining Health Behavior of Adolescents: A Measure of Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crase, Darrell

    1981-01-01

    Cites statistics on such adolescent problems as pregnancy, drugs, and obesity as evidence of the serious neglect and alienation of this age group in an era of family instability and declining social roles for youth. Urges educators to give concerted attention to the physical, mental, and health needs of adolescents. (SJL)

  3. The Two Faces of Narcissism and Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Varshney, Nicole M.; Arens, Daniel; Lapsley, Daniel K.

    This paper describes a study that examined the relationship between two forms of adolescent narcissism and indicators of self-worth (positive adjustment and psychopathology) in a sample of 561 adolescents. School structure, academic performance, and school participation were also examined and mental health functioning was assessed by measures of…

  4. Adolescents' Experience with Workplace Aggression: School Health Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn R.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Beery, Theresa A.; Gates, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future…

  5. Tobacco Use. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2012-33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte; Terzian, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has steadily declined among adolescents during the last fifteen years, although use of some tobacco products, like cigars, has seen recent increases. However, large numbers of teens continue to use tobacco products. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents key research findings; describes prevalence and trends; illustrates…

  6. Medical and Mental Health Needs of Adolescent Indochinese Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jennifer; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents results of a study analyzing the health records of 181 adolescent Indochinese refugees in San Diego, CA. Focuses on the medical problems known to be prevalent among adult Indochinese refugees: tuberculosis infection, intestinal parasites, and hepatitis B antigenemia. Reports that Indochinese adolescents may have a high rate of mental…

  7. Neighborhood Processes, Self-Efficacy, and Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupere, Veronique; Leventhal, Tama; Vitaro, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs are central to mental health. Because adolescents' neighborhoods shape opportunities for experiences of control, predictability, and safety, we propose that neighborhood conditions are associated with adolescents' self-efficacy and, in turn, their internalizing problems (i.e., depression/anxiety symptoms). We tested these…

  8. Child and Adolescent Mental Health: Building a System of Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Barbara G.; Collins, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines unnecessary hospitalization and inadequacy of community services for children and adolescents with serious emotional or behavioral disorders. Discusses barriers that impede improved mental health services systems for children and their families and presents Child and Adolescent Service System Program "system of care" model as alternative.…

  9. Resiliency-Based Research and Adolescent Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rink, Elizabeth; Tricker, Ray

    2003-01-01

    Over the past fifty years, research on adolescents' behavior has focused primarily on risk factors. The study of resiliency and what buffers adolescents from engaging in harmful health behaviors has received much less attention. This risk-focused approach has included examining what is lacking in a youth's life that may contribute to that youth's…

  10. Piloting yoga and assessing outcomes in a residential behavioural health unit.

    PubMed

    McIlvain, S J; Miller, B; Lawhead, B A; Barbosa-Leiker, C; Anderson, A

    2015-04-01

    This study examined if adolescents on a residential behavioural health unit would participate in a yoga intervention. Yoga has been used as a mind-body practice for more than 2000 years; however, studies are limited regarding its effects on adolescents with mental illness on an inpatient unit. Yoga was added, twice weekly, to the program schedule. Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Adolescent Short Form (TEIQue-ASF) scores were measured over 8 weeks. Additional measures included daily numbers of quiet times, time outs, and point card scores. Twenty-two adolescents completed the study. The TEIQue-ASF assessment was able to detect changes in total scores over 8 weeks. Increased yoga participation was related to higher values of the TEIQue-ASF subdomain of sociability, increase in weekly point card totals, a decrease in behavioural time outs, and a decrease in combined behavioural interventions at various time points throughout the programme. This study was relevant because it was conducted on an adolescent inpatient unit. It provides support that yoga, as part of a residential programme, is a feasible intervention for adolescents with mental illness. Changes in the various measures cannot be directly linked to yoga because of lack of a comparison group. Additional studies with a larger sample, and randomization, are needed to evaluate the potential benefits of yoga and to determine if changes to the TEIQue-ASF can be attributed to yoga or other behavioural-based interventions. Little is known about how yoga will impact behavioural health outcomes for adolescents with mental illness in an inpatient setting. This study examined if adolescents on a residential behavioural health unit would participate in a yoga intervention to address emotional regulation. A single cohort study design was used. Yoga was added to the programme schedule twice weekly. Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Adolescent Short Form (TEIQue-ASF) scores and additional behavioural

  11. Piloting yoga and assessing outcomes in a residential behavioural health unit.

    PubMed

    McIlvain, S J; Miller, B; Lawhead, B A; Barbosa-Leiker, C; Anderson, A

    2015-04-01

    This study examined if adolescents on a residential behavioural health unit would participate in a yoga intervention. Yoga has been used as a mind-body practice for more than 2000 years; however, studies are limited regarding its effects on adolescents with mental illness on an inpatient unit. Yoga was added, twice weekly, to the program schedule. Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Adolescent Short Form (TEIQue-ASF) scores were measured over 8 weeks. Additional measures included daily numbers of quiet times, time outs, and point card scores. Twenty-two adolescents completed the study. The TEIQue-ASF assessment was able to detect changes in total scores over 8 weeks. Increased yoga participation was related to higher values of the TEIQue-ASF subdomain of sociability, increase in weekly point card totals, a decrease in behavioural time outs, and a decrease in combined behavioural interventions at various time points throughout the programme. This study was relevant because it was conducted on an adolescent inpatient unit. It provides support that yoga, as part of a residential programme, is a feasible intervention for adolescents with mental illness. Changes in the various measures cannot be directly linked to yoga because of lack of a comparison group. Additional studies with a larger sample, and randomization, are needed to evaluate the potential benefits of yoga and to determine if changes to the TEIQue-ASF can be attributed to yoga or other behavioural-based interventions. Little is known about how yoga will impact behavioural health outcomes for adolescents with mental illness in an inpatient setting. This study examined if adolescents on a residential behavioural health unit would participate in a yoga intervention to address emotional regulation. A single cohort study design was used. Yoga was added to the programme schedule twice weekly. Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Adolescent Short Form (TEIQue-ASF) scores and additional behavioural

  12. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention…

  13. School-Based Health Clinics: An Emerging Approach to Improving Adolescent Health and Addressing Teenage Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Douglas

    This report discusses the ongoing movement to provide health care and health information to adolescents through school-based clinics and other programs. The report begins with an overview of programs, focusing on: the unique health needs of adolescents; the growth in the number of school-based clinics; goals and objectives of the special programs;…

  14. Adolescents with Mental Health Problems: What Do They Say about Health Services?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buston, Katie

    2002-01-01

    Explores the health-related views and experiences of adolescent users of mental health services through interviews with adolescents who had been diagnosed with a mental illness. The majority of respondents had both negative and positive things to say about their contact with health services. These relate to: the doctor-patient relationship,…

  15. Psychometrics of the Laffrey Health Conception Scale for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yarcheski, Adela; Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this methodological study were to factor analyze the Laffrey Health Conception Scale (LHCS) and to assess construct validity of the instrument with early adolescents. The final sample consisted of 230 early adolescents, aged 12 to 14, who responded to instrument packets in classrooms in an urban middle school. Data obtained on the LHCS were subjected to principal components factor analysis with oblique rotation. A two-factor solution was accepted, which is consistent with early adolescents' conceptions of health. Factor I was labeled Wellness and Factor II was labeled Clinical Health. A higher order factor analysis yielded one factor with 26 items, labeled the LHCS for Early Adolescents. The 26-item LHCS had a coefficient alpha of .95. Construct validity was assessed by testing three theoretical propositions, which significantly linked health conception to social support, self-esteem, and positive health practices. The findings indicate that the LHCS is a reliable and valid measure of health conceptions in early adolescents. Results also offer flexibility to researchers interested in testing theory involving the constructs of the definition of health, wellness, and clinical health in early adolescents.

  16. Comparative optimism for severity of negative health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hevey, D; French, D P

    2012-01-01

    People tend to be comparatively optimistic (i.e., believe that negative outcomes are less likely for themselves than for typical others) regarding their susceptibility to negative health outcomes. The present study investigates the extent to which perceptions of the severity of these health outcomes show similar comparative optimism. A student sample (study 1; N = 200) and a healthy non-student adult sample (study 2; N = 257) completed self-report measures of susceptibility, severity, worry, control and experience in relation to negative health outcomes. Participants in both studies demonstrated significant levels of comparative optimism for both perceived likelihood and severity of health outcomes. Comparative optimism concerning severity was very strongly associated (r = 0.85 to 0.89) with comparative optimism concerning susceptibility. In addition to being comparatively optimistic over their chances of experiencing negative health outcomes, people are also comparatively optimistic regarding how severe the health outcomes will be. PMID:22111753

  17. Adolescents' Views about an Internet Platform for Adolescents with Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havas, Jano; de Nooijer, Jascha; Crutzen, Rik; Feron, Frans

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the needs and views of adolescents regarding the development of online support for mental health problems. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured qualitative focus group interviews were conducted with ten groups of Dutch adolescents (n=106), aged 12-19 years, from four urban secondary schools…

  18. Mental Health Characteristics and Health-Seeking Behaviors of Adolescent School-Based Health Center Users and Nonusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Gorette; Geierstanger, Sara; Soleimanpour, Samira; Brindis, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the mental health risk profile and health utilization behaviors of adolescent school-based health center (SBHC) users and nonusers and discuss the role that SBHCs can play in addressing adolescent health needs. Methods: The sample included 4640 students in grades 9 and 11 who completed the…

  19. Adolescent health care maintenance in a teen-friendly clinic.

    PubMed

    Chaisson, Nicole; Shore, William B

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is marked by complex physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development, which can be stressful for families and adolescents. Before the onset of puberty, providers should clearly lay the groundwork for clinical care and office visits during the adolescent years. This article addresses the guidelines and current legal standards for confidentiality in adolescent care, the most frequently used psychosocial screening tools, and current recommendations for preventive health services and immunizations. Through the creation of teen-friendly clinics, primary care providers are well positioned to offer guidance and support to teens and their parents during this time of transition and growth.

  20. Adolescent-Onset Depression: Are Obesity and Inflammation Developmental Mechanisms or Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Byrne, Michelle L; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Mitchell, Sarah A; Allen, Nicholas B

    2015-12-01

    Depression often has its first onset during adolescence and is associated with obesity. Furthermore, inflammatory processes have been implicated in both depression and obesity, although research amongst adolescents is limited. This review explores associations between depression and obesity, depression and inflammation, and obesity and inflammation from a developmental perspective. The temporal relations between these factors are examined to explore whether obesity and elevated inflammation act as either risk factors for, or outcomes of, adolescent-onset depression. Sex differences in these processes are also summarized. We propose a model whereby increases in sex hormones during puberty increase risk for depression for females, which can lead to obesity, which in turn increases levels of inflammation. Importantly, this model suggests that inflammation and obesity are outcomes of adolescent depression, rather than initial contributing causes. Further research on biological and psychosocial effects of sex hormones is needed, as is longitudinal research with children and adolescents.

  1. Expressed Emotion, Family Functioning, and Treatment Outcome for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Rienecke, Renee D; Accurso, Erin C; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between parental expressed emotion (EE) and treatment outcome among adolescents participating in a treatment study for adolescent anorexia nervosa, as well as its impact on family functioning. One hundred and twenty-one families were assigned to family-based treatment or adolescent-focused therapy. Paternal criticism predicted lesser improvement in eating disorder psychopathology at end of treatment. There was also a significant interaction between maternal hostility and treatment, indicating that adolescents whose mothers displayed hostility had greater increases in percent of expected body weight in adolescent-focused therapy than family-based treatment. In addition, maternal hostility predicted less improvement in general family functioning and family communication at the end of treatment. Findings suggest that maternal and paternal EE may differentially impact treatment outcome and should be directly attended to in clinical settings. Future research is needed to further explore ways in which parental EE can be effectively modified in treatment.

  2. Expressed Emotion, Family Functioning, and Treatment Outcome for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Rienecke, Renee D.; Accurso, Erin C.; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between parental expressed emotion (EE) and treatment outcome among adolescents participating in a treatment study for adolescent anorexia nervosa, as well as its impact on family functioning. One hundred and twenty-one families were assigned to family-based treatment or adolescent-focused therapy. Paternal criticism predicted lesser improvement in eating disorder psychopathology at end of treatment. There was also a significant interaction between maternal hostility and treatment, indicating that adolescents whose mothers displayed hostility had greater increases in percent of expected body weight in adolescent-focused therapy than family-based treatment. In addition, maternal hostility predicted less improvement in general family functioning and family communication at the end of treatment. Findings suggest that maternal and paternal EE may differentially impact treatment outcome and should be directly attended to in clinical settings. Future research is needed to further explore ways in which parental EE can be effectively modified in treatment. PMID:26201083

  3. A Unique Patient Population? Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Athletes Versus General, Healthy Adolescent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kenneth C.; Valier, Alison R. Snyder; Bay, R. Curtis; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2013-01-01

    Context: Normative scores for patient-rated outcome (PRO) instruments are important for providing patient-centered, whole-person care and making informed clinical decisions. Although normative values for the Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Scale (PedsQL) have been established in the general, healthy adolescent population, whether adolescent athletes demonstrate similar values is unclear. Objective: To compare PedsQL scores between adolescent athletes and general, healthy adolescent individuals. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Secondary schools. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of 2659 interscholastic athletes (males = 2059, females = 600, age = 15.7 ± 1.1 years) represented the athlete group (ATH), and a previously published normative dataset represented the general, healthy adolescent group (GEN). Intervention(s): All participants completed the PedsQL during 1 testing session. Main Outcome Measure(s): The PedsQL consists of 2 summary scores (total, psychosocial) and 4 subscale scores (physical, emotional, social, school), with higher scores indicating better health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Groups were stratified by age (14, 15, or 16 years old). Independent-samples t tests were conducted to compare between-groups and sex differences. Results: The ATH group scored higher than the GEN group across all ages for total and psychosocial summary scores and for emotional and social functioning subscale scores (P ≤ .005). For physical functioning, scores of the 15-year-old ATH were higher than for their GEN counterparts (P = .001). Both 14- and 15-year-old ATH scored higher than their GEN counterparts for the school functioning subscale (P ≤ .013), but differences between 16-year olds were not significant (P = .228). Male adolescent athletes reported higher scores than female adolescent athletes across all scores (P ≤ .001) except for social functioning (P = .229). Conclusions: Adolescent athletes reported better HRQOL than

  4. Adolescent Outcomes of Children With Early Speech Sound Disorders With and Without Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Freebairn, Lisa; Tag, Jessica; Ciesla, Allison A.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Stein, Catherine M.; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors determined adolescent speech, language, and literacy outcomes of individuals with histories of early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without comorbid language impairment (LI) and examined factors associated with these outcomes. Method This study used a prospective longitudinal design. Participants with SSD (n = 170), enrolled at early childhood (4–6 years) were followed at adolescence (11–18 years) and were compared to individuals with no histories of speech or language impairment (no SSD; n = 146) on measures of speech, language, and literacy. Comparisons were made between adolescents with early childhood histories of no SSD, SSD only, and SSD plus LI as well as between adolescents with no SSD, resolved SSD, and persistent SSD. Results Individuals with early childhood SSD with comorbid LI had poorer outcomes than those with histories of SSD only or no SSD. Poorer language and literacy outcomes in adolescence were associated with multiple factors, including persistent speech sound problems, lower nonverbal intelligence, and lower socioeconomic status. Adolescents with persistent SSD had higher rates of comorbid LI and reading disability than the no SSD and resolved SSD groups. Conclusion Risk factors for language and literacy problems in adolescence include an early history of LI, persistent SSD, lower nonverbal cognitive ability, and social disadvantage. PMID:25569242

  5. Weight- and race-based bullying: Health associations among urban adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Henderson, Kathryn E; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2014-01-01

    Stigma-based bullying is associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. In a longitudinal study, surveys and physical assessments were conducted with mostly Black and Latino, socioeconomically disadvantaged, urban students. As hypothesized, greater weight- and race-based bullying each was significantly indirectly associated with increased blood pressure and body mass index, as well as decreased overall self-rated health across 2 years, through the mechanism of more negative emotional symptoms. Results support important avenues for future research on mechanisms and longitudinal associations of stigma-based bullying with health. Interventions are needed to reduce stigma-based bullying and buffer adolescents from adverse health effects. PMID:24155192

  6. Weight- and race-based bullying: health associations among urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Henderson, Kathryn E; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-04-01

    Stigma-based bullying is associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. In a longitudinal study, surveys and physical assessments were conducted with mostly Black and Latino, socioeconomically disadvantaged, urban students. As hypothesized, greater weight- and race-based bullying each was significantly indirectly associated with increased blood pressure and body mass index, as well as decreased overall self-rated health across 2 years, through the mechanism of more negative emotional symptoms. Results support important avenues for future research on mechanisms and longitudinal associations of stigma-based bullying with health. Interventions are needed to reduce stigma-based bullying and buffer adolescents from adverse health effects.

  7. Hero/heroine modeling for Puerto Rican adolescents: a preventive mental health intervention.

    PubMed

    Malgady, R G; Rogler, L H; Costantino, G

    1990-08-01

    Culturally sensitive treatments of the special mental health needs of high-risk Puerto Rican adolescents are lacking. The hero/heroine intervention was based on adult Puerto Rican role models to foster ethnic identity, self-concept, and adaptive coping behavior. 90 nonclinical Puerto Rican 8th and 9th graders were screened for presenting behavior problems in school and randomly assigned to an intervention and a control group. After 19 sessions, the intervention significantly increased adolescents' ethnic identity and self-concept and reduced anxiety. Treatment outcomes varied as a function of grade level, sex, and household composition. Self-concept was negatively affected among girls from intact families. The study supports the effectiveness of the culturally sensitive modality as a preventive mental health intervention for high-risk Puerto Rican adolescents, especially from single-parent families.

  8. Estimating The Health And Economic Burden Of Cancer Among Those Diagnosed As Adolescents And Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Gery P.; Yabroff, K. Robin; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Dowling, Emily C.; Rechis, Ruth; Nutt, Stephanie; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent and young adult cancer survivors—those who were ages 15–39 at their first cancer diagnosis—have important health limitations. These survivors are at risk for higher health care expenditures and lost productivity, compared to adults without a history of cancer. Using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data, we present nationally representative estimates of the economic burden among people who were diagnosed with cancer in adolescence or young adulthood. Our findings demonstrate that surviving cancer at this age is associated with a substantial economic burden. Compared to adults without a history of cancer, adolescent and young adult cancer survivors had excess annual medical expenditures of $3,170 per person and excess annual productivity losses of $2,250 per person. Multifaceted prevention strategies, including education and sustained intervention programs to ensure access to lifelong risk-based follow-up care, may be effective ways to improve the economic outcomes associated with cancer survivorship in this population. PMID:24889952

  9. Multiple Pathways Linking Racism to Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Camara Jules P; Burford, Tanisha I; Cage, Brandi N; Nelson, Travette McNair; Shearon, Sheronda; Thompson, Adrian; Green, Steven

    2011-04-15

    This commentary discusses advances in the conceptual understanding of racism and selected research findings in the social neurosciences. The traditional stress and coping model holds that racism constitutes a source of aversive experiences that, when perceived by the individual, eventually lead to poor health outcomes. Current evidence points to additional psychophysiological pathways linking facets of racist environments with physiological reactions that contribute to disease. The alternative pathways emphasize prenatal experiences, subcortical emotional neural circuits, conscious and preconscious emotion regulation, perseverative cognitions, and negative affective states stemming from racist cognitive schemata. Recognition of these pathways challenges change agents to use an array of cognitive and self-controlling interventions in mitigating racism's impact. Additionally, it charges policy makers to develop strategies that eliminate deep-seated structural aspects of racism in society.

  10. Gender differences in early adolescence in factors related to outcome of healthy behaviours two years later.

    PubMed

    Berg-Kelly, K; Kullander, K

    1999-10-01

    In this study, 390 students comprising 89.7% of the student population answered a questionnaire on health and health behaviours, socioeconomic status (SES), school, family and peer relationships, and intentions regarding behaviours at 13.5 and 15.5 y of age. The aim was to investigate whether there were gender differences in predictors of outcome of behaviours with impact on health at 15.5 y of age. Outcome dealt with three domains: health habits, acquisition of adult lifestyles, and problem behaviours. The material was analysed for correlations. Significant results were entered into multiple regression stepwise procedures. As expected, having already initiated adult lifestyles or exhibiting problem behaviours at 13.5 y were the most important factors associated with such behaviours 2 y later. Further analyses were then limited to those students who had not started such lifestyles to see what factors kept them from doing so in a 2-y period and what gender differences existed, if any. Results differed for the genders, with more boys being more concrete and behaviour-oriented, representing a sample of boys with late to normal puberty. Girls more often expressed intentions regarding behaviour, which predicted positive outcomes. Both genders were prudent in most areas studied: they were well adapted at school, had positive self-esteem and were not moving in circles where smoking and drinking were abundant. The conclusion is that young adolescents who do not start risky behaviours between the ages of 13 and 15 y live in a supportive context, which allows for positive interactions. The next step would be to investigate if alternative strategies may be used to implement similar options for those who lack such support in their natural environment.

  11. Health Information Seeking Behaviors of Ethnically Diverse Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Okoniewski, Anastasia E.; Lee, Young Ji; Rodriguez, Martha; Schnall, Rebecca; Low, Alexander F. H.

    2013-01-01

    Research on health information has primarily focused on the needs of adults or parents of children with chronic illnesses or consumers. There is limited research on the health information needs of adolescents and in particular those from underserved communities. The primary objective of this qualitative study was to understand the health information needs of healthy, urban adolescents, and how they met those needs. Focus group methodology was used to gather information from a sample of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Data was analyzed using Kriekelas’ Information Seeking Behavior framework to, examine the participants” report of their immediate and deferred health information needs. Our sample of adolescents used several different sources to satisfy their health information needs depending on acuity and severity, which was congruent with Kriekelas’ framework. Understanding how adolescents use technology to meet their health information needs, and in what order of preference, will be critical for the development of technology that adolescents find useful and has the potential to decrease health disparities. PMID:23512322

  12. “Friending” Teens: Systematic Review of Social Media in Adolescent and Young Adult Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Scirica, Christina V; Jethwani, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media has emerged as a potentially powerful medium for communication with adolescents and young adults around their health choices. Objective The goal of this systematic review is to identify research on the use of social media for interacting with adolescents and young adults in order to achieve positive health outcomes. Methods A MEDLINE/PubMed electronic database search was performed between January 1, 2002 and October 1, 2013, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media and other Web 2.0 technologies were an important feature. We used a systematic approach to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. Results We identified 288 studies involving social media, of which 87 met criteria for inclusion; 75 studies were purely observational and 12 were interventional. The ways in which social media was leveraged by these studies included (1) observing adolescent and young adult behavior (n=77), (2) providing health information (n=13), (3) engaging the adolescent and young adult community (n=17), and (4) recruiting research participants (n=23). Common health topics addressed included high-risk sexual behaviors (n=23), alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use (n=19), Internet safety (n=8), mental health issues (n=18), medical conditions (n=11), or other specified issues (n=12). Several studies used more than one social media platform and addressed more than one health-related topic. Conclusions Social media technologies offer an exciting new means for engaging and communicating with adolescents and young adults; it has been successfully used to engage this age group, identify behaviors, and provide appropriate intervention and education. Nevertheless, the majority of studies to date have been preliminary and limited in their methodologies, and mostly center around evaluating how adolescents and young adults use social media and the resulting implications on their health. Although these explorations are essential, further

  13. Indigenous Women of Latin America: Unintended Pregnancy, Unsafe Abortion, and Reproductive Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wurtz, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous women in Latin America have poorer reproductive health outcomes than the general population and face considerable barriers in accessing adequate health services. Indigenous women have high rates of adolescent fertility and unintended pregnancy and may face increased risks for morbidity and mortality related to unsafe abortion. However, research among this population, particularly focusing on social and cultural implications of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion, is significantly limited. This article reviews the literature on unsafe abortion in Latin America and describes successful interventions to ameliorate reproductive health outcomes within Indigenous communities. It also explores important implications for future research. Shedding light on the circumstances, perspectives, and lived realities of Indigenous women of childbearing age, could encourage further qualitative investigation and mitigate negative outcomes through improved understanding of the topic, targeted culturally appropriate interventions, and recommendations for future policy and programming reformations. PMID:23772229

  14. Psychosocial and Health-Related Characteristics of Adolescent Television Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined relationship between television viewing frequency and adolescents' health-related and psychosocial characteristics. Found that shyness and exercise frequency predicted television viewing frequency. Among females, exercise frequency, shyness, loneliness, and perceived attractiveness predicted viewing frequency. Light viewers exercised more…

  15. Bone Related Health Status in Adolescent Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Olmedillas, Hugo; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Moreno, Luís A.; Casajús, José A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe bone status and analyse bone mass in adolescent cyclists. Methods Male road cyclists (n = 22) who had been training for a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 7 years with a volume of 10 h/w, were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22) involved in recreational sports activities. Subjects were divided in 2 groups based on age: adolescents under 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 13) and over 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 9). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured on a cycloergometer. Whole body, lumbar spine, and hip bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and bone area were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) were also estimated. Results The BMC of cyclists was lower for the whole body, pelvis, femoral neck and legs; BMD for the pelvis, hip, legs and whole body and legs bone area was lower but higher in the hip area (all, P≤0.05) after adjusting by lean mass and height. The BMC of young cyclists was 10% lower in the leg and 8% higher in the hip area than young controls (P≤0.05). The BMC of cyclists over 17 yrs was 26.5%, 15.8% and 14.4% lower BMC at the pelvis, femoral neck and legs respectively while the BMD was 8.9% to 24.5% lower for the whole body, pelvis, total hip, trochanter, intertrochanter, femoral neck and legs and 17.1% lower the vBMD at the femoral neck (all P≤0.05). Grouped by age interaction was found in both pelvis and hip BMC and BMD and in femoral neck vBMD (all P≤0.05). Conclusion Cycling performed throughout adolescence may negatively affect bone health, then compromising the acquisition of peak bone mass. PMID:21980360

  16. Natural Mentoring Relationships and Adolescent Health: Evidence From a National Study

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, David L.; Silverthorn, Naida

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We used nationally representative data to examine the impact of natural (or informal) mentoring relationships on health-related outcomes among older adolescents and young adults. Methods. We examined outcomes from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health as a function of whether or not respondents reported a mentoring relationship. Logistic regression was used with control for demographic variables, previous level of functioning, and individual and environmental risk. Results. Respondents who reported a mentoring relationship were more likely to exhibit favorable outcomes relating to education/work (completing high school, college attendance, working ≥ 10 hours a week), reduced problem behavior (gang membership, hurting others in physical fights, risk taking), psychological well-being (heightened self-esteem, life satisfaction), and health (physical activity level, birth control use). However, effects of exposure to individual and environmental risk factors generally were larger in magnitude than protective effects associated with mentoring. Conclusions. These findings suggest a broad and multifaceted impact of mentoring relationships on adolescent health. However, mentoring relationships alone are not enough to meet the needs of at-risk youths and therefore should be incorporated into more comprehensive interventions. PMID:15727987

  17. HUMAN HEALTH OUTCOMES AND ACCOUNTABILITY - RISK POLICY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is identifying human health "outcomes" as part of a significant shift in how the Agency frames questions and assesses its impact on environmental quality. These outcomes, while complementing traditional process indicators such as decreases in emissions, discharges and pollut...

  18. Beyond talking groups: strategies for improving adolescent health education.

    PubMed

    Banister, Elizabeth; Begoray, Deborah

    2004-05-01

    In a study that focused on adolescent girls' health issues within their dating relationships, we found that nonstructured focus group conversation can be augmented with structured strategies to generate a nonthreatening environment in which participants are enabled to co-create an understanding of their experiences. The use of free writing, role playing, and body tracing helped raise participants' awareness and understanding of some of their health behaviors. We suggest that these strategies can be used in health care and educational contexts to promote the health of adolescents. By sharing strategies between education and health care professionals, both professions will benefit.

  19. Food Insecurity and Rural Adolescent Personal Health, Home, and Academic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security…

  20. Clinician-rated mental health in outpatient child and adolescent mental health services: associations with parent, teacher and adolescent ratings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinician-rated measures are used extensively in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) is a short clinician-rated measure developed for ordinary clinical practice, with increasing use internationally. Several studies have investigated its psychometric properties, but there are few data on its correspondence with other methods, rated by other informants. We compared the HoNOSCA with the well-established Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) questionnaires: the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Teacher's Report Form (TRF), and the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Methods Data on 153 patients aged 6-17 years at seven outpatient CAMHS clinics in Norway were analysed. Clinicians completed the HoNOSCA, whereas parents, teachers, and adolescents filled in the ASEBA forms. HoNOSCA total score and nine of its scales were compared with similar ASEBA scales. With a multiple regression model, we investigated how the ASEBA ratings predicted the clinician-rated HoNOSCA and whether the different informants' scores made any unique contribution to the prediction of the HoNOSCA scales. Results We found moderate correlations between the total problems rated by the clinicians (HoNOSCA) and by the other informants (ASEBA) and good correspondence between eight of the nine HoNOSCA scales and the similar ASEBA scales. The exception was HoNOSCA scale 8 psychosomatic symptoms compared with the ASEBA somatic problems scale. In the regression analyses, the CBCL and TRF total problems scores together explained 27% of the variance in the HoNOSCA total scores (23% for the age group 11-17 years, also including the YSR). The CBCL provided unique information for the prediction of the HoNOSCA total score, HoNOSCA scale 1 aggressive behaviour, HoNOSCA scale 2 overactivity or attention problems, HoNOSCA scale 9 emotional symptoms, and HoNOSCA scale 10 peer problems; the TRF for all

  1. The health of adolescent women in the 1980s.

    PubMed Central

    Litt, I F

    1988-01-01

    The opportunities and stresses faced by today's adolescent women have the potential to affect their health, either directly or through interaction with biologic and psychosocial events. Recently achieved entry into the world of endurance and competitive sports; smoking, drug, and alcohol use; the toxic shock syndrome; and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome threaten the health of young women today. Physicians who care for adolescent women in the 1980s and in the future will require special skills to do so successfully. Images PMID:3074565

  2. Health workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services for unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescents in developing countries face a range of sexual and reproductive health problems. Lack of health care service for reproductive health or difficulty in accessing them are among them. In this study we aimed to examine health care workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey among 423 health care service providers working in eastern Ethiopia in 2010. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to drive proportions and associations. Results The majority of health workers had positive attitudes. However, nearly one third (30%) of health care workers had negative attitudes toward providing RH services to unmarried adolescents. Close to half (46.5%) of the respondents had unfavorable responses toward providing family planning to unmarried adolescents. About 13% of health workers agreed to setting up penal rules and regulations against adolescents that practice pre-marital sexual intercourse. The multivariate analysis indicated that being married (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.44 - 3.06), lower education level (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.04 - 1.99), being a health extension worker (OR 2.49; 95% CI 1.43 - 4.35), lack of training on reproductive health services (OR 5.27; 95% CI 1.51 - 5.89) to be significantly associated with negative attitudes toward provision of sexual and reproductive services to adolescents. Conclusions The majority of the health workers had generally positive attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health to adolescents. However, a minority has displayed negatives attitudes. Such negative attitudes will be barriers to service utilization by adolescents and hampers the efforts to reduce sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. We therefore call for a targeted effort toward alleviating negative

  3. Measuring Treatment Outcome for Children with Serious Emotional Disturbances: Discriminant Validity and Clinical Significance of the Child and Adolescent Functioning Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kimberlee M.; Roberts, Michael C.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Randall, Camille J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the use of a popular measure, the Children and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS), in treatment outcome research. The sample included 70 children who had been discharged from an elementary therapeutic classroom (Intensive Mental Health Program). Significant relationships were found between decreases in CAFAS scores and…

  4. Relationships Between Adolescent Sexual Outcomes and Exposure to Sex in Media: Robustness to Propensity-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Collins, Rebecca L; Martino, Steven C; Elliott, Marc N; Miu, Angela

    2011-03-01

    Adolescent sexual health is a substantial problem in the U.S., and two recent studies have linked adolescent sexual behavior and/or outcomes to youths' exposure to sex in the media. Both studies had longitudinal survey designs and used covariate-adjusted regression analysis. Steinberg and Monahan (2010) reanalyzed data from one of these studies (Brown et al., 2006) using a propensity-score approach, arguing that this method better addresses the possibility of unobserved confounders. Based on their reanalysis, which found no relationship between media exposure and sexual behavior, they concluded that "Adolescents' Exposure to Sexy Media Does Not Hasten the Initiation of Sexual Intercourse." We subject data from the second study (Collins et al., 2004; Chandra et al., 2008) to reanalysis using a propensity-score approach. We find only modest reductions in two of the three previously documented associations, and no reduction in the third. Based on these findings, we conclude that there is an association between exposure to sex in the media and adolescent sexual outcomes. While the evidence does not prove causality, it is sufficient to advise caution among parents, develop interventions for youth, and work with media producers and distributors to reduce youth exposure to sexual content. PMID:24839301

  5. Cerebellar Growth and Behavioural & Neuropsychological Outcome in Preterm Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jennifer; Mitchell, Ann; Kalpakidou, Anastasia; Walshe, Muriel; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Nosarti, Chiara; Santosh, Paramala; Rifkin, Larry; Wyatt, John; Murray, Robin M.; Allin, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of social and cognitive development associated with changes in brain structure and function. These developmental changes may show an altered path in individuals born before 33 weeks' gestation (very preterm; VPT). The cerebellum is affected by VPT birth, but no studies have yet assessed the adolescent development of this…

  6. The Impact of Gender and Family Processes on Mental Health and Substance Use Issues in a Sample of Court-Involved Female and Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavazzi, Stephen M.; Lim, Ji-Young; Yarcheck, Courtney M.; Bostic, Jennifer M.; Scheer, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    Greater empirical attention directed toward gender-sensitive assessment strategies that concentrate on family-specific factors is thought to be both timely and necessary, especially with regard to outcome variables associated with mental health and substance abuse in at-risk adolescent populations. A sample of 2,646 court-involved adolescents was…

  7. Evaluating Programs for At-Risk Adolescents: Toward an Outcome-Based Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloat, Elizabeth A.; Audas, Richard P.; Willms, J. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an outcome-based model for evaluating school and community programs serving at-risk adolescents, and a cost-effective technique for comparing the progress of youth receiving an intervention with youth in a pseudocontrol group. The outcomes considered most important for success were derived from the literature pertaining to…

  8. Do Alcohol Expectancy Outcomes and Valuations Mediate Peer Influences and Lifetime Alcohol Use among Early Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Olthuis, Janine V.

    2009-01-01

    Building on the theory of reasoned action (I. Ajzen & M. Fishbein, 1973, 1980; M. Fishbein & I. Ajzen, 1975) and expectancy theory, the authors examined the mediating role of alcohol expectancies in adolescent drinking behaviors by testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations (the extent to which these outcomes are perceived as good…

  9. Naturally Acquired Mentoring Relationships and Young Adult Outcomes among Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Kym; DuBois, David Lane; Lozano, Paula; Richardson, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated whether having a naturally acquired mentor during adolescence was associated with improved adult outcomes among youth with learning disabilities (YLD). Mentored youth were more likely to have graduated from high school, reported a higher level of self-esteem, and reported a higher overall number of positive outcomes than nonmentored…

  10. Discovering Sexual Health Conversations between Adolescents and Youth Development Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Niodita; Chandak, Aastha; Gilson, Glen; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Goldsworthy, Richard; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Fisher, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Youth development professionals (YDPs), working at community-based organizations are in a unique position to interact with the adolescents as they are neither parents/guardians nor teachers. The objectives of this study were to explore qualitatively what sexual health issues adolescents discuss with YDPs and to describe those issues using the framework of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) comprehensive sexuality education guidelines. YDPs reported conversations with adolescents that included topics related to the SIECUS key concepts of human development, relationships, personal skills, sexual behavior, and sexual health. PMID:27081375

  11. Issues in adolescent health: a challenge for nursing.

    PubMed

    Nicol, M J; Nichol, M J; Manoharan, H; Marfell-Jones, M J; Meha-Hoerara, K; Milne, R; O'Connell, M; Olliver, J; Teekman, B

    2002-04-01

    The young people of today are the greatest investment we as adults have in our future. The care and nurturing we afford the adolescent is just as important as that which we afford to children or the elderly. Although most adolescents have a preoccupation with their bodies, they do not always engage in activities that will protect and develop them. Adolescents are often exposed to peer pressure, the effects of which may impact negatively on their behaviour and their health. Many adolescent health and behavioural issues evolve from developmental changes and can manifest in a confrontational attitude toward society, parents and others. They are hormonally 'fully charged', and their adolescent sexuality can have enormous effects on their future physical, psychosocial, moral and sexual development. Nurses have a pivotal role to play in ensuring children and adolescents learn the facts relating to the consequences of engaging in unhealthy behaviour and lifestyle. Nurses must also encourage parents to model and reinforce good health practices, such as serving balanced and nutritious meals at regular times and planning positive family activities. In this paper we review some of the salient issues in adolescent health today.

  12. Issues in adolescent health: a challenge for nursing.

    PubMed

    Nicol, M J; Nichol, M J; Manoharan, H; Marfell-Jones, M J; Meha-Hoerara, K; Milne, R; O'Connell, M; Olliver, J; Teekman, B

    2002-04-01

    The young people of today are the greatest investment we as adults have in our future. The care and nurturing we afford the adolescent is just as important as that which we afford to children or the elderly. Although most adolescents have a preoccupation with their bodies, they do not always engage in activities that will protect and develop them. Adolescents are often exposed to peer pressure, the effects of which may impact negatively on their behaviour and their health. Many adolescent health and behavioural issues evolve from developmental changes and can manifest in a confrontational attitude toward society, parents and others. They are hormonally 'fully charged', and their adolescent sexuality can have enormous effects on their future physical, psychosocial, moral and sexual development. Nurses have a pivotal role to play in ensuring children and adolescents learn the facts relating to the consequences of engaging in unhealthy behaviour and lifestyle. Nurses must also encourage parents to model and reinforce good health practices, such as serving balanced and nutritious meals at regular times and planning positive family activities. In this paper we review some of the salient issues in adolescent health today. PMID:12188150

  13. The Effect of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status on Education and Health Outcomes for Children Living in Social Housing

    PubMed Central

    Burland, Elaine M. J.; Finlayson, Gregory S.; Smith, Mark J.; Taylor, Carole R.; Brownell, Marni D.; Nickel, Nathan C.; Katz, Alan; Bolton, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We explored differences in health and education outcomes between children living in social housing and not, and effects of social housing’s neighborhood socioeconomic status. Methods. In this cohort study, we used the population-based repository of administrative data at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. We included children aged 0 to 19 years in Winnipeg, Manitoba, in fiscal years 2006–2007 to 2008–2009 (n = 13 238 social housing; n = 174 017 others). We examined 5 outcomes: age-2 complete immunization, a school-readiness measure, adolescent pregnancy (ages 15–19 years), grade-9 completion, and high-school completion. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equation modeling generated rates. We derived neighborhood income quintiles (Q1 lowest, Q5 highest) from average household income census data. Results. Children in social housing fared worse than comparative children within each neighborhood income quintile. When we compared children in social housing by quintile, preschool indicators (immunization and school readiness) were similar, but adolescent outcomes (grade-9 and high-school completion, adolescent pregnancy) were better in Q3 to Q5. Conclusions. Children in social housing had poorer health and education outcomes than all others, but living in social housing in wealthier areas was associated with better adolescent outcomes. PMID:25211758

  14. Happiness and health behaviors in South Korean adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between happiness and a wide range of health behaviors in South Korean adolescents. METHODS: Study data were derived from the ninth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey administered from June to July 2013. In addition to happiness levels, the questionnaire included items on sociodemographics and health-related lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, eating breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep). RESULTS: The multivariate analysis revealed that higher levels of happiness were associated with not smoking or drinking, eating breakfast, eating fruits daily, vegetable consumption, participating in at least 60 minutes of physical activity a day, avoiding sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep. Additionally, sex differences were found in relationships between happiness and eating fruit daily, participation in physical activity, and sedentary behavior. CONCLUSIONS: These results encourage public health professionals to consider the psychological aspects of adolescent life in working to improve their health behaviors and outcomes. PMID:27283139

  15. Teachers' perspectives on sexual and reproductive health interventions for in-school adolescents in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aransiola, Joshua O; Asa, Sola; Obinjuwa, Patience; Olarewaju, Oluseyi; Ojo, Olubukola O; Fatusi, Adesegun O

    2013-12-01

    High prevalence of early and unprotected sex, resulting in adverse reproductive health outcomes, has been reported among adolescents in Nigeria. While school-based sexual and reproductive health interventions for in-school adolescents is widely recognized, little is known on the kind of involvements desired by teachers and their perceptions of handling students' reproductive health concerns. In this study, the teachers favoured school-based reproductive health education (RHE), but have divers' opinions on what should be included in such RHE. Majority was not willing or comfortable in personal counseling of students but can teach RHE in classroom environment. They support the current approach of expelling pregnant school girls. The article advocates for gender-sensitive and developmental-oriented approaches that will ensure rehabilitation and re-integration of pregnant girls into the school system after their delivery, and recommend the need to build teachers skills and promote students-teachers dialogue in order to optimize school environment for addressing ASRH.

  16. CATCH: Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. [Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health has launched an initiative called the Cardiovascular Health Promotion Project to teach heart-healthy habits to children. One of the programs developed by this initiative, CATCH, the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health, is the largest…

  17. Social integration and the mental health of Black adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2014-01-01

    The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim’s Social Integration Theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative psychosocial well-being indicators. Results showed that adolescents’ integration into family and school were related to better mental health. Additionally, commitment to religious involvement positively influenced mental health. Although the direct effect of religious involvement was inversely related to mental health, mediation analyses revealed a positive influence through religious commitment. Findings suggest a greater emphasis on all three social contexts when designing strategies to improve the mental health of Black adolescents. PMID:24815855

  18. Adolescent confidentiality: Understanding and practices of health care providers

    PubMed Central

    Wadman, Ruth; Thul, Deborah; Elliott, April S; Kennedy, Andrea Pritchard; Mitchell, Ian; Pinzon, Jorge L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescent confidentiality may present practice challenges for health care providers related to family, medical, ethical, legal, social and bureaucratic processes. It is unclear how health care providers understand and practice confidentiality with adolescents in Canada. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge and practice of health care providers at Alberta Children’s Hospital (Calgary, Alberta), and to inform practice about the adolescent’s right to confidentiality. METHODS: The present study was a voluntary, anonymous online survey. Invitations to participate were sent through the paediatric facility’s electronic mailing list to all currently employed health care providers who potentially engaged in caregiving interactions with adolescents. The survey consisted of 15 closed items and seven open comment items. Closed items were analyzed using descriptive statistics and open comments were analyzed using manifest thematic coding. RESULTS: A total of 389 responses were received, representing health care providers in many disciplines. A variety of practices related to adolescent confidentiality and widespread misunderstanding of this issue were apparent. Respondents’ comments revealed individual and team knowledge gaps regarding adolescent and parent/guardian rights, and the difference between the constructs of consent to treatment and the provision of confidential health care for adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: While health care providers regard confidentiality as paramount, the present survey revealed a wide variation in understanding and practices regarding confidential care for adolescents. This was revealed in both the qualitative and quantitative data. The authors’ recommended strategies to improve the understanding and practice of adolescent confidentiality include: encouraging individuals’ examination of beliefs; postsecondary instruction; knowledge-translation strategies within programs; and institution-directed guidelines and policy. PMID

  19. Health Outcome after Major Trauma: What Are We Measuring?

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Karen; Cole, Elaine; Playford, E. Diane; Grill, Eva; Soberg, Helene L.; Brohi, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Importance Trauma is a global disease and is among the leading causes of disability in the world. The importance of outcome beyond trauma survival has been recognised over the last decade. Despite this there is no internationally agreed approach for assessment of health outcome and rehabilitation of trauma patients. Objective To systematically examine to what extent outcomes measures evaluate health outcomes in patients with major trauma. Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL (from 2006–2012) were searched for studies evaluating health outcome after traumatic injuries. Study selection and data extraction Studies of adult patients with injuries involving at least two body areas or organ systems were included. Information on study design, outcome measures used, sample size and outcomes were extracted. The World Health Organisation International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) were used to evaluate to what extent outcome measures captured health impacts. Results 34 studies from 755 studies were included in the review. 38 outcome measures were identified. 21 outcome measures were used only once and only five were used in three or more studies. Only 6% of all possible health impacts were captured. Concepts related to activity and participation were the most represented but still only captured 12% of all possible concepts in this domain. Measures performed very poorly in capturing concepts related to body function (5%), functional activities (11%) and environmental factors (2%). Conclusion Outcome measures used in major trauma capture only a small proportion of health impacts. There is no inclusive classification for measuring disability or health outcome following trauma. The ICF may provide a useful framework for the development of a comprehensive health outcome measure for trauma care. PMID:25051353

  20. Analyzing the outcomes of health promotion practices.

    PubMed

    Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes; Arruda, José Maria; Barroso, Maria Auxiliadora Bessa; Lobato Tavares, Maria de Fátima; Ribeiro Campos, Nora Zamith; Zandonadil, Regina Celi Moreira Basílio; da Rocha, Rosa Maria; Parreira, Clélia Maria de Souza Ferreira; Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Sperandio, Ana Maria Girotti; Correa, Carlos Roberto Silveira; Serrano, Miguel Malo

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on health promotion (HP) outcomes, illustrated through evaluation of case studies and identification of strategies which have contributed to their success and sustainability. Evaluation research and practice in three distinct sceneries are discussed: (i) institutional and governmental agencies; (ii) communities in the "Manguinhos Complex" and Nova Iguaqu Municipality, and (iii) building of potentially healthy municipality networks. The effectiveness of a social program in a health promotion perspective was based in the "School for Parents" program, undertaken by the First Court of Childhood and Youth of Rio de Janeiro, between 2001 and 2004. The analysis was grounded in the monitoring of 48 parents in charge of children under 18, who were victims of abuse, violence or negligence, and social exclusion, most of all. The study's objectives were: illustrating the evidence of effectiveness of health promotion, discussing the concept of HP effectiveness under macro unfavorable conditions, and identifying strategies that foster sustainability of results. Institutional resources included a multi-professional staff, multidisciplinary approaches, participatory workshops, family case management, partnership with public and private institutions, and volunteer and civil society sponsorship of the families. Evaluation was based on social impact indicators, and psychosocial and contextual determinants. Evaluation methods included program monitoring and quantitative-qualitative methods, through a longitudinal evaluation of 3 years, including one year post program. The evaluation showed highly favorable results concerning "family integration', "quality of family relations" and "human rights mobilization". Unsatisfactory results such as "lack of access to formal employment" are likely related to structural factors and the need for new public policies in areas such as education, professional training, housing, and access to formal employment. The training process

  1. Contextual and Intrapersonal Predictors of Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneyderman, Yuliya; Schwartz, Seth J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to test a model of contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behaviors and of sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. Using Waves I and II from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimated a structural model in which intrapersonal factors such as…

  2. Adolescent Sexuality and Parent-Adolescent Processes: Promoting Healthy Teen Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Bartholomae, Suzanne; Zentall, Shannon R.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on trends in adolescent sexual health, the relation between parenting and adolescent sexual outcomes, and adolescent sexuality interventions. Discusses parenting efforts related to adolescent sexual behavior. Examines adolescent sexuality programs with a parent component. Review of 19 programs supports the incorporation of theory and the…

  3. Discussing adolescent sexual health in African-American churches.

    PubMed

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Dodd, Darcy; Campbell, Bettina; Pichon, Latrice C; Griffith, Derek M

    2014-04-01

    This study describes the ways in which two African-American churches discuss adolescent sexual health topics. Six focus groups were conducted in two churches in Flint, Michigan, that reported no formal sexual health programming for their congregants. Three themes emerged to highlight the different perspectives about the role of churches in adolescent sexual decision-making and sexual health education: (1) churches as sources of sexual information, (2) churches as complex communities, and (3) recommendations for sexual education in churches. Participant responses suggest that churches can and should serve a resource for sexual health information. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  4. Adolescent pregnancies in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador: a rights and gender approach to adolescents' sexual and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Goicolea, Isabel

    2010-06-24

    In the Andean region of Latin America over one million adolescent girls get pregnant every year. Adolescent pregnancy (AP) has been associated with adverse health and social outcomes, but it has also been favorably viewed as a pathway to adulthood. AP can also be conceptualized as a marker of inequity, since it disproportionately affects girls from the poorest households and those who have not been able to attend school.Using results from a study carried out in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador, this paper explores APs and adolescents' sexual and reproductive health from a rights and gender approach. The paper points out the main features of a rights and gender approach, and how it can be applied to explore APs. Afterward it describes the methodologies (quantitative and qualitative) and main results of the study, framing the findings within the rights and gender approach. Finally, some implications that could be generalizable to global reserach on APs are highlighted.The application of the rights and gender framework to explore APs contributes to a more integral view of the issue. The rights and gender framework stresses the importance of the interaction between rights-holders and duty-bearers on the realization of sexual and reproductive rights, and acknowledges the importance of gender-power relations on sexual and reproductive decisions. A rights and gender approach could lead to more integral and constructive interventions, and it could also be useful when exploring other sexual and reproductive health matters.

  5. Adolescent pregnancies in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador: a rights and gender approach to adolescents' sexual and reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Goicolea, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    In the Andean region of Latin America over one million adolescent girls get pregnant every year. Adolescent pregnancy (AP) has been associated with adverse health and social outcomes, but it has also been favorably viewed as a pathway to adulthood. AP can also be conceptualized as a marker of inequity, since it disproportionately affects girls from the poorest households and those who have not been able to attend school. Using results from a study carried out in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador, this paper explores APs and adolescents' sexual and reproductive health from a rights and gender approach. The paper points out the main features of a rights and gender approach, and how it can be applied to explore APs. Afterward it describes the methodologies (quantitative and qualitative) and main results of the study, framing the findings within the rights and gender approach. Finally, some implications that could be generalizable to global reserach on APs are highlighted. The application of the rights and gender framework to explore APs contributes to a more integral view of the issue. The rights and gender framework stresses the importance of the interaction between rights-holders and duty-bearers on the realization of sexual and reproductive rights, and acknowledges the importance of gender–power relations on sexual and reproductive decisions. A rights and gender approach could lead to more integral and constructive interventions, and it could also be useful when exploring other sexual and reproductive health matters. PMID:20596248

  6. Adolescent Maturity and the Brain: The Promise and Pitfalls of Neuroscience Research in Adolescent Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sara B.; Blum, Robert W.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal neuroimaging studies demonstrate that the adolescent brain continues to mature well into the 20s. This has prompted intense interest in linking neuromaturation to maturity of judgment. Public policy is struggling to keep up with burgeoning interest in cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging. However, empirical evidence linking neurodevelopmental processes and adolescent real-world behavior remains sparse. Nonetheless, adolescent brain development research is already shaping public policy debates about when individuals should be considered mature for policy purposes. With this in mind, in this article we summarize what is known about adolescent brain development and what remains unknown, as well as what neuroscience can and cannot tell us about the adolescent brain and behavior. We suggest that a conceptual framework that situates brain science in the broader context of adolescent developmental research would help to facilitate research-to-policy translation. Furthermore, although contemporary discussions of adolescent maturity and the brain often use a deficit-based approach, there is enormous opportunity for brain science to illuminate the great strengths and potentialities of the adolescent brain. So, too, can this information inform policies that promote adolescent health and well-being. PMID:19699416

  7. The Influence of Family Functioning and Parent-Adolescent Acculturation on North American Chinese Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, D. Russell; Ngai, So Wa; Larson, Jeffry H.; Hafen, McArthur, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the associations between family functioning, acculturation between parents and their adolescents, and adolescent adjustment problems. Chinese adolescents and their parents (N=41) living in the United States and Canada participated in this study. Results showed that differences in acculturation between parents and…

  8. Handbook for Educating on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health. Book One, Understanding the Adolescents and Their Reproductive and Sexual Health: Guide to Better Educational Strategies [and] Book Two, Strategies and Materials on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Clearing House on Population Education and Communication.

    This two-part handbook presents information on educating adolescents about reproductive and sexual health issues. "Book One, Understanding the Adolescents and Their Reproductive and Sexual Health: Guide to Better Educational Strategies" focuses on the demographic profile of adolescents as well as their fertility, sexual behavior, incidence of…

  9. Health assets for adolescents: opinions from a neighbourhood in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Wilson, Patricia; Hernán, Mariano; Morgan, Antony R; Mena, Angel

    2015-09-01

    This study uses a health asset (HA) framework to explore current perspectives on health, wellbeing and their determinants amongst a group of 15-18-year-old adolescents living in the neighbourhood of Zaidin (Granada, Spain). The study was carried out in Summer 2011 using a qualitative approach. It included 20 semi-structured interviews, 2 focus groups with adolescents and 4 semi-structured interviews with key informants (adults who work with adolescents). Narrative data were analysed by means of content analysis methodology, considering the concept of health, HAs and how they are prioritized as dimensions for the analysis. The concept of health defined by adolescents involves physical, psychological and social dimensions. According to them, health is associated with happiness and quality of life. A range of HAs were identified and classified as internal (belonging to the adolescents) and external or contextual. Internal assets are classified into three types: personal traits (assets of 'being'), behaviour (assets of 'doing') and social resources which contribute to their feeling of health and well-being (assets of 'having'). The latter connects internal and external assets. The classification of HAs ('being', 'doing' and 'having') proposed in this study provides a useful starting framework of thinking about how these assets could be organized to support the development of health promotion programmes. The study highlights the opportunity for public policy to contribute to the improvement of the conditions and local scenarios that improve the possibilities for positive connections at the community level.

  10. Does class matter? SES and psychosocial health among Hungarian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Piko, B; Fitzpatrick, K M

    2001-09-01

    Previous research finds a significant relationship between socioeconomic inequalities and health status: individuals with lower income, education, and occupational prestige have and report more health problems. Interestingly, this relationship is not consistent across the life cycle: health differences among adolescents across socioeconomic groups are not as clearly defined. Using data (n = 1,039) on adolescents from southern Hungary, we examine the role of socioeconomic differences in predicting psychosocial health. We argue that this investigation is of particular importance in a post-communist system where the general perception of SES is undergoing significant transformation. Findings show that classical' SES (socioeconomic status) indicators (manual/nonmanual occupational status) were not significant predictors of psychosocial health in this sample of Hungarian adolescents. While parents' employment status as a 'objective' SES indicator had limited effect, SES self-assessment, as a subjective SES variable, proved to be a strong predictor of adolescents' psychosocial health. We discuss the implications of these findings for the broader SES-health literature with specific attention paid to the impact these relationships may have for adolescent and young adult development in a post-communist country like Hungary. PMID:11511056

  11. A Societal Outcomes Map for Health Research and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, Michele S.; Sarewitz, Daniel; Porter, Alan L.

    2006-01-01

    The linkages between decisions about health research and policy and actual health outcomes may be extraordinarily difficult to specify. We performed a pilot application of a “road mapping” and technology assessment technique to perinatal health to illustrate how this technique can clarify the relations between available options and improved health outcomes. We used a combination of data-mining techniques and qualitative analyses to set up the underlying structure of a societal health outcomes road map. Societal health outcomes road mapping may be a useful tool for enhancing the ability of the public health community, policymakers, and other stakeholders, such as research administrators, to understand health research and policy options. PMID:16449589

  12. Investing in very young adolescents' sexual and reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Igras, Susan M.; Macieira, Marjorie; Murphy, Elaine; Lundgren, Rebecka

    2014-01-01

    Very young adolescents (VYAs) between the ages of 10 and 14 represent about half of the 1.2 billion adolescents aged 10–19 in the world today. In lower- and middle-income countries, where most unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, maternal deaths and sexually transmitted infections occur, investment in positive youth development to promote sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is increasing. Most interventions, though, focus on older adolescents, overlooking VYAs. Since early adolescence marks a critical transition between childhood and older adolescence and adulthood, setting the stage for future SRH and gendered attitudes and behaviours, targeted investment in VYAs is imperative to lay foundations for healthy future relationships and positive SRH. This article advocates for such investments and identifies roles that policy-makers, donors, programme designers and researchers and evaluators can play to address the disparity. PMID:24824757

  13. Adolescents' Use of School-Based Health Clinics for Reproductive Health Services: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Describes adolescents' use of school-based health clinics (SBCs) for family planning and sexually transmitted disease (STD)-related services, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicated that 13 percent received family planning and 8.9 percent received STD-related services from SBCs. Factors affecting the…

  14. Determinants of Mental Health Service Use Among Depressed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Breland, David J.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Zhou, Chuan; McCauley, Elizabeth; Rockhill, Carol; Katon, Wayne; Richardson, Laura P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate determinants of mental health service use among depressed adolescents. Method We assessed mental health services use over the 12 months following screening among 113 adolescents (34 males, 79 females) from an integrated healthcare system who screened positive for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score > 11). Youth characteristics (demographics, depression severity, and co-morbidity) and parent characteristics (parent history of depression, parent-report of youth externalizing and internalizing problems) were compared among youth who had received mental health services and those who had not. Multivariate regression was used to evaluate the strongest factors associated with mental health service use. Results Overall, 52% of adolescents who screened positive for depression received mental health service in the year following screening. Higher parent-reported youth internalizing problems (OR 5.37 CI 1.77–16.35), parental history of depression/anxiety (OR 4.12 CI 1.36–12.48) were significant factors associated with mental health service use. Suicidality and functional impairment were not associated with increased mental health services use. Conclusion Parental factors including recognition of the adolescent’s internalizing symptoms and parental experience with depression/anxiety are strongly associated with mental health service use for depressed adolescents. This highlights the importance of educating parents about depression and developing systems to actively screen and engage youth in treatment for depression. PMID:24417955

  15. Caregiver experiences of discrimination and african american adolescents' psychological health over time.

    PubMed

    Ford, Kahlil R; Hurd, Noelle M; Jagers, Robert J; Sellers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of caregivers' experiences of racial discrimination on their adolescent children's psychological functioning among a sample of 264 African American dyads. Potential relations between caregiver discrimination experiences and a number of indicators of adolescents' (aged 12-17) psychological functioning over time were examined. It was found that caregiver discrimination experiences were positively related to adolescents' symptoms of depression and negatively related to their psychological well-being. Additional analysis revealed interactions between the effects of caregiver discrimination experiences and family income on all 3 outcomes. Greater caregiver discrimination experiences and lower family income were risk factors for the youth in the sample. These findings underscore the deleterious consequence of caregivers' discrimination experiences on African American youth's psychological health.

  16. Adolescents' and parents' views of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Coyne, I; McNamara, N; Healy, M; Gower, C; Sarkar, M; McNicholas, F

    2015-10-01

    Service user involvement is essential for quality care in the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). This study was conducted to explore adolescents' and parents' experiences of CAMHS in relation to accessibility, approachability and appropriateness. This study used a descriptive qualitative design, and focus groups and single interviews were conducted with adolescents (n = 15) and parents (n = 32) from three mental health clinics. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Accessing mental health services was a challenging experience for many parents and adolescents due to knowledge deficit, lack of information and limited availability of specialist services. Some parents and adolescents reported positive experiences while others reported negative experiences. They expressed a need for more information, involvement in decision making, flexible scheduling of appointments, school support and parent support groups. The nature and quality of the relationship with staff was critical to positive experience with the service; therefore, frequent changes of medical staff was disruptive. Mental health nurses can play a vital role in ensuring continuity, assessing adolescents' participation preferences and advocating for their information needs with other members of the interdisciplinary team. PMID:25977175

  17. Adolescent mental health as a risk factor for adolescent smoking onset

    PubMed Central

    Hockenberry, Jason M; Timmons, Edward J; Weg, Mark W Vander

    2011-01-01

    Smoking continues to be a leading cause of preventable deaths and rates of trying cigarettes and progression to daily smoking among adolescents continues to remain high. A plethora of risk factors for smoking among adolescents has been addressed in the research literature. One that is gaining particular interest is the relationship between adolescent mental health and smoking (both initiation and progression). This paper reviews the evidence for adolescent mental health as a risk factor for cigarette smoking. We focus on the specific mental health conditions that have been more thoroughly addressed as possible risk factors in community-dwelling adolescents. We discuss the multiple hypotheses that have been posited as to the nature of the relationship between adolescent mental health and smoking, as well as detailing so called third factors that may account for the observed relationship. We highlight the contribution of the existing studies to the body of knowledge on this topic, as well as the limitations and open questions that remain as a result. We conclude with discussion of a broad research agenda going forward. PMID:24600273

  18. Brief Intervention for Drug Abusing Adolescents in a School Setting: Outcomes and Mediating Factors

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Botzet, Andria; Lee, Susanne; Lalone, Britani

    2011-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated the use of two brief intervention conditions for adolescents (aged 12–18 years) who have been identified in a school setting as abusing alcohol and other drugs. Adolescents and their parent (N = 315) were randomly assigned to receive either a 2-session adolescent only (BI-A), 2-session adolescent and additional parent session (BI-AP), or assessment only control condition (CON). Interventions were manually guided and delivered in a school setting by trained counselors. Adolescents and parents were assessed at intake and at 6 months following the completion of the intervention. Analyses of relative (change from intake to 6-months) and absolute (status at 6-months) outcome variables indicated that for the most part, adolescents in the BI-A and BI-AP conditions showed significantly more reductions in drug use behaviors compared to the CON group. Also, youth receiving the BI-AP condition showed significantly better outcomes compared to the BI-A group on several variables. Problem-solving skills and utilization of additional counseling services mediated outcome. The value of a school-based brief intervention for students is discussed. PMID:22000326

  19. Adolescent Civic Engagement and Adult Outcomes: An Examination among Urban Racial Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wing Yi; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Civic engagement in adolescence is encouraged because it is hypothesized to promote better civic, social, and behavioral outcomes. However, few studies have examined the effects of civic engagement on youth development over time. In particular, the long-term association between adolescent civic engagement and development among racial minority youth who are exposed to high levels of risk factors is understudied. Using data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS; N = 854; 56.6% were female; 93% were African Americans and 7% were Latinos), this study examined the associations between civic engagement in adolescence and outcomes during emerging adulthood among racial minority youth. Regression analyses found that civic engagement in adolescence is related to higher life satisfaction, civic participation, and educational attainment, and is related to lower rates of arrest in emerging adulthood. The findings suggest that adolescent civic engagement is most impactful in affecting civic and educational outcomes in emerging adulthood. The present study contributes to the literature by providing support for the long-term associations between adolescent civic engagement and multiple developmental domains in adulthood among an inner-city minority cohort. PMID:24878896

  20. Adolescent civic engagement and adult outcomes: an examination among urban racial minorities.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wing Yi; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2014-11-01

    Civic engagement in adolescence is encouraged because it is hypothesized to promote better civic, social, and behavioral outcomes. However, few studies have examined the effects of civic engagement on youth development over time. In particular, the long-term association between adolescent civic engagement and development among racial minority youth who are exposed to high levels of risk factors is understudied. Using data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS; N = 854; 56.6 % were female; 93 % were African Americans and 7 % were Latinos), this study examined the associations between civic engagement in adolescence and outcomes during emerging adulthood among racial minority youth. Regression analyses found that civic engagement in adolescence is related to higher life satisfaction, civic participation, and educational attainment, and is related to lower rates of arrest in emerging adulthood. The findings suggest that adolescent civic engagement is most impactful in affecting civic and educational outcomes in emerging adulthood. The present study contributes to the literature by providing support for the long-term associations between adolescent civic engagement and multiple developmental domains in adulthood among an inner-city minority cohort.

  1. Depressive Symptoms and Health-Related Risk-Taking in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, C. Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear…

  2. Outcomes Assessment Planning: An Overview with Applications in Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Ava M.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of the process of outcomes assessment and examples of its application in professional health science education. Provides a background for other articles in this issue describing ongoing activities in outcomes assessment in veterinary education and for programs considering developing a plan. Focuses on health professions…

  3. Problem-Based Learning: Outcomes Evidence from the Health Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Mark A.; Dast, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, problem-based learning (PBL) has become a major force in health professions education and even in the broader educational world. This article focuses on the outcomes that have been found from using PBL in the health professions based on at least 20 reviews done since 1990. The outcomes identified in these reviews are…

  4. Adolescents' experience with workplace aggression: school health implications.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carolyn R; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gillespie, Gordon L; Beery, Theresa A; Gates, Donna M

    2013-12-01

    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future workplace aggression. Semistructured interviews were used to gather participants' proposed responses to a series of hypothetical aggressive incidents in the workplace. Conventional content analysis identified patterns and themes among the participants' responses. Results indicated adolescent employees' proposed responses to workplace aggression are similar to other forms of aggression such as peer-bullying and teen dating violence. Education and training are needed within the school setting to promote appropriate responses to various forms of aggression encountered by adolescents. Implications for school health professionals' involvement in addressing responses to such aggression and further research opportunities are explored.

  5. Two-year outcomes of an adjunctive telephone coaching and electronic contact intervention for adolescent weight-loss maintenance: the Loozit randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, B; Shrewsbury, V A; O'Connor, J; Steinbeck, K S; Hill, A J; Shah, S; Kohn, M R; Torvaldsen, S; Baur, L A

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports the final 24-month outcomes of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of additional therapeutic contact (ATC) as an adjunct to a community-based weight-management program for overweight and obese 13-16-year-olds. ATC involved telephone coaching or short-message-service and/or email communication once per fortnight. Adolescents were randomized to receive the Loozit group program-a two-phase behavioral lifestyle intervention with (n=73), or without (n=78), ATC in Phase 2. Adolescents/parents separately attended seven weekly group sessions (Phase 1), followed by quarterly adolescent sessions (Phase 2). Assessor-blinded, 24-month changes in anthropometry and metabolic health included primary outcomes body mass index (BMI) z-score and waist:height ratio (WHtR). Secondary outcomes were self-reported psychosocial and lifestyle changes. By 24 months, 17 adolescents had formally withdrawn. Relative to the Loozit program alone, ATC largely had no impact on outcomes. Secondary pre-post assessment of the Loozit group program showed mean (95% CI) reductions in BMI z-score (-0.13 (-0.20, -0.06)) and WHtR (-0.02 (-0.03, -0.01)) in both arms, with several metabolic and psychosocial improvements. Adjunctive ATC did not provide further benefits to the Loozit group program. We recommend that further work is needed to optimize technological support for adolescents in weight-loss maintenance. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number ACTRNO12606000175572.

  6. Prevalence and Mental Health Correlates of Witnessed Parental and Community Violence in a National Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi; Hanson, Rochelle; Smith, Daniel; Saunders, Benjamin; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although research suggests that witnessed violence is linked to adverse mental health outcomes among adolescents, little is known about its prevalence or its significance in predicting psychiatric symptoms beyond the contribution of co-occurring risk factors. The purpose of this study was to identify the national prevalence of…

  7. 42 CFR 460.202 - Participant health outcomes data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Participant health outcomes data. 460.202 Section 460.202 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Data Collection, Record Maintenance, and Reporting § 460.202 Participant...

  8. 42 CFR 460.202 - Participant health outcomes data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Participant health outcomes data. 460.202 Section 460.202 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Data Collection, Record Maintenance, and Reporting § 460.202 Participant...

  9. 42 CFR 460.202 - Participant health outcomes data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participant health outcomes data. 460.202 Section 460.202 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Data Collection, Record Maintenance, and Reporting § 460.202 Participant...

  10. 42 CFR 460.202 - Participant health outcomes data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Participant health outcomes data. 460.202 Section 460.202 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Data Collection, Record Maintenance, and Reporting § 460.202 Participant...

  11. 42 CFR 460.202 - Participant health outcomes data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Participant health outcomes data. 460.202 Section 460.202 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Data Collection, Record Maintenance, and Reporting § 460.202 Participant...

  12. [Effects of family or school disconnection on adolescents' health].

    PubMed

    Demerval, R; Cartierre, N; Coulon, N

    2003-03-01

    This article presents research on the health of adolescents who are in situations of either family or school detachment. Fourteen health indicators were used to investigate the physical, social and psychological well-being of adolescents. In addition, two separate scales were constructed to take into account family and school disengagement. As anticipated, the results prove that detachment from either family or school has a negative impact on health and this effect is amplified in cases of double detachment--both from family and school. The results also suggest an effect of contextual resilience since the school can play a protective role in for the health of adolescents who are in a situation of family disaffiliation. This research emphasises the need to analyse the risk and protective factors within a developmental and ecological theoretical framework to allow for the consideration of the dynamics involved between the different areas of life which are significant for an individual at a given moment in his development.

  13. Coordination between child welfare agencies and mental health providers, children's service use, and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yu; Wells, Rebecca; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Interorganizational relationships (IORs) between child welfare agencies and mental health service providers may facilitate mental health treatment access for vulnerable children. This study investigates whether IORs are associated with greater use of mental health services and improvement in mental health status for children served by the child welfare system. Methods This was a longitudinal analysis of data from a 36 month period in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW). The sample consisted of 1,613 children within 75 child welfare agencies who were 2 years or older and had mental health problems at baseline. IOR intensity was measured as the number of coordination approaches between each child welfare agency and mental health service providers. Separate weighted multilevel logistic regression models tested associations between IORs and service use and outcomes, respectively. Results Agency level factors accounted for 9% of the variance in the probability of service use and 12% of mental health improvement. Greater intensity of IORs was associated with higher likelihood of both service use and mental health improvement. Conclusions Having greater numbers of ties with mental health providers may help child welfare agencies improve children's mental health service access and outcomes. Practice Implications Policymakers should develop policies and initiatives to encourage a combination of different types of organizational ties between child welfare and mental health systems. For instance, information sharing at the agency level in addition to coordination at the case level may improve the coordination necessary to serve these vulnerable children. PMID:19473702

  14. Low Back Pain in Adolescents: A Comparison of Clinical Outcomes in Sports Participants and Nonparticipants

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Julie M.; Clifford, Shannon N.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Back pain is common in adolescents. Participation in sports has been identified as a risk factor for the development of back pain in adolescents, but the influence of sports participation on treatment outcomes in adolescents has not been adequately examined. Objective: To examine the clinical outcomes of rehabilitation for adolescents with low back pain (LBP) and to evaluate the influence of sports participation on outcomes. Design: Observational study. Setting: Outpatient physical therapy clinics. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-eight adolescents (age  =  15.40 ± 1.44 years; 56.90% female) with LBP referred for treatment. Twenty-three patients (39.66%) had developed back pain from sports participation. Intervention(s): Patients completed the Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire and numeric pain rating before and after treatment. Treatment duration and content were at the clinician's discretion. Adolescents were categorized as sports participants if the onset of back pain was linked to organized sports. Additional data collected included diagnostic imaging before referral, clinical characteristics, and medical diagnosis. Main Outcome Measure(s): Baseline characteristics were compared based on sports participation. The influence of sports participation on outcomes was examined using a repeated-measures analysis of covariance with the Oswestry and pain scores as dependent variables. The number of sessions and duration of care were compared using t tests. Results: Many adolescents with LBP receiving outpatient physical therapy treatment were involved in sports and cited sports participation as a causative factor for their LBP. Some differences in baseline characteristics and clinical treatment outcomes were noted between sports participants and nonparticipants. Sports participants were more likely to undergo magnetic resonance imaging before referral (P  =  .013), attended more sessions (mean difference  =  1.40, 95

  15. One-Year Outcomes and Mediators of a Brief Intervention for Drug Abusing Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C.; Lee, Susanne; Botzet, Andria; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Nicholson, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Two manually-guided brief interventions were evaluated with a randomized controlled trial. Adolescents (aged 13-17 years) suspected of abusing alcohol and other drugs and their parent were randomly assigned to receive either a 2-session adolescent only (BI-A), 2-session adolescent and additional parent session (BI-AP), or assessment only control condition (CON). Adolescents were identified in a school setting and the intervention was delivered by trained counselors. Outcome analyses (N=284; 90% of those enrolled) of relative change (from intake to 12-months) and absolute status (at 12-months) revealed a general pattern of reductions in drug use behaviors, particularly with the cannabis outcome measures, in both active conditions (BI-A and BI-AP). Students in the control condition showed worse outcome compared to the BI-A and BI-AP groups. Among the four mediating variables measured at 6-months, use of additional services, motivation to change and parenting practices had significant influences on 12-month outcome; problem solving skills approached significance as a mediator. The potential value of a brief intervention for drug abusing adolescents is discussed. PMID:24955669

  16. The relationship between child maltreatment and substance abuse treatment outcomes among emerging adults and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Smith, Douglas C; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment.

  17. Analysis of adolescents' beliefs about the outcome of using dental floss and drinking non-sugared mineral water.

    PubMed

    Astrøm, A N; Rise, J

    1996-06-01

    Using an expectancy value approach, personal and normative beliefs about the outcome of using dental floss and drinking non-sugared mineral water were studied in a sample of 970 15-year-old adolescents in the county of Hordaland in Norway. The data stem from a survey performed in October 1992. A detailed analysis of these beliefs provides information about which of them should be targeted in a persuasive communication directed at changing behavior. The adolescents evaluated six outcomes of each behavior in terms of how much they wanted or feared them, and rated the probability of each outcomes happening. The adolescents also rated the probability that four significant referents would approve the performance of each behavior and how much they valued the approval of each referent. Subjects with relatively strong and relatively weak intentions to use dental floss and to drink non-sugared mineral water (intenders and non-intenders) were compared with respect to their scores on each measure. A one-way analysis of variance showed consistent differences between intenders and non-intenders. Intenders were more likely to believe that the specified behaviors would result in positive outcomes and they evaluated these outcomes as more desirable than non-intenders. Intenders believed their referens, in particular dentists and parents, to be more concerned about whether or not to perform the specified behaviors than non-intenders. The most promising candidates for persuasive communication among behavioral beliefs with respect to the specified behaviors appeared to be reduced tooth decay and several non, health beliefs in terms of immediate social and sensory concerns. PMID:8871022

  18. Obesity in Children and Adolescents: Health Effects and Imaging Implications.

    PubMed

    Faguy, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are pandemic health problems, not just among the adult population, but in children and adolescents as well. This article presents information on the prevalence, causes, prevention, and treatment of overweight and obesity in young people, with particular focus on the medical and psychological complications associated with the diseases. In addition, the challenges of imaging the obese pediatric population are discussed, and public policy changes that could help reverse obesity trends in children and adolescents are introduced.

  19. Cambodian refugee adolescents: cultural factors and mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Frye, B A; McGill, D

    1993-01-01

    Cambodian adolescents in America are a high-risk group for physical, psychosomatic, and drug-related problems. Communication with the Cambodian community is a challenge to mental health nurses due to fundamental differences in American and Cambodian perceptions about parental roles and causation and treatment of illness. The authors focus on the Cambodian cultural theme of equilibrium in treatment of illness, management of stress, and patterns of parenting. Conflicts faced by Cambodian adolescents and nursing intervention strategies are identified. PMID:8106981

  20. Rape-related symptoms in adolescents: short- and long-term outcome after cognitive behavior group therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bicanic, Iva; de Roos, Carlijn; van Wesel, Floryt; Sinnema, Gerben; van de Putte, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficacy studies on treatment in adolescent victims of single rape are lacking, even though sexual victimization is most likely to occur during adolescence and despite the fact that adolescents are at risk to develop subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Aim The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of a nine-session cognitive behavior group therapy (STEPS), including a parallel six-session parents’ group on rape-related symptomatology in female adolescents (13–18 years). STEPS includes psychoeducation, exposure in sensu as well as in vivo, cognitive restructuring, and relapse prevention. Methods Fifty-five female adolescents with mental health problems due to single rape, but without prior sexual trauma, received STEPS while their parents participated in a support group. Subjects were assessed on posttraumatic stress (PTS) and comorbid symptoms using self-report questionnaires prior to and directly after treatment, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Results Repeated measures analysis showed a significant and large decrease in symptoms of PTS, anxiety, depression, anger, dissociation, sexual concerns, and behavior problems directly after treatment, which maintained at 12 months follow-up. Time since trauma did not influence the results. Dropout during STEPS was 1.8%. Conclusions The results potentially suggest that the positive treatment outcomes at short- and long-term may be caused by STEPS. The encouraging findings need confirmation in future controlled studies on the effectiveness of STEPS because it may be possible that the treatment works especially well for more chronic symptoms, while the less chronic part of the sample showed considerable improvement on its own. PMID:24936285

  1. The Measurement of Adolescent Psychological Health: One or Two Dimensions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Ross B.; Walford, Wendy A.

    1998-01-01

    Measures of psychological health were administered to 345 late adolescents. A series of confirmatory factor analyses supported an oblique two-factor model of psychological health with measures of anxiety and negative affect defining a distress construct and measures of positive affect, satisfaction with life, and happiness defining a well-being…

  2. The Illinois 9th Grade Adolescent Health Survey. Full Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    A survey was conducted in Illinois to identify the risk of certain health problems among adolescents; to determine the health status of Illinois youth in relation to the Surgeon General's "Healthy People 2000 Objectives" and monitor progress toward national and state goals; and to help those working at national, state, and local levels develop…

  3. Mental Health and Help-Seeking among Ethnic Minority Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Lori A.; Adelman, Howard S.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on survey on mental health status and help-seeking behavior of adolescents of lower SES, ethnic minority backgrounds. Found mental health status was similar to that of nonminorities. Respondents reported low service utilization. Primary providers were school-based sources and medical personnel. Cognitive-affective factors are potential…

  4. Gender & Economic Status Matter in Mental Health of Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Namita; Dua, Radha

    2011-01-01

    Mental health is the ability to adjust oneself satisfactorily to the various strains of life. Mental health and Education are closely related to each other. Sound mental is prerequisite for the learner. In this era of severe competition to excel or to be on the top is pressurizing today's adolescents to the utmost. Besides a number of factors like…

  5. [Adolescent pregnancy, a public health problem].

    PubMed

    Viel Vicuna, B

    1986-01-01

    Throughout Western civilization the fundamental unit of society is the family. The union of a couple guarantees their responsibility to future children. Prior to the renaissance, when life expectancy was very low, the preservation of the human species required reproduction at a young age. Since the beginning of the 19th century, life expectancy has increased greatly. The extremes of reproductive age have been noted to be times when pregnancy carries increase risks, and the risks of grand multiparity have been noted. The sexual revolution has resulted in the loss of previous principles of conduct. Youth are incited by pornography in the media, and without the controlling influence of the traditional family, become sexually active at a younger age. In Chile, as elsewhere, there have always been out of wedlock births, but in 1970 these reached 18.5% of all births. By 1980, it had reached 27.6% of all births and 45.7% of births to mothers under age 20. Since the family is the basic unit of society, this number of illegitimate births indicates a grave social problem. This also represents a public health risk due to the increased risks of young mothers. Illegitimate children of adolescent mothers have the added problem that the fathers are usually also young, so both parents are still in school and cannot assume full responsibility for the child. These babies have a much higher infant mortality than those of older mothers. The only solution is education, and legislation requiring paternal responsibility. School teachers often have an inadequate knowledge of reproduction and sexuality, and can not serve as sources of information to the students. Without supportive education and legislation requiring both parents to be responsible for their children, we will not be able to solve this situation.

  6. Cognitive outcome varies in adolescents born preterm, depending on gestational age, intrauterine growth and neonatal complications

    PubMed Central

    Lundequist, Aiko; Böhm, Birgitta; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Forssberg, Hans; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate long-term cognitive outcome in a cohort of 18-year-olds born preterm and previously assessed at the age of 5.5. Methods We tested 134 adolescents born preterm with a very low birthweight of <1500 g and 94 term-born controls with a comprehensive cognitive battery at 18 years of age. The cohort was subdivided into 73 extremely preterm, 42 very preterm and 19 moderately preterm infants with gestational ages of 23–27, 28–31 and 32–36 weeks, respectively. The moderately preterm group was dominated by adolescents born small for gestational age. Results Very preterm adolescents performed on a par with term-born controls. In contrast, extremely preterm adolescents displayed inferior results on all cognitive tests, more so if they had suffered neonatal complications. Moderately preterm adolescents scored lower than very preterm and full-term born adolescents, particularly on complex cognitive tasks. Conclusion Adolescents born at 28 weeks of gestation or later, with appropriate birthweight and no perinatal complications, functioned like term-born peers at 18 years of age. Extremely preterm birth per se posed a risk for long-term cognitive deficits, particularly executive deficits. Adolescents born moderately preterm but small for gestational age were at risk of general cognitive deficits. PMID:25394225

  7. Polyvictimization, Income, and Ethnic Differences in Trauma-Related Mental Health During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Arthur R.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; López, Cristina M.; Metzger, Isha W.; de Arellano, Michael A. R.; Saunders, Ben; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to investigate ethnic differences in trauma-related mental health symptoms among adolescents, and test the mediating and moderating effects of polyvictimization (i.e., number of types of traumas/victimizations experienced by an individual) and household income, respectively. Methods Data were drawn from the first wave of the National Survey of Adolescents replication study (NSA-R), which took place in the U.S. in 2005 and utilized random digit dialing to administer a telephone survey to adolescents ages 12-17. Participants included in the current analyses were the 3,312 adolescents (50.2% female; Mean age = 14.67 years) from the original sample of 3,614 who identified as non-Hispanic White (n = 2,346, 70.8%), non-Hispanic Black (n = 557, 16.8%), or Hispanic (n = 409, 12.3%). Structural equation modeling was utilized to test hypothesized models. Results Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic participants reported higher levels of polyvictimization and trauma-related mental health symptoms (symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression) compared to non-Hispanic Whites, though the effect sizes were small (γ ≤ .07). Polyvictimization fully accounted for the differences in mental health symptoms between non-Hispanic Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites, and partially accounted for the differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. The relation between polyvictimization and trauma-related mental health symptoms was higher for low-income youth than for high-income youth. Conclusions Disparities in trauma exposure largely accounted for racial/ethnic disparities in trauma-related mental health. Children from low-income family environments appear to be at greater risk of negative mental health outcomes following trauma exposure compared to adolescents from high-income families. PMID:26048339

  8. [Impact of oral health teams of the Family Health Strategy on the oral health of adolescents in the south of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ely, Helenita Corrêa; Abegg, Claides; Celeste, Roger Keller; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal

    2016-05-01

    The Family Health Strategy (FHS) has produced effective results in health indicators. In this cross-sectional study, the impact of the oral health teams (OHT) of the Family Health Strategy was evaluated on the oral health of 2581 adolescent schoolchildren aged 12 and 15-19 years in 36 municipalities (19 with and 17 without OHT/FHS). Four dentists performed oral examinations. Socioeconomic status, the use of and access to health services were assessed via a structured questionnaire. The presence of the OHT in the FHS were the main independent variables. Outcomes were Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) and its components, toothache, gingival bleeding, and dental calculus. The data were analyzed by means of negative binomial and Poisson regression. Multilevel analysis was conducted to adjust the outcomes to OHT/FHS and individual variables. In the unadjusted model there was no association between the OHT in the FHS and the outcomes analyzed. After adjustment, young people in areas not covered by the OHT/FHS had almost half of the tooth loss of adolescents from the areas covered (RM = 0.64 CI 95%, 0.43 to 0.94). PMID:27166908

  9. The Smoking Outcome Expectation Scale and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficacy Scale for Early Adolescents: Instrument Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chen-Ju; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Tang, Fu-In; Yu, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Smoking-related outcome expectation and self-efficacy have been found to be associated with adolescent smoking initiation. There is, however, a lack of appropriate instruments to investigate early adolescents' smoking outcome expectations and antismoking self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Smoking Outcome…

  10. Role of Video Games in Improving Health-Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Carroll, Mary V.; McNamara, Megan; Klem, Mary Lou; King, Brandy; Rich, Michael O.; Chan, Chun W.; Nayak, Smita

    2012-01-01

    Context Video games represent a multibillion-dollar industry in the U.S. Although video gaming has been associated with many negative health consequences, it may also be useful for therapeutic purposes. The goal of this study was to determine whether video games may be useful in improving health outcomes. Evidence acquisition Literature searches were performed in February 2010 in six databases: the Center on Media and Child Health Database of Research, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Reference lists were hand-searched to identify additional studies. Only RCTs that tested the effect of video games on a positive, clinically relevant health consequence were included. Study selection criteria were strictly defined and applied by two researchers working independently. Study background information (e.g., location, funding source), sample data (e.g., number of study participants, demographics), intervention and control details, outcomes data, and quality measures were abstracted independently by two researchers. Evidence synthesis Of 1452 articles retrieved using the current search strategy, 38 met all criteria for inclusion. Eligible studies used video games to provide physical therapy, psychological therapy, improved disease self-management, health education, distraction from discomfort, increased physical activity, and skills training for clinicians. Among the 38 studies, a total of 195 health outcomes were examined. Video games improved 69% of psychological therapy outcomes, 59% of physical therapy outcomes, 50% of physical activity outcomes, 46% of clinician skills outcomes, 42% of health education outcomes, 42% of pain distraction outcomes, and 37% of disease self-management outcomes. Study quality was generally poor; for example, two thirds (66%) of studies had follow-up periods of <12 weeks, and only 11% of studies blinded researchers. Conclusions There is potential promise for video games to improve

  11. Mother-Child Discrepancy in Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Families Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Li, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Though growing attention has been devoted to examining informant discrepancies of family attributes in social science research, studies that examine how interactions between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning predict adolescent developmental outcomes in underprivileged families are severely lacking. The current study investigated the difference between mothers and adolescents in their reports of family functioning, as well as the relationships between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning and adolescent developmental outcomes in a sample of 432 Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years, 51.2 % girls, mean age of mothers = 43.5 years, 69.9 % divorced) experiencing economic disadvantage in Hong Kong. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to assess whether discrepancy in family functioning between mother reports and adolescent reports predicted resilience, beliefs in the future, cognitive competence, self-efficacy and self-determination of adolescents. The results indicated that adolescents reported family functioning more negatively than did their mothers. Polynomial regression analyses showed that the interaction term between mothers' reports and adolescents' reports of family functioning predicted adolescent developmental outcomes in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty. Basically, under poor adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescent development would be relatively better if their mothers reported more positive family functioning. In contrast, under good adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescents expressed better developmental outcomes when mothers reported lower levels of family functioning than those mothers who reported higher levels of family functioning. The findings provide insights on how congruency and discrepancy between informant reports of family functioning would influence adolescent development. Theoretical and practical implications of

  12. Mother-Child Discrepancy in Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Families Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Li, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Though growing attention has been devoted to examining informant discrepancies of family attributes in social science research, studies that examine how interactions between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning predict adolescent developmental outcomes in underprivileged families are severely lacking. The current study investigated the difference between mothers and adolescents in their reports of family functioning, as well as the relationships between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning and adolescent developmental outcomes in a sample of 432 Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years, 51.2 % girls, mean age of mothers = 43.5 years, 69.9 % divorced) experiencing economic disadvantage in Hong Kong. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to assess whether discrepancy in family functioning between mother reports and adolescent reports predicted resilience, beliefs in the future, cognitive competence, self-efficacy and self-determination of adolescents. The results indicated that adolescents reported family functioning more negatively than did their mothers. Polynomial regression analyses showed that the interaction term between mothers' reports and adolescents' reports of family functioning predicted adolescent developmental outcomes in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty. Basically, under poor adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescent development would be relatively better if their mothers reported more positive family functioning. In contrast, under good adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescents expressed better developmental outcomes when mothers reported lower levels of family functioning than those mothers who reported higher levels of family functioning. The findings provide insights on how congruency and discrepancy between informant reports of family functioning would influence adolescent development. Theoretical and practical implications of

  13. Adolescent health care: improving access by school-based service.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, C; Mulligan, D; Kaufman, A; Davis, S; Hunt, K; Kalishman, N; Wallerstein, N

    1985-10-01

    Participants in this discussion of the potential of school-based health care services for adolescents included family medicine physicians, school health coordinators, a school nurse, and a community worker. It was noted that health care for adolescents tends to be either inaccessible or underutilized, largely because of a lack of sensitivity to adolescent culture and values. An ideal service for adolescents would offer immediate services for crises, strict confidentiality, ready access to prescribed medications, a sliding-scale scheme, and a staff that is tolerant of divergent values and life-styles. School-based pilot adolescent clinics have been established by the University of New Mexico's Department of Family, Community, and Emergency Medicine to test the community-oriented health care model. On-site clinics provide urgent medical care, family planning, pregnancy testing, psychological counseling, alcohol and drug counseling, and classroom health education. Experience with these programs has demonstrated the necessity for an alliance among the health team and the school administration, parents, and students. Financial, ethical, and political factors can serve as constraints to school-based programs. In some cases, school administrators have been resistant to the provision of contraception to students on school grounds and parents have been unwilling to accept the adolescent's right to confidentiality. These problems in part stem from having 2 separate systems, each with its own values, orientation, and responsibilities, housed in 1 facility. In addition, there have been problems generating awareness of the school-based clinic among students. Health education theater groups, peer counseling, and student-run community services have been effective, however, in increasing student participation. It has been helpful to mold clinic services to meet the needs identified by teenagers themselves. There is an interest not only in curative services, but in services focused

  14. Forming ideas about health: A qualitative study of Ontario adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period of child development during which one's ideas about health are formed. However, little is known about the different contexts, experiences, and potential other factors that contribute to shaping the health ideas of adolescent populations, particularly when they are not seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10–16). A purposeful, criterion-based sampling strategy was used, and data were collected through seven focus groups (n=40). Findings indicate that while young people get their ideas about health through both didactic and organic learning contexts, the significant impact of organic learning is often overlooked. Categories of organic learning that emerged include self-reflective experience, the experience of close contacts, casually observing others, and common discourse. This study suggests that one central way that young people get their ideas about health is from living life: from the people they watch, the conversations that they have, and the experiences they live. Findings support the development of effective health promotion messages and also contribute to considering the place of some aspects of organic learning in the development of health-related resources that target adolescent populations. PMID:26015404

  15. Forming ideas about health: a qualitative study of Ontario adolescents.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period of child development during which one's ideas about health are formed. However, little is known about the different contexts, experiences, and potential other factors that contribute to shaping the health ideas of adolescent populations, particularly when they are not seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10-16). A purposeful, criterion-based sampling strategy was used, and data were collected through seven focus groups (n=40). Findings indicate that while young people get their ideas about health through both didactic and organic learning contexts, the significant impact of organic learning is often overlooked. Categories of organic learning that emerged include self-reflective experience, the experience of close contacts, casually observing others, and common discourse. This study suggests that one central way that young people get their ideas about health is from living life: from the people they watch, the conversations that they have, and the experiences they live. Findings support the development of effective health promotion messages and also contribute to considering the place of some aspects of organic learning in the development of health-related resources that target adolescent populations.

  16. Objectively measured sedentary behaviour and health and development in children and adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cliff, D P; Hesketh, K D; Vella, S A; Hinkley, T; Tsiros, M D; Ridgers, N D; Carver, A; Veitch, J; Parrish, A-M; Hardy, L L; Plotnikoff, R C; Okely, A D; Salmon, J; Lubans, D R

    2016-04-01

    Sedentary behaviour has emerged as a unique determinant of health in adults. Studies in children and adolescents have been less consistent. We reviewed the evidence to determine if the total volume and patterns (i.e. breaks and bouts) of objectively measured sedentary behaviour were associated with adverse health outcomes in young people, independent of moderate-intensity to vigorous-intensity physical activity. Four electronic databases (EMBASE MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, PubMed and Scopus) were searched (up to 12 November 2015) to retrieve studies among 2- to 18-year-olds, which used cross-sectional, longitudinal or experimental designs, and examined associations with health outcomes (adiposity, cardio-metabolic, fitness, respiratory, bone/musculoskeletal, psychosocial, cognition/academic achievement, gross motor development and other outcomes). Based on 88 eligible observational studies, level of evidence grading and quantitative meta-analyses indicated that there is limited available evidence that the total volume or patterns of sedentary behaviour are associated with health in children and adolescents when accounting for moderate-intensity to vigorous-intensity physical activity or focusing on studies with low risk of bias. Quality evidence from studies with robust designs and methods, objective measures of sitting, examining associations for various health outcomes, is needed to better understand if the overall volume or patterns of sedentary behaviour are independent determinants of health in children and adolescents. PMID:26914664

  17. Adolescent Academic Outcomes in School Context: Network Effects Reexamined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryabov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the role of racial/ethnic segregation and peer effects in shaping educational achievement and attainment, using multi-level modeling on a nationally representative sample of adolescents. As in many prior studies, school socioeconomic composition was a significant predictor of achievement and attainment for students of all…

  18. Casual Sex in Adolescence: Outcomes and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liace, Lisa K.; Nunez, Jessica B.; Luckner, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    Teenage sexual activity has arguably received more attention in the national media as of late than ever before. One is inundated with information concerning everything from alarming rises in the incidence and prevalence rates of sexually transmitted infections in adolescents and young adults to the latest round of suspensions (or even arrests)…

  19. Detrimental Psychological Outcomes Associated with Pubertal Timing in Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendle, Jane; Ferrero, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Though often discussed as a discrete event, puberty comprises one segment of a larger developmental continuum and is notable for rapid transformation across a multitude of domains. While an earlier timing of puberty relative to peers stands as one of the most well-replicated antecedents of adolescent difficulties for girls, findings have been less…

  20. Trajectories of Family Management Practices and Early Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth…

  1. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Adolescents' Sexual Outcomes: An Experiential Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential approach to teen pregnancy (TP) prevention called "Baby Think It Over," a computerized infant simulator, on adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding teen pregnancy and sexuality. Recently, a more realistic model called "Real Care Baby" was developed. The small amount of research on…

  2. Gender-Specific Outcomes for Sexually Abused Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, and…

  3. New trends in assessing the outcomes of mental health interventions

    PubMed Central

    Thornicroft, Graham; Slade, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the outcomes of interventions in mental health care is both important and challenging. The aim of this paper is to advance the field of outcomes research by proposing a taxonomy of the decisions that clinicians and researchers need to consider when evaluating outcomes. Our taxonomy has eight components, framed as decisions: Whose outcome will be considered? Which scientific stage is being investigated? What outcome domain(s) matter? What level of assessment will be used? Will clinical and/or recovery outcomes be assessed? Whose perspective will be considered? Will deficits and/or strengths be the focus? Will invariant or individualized measures be preferred? We propose a future focus on understanding what matters most to people using mental health services, and on the use of measures rated by service users as the primary approach to evaluating outcome. PMID:24890055

  4. Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions Page Content ​​What is ... younger than 2 years old, and children and adolescents with chronic health conditions are at greater risk ...

  5. Potential for using online and mobile education with parents and adolescents to impact sexual and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Lee, Jane J; Kantor, Leslie M; Levine, Deborah S; Baum, Sarah; Johnsen, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Research supports the central role of parents in the sexual health behaviors and outcomes of their adolescent children. Too often, parents and adolescents with the greatest sexual health disparities are difficult to reach and engage in preventative interventions. Online and mobile technologies (OMTs) represent an innovative opportunity to reach large numbers of youth and their parents. However, there is a dearth of information related to the feasibility and acceptability of OMT-delivered family interventions for reaching vulnerable youths--particularly, ethnic minority youths. The current manuscript addresses this gap in the empirical literature by examining the feasibility and acceptability of OMT-based parent-adolescent sexual health interventions for African American and Latino families. Focus groups were conducted with convenience samples of Latino and African Americans from six US cities. Fourteen focus groups (six parents and eight adolescents) with an average of 10-12 participants each provided data for the study. Researchers used inductive thematic analysis to evaluate data. The findings suggest that parents and adolescents were motivated to obtain sexual health information through OMTs due to their accessibility, widespread use, and ability to deliver large quantities of information. However, personalized and trustworthy information was viewed as less attainable through the Internet or similar digital means, presenting a potential barrier to delivering an adolescent sexual health intervention via OMTs. Sexual health interventions delivered through online and mobile mechanisms present a novel opportunity for reaching potentially at-risk ethnic minority adolescents and their parents. Feelings of discomfort surrounding OMT use with parents, generational differences, and parent-adolescent relationship quality must be considered when developing technology-based sexual health interventions for Latino and African American families.

  6. A friend request from dear old dad: associations between parent-child social networking and adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Day, Randal D; Harper, James; Stockdale, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parent-child social networking, connection, and outcomes for adolescents. Participants (491 adolescents and their parents) completed a number of questionnaires on social networking use, feelings of connection, and behavioral outcomes. Social networking with parents was associated with increased connection between parents and adolescents. Feelings of connection then mediated the relationship between social networking with parents and behavioral outcomes, including higher prosocial behavior and lower relational aggression and internalizing behavior. Conversely, adolescent social networking use without parents was associated with negative outcomes, such as increased relational aggression, internalizing behaviors, delinquency, and decreased feelings of connection. These results indicate that although high levels of social networking use may be problematic for some individuals, social networking with parents may potentially strengthen parent-child relationships and then lead to positive outcomes for adolescents.

  7. Adolescents' health behaviors and obesity: Does race affect this epidemic?

    PubMed Central

    Shelley, Mack C.; Hausafus, Cheryl O.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the influence of health behaviors and individual attributes on adolescent overweight and obesity using data from Wave II (Add Health). Structural equation model/path analysis using maximum likelihood estimation was utilized to analyze the relationships of health behaviors and attributes with obesity. Results of the model reveal that the causal paths (adolescents' attributes and health behaviors) for overweight and obesity were different for African American and Caucasian adolescents. Generally, African Americans were more susceptible to overweight and obesity than Caucasians. Although increasing levels of vigorous physical activities lowers the risk for obesity among African American and Caucasian adolescents alike, low family SES and being sedentary were associated with overweight and obesity among Caucasians. No significant associations were found among African Americans. Increased hours of sleep at night relate positively with obesity among African Americans. These findings suggest important elements in the consideration of race in developing effective intervention and prevention approaches for curbing the obesity epidemic among U.S. adolescents. PMID:21286412

  8. Tattooing: another adolescent risk behavior warranting health education.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, M L; Murphy, K P

    1997-11-01

    A cross-sectional, convenient sample of adolescents (N = 2101) from 8 states were queried regarding interest in tattooing. Permanent markings and blood-borne diseases were reasons respondents refrain from tattooing, yet 55% (n = 1159) expressed an interest in tattooing. Tattooed adolescents in the sample (10%, n = 213) responded with their experiences. Tattooing was frequently done around the 9th grade and as early as 8 years of age; over half (56%, n = 120) report academic grades of As and Bs. Potential health risks and definite psychosocial findings of purchase and possession risks were evident, building on data from a similar 1994 study by Armstrong and McConnell. Health providers and educators should initiate applicable health education and become community adolescent advocates regarding this risk-taking behavior. Findings indicate that adolescents who want a tattoo will obtain one, regardless of money, regulations, or risks. Adolescents view the tattoos as objects of self-identity and body art, whereas adults perceive the markings as deviant behavior. Informed decision-making could be promoted in health education by incorporating information about the possibility of blood-borne diseases, permanent markings, and themselves as growing and changing people. PMID:9419914

  9. Mental health care for children and adolescents worldwide: a review

    PubMed Central

    REMSCHMIDT, HELMUT; BELFER, MYRON

    2005-01-01

    The magnitude of mental health problems in children and adolescents has not been recognized sufficiently by many governments and decision-makers. This paper reviews the epidemiology of these problems as a basis for planning of services; the situation of mental health services for children and adolescents in the various regions of the world; the principles and strategies of intervention for mental health disorders in children and adolescents; and the role of international organizations and advocacy groups. It is concluded that old myths, treatments and policies are no longer to be tolerated and that there is now the opportunity to develop and implement evidence-based interventions, modern training programs and effective policies. PMID:16633533

  10. Complications and outcomes of repeat cesarean section in adolescent women

    PubMed Central

    Kaplanoglu, Mustafa; Karateke, Atilla; Un, Burak; Akgor, Utku; Baloğlu, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The evaluation of the effect of repeat cesarean sections in adolescent pregnancies on the morbidity, obstetric and perinatal results. Materials and methods: We reviewed the patient file and hospital records of patients who underwent at least one cesarean section among adolescent age group pregnant women who gave birth at our clinic between January 2010 and May 2013. The patients were divided into two groups as the patients who underwent the second cesarean section (116 patients) and those who underwent the third cesarean section (36 patients). The demographic data, maternal data and obstetric and perinatal results of the patients were evaluated. Results: A significant difference was present between the patients in the evaluation of the total number of examinations during pregnancy (P = 0.001), total maternal weight gain during pregnancy (P = 0.006), and the first examination gestational age (P = 0.006) and all values were less favorable in the third cesarean group. The gestational week at birth (P < 0.001), birth weight (P < 0.001), and APGAR score (P < 0.001) in the group with the third cesarean section were statistically significantly lower than the second cesarean section. The third cesarean cesarean was found to cause a significant risk increase for placenta accreta risk in adolescent pregnancies (P = 0.042). Conclusion: The increasing number of cesarean sections in the adolescent group is seen to be a significant risk factor for low gestational week of birth, low birth weight and related morbidities. The most important reason for the increased morbidity with increasing cesarean sections in the adolescent age has been defined as placenta accreta. PMID:25664081

  11. Callous unemotional traits in children with disruptive behavior disorder: Predictors of developmental trajectories and adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Pietro; Lochman, John E; Manfredi, Azzurra; Milone, Annarita; Nocentini, Annalaura; Pisano, Simone; Masi, Gabriele

    2016-02-28

    The present study investigated trajectories of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnosis followed-up from childhood to adolescence, to explore possible predictors of these trajectories, and to individuate adolescent clinical outcomes. A sample of 59 Italian referred children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder (53 boys and 6 girls, 21 with Conduct Disorder) was followed up from childhood to adolescence. CU traits were assessed with CU-scale of the Antisocial Process Screening Device-parent report. Latent growth curve models showed that CU traits are likely to decrease linearly from 9 to 15 years old, with a deceleration in adolescence (from 12 to 15). There was substantial individual variability in the rate of change of CU traits over time: patients with a minor decrease of CU symptoms during childhood were at increased risk for severe behavioral problems and substance use into adolescence. Although lower level of socio-economic status and lower level of parenting involvement were associated to elevated levels of CU traits at baseline evaluation, none of the considered clinical and environmental factors predicted the levels of CU traits. The current longitudinal research suggests that adolescent outcomes of Disruptive Behavior Disorder be influenced by CU traits trajectories during childhood. PMID:26791396

  12. Developmental cascade effects of the New Beginnings Program on adolescent adaptation outcomes.

    PubMed

    McClain, Darya Bonds; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Winslow, Emily; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N; Millsap, Roger E

    2010-11-01

    Using data from a 6-year longitudinal follow-up sample of 240 youth who participated in a randomized experimental trial of a preventive intervention for divorced families with children ages 9-12, the current study tested alternative cascading pathways by which the intervention decreased symptoms of internalizing disorders, symptoms of externalizing disorders, substance use, and risky sexual behavior and increased self-esteem and academic performance in mid- to late adolescence (15-19 years old). It was hypothesized that the impact of the program on adolescent adaptation outcomes would be explained by progressive associations between program-induced changes in parenting and youth adaptation outcomes. The results supported a cascading model of program effects in which the program was related to increased mother-child relationship quality that was related to subsequent decreases in child internalizing problems, which then was related to subsequent increases in self-esteem and decreases in symptoms of internalizing disorders in adolescence. The results were also consistent with a model in which the program increased maternal effective discipline that was related to decreased child externalizing problems, which was related to subsequent decreases in symptoms of externalizing disorders, less substance use, and better academic performance in adolescence. There were no significant differences in the model based on level of baseline risk or adolescent gender. These results provide support for a cascading pathways model of child and adolescent development.

  13. Developmental Cascade Effects of the New Beginnings Program on Adolescent Adaptation Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bonds, Darya D.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Winslow, Emily; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from a 6-year longitudinal follow-up sample of 240 youth who participated in a randomized experimental trial of a preventive intervention for divorced families with children ages 9–12, the current study tested alternative cascading pathways by which the intervention decreased symptoms of internalizing disorders, symptoms of externalizing disorders, substance use, and risky sexual behavior, and increased self-esteem and academic performance in mid-to late-adolescence (15–19 years old). It was hypothesized that the impact of the program on adolescent adaptation outcomes would be explained by progressive associations between program-induced changes in parenting and youth adaptation outcomes. The results supported a cascading model of program effects in which the program was related to increased mother-child relationship quality, which was related to subsequent decreases in child internalizing problems, which then was related to subsequent increases in self-esteem and decreases in symptoms of internalizing disorders in adolescence. The results also were consistent with a model in which the program was related to increased maternal effective discipline, which was related to subsequent decreases in child externalizing problems, which then was related to subsequent decreases in symptoms of externalizing disorders, less substance use and better academic performance in adolescence. There were no significant differences in the model based on level of baseline risk or adolescent gender. These results provide support for a cascading pathways model of child and adolescent development. PMID:20883581

  14. Assessment of health-related quality of life in children and adolescents: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Spieth, L E; Harris, C V

    1996-04-01

    Reviewed and integrated the medical and psychological literature on the assessment of health-related quality of life (QOL) in pediatric populations. Definitions of QOL and the utility, health status, battery, and modular approaches to QOL assessment are presented. Measures currently available for use with children and adolescents were evaluated with respect to psychometric properties, QOL domains included, targeted age range, mode of administration, number of items, and time period assessed. The need to address methodological issues and practical barriers so as to encourage the inclusion of QOL outcomes in future clinical trials and other research is discussed.

  15. Healthy Sex and Sexual Health: New Directions for Studying Outcomes of Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Vasilenko, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social…

  16. Mental health of transgender youth in care at an adolescent urban community health center: A matched retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Vetters, Ralph; Leclerc, M; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Shumer, Daniel; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Transgender youth represent a vulnerable population at risk for negative mental health outcomes including depression, anxiety, self-harm, and suicidality. Limited data exists to compare the mental health of transgender adolescents and emerging adults to cisgender youth accessing community-based clinical services; the current study aimed to fill this gap. Methods A retrospective cohort study of electronic health record (EHR) data from 180 transgender patients age 12–29 years seen between 2002–2011 at a Boston-based community health center was performed. The 106 female-to-male (FTM) and 74 male-to-female (MTF) patients were matched on gender identity, age, visit date, and race/ethnicity to cisgender controls. Mental health outcomes were extracted and analyzed using conditional logistic regression models. Logistic regression models compared FTM to MTF youth on mental health outcomes. Results The sample (n=360) had a mean age of 19.6 (SD=3.0); 43% white, 33% racial/ethnic minority, and 24% race/ethnicity unknown. Compared to cisgender matched controls, transgender youth had a two- to three-fold increased risk of depression, anxiety disorder, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, self-harm without lethal intent, and both inpatient and outpatient mental health treatment (all p<0.05). No statistically significant differences in mental health outcomes were observed comparing FTM and MTF patients, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and hormone use. Conclusions Transgender youth were found to have a disparity in negative mental health outcomes compared to cisgender youth, with equally high burden in FTM and MTF patients. Identifying gender identity differences in clinical settings and providing appropriate services and supports are important steps in addressing this disparity. PMID:25577670

  17. "Peer" educator initiatives for adolescent reproductive health projects in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hull, Terence H; Hasmi, Eddy; Widyantoro, Ninuk

    2004-05-01

    Since the ICPD in 1994, the Government of Indonesia has struggled with the challenge of providing sexual and reproductive health education to adolescents. Following an attempt at a family-centred approach, a pilot project was carried out in Central and East Java to train peer educators, coordinated by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN). A total of 80 peer educators (male/female teams) carried out small-group information sessions in ten different districts. Over 1,300 adolescents attended in all. Forty peer counsellors in 20 teams then carried out five outreach sessions each in their communities, attended by nearly 4,000 adults and adolescents. Educators chosen were older in age, knowledge level, authority and communication skills than adolescents, but were well accepted as mentors. Adolescents wanted to know how to deal with sexual relationships and feelings, unwanted pregnancy and STDs. With 42 million Indonesian adolescents needing information, the government cannot produce enough manuals to satisfy demand. New strategies are required to put information in the public domain, e.g. via the media. The approach described in this paper would probably be beyond the staffing and resource capacity of most districts in Indonesia. Nonetheless, it shows that there was great enthusiasm across a variety of communities for efforts to educate young people on protecting their reproductive health.

  18. Health-Promoting and Health-Compromising Behaviors among Minority Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Dawn K., Ed.; Rodrigue, James R., Ed.; Taylor, Wendell C., Ed.

    This book examines the importance of advocating healthy lifestyles among minority adolescents, who are at increased risk for particular health problems. The three central themes: highlight similarities and differences across diverse ethnic groups of adolescents while respecting their heterogeneity; emphasize innovative and culturally based…

  19. From Advocacy to Action in Global Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    Patton, George C; Sawyer, Susan M; Ross, David A; Viner, Russell M; Santelli, John S

    2016-10-01

    In May 2016, The Lancet published a report titled, "Our Future: A Lancet Commission on Adolescent Health and Wellbeing," the culmination of three years of work from a geographically diverse interdisciplinary group. The report argued that healthy growth across adolescence and young adulthood shapes life course and intergenerational trajectories so that health investments yield a "triple dividend." With current global interest in adolescent health at an unprecedented level, it outlines three next steps to advance from advocacy to effective action: (1) there is a pressing need for comprehensive and integrated strategies, inclusive of, but extending beyond, sexual and reproductive health, and HIV; (2) interventions should address both adolescent health service coverage and determinants of health that lie in sectors such as education, justice, transport, and industry and employment, as well as families and local communities; and (3) scale-up of responses will require not only investments in country-level capacities for measuring need and responding with evidence-based practice but also the establishment of processes for accountability and meaningful youth engagement. PMID:27664465

  20. From Advocacy to Action in Global Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    Patton, George C; Sawyer, Susan M; Ross, David A; Viner, Russell M; Santelli, John S

    2016-10-01

    In May 2016, The Lancet published a report titled, "Our Future: A Lancet Commission on Adolescent Health and Wellbeing," the culmination of three years of work from a geographically diverse interdisciplinary group. The report argued that healthy growth across adolescence and young adulthood shapes life course and intergenerational trajectories so that health investments yield a "triple dividend." With current global interest in adolescent health at an unprecedented level, it outlines three next steps to advance from advocacy to effective action: (1) there is a pressing need for comprehensive and integrated strategies, inclusive of, but extending beyond, sexual and reproductive health, and HIV; (2) interventions should address both adolescent health service coverage and determinants of health that lie in sectors such as education, justice, transport, and industry and employment, as well as families and local communities; and (3) scale-up of responses will require not only investments in country-level capacities for measuring need and responding with evidence-based practice but also the establishment of processes for accountability and meaningful youth engagement.