Science.gov

Sample records for adolescent health problems

  1. Adolescent Health Problems: Behavioral Perspectives. Advances in Pediatric Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…

  2. [Adolescent pregnancy, a public health problem].

    PubMed

    Viel Vicuna, B

    1986-01-01

    Throughout Western civilization the fundamental unit of society is the family. The union of a couple guarantees their responsibility to future children. Prior to the renaissance, when life expectancy was very low, the preservation of the human species required reproduction at a young age. Since the beginning of the 19th century, life expectancy has increased greatly. The extremes of reproductive age have been noted to be times when pregnancy carries increase risks, and the risks of grand multiparity have been noted. The sexual revolution has resulted in the loss of previous principles of conduct. Youth are incited by pornography in the media, and without the controlling influence of the traditional family, become sexually active at a younger age. In Chile, as elsewhere, there have always been out of wedlock births, but in 1970 these reached 18.5% of all births. By 1980, it had reached 27.6% of all births and 45.7% of births to mothers under age 20. Since the family is the basic unit of society, this number of illegitimate births indicates a grave social problem. This also represents a public health risk due to the increased risks of young mothers. Illegitimate children of adolescent mothers have the added problem that the fathers are usually also young, so both parents are still in school and cannot assume full responsibility for the child. These babies have a much higher infant mortality than those of older mothers. The only solution is education, and legislation requiring paternal responsibility. School teachers often have an inadequate knowledge of reproduction and sexuality, and can not serve as sources of information to the students. Without supportive education and legislation requiring both parents to be responsible for their children, we will not be able to solve this situation.

  3. Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report finds that adolescent smoking, drinking, misusing prescription drugs and using illegal drugs is, by any measure, a public health problem of epidemic proportion, presenting clear and present danger to millions of America's teenagers and severe and expensive long-range consequences for the entire population. This report is a wake-up call…

  4. Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peggy B.; Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the frequency and nature of mental health problems and symptoms among a group of 51 inner city male adolescents attending a teen health clinic. Results indicated participants experienced significant mental health problems and symptoms, such as relationship problems, problems with time and money, and symptoms of anger, depression, and…

  5. Electronic media, violence, and adolescents: an emerging public health problem.

    PubMed

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Hertz, Marci Feldman

    2007-12-01

    Adolescents' access to and use of new media technology (e.g., cell phone, personal data assistant, computer for Internet access) are on the rise, and this explosion of technology brings with it potential benefits and risks. Attention is growing about the risk of adolescents to become victims of aggression perpetrated by peers with new technology. In September 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a panel of experts in technology and youth aggression to examine this specific risk. This special issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health presents the data and recommendations for future directions discussed at the meeting. The articles in the Journal support the argument that electronic aggression is an emerging public health problem in need of additional prevalence and etiological research to support the development and evaluation of effective prevention programs. PMID:18047940

  6. Adolescents' Views about an Internet Platform for Adolescents with Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havas, Jano; de Nooijer, Jascha; Crutzen, Rik; Feron, Frans

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the needs and views of adolescents regarding the development of online support for mental health problems. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured qualitative focus group interviews were conducted with ten groups of Dutch adolescents (n=106), aged 12-19 years, from four urban secondary schools…

  7. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, H; Gmeiner, A; Poggenpoel, M

    1999-06-01

    No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, "psychosis" or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenon-analysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set. The guidelines are set for the management of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Interviews with experts in Satanism were conducted, literature in the form of books, magazines and newspaper-clippings were used to verify the research findings. The most important guidelines are that the caregivers have to be reborn Christians; they are not allowed to show any fear or sympathy; they must have sufficient knowledge about Satanism; the adolescents have to be unconditionally accepted; the caregivers have to work in a team and the adolescents have to be taught to deal with their emotions.

  8. [Adolescents previously involved in Satanism: mental health problems experience].

    PubMed

    Heathcote, H; Gmeiner, A; Poggenpoel, M

    1998-03-01

    As far as the phenomena of adolescents previously involved with satanism that experience obstacles in the strive for mental health, no research has previously been done. Adolescents previously involved in satanism, presents behaviour problems like aggressive outbursts depression, "psychosis", or suicide attempts that can even lead to suicide. In the phenomena-analysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews with the respondents and their parents, were performed. The respondents were requested to write a naive sketch about there life. After the data-control was done, guidelines for nursing staff had been set. The guidelines are set for the management of adolescents that has previously been involved in satanism, and experiences obstacles in their strive for mental health. Interviews with experts in satanism was done, literature in the form of books, magazines and newsclippings were used to verify the findings in the research. The most important guidelines are that: the caregivers have to be reborn Christians; they are not allowed to show, any fear or sympathy; they have to have sufficient knowledge about satanism; the adolescent has to be unconditionally accepted; the caregivers have to work in a team; the adolescents have to be taught to deal with their emotions.

  9. Sleep deficiency and sleep health problems in chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Victor; Shao, Jesus; Zhang, Kai; Mulvey, Martha; Ming, Xue; Wagner, George C

    2012-01-01

    A survey of sleep schedules, sleep health, and the impact on school performance was conducted in 585 adolescents in a high school in China. A high level of early and circadian-disadvantaged sleep/wake schedules during weekdays was observed. Significantly shorter sleep duration on weekdays was reported (P < 0.0001). Older teenagers slept significantly less than the younger teenagers (P < 0.0001). Complaints of inadequate sleep and sleepiness during weekdays were prevalent. Night awakenings were reported in 32.2% of students. Students with a sleep length of less than 7 hours, complaint of inadequate sleep, or excessive daytime sleepiness during weekdays were more likely to report an adverse effect of poor sleep on performance. The present observations are qualitatively similar to those reported in our study in American adolescents, particularly with respect to Chinese adolescents exhibiting a similar sleep deficiency on weekdays. We concluded that sleep deficiency and sleep health problems were prevalent in the participating adolescents in China, and were perceived to adversely affect school performance. PMID:23641162

  10. Adolescent exposure to violence and adult physical and mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Franzese, Robert J; Covey, Herbert C; Tucker, Abigail S; McCoy, Leah; Menard, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Evidence on the relationship of adolescent exposure to violence (AEV) with adult physical and mental health problems is limited, with studies often focusing on earlier childhood rather than adolescence, and also on short term rather than long term outcomes. Information specifically on the relationship of AEV to seeking help for mental health problems in adulthood from either formal sources such as mental health professionals or informal sources such as friends and clergy is even more difficult to find. The present study investigates how adolescent exposure to violence (AEV), in the form of parental physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and exposure to violence in the neighborhood, are related to self-reported adult physical problems and seeking formal or informal assistance with mental health, controlling for more general adolescent violent victimization and for self-reports and parent reports of mental health problems in adolescence. This study adds to the literature on AEV and adult physical problems, and provides a rare look at the relationship of AEV to adult help-seeking for mental health problems. The results suggest that AEV is associated with mental health problems in adolescence for both females and males, that for females AEV is related to physical problems and to seeking help for mental health problems in adulthood, but for males the only significant relationship involves inconsistent reports of witnessing parental violence and adult physical problems.

  11. Promoting Adolescent Help-Seeking for Mental Health Problems: Strategies for School-Based Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy M.; Music, Ajlana

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research suggests that adolescence is a critical developmental period, especially when it comes to factors that influence mental health problems. Systematic efforts to promote adolescent help-seeking are essential for improving long-term mental health outcomes. Defined as a "behavior of actively seeking help from other people,"…

  12. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Health Problems and Haemoglobin Status of Sudanese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moukhyer, M. E.; de Vries, N. K.; Bosma, H.; van Eijk, J. Th. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe self-reported health problems and haemoglobin status among 1200 Sudanese adolescents (53.2% females, 46.8% males). Many adolescents report their general health as excellent and good (84%). A large number, however, report separate physical and psychological complaints. Report of psychological complaints is equal for both…

  13. Inclusiveness: a mental health strategy for preventing future mental health problems among adolescents orphaned by AIDS.

    PubMed

    Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, G; Mokomane, Z

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to raise an argument that inclusiveness will lessen the pain of losing a parent among adolescents orphaned by AIDS and as a result, prevent future mental health problems that may occur because of inappropriate grieving and maladaptive coping strategies. Participation of adolescents orphaned by AIDS in decisions pertaining to their parents' illnesses and funeral arrangements, for example, may shorten the grieving process and allow for closure. The paper draws data from focus group discussions that were held with 15 adolescents orphaned by AIDS in urban South Africa. The focus group discussions that were structured around four themes: grieving patterns; coping strategies; experience with loss; and expectations. The results of the study demonstrate inclusiveness as an overarching factor in the healing process. The concept is thus a strong recommendation for mental health practice and further study. PMID:22192336

  14. Developmental trajectories of African American adolescents' family conflict: differences in mental health problems in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2014-04-01

    Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and psychopathology. As hypothesized, latent class growth analysis approximated 4 developmental trajectories of family conflict during high school for 681 African American adolescents (49% boys). Trajectory classes differed in anxiety, depressive symptoms, and violent behavior at age 20, supporting expectations that adolescents demonstrating elevated levels and atypical trajectories of family conflict in high school would report greater mental health problems as young adults. Family conflict jeopardizes African American adolescents' transition to young adulthood by contributing to mental health problems.

  15. Is co-ruminating with friends related to health problems in victimized adolescents?

    PubMed

    Guarneri-White, Maria E; Jensen-Campbell, Lauri A; Knack, Jennifer M

    2015-02-01

    Co-rumination, or the tendency to revisit and endlessly discuss problems and negative events, has been linked to depression and other emotional difficulties (Rose, Carson, & Waller, 2007). The current study examined the moderating effect of co-rumination on the relationship between peer victimization and depression, anxiety, PTSD symptoms, and health problems in 108 adolescents aged 10-15 years. Adolescents and a parent completed measures of adolescents' peer victimization, co-rumination, depression, and health problems. Results indicate that adolescents who are both peer victimized and engaged in high levels of co-rumination were at highest risk for psychological problems. Co-rumination also moderated the relationship between peer victimization and physical health problems via general depressive symptoms (i.e., moderated mediation).

  16. A Behavior Genetic Investigation of Adolescent Motherhood and Offspring Mental Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige; Lynch, Stacy K.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Waldron, Mary D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Statham, Dixie J.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the relations between adolescent motherhood and children’s behavior, substance use, and internalizing problems in a sample of 1,368 children of 712 female twins from Australia. Adolescent motherhood remained significantly associated with all mental health problems, even when using a quasiexperimental design capable of controlling for genetic and environmental confounds. However, the relation between adolescent motherhood and offspring behavior problems and substance use was partially confounded by family background variables that influence both generations. The results are consistent with a causal relation between adolescent motherhood and offspring mental health problems, and they highlight the usefulness of behavior genetic designs when examining putative environmental risks for the development of psychopathology. The generalizability of these results to the United States, which has a higher adolescent birth rate, is discussed. PMID:18020715

  17. Parental Psychological Abuse toward children and Mental Health Problems in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Iram Rizvi, Syeda Fariha; Najam, Najma

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Present study was conducted to explore the relationship between parental psychological abuse toward their children and mental health problems in adolescence. Method: Three hundred participants age range 13-17 years, (57% boys and 43% girls) participated in the study from both public and private high schools of Lahore. Psychological maltreatment experience scale (PMES) and Youth Self-Report(YSR) were used for assessment and diagnosis. Results: Findings revealed that psychological abuse by parents significantly related with mental health problems in adolescents, for mother abuse (r= .24 to.67, p< .05) and father abuse (r= .20 to.70, p< .05). Adolescents who perceived their parents as more abusive exhibited greater problems. Regression analysis indicated that hypothesized factors of parental psychological abuse predicted the mental health problems in adolescents (contributed from 10% to 49% of variance). Conclusion: Psychological abuse by parents is related with mental health problems in adolescents. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of non-injurious psychological abuse and its impact on adolescents. Findings of the study can be used to bring the attention of parents, public and professionals’ towards damaging effects of psychological abuse on adolescents PMID:24772122

  18. Health Problems in Children and Adolescents before and after a Man-Made Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkzwager, Anja J. E.; Kerssens, Jan J.; Yzermans, C. Joris

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to examine health problems of children (4-12 years old at the time of the disaster) and adolescents (13-18 years old at the time of the disaster) before and after exposure to a fireworks disaster in the Netherlands (May 2000), to compare these health problems with a control group, and to identify risk factors…

  19. Adolescents with Mental Health Problems: What Do They Say about Health Services?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buston, Katie

    2002-01-01

    Explores the health-related views and experiences of adolescent users of mental health services through interviews with adolescents who had been diagnosed with a mental illness. The majority of respondents had both negative and positive things to say about their contact with health services. These relate to: the doctor-patient relationship,…

  20. Overview of Current Trends in Mental Health Problems for Australia's Youth and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickwood, Debra; White, Angela; Eckersley, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current trends in the mental health problems of Australia's youth and adolescents. It presents information derived from the most recent and comprehensive Australian surveys of youth mental health, and provides international comparisons and views from professional practice where relevant. An update of trends for…

  1. Adolescent Stress: The Relationship between Stress and Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kathryn E.; Behling, Steven; Gipson, Polly Y.; Ford, Rebecca E.

    2005-01-01

    Although low levels of stressful life experiences are considered to be a normal part of development, higher levels can constitute a threat to the well-being and healthy development of children and adolescents. Adolescents are exposed to increased rates of stressful life experiences and there is some evidence that increases in stressors account, at…

  2. Perceived school safety is strongly associated with adolescent mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Nijs, Miesje M; Bun, Clothilde J E; Tempelaar, Wanda M; de Wit, Niek J; Burger, Huibert; Plevier, Carolien M; Boks, Marco P M

    2014-02-01

    School environment is an important determinant of psychosocial function and may also be related to mental health. We therefore investigated whether perceived school safety, a simple measure of this environment, is related to mental health problems. In a population-based sample of 11,130 secondary school students, we analysed the relationship of perceived school safety with mental health problems using multiple logistic regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Mental health problems were defined using the clinical cut-off of the self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. School safety showed an exposure-response relationship with mental health problems after adjustment for confounders. Odds ratios increased from 2.48 ("sometimes unsafe") to 8.05 ("very often unsafe"). The association was strongest in girls and young and middle-aged adolescents. Irrespective of the causal background of this association, school safety deserves attention either as a risk factor or as an indicator of mental health problems.

  3. Childhood Family Instability and Mental Health Problems during Late Adolescence: A Test of Two Mediation Models--The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents ("M" age = 11.09, "SD" = 0.56 at the initial…

  4. Mother-Youth Acculturation Gaps and Health-Risking/Emotional Problems among Latin-American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D

    2015-07-20

    Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p < .05, ES = 0.15) related to less engagement in early health-risking sexual behaviors, possibly reflecting selective acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis.

  5. Health promotion for adolescents: preventive and corrective strategies against problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Hurrelmann, K

    1990-09-01

    This paper, in its first part, gives an overview of research on "problem behavior" in adolescence. Adolescence is considered to be a stage in life characterized by more experimentation, exploration, risk-taking, and rebellion than any other stages. Many health-damaging behaviors (drug consumption, precocious sexual activity, riskful driving, aggressive behavior, etc.) have important psychosocial functions in adolescents' developments. Some of these behaviors can be signals of "stress", defined as a bio-psycho-social state of tension resulting from a variety of stressors which confront adolescents daily in modern industrial societies. In the second part of the paper, the implications of this research for strategies of intervention are discussed. The systematic analysis distinguishes between different stages in the process by which problem behavior emerges and separates "preventive" from "corrective" forms of intervention. Additionally, the analysis differentiates between the dimensions targeted by the measures: interventions addressed toward individual behavior ("personal resources") on the one hand, and living conditions ("social resources") on the other hand. The resulting types of intervention approaches are illustrated with examples and discussed in view of how appropriate they are for health promotion in adolescence. Implications for "social policy for adolescents" are discussed.

  6. Comparisons between inner-city and private school adolescents' perceptions of health problems.

    PubMed

    Walker, D K; Cross, A W; Heyman, P W; Ruch-Ross, H; Benson, P; Tuthill, J W

    1982-09-01

    A youth health survey was administered to 247 students in an inner-city ghetto high school and 404 students in a private boarding school. Significant differences between the two socioeconomic groups were found for responses about health information, health concerns and problems, and health status and service utilization. Sex-related issues were of greater concern to the private school youth and they desired more help with depression-sadness and birth control. Inner-city youth had more health worries and indicated a desire for more help with physical problems such as toothaches, headaches, and stomach aches, and social problems such as racial discrimination and parent relations. From a list of 22 health problems, the inner-city youth ranked dental problems, acne, and health worries highest while the private school youth ranked depression-sadness, tiredness, and acne highest. Regardless of social class, most adolescents perceived large gaps in their health education. One implication of our data is that the specific self-reported needs and concerns of adolescents should be considered in planning health services and education programs.

  7. Prescription medication misuse among adolescents with severe mental health problems in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Shannon L; Baiden, Philip; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of prescription medication misuse among adolescents with severe mental health problems in Ontario, Canada, and to explore some of the factors that influence the misuse of prescription medication. Data were obtained from the Resident Assessment Instrument for Mental Health. A total of 2,677 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years who were admitted into adult mental health beds were analyzed. Logistic regression was used in estimating the likelihood of misusing prescription medication. Overall, 17% of adolescent inpatients misused prescription medication. In the multivariate model, the following were found to be associated with misuse: being female, having multiple psychiatric admissions, education, threat or danger to self, problem with addiction, history of emotional abuse, use of alcohol, past year use of opiates and cannabis, as well as symptoms of depression. Misuse of prescription medication was less likely to occur among adolescents with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and adolescents who were admitted as a result of posing a threat or danger to others. Implications of the findings are discussed with suggestions for future research. PMID:23461668

  8. [Adolescent health in numbers].

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent health is not a priority to public health services. The physical, psychological and social changes lived by youngsters expose these individuals to several health risks and events that are determinant to their actual and future health status. The main health problems in adolescents are infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases but traumatisms are very important in males. Female adolescents demand services related to their reproductive life and link to early and not desired pregnancies. Another important health problem is overweight and obesity in both sexes. The main causes of death in this age group are malignant tumors, specially leukemias, and accidents. We do not have information related to health risks like addictions and mental health. Data show how important adolescents health should be to the public health sector specially because it will be more easy to tackle their health risks and negative health life-styles at this age than further in their lives.

  9. Ecological Momentary Assessment with smartphones for measuring mental health problems in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Magallón-Neri, Ernesto; Kirchner-Nebot, Teresa; Forns-Santacana, Maria; Calderón, Caterina; Planellas, Irina

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyze the viability of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) for measuring the mental states associated with psychopathological problems in adolescents. METHODS In a sample of 110 adolescents, a sociodemographic data survey and an EMA Smartphone application over a one-week period (five times each day), was developed to explore symptom profiles, everyday problems, coping strategies, and the contexts in which the events take place. RESULTS The positive response was 68.6%. Over 2250 prompts about mental states were recorded. In 53% of situations the smartphone was answered at home, 25.5% of cases they were with their parents or with peers (20.3%). Associations were found with attention, affective and anxiety problems (P < 0.001) in the participants who took longer to respond to the EMA app. Anxious and depressive states were highly interrelated (rho = 0.51, P < 0.001), as well as oppositional defiant problems and conduct problems (rho = 0.56, P < 0.001). Only in 6.2% of the situations the subjects perceived they had problems, mainly associated with inter-relational aspects with family, peers, boyfriends or girlfriends (31.2%). We also found moderate-high reliability on scales of satisfaction level on the context, on positive emotionality, and on the discomfort index associated with mental health problems. CONCLUSION EMA methodology using smartphones is a useful tool for understanding adolescents’ daily dynamics. It achieved moderate-high reliability and accurately identified psychopathological manifestations experienced by community adolescents in their natural context.

  10. Health for Adolescents and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamps, Jean-Pierre; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the health of adolescents and youth in the tropics. The report is divided into five sections. The first section defines adolescence, youth, the duration of adolescence, the age group and its problems, and societies in adolescence. The second section discusses adolescence in relation to society and culture and focuses on the…

  11. Risk-behaviour screening for identifying adolescents with mental health problems in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kaess, Michael; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Carli, Vladimir; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A; Bobes, Julio; Coman, Horia G; Cosman, Doina; Cotter, Padraig; Durkee, Tony; Farkas, Luca; Feldman, Dana; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Podlogar, Tina; Postuvan, Vita; Resch, Franz; Sáiz, Pilar A; Sisask, Merike; Tubiana, Alexandra; Värnik, Peeter; Sarchiapone, Marco; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-07-01

    Indicated prevention of mental illness is an important public health concern among youth. The aim of this study was to establish a European school-based professional screening among adolescents, which included variables on both a broad range of risk-behaviours and psychopathology; and to investigate the indicative value of adolescent risk-behaviour and self-reported psychopathology on help-seeking and psychological problems that required subsequent mental healthcare. A two-stage professional screening approach was developed and performed within the multi-centre study "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" (SEYLE). The first stage of screening comprised a self-report questionnaire on a representative sample of 3,070 adolescents from 11 European countries. In the second stage, students deemed at-risk for mental health problems were evaluated using a semi-structured clinical interview performed by healthcare professionals. 61 % of participants (n = 1,865) were identified as being at-risk in stage one. In stage two, 384 participants (12.5 % of the original sample) were found to require subsequent mental healthcare during semi-structured, clinical assessment. Among those, 18.5 % of pupils were identified due to screening for psychopathology alone; 29.4 % due to screening for risk-behaviours alone; and 52.1 % by a combination of both. Young age and peer victimization increased help-seeking, while very low body mass index, depression, suicidal behaviour and substance abuse were the best predictors of referral to mental healthcare. Screening of risk-behaviours significantly increased the number of detected students requiring subsequent mental healthcare. Screening of risk-behaviours added significant value in identifying the significant amount of European pupils with mental health problems. Therefore, attention to adolescent risk-behaviours in addition to psychopathology is critical in facilitating prevention and early intervention. Identifying factors that increase

  12. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: a study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Bonab, Bagher Ghobari; Zadeh, Davood Shojaei; Shokravi, Farkhondeh Amin; Tabatabaie, Mahmoud Ghazi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items) of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire) and interrelations among them based on Jessor’s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory). METHODS: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. RESULTS: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The α range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. CONCLUSIONS: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents. PMID:21526075

  13. Substance Use and Mental Health Problems as Predictors of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among a sample of foster care adolescents. Data were collected through structured baseline interviews with 320 adolescents (ages 15 to 18 years) who resided in foster care placements and participated in a larger evaluation study of an…

  14. Developmental Trajectories of African American Adolescents' Family Conflict: Differences in Mental Health Problems in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and…

  15. Ecological Momentary Assessment with smartphones for measuring mental health problems in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Magallón-Neri, Ernesto; Kirchner-Nebot, Teresa; Forns-Santacana, Maria; Calderón, Caterina; Planellas, Irina

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyze the viability of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) for measuring the mental states associated with psychopathological problems in adolescents. METHODS In a sample of 110 adolescents, a sociodemographic data survey and an EMA Smartphone application over a one-week period (five times each day), was developed to explore symptom profiles, everyday problems, coping strategies, and the contexts in which the events take place. RESULTS The positive response was 68.6%. Over 2250 prompts about mental states were recorded. In 53% of situations the smartphone was answered at home, 25.5% of cases they were with their parents or with peers (20.3%). Associations were found with attention, affective and anxiety problems (P < 0.001) in the participants who took longer to respond to the EMA app. Anxious and depressive states were highly interrelated (rho = 0.51, P < 0.001), as well as oppositional defiant problems and conduct problems (rho = 0.56, P < 0.001). Only in 6.2% of the situations the subjects perceived they had problems, mainly associated with inter-relational aspects with family, peers, boyfriends or girlfriends (31.2%). We also found moderate-high reliability on scales of satisfaction level on the context, on positive emotionality, and on the discomfort index associated with mental health problems. CONCLUSION EMA methodology using smartphones is a useful tool for understanding adolescents’ daily dynamics. It achieved moderate-high reliability and accurately identified psychopathological manifestations experienced by community adolescents in their natural context. PMID:27679769

  16. Caretaker mental health and family environment factors are associated with adolescent psychiatric problems in a Vietnamese sample

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Kelcey Jane; Edwards, Alexis Christine; Overstreet, Cassie; Richardson, Lisa; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda Beth

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about risk factors for adolescent mental health in Vietnam. The present study investigated the relationship between caretaker mental health and adolescent mental health in a cross-sectional Vietnamese sample. Primary caretakers completed measures of their own mental distress and general health status using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) as well as reports of adolescent mental health using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multivariate regression models were used to examine the relationships between the caretaker and adolescent health variables. The demographic factors of age, sex, ethnicity, religious affiliation, and household wealth status demonstrated significant relationships with SDQ subscale scores. Caretaker mental health was positively associated with adolescent mental health, and this association remained significant even after accounting for other relevant demographic variables and caretaker general health status. Understanding correlates of adolescent mental health difficulties may help identify youth and families at risk for developing psychiatric problems and inform mental health interventions in Vietnam. PMID:25204862

  17. Adolescents' beliefs about the fairness of exclusion of peers with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, Claire; Heary, Caroline; Hennessy, Eilis; McKeague, Lynn

    2015-07-01

    Stigma research suggests that exclusion of peers with mental health problems is acceptable, however, no research has explored young people's beliefs about the fairness of exclusion. Group interviews with 148 adolescents explored judgements about the fairness of excluding peers with ADHD or depression from dyads and groups. Young people evaluated exclusion of peers with ADHD or depression from dyads and groups, with the exception of group exclusion of the peer with ADHD, as mostly unfair. Beliefs about the fairness of exclusion were influenced by the attributions that they applied to the target peer's behaviour, social obligations and loyalty within friendships and concerns about the adverse psychological effects of exclusion. Furthermore, their evaluations were influenced by personal beliefs about the social and personal costs of including the target peer. Evaluations of exclusion highlight novel avenues for to develop knowledge on the stigma of mental health problems.

  18. Effects of early menarche on physical and psychosocial health problems in adolescent girls and adult women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The menarcheal age of Korean women has been rapidly decreasing for the last 50 years, and the average menarcheal age of women born in the 1990s is approaching 12.6 years. In addition, interest in early puberty has been increasing recently owing to the rapid increase in precocious puberty. Generally, out of concern for short stature and early menarche, idiopathic central precocious puberty in female adolescents is treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Studies to date have described the association between early menarche and psychosocial problems such as delinquency and risky sexual behavior, as well as physical health problems such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and breast cancer throughout the lifespan of women. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying this association has not been clarified thus far. In this article, we review and discuss the existing literature to describe the current understanding of the effects of early menarche on the physical and psychosocial health of adolescent girls and adult women. PMID:27721839

  19. Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; χ2 = 17.46, p<.001). Parental report of their adolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, p<.001). Adolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents. PMID:24086501

  20. Chronic adolescent marijuana use as a risk factor for physical and mental health problems in young adult men.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R; Pardini, Dustin

    2015-09-01

    Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified 4 distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the 4 marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed in the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects.

  1. Chronic Adolescent Marijuana Use as a Risk Factor for Physical and Mental Health Problems in Young Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R.; Pardini, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified four distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early-onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the four marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed within the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early-onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects. PMID:26237286

  2. Chronic adolescent marijuana use as a risk factor for physical and mental health problems in young adult men.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R; Pardini, Dustin

    2015-09-01

    Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified 4 distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the 4 marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed in the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects. PMID:26237286

  3. Health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, S

    1992-01-01

    Adolescents are the future adults of the world. While adolescence is typically regarded as a period of life relatively free from health problems, adolescents are actually in need of the attention of health professionals and health services, especially with regard to sexual health. A trend of decreasing age at menarche and increasing age at marriage presents adolescents with a substantial number of years in which they will experiment with their developing reproductive organs and sexuality. Substantial psychological and physical change takes place during this period. Inconsistent and suboptimal users of contraception, youths are at high risk for reproductive health problems and sexually transmitted diseases. Substance abuse, unintentional and intentional injuries and their sequelae, academic underachievement and illiteracy, and obesity may also be problematic for adolescents. Adolescents are, however, most damaged by internalized and externalized homophobia. The authors point out that adolescents may be persuaded to learn and change their behaviors more readily than adults. Appropriate messages could be conveyed through targeted information, education, and communication strategies to complement medical and health care services which are available, accessible, and acceptable. PMID:12318653

  4. Physical Child Abuse and Teacher Harassment and Their Effects on Mental Health Problems Amongst Adolescent Bully-Victims in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2015-10-01

    This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents.

  5. Physical Child Abuse and Teacher Harassment and Their Effects on Mental Health Problems Amongst Adolescent Bully-Victims in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2015-10-01

    This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents. PMID:25300192

  6. Identifying patterns of early risk for mental health and academic problems in adolescence: a longitudinal study of urban youth.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Carmen R; Lambert, Sharon F; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2011-10-01

    This investigation examined profiles of individual, academic, and social risks in elementary school, and their association with mental health and academic difficulties in adolescence. Latent profile analyses of data from 574 urban youth revealed three risk classes. Children with the "well-adjusted" class had assets in the academic and social domains, low aggressive behavior, and low depressive symptoms in elementary school, and low rates of academic and mental health problems in adolescence. Children in the "behavior-academic-peer risk" class, characterized by high aggressive behavior, low academic achievement, and low peer acceptance, had conduct problems, academic difficulties, and increased mental health service use in adolescence. Children with the "academic-peer risk" class also had academic and peer problems but they were less aggressive and had higher depressive symptoms than the "behavior-academic-peer risk" class in the first grade; the "academic-peer risk" class had depression, conduct problems, academic difficulties, and increased mental health service use during adolescence. No differences were found between the risk classes with respect to adolescent outcomes.

  7. Mental Health, School Problems, and Social Networks: Modeling Urban Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and…

  8. Suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and social function in adolescents with eczema: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Jon A; Lien, Lars; Dalgard, Florence; Bjertness, Espen; Stern, Robert S

    2014-07-01

    There are few studies on psychosocial problems in adolescents with eczema. We performed a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study to explore the relationship of suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and social functioning with eczema. A total of 4,744 adolescents (18-19 years) were invited for the study, of whom 3,775 (80%) participated. The overall prevalence of current eczema was 9.7%. Among those with current eczema, 15.5% reported suicidal ideation compared with 9.1% among those without eczema, significantly associated in a multivariate model (odds ratio 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.31-2.68). In a subgroup analyses, the prevalence of suicidal ideation in those with both eczema and itch was 23.8%, and was significantly associated, compared with those without eczema (3.57, 2.46-5.67). Eczema was associated with mental health problems assessed by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (1.72, 1.21-2.45) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10 (1.63, 1.23-2.16). Five questions assessed social function: feeling attached to family and friends; thriving at school; experiencing bullying; and romantic relationships. Boys with current eczema were less likely to have had romantic relationships (1.93, 1.21-3.08). Eczema in late adolescence is associated with suicidal ideation and mental health problems but rarely with social problems. Our findings point to the importance of addressing mental health issues in adolescents with eczema. PMID:24496238

  9. Suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and social function in adolescents with eczema: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Jon A; Lien, Lars; Dalgard, Florence; Bjertness, Espen; Stern, Robert S

    2014-07-01

    There are few studies on psychosocial problems in adolescents with eczema. We performed a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study to explore the relationship of suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and social functioning with eczema. A total of 4,744 adolescents (18-19 years) were invited for the study, of whom 3,775 (80%) participated. The overall prevalence of current eczema was 9.7%. Among those with current eczema, 15.5% reported suicidal ideation compared with 9.1% among those without eczema, significantly associated in a multivariate model (odds ratio 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.31-2.68). In a subgroup analyses, the prevalence of suicidal ideation in those with both eczema and itch was 23.8%, and was significantly associated, compared with those without eczema (3.57, 2.46-5.67). Eczema was associated with mental health problems assessed by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (1.72, 1.21-2.45) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10 (1.63, 1.23-2.16). Five questions assessed social function: feeling attached to family and friends; thriving at school; experiencing bullying; and romantic relationships. Boys with current eczema were less likely to have had romantic relationships (1.93, 1.21-3.08). Eczema in late adolescence is associated with suicidal ideation and mental health problems but rarely with social problems. Our findings point to the importance of addressing mental health issues in adolescents with eczema.

  10. Adolescent pregnancy: combating the problem from a multi-systemic health perspective.

    PubMed

    Atwood, J D; Donnelly, J W

    1993-01-01

    Presented is a multi-systemic theoretical model of adolescent pregnancy that incorporates the school-peer-family-community systems and defines a role for health educators. It is noted that teenagers receive conflicting messages from the adolescent socialization community--all the institutions, individuals, and mass media that influence and shape development. To cope with these multiple, inconsistent messages, many adolescents respond with inconsistent behavior given the impossibility of pleasing all sources of influence. Health educators must coordinate the school-peer-family-community systems to achieve more congruence and less competition surrounding inputs into the daily life of young people. The potential to disseminate sex education is greatest in the school context, where information can be provided on a systematic, regular basis to reinforce learning. Since peers are a major reference group during adolescence, per counseling can be used effectively to discuss factors that lead to unwanted pregnancy and help clarify values. Sex education programs are strengthened by the involvement of parents, and interventions aimed at promoting parent-child communication around sexual issues have been demonstrated to delay the onset of sexual activity. The availability of an adolescent health clinic, either in the school or close by, has been shown to reduce adolescent pregnancy. Overall, the most effective adolescent pregnancy prevention programs are those that are comprehensive in substance and duration.

  11. Associations between school difficulties and health-related problems and risky behaviours in early adolescence: A cross-sectional study in middle-school adolescents in France.

    PubMed

    Chau, Kénora; Kabuth, Bernard; Causin-Brice, Odile; Delacour, Yves; Richoux-Picard, Catherine; Verdin, Monique; Armand, Isabelle; Chau, Nearkasen

    2016-10-30

    Health-related problems and risky behaviours (substance use) are frequent in adolescents, may alter their physical and mental capabilities, and may thus generate school absenteeism, low academic performance, and school dropout ideation. This study assessed their associations and the contribution of socioeconomic factors among 1559 middle-school adolescents (mean age 13.5+1.3) from north-eastern France. They completed a questionnaire including socioeconomic characteristics, health-related problems (poor physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment) assessed with the World Health Organization's quality of life measure (score<25th percentile), risky behaviours, school absences during the present school year, last-trimester academic performance, and school dropout ideation. Data were analysed using logistic regression models. School absenteeism was frequent (12.6% of subjects for 8-14 days, and 6.0% for ≥15 days); 8.2% of subjects had low academic performance (average school-mark <10/20) and 3.9% school dropout ideation. All school difficulties were strongly associated with all health-related problems (gender-age-school-level-adjusted odds ratios gasOR between 1.5 and 4.2), and with risky behaviours (gasOR between 1.4 and 14). Socioeconomic factors differently contributed to these associations (contribution reaching 77%). Policy makers, schools, physicians and parents should be more aware of the problems and help adolescents to reduce health-related problems and risky behaviours and to increase resilience.

  12. Associations between school difficulties and health-related problems and risky behaviours in early adolescence: A cross-sectional study in middle-school adolescents in France.

    PubMed

    Chau, Kénora; Kabuth, Bernard; Causin-Brice, Odile; Delacour, Yves; Richoux-Picard, Catherine; Verdin, Monique; Armand, Isabelle; Chau, Nearkasen

    2016-10-30

    Health-related problems and risky behaviours (substance use) are frequent in adolescents, may alter their physical and mental capabilities, and may thus generate school absenteeism, low academic performance, and school dropout ideation. This study assessed their associations and the contribution of socioeconomic factors among 1559 middle-school adolescents (mean age 13.5+1.3) from north-eastern France. They completed a questionnaire including socioeconomic characteristics, health-related problems (poor physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment) assessed with the World Health Organization's quality of life measure (score<25th percentile), risky behaviours, school absences during the present school year, last-trimester academic performance, and school dropout ideation. Data were analysed using logistic regression models. School absenteeism was frequent (12.6% of subjects for 8-14 days, and 6.0% for ≥15 days); 8.2% of subjects had low academic performance (average school-mark <10/20) and 3.9% school dropout ideation. All school difficulties were strongly associated with all health-related problems (gender-age-school-level-adjusted odds ratios gasOR between 1.5 and 4.2), and with risky behaviours (gasOR between 1.4 and 14). Socioeconomic factors differently contributed to these associations (contribution reaching 77%). Policy makers, schools, physicians and parents should be more aware of the problems and help adolescents to reduce health-related problems and risky behaviours and to increase resilience. PMID:27455144

  13. A Study of the Experiences of Parents with Home-Schooled Pre-Adolescent Children with Severe Multiple Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the difficulties encountered by parents caring for pre-adolescent children who have severe multiple health problems. Working within the frameworks of narrative psychotherapy (Spence, 1982; Viederman & Perry, 1980; Vitz, 1992; Benjamin, 1998), the researcher examined parents' discourses and identified the strategies they…

  14. Smoking and adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621

  15. The Impact of Health Problems on Behavior Problems in Adolescents and Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for Maternal Burden

    PubMed Central

    Kring, Sheilah R.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2010-01-01

    Recent research on individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) highlights that they may be at increased risk for health problems when compared to the general population, and that these differences appear to increase with age. Relatively little research has examined the psychosocial impact of poorer health in this population, even though the clinical literature suggests that health problems put individuals with ASD at risk for elevated behavioral problems and their mothers at risk for elevated caregiving burden. This study examined the associations of physical health and behavior problems, as well as the associations of these factors with maternal burden, using longitudinal data. Results indicated that prior ratings of physical health problems predicted subsequent levels of behavior problems. Further, behavior problems partially mediated the effect of health problems on maternal burden. Implications for policies and interventions that focus on health promotion in conjunction with treatment of behavior problems are discussed, along with directions for future research. PMID:20657702

  16. The proxy problem anatomized: child-parent disagreement in health related quality of life reports of chronically ill adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Discrepancy between self-reports and parent-proxy reports of adolescent health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been repeatedly acknowledged in the literature as the proxy problem. However, little is known about the extent and direction of this discrepancy. The purpose of this study is to explore to what extent and in what direction HRQoL self-reports of adolescents with chronic conditions and those of their parents differ. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adolescents suffering from chronic conditions and their parents. Socio-demographic and disease-related characteristics were collected and information about consequences of the chronic condition was assessed. HRQoL was measured with KIDSCREEN-10 and DISABKIDS condition generic measure (DCGM-10). Agreement was analysed through defining a threshold of agreement based on half of the standard deviation of the HRQoL score with the highest variance. Agreement occurred if the difference between adolescent and parent scores was less than or equal to half of the standard deviation. Intra-class correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were also computed. The characteristics associated with direction of disagreement were statistically tested with one-way ANOVA and Chi-square tests. Results 584 paired HRQoL scores were obtained. Ratings from both adolescents and parents were high, compared to European norm data. Differences between adolescents and parents were statistically significant, yet relatively small. Disagreement existed in both directions: in 24.5% (KIDSCREEN-10) and 16.8% (DCGM-10) of the cases adolescents rated their HRQoL lower than did their parent, while in 32.2% (KIDSCREEN-10) and 31.7% (DCGM-10) of the cases the opposite was true. Adolescent's age, educational level and type of education, parent's educational level, number of hospital admissions and several other disease-related factors influenced direction of disagreement. Conclusions In a reasonable proportion of

  17. Differences in Caregiver-Reported Health Problems and Health Care Use in Maltreated Adolescents and a Comparison Group from the Same Urban Environment

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Kools, Susan; Negriff, Sonya; Smith, Sharon; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2014-01-01

    Maltreated youth have a high prevalence of acute and chronic mental and physical health problems, but it is not clear whether these problems are related to maltreatment or to a disadvantaged environment. To compare health status and health care use of maltreated youth receiving child protective services to comparison youth living in the same community, we conducted a secondary analysis of caregiver reports for 207 maltreated adolescents (mean age 11.9 years) and 142 comparison adolescents (mean age 12.3 years) living in urban Los Angeles, using questionnaire data from a larger longitudinal study framed in a socio-ecological model. Caregivers included biological parents, relatives, and unrelated caregivers. Analyses included t-test, MANOVA, chi-square, and multivariable logistic regression. Caregivers reported similar rates of physical health problems but more mental health problems and psychotropic medicine use in maltreated youth than in the comparison youth, suggesting that maltreated youths’ higher rates of mental health problems could not be attributed to the disadvantaged environment. Although there were no differences in health insurance coverage, maltreated youth received preventive medical care more often than comparison youth. For all youth, having Medicaid improved their odds of receiving preventive health and dental care. Attention to mental health issues in adolescents receiving child welfare services remains important. Acceptance of Medicaid by neighborhood-based and/or school-based services in low-income communities may reduce barriers to preventive care. PMID:25557881

  18. Mental health problems and resilience in international adoptees: Results from a population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19 years.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions.

  19. Using the World Health Organization's 4S-Framework to Strengthen National Strategies, Policies and Services to Address Mental Health Problems in Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for personal, peer and family

  20. Social Behavioral Problems and the Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Song E; Lee, Hyang Woon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of specific behavioral problems on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children and adolescents with epilepsy. Methods Children and adolescents with epilepsy (n=92; age range=6–17 years) and their mothers completed questionnaires about behavioral problems, HRQOL, socio-demographics, and epilepsy-related variables. To determine significant predictor variables of the HRQOL, the stepwise regression analyses and partial correlations were performed to adjust for other behavioral problems and covariates. Results The analyses revealed that an increase in social behavioral problems and delinquent behavior was associated with a decrease in the HRQOL. Lower levels of maternal education and the number of antiepileptic drugs were also associated with a decline in the HRQOL; the HRQOL and social behavioral problems remained significantly correlated after adjusting for maternal education level, number of antiepileptic drugs, and non-social behavioral problems. Conclusion Parents and practitioners should provide intervention if behavioral problems, particularly social behavioral problems, are observed in children or adolescents with epilepsy. PMID:27757126

  1. [Nutritional problems of female adolescents].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-07-18

    Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view.

  2. Problems in Comprehensive Ambulatory Health Care for High-Risk Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Jon E., Ed.

    This volume contains 21 articles on aspects held to be important for delivering comprehensive health care to young adults who are at higher than average risk levels for a number of health and health-related problems; choice of topics for the articles is based on experience gained in directing the health program for the Job Corps. Most of the…

  3. Nike-Footed Health Workers deal with the problems of adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Perino, S S

    1992-01-01

    Working principally to prevent repeat teen pregnancy, improve birth outcomes to teen mothers, and build adolescent parenting skills, the Nike (sneaker)-Footed Health Worker Project (NFHW) draws trainees from the target population of parenting adolescents. The young mothers will participate in an education project that, after 1 year, will return them to serve the same population from which they were drawn. The Nike-Footed Health Worker Project is designed to allow adolescent mothers to complete high school while they are simultaneously trained in the principles of basic pre- and postnatal care, child development, nutrition, and counseling. After fully understanding and signing a contract detailing the expectations and requirements of the course, trainees will begin the project and receive a base salary in the form of a student loan. Eligible for merit wage increases, they are obligated to use their salaries to make pre-set contributions to the project for housing, food, and child care expenses. After graduating from the 12-month residential project, the NFHWs will be prepared to serve their community. Working out of local clinics and hospitals, they will bring basic care to the homes of pregnant teenagers. Acting as the advocates and counselors of adolescents, the NFHWs will help to prepare the expectant mothers for the arrival of their infant. Following the child's birth, the NFHWs will continue to work with the mother and her primary health care providers as the new mother learns the art of parenting. The NFHW will also ensure that the child has received the appropriate well-baby care (immunizations and so forth) and that the mother has received needed postnatal care and counseling about contraception.

  4. Factors Associated with Acceptance of Peers with Mental Health Problems in Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swords, Lorraine; Heary, Caroline; Hennessy, Eilis

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research suggests that children's reactions to peers with mental health problems are related to the maintenance and outcomes of these problems. However, children's perceptions of such peers, particularly those with internalising problems, are neither well researched nor understood. The present study aimed to test a series of models…

  5. Understanding Locally, Culturally, and Contextually Relevant Mental Health Problems among Rwandan Children and Adolescents Affected by HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Rubin-Smith, Julia E.; Beardslee, William R.; Stulac, Sara N.; Fayida, Ildephonse; Safren, Steven

    2011-01-01

    In assessing the mental health of HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa, researchers often employ mental health measures developed in other settings. However, measures derived from standard Western psychiatric criteria are frequently based on conceptual models of illness or terminology that may or may not be an appropriate for diverse populations. Understanding local perceptions of mental health problems can aid in the selection or creation of appropriate measures. This study used qualitative methodologies (Free Listing [FL], Key Informant [KI] interviews, and Clinician Interviews [C-KIs]) to understand local perceptions of mental health problems facing HIV/AIDS-affected youth in Rwinkwavu, Rwanda. Several syndrome terms were identified by participants: agahinda kenshi, kwiheba, guhangayika, ihahamuka, umushiha and uburara. While these local syndromes share some similarities with Western mood, anxiety, and conduct disorders, they also contain important culture-specific features and gradations of severity. Our findings underscore the importance of understanding local manifestations of mental health syndromes when conducting mental health assessments and when planning interventions for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents in diverse settings. PMID:21271393

  6. Cyber and Traditional Bullying Victimization as a Risk Factor for Mental Health Problems and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; van de Looij – Jansen, Petra M.; de Waart, Frouwkje G.; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. Methods A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181). Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between these variables while controlling for baseline problems. Additionally, we tested whether gender differences in mental health and suicidal ideation were present for the two types of bullying. Results There was a significant interaction between gender and traditional bullying victimization and between gender and cyber bullying victimization on mental health problems. Among boys, traditional and cyber bullying victimization were not related to mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. Among girls, both traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. No significant interaction between gender and traditional or cyber bullying victimization on suicidal ideation was found. Traditional bullying victimization was associated with suicidal ideation, whereas cyber bullying victimization was not associated with suicidal ideation after controlling for baseline suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, whereas traditional, as well as cyber bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among girls. These findings stress the importance of programs aimed at reducing bullying behavior, especially

  7. Mental health, school problems, and social networks: modeling urban adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and relations with parents, on substance use. Results of path modeling with AMOS showed that the model provided a very good fit to the data and demonstrated partial mediation effects of social network quality on substance use. The standardized mediated effect of school problems on substance use, mediated by social network quality, was 0.13 (p < .01, 95% CI [.072, .189]). An effect size measure was applied to determine what proportion of the total effect was mediated by the intervening (social network quality) variable and produced a 0.34 effect size. The results highlight the potential preventive role of social network quality in addressing urban adolescent substance use.

  8. Mental health, school problems, and social networks: modeling urban adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and relations with parents, on substance use. Results of path modeling with AMOS showed that the model provided a very good fit to the data and demonstrated partial mediation effects of social network quality on substance use. The standardized mediated effect of school problems on substance use, mediated by social network quality, was 0.13 (p < .01, 95% CI [.072, .189]). An effect size measure was applied to determine what proportion of the total effect was mediated by the intervening (social network quality) variable and produced a 0.34 effect size. The results highlight the potential preventive role of social network quality in addressing urban adolescent substance use. PMID:21063779

  9. Adolescent Family Adversity and Mental Health Problems: The Role of Adaptive Self-Regulation Capacities. The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Martin Paul; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent family adversity is a considerable adaptive challenge in an increasingly turbulent developmental period. Using data from a prospective population cohort of 2230 Dutch adolescents, we tested risk-buffering interactions between adolescent family adversity and self-regulation capacities on mental health. We used two adaptive…

  10. Adolescent and School Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Adolescent and School Health Note: Javascript is disabled or ... behaviors now JAMA Viewpoint: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents New MMWR Article Learn What State and Local ...

  11. Schooling Relates to Mental Health Problems in Adolescents with Cochlear Implants-Mediation by Hearing and Family Variables.

    PubMed

    Huber, Maria; Pletzer, Belinda; Giourgas, Alexandros; Nickisch, Andreas; Kunze, Silke; Illg, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this multicenter study was to investigate whether schooling relates to mental health problems of adolescents with cochlear implants (CI) and how this relationship is mediated by hearing and family variables. One hundred and forty secondary school students with CI (mean age = 14.7 years, SD = 1.5), their hearing parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Additional audiological tests (speech comprehension tests in quiet and noise) were performed. Students of special schools for hearing impaired persons (SSHIs) showed significantly more conduct problems (p < 0.05) and a significantly higher total difficulty score (TDS) (p < 0.05) compared to students of mainstream schools. Mental health problems did not differ between SSHI students with sign language education and SSHI students with oral education. Late implanted students and those with indication for additional handicaps were equally distributed among mainstream schools and SSHIs. However, students in SSHIs were more restricted to understand speech in noise, had a lower social background and were more likely to come from single-parent families. These factors were found to be partial mediators of the differences in mental health problems between the two school types. However, no variable could explain comprehensively, why students of SSHIs have more mental health problems than mainstream pupils. PMID:26733898

  12. Schooling Relates to Mental Health Problems in Adolescents with Cochlear Implants—Mediation by Hearing and Family Variables

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Maria; Pletzer, Belinda; Giourgas, Alexandros; Nickisch, Andreas; Kunze, Silke; Illg, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this multicenter study was to investigate whether schooling relates to mental health problems of adolescents with cochlear implants (CI) and how this relationship is mediated by hearing and family variables. One hundred and forty secondary school students with CI (mean age = 14.7 years, SD = 1.5), their hearing parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Additional audiological tests (speech comprehension tests in quiet and noise) were performed. Students of special schools for hearing impaired persons (SSHIs) showed significantly more conduct problems (p < 0.05) and a significantly higher total difficulty score (TDS) (p < 0.05) compared to students of mainstream schools. Mental health problems did not differ between SSHI students with sign language education and SSHI students with oral education. Late implanted students and those with indication for additional handicaps were equally distributed among mainstream schools and SSHIs. However, students in SSHIs were more restricted to understand speech in noise, had a lower social background and were more likely to come from single-parent families. These factors were found to be partial mediators of the differences in mental health problems between the two school types. However, no variable could explain comprehensively, why students of SSHIs have more mental health problems than mainstream pupils. PMID:26733898

  13. Quality and predictors of adolescents' first aid intentions and actions towards a peer with a mental health problem.

    PubMed

    Mason, Robert J; Hart, Laura M; Rossetto, Alyssia; Jorm, Anthony F

    2015-07-30

    While peers are a common source of informal help for young people with a mental health problem, evidence suggests that the help they provide is inadequate. By examining predictors of the quality of mental health first aid provided by adolescents to their peers, future interventions can be targeted to adolescents most at risk of providing poor help. Students (n = 518) from Australian secondary schools were presented with two vignettes, depicting persons experiencing depression with suicidal thoughts, and social phobia. Participants were asked what they thought was wrong with the person, and how they would help them. Stigma towards the person was also assessed. Additionally, participants were asked if they had recently helped anyone in their own lives with a mental health problem, and, if so, what they did. The overall quality of help reported in response to the vignettes or an actual person was low; a particular inadequacy was the low rate of engaging the help of an adult. Being female, and believing that the person is sick rather than weak, consistently predicted better help-giving. PMID:25892257

  14. Own and parental war experience as a risk factor for mental health problems among adolescents with an immigrant background: results from a cross sectional study in Oslo, Norway

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background An increasing proportion of immigrants to Western countries in the past decade are from war affected countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of war experience among adolescents and their parents and to investigate possible differences in internalizing and externalizing mental health problems between adolescents exposed and unexposed to own and parental war experience. Method The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey of all 10th grade pupils in Oslo for two consecutive years. A total of 1,758 aadolescents were included, all with both parents born outside of Norway. Internalizing and externalizing mental health problems were measured by Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 and subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, respectively. Own and parental war experience is based on adolescent self-report. Results The proportion of adolescents with own war experience was 14% with the highest prevalence in immigrants from Eastern Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa. The proportion of parental war experience was 33% with Sub-Saharan Africa being highest. Adolescents reporting own war experience had higher scores for both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems compared to immigrants without war experience, but only externalizing problems reached statistically significant differences. For parental war experience there was a statistically significant relationship between parental war experience and internalizing mental health problems. The association remained significant after adjustment for parental educational level and adolescents' own war experience. Conclusion War exposure is highly prevalent among immigrants living in Oslo, Norway, both among adolescents themselves and their parents. Among immigrants to Norway, parental war experience appears to be stronger associated with mental health problems than adolescents own exposure to war experience. PMID:17081315

  15. Prevalence of mental health problems in adolescent schoolchildren in Galle District, Sri Lanka: eight months after tsunami.

    PubMed

    Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika; Fonseka, Pushpa

    2011-07-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence and associations of mental health problems (MHPs) among adolescent schoolchildren in Sri Lanka 8 months after the tsunami disaster. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the Galle Municipality area, Sri Lanka. The study instrument consisted of a self-administered questionnaire and the validated Sinhalese version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The prevalence of MHPs in the study population was 32.2% (confidence interval [CI] = 28.44% to 35.96%). Direct experience of the tidal wave (odds ratio [OR] = 2.93, P = .013), perception of being affected by tsunami (OR = 1.79, P = .0014), and impact of rumors (OR = 1.85, P < .001) were significantly associated with MHPs. Not having a close friend (OR = 1.79, P = .04), being criticized by teachers (OR = 1.66, P = .008), and adolescents being not satisfied with their academic achievements (OR = 2.42, P = .02) were also significantly associated with MHPs. Even 8 months after the tsunami, MHPs among adolescent schoolchildren in the affected areas are still very high.

  16. Changes in Loneliness during Middle Childhood Predict Risk for Adolescent Suicidality Indirectly through Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Angela C.; Schinka, Katherine C.; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Bossarte, Robert M.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether changes in loneliness during middle childhood as well as from middle childhood into adolescence were associated with adolescent self-harm behaviors and suicidal thoughts using a community sample of 889 participants. Multivariate logistic regressions indicate that the relationship between changes in loneliness and…

  17. A Qualitative Study of Mental Health Problems Among Orphaned Children and Adolescents in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Shannon; Lucid, Leah; Murray, Laura; Bolton, Paul; Itemba, Dafrosa; Manongi, Rachel; Whetten, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    Low- and middle-income countries have a high number of orphans, many of whom have unmet mental health needs. Effective mental health interventions are needed; however, it is necessary to understand how mental health symptoms and needs are perceived locally to tailor interventions and refine measurement of intervention effects. We used an existing rapid ethnographic assessment approach to identify mental health problems from the perspective of orphans and guardians to inform a subsequent randomized controlled trial of a Western-developed, evidence-based psychosocial intervention, Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Local Kiswahili-speaking interviewers conducted 73 free list interviews and 34 key informant interviews. Results identified both common cross-cultural experiences and symptoms as well as uniquely described symptoms (e.g., lacking peace, being discriminated against) not typically targeted by the intervention or included on standardized measures of intervention effects. We discuss implications for adapting mental health interventions in low- and middle-income countries and assessing effectiveness. PMID:26488916

  18. Associations between motor vehicle crashes and mental health problems: data from the National Survey of Adolescents-Replication.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joah L; Rheingold, Alyssa A; Knowlton, Alice W; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2015-02-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of physical injuries and mortality among children and adolescents in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between having an MVC and mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and drug and alcohol misuse in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. A sample of 3,604 adolescents, aged 12-17 years, was assessed as part of the 2005 National Survey of Adolescents-Replication (NSA-R) study. Data were weighted according to the 2005 U.S. Census estimates. Within this sample, 10.2% of adolescents reported having at least 1 serious MVC. The prevalence of current PTSD and depression among adolescents having an MVC was 7.4% and 11.2%, respectively. Analyses revealed that an MVC among adolescents aged 15 years and younger was independently associated with depression (OR = 2.17) and alcohol abuse (OR = 2.36) after adjusting for other risk factors, including a history of interpersonal violence. Among adolescents aged 16 years and older, an MVC was associated only with alcohol abuse (OR = 2.08). This study was the first attempt to explore adverse mental health outcomes associated with MVCs beyond traumatic stress symptoms among adolescents in a nationally representative sample. PMID:25613484

  19. Ethnic Issues in Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffman, Arlene Rubin, Ed.; Davis, Larry E., Ed.

    The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mental health of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mental health in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mental health problems. The book is divided…

  20. The validity of the Health-Relevant Personality Inventory (HP5i) and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI) among adolescents referred for a substance misuse problem.

    PubMed

    Hemphälä, Malin; Gustavsson, J Petter; Tengström, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to study the validity of 2 personality instruments, the Health-Relevant Personality Inventory (HP5i) and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI), among adolescents with a substance use problem. Clinical interviews were completed with 180 adolescents and followed up after 12 months. Discriminant validity was demonstrated in the lack of correlation to intelligence in both instruments' scales. Two findings were in support of convergent validity: Negative affectivity (HP5i) and harm avoidance (JTCI) were correlated to internalizing symptoms, and impulsivity (HP5i) and novelty seeking (JTCI) were correlated to externalizing symptoms. The predictive validity of JTCI was partly supported. When psychiatric symptoms at baseline were controlled for, cooperativeness predicted conduct disorder after 12 months. Summarizing, both instruments can be used in adolescent clinical samples to tailor treatment efforts, although some scales need further investigation. It is important to include personality assessment when evaluating psychiatric problems in adolescents.

  1. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Mental Health Problems in a Large Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Ryan; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Michael; Najman, Jake M.; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether notified child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in adolescence, and whether differing patterns of psychological outcome are seen depending on the type of maltreatment. Methods: The participants were 7,223 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in…

  2. Alcohol and drug use among adolescents: and the co-occurrence of mental health problems. Ung@hordaland, a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Sivertsen, Børge; Lundervold, Astri J; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Jakobsen, Reidar; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The use of alcohol and drugs is prevalent among adolescents, but too little is known about the association between debut of alcohol and drug use, problematic use and concurrent mental health. The aim of the study was to investigate the cross-sectional association between debut of any alcohol or drug use and alcohol-related and drug-related problems and mental health. We also wanted to examine potential interactions between gender and age, and alcohol-related and drug-related variables. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents. Participants Data stem from the large population-based ung@hordaland study (N=9203), where all adolescents aged 17–19 years living in Hordaland county (Norway) were invited to participate. The main independent variables were debut of alcohol and drug use, alcohol consumption and the presence of alcohol and drug problems as measured by CRAFFT. Outcomes The dependent variables were self-reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, inattention and hyperactivity. Statistical analyses included logistic regression models. Results Debut of alcohol and drug use were associated with symptoms of depression, inattention and hyperactivity (crude ORs 1.69–2.38, p<0.001), while only debut of drug use was associated with increased symptoms of anxiety (OR=1.33, CI 95% 1.05 to 1.68, p=0.017). Alcohol-related and drug-related problems as measured by CRAFFT were associated with all mental health problems (crude ORs 1.68–3.24, p<0.001). There was little evidence of any substantial age or gender confounding on the estimated associations between alcohol-related and drug-related measures and mental health problems. Conclusions Early debut of alcohol and drug use and drug problems is consistently associated with more symptoms of mental health problems, indicating that these factors are an important general indicator of mental health in adolescence. PMID:25245403

  3. Relations of Personality to Substance Use Problems and Mental Health Disorder Symptoms in Two Clinical Samples of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battista, Susan R.; Pencer, Alissa; McGonnell, Melissa; Durdle, Heather; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2013-01-01

    There is a high overlap between substance misuse and mental health disorders in adolescents. Certain personality traits (i.e., sensation seeking, impulsivity, hopelessness, and anxiety sensitivity) may be related to increased risk for mental health symptoms and/or substance misuse. The current study examined the relationships between personality…

  4. Sexual Health for America's Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Debra W.

    1996-01-01

    The National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health developed a professional consensus statement about adolescent sexual health. Its report for policymakers recommends that adults face the facts about adolescent sexuality and that public policies on adolescent sexual health be based on appropriate knowledge, accurate data, current theory, ongoing…

  5. Adolescent Problem-Solving Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Jerome J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The hypothesis that adolescent psychiatric patients would be deficient with respect to normal controls in their interpersonal problem-solving skills was tested by comparing the patient and control groups on seven tasks ref lecting different aspects of problem solving. (Author)

  6. Homelessness and health in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Haldenby, Amy M; Berman, Helene; Forchuk, Cheryl

    2007-11-01

    Despite an abundance of resources, many of the world's wealthiest nations have a large homeless population. People at all stages of development are affected by this problem, but adolescents who are homeless face a unique set of challenges. In this critical narrative study the authors examined the experiences of homeless adolescents with particular attention to the role of gender and public policy, health experiences and perceptions, and barriers to health care services. Six girls and 7 boys participated in semistructured dialogic interviews. Their stories revealed that living without a home had a substantial impact on their health and wellness. The findings from this study support the need for health care professionals to work in collaboration with homeless youth so that more effective care that is sensitive to their unique health needs can be provided.

  7. How often do German children and adolescents show signs of common mental health problems? Results from different methodological approaches – a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent mental health problems are ubiquitous and burdensome. Their impact on functional disability, the high rates of accompanying medical illnesses and the potential to last until adulthood make them a major public health issue. While methodological factors cause variability of the results from epidemiological studies, there is a lack of prevalence rates of mental health problems in children and adolescents according to ICD-10 criteria from nationally representative samples. International findings suggest only a small proportion of children with function impairing mental health problems receive treatment, but information about the health care situation of children and adolescents is scarce. The aim of this epidemiological study was a) to classify symptoms of common mental health problems according to ICD-10 criteria in order to compare the statistical and clinical case definition strategies using a single set of data and b) to report ICD-10 codes from health insurance claims data. Methods a) Based on a clinical expert rating, questionnaire items were mapped on ICD-10 criteria; data from the Mental Health Module (BELLA study) were analyzed for relevant ICD-10 and cut-off criteria; b) Claims data were analyzed for relevant ICD-10 codes. Results According to parent report 7.5% (n = 208) met the ICD-10 criteria of a mild depressive episode and 11% (n = 305) showed symptoms of depression according to cut-off score; Anxiety is reported in 5.6% (n = 156) and 11.6% (n = 323), conduct disorder in 15.2% (n = 373) and 14.6% (n = 357). Self-reported symptoms in 11 to 17 year olds resulted in 15% (n = 279) reporting signs of a mild depression according to ICD-10 criteria (vs. 16.7% (n = 307) based on cut-off) and 10.9% (n = 201) reported symptoms of anxiety (vs. 15.4% (n = 283)). Results from routine data identify 0.9% (n = 1,196) with a depression diagnosis, 3.1% (n = 6,729) with anxiety and 1.4% (n

  8. The effectiveness of one session of therapy using a single-session therapy approach for children and adolescents with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Ruth

    2006-06-01

    This study applied a solution-focused single session therapy (SST) approach to all clients presenting to an urban child and adolescent mental health clinic over 14 months. The effectiveness of a single 2-hour assessment and treatment session in treating mental health problems was investigated using parent, teacher and clinician outcome measures. Teachers reported low levels of psychopathology at intake with no significant change 1 month after treatment. However, using parent and clinician measures, clinical levels of psychopathology were found at intake, with significant improvement 1 month after a single session of treatment. The effect sizes for these improvements measured medium to large, demonstrating observable improvement of clinical significance from the 1 session of SST treatment. Respondents reported 95% satisfaction with service. The study adds weight to the argument that a solution-focused SST approach can be effective for the treatment of children and adolescents with mental health problems. It recommends SST as the initial choice of treatment for these clients.

  9. Promoting adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kristina Berg

    2007-10-01

    The aim is to discuss why paediatricians should be involved in adolescent health care and provide youth-friendly-health-services. Global epidemiological data on morbidity and mortality demonstrate that much of ill health in the short and long run are connected to adolescent behaviour and in theory available for prevention. Young people seemingly lose their heads and do not consider dangers. Recent research on brain development provides us with an understanding how this may have a biological base. Also psychology has long taught us how adolescents use experimental behaviours as means to satisfy developmental needs and explore identity. Prevention and health promotion are areas of research where much more needs to be done. There is also a lack of venues for publishing even excellent studies in this field.

  10. Identifying Patterns of Early Risk for Mental Health and Academic Problems in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined profiles of individual, academic, and social risks in elementary school, and their association with mental health and academic difficulties in adolescence. Latent profile analyses of data from 574 urban youth revealed three risk classes. Children with the "well-adjusted" class had assets in the academic and social…

  11. Existential Attitudes and Eastern European Adolescents' Problem and Health Behaviors: Highlighting the Role of the Search for Meaning in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassai, Laszlo; Piko, Bettina F.; Steger, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Although the role of existential attitudes in adolescent health-related behavior has received increased attention recently, historically it has been underinvestigated in the field. The present study focuses on existential attitudes related to meaning in life and hopelessness. Relations of presence of meaning, search for meaning, and hopelessness…

  12. Associations between Poor Health and School-Related Behavior Problems at the Child and Family Levels: A Cross-Sectional Study of Migrant Children and Adolescents in Southwest Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Li, Ning-Xiu; Liu, Chao-Jie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to urbanization in China, the numbers of migrant children and adolescents in urban environments have increased. Previous studies have indicated that children and adolescents are more likely to suffer from health problems and poor school achievement. The present study identified associations between poor health and school-related…

  13. FastStats: Adolescent Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Adolescent Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Health status Percent of adolescents 12-17 years of age who are in ...

  14. Adolescent Temperament: Childhood Problem Precursors and Problem Behavior Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael

    Interrelations between childhood behavior problems and adolescent temperament, and between adolescent temperament and problem behaviors, were studied. A sample of 311 adolescents with an average age of 15.7 years completed self-report measures regarding behavior problems before age 13, temperament, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems,…

  15. Reducing HIV-related risk and mental health problems through a client-centred psychosocial intervention for vulnerable adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Nrupa; Vu, Lung; Kay, Lynnette; Habtamu, Kassahun; Kalibala, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents’ vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants’ increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression) was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. Results For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65)) and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81)) from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51)) and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97)). For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV

  16. Children, adolescents, and the media: health effects.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed

    2012-06-01

    The media can be a powerful teacher of children and adolescents and have a profound impact on their health. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem in the United States, but they do contribute to a variety of pediatric and adolescent health problems. Given that children and teens spend >7 hours a day with media, one would think that adult society would recognize its impact on young people's attitudes and behaviors. Too little has been done to protect children and adolescents from harmful media effects and to maximize the powerfully prosocial aspects of modern media.

  17. Co-Occurring Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Firesetting Among At-Risk Adolescents: Experiences of Negative Life Events, Mental Health Problems, Substance Use, and Suicidality.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Alicia; Hasking, Penelope; Martin, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors in adolescence typically marks more severe psychopathology and poorer psychosocial functioning than engagement in a single problem behavior. We examined the negative life events, emotional and behavioral problems, substance use, and suicidality of school-based adolescents reporting both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and repetitive firesetting, compared to those engaging in either behavior alone. Differences in NSSI characteristics among self-injurers who set fires, compared to those who did not, were also assessed. A total of 384 at-risk adolescents aged 12-18 years (58.8% female) completed self-report questionnaires measuring NSSI, firesetting, and key variables of interest. Results suggest that adolescents who both self-injure and deliberately set fires represent a low-prevalence but distinct high-risk subgroup, characterized by increased rates of interpersonal difficulties, mental health problems and substance use, more severe self-injury, and suicidal behavior. Implications for prevention and early intervention initiatives are discussed.

  18. A pressing need to respond to the needs and sexual and reproductive health problems of adolescent girls living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Armstrong, Alice; Amin, Avni; Ferguson, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This commentary provides the rationale and makes a call for greater investment and effort to meet the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) problems of adolescent girls living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Discussion Adolescent girls in LMIC are at a greater risk of acquiring HIV infection than their male peers. They also face a number of other serious SRH problems – early pregnancy, pregnancy- and childbirth-related complications, unsafe abortions, sexual abuse and intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infections. While many LMIC have made notable progress in preventing HIV in children and adults and in improving the access of these population groups to HIV treatment and care, adolescents in general and adolescent girls in particular have not received the same effort and investment. Conclusions Much more needs to be done to implement proven approaches to prevent new HIV infections in adolescent girls in LMIC and to meet the needs of those living with HIV. PMID:26643463

  19. Adolescent sexuality, contraceptive health and STD.

    PubMed

    Irmak, Y; Jainudeen, M R; Irvin, R P

    1986-10-01

    Major topics addressed by this article on adolescent sexuality include adolescent festivals, adolescent reproductive psychophysiology, contraception for adolescents, the World Federation of Contraception and Health, sexually transmitted diseases, and recommendations for research. The purpose of adolescent festivals is to increase communication between young people and their parents on subjects such as sexuality. Of particular concern is the traumatic emotional, physical, and financial impact of adolescent pregnancy, both in developed and developing countries. Contraceptive methods considered to be most appropriate for use in developing countries are injectable Depo-Provera and the Norplant contraceptive implant system. To reduce the problem of adolescent pregnancy, television programs need to portray responsible sexuality, family responsibility and involvement must be strengthended, funds for education and prevention programs should be increased, and there must be more intraprofessional collaboration. The World Federation of Contraception and Health, a nonprofit multicenter institution, has been created to make recommendations on how current resources can be utilized to address problems of adolescent sexuality. Adolescent clubs are being set up to provide adolescents and their families with computer support and information. Another concern is the spread of sexually transmitted diseases that cause infections in the genitourinary tract and threaten to impair future fertility. The incidence of diseases such as chlamydia trachomatis and nongonococcal urethritis is especially high in teenagers. Needed in the future are more multicenter studies conducted by microbiologists, pathophysiologists, family planning experts, epidemiologists, venereologists, gynecologists, obstetricians, and dermatologists on the many aspects of adolescent sexuality.

  20. The Construction of Fear: Americans' Preferences for Social Distance from Children and Adolescents with Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jack K.; Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; McLeod, Jane D.

    2007-01-01

    Debates about children's mental health problems have raised questions about the reliability and validity of diagnosis and treatment. However, little research has focused on social reactions to children with mental health problems. This gap in research raises questions about competing theories of stigma, as well as specific factors shaping…

  1. Improving adolescent maternal health.

    PubMed

    Baxter, C; Moodley, D

    2015-11-01

    Each year thousands of adolescent girls and young women in South Africa (SA) become pregnant and many die from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. Although women of all ages are susceptible, girls<15 years of age are five times as likely, and those aged 15-19 years twice as likely, to die from complications related to childbirth than women in their 20s. In SA, non-pregnancy-related infections (e.g. HIV), obstetric haemorrhage and hypertension contributed to almost 70% of avoidable maternal deaths. In addition to the implementation of standardized preventive interventions to reduce obstetric haemorrhage and hypertension, better reproductive health services for adolescents, access to HIV care and treatment for women infected with HIV, and improved access to and uptake of long-acting reversible contraception are important ingredients for reducing maternal mortality among adolescents. PMID:26937508

  2. Predicting the Problem Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaman, Neslihan G.

    2013-01-01

    Problem statement: Problem behavior theory describes both protective factors and risk factors to explain adolescent problem behaviors, such as delinquency, alcohol use, and reckless driving. The theory holds that problem behaviors involving risky behavior are used by adolescents as a means to gain peer acceptance and respect. Problem behaviors…

  3. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving.

  4. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving. PMID:26613696

  5. Adolescent Health in Hawai'i: The Adolescent Health Network's Teen Health Advisor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Health, Honolulu. Maternal and Child Health Branch.

    This publication reports on a survey to develop a profile of adolescent health in Hawaii in order to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies. The survey covered: general health status; family, peer, and school problems; depression and suicide; use of licit and illicit substances; sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases; and…

  6. Adolescent's sexual problems in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, B S

    1990-07-01

    This article discusses primary contributors of sexual problems among Korean adolescents. As a result of improved nutrition, physical maturity is occurring at an earlier age in Korean youths. On the other hand, marital age has increased; the average age for males to marry is 27.3 years and 24.1 years in females. Hence, these factors extend the time frame between onset of sexual maturity and marriage. Enrollment in schools has risen; middle school registration has increased from 74.2% in 1975 to 99.7% in 1985 and from 43.6% to 78.3% in high schools. Increased enrollment has also been observed at the university level which may promote prolonged educational periods; this focus on education may reduce sexual interest among students. Improved employment opportunities may also influence sexual behavior among adolescents; urban migration can encourage casual relationships. Changes in family structure and sexual morals has promoted liberal attitudes regarding sexual practices. Increased exposure to mass media has affected adolescent sexual problems; 99.1% of the households in 1985 possessed televisions. These sexual problems include onset of sexual intercourse at an earlier age, unwanted pregnancies, increased induced abortions, and early childbirth. Overall, sexual activity in females has risen from 3.6% in 1965 to 14.5% in 1981 and from 18.5% in 1971 for males to 27.7% in 1981. Pre-marital pregnancy rates have continually increased since 1950; this has resulted in a rise of unwed mothers' consultations which reflects adolescent childbirths. Sex-related crime have also increased; rape ranks 3rd in crimes committed by Korean youth. Sex education and family planning should be provided for adolescents. Furthermore, counseling services should be available to youth regarding unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraception. The Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea provides youth sex telephone services in which adolescents can acquire information on

  7. Adolescent's sexual problems in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, B S

    1990-07-01

    This article discusses primary contributors of sexual problems among Korean adolescents. As a result of improved nutrition, physical maturity is occurring at an earlier age in Korean youths. On the other hand, marital age has increased; the average age for males to marry is 27.3 years and 24.1 years in females. Hence, these factors extend the time frame between onset of sexual maturity and marriage. Enrollment in schools has risen; middle school registration has increased from 74.2% in 1975 to 99.7% in 1985 and from 43.6% to 78.3% in high schools. Increased enrollment has also been observed at the university level which may promote prolonged educational periods; this focus on education may reduce sexual interest among students. Improved employment opportunities may also influence sexual behavior among adolescents; urban migration can encourage casual relationships. Changes in family structure and sexual morals has promoted liberal attitudes regarding sexual practices. Increased exposure to mass media has affected adolescent sexual problems; 99.1% of the households in 1985 possessed televisions. These sexual problems include onset of sexual intercourse at an earlier age, unwanted pregnancies, increased induced abortions, and early childbirth. Overall, sexual activity in females has risen from 3.6% in 1965 to 14.5% in 1981 and from 18.5% in 1971 for males to 27.7% in 1981. Pre-marital pregnancy rates have continually increased since 1950; this has resulted in a rise of unwed mothers' consultations which reflects adolescent childbirths. Sex-related crime have also increased; rape ranks 3rd in crimes committed by Korean youth. Sex education and family planning should be provided for adolescents. Furthermore, counseling services should be available to youth regarding unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraception. The Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea provides youth sex telephone services in which adolescents can acquire information on

  8. Identifying Russian and Finnish Adolescents' Problem Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemppainen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka; Jokela, Veikko; Pantelejev, Vladimir; Uhanov, Mihail

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to show that a syndrome of problem behaviours, i.e. early substance abuse, school and family problems and sexual promiscuity impairs normal development in adolescence. This comparative study looked for differences in the problem behaviour profiles of 15-year-old adolescents in the Pitkaranta district in Russia…

  9. Reproductive health in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H L

    1994-01-01

    The health and well-being of adolescents is closely intertwined with their physical, psychological and social development, but this is put at risk by sexual and reproductive health hazards which are increasing in much of the world. Changes in population growth and distribution, the rise of telecommunications, the increase in travel and a decline in the family, as well as a generally earlier start of menarche and later age of marriage are contributing to an increase in unprotected sexual relations before marriage. This, combined with risks from early marriage, result in too early or unwanted pregnancy and childbirth, induced abortion in hazardous circumstances and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection leading to AIDS. With more than half the world's population below the age of 25, and 4 out of 5 young people living in developing countries with inadequate access to prevention and care, there is an urgent need for action. Young women are particularly vulnerable. Mortality and morbidity from early pregnancy whether ending in childbirth or abortion, is much higher for the younger adolescent. Young women, especially those who have less formal education, are more vulnerable to pressures for marriage, or sexual relations before marriage, often with older men. Young people generally lack adequate knowledge about their own development and information on how to get help. Those who could help are rarely trained for working with adolescents, and services which are generally designed for adults or children often deter young people from getting help when they most need it. Policy and legislation relating to sexual and reproductive health issues are often contradictory, and unclear or unenforced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Adolescent Resilience in Northern Uganda: The Role of Social Support and Prosocial Behavior in Reducing Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroz, Emily E.; Murray, Laura K.; Bolton, Paul; Betancourt, Theresa; Bass, Judith K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated relations between prosocial behavior, perceived social support, and improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms over 6 months among 102 Acholi adolescent (14-17 years, 58% female adolescents) survivors of war and displacement in Northern Uganda. Adolescents were assessed using a locally developed screener. Regression analyses…

  11. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychological Problems: The Moderating Effect of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…

  12. Life Stressors as Mediators of the Relation between Socioeconomic Position and Mental Health Problems in Early Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Ormel, Johan; Huisman, Martijn; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Burger, Huibert

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Life stressors and family socioeconomic position have often been associated with mental health status. The aim of the present study is to contribute to the understanding of the pathways from low socioeconomic position and life stressors to mental problems. Method: In a cross-sectional analysis using data from a longitudinal study of…

  13. Adolescent sexuality and its problems.

    PubMed

    Yang, M

    1995-09-01

    Adolescent sexual activity is increasing globally. Abstinence and a delay in the start of sexual intercourse may be the most effective methods in preventing the consequences of teenage sexual activity. However, these goals are seldom met. With the change in social norms, peer pressure and media influences; teenagers are engaging in premarital sex earlier. Family life education in countries like Sweden and Finland reduces teenage pregnancy and abortion. It is unrealistic to expect sexually active adolescents to stop their sexual activity. An effective contraceptive method will provide an alternative to prevent teenage pregnancy. Issues on compliance of contraceptive use, especially at the very outset of sexual activity should be addressed. Most of the problems associated with teenage pregnancy are now thought to be related to the social circumstances of the mother, the poor nutritional status before pregnancy and poor attendance at antenatal clinics. Risk-taking behaviour in this age group will also make them more prone to contracting sexually transmitted diseases. High risk groups should be screened and treated early. Contraceptive methods with protection against sexually transmitted diseases should be advised.

  14. [Academic problems and school failure in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Catheline, Nicole

    2005-05-31

    Success at school increases self-esteem. Any difficulty will have consequential effects on the psychological health of the subject. The conditions now prevailing in the educational institutions (mass schooling without any individual orientation before the end of college) oblige the teenager to submit to teaching methods and to the school system. School can reveal the subject's personal problems (anxiety, phobia or depression), but may equally create pathology by not recognising the heterogeneity of individual development and differences in cognitive functioning. In adolescence, the ego is particularly vulnerable. Anything that may induce its instability can create behavioural problems (instability, aggressiveness, inhibition) or problems of thought (anxiety links, difficulties in abstraction). In order to cope with such a haemorrhage of the ego, the adolescent may have recourse to certain behaviours (e.g. use of drugs leading to dependence). So it is important the know well the links between school failure and behavioural problems or drug consumption because, in one way or another, by their sanction or by lack of motivation, these situations will lead very quickly to school disengagement, which in turn leads to the breakdown of the ego.

  15. Insomnia symptoms, behavioral/emotional problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac and non-insomniac parents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchen; Zhao, Zhongtang; Jia, Cunxian

    2015-08-30

    The aim of this study was to examine insomnia symptoms, behavioral problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac parents (IP) and non-insomniac parents (NIP). A family survey of sleep and health was conducted among 1090 adolescents and their parents in Jinan, China. Adolescents completed a sleep and health questionnaire to report their sleep and mental health problems. Parents reported their insomnia symptoms and history of mental disorders. Insomnia, behavioral problems, and suicidal behavior were compared between IP adolescents and NIP adolescents. IP adolescents were more likely than NIP adolescents to report insomnia symptoms, use of sleep medication, suicidal ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt. IP adolescents scored significantly higher than NIP adolescents on withdrawn and externalizing behavioral problems. After adjustment for demographics and behavioral problems, parental insomnia remained to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide plan. Our findings support the need for early screening and formal assessment of sleep and mental health in adolescents of insomniac parents.

  16. Adolescent cigarette smoking and health risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Busen, N H; Modeland, V; Kouzekanani, K

    2001-06-01

    During the past 30 years, tobacco use among adolescents has substantially increased, resulting in major health problems associated with tobacco consumption. The purpose of this study was to identify adolescent smoking behaviors and to determine the relationship among smoking, specific demographic variables, and health risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 93 self-selecting adolescents. An ex post facto design was used for this study and data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. Findings included a statistically significant relationship between lifetime cigarette use and ethnicity. Statistically significant relationships were also found among current cigarette use and ethnicity, alcohol use, marijuana use, suicidal thoughts, and age at first sexual intercourse. Nurses and other providers must recognize that cigarette smoking may indicate other risk behaviors common among adolescents.

  17. One-Year Follow-Up of Suicidal Adolescents: Parental History of Mental Health Problems and Time to Post-Hospitalization Attempt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Cheryl A.; Kerr, David C. R.; Passarelli, Michael N.; Foster, Cynthia Ewell; Merchant, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study of recently hospitalized suicidal youth examined parental mental health history in addition to several indices of adolescent functioning as risk factors for time-to-suicide attempt over a 1-year period. Participants were 352 adolescents (253 girls, 99 boys; ages 13-17 years) who participated in self-report and interview…

  18. Detained Adolescents: Mental Health Needs, Treatment Use, and Recidivism.

    PubMed

    White, Laura M; Lau, Katherine S L; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2016-06-01

    Although approximately 60 to 70 percent of detained adolescents meet criteria for a mental disorder, few receive treatment upon community re-entry. Given that mental health treatment can reduce recidivism, we examined detained adolescents' mental health needs and their postdetention mental health treatment and recidivism. Altogether, 1,574 adolescents (≤18 years) completed a mental health screening at a detention center. Scores on the screening, mental health treatment utilization (60 days after detention), and recidivism (6 months after detention) were measured. About 82.2 percent of adolescents had elevated scores on the mental health screening, but only 16.4 percent obtained treatment and 37.2 percent reoffended. Logistic regression models revealed adolescents with insurance and higher angry-irritable scores were significantly more likely to obtain treatment, whereas males, black and older adolescents, and those endorsing a trauma history were less likely. Black adolescents, insured adolescents, and those with higher alcohol and drug use scores were significantly more likely to reoffend. Mental health treatment increased the likelihood of recidivism. The prevalence of mental health needs among detained adolescents was high, but treatment utilization was low, with notable treatment disparities across race, gender, and age. The use of mental health treatment predicted recidivism, suggesting that treatment acts as a proxy measure of mental health problems. Future research should assess the impact of timely and continuous mental health services on recidivism among detained adolescents.

  19. Detained Adolescents: Mental Health Needs, Treatment Use, and Recidivism.

    PubMed

    White, Laura M; Lau, Katherine S L; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2016-06-01

    Although approximately 60 to 70 percent of detained adolescents meet criteria for a mental disorder, few receive treatment upon community re-entry. Given that mental health treatment can reduce recidivism, we examined detained adolescents' mental health needs and their postdetention mental health treatment and recidivism. Altogether, 1,574 adolescents (≤18 years) completed a mental health screening at a detention center. Scores on the screening, mental health treatment utilization (60 days after detention), and recidivism (6 months after detention) were measured. About 82.2 percent of adolescents had elevated scores on the mental health screening, but only 16.4 percent obtained treatment and 37.2 percent reoffended. Logistic regression models revealed adolescents with insurance and higher angry-irritable scores were significantly more likely to obtain treatment, whereas males, black and older adolescents, and those endorsing a trauma history were less likely. Black adolescents, insured adolescents, and those with higher alcohol and drug use scores were significantly more likely to reoffend. Mental health treatment increased the likelihood of recidivism. The prevalence of mental health needs among detained adolescents was high, but treatment utilization was low, with notable treatment disparities across race, gender, and age. The use of mental health treatment predicted recidivism, suggesting that treatment acts as a proxy measure of mental health problems. Future research should assess the impact of timely and continuous mental health services on recidivism among detained adolescents. PMID:27236176

  20. A qualitative study on adolescence, health and family

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Family is important to both health and adolescence. Adolescence is a time of peak health, but there are some important family based risk factors. The aim of this study was to explore the perspective of adolescent Iranians on issues of family and their health. We used descriptive, qualitative methodology and purposeful sampling and interviews for collecting the data. Forty‐one participants explained their perspectives on health and family. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Analysis revealed three categories of risk factors: a widening generation gap, effective parenting and family financial situation. To have healthy adolescents, both children and parents need more knowledge and better skills about adolescent health and development and about social trends. To understand adolescents in a more realistic way, parents should develop healthy communication to avoid family health problems. PMID:22477907

  1. Perceptions of mental health among recently immigrated Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carolyn M; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2007-01-01

    Rates of anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation are high among Latino adolescents in the U.S., many of whom are immigrants. Immigration during adolescence creates risk factors for mental health problems. The purpose of this study was to explore the health-related perceptions of Mexican-origin immigrant adolescents to inform the design of culturally and developmentally appropriate mental health services. This focused ethnography was guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological framework and symbolic interactionism. Fourteen adolescents were recruited from two non-health-based community settings. Data from one-to-one semi-structured interviews and a visual narrative project were coded and analyzed inductively. Three thematic patterns were identified: "mentally healthy," "mentally unhealthy," and "health promotion." Increased awareness of cultural influences and immigration on Latino adolescents' mental health is needed. Mental health nurses are in a unique position to educate and to influence accessibility of services. PMID:17130006

  2. Adolescent-Mother Agreement about Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Direction and Predictors of Disagreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Erin T.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Hendricks, Charlene; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2007-01-01

    Correlations between adolescent and parent reports of adolescent problems are low in magnitude. In community samples adolescents tend to report "more" problems than parents and in clinical samples adolescents tend to report "fewer" problems than parents. Indices of agreement may be biased if some adolescents in a given sample report more problems…

  3. Comparisons between Thai Adolescent Voices and Thai Adolescent Health Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; McElmurry, Beverly J.

    2006-01-01

    Thai adolescents are hesitant to openly talk to adults; however, they are avid users of the Internet. In 2002, faculty of the Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Nopparat Vajira, Thailand, established a webboard to reach out to high school students for questions and answers on adolescent health. Adolescents pose health questions, which are answered…

  4. Environmental Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Aimed at a society which is forced to make decisions relative to their total environment, this pamphlet discusses a few of the problems associated with restoring and maintaining an environmental relationship conducive to the health and well-being of man. The topics covered include: air pollution, noise, solid waste, the urban environment, drinking…

  5. Personality, Problem Solving, and Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, William B.; D'Zurilla, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to examine the role of social problem solving in the relationship between personality and substance use in adolescents. Although a number of studies have identified a relationship between personality and substance use, the precise mechanism by which this occurs is not clear. We hypothesized that problem-solving…

  6. Adolescents' health identities: a qualitative and theoretical study of health education courses.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, D; Rasmussen, K K

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we highlight the role of health identity in health education for adolescents. In school-based approaches to health education, it is often difficult to present health information and health communication in ways that make sense and appeal to adolescents. The concept of health identity has the potential of providing an analytical framework as well as practical recommendations for these issues and problem areas. The paper reports on an empirical study of elements of health identity in the context of health courses for adolescents--using interview data, observation studies and a theoretical construction focussing on self-observation, horizons of significance, expectational structures and social imaginaries. We present our findings in four main themes: 1) Adolescents' health identities are observed and developed when things matter, 2) Adolescents' health identities are observed and developed in relational contexts, 3) Adolescents' health identities are developed on the basis of observations of past, present and future health and 4) Adolescents' health identities are clearly defined. The paper provides health practitioners with important knowledge about why and how health-educational approaches should focus on health identity in order to provide conditions that create a significant health educating effect for all adolescents--not just for those who are already healthy.

  7. Improving the Mental Health, Healthy Lifestyle Choices, and Physical Health of Hispanic Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; O'Haver, Judith; Small, Leigh; Mays, Mary Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity and mental health disorders are 2 major public health problems in American adolescents, with prevalence even higher in Hispanic teens. Despite the rapidly increasing incidence and adverse health outcomes associated with overweight and mental health problems, very few intervention studies have been conducted with adolescents to…

  8. Adolescent mental health in China.

    PubMed

    McClure, G M

    1988-03-01

    Adolescent Mental Health in China is the responsibility of the wider society and is supported by social, educational and health care resources. With limited facilities, China emphasizes community mental health care, with prevention and health promotion as priorities. Mental health is considered in the context of an orderly socialist society with stable family life supported by the state. Society is currently influenced by a mixture of Communist ideology, ancient tradition and newer Western approaches. Difficulties in reconciling these factors are affecting the attitudes and behaviour of China's youth. PMID:3290295

  9. Parental violence and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Kirsi; Ellonen, Noora; Larsen, Helmer B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2010-11-01

    Being the target of parental violent acts decreases child adjustment and increases the likelihood of mental health problems in childhood and adolescence. Our study analyses how different types of parental violence ranging from verbal threats and swearing to hitting and kicking a child, are associated with child adjustment, indicated by strengths and difficulties scale (SDQ) total problem score, internalizing and externalizing problems as well as prosocial behaviour. We also study whether girls and boys and youths in two Nordic countries respond differently to parental violence. The data consists of a large-scale community sample of 15-16-year old Finnish (n = 5,762) and Danish (n = 3,943) adolescents. The representative data of continental Finland and its Finnish and Swedish speaking ninth graders as well as representative data of Danish ninth grade pupils were collected by the Police College of Finland and in Denmark by the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark. The results show a clear dose-response effect between parental violent behaviour and the adolescent's problems. The more severe forms of parental violence were associated with higher levels of SDQ total difficulties and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. There was also a connection between parental violence and the deterioration of prosocial behaviour. The association was gender and nationality specific. The findings imply a high prevalence of parental violence and adverse mental health among the affected Finnish and Danish adolescents. Though the laws have been set in motion to prevent the use of parental physical violence the challenges remain in several domains of child protection, general health care, prevention and intervention. PMID:20821263

  10. Declining Health Behavior of Adolescents: A Measure of Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crase, Darrell

    1981-01-01

    Cites statistics on such adolescent problems as pregnancy, drugs, and obesity as evidence of the serious neglect and alienation of this age group in an era of family instability and declining social roles for youth. Urges educators to give concerted attention to the physical, mental, and health needs of adolescents. (SJL)

  11. Medical and Mental Health Needs of Adolescent Indochinese Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jennifer; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents results of a study analyzing the health records of 181 adolescent Indochinese refugees in San Diego, CA. Focuses on the medical problems known to be prevalent among adult Indochinese refugees: tuberculosis infection, intestinal parasites, and hepatitis B antigenemia. Reports that Indochinese adolescents may have a high rate of mental…

  12. Neighborhood Processes, Self-Efficacy, and Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupere, Veronique; Leventhal, Tama; Vitaro, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs are central to mental health. Because adolescents' neighborhoods shape opportunities for experiences of control, predictability, and safety, we propose that neighborhood conditions are associated with adolescents' self-efficacy and, in turn, their internalizing problems (i.e., depression/anxiety symptoms). We tested these…

  13. Facing Facts: Sexual Health for America's Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Debra W., Ed.

    This report summarizes the deliberations, findings, and recommendations of the National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health. The report defines the characteristics of a sexually healthy adolescent, provides a foundation for understanding the three developmental stages of adolescents (early, middle, and late adolescence), and offers…

  14. Adolescent health in Asia: insights from India.

    PubMed

    Basker, Mona M

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents living in the Indian subcontinent form a significant proportion of the general population. India is home to 236 million adolescents, who make up one-fifth of the total population of India. Adolescent health is gradually considered an important issue by the government of India. Awareness is increasing about adolescent needs. Health care professionals in particular are becoming more interested in the specific needs of adolescent age. Adolescent medicine as a subspecialty of pediatrics has also gained importance gradually over the last decade. In a hospital setting, adolescent-specific needs are met, albeit not in a uniform manner in all the health centers. After having been trained in adolescent medicine in India and abroad, I present this paper as a bird's eye view of the practice of adolescent health and medicine in India. PMID:27447203

  15. A Systematic Review of Oral Health Behavior Research in American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…

  16. Adolescent Psychological Health Problems and Delinquency among Volatile Substance Users in a School Sample in South London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, David; Manning, Victoria; Gossop, Michael; Witton, John; Floyd, Karen; Rawaf, Salman; Strang, John

    2004-01-01

    The study assessed prevalence of volatile substance abuse (VSA), and its link to other forms of psychoactive substance use and to other problem behaviours among 14-15 year olds recruited from sixteen secondary schools in south-west London. Lifetime use of volatile substances was reported by 126 young people (6% of the sample) whose mean age of…

  17. A Guide to Adolescent Health Care EPSDT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Care Financing Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This document provides guidelines for individuals giving health care to adolescents through the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) Program. Chapter One briefly indicates needs of adolescents and outlines legal aspects of health care for adolescents such as age of majority, informed consent, confidentiality, disclosure of…

  18. Development of Mastery during Adolescence: The Role of Family Problem Solving*

    PubMed Central

    Conger, Katherine Jewsbury; Williams, Shannon Tierney; Little, Wendy M.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Shebloski, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A sense of mastery is an important component of psychological health and well-being across the life-span; however, relatively little is known about the development of mastery during childhood and adolescence. Utilizing prospective, longitudinal data from 444 adolescent sibling pairs and their parents, our conceptual model proposes that family SES in the form of parental education promotes effective family problem solving which, in turn, fosters adolescent mastery. Results show: (1) a significant increase in mastery for younger and older siblings, (2) parental education promoted effective problem solving between parents and adolescents and between siblings but not between the parents themselves, and (3) all forms of effective family problem solving predicted greater adolescent mastery. Parental education had a direct effect on adolescent mastery as well as the hypothesized indirect effect through problem solving effectiveness, suggesting both a social structural and social process influence on the development of mastery during adolescence. PMID:19413137

  19. Symptoms of Mental Health Problems: Children's and Adolescents' Understandings and Implications for Gender Differences in Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their…

  20. Some Problems of Sexual Growth in Adolescent Underprivileged Unwed Black Girls

    PubMed Central

    James, W. F. Bernell; James, Pauline M.; Walker, Edgar

    1977-01-01

    The adolescent female experiences many problems associated with sexual growth. These are greatly compounded in underprivileged black girls, particularly the unwed. Meharry Medical College has established comprehensive programs for the management of special health problems involving adolescent girls. This study presents an overview and statistical study of the psychological and psychosocial forces that confront these underprivileged girls. PMID:904015

  1. Adolescent reproductive health. What are CBHC programmes doing about it?

    PubMed

    Odembo, E A

    1992-09-01

    The first Inter-African Conference on Adolescent Health, entitled "Adolescent Health in sub-Saharan Africa: Present and Future" and held in Nairobi on March 24-27, 1992, addressed major issues on adolescent fertility, sexuality, and family planning services. Delegates from 40 countries joined to: 1) discuss problems in adolescents; 2) formulate a plan of action for tackling these problems; 3) examine ways of linking research and service activities; and 4) create a supportive network for individuals and groups working in this area. Statistics demonstrate the increasing number of births to adolescents in the developing world. These births have enormous social consequences, particularly for young women, whose education and future employment potential is often diminished. The consequences compromise a country's goals for socioeconomic development. A community-based health care (CBHC) program is needed to address adolescent reproductive health as a national issue. The program focuses on the following aspects of an integrated adolescent health policy: education on family life, sex and AIDS; training of special education teachers; renting skills education; sexually transmitted diseases (treatment and prevention); individual counseling; information, education and communication; general media attention to adolescents and their children; prenatal care and family planning; youth participation in programs; research and dissemination on data; primary schools and adult literacy programs; and youth serving organizations.

  2. Trait Affectivity and Nonreferred Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Bryan R.; Lima, Elizabeth N.; Butler, Melanie A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined for profiles of positive trait affectivity (PA) and negative trait affectivity (NA) associated with adolescent conduct problems. Prior trait affectivity research has been relatively biased toward the assessment of adults and internalizing symptomatology. Consistent with recent developmental modeling of antisocial behavior, this…

  3. Adolescent Outcomes for Hyperactive Children--Perspectives on General and Specific Patterns of Childhood Risk for Adolescent Educational, Social, and Mental Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Nadine M.

    An interactional model explaining predisposition to hyperactivity asserts that being identified, diagnosed, and treated as hyperactive is a function of biological factors, early health and temperament, family characteristics, and the quality of the home environment. A longitudinal study involving 367 subjects, aged 17-18, tested the interactional…

  4. College Health: Health Services and Common Health Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health College Health: Health Services and Common Health Problems Posted under Health Guides . ... March 2015. +Related Content What are student health services? The student health services (sometimes called the student ...

  5. Dental Health and Orthodontic Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Dental Health and Orthodontic Problems Page Content Article Body Dental Health Twin ... color can be tinted to match the teeth. Orthodontic Problems Crooked teeth, overbites and underbites are best ...

  6. Adolescent health care in Italy: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, V; Filati, G; Fiscina, B; Marsciani, A; Piacentini, G; Timoncini, G; Reggiani, L; Zucchini, A

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this mini-review is to present the National Health System and services available for adolescents in Italy, and to review the most relevant data on morbidity and mortality in Italian teens. Adolescent medicine in Italy is not a separate speciality, but there are some distinct services for adolescents in paediatric departments or gynaecologic wards, mostly in large cities where university hospitals or hospital of national relevance are located. Primary health care in Italy is provided mainly by general practitioners (GPs) and pediatricians, and on-call physicians (Guardia Medica) for after-hours medical care and services. The number of centres providing care for adolescents in Italy is 4097 (50% of these are in the North of Italy, 20% in the Central regions and 20% in the South and Islands). The population of Italy on January 1st 2011 was approximately 60,477,881 and the number of adolescents, aged 10 to 19 years, was 6,214,000. The most frequent causes of death in adolescents are motor vehicle accidents - more than half of which are related to drug or alcohol use - followed by cancer and suicide. In primary care, adolescents present with a large number of issues, particularly upper respiratory infections, musculoskeletal problems, pain syndromes, obesity, eating disorders, dermatological issues, mood and somatoform disorders, school and mental health problems, and chronic fatigue, many of which require a coordinated, multidisciplinary management approach. The estimated population with a chronic illness is 8%. There are no specific protocols for the transition to adult medicine physicians for patients with chronic diseases or special health needs. In order to improve the quality and quantity of education in adolescent health for paediatricians and GPs, the Study Group of Emilia and Romagna Region for Adolescent Health Care (SGA-ER) is going to organize, beginning in 2012, a two year educational intervention course in adolescent health.

  7. Teaching medical professionals and trainees about adolescent suicide prevention: five key problems.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo

    2012-01-01

    Predicting and preventing suicide represent very difficult challenges for clinicians. The awareness of adolescent suicide as a major social and medical problem has increased over the past years. However, many health care professionals who have frequent contact with adolescents are not sufficiently trained in suicide evaluation techniques and approaches to adolescents with suicidal behavior. Suicide prevention efforts among adolescents are restricted by the fact that there are five key problems related to the evaluation and management of suicidality in adolescents: 1. Many clinicians underestimate the importance of the problem of adolescent suicidal behavior and underestimate its prevalence. 2. There is a misconception that direct questioning of adolescents about suicidality is sufficient to evaluate suicide risk. 3. Another misconception is that adolescents with non-psychiatric illnesses do not need to be evaluated for suicidality. 4. Many clinicians do not know about or underestimate the role of contagion in adolescent suicidal behavior. 5. There is a mistaken belief that adolescent males are at lower suicide risk than adolescent females. Educating medical professionals and trainees about the warning signs and symptoms of adolescent suicide and providing them with tools to recognize, evaluate, and manage suicidal patients represent a promising approach to adolescent suicide prevention.

  8. Teaching adolescents about adolescence: experiences from an interdisciplinary adolescent health course.

    PubMed

    Aronowitz, Teri

    2006-01-01

    As abstract reasoning increases in complexity, adolescents may face dissonance between new thoughts and prior beliefs. Students in the health professions may be forced to resolve these dissonances in order to execute their professional responsibilities. In developing an undergraduate interdisciplinary course on adolescent health, the authors anticipated challenges in teaching adolescents about adolescence. Over the course of the semester, the anticipated challenges became reality. The author discusses pertinent developmental theories and their application in facilitating late adolescent identity formation and professional role development.

  9. Haitian adolescent personality clusters and their problem area correlates.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Robert C; Bryant, Vaughn E; Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Malow, Robert M

    2013-04-01

    This study identified personality clusters among a community sample of adolescents of Haitian decent and related cluster subgroup membership to problems in the areas of substance abuse, mental and physical health, family and peer relationships, educational and vocational status, social skills, leisure and recreational pursuits, aggressive behavior-delinquency, and to sexual risk activity. Three cluster subgroups were identified: dependent/conforming (N = 68), high pathology (N = 30); and confident/extroverted/conforming (N = 111). Although the overall sample was relatively healthy based on low average endorsement of problems across areas of expressed concern, significant physical health, mental health, relationship, educational, and HIV risk problems were identified in a MACI identified high psychopathology cluster subgroup. A confident/extraverted/conforming cluster subgroup revealed few problems and appears to reflect a protective style.

  10. The economic impact of adolescent health promotion policies and programs.

    PubMed

    Aratani, Yumiko; Schwarz, Susan Wile; Skinner, Curtis

    2011-12-01

    Adolescence is a critical period in the human lifecycle, a time of rapid physical and socioemotional growth and a time when individuals establish lifestyle habits and health behaviors that often endure into and have lasting effects in adulthood. Adolescent health promotion programs play a critical role in helping youth establish healthy lifestyles. In this article, we present a socio-ecological model as a framework for identifying effective policy and program areas that have a positive impact on adolescent health behaviors. Our discussion focuses on 4 key areas: reproductive health; obesity prevention; mental health and substance use, including smoking; and injury and violence prevention. We proceed with an overview of the current status of state-led adolescent health promotion policies and programs from a newly created policy database and then examine the evidence on the cost of preventable adolescent health problems and the cost-effectiveness of health promotion programs and policies. We conclude by discussing the threat posed to adolescent health promotion services and state-led policy initiatives by proposed and implemented federal and state-level budget cuts and examine the possible health and economic repercussions of reducing or eliminating these programs.

  11. Inter-Personal Perceptions Within Families Containing Behavior Problem Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faw, Terry T.; Goldsmith, Douglas F.

    Little research has examined the relationships between parents' perceptions of their adolescent children, the adolescents' self-perceptions and the congruence of those perceptions to adolescent behavior problems. Two parent families (N=64) with an adolescent member completed a Behavior Adjustment Scale. Based on these scores 42 families were…

  12. Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Use by Adolescents Mental Health Sexual & Reproductive Health Sports Medicine Substance Use Transition to Adult Care Related ... Puberty/Normal Development Eating Disorders and Nutrition LGBT Health Media Use by ... Medicine Substance Abuse Transition to Adult Care Clinical ...

  13. Adolescent Health in the United States, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay, Andrea P.; Duran, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This report presents data on the current status of adolescent health. Many of the measures of health status are shown by single year of age or by 2- or 3-year age intervals to highlight the changes that occur in health status as adolescents move through this important developmental period. Summary measures combining 5- or 10-year age groups (the…

  14. Identity development in adolescents with mental problems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), “Identity” is an essential diagnostic criterion for personality disorders (self-related personality functioning) in the alternative approach to the diagnosis of personality disorders in Section III of DSM-5. Integrating a broad range of established identity concepts, AIDA (Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence) is a new questionnaire to assess pathology-related identity development in healthy and disturbed adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Aim of the present study is to investigate differences in identity development between adolescents with different psychiatric diagnoses. Methods Participants were 86 adolescent psychiatric in- and outpatients aged 12 to 18 years. The test set includes the questionnaire AIDA and two semi-structured psychiatric interviews (SCID-II, K-DIPS). The patients were assigned to three diagnostic groups (personality disorders, internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders). Differences were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA. Results In line with our hypotheses, patients with personality disorders showed the highest scores in all AIDA scales with T>70. Patients with externalizing disorders showed scores in an average range compared to population norms, while patients with internalizing disorders lay in between with scores around T=60. The AIDA total score was highly significant between the groups with a remarkable effect size of f= 0.44. Conclusion Impairment of identity development differs between adolescent patients with different forms of mental disorders. The AIDA questionnaire is able to discriminate between these groups. This may help to improve assessment and treatment of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems. PMID:23899433

  15. Polygamy and mental health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Sami; Auerbach, Judy; Apter, Alan

    2009-12-01

    The objective is to study the influence of polygamous versus monogamous marriage on the mental health of adolescents in an Israeli Bedouin population. Pupils aged 11-18 years attending schools in Bedouin Arab communities in southern Israel were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire and a panel of psychological instruments measuring competence and behavioral problems, anxiety and depression. Findings were compared between pupils of families with one wife and pupils of families with more than one wife. The population comprised 406 pupils of mean age 14.5 years; 56% were female. Fifty-three percent were from polygamous marriages and 47% from monogamous marriages. After allowing for the influence of socioeconomic factors, there were no differences between offspring of polygamous marriages and those of monogamous marriages for any of the psychological scales. When polygamy is the accepted practice in a particular social milieu, it does not have a deleterious psychological effect on adolescents. PMID:19551327

  16. Polygamy and mental health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Sami; Auerbach, Judy; Apter, Alan

    2009-12-01

    The objective is to study the influence of polygamous versus monogamous marriage on the mental health of adolescents in an Israeli Bedouin population. Pupils aged 11-18 years attending schools in Bedouin Arab communities in southern Israel were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire and a panel of psychological instruments measuring competence and behavioral problems, anxiety and depression. Findings were compared between pupils of families with one wife and pupils of families with more than one wife. The population comprised 406 pupils of mean age 14.5 years; 56% were female. Fifty-three percent were from polygamous marriages and 47% from monogamous marriages. After allowing for the influence of socioeconomic factors, there were no differences between offspring of polygamous marriages and those of monogamous marriages for any of the psychological scales. When polygamy is the accepted practice in a particular social milieu, it does not have a deleterious psychological effect on adolescents.

  17. Is relatively young age within a school year a risk factor for mental health problems and poor school performance? A population-based cross-sectional study of adolescents in Oslo, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Lars; Tambs, Kristian; Oppedal, Brit; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Bjertness, Espen

    2005-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that children who are relatively young within a school year are at greater risk for poorer school performance compared with their older peers. One study also reported that relative age within a school year is an independent risk factor for emotional and behavioral problems. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that relatively younger adolescents in the multiethnic population of Oslo have poorer school performance and more mental health problems than their relatively older classmates within the same school year. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study included all 10th-grade pupils enrolled in 2000 and 2001 in the city of Oslo. The participation rate was 88%. Of the 6,752 pupils in the study sample, 25% had a non-Norwegian background. Mental health problems were quantified using the abbreviated versions of Symptom Check List-25 (SCL-10) and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Information on school performances and mental health problems were self-reported. We controlled for confounding factors including parental educational level, social support, gender, and ethnicity. Results The youngest one-third of pupils had significantly lower average school grades than the middle one-third and oldest one-third of their classmates (p < 0.001). Of the mental health problems identified in the questionnaires, the groups differed only on peer problems; the youngest one-third reported significantly more problems than the middle and oldest groups (p < 0.05). Age within a school year and gender showed significant interactions with total SDQ score, SDQ peer problems score, SDQ pro social score, and SCL-10 score. After stratifying for gender, the peer problem scores differed significantly between age groups only among boys. The SCL-10 score was significant, but only in girls and in the opposite direction to that expected, with the oldest pupils having significantly higher scores than the other two groups

  18. Adolescence: a foundation for future health.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Susan M; Afifi, Rima A; Bearinger, Linda H; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Dick, Bruce; Ezeh, Alex C; Patton, George C

    2012-04-28

    Adolescence is a life phase in which the opportunities for health are great and future patterns of adult health are established. Health in adolescence is the result of interactions between prenatal and early childhood development and the specific biological and social-role changes that accompany puberty, shaped by social determinants and risk and protective factors that affect the uptake of health-related behaviours. The shape of adolescence is rapidly changing-the age of onset of puberty is decreasing and the age at which mature social roles are achieved is rising. New understandings of the diverse and dynamic effects on adolescent health include insights into the effects of puberty and brain development, together with social media. A focus on adolescence is central to the success of many public health agendas, including the Millennium Development Goals aiming to reduce child and maternal mortality and HIV/AIDS, and the more recent emphases on mental health, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. Greater attention to adolescence is needed within each of these public health domains if global health targets are to be met. Strategies that place the adolescent years centre stage-rather than focusing only on specific health agendas-provide important opportunities to improve health, both in adolescence and later in life.

  19. Health-Promoting and Health-Compromising Behaviors among Minority Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Dawn K., Ed.; Rodrigue, James R., Ed.; Taylor, Wendell C., Ed.

    This book examines the importance of advocating healthy lifestyles among minority adolescents, who are at increased risk for particular health problems. The three central themes: highlight similarities and differences across diverse ethnic groups of adolescents while respecting their heterogeneity; emphasize innovative and culturally based…

  20. Health workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services for unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescents in developing countries face a range of sexual and reproductive health problems. Lack of health care service for reproductive health or difficulty in accessing them are among them. In this study we aimed to examine health care workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey among 423 health care service providers working in eastern Ethiopia in 2010. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to drive proportions and associations. Results The majority of health workers had positive attitudes. However, nearly one third (30%) of health care workers had negative attitudes toward providing RH services to unmarried adolescents. Close to half (46.5%) of the respondents had unfavorable responses toward providing family planning to unmarried adolescents. About 13% of health workers agreed to setting up penal rules and regulations against adolescents that practice pre-marital sexual intercourse. The multivariate analysis indicated that being married (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.44 - 3.06), lower education level (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.04 - 1.99), being a health extension worker (OR 2.49; 95% CI 1.43 - 4.35), lack of training on reproductive health services (OR 5.27; 95% CI 1.51 - 5.89) to be significantly associated with negative attitudes toward provision of sexual and reproductive services to adolescents. Conclusions The majority of the health workers had generally positive attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health to adolescents. However, a minority has displayed negatives attitudes. Such negative attitudes will be barriers to service utilization by adolescents and hampers the efforts to reduce sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. We therefore call for a targeted effort toward alleviating negative

  1. Behavioral sleep problems in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moore, Melisa

    2012-03-01

    Sleep problems in children and adolescents are common, and they impact multiple domains of child and family functioning. Psychologists have a critical role in the assessment and treatment of sleep problems and are integral to interdisciplinary sleep teams. Certain sleep problems may be related to co-morbid psychological or developmental conditions, and others are considered to be primarily medical, yet behavioral approaches may be applicable. There are also sleep problems considered to be behavioral in etiology (e.g. inadequate sleep hygiene, behavioral insomnia of childhood, nightmares/bad dreams/nighttime fears, delayed sleep phase syndrome, and psychophysiological insomnia). In this article, the assessment of behavioral sleep problems, as well as specific behavioral sleep disorders, and their treatments will be discussed. PMID:22389163

  2. Common Problems of Adolescents Encountered in Schools

    PubMed Central

    McWhinney, Betty D.

    1986-01-01

    Some adolescents present in school with problems of poor academic performance and unacceptable behaviour. A physician's evaluation of such a problem requires a careful history and consideration of emotional factors. A neuro-developmental assessment should reveal a pattern of strengths as well as any areas of delay. Management includes demystifying the problem to the student and counselling parents, as well as providing an explanation to the school staff. Stimulant medication, when the primary problem is one of attention-deficit disorder, can be a useful part of the therapeutic program. Long-term follow up, counselling and support are essential. Working within the school gives the counsellor access to teachers and other staff to ensure that understanding of, and help with, the problem continues. PMID:21267219

  3. The Illinois 9th Grade Adolescent Health Survey. Full Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    A survey was conducted in Illinois to identify the risk of certain health problems among adolescents; to determine the health status of Illinois youth in relation to the Surgeon General's "Healthy People 2000 Objectives" and monitor progress toward national and state goals; and to help those working at national, state, and local levels develop…

  4. Research in child and adolescent telemental health.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kathleen M; Palmer, Nancy B; Geyer, John R

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade telepsychiatry, and more broadly telemental health (TMH), services with children and adolescents have been implemented with diverse populations in many geographic areas across the United States. The feasibility and acceptability of child and adolescent TMH have been well demonstrated, but little research exists on the efficacy and effectiveness of TMH in improving the mental health care and outcomes for underserved youth. This article summarizes the state of research in child and adolescent telemental health TMH and examines studies in other areas of telemedicine that may inspire and guide child and adolescent telepsychiatrists to collect data on the process and outcomes of their own work.

  5. Health Problems in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Every pregnancy has some risk of problems. The causes can be conditions you already have or conditions you develop. ... pregnant with more than one baby, previous problem pregnancies, or being over age 35. They can affect ...

  6. Pre-testing. Adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Mariano, C S; Alvarez, R O

    1994-03-01

    Sex and contraception are still taboo topics in the Philippines, distorted and kept in the dark by the media, the Roman Catholic Church, and fundamentalist groups. Adolescents therefore generally learn about sex education from peers who are often equally misinformed. Myths abound about the realities of sex and sexuality. Uninformed though they may be, Filipino adolescents still experiment with sexuality and sexual intercourse, and have generated a high incidence of unwanted teen pregnancy and maternal mortality. 50% of pregnant women below the age of 15 die from pregnancy- and childbirth-related complications. The Japan Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) and MEXFAM jointly produced three animated films for Latin American adolescents and young couples. The Institute for Social Studies in Action (ISSA) and JOICFP conducted a series of focus group discussions between the months of July and August 1993 to see whether these films would also be effective and appropriate among Filipino counterparts. The ISSA is a nongovernmental organization promoting women's reproductive health in the Philippines. "The Blue Pigeon" focuses upon sexual changes which take place in the minds and bodies of boys and girls and graphically explains the processes of sexual intercourse, contraception, pregnancy, and childbirth. "Music for Two" features a girl in pursuit of love who imagines a variety of male-female relationships. Finally, "Best Wishes" focuses on the importance of good communication between partners and sharing household responsibilities.

  7. Radon: A health problem

    SciTech Connect

    Pucci, J.; Gaston, S.

    1990-01-01

    Nurses can and should function as effective teachers about the potential hazards to health of radon contamination in the home as well as become activists in the development of health care policy on radon.

  8. Provision of Reproductive Health Services for Adolescents--Report of a Study in Two Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olukoya, Adepeju A.

    1996-01-01

    Studied adolescent reproductive health services in two Nigerian states. Found that adolescents use health facilities mostly for general health problems. Only 6.1% (south) and 31.8% (north) of cases involved reproductive health, the gap attributable to maternity cases of northern married women. Reproductive health problems such as abortion and…

  9. Cultural diversity in adolescent health care.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David L; Chown, Peter; Kang, Melissa S-L

    2005-10-17

    In Australia, where about 16% of young people are born overseas and 24% are from a non-English-speaking background, adolescent health care is a multicultural challenge. "Cultural competency" involves challenging one's own cultural assumptions and beliefs, developing empathy for people from other cultures, and applying specific communication and interaction skills in clinical encounters. For health professionals, sensitivity to the cultural, ethnic, linguistic and social diversity among young people helps to avert problems and misunderstandings, improves satisfaction for all concerned and leads to better outcomes. Engaging the family and gaining the trust of parents is critical in treating young people from cultural backgrounds in which participation in health care is a family concern rather than an individual responsibility.

  10. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva

    2015-03-01

    Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.

  11. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva

    2015-03-01

    Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents. PMID:25859714

  12. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Melissa Hough; Ourada, Joanne

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and other drug abuse, and the consequences of those behaviors. This publication summarizes approximately 250 laws and resolutions concerning adolescent health and related issues passed by the 50 states and the District…

  13. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendell, Nicole

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and drug abuse, and the consequences of these behaviors. This publication summarizes laws and resolutions on adolescent health issues passed in 1997 state and territory legislative sessions. No 1997 legislative session…

  14. Obesity in Children and Adolescents: Health Effects and Imaging Implications.

    PubMed

    Faguy, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are pandemic health problems, not just among the adult population, but in children and adolescents as well. This article presents information on the prevalence, causes, prevention, and treatment of overweight and obesity in young people, with particular focus on the medical and psychological complications associated with the diseases. In addition, the challenges of imaging the obese pediatric population are discussed, and public policy changes that could help reverse obesity trends in children and adolescents are introduced.

  15. Cambodian refugee adolescents: cultural factors and mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Frye, B A; McGill, D

    1993-01-01

    Cambodian adolescents in America are a high-risk group for physical, psychosomatic, and drug-related problems. Communication with the Cambodian community is a challenge to mental health nurses due to fundamental differences in American and Cambodian perceptions about parental roles and causation and treatment of illness. The authors focus on the Cambodian cultural theme of equilibrium in treatment of illness, management of stress, and patterns of parenting. Conflicts faced by Cambodian adolescents and nursing intervention strategies are identified. PMID:8106981

  16. A brief overview of adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C F

    2011-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661

  17. A Brief Overview of Adolescent Developmental Problems in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C. F.

    2011-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661

  18. Rural Adolescents and Mental Health: Growing Up in the Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Beverly Hartung

    1987-01-01

    Reviews relevant literature on the subject of rural adolescent mental health. Discusses demographics, unique situations, and problems of rural youth. Presents impact of the rural economic crisis. Suggests treatment strategies to deal with mental health problems of rural adolescents: individual therapy, family therapy, and peer group programs. (NEC)

  19. Severity of Victimization and Co-Occurring Mental Health Disorders among Substance Using Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabri, Bushra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Co-occurring mental health disorders are widespread among substance using adolescents. Severity of victimization may be an important factor in explaining co-occurrence of mental health problems among adolescents with substance misuse problems. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether severe victimization experiences…

  20. Health of adolescent refugees resettling in high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Kajal; Payne, Donald; Mutch, Raewyn; Cherian, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Adolescent refugees are a vulnerable population with complex healthcare needs that are distinct from younger and older age groups. Physical health problems are common in this cohort with communicable diseases being the focus of attention followed by an emphasis on nutritional deficiencies and other chronic disorders. Adolescent refugees have also often experienced multiple traumatic stressors and are at a heightened risk of developing mental health problems. Navigating these problems at the time of pubertal development adds further challenges and can exacerbate or lead to the emergence of health risk behaviours. Educational difficulties and acculturation issues further compound these issues. Adolescents who have had experiences in detention or are unaccompanied by parents are particularly at risk. Despite a constantly growing number of adolescent refugees resettling in high-income countries, knowledge regarding their specific healthcare needs is limited. Research data are largely extrapolated from studies conducted within paediatric and adult cohorts. Holistic management of the medical and psychological issues faced by this group is challenging and requires an awareness of the socioeconomic factors that can have an impact on effective healthcare delivery. Legal and ethical issues can further complicate their management and addressing these in a culturally appropriate manner is essential. Early identification and management of the healthcare issues faced by adolescent refugees resettling in high-income countries are key to improving long-term health outcomes and future healthcare burden. This review article aims to increase knowledge and awareness of these issues among paediatricians and other health professionals.

  1. Comparing Adolescents in Diverging Family Structures: Investigating Whether Adoptees Are More Prone to Problems than Their Nonadopted Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigelman, William

    2001-01-01

    Used National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data to compare adolescent adjustment problems in two-parent adoptive families, two-parent biologic families, and step- or single-parent biologic families. Found that adjustment difficulties were far more common among adolescents in step- and single-parent families than in other groups.…

  2. Health Problems of Migrant Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Robert J.; Salend, Spencer J.

    1985-01-01

    This investigation examined the incidence and types of health-related problems of migrant children as identified by school health medical personnel. Results indicated 615 of the 1,000 children in the sample had physical, visual, dental, auditory, immunization, or nutritional problems. Implications are discussed. (Author/MT)

  3. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relations between parental problem drinking, adolescent-parent communication, and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. Surveys were administered to a diverse sample of 683 15-17-years-old adolescents in the spring of 2007 and again in the spring of 2008. Results indicated that paternal problem drinking directly predicted…

  4. Determinants of Mental Health Service Use Among Depressed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Breland, David J.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Zhou, Chuan; McCauley, Elizabeth; Rockhill, Carol; Katon, Wayne; Richardson, Laura P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate determinants of mental health service use among depressed adolescents. Method We assessed mental health services use over the 12 months following screening among 113 adolescents (34 males, 79 females) from an integrated healthcare system who screened positive for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score > 11). Youth characteristics (demographics, depression severity, and co-morbidity) and parent characteristics (parent history of depression, parent-report of youth externalizing and internalizing problems) were compared among youth who had received mental health services and those who had not. Multivariate regression was used to evaluate the strongest factors associated with mental health service use. Results Overall, 52% of adolescents who screened positive for depression received mental health service in the year following screening. Higher parent-reported youth internalizing problems (OR 5.37 CI 1.77–16.35), parental history of depression/anxiety (OR 4.12 CI 1.36–12.48) were significant factors associated with mental health service use. Suicidality and functional impairment were not associated with increased mental health services use. Conclusion Parental factors including recognition of the adolescent’s internalizing symptoms and parental experience with depression/anxiety are strongly associated with mental health service use for depressed adolescents. This highlights the importance of educating parents about depression and developing systems to actively screen and engage youth in treatment for depression. PMID:24417955

  5. Insomnia symptoms, behavioral/emotional problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac and non-insomniac parents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchen; Zhao, Zhongtang; Jia, Cunxian

    2015-08-30

    The aim of this study was to examine insomnia symptoms, behavioral problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac parents (IP) and non-insomniac parents (NIP). A family survey of sleep and health was conducted among 1090 adolescents and their parents in Jinan, China. Adolescents completed a sleep and health questionnaire to report their sleep and mental health problems. Parents reported their insomnia symptoms and history of mental disorders. Insomnia, behavioral problems, and suicidal behavior were compared between IP adolescents and NIP adolescents. IP adolescents were more likely than NIP adolescents to report insomnia symptoms, use of sleep medication, suicidal ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt. IP adolescents scored significantly higher than NIP adolescents on withdrawn and externalizing behavioral problems. After adjustment for demographics and behavioral problems, parental insomnia remained to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide plan. Our findings support the need for early screening and formal assessment of sleep and mental health in adolescents of insomniac parents. PMID:26096660

  6. Adolescent Health Behaviors among Public School Students in Washington, 1988-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einspruch, Eric L.; Pollard, James P.

    Many adolescents' health problems arise from preventable behaviors, such as unprotected sexual intercourse and the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs. The 1992 Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors (WSSAHB) was created in order to collect information on a variety of health behaviors among students in the state of…

  7. Mental health care for children and adolescents worldwide: a review

    PubMed Central

    REMSCHMIDT, HELMUT; BELFER, MYRON

    2005-01-01

    The magnitude of mental health problems in children and adolescents has not been recognized sufficiently by many governments and decision-makers. This paper reviews the epidemiology of these problems as a basis for planning of services; the situation of mental health services for children and adolescents in the various regions of the world; the principles and strategies of intervention for mental health disorders in children and adolescents; and the role of international organizations and advocacy groups. It is concluded that old myths, treatments and policies are no longer to be tolerated and that there is now the opportunity to develop and implement evidence-based interventions, modern training programs and effective policies. PMID:16633533

  8. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  9. Patterns of Problem Behavior in Relation to Thriving and Precocious Behavior in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campa, Mary I.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Eckenrode, John; Zielinski, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that an early onset of delinquent and problem behaviors is associated with a greater risk of subsequent behavioral and mental health problems. This study builds on that literature by examining histories of behavior problems in relation to indicators of thriving and precocious behavior during late adolescence. Using…

  10. Noise: A Health Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Noise Abatement and Control.

    This booklet contains nine sections describing ways in which noise may endanger health and well-being. Secions are included on: (1) hearing loss; (2) heart disease; (3) other reactions by the body; (4) effects on the unborn; (5) special effects on children; (6) intrusion at home and work; (7) sleep disruption; (8) mental and social well-being; and…

  11. Does class matter? SES and psychosocial health among Hungarian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Piko, B; Fitzpatrick, K M

    2001-09-01

    Previous research finds a significant relationship between socioeconomic inequalities and health status: individuals with lower income, education, and occupational prestige have and report more health problems. Interestingly, this relationship is not consistent across the life cycle: health differences among adolescents across socioeconomic groups are not as clearly defined. Using data (n = 1,039) on adolescents from southern Hungary, we examine the role of socioeconomic differences in predicting psychosocial health. We argue that this investigation is of particular importance in a post-communist system where the general perception of SES is undergoing significant transformation. Findings show that classical' SES (socioeconomic status) indicators (manual/nonmanual occupational status) were not significant predictors of psychosocial health in this sample of Hungarian adolescents. While parents' employment status as a 'objective' SES indicator had limited effect, SES self-assessment, as a subjective SES variable, proved to be a strong predictor of adolescents' psychosocial health. We discuss the implications of these findings for the broader SES-health literature with specific attention paid to the impact these relationships may have for adolescent and young adult development in a post-communist country like Hungary. PMID:11511056

  12. The neighborhood context of adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Aneshensel, C S; Sucoff, C A

    1996-12-01

    Mental health disorders in adolescence are pervasive, often carry into adulthood, and appear to be inversely associated with social status. We examine how structural aspects of neighborhood context, specifically, socioeconomic stratification and racial/ethnic segregation, affect adolescent emotional well-being by shaping subjective perceptions of their neighborhoods. Using a community-based sample of 877 adolescents in Los Angeles County, we find that youth in low socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhoods perceive greater ambient hazards such as crime, violence, drug use, and graffiti than those in high SES neighborhoods. The perception of the neighborhood as dangerous, in turn, influences the mental health of adolescents: the more threatening the neighborhood, the more common the symptoms of depression, anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Social stability and, to a lesser extent, social cohesion, also emerge as contributors to adolescent disorder. This investigation demonstrates that research into the mental health of young people should consider the socioeconomic and demographic environments in which they live.

  13. Achieving Quality Health Services for Adolescents.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    This update of the 2008 statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics redirects the discussion of quality health care from the theoretical to the practical within the medical home. This statement reviews the evolution of the medical home concept and challenges the provision of quality adolescent health care within the patient-centered medical home. Areas of attention for quality adolescent health care are reviewed, including developmentally appropriate care, confidentiality, location of adolescent care, providers who offer such care, the role of research in advancing care, and the transition to adult care. PMID:27432849

  14. Training Pediatric Residents and Pediatricians about Adolescent Mental Health Problems: A Proof-of-Concept Pilot for a Proposed National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutner, Lawrence; Olson, Cheryl K.; Schlozman, Steven; Goldstein, Mark; Warner, Dorothy; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article presents a DVD-based educational program intended to help pediatric residents and practicing pediatricians recognize and respond to adolescent depression in busy primary care settings. Methods: Representatives from pediatrics and adolescent medicine, child and adolescent psychiatry and psychology, and experts in the…

  15. Two Sides of the Same Coin: Cannabis Dependence and Mental Health Problems in Help-Seeking Adolescent and Young Adult Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norberg, Melissa M.; Battisti, Robert A.; Copeland, Jan; Hermens, Daniel F.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to delineate the psychiatric profile of cannabis dependent young people (14-29 years old) with mental health problems (N = 36) seeking treatment via a research study. To do so, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses were…

  16. Victimization, polyvictimization, and health in Swedish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Nikolas; Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. PMID:27616895

  17. Victimization, polyvictimization, and health in Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aho, Nikolas; Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16-20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. PMID:27616895

  18. Victimization, polyvictimization, and health in Swedish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Nikolas; Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization.

  19. Sexual Assault Disclosure in Relation to Adolescent Mental Health: Results from the National Survey of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2007-01-01

    Child sexual assault is a risk factor for a wide range of emotional and behavioral problems. Little is known about mental health functioning in relation to victims' decisions to tell someone (or not) about their assault. This study used data from a nationally representative sample of 4,023 adolescents to examine the relation between sexual assault…

  20. Rural Latino adolescent health: preliminary examination of health risks and cultural correlates.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Timothy D; Kidwell, Katherine M; Armenta, Brian E; Crockett, Lisa J; Carlo, Gustavo; Whitbeck, Les B

    2014-06-01

    Latino adolescents living in rural settings may be at increased risk of health problems; however, data describing the health status of this population are limited. This study examined 60 rural Latino adolescents and found high rates of health risk, including at-risk/clinical results for hemoglobin A1C (23.3%), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (55%), systolic blood pressure (21.7%), and overweight/obesity (55%). Time in sedentary behaviors was high and physical activity was limited. Adolescent language use was associated with health risk status, with greater use of English associated with lower risk. Health psychologists could promote improved health by providing health behavior interventions to this underserved population. PMID:23520352

  1. Why Adolescent Problem Gamblers Do Not Seek Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Robert; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Pelletier, Amelie

    2004-01-01

    Prevalence studies indicate that approximately 40% of adolescents participate in regular gambling with rates of problem gambling up to four times greater than that found in adult populations. However, it appears that few adolescents actually seek treatment for such problems. The purpose of this study was to explore potential reasons why…

  2. Externalizing Behavior Problems during Adolescence: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rachel; Renk, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Given the ramifications of difficulties related to externalizing behavior problems, the present study examined the relationships among adolescents' externalizing behavior problems, characteristics of adolescents' families, their perceived neighborhood support, and their acculturation. As part of this study, a culturally diverse sample of…

  3. Adolescent health care: improving access by school-based service.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, C; Mulligan, D; Kaufman, A; Davis, S; Hunt, K; Kalishman, N; Wallerstein, N

    1985-10-01

    Participants in this discussion of the potential of school-based health care services for adolescents included family medicine physicians, school health coordinators, a school nurse, and a community worker. It was noted that health care for adolescents tends to be either inaccessible or underutilized, largely because of a lack of sensitivity to adolescent culture and values. An ideal service for adolescents would offer immediate services for crises, strict confidentiality, ready access to prescribed medications, a sliding-scale scheme, and a staff that is tolerant of divergent values and life-styles. School-based pilot adolescent clinics have been established by the University of New Mexico's Department of Family, Community, and Emergency Medicine to test the community-oriented health care model. On-site clinics provide urgent medical care, family planning, pregnancy testing, psychological counseling, alcohol and drug counseling, and classroom health education. Experience with these programs has demonstrated the necessity for an alliance among the health team and the school administration, parents, and students. Financial, ethical, and political factors can serve as constraints to school-based programs. In some cases, school administrators have been resistant to the provision of contraception to students on school grounds and parents have been unwilling to accept the adolescent's right to confidentiality. These problems in part stem from having 2 separate systems, each with its own values, orientation, and responsibilities, housed in 1 facility. In addition, there have been problems generating awareness of the school-based clinic among students. Health education theater groups, peer counseling, and student-run community services have been effective, however, in increasing student participation. It has been helpful to mold clinic services to meet the needs identified by teenagers themselves. There is an interest not only in curative services, but in services focused

  4. COPD and other health problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... factors play a role in why people with COPD often have other health problems. Smoking is one of the biggest culprits. Smoking is a risk factor for most of the problems above. COPD usually develops in middle age. And people tend ...

  5. Predictors of Adolescent Health Care Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Wade, Terrance; Seeley, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This study, using Andersen's health care utilization model, examined how predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need, personal health practices, and psychological factors influence health care utilization using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of Canadian adolescents. Second, this study examined whether this process…

  6. Addressing the mental health needs of pregnant and parenting adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, Stacy; Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of the mental health challenges associated with teen parenthood, barriers that often prevent teen mothers from seeking mental health services, and interventions for this vulnerable population that can be integrated into primary care services. Pediatricians in the primary care setting are in a unique position to address the mental health needs of adolescent parents because teens often turn to them first for assistance with emotional and behavioral concerns. Consequently, pediatricians can play a pivotal role in facilitating and encouraging teen parents' engagement in mental health treatment. PMID:24298010

  7. Scaling Up Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services in South Africa: Human Resource Requirements and Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Crick; Boyce, Gerard; Flisher, Alan J.; Kafaar, Zuhayr; Dawes, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children and adolescents with mental health problems have poor service cover in low- and middle-income countries. Little is known about the resources that would be required to provide child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) in these countries. The purpose of this study was to calculate the human resources and associated…

  8. Factors that Influence Mental Health Stigma among 8th Grade Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandra, Anita; Minkovitz, Cynthia S.

    2007-01-01

    Unmet mental health need is a significant problem for adolescents. Although stigma is identified as a major barrier to the use of mental health services among youth, there is limited research on this topic. In-depth interviews (n = 57) among a sample of 8th grade students in a suburban, mid-Atlantic community portray adolescent mental health…

  9. Adolescent Health Research Updates: Supplement to the Adolescent Health Plan, Numbers 1-6, December 1996-November 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleich, Ley, Ed.

    This document contains the first six research updates to "Alaska's Adolescents: A Plan for the Future," a comprehensive 1994 report on adolescent health issues prepared by the multiagency Alaska Adolescent Health Advisory Committee. "The Media and Adolescent Health: Television's Impact on Certain Teen Behaviors" (Elizabeth Hatton) examines the…

  10. [Internet use and adolescents' sexual health].

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ying-Hua; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2012-12-01

    Internet use is an important part of the daily life of adolescents. The ease of searching the internet for information makes finding information on sex, a topic of particular interest to adolescents, easy. Although the internet is replete with sexual information, the influence of internet use on adolescents' sexual health is analogous to a double-edged sword. This article identifies the four main sexual dilemmas facing Taiwan adolescents and analyzes the pros and cons of internet use with regard to adolescents' sexual health. Cons include the predominance of internet pornography and the potential risks of making friends online. Pros include the internet's role as an optimal communications platform and tool for sex-related research. We suggest that nurses have a unique role and functions to play in promoting adolescent sexual health. We also offer recommendations for school health nursing and clinical nursing. Further internet-based quantitative and qualitative research is necessary to clarify relevant sexual health issues. Finally, we offer design suggestions for sexual education homepages. PMID:23212259

  11. Academic Achievement and Problem Behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yoonsun

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study tests whether the relationship between academic achievement and problem behaviors is the same across racial and ethnic groups. Some have suggested that academic achievement may be a weaker predictor of problem behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American (API)…

  12. Problems of a temporary adolescent psychiatrist.

    PubMed

    Spencer, S J

    1975-01-01

    I have tried to describe just less than one year of learning experience on my part in one type of adolescent unit. Only 16 inpatients were treated at a time while I was there: there were only 25 discharges and 19 admissions in my time. We knew we were making little inroad into our whole regional problem of adolescent disturbance; but we believe that as a team, able to work closely with each other and with our patients and their relatives, in a therapeutic community of undogmatic ideology, we were able to give a little to almost all and, to those who did best, a great deal. Very few ex-inpatients lost all touch with us. Nearly all came back from scattered homes for our Christmas discotheque. Even our very modest aim, to reset and then foster the natural development of the personalities of our patients, rather than break them down in deep analysis and radically reconstruct them, required an intensity of psychotherapeutic effort which engaged all we had to offer, and often drained us at the end of the day. Yet those who joined us transiently, particularly student nurses and medical students, seemed to find the experience significant--occasionally deeply so--and came back to visit us. Our social worker has now departed to have a baby. Our three senior nurses have left, two to university as mature students, one to prepare for a no. 7 post. Possibly the intensity of the demand upon them would have made them leave, anyway. For myself, it was a year of development of my psychotherapeutic sensitivity and of close working with a valued team of colleagues in a setting new to me, which I shall never forget.

  13. Mental Health Disorders. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2013-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…

  14. Toward Excellence in Treatment Services for Adolescents. Submitted by Adolescent Study Group to the Center for Substance Abuse Services, Michigan Department of Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Health, Lansing. Center for Substance Abuse Services.

    An Adolescent Study Group was established by the Michigan Department of Public Health/Center for Substance Abuse Services (MCPH/CSAS) to examine the current delivery system of substance abuse treatment services for adolescents. The primary focus was on treatment services for alcohol, tobacco and other drug (ATOD) problems among adolescents in…

  15. Factor structure of the adolescent coping orientation for problem experiences in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Forns, Maria; Kirchner, Teresa; Peró, Maribel; Pont, Elisenda; Abad, Judit; Soler, Laia; Paretilla, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    The present study aimed to identify the best structure of the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences when applied to Spanish adolescents. A confirmatory factor analysis of five previous factor structures was conducted. As the data did not fit previous factor models, two exploratory factor analyses (first- and second-order) were carried out to identify the structure for Spanish adolescents and to analyse its criterion validity in relation to mental health, which was assessed by means of the Youth Self-Report. A first-wave sample of 1,152 secondary education pupils (645 boys, 56%; 507 girls, 44%; M age = 14.4 yr., SD = 1.4) was involved in the confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. A second-wave sample of = 374 secondary education pupils (188 boys, 50.5%; 186 girls, 49.5%; M age = 15.4 yr., SD = 1.1) was used to assess criterion validity. The results yielded eight first-order factors with Cronbach's alpha ranging from .63 to .79, and two second-order factors that replicated the Approach and Avoidance focus of coping. The paper discusses both the content of the extracted factors and mental health issues. PMID:24245077

  16. Psychosomatic problems and countermeasures in Japanese children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In Japan there are a number of children and adolescents with emotion-related disorders including psychosomatic diseases (orthostatic dysregulation, anorexia nervosa, recurrent pains), behavior problems and school absenteeism. According to our previous report, the Japanese children had significantly higher score of physical symptoms and psychiatric complaints than did the Swedish children, and these were more strongly influenced by school-related stress than by home-related stress. To enforce countermeasures for psychosomatic problems in children, the Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics (established in 1982) have started several new projects including multi-center psychosomatic researches and society-based activities. In this article, we present an outline of our study on mental health in Japanese children in comparison with Swedish children. Countermeasures including clinical guidelines for child psychosomatic diseases are reviewed and discussed. PMID:22433184

  17. Intimate partner violence and mental health among Italian adolescents: gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Romito, Patrizia; Beltramini, Lucia; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta

    2013-01-01

    Only a few studies have analyzed the health impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on male and female adolescents, taking into account other kinds of violence that can affect their health. In this study, 43.7% of female adolescents and 34.8% of males reported IPV; females reported more psychological and sexual IPV, with no differences for physical IPV. Controlling for family and sexual violence and other confounding factors, female adolescents exposed to IPV had significantly higher adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for depression, panic attacks, eating problems, and suicidal ideation. For male adolescents, only the OR of eating problems almost reached statistical significance.

  18. Mapping the Academic Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study possessed two aims: (1) to develop and validate aclinician -friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with ADHD and (2) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Method Within a sample of 324 adolescents with DSM-IV-TR diagnosed ADHD (age M=13.07, SD=1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, inter-rater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Results Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Conclusions Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215

  19. Occupational Health Problems of Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Chong, John; Lynden, Melody; Harvey, David; Peebles, Marie

    1989-01-01

    Musicians, as well as other performing artists, may have their careers interrupted by, interfered with, or terminated by occupational health problems involving the neuro-musculoskeletal system. Adverse working conditions, organization, and activity may affect the health of musicians in all age groups and at all levels of performing ability. Instrument-specific health problems are related to excessive force, static loading, repetitive movement, and duration of musical performance. Important risk factors are 1) change in technique or instrument; 2) intense preparation for a performance; 3) preparation of a new and difficult repertoire; and 4) prolonged periods of performance without rest. Treatment protocols and health promotion or disease prevention programs are being developed in collaboration with the performing arts community. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:21248930

  20. Protective factors in adolescent health behavior.

    PubMed

    Jessor, R; Turbin, M S; Costa, F M

    1998-09-01

    The role of psychosocial protective factors in adolescent health-enhancing behaviors--healthy diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, good dental hygiene, and seatbelt use--was investigated among 1,493 Hispanic, White, and Black high school students in a large, urban school district. Both proximal (health-related) and distal (conventionality-related) protective factors have significant positive relations with health-enhancing behavior and with the development of health-enhancing behavior. In addition, in cross-sectional analyses, protection was shown to moderate risk. Key proximal protective factors are value on health, perceived effects of health-compromising behavior, and parents who model health behavior. Key distal protective factors are positive orientation to school, friends who model conventional behavior, involvement in prosocial activities, and church attendance. The findings suggest the importance of individual differences on a dimension of conventionality-unconventionality. Strengthening both proximal and distal protective factors may help to promote healthful behaviors in adolescence. PMID:9781412

  1. A school-linked health service for adolescents in Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Halevy, A; Hardoff, D; Knishkowy, B; Palti, H

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes the Adolescent Health Service (AHS) and its multidisciplinary, school-linked, community-based adolescent health clinic located in a western neighborhood of Jerusalem. Files of the first 134 adolescents who completed or discontinued treatment in the clinic during the first two years of operation were reviewed for demographic data, referral source, number of visits, health concerns and clinical impressions. The clinic population included Jewish Jerusalem residents, ages 12-18, 75% of whom were female. Most referrals came from schools. The average number of visits per patient was five (range 1-20). The most frequent presenting concerns as well as the most frequent clinical impressions were in the psychosocial and nutritional domains. Concordance between presenting concern and clinical impression was 61% (k = 0.47). Health problems of Israeli high school students attending the clinic mainly were psychosocial and nutritional. The school-linked health service applied a comprehensive approach to the biopsychosocial needs of adolescents, not addressed at other health services.

  2. Update: Health Insurance and Utilization of Care among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probst, Janice C.; Moore, Charity G.; Baxley, Elizabeth G.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Adolescence is critical for the development of adult health habits. Disparities between rural and urban adolescents and between minority and white youth can have life-long consequences. Purpose: To compare health insurance coverage and ambulatory care contacts between rural minority adolescents and white and urban adolescents. Methods:…

  3. Adolescent health and adult labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Petter; Nilsson, Anton; Rooth, Dan-Olof

    2014-09-01

    Whereas a large literature has shown the importance of early life health for adult socioeconomic outcomes, there is little evidence on the importance of adolescent health. We contribute to the literature by studying the impact of adolescent health status on adult labor market outcomes using a unique and large-scale dataset covering almost the entire population of Swedish males. We show that most types of major conditions have long-run effects on future outcomes, and that the strongest effects result from mental conditions. Including sibling fixed effects or twin pair fixed effects reduces the magnitudes of the estimates, but they remain substantial.

  4. Visual-Motor Problems of Adolescents Who Attempt Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Thomas J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Using the Canter Background Interference Procedure with the Bender Gestalt Test, a group of 18 adolescent suicide attempters earned test scores indicating they had significantly more problems with visual motor coordination than did a control group of 21 adolescents. (Author/SBH)

  5. Violence Breeds Violence: Childhood Exposure and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal…

  6. Correlates of At-Risk/Problem Internet Gambling in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potenza, Marc N.; Wareham, Justin D.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Desai, Rani A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The Internet represents a new and widely available forum for gambling. However, relatively few studies have examined Internet gambling in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the correlates of at-risk or problem gambling in adolescents acknowledging or denying gambling on the Internet. Method: Survey data from 2,006 Connecticut…

  7. An Emerging Income Differential for Adolescent Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Emma Gore; Collishaw, Stephan; Goodman, Robert; Pickles, Andrew; Maughan, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Background: While there is considerable evidence of income gradients in child and adolescent behaviour problems, evidence relating to children and young people's emotional difficulties is more mixed. Older studies reported no income differentials, while recent reports suggest that adolescents from low-income families are more likely to experience…

  8. Parenting Behavior and Adolescent Conduct Problems: Reciprocal and Mediational Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Chen, Rusan; Hand, Laura Shaffer; Haynie, Denise L.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined the relationship between parenting practices and adolescent conduct problems and the mediation of these relationships by two parent-adolescent relationship variables, conflict and psychological autonomy. Autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) analyses were used to assess relationships over time between parent practices and…

  9. Adolescents' Emotion Regulation Strategies, Self-Concept, and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Manying; Stright, Anne Dopkins

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among adolescents' emotion regulation strategies (suppression and cognitive reappraisal), self-concept, and internalizing problems using structural equation modeling. The sample consisted of 438 early adolescents (13 to 15 years old) in Taiwan, including 215 boys and 223 girls. For both boys and girls,…

  10. The Timing of School Transitions and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found…

  11. Ratings of Behavior Problems in Adolescents Hospitalized for Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carolyn L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined usefulness of Devereux Adolescent Behavior Rating Scale (DAB) for assessing behavior problems in adolescents (n=404) hospitalized in inpatient substance abuse treatment units. From 15 original DAB scales, developed 4 scales measuring acting out behaviors, psychotic behaviors, attention-seeking/expressive behaviors, and inner…

  12. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Joanne; Rollins, Kathy

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and other drug abuse, and the consequences of those behaviors. This publication summarizes approximately 200 child health-related laws and resolutions passed in the 50 states, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and the U.S.…

  13. Mental Health Services for Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    This article reviews the progress made in meeting United States' existing mental health goals for adolescents, and identifies issues that will have to be considered in setting new goals. The article examines the substantial need for child mental health services, particularly among young, socioeconomically disadvantaged youth. The unmet need for…

  14. Media Literacy and Health Promotion for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsma, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    The mass media rank among the most important socialization agents influencing the health behaviors of today's youth, with some researchers estimating that youth spend 33-50% of their waking hours with some form of media (Strasburger and Wilson 2002). The impact of the media on health and the large amount of time adolescents spend with media make…

  15. Family support programs and adolescent mental health: review of evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Emily S; Laird, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Family support programs aim to improve parent wellbeing and parenting as well as adolescent mental and behavioral health by addressing the needs of parents of adolescents experiencing or at risk for mental health problems. Family support programs can be part of the treatment for adolescents diagnosed with mental or behavioral health problems, or family support programs can be delivered as prevention programs designed to prevent the onset or escalation of mental or behavioral health problems. This review discusses the rationale for family support programs and describes the range of services provided by family support programs. The primary focus of the review is on evaluating the effectiveness of family support programs as treatments or prevention efforts delivered by clinicians or peers. Two main themes emerged from the review. First, family support programs that included more forms of support evidenced higher levels of effectiveness than family support programs that provided fewer forms of support. Discussion of this theme focuses on individual differences in client needs and program adaptions that may facilitate meeting diverse needs. Second, family support prevention programs appear to be most effective when serving individuals more in need of mental and behavioral health services. Discussion of this theme focuses on the intensity versus breadth of the services provided in prevention programs. More rigorous evaluations of family support programs are needed, especially for peer-delivered family support treatments. PMID:25177156

  16. New approaches to the delivery of health care to adolescents.

    PubMed

    Millar, H E

    1975-01-01

    Adolescents are a new population group showing certain common characteristics which transcend the confines of geography, economics, education, culture and race. Certain health problems have emerged which are closely related to the life style of teenagers. These health needs are not met by existing health care delivery systems, and future planning must take into account the morals of young people. At present there is no unified approach to the development of health care programs for adolescents, but important explorations of effective methods are are taking place in a fragmentary way. The challenge is to provide the necessary technology and professional expertise in an accessible setting and then to weld these services into programs which will become cohensive and stable. Analyses of data show that adolescents seek help more often for primary and preventive care than for serious ilnesses. Services are particulary needed for addictive problems, emotional disorders, suicidal states, and conditions related to sexual activity. Consideration of the effect of adolescent behavior on the reproductive cycle is of the utmost importance. These sequelae of conception and veneral disease can be extremely serious for the immature girl and her baby. Therefore the opportunity for birth control, health education, abortion and prenatal care for teenagers should be priority goals in any program for adolescents. The provision of services for the young mother and her baby should be included in the overall plan. New approaches in the ambulatory care of adolescents include an age-specific operation, satellite clinics with hospital backup, and the inclusion of young people in the planning services. Care should be comprehensive and continuous, and a multi-disciplinary staff team would permit a more effective approach. The involvement of other teenagers as assistants in counseling has been found an effective method of communication; this relaitonship may bridge the generation gap when highly

  17. Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social Context.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future.

  18. Optimizing bone health in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Golden, Neville H; Abrams, Steven A

    2014-10-01

    The pediatrician plays a major role in helping optimize bone health in children and adolescents. This clinical report reviews normal bone acquisition in infants, children, and adolescents and discusses factors affecting bone health in this age group. Previous recommended daily allowances for calcium and vitamin D are updated, and clinical guidance is provided regarding weight-bearing activities and recommendations for calcium and vitamin D intake and supplementation. Routine calcium supplementation is not recommended for healthy children and adolescents, but increased dietary intake to meet daily requirements is encouraged. The American Academy of Pediatrics endorses the higher recommended dietary allowances for vitamin D advised by the Institute of Medicine and supports testing for vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents with conditions associated with increased bone fragility. Universal screening for vitamin D deficiency is not routinely recommended in healthy children or in children with dark skin or obesity because there is insufficient evidence of the cost-benefit of such a practice in reducing fracture risk. The preferred test to assess bone health is dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, but caution is advised when interpreting results in children and adolescents who may not yet have achieved peak bone mass. For analyses, z scores should be used instead of T scores, and corrections should be made for size. Office-based strategies for the pediatrician to optimize bone health are provided. This clinical report has been endorsed by American Bone Health. PMID:25266429

  19. Health disparities: reframing the problem.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Kathleen E

    2003-03-01

    Health disparities are of continuing concern to the community of public health professionals. Despite concerted efforts on a number of fronts, little progress seems to have been made towards eliminating these disparities. This is due in part to a frame of reference that focuses on race and racism. While racism plays a role, continued focus on socially constructed racial groups will not lead to solutions to the problem. Humans are biological organisms and the presence of disease indicates a maladaptation between the individual human organism and its environment. Lumping together into a 'racial' group large numbers of individuals who share little in terms of phenotype, culture, and/or behavior inhibits reaching appropriate solutions. Progress will only be made when the issue of health disparities is reframed as one of phenotype/environmental mismatch. Such a frame crosscuts current racial groups. Health disparities such as hypertension, prostate cancer, low-birth-weight (LBW) infants, infant mortality, rickets, and melanoma are affected by the interactions of degree of pigmentation, amount of exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, and levels of serum vitamin D. Reframing the problem of health disparities from one of race and racism to one of phenotype/environmental mismatch permits a solution to an otherwise intractable problem.

  20. Parental employment status and adolescents' health: the role of financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescents' resilience.

    PubMed

    Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Benka, Jozef; Orosova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with parental employment status and its relationship to adolescents' self-reported health. It studies the role of the financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent resilience in the relationship between parental employment status and adolescents' self-rated health, vitality and mental health. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse questionnaire data obtained from 2799 adolescents (mean age 14.3) in 2006. The results show a negative association of the father's, but not mother's unemployment or non-employment with adolescents' health. Regression analyses showed that neither financial strain nor a poor parent-adolescent relationship or a low score in resilience accounted for the relationship between the father's unemployment or non-employment and poorer adolescent health. Furthermore, resilience did not work as a buffer against the negative impact of fathers' unemployment on adolescents' health.

  1. Alcohol use among adolescents, aggressive behaviour, and internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Petri; Kekkonen, Virve; Valtonen, Hannu; Tolmunen, Tommi; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Tacke, Ulrich; Hintikka, Jukka; Lehto, Soili M; Laukkanen, Eila

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol use is common among adolescents, but its association with behavioural and emotional problems is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate how self-reported psychosocial problems were associated with the use of alcohol in a community sample consisting of 4074 Finnish adolescents aged 13-18 years. Aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol use and a high level of alcohol consumption, while internalizing problems did not associate with alcohol use. Having problems in social relationships associated with abstinence and lower alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking, early menarche and attention problems also associated with alcohol use. PMID:25038493

  2. Parents' work patterns and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Dockery, Alfred; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth

    2009-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that non-standard work schedules undermine the stability of marriage and reduce family cohesiveness. Limited research has investigated the effects of parents working non-standard schedules on children's health and wellbeing and no published Australian studies have addressed this important issue. This paper contributes to bridging this knowledge gap by focusing on adolescents aged 15-20 years and by including sole parent families which have been omitted in previous research, using panel data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. Multilevel linear regression models are estimated to analyse the association between parental work schedules and hours of work and measures of adolescents' mental health derived from the SF-36 Health Survey. Evidence of negative impacts of parents working non-standard hours upon adolescent wellbeing is found to exist primarily within sole parent families.

  3. Childhood and adolescence: challenges in mental health.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Saurabh Rambiharilal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2013-05-01

    Mental health is an integral and essential component of health. The World Health Organization (WHO) constitution states: "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." More than 450 million people suffer from mental disorders worldwide. In India, mental health services, especially for children and adolescents, are limited both in terms of number of facilities as well as trained professionals. The majority of mental health services are restricted to urban areas, that is, medical colleges or regional mental health institutes. Mere presence of a treatment facility does not guarantee that all children/adolescents suffering from mental illness will utilize such services. In fact, most of the time there is a significant delay from the patient side in accessing mental health services either because of lack of awareness or associated stigma. It is high time to promote positive mental health in children, adolescents and their parents through health education. Parental counseling is of utmost importance in order to avoid the delay in treatment seeking.

  4. The Relation between Adolescent Self Assessment of Health and Risk Behaviours: Could a Global Measure of Health Provide Indications of Health Risk Exposures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Walker, Ashley Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Self-rated health (SRH) has become a key organizing construct for assessing multiple dimensions of populations' physical and psychosocial health functioning. However, it is unclear how adolescents' subjective self assessment of health reflects health risk exposures, co-occurring health risks (problem behaviours) and other pre-existing…

  5. The mass media and American adolescents' health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jane D; Witherspoon, Elizabeth M

    2002-12-01

    American teens today grow up in a world saturated with the mass media. In general, the media depict a world in which unhealthy behaviors such as physical aggression, unprotected sex, smoking, and drinking are glamorous and risk-free. We summarize what is known about the media's effects on four adolescent health issues that have been studied most comprehensively: violence and aggression; sex; obesity, nutrition, and eating disorders; and alcohol and tobacco use. A number of approaches that have potential for helping turn the media into more positive forces for adolescents' health are discussed

  6. Perceived Problems of Leader, Non-Leader and Deviant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, John D.; And Others

    The study compares the problems perceived by leader, non-leader, and deviant adolescents. A total of 2,948 secondary school students in the West Vancouver School District, British Columbia, were divided into three behavior groups and an analysis was made of the problems checked on the Mooney Problem Check List (MPCL) by members of each group. The…

  7. Health Promotion and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…

  8. Ethnic Differences in the Effects of Intergenerational Relations on Adolescent Problem Behavior in U.S. Single-Mother Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, En-ling; Farrell, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether the effects of single-mother families (SMFs) on adolescent problem behavior are buffered by supportive mothering and the involvement of nonresident fathers and whether the effectiveness of these two buffers varies by ethnicity. Based on the data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors find…

  9. Approaches in the Treatment of Adolescents with Emotional and Substance Abuse Problems. Technical Assistance Publication Series Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisch, Brahm

    This report reviews the impact of substance abuse and mental health problems among the adolescent population, examines the research issues and treatment delivery system, identifies model modalities and programs to address the needs of adolescents, and makes practical recommendations on the implementation of effective treatment methods for youths.…

  10. Division of Adolescent and School Health School Health Programs, 2008. At a Glance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Six priority health risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems in the United States. These behaviors are often established during childhood and adolescence. They include tobacco use; unhealthy dietary behaviors; inadequate physical activity; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that may result…

  11. [Ethical problems in health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Toffoletto, F; Briatico Vangosa, G; Panizza, C

    2000-01-01

    Surveillance of workers' health in the field of occupational medicine poses substantial ethical problems in view of occupational medicine's complex responsibilities towards workers and employers, preventive and protection services, workers' representatives, public healthcare and preventive medicine facilities, controlling agencies and judicial authorities. Potentially conflicting rights and duties often come into play in this sector. In the last few years various international and national bodies have drawn up codes of ethics or guidelines for the conduct of physicians in occupational medicine, three of which are of particular importance: 1) The International Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH, 1992); 2) The Code of Conduct of the National Association of Company Doctors (ANMA, 1997); 3) The Technical and Ethical Guidelines for workers' health (ILO, 1998). The chief purpose of all these documents is to safeguard the health of workers and to guarantee the safety of the workplace by defining programmes of health supervision to match specific risks. The methods should be non-invasive and should allow for a check or efficiency. The physician is expected to have a high degree of professionalism and up-to-date skills; to be independent and impartial; to be reserved and capable of inter-disciplinary co-operation. On the basis of the above documents, a number of problematic aspects may be appraised concerning the relationship between the occupational health physician responsible for the surveillance activities of the local health authority and the relative company physician. The documents stress the importance of keeping up to date and of quality, fields in which the dominant role played by Scientific Societies is underlined. Finally it is recommended that health supervision be arranged in such a manner as to foster the professionalism and responsibility of the physician in charge rather than the formal implementation of health

  12. Emotional variability in mother-adolescent conflict interactions and internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents: dyadic and individual processes.

    PubMed

    Van der Giessen, Daniëlle; Hollenstein, Tom; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Emotional variability reflects the ability to flexibly switch among a broad range of positive and negative emotions from moment-to-moment during interactions. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions is considered to be important for healthy socio-emotional functioning of mothers and adolescents. The current observational study examined whether dyadic emotional variability, maternal emotional variability, and adolescent emotional variability during conflict interactions in early adolescence predicted mothers' and adolescents' internalizing problems five years later. We used data from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (Mage T1 = 13.05; 65.20 % boys) who were videotaped at T1 while discussing a conflict. Emotional variability was derived from these conflict interactions and it was observed for mother-adolescent dyads, mothers and adolescents separately. Mothers and adolescents also completed questionnaires in early adolescence (T1) and five years later in late adolescence (T6) on mothers' internalizing problems, and adolescents' anxiety and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that less dyadic emotional variability in early adolescence predicted relative increases in mothers' internalizing problems, adolescents' depressive symptoms, and adolescents' anxiety symptoms from early to late adolescence. Less maternal emotional variability only predicted relative increases in adolescents' anxiety symptoms over time. The emotional valence (e.g., types of emotions expressed) of conflict interactions did not moderate the results. Taken together, findings highlighted the importance of considering limited emotional variability during conflict interactions in the development, prevention, and treatment of internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents.

  13. A Rasch Model Analysis of Alcohol Consumption and Problems Across Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent investigations using item response modeling have begun to conceptualize alcohol consumption, problems, and dependence as representing points along a single continuum of alcohol involvement. Such a conceptualization may be of particular benefit to measurement of alcohol involvement in adolescents, but investigations to date have been limited to adult samples and may not generalize to adolescents due to age-related developmental differences. Methods This study used Rasch model analyses to examine the properties of indices of alcohol consumption and problems among 6,353 adolescents, aged 12 to 18 years, in Wave 1 of the Add Health survey. A particular focus was on whether the functioning of items changed when these adolescents were re-interviewed in Wave 3 when they were 18 to 24 years of age. Results Rasch model analyses supported the unidimensionality and additive properties of the items in the Wave 1 data. Comparisons of Wave 1 and Wave 3 data indicated differential item functioning in most of the items such that items related to alcohol consumption were more severe during adolescence, whereas items related to alcohol problems were more severe in young adulthood. Conclusions A valid index of alcohol involvement in adolescents can be constructed combining indices of alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Such an index covers a range of severity and functions similarly across sex and race/ethnicity. A similar index can be constructed in young adulthood. However, the interpretation of scores must be attentive to developmental differences. In particular, for adolescents, indices of alcohol consumption are relatively closer in severity to indices of alcohol problems than they are among young adults. Thus, alcohol problems are more likely among adolescents than young adults given a similar level of drinking. PMID:19183135

  14. Health for the world's adolescents: a second chance in the second decade.

    PubMed

    Dick, Bruce; Ferguson, B Jane

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization has produced a multimedia, interactive online report entitled Health for the World's Adolescents: A Second Chance in the Second Decade. The report provides an overview of global and regional estimates of adolescent mortality and disability-adjusted life years, disaggregated by age, sex, and cause, and country-level data on health-related behaviors and conditions among adolescents. It outlines the reasons why adolescence is a unique period in the life course requiring special attention and synthesizes current thinking about the determinants that underlie the differences in health status between adolescents. For the first time, this new report pulls together recommendations and guidance from across the World Health Organization relating to interventions directed to a range of priority health problems, including use of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, AIDS, injuries, mental health, nutrition, sexual and reproductive health, tobacco use, and violence, focusing on four core functions of the health sector: supportive policies, service provision, strategic information, and working with other sectors. The report concludes with 10 key actions that would strengthen national responses to adolescent health, and outlines the approaches that are needed to overcome the obstacles to accelerating evidence-informed actions to improve the health of adolescents worldwide--with all the benefits that this will have for public health in the present and across the life course, for this generation and the next.

  15. Class-Size Effects on Adolescents' Mental Health and Well-Being in Swedish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Persson, Mattias; Svensson, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether class size has an effect on the prevalence of mental health problems and well-being among adolescents in Swedish schools. We use cross-sectional data collected in year 2008 covering 2755 Swedish adolescents in ninth grade from 40 schools and 159 classes. We utilize different econometric approaches to address potential…

  16. Mental Health and Self-Esteem of Institutionalized Adolescents Affected by Armed Conflict.

    PubMed

    War, Firdous Ahmad; Ved, Rifat Saroosh; Paul, Mohammad Altaf

    2016-04-01

    The primary purpose of this paper was to compare the epidemiology of mental health problems and self-esteem of conflict hit adolescents living in charitable seminaries with their counterparts brought up in natural homes. Substantive body of the literature illustrates the emotional and behavioral issues experienced by these adolescents. In this study, 27 adolescents from a charitable Muslim seminary and 30 adolescents from a regular school were recruited. Self-report measures and clinical interview were used to measure mental health and self-esteem. The findings indicate that adolescents in institution setting may not be having mental health and self-esteem-related issues when compared to adolescents living in intact by parent homes. While the authors acknowledge the limitations of the study, these findings need further research to examine the causes for these differences. PMID:25930059

  17. Mental Health and Self-Esteem of Institutionalized Adolescents Affected by Armed Conflict.

    PubMed

    War, Firdous Ahmad; Ved, Rifat Saroosh; Paul, Mohammad Altaf

    2016-04-01

    The primary purpose of this paper was to compare the epidemiology of mental health problems and self-esteem of conflict hit adolescents living in charitable seminaries with their counterparts brought up in natural homes. Substantive body of the literature illustrates the emotional and behavioral issues experienced by these adolescents. In this study, 27 adolescents from a charitable Muslim seminary and 30 adolescents from a regular school were recruited. Self-report measures and clinical interview were used to measure mental health and self-esteem. The findings indicate that adolescents in institution setting may not be having mental health and self-esteem-related issues when compared to adolescents living in intact by parent homes. While the authors acknowledge the limitations of the study, these findings need further research to examine the causes for these differences.

  18. Diversity within: Subgroup Differences of Youth Problem Behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yoonsun

    2008-01-01

    This study compares problem behaviors across a range of adolescent Asian Pacific Islander (API) subgroups using the Add Health data, and controlling for parental education or immigrant status. The study finds that Filipino, "other" API, and multiethnic API American youth are at higher risk for poorer outcomes than Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese…

  19. Adolescent Mental Health: Delinquency. Matrix No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Joan

    Research related to identification of delinquents, causes of delinquency, and effective intervention to stop delinquency is reviewed in this paper. In summary, the review indicates that adolescent problems appear to be concentrated among those disadvantaged in a variety of ways. Further, the reviewed literature indicates that biases in the justice…

  20. Cultivating Health: An Agenda for Adolescent Farmworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Aurora Camacho de

    Nearly 20 percent of all migrant farmworkers are adolescents, and as many as half of these may be unaccompanied by their families. These youth clearly have special health and educational needs that require commitment from social institutions and agencies. In June 1991, a conference held in Delray Beach, Florida by the National Coalition of…

  1. Income Shocks and Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Sarah; de Hoop, Jacobus; Ozler, Berk

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of a positive income shock on mental health among adolescent girls using evidence from a cash transfer experiment in Malawi. Offers of cash transfers strongly reduced psychological distress among baseline schoolgirls. However, these large beneficial effects declined with increases in the transfer amount offered to the…

  2. Health-risk behaviors in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama

    2011-01-01

    The major morbidities and mortalities of adolescents are related to preventable risky behaviors, but how, when, and in whom these behaviors develop in early adolescence is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which set of risk factors and protective resources of school-age children were best predictors of health-risk behaviors in early adolescence. A longitudinal, cohort sequential design was used with a diverse sample of 1,934 children in grades 4 through 8. Parents provided demographic and neighborhood data for children through a mailed survey. Children completed valid scales annually at schools, using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) technology. Significant gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in carrying a weapon and using alcohol. Higher perceived levels of stress increased the risk for alcohol use as did riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. Health behaviors exhibited while in 4th through 6th grades protected early adolescents from alcohol use and riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. A parent's education and perceived safety in neighborhood protected against carrying a weapon and smoking. Many findings are similar to those of national samples, but others show positive differences in this localized sample, over 50% of whom were Latino. Protective resources suggest numerous nursing interventions to promote healthy adolescent development.

  3. [Problems and perspectives in child health care].

    PubMed

    Nikolić, N; Gebauer, E; Jovanović, M; Rakić, D; Katanić, D

    1997-01-01

    Health care protection of children in Vojvodina is of particular importance regarding the negative natural birth rate. In spite of difficult economic situation, health care of children in Vojvodina is permanently carried out and would be significantly better in quality if the education of subspecialized personnel, space facilities, technological innovations, computerization and continuous education were available. Introduction of microanalytic laboratory techniques is essential for monitoring of prematures. Propagation of natural nutrition is an obligation of pediatricians. Respiratory diseases are still on the top of morbidity pyramid but tuberculosis is evidently in increase. An important health care problem is the expansion of allergic diseases. The progressive incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes is also evident. The spheres of juvenile gynecological endocrinology and andrology are still underdeveloped and that also applies to adolescent medicine. Toxicology remains an ongoing problem in pediatrics due to an increased number of accidental poisoning. Pediatricians-gastroenterologists are lacking while paediatric hepatology should be brought into more advanced state. Bone marrow and stem cells transplantation is in the responsibility of the Centre for haematology and oncology. Nephrology department lacks children's haemodialysis, ultrasound biopsy of kidneys, urodynamic analyses and new staff facilities. The increased number of survivals in case of children with with sequeles inevitably asks for better development of rehabilitation, prolonged treatment and teamwork. Intensive care and therapy department requires new staff and high technology capacities. Development of children's surgery department inevitably means the reconstruction of space facilities, modern equipment and new subspecializations. Preventive outpatient service is performed through systematic examinations. ultrasound diagnostics of hips, auditive screening and educational program activities

  4. Mother-adolescent conflict as a mediator between adolescent problem behaviors and maternal psychological control.

    PubMed

    Steeger, Christine M; Gondoli, Dawn M

    2013-04-01

    This study examined mother-adolescent conflict as a mediator of longitudinal reciprocal relations between adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control. Motivated by family systems theory and the transactions that occur between individual and dyadic levels of the family system, we examined the connections among these variables during a developmental period when children and parents experience significant psychosocial changes. Three years of self-report data were collected from 168 mother-adolescent dyads, beginning when the adolescents (55.4% girls) were in 6th grade. Models were tested using longitudinal path analysis. Results indicated that the connection between adolescent aggression (and depressive symptoms) and maternal psychological control was best characterized as adolescent-driven, indirect, and mediated by mother-adolescent conflict; there were no indications of parent-driven indirect effects. That is, prior adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms were associated with increased conflict. In turn, conflict was associated with increased psychological control. Within our mediation models, reciprocal direct effects between both problem behaviors and conflict and between conflict and psychological control were also found. Additionally, exploratory analyses regarding the role of adolescent gender as a moderator of variable relations were conducted. These analyses revealed no gender-related patterns of moderation, whether moderated mediation or specific path tests for moderation were considered. This study corroborates prior research finding support for child effects on parenting behaviors during early adolescence.

  5. Promoting Teen Health and Reducing Risks: A Look at Adolescent Health Services in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens' Committee for Children of New York, NY.

    This study examined data from focus groups with New York City adolescents and interviews with health care providers serving New York City adolescents (hospital based clinics, school based health centers, child health clinics, community health centers, and a multi-service adolescent center) in order to determine how to promote health and reduce…

  6. Addressing the Problems of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon of…

  7. Problems of Adolescent Crime in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savina, N.N.

    2008-01-01

    The tendency to defy the world around them, to defy adults, a characteristic trait of adolescents who are members of groups that spend leisure time together, is manifested in a number of demonstrative characteristics of their behavior: symbols of independence such as a certain kind of clothing, jargon, and borrowing vocabulary from the criminal…

  8. Telemental health for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gloff, Nicole E; LeNoue, Sean R; Novins, Douglas K; Myers, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Most children and adolescents across the USA fail to receive adequate mental health services, especially in rural or underserved communities. The supply of child and adolescent psychiatrists is insufficient for the number of children in need of services and is not anticipated to grow. This calls for novel approaches to mental health care. Telemental health (TMH) offers one approach to increase access. TMH programmes serving young people are developing rapidly and available studies demonstrate that these services are feasible, acceptable, sustainable and likely as effective as in-person services. TMH services are utilized in clinical settings to provide direct care and consultation to primary care providers (PCPs), as well as in non-traditional settings, such as schools, correctional facilities and the home. Delivery of services to young people through TMH requires several adjustments to practice with adults regarding the model of care, cultural values, participating adults, rapport-building, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Additional infrastructure accommodations at the patient site include space and staffing to conduct developmentally appropriate evaluations and treatment planning with parents, other providers, and community services. For TMH to optimally impact young people's access to mental health care, collaborative models of care are needed to support PCPs as frontline mental health-care providers, thereby effectively expanding the child and adolescent mental health workforce.

  9. Telemental health for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gloff, Nicole E; LeNoue, Sean R; Novins, Douglas K; Myers, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Most children and adolescents across the USA fail to receive adequate mental health services, especially in rural or underserved communities. The supply of child and adolescent psychiatrists is insufficient for the number of children in need of services and is not anticipated to grow. This calls for novel approaches to mental health care. Telemental health (TMH) offers one approach to increase access. TMH programmes serving young people are developing rapidly and available studies demonstrate that these services are feasible, acceptable, sustainable and likely as effective as in-person services. TMH services are utilized in clinical settings to provide direct care and consultation to primary care providers (PCPs), as well as in non-traditional settings, such as schools, correctional facilities and the home. Delivery of services to young people through TMH requires several adjustments to practice with adults regarding the model of care, cultural values, participating adults, rapport-building, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Additional infrastructure accommodations at the patient site include space and staffing to conduct developmentally appropriate evaluations and treatment planning with parents, other providers, and community services. For TMH to optimally impact young people's access to mental health care, collaborative models of care are needed to support PCPs as frontline mental health-care providers, thereby effectively expanding the child and adolescent mental health workforce. PMID:26540584

  10. Associations between psychosocial problems and personality disorders among Egyptian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elbheiry, Abd-Elraqeep; Emam, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between psychosocial problems and personality disorders among a sample of 817 Egyptian adolescents (408 males and 409 females). Using 15 subscales from the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale (APS-long form) we assessed prevalence rates of a number of internalizing and externalizing psychosocial disorders. Additionally, we investigated whether there are gender differences in psychopathology among Egyptian adolescents and to what extent can psychosocial problems predict specific personality disorders. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that the participants experienced higher levels of PD, AV, and BD. Gender differences were found in certain personality disorders as well as in externalizing and internalizing psychosocial problems. A number of externalizing and internalizing psychosocial problems were highly predictive of specific personality disorders.

  11. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy, Child Behavior Problems, and Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Used longitudinal sample of 187 mother-child dyads to examine the role of child behavior problems in explaining the effect of maternal prenatal smoking on adolescent daughters' smoking. Found that maternal prenatal smoking retained a unique effect on girls' current smoking with controls for current maternal smoking, child behavior problems, and…

  12. Introduction to Special Issue on Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kurt A.

    2004-01-01

    This special issue of Behavior Modification is designed to add to the literature on the behavioral assessment and treatment of CP displayed by adolescents. Contained in this issue are six empirical articles dealing with important issues on the topic. They provide examples of the richness of clinical problems classified as "conduct problems"…

  13. Personal and Contextual Factors Related to Internalizing Problems during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Alfredo; Parra, Águeda; Reina, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past decades, ample empirical evidence has been collected about the factors linked to internalizing problems during adolescence. However, there is a lack of research that use holistic approaches to study the joint analysis of a series of contextual and personal variables considered to be related to internalizing problems.…

  14. Is obesity an emerging problem in Brazilian children and adolescents?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this issue of the Jornal de Pediatria, Silva et al. compared the growth patterns of Brazilian children and adolescents with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) growth charts. The Silva et al. study has significant public health implications...

  15. Family Structure and Adolescent Alcohol Use Problems: Extending Popular Explanations to American Indiansc

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Eitle, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Competing explanations of the relationship between family structure and alcohol use problems are examined using a sample of American Indian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Living in a single-parent family is found to be a marker for the unequal distribution of stress exposure and parental alcohol use, but the effects of other family structures like non-parent families and the presence of under 21-year-old extended family or non-family members emerge or remain as risk or protective factors for alcohol use problems after a consideration of SES, family processes, peer socialization, and social stress. In particular, a non-parent family structure that has not been considered in prior research emerged as a protective family structure for American Indian adolescent alcohol use problems. PMID:24014896

  16. Characterizing Subjective Responses to Alcohol among Adolescent Problem Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Robert; Monti, Peter M.; Ray, Lara; Treloar, Hayley R.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Ramirez, Jason; Chun, Thomas; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Justus, Alicia; Tidey, Jennifer; Blanchard, Alexander; Magill, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical models of alcoholism emphasize the acute reinforcing properties of alcohol as chief determinants of drinking, and animal research suggests adolescents are uniquely sensitive to these effects. Human studies of these phenomena, however, are virtually nonexistent. We used ecological momentary assessment methods to capture adolescents' subjective responses to alcohol in real time in their natural environments. Adolescent participants were 22 problem drinkers, ages 15 to 19 years (M = 18.3, SD = 0.09; 55% female; 55% alcohol dependent). Participants consumed alcohol on 38% of days during a one-week monitoring period, with an average of 5 drinks per occasion. Momentary data revealed that adolescents experience decreased stimulation and increased sedation and ‘high’ across the ascending limb of the blood alcohol curve. Notably, greater craving predicted higher volumes of subsequent alcohol consumption during the episode, whereas greater ‘high’ attenuated use. To test for developmental differences in these effects, we pooled these data with data from a similarly ascertained sample of 36 adult heavy drinkers, ages 24 to 64 years (M = 38.1, SD = 11.8; 50% female; 61% alcohol dependent). Adolescents were more sensitive to the stimulant effects of alcohol than adults. This study provides novel data on how adolescent problem drinkers experience alcohol in their natural contexts and illustrates how these effects, which appear to differ from adult problem drinkers, confer liability for future drinking. PMID:24661164

  17. Adolescent health care education and training: insights from Israel.

    PubMed

    Kerem, Nogah C; Hardoff, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    There is a growing need for health care professionals to extend their knowledge in adolescent health care. Formal training curricula in adolescent medicine have been established in the United States, Canada, and Australia, yet many other countries have developed shorter training programs to enable interested physicians to further pursue knowledge and practical experience in delivering improved quality health care for adolescents. The Israeli experience in building an infrastructure that allows students and physicians to learn about adolescent medicine and to train in the field is described. It includes a series of lectures and seminars for medical students during medical school and at the clinical rotations in pediatric wards; the development of hospital-based and community-based multidisciplinary adolescent health services where residents can practice adolescent health care; a 3-year diploma course in adolescent medicine for specialists in pediatrics and family medicine; mini courses in adolescent medicine for pediatricians and family practitioners working in community settings; and a simulated patient-based program regarding communication with adolescents, aimed for all professional levels - medical students, residents, and specialists. This infrastructure has been developed to create a leading group of physicians, who are able to operate adolescent clinics and to teach adolescent medicine. Recently, a formal fellowship program in adolescent medicine has been approved by the Scientific Council of the Israel Medical Association. The Israeli experience described here could be applied in countries, where formal training programs in adolescent health care are not yet established. PMID:27341557

  18. Adolescence and asthma management: the perspective of adolescents receiving primary health care☆

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Alisson; Rocha, Regina Lunardi; Alvim, Cristina Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of adolescence characteristics on asthma management. Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted in the city of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. Data were collected through semistructured interviews guided by a questionnaire with seven asthmatic adolescents followed-up in the primary public health care service of the city. Results: Using content analysis, three thematic categories were observed in the adolescents' responses: 1) family relationships in the treatment of asthma in adolescence; 2) the asthmatic adolescents and their peers; and 3) the role of the school for the asthmatic adolescents. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that peers, family, and school should be more valued by health professionals and by health care services when treating asthmatic adolescents, as these social relationships are closely associated with the adolescent and have an important role in asthma management. Attempts to meet the demands of adolescents contribute to improve asthma management. PMID:25479845

  19. Adolescents' Views regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old.…

  20. Physical Health Problems and Barriers to Optimal Health Care Among Children in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Stephanie Anne; Fortin, Kristine

    2015-10-01

    Children and adolescents in foster care placement represent a unique population with special health care needs, often resulting from pre-placement early adversity and neglected, unaddressed health care needs. High rates of all health problems, including acute and/or chronic physical, mental, and developmental issues prevail. Disparities in health status and access to health care are observed. This article summarizes the physical health problems of children in foster care, who are predisposed to poor health outcomes when complex care needs are unaddressed. Despite recognition of the significant burden of health care need among this unique population, barriers to effective and optimal health care delivery remain. Legislative solutions to overcome obstacles to health care delivery for children in foster care are discussed.

  1. Adolescents' Views Regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education.

    PubMed

    Selkie, Ellen M; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan

    2011-07-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old. Facilitators asked participants for their views regarding use of social networking web sites (SNSs) and text messaging for sexual health education. Tape-recorded data was transcribed; transcripts were manually evaluated then discussed to determine thematic consensus. RESULTS: A total of 29 adolescents participated in 5 focus groups. Participants were 65.5% female. Three themes emerged from our data. First, adolescents preferred sexual health education resources that are accessible. Second, adolescents preferred online resources that are trustworthy. Third, adolescents discussed preference for "safe" resources. DISCUSSION: Adolescents were enthusiastic and insightful regarding technology for enhancing sexual health education. The themes that influence adolescents' preferences in sexual health education using technology are similar to barriers that exist in other aspects of adolescent health communication. TRANSLATION TO HEALTH EDUCATION PRACTICE: Findings suggest ways in which health organizations can understand adolescents' views and concerns about how their interactions with professionals take place regarding sexual health.

  2. Adolescents' Views Regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education.

    PubMed

    Selkie, Ellen M; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan

    2011-07-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old. Facilitators asked participants for their views regarding use of social networking web sites (SNSs) and text messaging for sexual health education. Tape-recorded data was transcribed; transcripts were manually evaluated then discussed to determine thematic consensus. RESULTS: A total of 29 adolescents participated in 5 focus groups. Participants were 65.5% female. Three themes emerged from our data. First, adolescents preferred sexual health education resources that are accessible. Second, adolescents preferred online resources that are trustworthy. Third, adolescents discussed preference for "safe" resources. DISCUSSION: Adolescents were enthusiastic and insightful regarding technology for enhancing sexual health education. The themes that influence adolescents' preferences in sexual health education using technology are similar to barriers that exist in other aspects of adolescent health communication. TRANSLATION TO HEALTH EDUCATION PRACTICE: Findings suggest ways in which health organizations can understand adolescents' views and concerns about how their interactions with professionals take place regarding sexual health. PMID:22229150

  3. Health Concerns of Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobal, Jeffery

    1987-01-01

    Examined health concerns of 278 urban junior high school students. Highest levels of concerns pertained to dental health, friendships, nutrition, and sex; lowest levels pertained to smoking, birth control, pregnancy, and homosexuality. Younger, female, and less healthy students expressed greater health concerns. (Author/NB)

  4. Psychological outcomes and health beliefs in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer and controls.

    PubMed

    Kazak, Anne E; Derosa, Branlyn Werba; Schwartz, Lisa A; Hobbie, Wendy; Carlson, Claire; Ittenbach, Richard F; Mao, Jun J; Ginsberg, Jill P

    2010-04-20

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare adolescent and young adult (AYA) pediatric cancer survivors and peers without a history of serious illness on psychological distress, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), health beliefs; examine age at diagnosis and cancer treatment intensity on these outcomes; and examine relationships between number of health problems and the outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS AYA cancer survivors (n = 167) and controls (n = 170), recruited during visits to a cancer survivorship clinic and primary care, completed self-report questionnaires of distress, health problems, and health beliefs. For survivors, providers rated treatment intensity and health problems. Results There were no statistically significant differences between survivors and controls in psychological distress or HRQOL. Cancer survivors had less positive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed as adolescents had significantly greater psychological distress and fewer positive health beliefs than those diagnosed earlier. Survivors with the highest level of treatment intensity had greater anxiety and fewer positive health beliefs than those with less intense treatments. Provider report of current health problems related to survivors' beliefs and mental HRQOL only, whereas patient report of health problems correlated significantly with most psychosocial outcomes and beliefs. CONCLUSION AYA cancer survivors did not differ from peers in psychological adjustment but did endorse less adaptive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed during adolescence and who had more intensive cancer treatments evidenced poorer psychosocial outcomes. Beliefs about health may be identified and targeted for intervention to improve quality of life, particularly when patient perceptions of current health problems are considered.

  5. Medical and mental health needs of adolescent Indochinese refugees.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J; Fitzpatrick, S; Felice, M E

    1986-01-01

    Since 1975 approximately 900,000 Indochinese refugees have immigrated to the US. In conducting a retrospective review of the medical records of Indochinese refugees between the ages of 11 and 21 years, this paper investigates the prevalence of health problems in adolescent Indochinese refugees studied, 85% had at least 1 medical disorder. At least 1 chronic condition associated with signifiant morbidity or functional impairment in daily life was found in 23%. 1 of the most prevalent health problems found in these adolescents was the lack of appropriate immunizations for age in 24%, despite their having been in the US for many months. There was a 15% prevalence of mental health disorders, including psychosomatic illnesses and alcohol abuse. The following suggestions should be considered when assessing the psychological status of the adolescent Indochinese refugees: 1) interpreters should be of the same gender as the patient; 2) an age-appropriate developmental assessment should be conducted; 3) delay the exploration of personal and sexual issues until the 2nd visit; 4) solicitation of the youth's experiences in leaving the home country will help the clinician and patient become better acquainted; 5) a drug history should be obtained; and 6) the clinician should develop a sense of how the adoescent's adjustment to life in the US has been. PMID:12314920

  6. Health issues faced by adolescents incarcerated in the juvenile justice system.

    PubMed

    Griel Iii, Lester C; Loeb, Susan J

    2009-01-01

    Incarcerated adolescents have a high level of health problems when compared to those not incarcerated. These higher rates are in part due to inadequate coping skills. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a literature review of articles that focus on the health issues of incarcerated adolescents. This review provides an overview of the issue, strategies that nurses working in juvenile facilities can employ to increase their impact on the health of adolescent offenders, and research needs for the future. Thirty articles published around the world between the years 1995 and 2007 are reviewed and described. PMID:19702743

  7. Force field analysis: a model for promoting adolescents' involvement in their own health care.

    PubMed

    MacDuffie, Heather; DePoy, Elizabeth

    2004-07-01

    This article advances a three-step model for engaging adolescents in shaping their own health care supports and services through systems and social change that rely on principles of force field analysis. Consistent with health promotion values and trends for evidence-based practice, force field analysis provides a systematic and multilevel approach to problem assessment, resolution, and social change that is particularly appropriate for adolescents. The article reviews relevant literature, proposes the model, and concludes with a comparative illustration and critical analysis of the use of force field analysis to promote adolescent health. PMID:15228786

  8. Relations between Mattering to Step- and Non-Residential Fathers and Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Clorinda E.; Braver, Sanford L.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Saenz, Delia; Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Fabricius, William V.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relations between perceptions of 133 early adolescents in stepfamilies concerning how much they mattered to their stepfathers and nonresidential biological fathers and adolescents' mental health problems. Mattering to nonresidential biological fathers significantly negatively predicted mother-, teacher-, and youth-reported internalizing problems. Mattering to stepfathers significantly negatively predicted youth-reported internalizing and stepfather- and youth- reported externalizing problems. For teacher-reported externalizing problems, mattering to stepfathers and nonresidential biological fathers significantly interacted. Mattering to either father predicted low externalizing problems; perceptions of mattering to the second father did not predict a further reduction in problems. Results suggest that mattering is an important aspect of father-adolescent relationships, and highlight the importance of considering adolescents' relationships with both nonresidential fathers and stepfathers. PMID:20019889

  9. Unhealthy sleep practices, conduct problems, and daytime functioning during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Hsu; Yi, Chin-Chun

    2015-02-01

    Although sleep has been linked to activities in various domains of life, one under-studied link is the relationship between unhealthy sleep practices and conduct problems among adolescents. The present study investigates the influence of adolescents' unhealthy sleep practices-short sleep (e.g., less than 6 h a day), inconsistent sleep schedule (e.g., social jetlag), and sleep problems-on conduct problems (e.g., substance use, fighting, and skipping class). In addition, this study examines unhealthy sleep practices in relationship to adolescent emotional well-being, defiant attitudes, and academic performance, as well as these three domains as possible mediators of the longitudinal association between sleep practices and conduct problems. Three waves of the Taiwan Youth Project (n = 2,472) were used in this study. At the first time-point examined in this study, youth (51% male) were aged 13-17 (M = 13.3). The results indicated that all three measures of unhealthy sleep practices were related to conduct problems, such that short sleep, greater social jetlag, and more serious sleep problems were concurrently associated with greater conduct problems. In addition, short sleep and sleep problems predicted conduct problems one year later. Furthermore, these three unhealthy sleep practices were differently related to poor academic performance, low levels of emotional well-being, and defiant attitudes, and some significant indirect effects on later conduct problems through these three attributes were found. Cultural differences and suggestions for prevention are discussed. PMID:25148793

  10. Epidemiology of Attention Problems Among Turkish Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Öner, Özgür; Munir, Kerim

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the epidemiology of attention problems using parent, teacher, and youth informants among a nationally representative Turkish sample. Method The children and adolescents, 4 to 18 years old, were selected from a random household survey. Attention problems derived from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (N = 4,488), Teacher Report Form (TRF) (N = 2,360), and the Youth Self Report (YSR) (N = 2,206) were examined. Results The CBCL and TRF attention problems scores were higher among young male children, whereas the YSR reported scores were higher among older adolescents without a gender effect. The CBCL and YSR scores were also higher by urban residence. Conclusion Compared with other European samples, our national sample had higher mean attention problems scores than the Scandinavian but lower mean scores than the former Soviet Union samples. In addition to elucidating the profile of attention problems in Turkey, our results also contribute to understanding the comparative global epidemiology of attention problems. PMID:18192617

  11. Adolescent Health Care Use: Investigating Related Determinants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannakopoulos, George; Tzavara, Chara; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis

    2010-01-01

    The frequency of health care use is crucial for adolescent well-being and health systems. The present study was the first to test a set of variables in a representative sample of Greek adolescents in order to identify factors that predict health care use and contribute to improving health service planning. Questionnaires were administered to a…

  12. Factors Associated with Physician Discussion of Health Behaviors with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2006-01-01

    Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues…

  13. Adolescent Problem Behavior and Problem Driving in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Shope, Jean T.

    2004-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among drivers younger than age 35, making problem driving behavior among young drivers a significant public concern. Effective intervention requires a better understanding of the antecedents of problem driving. Problem behavior theory, social control theory, and Kandel's model of substance use…

  14. Problem Solving Appraisal of Delinquent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ruperto M.; And Others

    The study investigated the following: (1) the relationship of problem solving appraisal to narcissistic vulnerability, locus of control, and depression; (2) the differences in problem solving appraisal, locus of control, and depression in first-time and repeat offenders; and (3) the prediction of problem solving appraisal by narcissistic…

  15. A Longitudinal Family-Level Model of Arab Muslim Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.; Templin, Thomas N.; Hough, Edythe Ellison; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Katz, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Arab-American Muslim adolescents in immigrant families face a number of challenges that put them at risk for behavior problems. This study of Arab-American Muslim Adolescents and their relatively recent immigrant mothers tested a longitudinal family-level model of adolescent behavior problems. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 530) completed measures…

  16. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability with and without Chronic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) (ID-adolescents) and adolescents with chronic diseases are both more likely to have emotional and behavioural problems. The aim of this study was to assess the association between chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and emotional and behavioural problems in a large school-based sample.…

  17. Sensation Seeking Predicting Growth in Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Byck, Gayle R.; Swann, Greg; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13-18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  18. Brief report: Physical health of adolescent perpetrators of sibling aggression.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Rebellon, Cesar

    2015-12-01

    We describe adolescents' perpetration of sibling aggression and its link to physical health two years later. In-school surveys at Time 1 (N = 331) and Time 2 (two-years later, N = 283) were administered to adolescents (at Time 1, Mage = 15.71 years, SD = .63; 52% female) living in the United States querying about perpetration of aggression toward a sibling closest in age and perceived physical health. The majority of adolescents perpetrated aggression towards their sibling (74%). Adolescents who were part of brother-brother pairs reported the most aggression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that perpetrating sibling aggression more often at Time 1 was predictive of lower physical health at Time 2 controlling for Time 1 physical health and demographic characteristics. Perpetration of aggression toward a sibling is common and has negative health consequences in late adolescence suggesting this issue should be targeted to improve adolescents' sibling dynamics and physical health.

  19. Theory of Planned Behavior in School-Based Adolescent Problem Gambling Prevention: A Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2015-12-01

    Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.

  20. Theory of Planned Behavior in School-Based Adolescent Problem Gambling Prevention: A Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2015-12-01

    Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling. PMID:26480847

  1. Relationship Between Parental and Adolescent eHealth Literacy and Online Health Information Seeking in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chiang, Jeng-Tung; Pan, Ying-Chun

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental and adolescent eHealth literacy and its impact on online health information seeking. Data were obtained from 1,869 junior high school students and 1,365 parents in Taiwan in 2013. Multivariate analysis results showed that higher levels of parental Internet skill and eHealth literacy were associated with an increase in parental online health information seeking. Parental eHealth literacy, parental active use Internet mediation, adolescent Internet literacy, and health information literacy were all related to adolescent eHealth literacy. Similarly, adolescent Internet/health information literacy, eHealth literacy, and parental active use Internet mediation, and parental online health information seeking were associated with an increase in adolescent online health information seeking. The incorporation of eHealth literacy courses into parenting programs and school education curricula is crucial to promote the eHealth literacy of parents and adolescents.

  2. Anorexia nervosa: an increasing problem in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Halmi, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Information from eating disorder clinics across five continents suggests that anorexia nervosa is becoming an increasing problem in children and young adolescents. There is some indication that anxiety disorders in childhood may be a major risk factor for the development of anorexia nervosa. Early recognition and family treatment for this disorder are essential to prevent chronic impairment. PMID:19432392

  3. Psychological Approaches to Problems of Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Jeff, Ed.

    This document, intended as a resource for school psychologists, contains articles addressing a variety of psychological and behavioral problems of children and adolescents. Each chapter includes the following content: background information concerning the specific topic, approaches for assessing the behavior of concern, intervention possibilities,…

  4. Problem Gambling in Chinese American Adolescents: Characteristics and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Eddie Yu-Wai; Woo, Kent

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the characteristics and risk factors of problem gambling among Chinese American adolescents. A total of 192 Chinese American students (aged 13-19) from 9th to 12th grades were recruited from three high schools in San Francisco, California. Students were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for…

  5. Residential Treatment of Adolescents with Severe Behavioural Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, E. M.; van der Ploeg, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    The development of adolescents with severe behavioural problems receiving residential treatment in Holland was empirically studied during 1 year. Treatment methods included a standard program comprising behavioural modification and three specific treatment programs: psychodynamic treatment, structured community living and adventurous learning. The…

  6. Mothers' Economic Hardship and Behavior Problems in Their Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Ginger Lockhart; Roosa, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about the heightened prevalence of behavior problems among adolescents from low-income families have prompted researchers to understand processes through which economic variables influence functioning within multiple domains. Guided by a stress process framework and social contextual theory, this study examines processes linking perceived…

  7. Parents and Peers in Relation to Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    Concurrent and prospective associations between parent-youth dyadic hostility and adolescent externalizing and internalizing problem behavior were examined in a sample of 416 families. Parenting control, parents' well-being, and youths' affiliation with deviant peers were included as integral covariates. Information from multiple sources was…

  8. Early Adolescent Romantic Partner Status, Peer Standing, and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S.; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a…

  9. Personality Development and Problem Behavior in Russian Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…

  10. Psychological Approaches to Problems of Children and Adolescents. [Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Jeff, Ed.; Thomas, Alex, Ed.

    This document contains articles addressing a variety of psychological and behavioral problems of adolescents and children and is intended as a resource tool for school psychologists. Articles include background information, approaches regarding assessment of the behavior of concern, intervention possibilities, monitoring methods, and references.…

  11. Oral Sexual Experience among Young Adolescents Receiving General Health Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekeloo, Bradley O.; Howard, Donna E.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed young adolescents receiving general health examinations regarding oral sex occurrence. Overall, 18 percent reported having oral sex, and of that 18 percent, 25 percent reported no vaginal sex. Few adolescents used barrier protection during oral sex. Most adolescents thought that penile-anal sex could transmit HIV, but only 68 percent…

  12. Energy Drinks: A New Health Hazard for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Nicole; Johnson, Molly; Delaney, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    A new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. Specific effects that have been reported by adolescents include jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, gastrointestinal upset, and…

  13. Parenting Style, Individuation, and Mental Health of Egyptian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.

    2006-01-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…

  14. Adolescent Health Promotion Groups: A Primer for Milieu Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puskar, Kathryn; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Stark, Kirsti Hetager; Frazier, Leann

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents who are required to live away from their families of origin face many challenges that can affect mood and mental health. Milieu therapists (mental health associates) working with adolescents in a residential treatment center may be expected to provide group activities that promote mental health. It is important for new group leaders to…

  15. Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…

  16. Immunization Services for Adolescents within Comprehensive School Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Mary E.; Bryan, Gloria; Hunt, Pete; Allensworth, Diane; Bradley, Beverly

    1997-01-01

    Discusses school health services, adolescent immunization, current school immunization practices, and support for school-based immunization programs. Children and adolescents can receive preventive health services, including immunizations and monitoring of immunization levels. Expanding school health services could improve the immunization levels…

  17. Addressing Safety in Schools: CDC's Division of Adolescent & School Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the Division of Adolescent and School Health (DASH) is to prevent the most serious health risks among children, adolescents, and young adults. Its goal is to prevent unintentional injuries and violence by enabling the nation's schools to address safety through coordinated school health programs. It attempts to achieve this goal…

  18. Parenting style, individuation, and mental health of Egyptian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E

    2006-02-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. In urban communities, on the other hand, the authoritarian style was more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. The connectedness of all female adolescents with their family was stronger than that of male adolescents. The connectedness of girls was found to be more emotional and financial in villages and to be more functional in town. Female adolescents reported a higher frequency of psychological disorders. Mental health was associated with authoritative parenting, but not with authoritarian parenting. It seems that authoritarian parenting within an authoritarian culture is not as harmful as within a liberal culture.

  19. CDC Grand Rounds: Adolescence - Preparing for Lifelong Health and Wellness.

    PubMed

    Banspach, Stephen; Zaza, Stephanie; Dittus, Patricia; Michael, Shannon; Brindis, Claire D; Thorpe, Phoebe

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 42 million adolescents aged 10-19 years, representing 13% of the population, resided in the United States in 2014 (1). Adolescence is characterized by rapid and profound physical, intellectual, emotional, and psychological changes (2), as well as development of healthy or risky behaviors that can last a lifetime. Parents have strong influence on their adolescent children's lives, and family-based programs can help parents support healthy adolescent development. Because schools are natural learning environments, implementing and improving school-based policies and programs are strategic ways to reinforce healthy behaviors and educate adolescents about reducing risky behaviors. Health care during adolescence should be tailored to meet the changing developmental needs of the adolescent while providing welcoming, safe, and confidential care. Parents, educators, care providers, public health officials, and communities should collaborate in fostering healthy environments for all adolescents, now and into the future. PMID:27491062

  20. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keita; Asaga, Reiko; Sourander, Andre; Hoven, Christina W; Mandell, Donald

    2012-01-01

    The rapid growth of electronic and computer-based communication and information sharing during the past decade has dramatically changed social interactions, especially among teenagers. Cyberbullying has emerged as a new form of bullying and harassment, and it has been shown to possess different ramifications from traditional school-yard bullying. This problem has emerged in nations worldwide. Cyber victims have reported various emotional and behavioral symptoms, along with school-related problems. This paper reviews international cross-sectional studies relating to the definition, prevalence, age, and gender differences inherent in cyberbullying. Psychosocial and risk factors associated with cyberbullying are also addressed. Prevention and intervention strategies for school officials and parents are suggested. Healthcare providers, policy makers, and families must be ever-mindful of the grave dangers cyberbullying poses to youths. Longitudinal studies are warranted to assess the psychological risk factors of cyberbullying. PMID:22909909

  1. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keita; Asaga, Reiko; Sourander, Andre; Hoven, Christina W; Mandell, Donald

    2012-01-01

    The rapid growth of electronic and computer-based communication and information sharing during the past decade has dramatically changed social interactions, especially among teenagers. Cyberbullying has emerged as a new form of bullying and harassment, and it has been shown to possess different ramifications from traditional school-yard bullying. This problem has emerged in nations worldwide. Cyber victims have reported various emotional and behavioral symptoms, along with school-related problems. This paper reviews international cross-sectional studies relating to the definition, prevalence, age, and gender differences inherent in cyberbullying. Psychosocial and risk factors associated with cyberbullying are also addressed. Prevention and intervention strategies for school officials and parents are suggested. Healthcare providers, policy makers, and families must be ever-mindful of the grave dangers cyberbullying poses to youths. Longitudinal studies are warranted to assess the psychological risk factors of cyberbullying.

  2. Facing facts: sexual health for America's adolescents: the report of the National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    Haffner, D W

    1995-01-01

    Compared to life in the 1950s, today's teenagers become physically mature earlier and marry later. There is a steady increase in the proportion of adolescents having sexual intercourse, and in the percentage doing so at younger ages. Moreover, almost all teens experiment with some type of sex, with largely similar patterns of sexual activity among males and females, and young people from different ethnic, socioeconomic, and religious groups. There is, however, little public, professional, or political consensus about what is sexually healthy for teenagers. SIECUS convened the National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health in 1994. The commission believes that there is an urgent need for a new approach to adolescent sexual health, one in which adults help young people avoid unprotected and unwanted sexual behavior. Individual adults and society in general must help adolescents develop the values, attitudes, maturity, and skills to become sexually healthy adults. On June 21, 1995, SIECUS released its report on adolescent sexual health in America. This condensed version highlights key findings and recommendations of the National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health. Sections consider adolescent development, adolescent sexual behavior in the 1990s, abstinence and sexual intercourse, the adult role in promoting adolescent sexual health, and recommendations for policymakers. A consensus statement on adolescent sexual health endorsed by 48 national organizations and the commission, as well as a listing of characteristics of a sexually healthy adolescent are also presented. PMID:12319704

  3. Physical activity and health in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhavesh; Robinson, Rebecca; Till, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Adolescence represents a critical period of development during which personal lifestyle choices and behaviour patterns establish, including the choice to be physically active. Physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and low cardiorespiratory fitness are strong risk factors for the development of chronic diseases with resulting morbidity and mortality, as well as economic burden to wider society from health and social care provision, and reduced occupational productivity. Worrying trends in adverse physical activity behaviours necessitate urgent and concerted action. Healthcare professionals caring for adolescents and young adults are ideally placed and suited to deliver powerful messages promoting physical activity and behaviour change. Every encounter represents an opportunity to ask about physical activity, provide advice, or signpost to appropriate pathways or opportunities. Key initial targets include getting everyone to reduce their sedentary behaviour and be more active, with even a little being more beneficial than none at all.

  4. Nicotine Dependence and Problem Behaviors Among Urban South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, David W.; Morojele, Neo K.; Brook, Judith S.

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use and its concomitant, nicotine dependence, are increasing in African countries and other parts of the developing world. However, little research has assessed nicotine dependence in South Africa or other parts of the African continent. Previous research has found that adolescent problem behaviors, including tobacco use, tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between nicotine dependence and adolescent problem behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of urban South African adolescents. A community sample (N = 731) consisting of “Black,” “White,” “Coloured,” and “Indian” youths aged 12–17 years was drawn from the Johannesburg metropolitan area. Structured interviews were administered by trained interviewers. Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence. Logistic regression analyses showed that higher levels of nicotine dependence significantly predicted elevated levels of violent behavior, deviant behavior, marijuana and other illegal drug use, binge drinking, early sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use, despite control on the adolescents’ demographic characteristics, peer smoking, conflict with parents, peer deviance, and the availability of legal and illegal substances. These relationships were robust across ethnicity and gender. The findings indicate the need for policy makers and prevention and intervention programs in South Africa to consider adolescent nicotine dependence in conjunction with comorbid problem behaviors, including other substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and deviant behaviors. PMID:20099015

  5. "Life grows between the rocks": Latino adolescents' and parents' perspectives on mental health stressors.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carolyn; Lindgren, Sandi

    2009-04-01

    Latino adolescents, an increasingly larger proportion of youth in the US, are at special risk for mental health problems, including depression and suicidal ideation. Little is known about the meaning of mental health stressors for Latino adolescents and their parents. We conducted a descriptive study to elicit Latino adolescents' and parents' perspectives regarding mental health stressors as a basis for future preventive interventions. Eight focus groups were conducted with 53 Latino participants, 2 per sub-group (boys, girls, mothers, fathers). Three categories of mental health stressors included discrimination, immigration, and familial disconnection. Findings support the need for collaborative interventions and multi-level strategies (individual, family, and community) to address stressors in Latino adolescents' experiences. PMID:19170104

  6. Psychosocial Correlates of Marijuana Use and Problem Drinking in a National Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jessor, Richard; Chase, James A.; Donovan, John E.

    1980-01-01

    Personality, environmental, and behavioral variables representing psychosocial risk factors for adolescent problem behavior were assessed in a 1974 national sample study of over 10,000 junior and senior high school students. Significant correlations were found with marijuana use, and the relationships held across differences in age, sex, and ethnic group membership. Greater involvement in marijuana use was associated with greater value on independence than on academic achievement, lower expectations for academic achievement, lesser religiosity, greater tolerance of deviance, less compatibility between friends and parents, greater influence of friends relative to parents, greater models and support for problem behavior, greater actual involvement in other problem behaviors such as drunkenness, and less involvement in conventional behavior such as attending church. Multiple regression analyses show that this pattern of psychosocial correlates accounts for over 50 per cent of the variation in marijuana use. The pattern is nearly identical to the pattern that accounts for problem drinking in these same adolescents. The similarity of the patterns of psychosocial risk, and the substantial correlations of marijuana use with problem drinking and with other problem behaviors, suggest that marijuana use is best seen as part of a syndrome of adolescent problem behavior. (Am J Public Health 70:604- 613,1980.) PMID:7377436

  7. Barriers to Addressing Adolescent Substance Use: Perceptions of New York School-Based Health Center Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Brett; Shaw, Benjamin; Lawson, Hal; Sherman, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescent substance use is associated with chronic health conditions, accidents, injury, and school-related problems, including dropping out. Schools have the potential to provide students with substance use prevention and intervention services, albeit with confidentiality challenges. School-based health centers (SBHCs) provide…

  8. The Effect of Inpatient Care on Measured Health Needs in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Brian; Green, Jonathan; Kroll, Leopold; Tobias, Catherine; Dunn, Graham; Briskman, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Background: The concept of "health need" relates patient problems in symptom and psychosocial domains to available appropriate treatments. We studied the effectiveness of inpatient treatment in modifying measured "Health Needs" in children and adolescents admitted to UK inpatient units. Methods: A prospective cohort study of 150 children and…

  9. Nicotine Dependence and Alcohol Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Lisa; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the highly replicated relationship between symptoms associated with both alcohol and nicotine, little is known about this association across time and exposure to both drinking and smoking. In the present study, we evaluate if problems associated with alcohol use are related to emerging nicotine dependence symptoms and whether this relationship varies from adolescence to young adulthood, after accounting for both alcohol and nicotine exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which measured smoking, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and alcohol related problems over 6 assessment waves spanning 6 years. Analyses were based on repeated assessment of 864 participants reporting some smoking and drinking 30 days prior to individual assessment waves. Mixed-effects regression models were estimated to examine potential time, smoking and/or alcohol varying effects in the association between alcohol problems and nicotine dependence. Findings Inter-individual differences in mean levels of alcohol problems and within subject changes in alcohol problems from adolescence to young adulthood were each significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms over and above levels of smoking and drinking behaviour. This association was consistent across both time and increasing levels of smoking and drinking. Conclusions Alcohol related problems are a consistent risk factor for nicotine dependence over and above measures of drinking and smoking and this association can be demonstrated from the earliest experiences with smoking in adolescents, through the establishment of more regular smoking patterns across the transition to young adulthood. These findings add to accumulating evidence suggesting that smoking and drinking may be related through a mechanism that cannot be wholly accounted for by exposure to either substance. PMID:27610424

  10. Pathological Gambling and Related Problems among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Robert; Boudreault, Normand; Jacques, Christian; Vitaro, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates the prevalence of pathological gambling and related problems among 3,426 students in junior and senior high schools in Quebec City. Results indicate that 77% have gambled in the last twelve months and 13% gamble at least once a week. Results also reveal that pathological gambling is associated with drug and alcohol use, poor grades, and…

  11. Adolescent Healthful Foods Inventory: Development of an Instrument to Assess Adolescents' Willingness to Consume Healthful Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuerty, Amber B.; Cater, Melissa; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2016-01-01

    Interventions to increase adolescents' healthful food and beverage consumption often fail to demonstrate change. An alternative is to measure a shift in willingness to consume these items as an indicator of movement toward change. A survey was developed to estimate willingness to consume a variety of foods and beverages. Twenty items were…

  12. Altering the Parenting Role: Parents' Experience of Supporting the Health and Well-Being of Their Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha; Björk, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: In research the relationships between parents and their adolescent daughters have been viewed from problem oriented perspectives, usually exploring negative effects and health-related problems. Health and well-being are complex phenomena and knowledge is needed on how parents can support the health and well-being of their daughter.…

  13. An investigation of adolescent health from China.

    PubMed

    Liu, G R

    1997-04-01

    In a senior high school in the Weicheng District of Weifang City, we studied the health of a total 445 students. The age of the first emission was 15.22 +/- 2.24 years, and the age of menarche was 13.56 +/- 2.26 years. Because 47.9% of boys and 63.8% of girls did not have previous knowledge about puberty, 39.9% of boys and 52.2% of girls felt puzzled and disgusted with the onset of puberty. About 18% of boys and about 2% of girls reported masturbation. The average frequency of masturbation was 3.5 times a month in the boys and two times monthly in girls. Adolescents acquired sexual knowledge and information predominantly from magazines (25.8% of boys and 28.0% of girls). About 64% of boys and 44% of girls wanted to be given educational programs on sex. About 43% of boys and 1% of girls smoked cigarettes and 83.5% of boys and 54.9% of girls drank alcohol. The survey suggested that it is essential to teach the senior high school students about the psychosocial and behavioral characteristics of adolescence and promote research on adolescent medicine.

  14. Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Charisse L

    2014-01-01

    Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents’ health and well-being. A plethora of correlational studies have demonstrated a cogent relationship between adolescents’ involvement in cyberbullying and negative health indices. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. Mediating/moderating processes have been found to influence the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed. PMID:25177157

  15. Health economics--concepts and conceptual problems.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, S K; Bansal, R D

    1982-01-01

    Awareness of the economic manifestation of health and diseases and the limited resources allocated to health care services has brought to the focus a new discipline - health economics. Cost accounting, cost benefit, cost effectiveness methods etc. are increasingly becoming an integral part of the health management and evaluation of health programmes. Various concepts and problems relating to health economics are discussed in the present paper. More efforts should be made to conduct health economic studies in hospitals and health centres by which the process of standardisation of the concepts, would be easier. Health economics should also find its due place in the medical curriculum.

  16. Adolescent Alcohol-Drinking Frequency and Problem-Gambling Severity: Adolescent Perceptions Regarding Problem-Gambling Prevention and Parental/Adult Behaviors and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Ardeshir S.; Balodis, Iris M.; Pilver, Corey E.; Leeman, Robert F.; Hoff, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine in adolescents how alcohol-drinking frequency relates to gambling-related attitudes and behaviors and their perceptions of both problem-gambling prevention strategies and adult (including parental) behaviors/attitudes. Methods A survey assessing alcohol, gambling and health and functioning measures in 1609 high-school students. Students were stratified into low-frequency/non-drinking and high-frequency drinking groups, and into low-risk and at-risk/problematic gambling groups. Results High-frequency drinking was associated with at-risk/problematic gambling (χ2(1, N=1842)=49.22, p<.0001). High-frequency-drinking versus low-frequency/non-drinking adolescents exhibited more permissive attitudes towards gambling (e.g., less likely to report multiple problem-gambling prevention efforts to be important). At-risk problematic gamblers exhibited more severe drinking patterns and greater likelihood of acknowledging parental approval of drinking (χ2(1, N=1842)=31.58, p<.0001). Problem-gambling severity was more strongly related to gambling with adults among high-frequency-drinking adolescents (odds ratio [OR]=3.17, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=[1.97, 5.09]) versus low-frequency/non-drinking (OR=1.86, 95%CI=[0.61, 2.68]) adolescents (Interaction OR=1.78, 95%CI=[1.05, 3.02]). Conclusions Inter-relationships between problematic drinking and gambling in youth may relate to more permissive attitudes across these domains. Stronger links between at-risk/problem gambling and gambling with adults in the high-frequency-drinking group raises the possibility that interventions targeting adults may help mitigate youth gambling and drinking. PMID:25147928

  17. Bullying victimisation, internalising symptoms, and conduct problems in South African children and adolescents: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Boyes, Mark E; Bowes, Lucy; Cluver, Lucie D; Ward, Catherine L; Badcock, Nicholas A

    2014-11-01

    Bullying victimisation has been prospectively linked with mental health problems among children and adolescents in longitudinal studies in the developed world. However, research from the developing world, where adolescents face multiple risks to social and emotional development, has been limited by cross-sectional designs. This is the first longitudinal study of the psychological impacts of bullying victimisation in South Africa. The primary aim was to examine prospective relationships between bullying victimisation and internalising and externalising symptoms in South African youth. Secondary aims were to examine gender and age-related differences in experiences of bullying victimisation. Children and adolescents (10-17 years, 57 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up 1 year later (97 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Exposure to multiple experiences of bullying victimisation at baseline predicted internalising symptoms and conduct problems 1 year later. Additionally, baseline mental health scores predicted later bullying victimisation, demonstrating bi-directionality of relationships between bullying victimisation and mental health outcomes in this sample. Expected gender differences in physical, verbal, and relational bullying victimisation were evident and predicted declines in bullying victimisation over time were observed. In the developed world, school-based anti-bullying programmes have been shown to be effective in reducing bullying and victimisation. Anti-bullying programmes should be implemented and rigorously evaluated in South Africa, as this may promote improved mental health among South African children and adolescents.

  18. Adolescent Health in Hong Kong: Disturbing Socio-Demographic Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Y. K.; Ip, W. C.

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between self-assessed health status and socio-demographic variables were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong, a modern society with traditional Chinese ethno-cultural origin. Health status was self-rated in four aspects: overall health, physical health, mental health, and health effects on…

  19. Adolescent childbearing. Whose problem? What can we do?

    PubMed

    Scott-jones, D

    1993-11-01

    There are a number of options that help adolescents make appropriate choices about sexual activity, pregnancy, and childbearing. Comprehensive sex education programs are a deterrent to unwanted pregnancy and early sexual activity. Educational attitudes must be changed to reflect a recognition that sexual behavior is not deviant, but a normal part of human development during the transition to adulthood. Programs to prevent unplanned pregnancies must focus on educational expectations, educational achievement, and career preparation. Provision of child care options will help adolescents stay in school. Program focus must be applicable to two groups: older and younger adolescents. Solutions offered by Claire Brindis, based on program evaluations, suggest broad guidelines and local community-specific prevention plans. The responsible expression of sexuality needs greater emphasis than has occurred in many programs, particularly those where sex education is controversial or is confined to a small amount of time. Schools have been the most responsible vehicle for provision of sex education. In addition to sexuality education and pregnancy prevention programs, programs which instill a desire for greater formal education have resulted in delayed sexual activity and childbearing. Schools can play an important role in socializing adolescents for the appropriate transition to adulthood. Schools have become less and less meaningful to adolescents. German apprenticeship programs have been successful in orienting students to jobs in real settings. The Public Service Academy in Washington, D.C., has provided similar opportunities for part-time work or internships in government. Abortion among adolescents is still a politically charged issue in the US. Many have recommended the Maryland example of designating the physician or mental health provider, instead of a judge, as the individual responsible for determining the maturity and best interests of the child in choosing abortion

  20. Consumerism: its impact on the health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Austin, S B; Rich, M

    2001-10-01

    Marketplace practices are integral to the larger economic and social context of adolescent health risk behaviors. To corporations and marketers, adolescents represent a gold mine of current and future profits. Adolescent incomes increased by almost a third in the 1990s. The annual spending of the U.S. adolescent population is estimated now to have reached 155 billion US dollars. The sheer size of the adolescent population and its spending power are of keen interest to corporations and marketers. This chapter presents a brief history of youth-targeted marketing and examines the major avenues in the media and inside schools that marketers and corporations use today to reach adolescents with their messages and products. It outlines the impact of consumerism and marketing on adolescent health using five case examples: tobacco, alcohol, cosmetic surgery, laxatives, and diet pills. It then concludes with a discussion of resistance efforts, led by health advocates, policy makers, parents, and youth themselves to restrict sales of harmful products to youth and curtail advertisers' access to adolescents in schools. A critical role for adolescent health researchers and advocates is to contribute a public health perspective into ongoing debates over regulating business practices that negatively affect the health of young people.

  1. Beyond Self-Rated Health: The Adolescent Girl's Lived Experience of Health in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…

  2. Activity Spaces and Urban Adolescent Substance Use and Emotional Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Korpela, Kalevi

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed routine locations (activity spaces) of urban adolescents enrolled in a substance abuse treatment program to understand the relationship between their spatial lives and health outcomes such as substance use and mental health. Sixty-eight adolescents were interviewed and produced a list of 199 locations identified as most…

  3. Health Concerns Associated with Adolescent Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Cathie

    Just as infants and the elderly have special health care needs based on their stages in the life cycle, adolescents also have particular health needs. While some of those needs are simply a result of the bodily changes that define adolescence, others are true medical conditions which are most commonly found in this age group. Among achievements…

  4. [Child and adolescent workers: a commitment for collective health

    PubMed

    Minayo-Gomez; Meirelles

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents some issues pertaining to child and adolescent labor and their impact on health, pointing out the main structural characteristics which are responsible for and socially justify the early incorporation of this segment into the labor market. In Brazil, legislation governing adolescent labor is frequently ignored, showing the need to implement health surveillance programs involving both public institutions and civil rights movements.

  5. Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

    A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

  6. Informed-Consent Issues with Adolescent Health Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, R. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify the informed-consent issues when conducting adolescent health behavior research. Methods: A literature review was conducted across diverse academic fields about the informed-consent issues that were relevant to adolescent health behavior research. Results: Issues included defining consent, assent and permission, minimal…

  7. Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…

  8. Adolescence as a gateway to adult health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence has long been regarded as a transition from childhood to adulthood. More recently it is become a concern of those wishing to avoid adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. Most of this effort has been focused on behavioural risk factors such as tobacco and excessive alcohol use, physical exercise habits, dietary habits, as well as sexual and injury-related behaviours. The concern is that these habits are established during adolescence, continue into adulthood, and come to constitute ongoing risk factors for adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. There is good reason to criticize this approach. These behaviours are themselves shaped by adolescents' living and working conditions and even then constitute a small proportion of the variance predicting adverse health outcomes during adulthood. More complex models of how adolescence serves as a gateway to adult health outcomes are presented. These are the socio-environmental, public policy, and political economy approaches. The argument is made that adolescence is a period during which public policy plays an especially important role in predicting future health outcomes. Yet, these public policies influence health all across the life span with adolescence providing only one of many important periods during which public policy shapes health prospects during middle and later adulthood. Ultimately one should consider a range of approaches ranging from the behavioural to the political to examine how adolescence serves as a gateway towards future adult prospects. An Adolescent Gateway Towards Adult Health Model is provided to assist in this process.

  9. Social Integration and the Mental Health of Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim's social integration theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative…

  10. The Core Competencies for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfers, John; Carlton, Lidia; Gibson, Paul; Puffer, Maryjane; Smith, Sharla; Todd, Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group commissioned the development of core competencies that define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for all providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This article describes the background and rationale for this set of competencies, the history and use of competencies, and the process…

  11. Trajectories of Problem Behavior among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2014-01-01

    Engagement in problem behaviors during adolescence has important implications for academic achievement and psychosocial well-being. The current study examined engagement in problem behavior across the transition from pregnancy to parenthood among a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (ages 15-18 years; Mage = 16.8 at Time 1) to better understand the behaviors in which this sample engaged and how engagement changed over this period of transition. Descriptively, this sample engaged in relatively low levels of problem behaviors. Frequently endorsed problem behaviors included missing school or work without an excuse, lying or disobeying parents, and engagement in dangerous behaviors for a thrill; notably, substance use was not a frequently endorsed behavior until the final waves of the study, when most of the mothers were of legal age for these behaviors. Further, latent growth curve modeling revealed a non-linear pattern of change in problem behaviors, such that engagement decreased substantially from the third trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum, but then leveled off between 36 and 48 months postpartum. Findings suggest a need for future research to better understand how engagement in problem behaviors changes pre- to post-pregnancy, and how to best support the decrease in problem behaviors once a pregnancy has been detected. PMID:25893152

  12. Modeling problem behaviors in a nationally representative sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kate L; Dolphin, Louise; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dooley, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Research on multiple problem behaviors has focused on the concept of Problem Behavior Syndrome (PBS). Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) is a complex and comprehensive social-psychological framework designed to explain the development of a range of problem behaviors. This study examines the structure of PBS and the applicability of PBT in adolescents. Participants were 6062 adolescents; aged 12-19 (51.3% female) who took part in the My World Survey-Second Level (MWS-SL). Regarding PBS, Confirmatory Factor Analysis established that problem behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use loaded significantly onto a single, latent construct for males and females. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the PBT framework was found to be a good fit for males and females. Socio-demographic, perceived environment system and personality accounted for over 40% of the variance in problem behaviors for males and females. Our findings have important implications for understanding how differences in engaging in problem behaviors vary by gender. PMID:27161989

  13. The Perceptions of Adolescents, Parents and Teachers on the Same Adolescent Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Joy; Salili, Farideh; Ho, S. Y.; Mak, K. H.; Lai, M. K.; Lam, T. H.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and compare the views of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents, parents and teachers on the same adolescent health issues. A total of 22 focus groups were conducted with Form 1 students (aged from 11 to 13) who attended the Basic Life Skills Training program organized by the Student Health Service, Department of Health…

  14. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  15. Adolescent health issues: what is our role?

    PubMed

    Elders, M J

    1991-05-01

    The state of US children's health and recommendations for improvement are reported. The 1st table identifies youth as risk, i.e., at the current rate, 1 in 10 women will give birth by the time they turn 18. Among black children, white children 1-4 years, and blacks 15-24 years, death rates actually increased from 1985 to 1987. Injuries, particularly due to violence, have replaced communicable diseases as the primary cause of death among adolescents. Since 1976, immunization has deteriorated. There is a refusal to recognize sexually active adolescents, in spite of 2.5 million cases of sexually transmitted disease. The 6 strategies discussed intervention begin with providing high quality preschool education programs for all children. The 2nd urges educational programs from kindergarten through 12th grade that help children make healthy choices, improve their self-esteem, and accept as much responsibility for their own lives as possible. Parenting education, as the 3rd strategy, promotes the education and support of parents, especially for young and poor parents. The 4th strategy involves male responsibility and instruction on obligations in pregnancy and parenthood, including a requirement of financial commitment from fathers and identification of the father by Social Security number on an infant's birth certificate. The 5th strategy is the provision for school-based health services, including family life counseling and contraceptive services for adolescents. The 6th strategy is to provide free college tuition and books at a state supported school for students with at least a B average, good citizenship record, and a family income of $20,000. It is cheaper to offer children opportunity than to pay the costs of the consequences of poverty.

  16. Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Consent to Psychiatric Mental Health Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, Anthony James; Kjervik, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a small-scale study in which the decision-making process of adolescents who consent to psychiatric mental health treatment was examined. Sixteen (16) adolescents were interviewed about their decisions related to initial and continued treatment, along with their understanding of minor consent laws. Interviews were audio-recorded, and transcripts were analyzed through concept analysis. Findings are presented in the context of the decision-making steps and research questions. Most adolescents did not recognize consequences related to psychiatric mental health treatment and did not assimilate and integrate information provided to them about treatment choices. Adolescents disagreed with current minor consent laws that allow minors to consent to certain healthcare treatments without the required consent of the parent. Further, adolescents reported that a collaborative approach in making decisions about the adolescent's psychiatric mental health treatment was most facilitative of achieving the goals of treatment. PMID:22474581

  17. Inflammatory bowel disease in adolescents: What problems does it pose?

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ying; Markowitz, James

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease face daily and long-term challenges that may be difficult for teenagers to manage. The developmental and psychosocial changes unique to this age group include becoming more autonomous and being more vulnerable to peer influence. These changes may lead to problems in medical management such as poor medication adherence and risky behavior. Being aware of these issues will help the medical team provide anticipatory guidance to address these concerns. PMID:21734775

  18. The health of Swiss adolescents and its implications for training of health professionals in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Meynard, Anne; Rutishauser, Christoph; Thomi, Mirjam; Stronski Huwiler, Suzanne M

    2016-08-01

    Swiss adolescents generally enjoy satisfying life conditions. Nonetheless, violence, suicide and mental health are the main concerns together with injuries, chronic conditions and eating disorders. Adolescents still face barriers to access the care they need. Adequate training can improve practitioners' skills when dealing with adolescents. The last two decades have seen the development of innovative adolescent health units and networks in various regions of Switzerland as well as research and public health programmes. Training programmes in adolescent health (continuous medical education, post-graduate or pre-graduate) for physicians and nurses are developing but still patchy in Switzerland. Adolescent health is not a sub-specialty as such. Efforts have to be made in order to link with professional associations and institutions to implement adolescent health curricula more efficiently. PMID:26124048

  19. Understanding the Behavioral Determinants of Mental Health Service Use by Urban, Under-Resourced Black Youth: Adolescent and Caregiver Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Michael A; Chambers, Kerri; Pohle, Cara; Beall, Peggy; Lucksted, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Black adolescents with mental health problems are less likely than non-Black adolescents with mental health problems to receive treatment, primarily for non-financial reasons including negative perceptions of services and providers, and self-stigma associated with experiencing mental health problems. To better understand these obstacles, 16 adolescents and 11 caregivers, recruited from two K-8th grade elementary-middle schools, participated in four focus groups guided by the unified theory of behavior to explore mental health help-seeking behaviors and perceptions of mental health services. In the focus groups, caregivers acknowledged more positive attitudes about seeking mental health services than adolescents, but both expected the experience of actually doing so to be negative. Adolescents and caregivers also acknowledged social norms that inhibit their mental health help-seeking. Therefore, we conclude that interventions targeting expectancies and social norms might increase the connection of urban, under-resourced Black adolescents and their families to mental health services, and be particularly important given the long-term consequences of untreated mental health problems for this group. PMID:23355768

  20. Promoting the Health of Adolescents: New Directions for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstein, Susan G., Ed.; And Others

    The three parts of this book, "The Adolescent, Health, and Society,""Topical Areas for Promoting Health," and "The Future of Adolescent Health Promotion: Next Steps," offer a new framework for examining the status of adolescent health in the United States. Contributing authors have provided the following chapters: (1) "Adolescent Health Promotion:…

  1. Misdiagnosing the Problem: Mental Health Profiles of Incarcerated Juveniles

    PubMed Central

    Odgers, Candice L.; Burnette, Mandi L.; Chauhan, Preeti; Moretti, Marlene M.; Reppucci, N. Dickon

    2005-01-01

    Aggression, antisocial and delinquent behavior frequently result in the incarceration of a large number of young people, but these problems pale in comparison to the mental health challenges faced by many of these youth. Recent studies show a high prevalence of mental disorders among adolescents within the justice system. These findings have led researchers, clinicians and policy-makers to re-evaluate the assessment and treatment options that are available for youth within correctional facilities. This article provides a concise review of the most recent research related to mental health disorders among incarcerated juveniles within Canada and the United States. Rates of some of the most common mental health disorders among juveniles, including depression, anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity and substance use are summarized. Throughout the review, issues related to co-morbidity and gender differences are highlighted. The implications of mental health disorders for juvenile justice policy and practice are discussed. PMID:19030498

  2. [Induced abortion: a vulnerable public health problem].

    PubMed

    Requena, M

    1991-03-01

    Induced abortion is an urgent public health problem that can be controlled if it is approached in its true complexity and with a social and humanist perspective. Induced abortion has been discussed in Chile since the last century, but not always openly. Abortion is not just an individual and collective medical problem, it is also an ethical, religious, legal, demographic, political, and psychological problem. Above all it is a problem of human rights. In the past 60 years, more than 50 countries representing 76% of the world population have liberalized their abortion legislation. Around 980 million women have some degrees of access of legal abortion. The magnitude of illegal abortion is difficult to determine because of the desire of women to hide their experiences. Estimates of the incidence of abortion in Chile made some 25 years ago are no longer valid because of the numerous social changes in the intervening years. The number of abortions in Chile in 1987 was estimated using an indirect residual method at 195,441, of which 90%, or 175,897, were induced. By this estimate, 38.8% of pregnancies in Chile end in abortion. Data on hospitalizations for complications of induced abortion show an increase from 13.9/1000 fertile aged women in 1940 to 29.1 in 1965. By 1987, with increased contraceptive usage, the rate declined to 10.5 abortions per 1000 fertile aged women. The cost of hospitalization for abortion complications in 1987, despite the decline, was still estimated at US $4.3 million, a large sum in an era of declining health resources. The problem of induced abortion can be analyzed by placing it in the context of elements affecting the desire to control fertility. 4 complexes of variables are involved: those affecting the supply of contraceptive, the demand for contraceptives, the various costs of fertility control measure, and alternatives to fertility control for satisfying various needs. The analysis is further complicated when efforts are made to

  3. Problem Behavior and Heart Rate Reactivity in Adopted Adolescents: Longitudinal and Concurrent Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimmel, Nicole; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; De Geus, Eco J. C.

    2008-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined resting heart rate and heart rate variability and reactivity to a stressful gambling task in adopted adolescents with aggressive, delinquent, or internalizing behavior problems and adopted adolescents without behavior problems (total N=151). Early-onset delinquent adolescents showed heart rate…

  4. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bares, Cristina B.; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research in the United States has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problem behaviors negatively influence adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in other countries. This study contributes to our…

  5. Clinician-rated mental health in outpatient child and adolescent mental health services: associations with parent, teacher and adolescent ratings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinician-rated measures are used extensively in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) is a short clinician-rated measure developed for ordinary clinical practice, with increasing use internationally. Several studies have investigated its psychometric properties, but there are few data on its correspondence with other methods, rated by other informants. We compared the HoNOSCA with the well-established Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) questionnaires: the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Teacher's Report Form (TRF), and the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Methods Data on 153 patients aged 6-17 years at seven outpatient CAMHS clinics in Norway were analysed. Clinicians completed the HoNOSCA, whereas parents, teachers, and adolescents filled in the ASEBA forms. HoNOSCA total score and nine of its scales were compared with similar ASEBA scales. With a multiple regression model, we investigated how the ASEBA ratings predicted the clinician-rated HoNOSCA and whether the different informants' scores made any unique contribution to the prediction of the HoNOSCA scales. Results We found moderate correlations between the total problems rated by the clinicians (HoNOSCA) and by the other informants (ASEBA) and good correspondence between eight of the nine HoNOSCA scales and the similar ASEBA scales. The exception was HoNOSCA scale 8 psychosomatic symptoms compared with the ASEBA somatic problems scale. In the regression analyses, the CBCL and TRF total problems scores together explained 27% of the variance in the HoNOSCA total scores (23% for the age group 11-17 years, also including the YSR). The CBCL provided unique information for the prediction of the HoNOSCA total score, HoNOSCA scale 1 aggressive behaviour, HoNOSCA scale 2 overactivity or attention problems, HoNOSCA scale 9 emotional symptoms, and HoNOSCA scale 10 peer problems; the TRF for all

  6. Adolescent Health Literacy: The Importance of Credible Sources for Online Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaddar, Suad F.; Valerio, Melissa A.; Garcia, Carolyn M.; Hansen, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little research has examined adolescent health literacy and its relationship with online health information sources. The purpose of this study is to explore health literacy among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent population and to investigate whether exposure to a credible source of online health information, MedlinePlus[R], is…

  7. Clustering of health-related behaviors, health outcomes and demographics in Dutch adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these behavioral patterns to health-related outcomes. This paper presents an analysis of the clustering of a broad range of health-related behaviors with relevant demographic factors and several health-related outcomes in adolescents. Methods Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 2,690 Dutch high school adolescents. Behavioral patterns were deducted via Principal Components Analysis. Subsequently a Two-Step Cluster Analysis was used to identify groups of adolescents with similar behavioral patterns and health-related outcomes. Results Four distinct behavioral patterns describe the analyzed individual behaviors: 1- risk-prone behavior, 2- bully behavior, 3- problematic screen time use, and 4- sedentary behavior. Subsequent cluster analysis identified four clusters of adolescents. Multi-problem behavior was associated with problematic physical and psychosocial health outcomes, as opposed to those exerting relatively few unhealthy behaviors. These associations were relatively independent of demographics such as ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status. Conclusions The results show that health-related behaviors tend to cluster, indicating that specific behavioral patterns underlie individual health behaviors. In addition, specific patterns of health-related behaviors were associated with specific health outcomes and demographic factors. In general, unhealthy behavior on account of multiple health-related behaviors was associated with both poor psychosocial

  8. Using a Framework to Explore Associations between Parental Substance Use and the Health Outcomes of Their Adolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Shelley A.

    2011-01-01

    Risk-taking behavior plays a significant role in the lives of adolescents. Adolescents engaging in risk behaviors such as substance use and risky sexual activity are at increased risk for contracting STDs, unplanned pregnancy, and other health problems. Consequently, children of substance abusers are at even greater risk for engaging in…

  9. The mental health of asylum-seeking and refugee children and adolescents attending a clinic in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Elizabeth Batista Pinto; Burhorst, Ingrid

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of asylum-seeking and refugee children and adolescents referred to a child and adolescent psychiatry service in the Netherlands. Children with families and unaccompanied minors were compared. Unaccompanied minors had significantly higher frequencies of symptoms and psychiatric disorders than the children with families, both considered a high-risk population for mental health problems. PMID:18089641

  10. Brief report: Association between psychological sense of school membership and mental health among early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gaete, Jorge; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Olivares, Esterbina; Araya, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    Mental health problems among adolescents are prevalent and are associated with important difficulties for a normal development during this period and later in life. Understanding better the risk factors associated with mental health problems may help to design and implement more effective preventive interventions. Several personal and family risk factors have been identified in their relationship to mental health; however, much less is known about the influence of school-related factors. One of these school factors is school belonging or the psychological sense of school membership. This is a well-known protective factor to develop good academic commitment, but it has been scarcely studied in its relationship to mental health. We explored this association in a sample of early adolescents and found that students who reported having a high level of school membership had lower mental health problems, even after controlling for several personal and family factors. PMID:27149432

  11. Transitioning adolescents and young adults with a chronic health condition to adult healthcare - an exemplar program.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann Rauen, Karen; Sawin, Kathleen J; Bartelt, Tera; Waring, William P; Orr, Merle; Corey O'Connor, R

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric specialists have successfully improved the longevity and quality of life of many children with chronic health conditions. As these children reach adolescence and young adulthood, the scope of their concomitant medical problems often include those typically seen in older patients. As a result, these individuals need continuing quality health care in focused adult healthcare facilities. This article describes the effective partnership between pediatric and adult healthcare providers to create and implement an exemplar Spina Bifida Transition Program. The processes, strategies and tools discussed are likely to be useful to other healthcare professionals interested in developing pediatric to adult transition programs for adolescents and young adults with chronic health conditions.

  12. Energy drinks: a new health hazard for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Nicole; Johnson, Molly; Delaney, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Mary Beth

    2010-10-01

    A new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. Specific effects that have been reported by adolescents include jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, gastrointestinal upset, and insomnia. Health care providers report that they have seen the following effects from the consumption of energy drinks: dehydration, accelerated heart rates, anxiety, seizures, acute mania, and strokes. This article is a comprehensive literature review on the health effects of energy drinks. Findings from this article indicate the need for educational intervention to inform adolescents of the consequences of consuming these popular drinks. School nurses are in a unique position to teach adolescents about the side effects and possible health issues that can occur when energy drinks are consumed.

  13. How to Improve the Health of American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2015-11-01

    The major threats to the health of American teenagers are behavioral-risky and reckless things adolescents do that threaten their well-being and that of others. The primary approach to preventing adolescent risk taking has been classroom-based health education. Yet, most systematic research indicates that even the best programs are successful mainly at changing adolescents' knowledge but not in altering their behavior. Research on adolescent brain development has revolutionized our understanding of this stage of life, but our approach to deterring adolescent risk taking remains grounded in old, antiquated, and erroneous views of the period. Classroom-based health education is an uphill battle against evolution and endocrinology, and it is not a fight we are likely to win. Instead of trying to change teenagers into something they are not, we should try to reduce the risks they are exposed to. We should spend less money and effort trying to influence how adolescents think, and focus more on limiting opportunities for their inherently immature judgment to hurt themselves or others. Although there is evidence that some programs aimed at strengthening adolescents' self-regulation may also deter risky behavior, our public health policies should emphasize changing the context in which adolescents live, rather than solely attempting to change adolescents themselves.

  14. How to Improve the Health of American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2015-11-01

    The major threats to the health of American teenagers are behavioral-risky and reckless things adolescents do that threaten their well-being and that of others. The primary approach to preventing adolescent risk taking has been classroom-based health education. Yet, most systematic research indicates that even the best programs are successful mainly at changing adolescents' knowledge but not in altering their behavior. Research on adolescent brain development has revolutionized our understanding of this stage of life, but our approach to deterring adolescent risk taking remains grounded in old, antiquated, and erroneous views of the period. Classroom-based health education is an uphill battle against evolution and endocrinology, and it is not a fight we are likely to win. Instead of trying to change teenagers into something they are not, we should try to reduce the risks they are exposed to. We should spend less money and effort trying to influence how adolescents think, and focus more on limiting opportunities for their inherently immature judgment to hurt themselves or others. Although there is evidence that some programs aimed at strengthening adolescents' self-regulation may also deter risky behavior, our public health policies should emphasize changing the context in which adolescents live, rather than solely attempting to change adolescents themselves. PMID:26581723

  15. Reproductive health disparities: a focus on family planning and prevention among minority women and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Haider, Sadia; Stoffel, Cynthia; Donenberg, Geri; Geller, Stacie

    2013-09-01

    Minority women and adolescent females of all races and ethnicities are disproportionately affected by unintended pregnancy in the United States. Adolescents also experience an additional proportion of the burden compared to other age groups, as 82% of pregnancies among women 19 years old and younger are unintended. Moreover, minority and adolescent mothers are at increased risk for having preterm deliveries, low birth weight infants, and other complications. Unintended pregnancy continues to be an important public health problem in the United States, and prevention through family planning is urgently needed. This review presents an overview of the US demographics for unintended pregnancy among both minority and adolescent women and identifies current and past eüorts to reduce unintended pregnancy, specifically among minority and adolescent females, through contraception and family-planning programs.

  16. Stress, active coping, and problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Zimmerman, Marc A; Xue, Yange; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Wang, Zhenhong; Hou, Yubo

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects. PMID:24999522

  17. [Adolescence and mental health: a review of the Brazilian literature].

    PubMed

    Benetti, Sílvia Pereira da Cruz; Ramires, Vera Regina Röhnelt; Schneider, Ana Cláudia; Rodrigues, Ana Paula Guzinski; Tremarin, Daniela

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this work was to review the Brazilian scientific literature from 1995 to 2005 on mental health in adolescence, considering the priorities identified by the World Health Organization (depression, anxiety, substance abuse, behavioral disorders, eating disorders, psychosis, child abuse, and violence). 971 abstracts were identified in the LILACS, MEDLINE, INDEXPsi, and SciELO databases, using descriptors associated with the themes. After selection according to specified criteria, 267 abstracts were analyzed by year, focus, methodological design, and principal conclusions. A qualitative analysis was performed on the main findings. Brazilian publications in this area have increased in the last five years. The majority of the articles aimed to identify the problem, while a smaller proportion dealt with the development of intervention and prevention strategies.

  18. [Adolescents and new technologies: Behaviours pointing a possible addiction problem].

    PubMed

    Labrador Encinas, Francisco Javier; Villadangos González, Silvia María

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate adolescents' subjective risk perception derived from the use of the New Technologies (NT), and to identify behaviours or warning symptoms of possible addiction problems. A sample of 1,710 underage students of Madrid responded to the DENA questionnaire. Firstly, we found a positive correlation between the time of NT use and the perception of addiction problems. Also, age was positively correlated to these perception problems. Secondly, the results indicated that television is the technology that generates a major perception problem in underage students. Lastly, the NTs have produced behaviours that are similar to those produced by other established addictions. Among them are notable the relaxation caused by their use or discomfort if they cannot be used. In addition, the frequent presence of other behaviours exclusive to these instruments has been identified, such as constantly checking one's mobile phone screen. It is necessary to continue studying possible addictive behaviours specific to the NT. PMID:20423619

  19. Focusing on reproductive health for adolescents.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    JOICFP is producing a still photo video consisting of three segments from photos shot in Bangladesh (April 22 - May 2), Thailand (May 2-15), and Mexico (June 29 - July 7) in 1995. The first segment highlights the daily life of a husband, aged 20, and his wife, Moni, aged 14. Moni married at age 13, before the onset of menstruation, and now serves and feeds her husband's large extended family. The Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), the local implementing agent of the Sustainable Community-based Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project with Special Focus on Women, which is supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and executed by JOICFP, introduced Moni to the concept of reproductive health and encouraged her to join other women in activities designed to improve their health and raise their economic status. The second segment depicts the life of a former commercial sex worker who is undergoing occupational skill development training promoted by the Population and Community Development Association. The girl is now a leader of teenagers in her village; she works to change attitudes that sent her to work as a prostitute with an estimated 150,000 other poor rural teenage women. The third segment focuses on teen pregnancy and the efforts of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) in the areas of health care and education for adolescents.

  20. Focusing on reproductive health for adolescents.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    JOICFP is producing a still photo video consisting of three segments from photos shot in Bangladesh (April 22 - May 2), Thailand (May 2-15), and Mexico (June 29 - July 7) in 1995. The first segment highlights the daily life of a husband, aged 20, and his wife, Moni, aged 14. Moni married at age 13, before the onset of menstruation, and now serves and feeds her husband's large extended family. The Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), the local implementing agent of the Sustainable Community-based Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project with Special Focus on Women, which is supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and executed by JOICFP, introduced Moni to the concept of reproductive health and encouraged her to join other women in activities designed to improve their health and raise their economic status. The second segment depicts the life of a former commercial sex worker who is undergoing occupational skill development training promoted by the Population and Community Development Association. The girl is now a leader of teenagers in her village; she works to change attitudes that sent her to work as a prostitute with an estimated 150,000 other poor rural teenage women. The third segment focuses on teen pregnancy and the efforts of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) in the areas of health care and education for adolescents. PMID:12289887

  1. Adolescent parricide as a clinical and legal problem.

    PubMed

    Malmquist, Carl P

    2010-01-01

    Criminologists contribute to the knowledge regarding the continuing problem of parricide by way of macrostudies, utilizing large samples that reveal patterns of how such acts are carried out, gender differences, and other aspects. Clinicians have the opportunity to pursue microinvestigations into the details of how cognitive processes and emotions operate in the adolescent who engages in such behavior. Such investigations entail pursuing specifics in the psychosocial realm, such as earlier maltreatments and ongoing psychological conflicts, and also being alert to the neurobiological differences between adolescents and adults. The use of battered child syndrome as a legal defense is discussed, with contrasts made between relying on a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) approach and a duress defense, based on explanations related to shame and humiliation.

  2. Mental Health of Australian Deaf Adolescents: An Investigation Using an Auslan Version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornes, Andrew J.; Brown, P. Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated mental health problems in 54 deaf adolescents between 11 and 18 years of age residing in the states of New South Wales and Tasmania in Australia. Mental health problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; Goodman, 1997). The SDQ Self Report was translated into Australian Sign Language…

  3. An unfinished agenda on adolescent health: Opportunities for interventions.

    PubMed

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Wazny, Kerri; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-08-01

    The Millennium Development Goal era has resulted in improvements in maternal and child health worldwide. As more children are surviving past their fifth birthday, the population of adolescents is increasing. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental transition; adolescence sets the stage for adult health through risks taken and beneficial and detrimental habits that are formed and it is thus an optimal time to target health interventions. Beginning interventions in adolescence or even earlier in childhood maximizes the impact on the individual's health in adult life. Evidence suggests that interventions to promote sexual and reproductive health, physical activity and healthy lifestyle, mental health and wellbeing, safe and hazard-free environment, improving access to nutritious and healthy foods, and minimizing exposure to substance abuse can improve health outcomes in young adolescents. School-based delivery strategies appear to be the most highly evaluated for improving adolescent health; they have been used to deliver interventions such as sexual health, substance abuse prevention, and nutritional interventions. Use of social media and information technologies, cash transfers, social protection, and micro-finance initiatives are promising strategies; however, given the lack of rigorous evaluations, there is a need for further research. Additional research is also warranted to strengthen the evidence base by establishing causality, understanding the differential impacts of adolescent health in different contexts particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In addition, research and evaluation in the domain of adolescent health must focus on how to implement interventions effectively at-scale, sustain the impacts over time and ensure equitable outcomes.

  4. An unfinished agenda on adolescent health: Opportunities for interventions.

    PubMed

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Wazny, Kerri; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-08-01

    The Millennium Development Goal era has resulted in improvements in maternal and child health worldwide. As more children are surviving past their fifth birthday, the population of adolescents is increasing. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental transition; adolescence sets the stage for adult health through risks taken and beneficial and detrimental habits that are formed and it is thus an optimal time to target health interventions. Beginning interventions in adolescence or even earlier in childhood maximizes the impact on the individual's health in adult life. Evidence suggests that interventions to promote sexual and reproductive health, physical activity and healthy lifestyle, mental health and wellbeing, safe and hazard-free environment, improving access to nutritious and healthy foods, and minimizing exposure to substance abuse can improve health outcomes in young adolescents. School-based delivery strategies appear to be the most highly evaluated for improving adolescent health; they have been used to deliver interventions such as sexual health, substance abuse prevention, and nutritional interventions. Use of social media and information technologies, cash transfers, social protection, and micro-finance initiatives are promising strategies; however, given the lack of rigorous evaluations, there is a need for further research. Additional research is also warranted to strengthen the evidence base by establishing causality, understanding the differential impacts of adolescent health in different contexts particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In addition, research and evaluation in the domain of adolescent health must focus on how to implement interventions effectively at-scale, sustain the impacts over time and ensure equitable outcomes. PMID:26162972

  5. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  6. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  7. Mental health in adolescence: is America's youth flourishing?

    PubMed

    Keyes, Corey L M

    2006-07-01

    A continuous assessment and a categorical diagnosis of the presence of mental health, described as flourishing, and the absence of mental health, characterized as languishing, are proposed and applied to data from the second wave of the Child Development Supplement (CDS-II) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), in which a comprehensive set of subjective well-being items were administered to a sample of 1,234 youth ages 12-18. Flourishing was the most prevalent diagnosis among youth ages 12-14; moderate mental health was the most prevalent diagnosis among youth ages 15-18. Depressive symptoms decreased as mental health increased. Prevalence of conduct problems (arrested, skipped school, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use) also decreased and measures of psychosocial functioning (global self-concept, self-determination, closeness to others, and school integration) increased as mental health increased. Findings suggest the importance of positive mental health in future research on adolescent development. PMID:16981819

  8. Child and adolescent mental health emergency services in Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Releva, M; Boskovska, M; Apceva, A; Polazarevska, M; Novotni, A; Bonevski, D; Sargent, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of child and adolescent mental health emergency services in Macedonia since 1993. The evolution of services through the Mental Crisis Centre for Children and Adolescents, funded by the Open Society Institute, and located in six cities is outlined. The paper also defines traditional services, the nature of child mental health emergencies, the evaluation process, follow-up care and training and supervision. It concludes with concern that the mental health emergency system is not sufficient to meet the needs of the child and adolescent population, particularly in the face of the Kosovar refugee crisis. Recommendations for the future are made. PMID:11508566

  9. The Education of Eros: A History of Education and the Problem of Adolescent Sexuality. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dennis L.

    2012-01-01

    "The Education of Eros: is the first and only comprehensive history of sexuality education and the "problem" of adolescent sexuality from the mid-20th century to the beginning of the 21st. It explores how professional health educators, policy makers, and social and religious conservatives differed in their approaches, and battled over what gets…

  10. Influence of Perceived Parental Rearing on Adolescent Self-Concept and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishikawa, Saori; Sundbom, Elisabet; Hagglof, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    We examined the associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment style, self-concept, and mental health problems among Japanese adolescents. About 193 high school students (143 boys and 50 girls, mean = 16.4) completed a set of self-report questionnaires including EMBU-C (My Memories of Child Upbringing for Children), AQC (Attachment…

  11. The health problem of arachnidism

    PubMed Central

    Maretić, Z.; Stanić, M.

    1954-01-01

    The authors give data on arachnidism (the systemic poisoning caused by the bite of the spider Latrodectus) in general, on its distribution in the world and in Yugoslavia in particular, on the Latrodectus spider, and on the characteristic clinical syndrome of arachnidism. The bite of the Latrodectus causes great pain, disables the bitten person for a certain time, and may even cause death in a few instances. The results of the authors' own observations in the clinic and on experimental animals are given. Of all forms of therapy tried by them, the simultaneous application of calcium, antivenom, and sometimes procaine infiltration for the relief of local pains gave the best results. In view of the apparently increasing importance of arachnidism, the authors recommend the international exchange of experience on the problem. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:14364184

  12. Mental Health Stigma among Adolescents: Implications for School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranke, Derrick; Floersch, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents with a mental health diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to…

  13. Peer Approach in Adolescent Reproductive Health Education: Some Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This package is one of a series of repackaged products aimed at alerting UNESCO users to a wealth of highly valuable educational resources that exist in the field of adolescent reproductive and sexual health. This document focuses on what research says is the impact of peer education in promoting necessary changes among adolescents in attitudes…

  14. The Two Faces of Narcissism and Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Varshney, Nicole M.; Arens, Daniel; Lapsley, Daniel K.

    This paper describes a study that examined the relationship between two forms of adolescent narcissism and indicators of self-worth (positive adjustment and psychopathology) in a sample of 561 adolescents. School structure, academic performance, and school participation were also examined and mental health functioning was assessed by measures of…

  15. Adolescents' Experience with Workplace Aggression: School Health Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn R.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Beery, Theresa A.; Gates, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future…

  16. Tobacco Use. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2012-33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte; Terzian, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has steadily declined among adolescents during the last fifteen years, although use of some tobacco products, like cigars, has seen recent increases. However, large numbers of teens continue to use tobacco products. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents key research findings; describes prevalence and trends; illustrates…

  17. Child and Adolescent Mental Health: Building a System of Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Barbara G.; Collins, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines unnecessary hospitalization and inadequacy of community services for children and adolescents with serious emotional or behavioral disorders. Discusses barriers that impede improved mental health services systems for children and their families and presents Child and Adolescent Service System Program "system of care" model as alternative.…

  18. Resiliency-Based Research and Adolescent Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rink, Elizabeth; Tricker, Ray

    2003-01-01

    Over the past fifty years, research on adolescents' behavior has focused primarily on risk factors. The study of resiliency and what buffers adolescents from engaging in harmful health behaviors has received much less attention. This risk-focused approach has included examining what is lacking in a youth's life that may contribute to that youth's…

  19. Infertility Patients' Mental Health Problems Often Unaddressed

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160382.html Infertility Patients' Mental Health Problems Often Unaddressed 'We're ... California, San Francisco. Many studies have found that infertility patients often feel distressed. And, Pasch said, professional ...

  20. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention…

  1. School-Based Health Clinics: An Emerging Approach to Improving Adolescent Health and Addressing Teenage Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Douglas

    This report discusses the ongoing movement to provide health care and health information to adolescents through school-based clinics and other programs. The report begins with an overview of programs, focusing on: the unique health needs of adolescents; the growth in the number of school-based clinics; goals and objectives of the special programs;…

  2. Influence of Mental Health and Substance Use Problems and Criminogenic Risk on Outcomes in Serious Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Carol A.; Mulvey, Edward P.; Glasheen, Cristie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relations among certain mental health problems (MHPs; affective, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], and substance use disorders), criminogenic risk, and outcomes in a sample of serious adolescent offenders. Method: Using data from a longitudinal study of serious adolescent offenders (N = 949;…

  3. Psychometrics of the Laffrey Health Conception Scale for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yarcheski, Adela; Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this methodological study were to factor analyze the Laffrey Health Conception Scale (LHCS) and to assess construct validity of the instrument with early adolescents. The final sample consisted of 230 early adolescents, aged 12 to 14, who responded to instrument packets in classrooms in an urban middle school. Data obtained on the LHCS were subjected to principal components factor analysis with oblique rotation. A two-factor solution was accepted, which is consistent with early adolescents' conceptions of health. Factor I was labeled Wellness and Factor II was labeled Clinical Health. A higher order factor analysis yielded one factor with 26 items, labeled the LHCS for Early Adolescents. The 26-item LHCS had a coefficient alpha of .95. Construct validity was assessed by testing three theoretical propositions, which significantly linked health conception to social support, self-esteem, and positive health practices. The findings indicate that the LHCS is a reliable and valid measure of health conceptions in early adolescents. Results also offer flexibility to researchers interested in testing theory involving the constructs of the definition of health, wellness, and clinical health in early adolescents.

  4. Physical activity, emotional and behavioural problems, maternal education and self-reported educational performance of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, M T; Tammelin, T H; Demakakos, P; Ebeling, H E; Taanila, A M

    2010-04-01

    This study examined whether physical activity, mental health and socio-economic position were associated with the overall academic performance and future educational plans of adolescents aged 15-16 years. We used a sample of 7002 boys and girls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Data were collected by a postal enquiry in 2001-02. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated and adjusted for family structure and all variables in the models. In the fully adjusted models, higher levels of physical activity and high parental socio-economic position were associated with higher overall academic performance and future plans for higher education. High scoring on behavioural problems was related to lower overall academic performance and poorer future academic plans. In summary, a higher level of physical activity, fewer behavioural problems and higher socio-economic position were independently associated with high self-perceived overall academic performance and plans for higher education among adolescents. The interrelations of these factors and the positive relationship between physical activity, mental health and school outcomes provide a context of critical importance for future research, intervention programming and policy directed at improving the educational attainment of adolescents. PMID:19762353

  5. Health Needs and Concerns of Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, Winifred J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined male college students' (N=159) concerns in the areas of alcohol and other drug use, automobile safety, weight and dieting, smoking, sexuality, coping and stress, and selection and utilization of health care services. Identified major problems with alcohol use, automobile safety, weight control, stress, and sexuality. Also identified…

  6. Mental Health Characteristics and Health-Seeking Behaviors of Adolescent School-Based Health Center Users and Nonusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Gorette; Geierstanger, Sara; Soleimanpour, Samira; Brindis, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the mental health risk profile and health utilization behaviors of adolescent school-based health center (SBHC) users and nonusers and discuss the role that SBHCs can play in addressing adolescent health needs. Methods: The sample included 4640 students in grades 9 and 11 who completed the…

  7. Adolescent health care maintenance in a teen-friendly clinic.

    PubMed

    Chaisson, Nicole; Shore, William B

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is marked by complex physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development, which can be stressful for families and adolescents. Before the onset of puberty, providers should clearly lay the groundwork for clinical care and office visits during the adolescent years. This article addresses the guidelines and current legal standards for confidentiality in adolescent care, the most frequently used psychosocial screening tools, and current recommendations for preventive health services and immunizations. Through the creation of teen-friendly clinics, primary care providers are well positioned to offer guidance and support to teens and their parents during this time of transition and growth.

  8. Health Care Issues for Children and Adolescents in Foster Care and Kinship Care.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    Children and adolescents who enter foster care often do so with complicated and serious medical, mental health, developmental, oral health, and psychosocial problems rooted in their history of childhood trauma. Ideally, health care for this population is provided in a pediatric medical home by physicians who are familiar with the sequelae of childhood trauma and adversity. As youth with special health care needs, children and adolescents in foster care require more frequent monitoring of their health status, and pediatricians have a critical role in ensuring the well-being of children in out-of-home care through the provision of high-quality pediatric health services, health care coordination, and advocacy on their behalves.

  9. Victimization among Peruvian Adolescents: Insights into Mental/Emotional Health from the Young Lives Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lister, Cameron E.; Merrill, Ray M.; Vance, David L.; West, Joshua H.; Hall, Parley C.; Crookston, Benjamin T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a global problem among children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to explore bully victimization in Peru and to identify potential adverse mental health and social outcomes resulting from bully victimization. Methods: This study analyzed data from an ongoing prospective cohort of children taking part in the…

  10. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo among Young Adolescents with ADHD: Relations to Mental Health, Academic, and Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Stephen P.; Langberg, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the role of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in relation to externalizing and internalizing mental health problems, academic functioning, and social functioning among young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: In all, 57 youth ages 10 to 14 participated in the study. Parents…

  11. Mental Health of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Adolescents: What the Students Say

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, P. Margaret; Cornes, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the mental health problems of 89 deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) adolescents in New South Wales, Tasmania, and Western Australia. Participants completed the written (for oral students) or signed version for competent Australian Sign Language (Auslan) users version of the Youth Self Report (YSR). Students were educated in a…

  12. [Cooperation in health behaviour change programmes. An example of nutrition in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Gromulska, Lucyna; Gajewska, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Article presents issue of cooperation in realization of health behaviour change programmes. An example of eating in adolescents is used as an illustration. Tasks and actions of all contributors are outlined, as well as topic of cooperation among them. Motivation to cooperate and potential problems in cooperation are analyzed. PMID:21735854

  13. Annotation: Economic Evaluations of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Interventions--A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, Renee; Byford, Sarah; Knapp, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Background: Recognition has grown over recent years of the need for economic information on the impacts of child and adolescent mental health problems and the cost-effectiveness of interventions. Methods: A range of electronic databases were examined using a predefined search strategy to identify economic studies which focused on services,…

  14. Romantic partner selection and socialization of young adolescents' substance use and behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Wargo Aikins, Julie; Simon, Valerie A; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2010-12-01

    This study examined romantic partner selection and socialization of substance use (cigarettes, alcohol) and behavior problems among a sample of 78 young adolescents (6th-8th graders) over eleven months. Adolescent and romantic partner behaviors were assessed before and after relationships were initiated via school records and self-report. Most selection and socialization effects were apparent for the eighth grade adolescents (at Time 1). Prior to their relationship, eighth graders and romantic partners were alike on alcohol use. In contrast, romantic socialization effects emerged for eighth graders' cigarette use and behavior problems. The nature of the partner socialization effects depended on the combination of adolescents' and partners' pre-relationship behaviors. Eighth graders who dated partners with fewer problems showed the greatest instability in their behavior problems and partner behavior predicted greater decreased in problem behaviors among adolescents with more problems. The implications of these findings are discussed within the broader context of adolescent peer relationships.

  15. Constructing violence as a public health problem.

    PubMed

    Winett, L B

    1998-01-01

    Once viewed primarily as a criminal justice problem, violence and its prevention are now often claimed by public health professionals as being within their purview. The author reviewed 282 articles published in public health and medical journals from 1985 through 1995 that discussed violence as a public health problem. She found that while authors tended to identify social and structural causes for violence, they suggested interventions that targeted individuals' attitudes or behaviors and improved public health practice. Her study illuminates the tension between public health professionals' vision of the social precursors of violence and their attempts to apply a traditional set of remedies. In targeting individuals to rid the nation of violence, the public health community is deemphasizing societal causes.

  16. Problem-solving for better health.

    PubMed

    Smith, B; Barnett, S; Collado, D; Connor, M; DePasquale, J; Gross, L; McDermott, V; Sykes, A

    1994-01-01

    An outline is given of an approach to the health-for-all goals which involves optimizing resource use, prioritizing people's well-being, achieving excellence and a measurable impact at all levels of care, and solving health problems in a broad developmental context. PMID:8141991

  17. Adolescent sleep misalignment: a chronic jet lag and a matter of public health.

    PubMed

    Touitou, Yvan

    2013-09-01

    Sleep is a key element, both physiologically and psychologically, in adolescent development. The prevalence of sleep disorders in western countries is important, as with age the sleep-wake cycle of adolescents becomes irregular and delayed in relation with later sleep onset and waking time resulting in rhythm desynchronization. A large number of adolescents sleep for 7-8h instead of 9-10h per night, which can lead to a cumulative sleep debt with fatigue, behavioral problems and poor academic achievement. The effect of electronic media use (such as television, mobile phone, computer, and electronic gaming) on sleep has been the object of several international studies, though pubertal changes may also impact adolescent sleep. Adolescents and their parents should be educated by professionals, including physicians and nurses, on the key role of sleep in adolescent well being and quality of life. A number of basic rules are proposed to improve sleep in adolescents. The permanent social jet lag experienced by a number of adolescents should be considered as a matter of public health.

  18. Health Information Seeking Behaviors of Ethnically Diverse Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Okoniewski, Anastasia E.; Lee, Young Ji; Rodriguez, Martha; Schnall, Rebecca; Low, Alexander F. H.

    2013-01-01

    Research on health information has primarily focused on the needs of adults or parents of children with chronic illnesses or consumers. There is limited research on the health information needs of adolescents and in particular those from underserved communities. The primary objective of this qualitative study was to understand the health information needs of healthy, urban adolescents, and how they met those needs. Focus group methodology was used to gather information from a sample of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Data was analyzed using Kriekelas’ Information Seeking Behavior framework to, examine the participants” report of their immediate and deferred health information needs. Our sample of adolescents used several different sources to satisfy their health information needs depending on acuity and severity, which was congruent with Kriekelas’ framework. Understanding how adolescents use technology to meet their health information needs, and in what order of preference, will be critical for the development of technology that adolescents find useful and has the potential to decrease health disparities. PMID:23512322

  19. Developmental and contextual considerations for adrenal and gonadal hormone functioning during adolescence: Implications for adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Ruttle, Paula L; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Essex, Marilyn J; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2015-09-01

    Substantial research has implicated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes independently in adolescent mental health problems, though this literature remains largely inconclusive. Given the cross-talk between the HPA and HPG axes and their increased activation in adolescence, a dual-axis approach that examines both axes simultaneously is proposed to predict the emergence and persistence of adolescent mental health problems. After briefly orienting readers to HPA and HPG axis functioning, we review the literature examining associations between hormone levels and changes with behavior during adolescence. Then, we provide a review of the literature supporting examination of both axes simultaneously and present the limited research that has taken a dual-axis approach. We propose future directions including consideration of between-person and within-person approaches to address questions of correlated changes in HPA and HPG hormones. Potential moderators are considered to increase understanding of the nuanced hormone-behavior associations during key developmental transitions.

  20. Developmental and Contextual Considerations for Adrenal and Gonadal Hormone Functioning During Adolescence: Implications for Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Ruttle, Paula L.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Substantial research has implicated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes independently in adolescent mental health problems, though this literature remains largely inconclusive. Given the cross-talk between the HPA and HPG axes and their increased activation in adolescence, a dual-axis approach that examines both axes simultaneously is proposed to predict the emergence and persistence of adolescent mental health problems. After briefly orienting readers to HPA and HPG axis functioning, we review the literature examining associations between hormone levels and changes with behavior during adolescence. Then, we provide a review of the literature supporting examination of both axes simultaneously and present the limited research that has taken a dual-axis approach. We propose future directions including consideration of between-person and within-person approaches to address questions of correlated changes in HPA and HPG hormones. Potential moderators are considered to increase understanding of the nuanced hormone–behavior associations during key developmental transitions. PMID:24729154

  1. Psychosocial and Health-Related Characteristics of Adolescent Television Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined relationship between television viewing frequency and adolescents' health-related and psychosocial characteristics. Found that shyness and exercise frequency predicted television viewing frequency. Among females, exercise frequency, shyness, loneliness, and perceived attractiveness predicted viewing frequency. Light viewers exercised more…

  2. Effects of Parenting and Deviant Peers on Early to Mid-Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7-9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n = 112 boys; n = 107 girls; n = 7…

  3. Relationships of Social Context and Identity to Problem Behavior among High-Risk Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Mason, Craig A.; Pantin, Hilda; Wang, Wei; Brown, C. Hendricks; Campo, Ana E.; Szapocznik, Jose

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine (a) family and school functioning and (b) personal and ethnic identity are associated with conduct problems, drug use, and sexual risk taking in a sample of 227 high-risk Hispanic adolescents. Adolescents participated in the study with their primary parents, who were mostly mothers. Adolescents completed…

  4. Predicting Early Sexual Activity with Behavior Problems Exhibited at School Entry and in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Hannah-Lise T.; Bierman, Karen L.; Heinrichs, Brenda; Nix, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Youth who initiate sexual intercourse in early adolescence (age 11-14) experience multiple risks, including concurrent adjustment problems and unsafe sexual practices. The current study tested two models describing the links between childhood precursors, early adolescent risk factors, and adolescent sexual activity: a cumulative model and a…

  5. A Test of Problem Behavior and Self-Medication Theories in Incarcerated Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related…

  6. Bone Related Health Status in Adolescent Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Olmedillas, Hugo; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Moreno, Luís A.; Casajús, José A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe bone status and analyse bone mass in adolescent cyclists. Methods Male road cyclists (n = 22) who had been training for a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 7 years with a volume of 10 h/w, were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22) involved in recreational sports activities. Subjects were divided in 2 groups based on age: adolescents under 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 13) and over 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 9). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured on a cycloergometer. Whole body, lumbar spine, and hip bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and bone area were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) were also estimated. Results The BMC of cyclists was lower for the whole body, pelvis, femoral neck and legs; BMD for the pelvis, hip, legs and whole body and legs bone area was lower but higher in the hip area (all, P≤0.05) after adjusting by lean mass and height. The BMC of young cyclists was 10% lower in the leg and 8% higher in the hip area than young controls (P≤0.05). The BMC of cyclists over 17 yrs was 26.5%, 15.8% and 14.4% lower BMC at the pelvis, femoral neck and legs respectively while the BMD was 8.9% to 24.5% lower for the whole body, pelvis, total hip, trochanter, intertrochanter, femoral neck and legs and 17.1% lower the vBMD at the femoral neck (all P≤0.05). Grouped by age interaction was found in both pelvis and hip BMC and BMD and in femoral neck vBMD (all P≤0.05). Conclusion Cycling performed throughout adolescence may negatively affect bone health, then compromising the acquisition of peak bone mass. PMID:21980360

  7. Economic Stress, Psychological Well-Being and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with Economic Disadvantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the association between perceived economic stress and adolescent adjustment in 229 Chinese adolescents using children and parent reports of economic stress. Findings show differences in perceived stress between parents and children. A lower level of perceived economic stress was generally related to better adolescent mental health and…

  8. “I feel free”: Experiences of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems

    PubMed Central

    Duberg, Anna; Möller, Margareta; Sunvisson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13–18 were included in the study. The dance intervention group comprised 59 girls, 24 of whom were strategically chosen to be interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The experiences of the dance intervention resulted in five generic categories: (1) An Oasis from Stress, which represents the fundamental basis of the intervention; (2) Supportive Togetherness, the setting; (3) Enjoyment and Empowerment, the immediate effect; (4) Finding Acceptance and Trust in Own Ability, the outcome; and (5) Dance as Emotional Expression, the use of the intervention. One main category emerged, Finding Embodied Self-Trust That Opens New Doors, which emphasizes the increased trust in the self and the ability to approach life with a sense of freedom and openness. The central understanding of the adolescent girls’ experiences was that the dance intervention enriched and gave access to personal resources. With the non-judgmental atmosphere and supportive togetherness as a safe platform, the enjoyment and empowerment in dancing gave rise to acceptance, trust in ability, and emotional expression. Taken together, this increased self-trust and they discovered a new ability to “claim space.” Findings from this study may provide practical information on designing future interventions for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. PMID:27416014

  9. "I feel free": Experiences of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Duberg, Anna; Möller, Margareta; Sunvisson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13-18 were included in the study. The dance intervention group comprised 59 girls, 24 of whom were strategically chosen to be interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The experiences of the dance intervention resulted in five generic categories: (1) An Oasis from Stress, which represents the fundamental basis of the intervention; (2) Supportive Togetherness, the setting; (3) Enjoyment and Empowerment, the immediate effect; (4) Finding Acceptance and Trust in Own Ability, the outcome; and (5) Dance as Emotional Expression, the use of the intervention. One main category emerged, Finding Embodied Self-Trust That Opens New Doors, which emphasizes the increased trust in the self and the ability to approach life with a sense of freedom and openness. The central understanding of the adolescent girls' experiences was that the dance intervention enriched and gave access to personal resources. With the non-judgmental atmosphere and supportive togetherness as a safe platform, the enjoyment and empowerment in dancing gave rise to acceptance, trust in ability, and emotional expression. Taken together, this increased self-trust and they discovered a new ability to "claim space." Findings from this study may provide practical information on designing future interventions for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. PMID:27416014

  10. Beyond talking groups: strategies for improving adolescent health education.

    PubMed

    Banister, Elizabeth; Begoray, Deborah

    2004-05-01

    In a study that focused on adolescent girls' health issues within their dating relationships, we found that nonstructured focus group conversation can be augmented with structured strategies to generate a nonthreatening environment in which participants are enabled to co-create an understanding of their experiences. The use of free writing, role playing, and body tracing helped raise participants' awareness and understanding of some of their health behaviors. We suggest that these strategies can be used in health care and educational contexts to promote the health of adolescents. By sharing strategies between education and health care professionals, both professions will benefit.

  11. Severe Mood Problems in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Pickles, Andrew; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Severe mood dysregulation and problems (SMP) in otherwise typically developing youth are recognized as an important mental health problem with a distinct set of clinical features, family history and neurocognitive characteristics. SMP in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have not previously been explored. Method: We…

  12. Food Insecurity and Rural Adolescent Personal Health, Home, and Academic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security…

  13. Macroeconomic environment during infancy as a possible risk factor for adolescent behavioral problems.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Balasubramanian, Natarajan; Krishnadas, Rajeev

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Economic difficulties at the individual level can lead to a number of behavioral problems, including substance abuse and delinquent behaviors. OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of a nationwide adverse economic environment during infancy, specifically, the high unemployment rates during and after the 1980 and 1981-1982 recessions, on rates of subsequent adolescent substance use and delinquent behaviors. DESIGN We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and estimated logit regressions to examine the effect of changes in unemployment rates during infancy on the incidence of adolescent behavioral problems, controlling for known youth, family, and environmental risk factors. SETTING Adolescents living in the United States in 1997. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of 8984 adolescents born from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 1984. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Probability of engaging in substance use (marijuana, smoking, alcohol, and hard [ie, illegal] drugs) and delinquent behaviors (arrest, handgun use, gang affiliation, petty and major theft, property destruction, and assaultive behavior). RESULTS Exposure to a 1% deviation from mean regional unemployment rates at the age of 1 year was associated with an increase in the odds ratios of engaging in marijuana use (1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]), smoking (1.07 [1.03-1.11]), alcohol use (1.06 [1.02-1.10]), arrest (1.17 [1.09-1.25]), gang affiliation (1.09 [1.00-1.19]), and petty (1.06 [1.01-1.10]) and major theft (1.11 [1.05-1.18]). No significant associations were noted with use of hard drugs, property destruction, and assaultive behavior. CONCLUSIONS The macroeconomic environment during infancy can have serious long-term effects on substance use and delinquent behavior. These potential long-term effects can play an important role in policy making for adolescent mental health care.

  14. Macroeconomic environment during infancy as a possible risk factor for adolescent behavioral problems.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Balasubramanian, Natarajan; Krishnadas, Rajeev

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Economic difficulties at the individual level can lead to a number of behavioral problems, including substance abuse and delinquent behaviors. OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of a nationwide adverse economic environment during infancy, specifically, the high unemployment rates during and after the 1980 and 1981-1982 recessions, on rates of subsequent adolescent substance use and delinquent behaviors. DESIGN We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and estimated logit regressions to examine the effect of changes in unemployment rates during infancy on the incidence of adolescent behavioral problems, controlling for known youth, family, and environmental risk factors. SETTING Adolescents living in the United States in 1997. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of 8984 adolescents born from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 1984. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Probability of engaging in substance use (marijuana, smoking, alcohol, and hard [ie, illegal] drugs) and delinquent behaviors (arrest, handgun use, gang affiliation, petty and major theft, property destruction, and assaultive behavior). RESULTS Exposure to a 1% deviation from mean regional unemployment rates at the age of 1 year was associated with an increase in the odds ratios of engaging in marijuana use (1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]), smoking (1.07 [1.03-1.11]), alcohol use (1.06 [1.02-1.10]), arrest (1.17 [1.09-1.25]), gang affiliation (1.09 [1.00-1.19]), and petty (1.06 [1.01-1.10]) and major theft (1.11 [1.05-1.18]). No significant associations were noted with use of hard drugs, property destruction, and assaultive behavior. CONCLUSIONS The macroeconomic environment during infancy can have serious long-term effects on substance use and delinquent behavior. These potential long-term effects can play an important role in policy making for adolescent mental health care. PMID:23277351

  15. The health of adolescent women in the 1980s.

    PubMed Central

    Litt, I F

    1988-01-01

    The opportunities and stresses faced by today's adolescent women have the potential to affect their health, either directly or through interaction with biologic and psychosocial events. Recently achieved entry into the world of endurance and competitive sports; smoking, drug, and alcohol use; the toxic shock syndrome; and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome threaten the health of young women today. Physicians who care for adolescent women in the 1980s and in the future will require special skills to do so successfully. Images PMID:3074565

  16. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B.; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research in the U.S. has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problems have a negative influence on adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, although these behaviors appear in other cultures, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in countries other than the U.S.. This study contributes to our understanding of personality and parenting factors associated with adolescent problem behaviors using an international sample. Data are from a NIDA-funded study of 884 community-dwelling adolescents in Santiago, Chile (Mean age=14, SD=1.4, 48% females) of mid-to-low socioeconomic status. Results revealed that rule-breaking and aggressive behaviors were both associated with greater levels of adolescent drive but lower levels of parental monitoring and positive parenting by both parents. Adolescents who reported more attention problems were more likely to exhibit driven behavior, more behavioral inhibition, to report lower levels of parental monitoring, and positive parenting by mother and father. Results of interactions revealed that the influences of positive parenting and parental monitoring on adolescent aggressive behaviors varied as a function of the gender of the adolescent. Helping parents build on their parenting skills may result in important reductions in adolescent problem behaviors among U.S. and international adolescents. PMID:23100999

  17. Discovering Sexual Health Conversations between Adolescents and Youth Development Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Niodita; Chandak, Aastha; Gilson, Glen; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Goldsworthy, Richard; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Fisher, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Youth development professionals (YDPs), working at community-based organizations are in a unique position to interact with the adolescents as they are neither parents/guardians nor teachers. The objectives of this study were to explore qualitatively what sexual health issues adolescents discuss with YDPs and to describe those issues using the framework of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) comprehensive sexuality education guidelines. YDPs reported conversations with adolescents that included topics related to the SIECUS key concepts of human development, relationships, personal skills, sexual behavior, and sexual health. PMID:27081375

  18. Issues in adolescent health: a challenge for nursing.

    PubMed

    Nicol, M J; Nichol, M J; Manoharan, H; Marfell-Jones, M J; Meha-Hoerara, K; Milne, R; O'Connell, M; Olliver, J; Teekman, B

    2002-04-01

    The young people of today are the greatest investment we as adults have in our future. The care and nurturing we afford the adolescent is just as important as that which we afford to children or the elderly. Although most adolescents have a preoccupation with their bodies, they do not always engage in activities that will protect and develop them. Adolescents are often exposed to peer pressure, the effects of which may impact negatively on their behaviour and their health. Many adolescent health and behavioural issues evolve from developmental changes and can manifest in a confrontational attitude toward society, parents and others. They are hormonally 'fully charged', and their adolescent sexuality can have enormous effects on their future physical, psychosocial, moral and sexual development. Nurses have a pivotal role to play in ensuring children and adolescents learn the facts relating to the consequences of engaging in unhealthy behaviour and lifestyle. Nurses must also encourage parents to model and reinforce good health practices, such as serving balanced and nutritious meals at regular times and planning positive family activities. In this paper we review some of the salient issues in adolescent health today.

  19. Issues in adolescent health: a challenge for nursing.

    PubMed

    Nicol, M J; Nichol, M J; Manoharan, H; Marfell-Jones, M J; Meha-Hoerara, K; Milne, R; O'Connell, M; Olliver, J; Teekman, B

    2002-04-01

    The young people of today are the greatest investment we as adults have in our future. The care and nurturing we afford the adolescent is just as important as that which we afford to children or the elderly. Although most adolescents have a preoccupation with their bodies, they do not always engage in activities that will protect and develop them. Adolescents are often exposed to peer pressure, the effects of which may impact negatively on their behaviour and their health. Many adolescent health and behavioural issues evolve from developmental changes and can manifest in a confrontational attitude toward society, parents and others. They are hormonally 'fully charged', and their adolescent sexuality can have enormous effects on their future physical, psychosocial, moral and sexual development. Nurses have a pivotal role to play in ensuring children and adolescents learn the facts relating to the consequences of engaging in unhealthy behaviour and lifestyle. Nurses must also encourage parents to model and reinforce good health practices, such as serving balanced and nutritious meals at regular times and planning positive family activities. In this paper we review some of the salient issues in adolescent health today. PMID:12188150

  20. Some theoretical models and constructs generic to substance abuse prevention programs for adolescents: possible relevance and limitations for problem gambling.

    PubMed

    Evans, Richard I

    2003-01-01

    For the past several years the author and his colleagues have explored the area of how social psychological constructs and theoretical models can be applied to the prevention of health threatening behaviors in adolescents. In examining the need for the development of gambling prevention programs for adolescents, it might be of value to consider the application of such constructs and theoretical models as a foundation to the development of prevention programs in this emerging problem behavior among adolescents. In order to provide perspective to the reader, the present paper reviews the history of various psychosocial models and constructs generic to programs directed at prevention of substance abuse in adolescents. A brief history of some of these models, possibly most applicable to gambling prevention programs, are presented. Social inoculation, reasoned action, planned behavior, and problem behavior theory, are among those discussed. Some deficits of these models, are also articulated. How such models may have relevance to developing programs for prevention of problem gambling in adolescents is also discussed. However, the inherent differences between gambling and more directly health threatening behaviors such as substance abuse must, of course, be seriously considered in utilizing such models. Most current gambling prevention programs have seldom been guided by theoretical models. Developers of gambling prevention programs should consider theoretical foundations, particularly since such foundations not only provide a guide for programs, but may become critical tools in evaluating their effectiveness.

  1. Sleep problems predict comorbid externalizing behaviors and depression in young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W

    2015-08-01

    Children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience high rates of sleep problems and are also at increased risk for experiencing comorbid mental health problems. This study provides an initial examination of the 1-year prospective association between sleep problems and comorbid symptoms in youth diagnosed with ADHD. Participants were 81 young adolescents (75 % male) carefully diagnosed with ADHD and their parents. Parents completed measures of their child's sleep problems and ADHD symptoms, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, and general externalizing behavior problems at baseline (M age = 12.2) and externalizing behaviors were assessed again 1 year later. Adolescents completed measures of anxiety and depression at both time-points. Medication use was not associated with sleep problems or comorbid psychopathology symptoms. Regression analyses indicated that, above and beyond demographic characteristics, ADHD symptom severity, and initial levels of comorbidity, sleep problems significantly predicted greater ODD symptoms, general externalizing behavior problems, and depressive symptoms 1 year later. Sleep problems were not concurrently or prospectively associated with anxiety. Although this study precludes making causal inferences, it does nonetheless provide initial evidence of sleep problems predicting later comorbid externalizing behaviors and depression symptoms in youth with ADHD. Additional research is needed with larger samples and multiple time-points to further examine the interrelations of sleep problems and comorbidity.

  2. [Asperger syndrome in adolescence: The problem and appropriate treatment].

    PubMed

    Nagao, Keizo

    2007-03-01

    I have described the corresponding method for bullying, independence and interpersonal relationships of company/opposite sex, thinking disorders caused by suffering damage or victimization and withdrawal and violence in the family among the problems in and in response to Asperger syndrome in adolescent cases. Psychotherapy is used for bullying and interpersonal relationship problems. Cognitive therapy and protective correspondence are more effective in bullying than the exposure method. It seems to be more effective to teach and instruct the corresponding principle as well as supportive response because interpersonal relationships are likely to involve failures. Pharmacological therapy was valid in feelings of paranoia and violence. Since the disorder has been recently conceptualized in pervasive developmental disorder, the scope of the subject has increased whereas Asperger syndrome used to be diagnosed in compliance with its classic examples. Therefore, it needs to clarify diagnostic examples based on new concepts, accumulate subject examples and verify the corresponding method with evidence.

  3. Family Environment, Coping, and Mental Health in Adolescents Attending Therapeutic Day Schools

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Erin M.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W.; Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined associations among family environment, coping, and emotional and conduct problems in adolescents attending therapeutic day schools due to mental health problems. METHODS Adolescents (N=417; 30.2% female) ages 13–20 (M=15.25) reported on their family environment (affective involvement and functioning), coping (emotion-focused support-seeking, cognitive restructuring, avoidant actions), and emotional and conduct problems. RESULTS Poorer family environment was associated with less emotion-focused support-seeking and cognitive restructuring, and more emotional and conduct problems. Emotional problems were negatively associated with cognitive restructuring, and conduct problems were negatively associated with all coping strategies. Cognitive restructuring accounted for the relationship between family environment and emotional problems. Cognitive restructuring and emotion-focused support-seeking each partially accounted for the relationship between family functioning and conduct problems, but not the relationship between family affective involvement and conduct problems. CONCLUSIONS Findings implicate the role of coping in the relationship between family environment and adolescent mental health. PMID:25151645

  4. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF SOME PREVENTIVE HEALTH SERVICES PROVIDED FOR ADOLESCENT INDIVIDUALS IN DUBAI.

    PubMed

    Khansaheb, Hamda; Hussein, Ayman; Hamidi, Samer; Brown, David; Younis, Mustafa Z

    2016-01-01

    The United Arab Emirate (UAE) of Dubai, faces significant adolescent health problems. In 2009, evidence based clinical guidelines were developed for primary health care professionals in Dubai to help reduce adolescent health problems. This research study explores adolescents' self-reports about health education services received between 2008 and 2010. The sample consisted of 730 public high school students in grades 10 through 12 between the ages of 15 and 19. 357 (48.9%) of the sample were males and 373 (51.1%) were female. The major language spoken in the home was Arabic (77.4%). All students completed a 27-item survey in Arabic that was adapted from the Young Adult Health Care Survey (YAHCS). The YAHCS is a 56-item research instrument traditionally administered in English and Spanish. The sample reported they had received little or no health education from their health care providers. 94.2% reported receiving no information about using a helmet for bicycle and motorbike safety; 88.2% reported receiving no information about drug use; and 81.9% reported that they received no information about smoking. The instrument also explored the health education material students received within the last 12 months. 65.5% of the sample reported seeing and/or hearing safety tips; 84.9% reported hearing and/or seeing health information about healthy diet, physical activity and exercise; and 79.2% reported seeing and/or hearing information about the risks of smoking and substance abuse.

  5. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF SOME PREVENTIVE HEALTH SERVICES PROVIDED FOR ADOLESCENT INDIVIDUALS IN DUBAI.

    PubMed

    Khansaheb, Hamda; Hussein, Ayman; Hamidi, Samer; Brown, David; Younis, Mustafa Z

    2016-01-01

    The United Arab Emirate (UAE) of Dubai, faces significant adolescent health problems. In 2009, evidence based clinical guidelines were developed for primary health care professionals in Dubai to help reduce adolescent health problems. This research study explores adolescents' self-reports about health education services received between 2008 and 2010. The sample consisted of 730 public high school students in grades 10 through 12 between the ages of 15 and 19. 357 (48.9%) of the sample were males and 373 (51.1%) were female. The major language spoken in the home was Arabic (77.4%). All students completed a 27-item survey in Arabic that was adapted from the Young Adult Health Care Survey (YAHCS). The YAHCS is a 56-item research instrument traditionally administered in English and Spanish. The sample reported they had received little or no health education from their health care providers. 94.2% reported receiving no information about using a helmet for bicycle and motorbike safety; 88.2% reported receiving no information about drug use; and 81.9% reported that they received no information about smoking. The instrument also explored the health education material students received within the last 12 months. 65.5% of the sample reported seeing and/or hearing safety tips; 84.9% reported hearing and/or seeing health information about healthy diet, physical activity and exercise; and 79.2% reported seeing and/or hearing information about the risks of smoking and substance abuse. PMID:27483976

  6. CATCH: Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. [Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health has launched an initiative called the Cardiovascular Health Promotion Project to teach heart-healthy habits to children. One of the programs developed by this initiative, CATCH, the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health, is the largest…

  7. Social integration and the mental health of Black adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2014-01-01

    The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim’s Social Integration Theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative psychosocial well-being indicators. Results showed that adolescents’ integration into family and school were related to better mental health. Additionally, commitment to religious involvement positively influenced mental health. Although the direct effect of religious involvement was inversely related to mental health, mediation analyses revealed a positive influence through religious commitment. Findings suggest a greater emphasis on all three social contexts when designing strategies to improve the mental health of Black adolescents. PMID:24815855

  8. Promising Parenting Programs for Reducing Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn-Wright, Anne; Klima, Tali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Adolescent problem behaviors (substance use, delinquency, school dropout, pregnancy, and violence) are costly not only for individuals, but for entire communities. Policymakers and practitioners that are interested in preventing these problem behaviors are faced with many programming options. In this review, we discuss two criteria for selecting relevant parenting programs, and provide five examples of such programs. Design/methodology/approach The first criterion for program selection is theory based. Well-supported theories, such as the social development model, have laid out key family-based risk and protective factors for problem behavior. Programs that target these risk and protective factors are more likely to be effective. Second, programs should have demonstrated efficacy; these interventions have been called “evidence-based programs” (EBP). This review highlights the importance of evidence from rigorous research designs, such as randomized clinical trials, in order to establish program efficacy. Findings Nurse-Family Partnership, The Incredible Years, Positive Parenting Program, Strengthening Families 10–14, and Staying Connected with Your Teen are examined. The unique features of each program are briefly presented. Evidence showing impact on family risk and protective factors, as well as long-term problem behaviors, is reviewed. Finally, a measure of cost effectiveness of each program is provided. Originality/value We propose that not all programs are of equal value, and suggest two simple criteria for selecting a parenting program with a high likelihood for positive outcomes. Furthermore, although this review is not exhaustive, the five examples of EBPs offer a good start for policymakers and practitioners seeking to implement effective programs in their communities. Thus, this paper offers practical suggestions for those grappling with investments in child and adolescent programs on the ground. PMID:24416068

  9. Adolescent confidentiality: Understanding and practices of health care providers

    PubMed Central

    Wadman, Ruth; Thul, Deborah; Elliott, April S; Kennedy, Andrea Pritchard; Mitchell, Ian; Pinzon, Jorge L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescent confidentiality may present practice challenges for health care providers related to family, medical, ethical, legal, social and bureaucratic processes. It is unclear how health care providers understand and practice confidentiality with adolescents in Canada. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge and practice of health care providers at Alberta Children’s Hospital (Calgary, Alberta), and to inform practice about the adolescent’s right to confidentiality. METHODS: The present study was a voluntary, anonymous online survey. Invitations to participate were sent through the paediatric facility’s electronic mailing list to all currently employed health care providers who potentially engaged in caregiving interactions with adolescents. The survey consisted of 15 closed items and seven open comment items. Closed items were analyzed using descriptive statistics and open comments were analyzed using manifest thematic coding. RESULTS: A total of 389 responses were received, representing health care providers in many disciplines. A variety of practices related to adolescent confidentiality and widespread misunderstanding of this issue were apparent. Respondents’ comments revealed individual and team knowledge gaps regarding adolescent and parent/guardian rights, and the difference between the constructs of consent to treatment and the provision of confidential health care for adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: While health care providers regard confidentiality as paramount, the present survey revealed a wide variation in understanding and practices regarding confidential care for adolescents. This was revealed in both the qualitative and quantitative data. The authors’ recommended strategies to improve the understanding and practice of adolescent confidentiality include: encouraging individuals’ examination of beliefs; postsecondary instruction; knowledge-translation strategies within programs; and institution-directed guidelines and policy. PMID

  10. Young Love: Romantic Concerns and Associated Mental Health Issues among Adolescent Help-Seekers

    PubMed Central

    Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A.; Stoyanov, Stoyan R.

    2016-01-01

    Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10–18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs. PMID:27164149

  11. Young Love: Romantic Concerns and Associated Mental Health Issues among Adolescent Help-Seekers.

    PubMed

    Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A; Stoyanov, Stoyan R

    2016-01-01

    Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10-18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs. PMID:27164149

  12. Young Love: Romantic Concerns and Associated Mental Health Issues among Adolescent Help-Seekers.

    PubMed

    Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A; Stoyanov, Stoyan R

    2016-05-06

    Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10-18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs.

  13. [Dental spacing problems and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents].

    PubMed

    Nunes Neto, Theodorico de Almeida; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Ferreira, Meire Coelho; Santos, Alcione Miranda dos; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa

    2014-11-01

    The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dental spacing problems and associated factors among adolescents using data from the SB Brazil 2010 survey. The outcomes evaluated were dental spacing problems: space deficit (crowding and misalignment) and excess space (diastema and spacing) obtained using the DAI index. The association of independent variables with outcomes was assessed using a hierarchical model with four levels: contextual, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, access to services and dental morbidity. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and univariate and multivariate Poisson distribution to estimate prevalence ratios (PR). The overall prevalence of space problems was 71.43%, with misalignment being the most common type (56.4%). The following aspects were significantly associated with excess space: age of 16, 18 and 19 years; being non-Caucasian (PR = 1.75), perception of speech problems (PR = 1.72) and periodontal pockets 4-5mm (RP = 1.56). For space deficit: family income up to 3 minimum wages, dental visit 1 year or more previously (PR = 1.19) and having one or more decayed teeth on average (PR = 1.32). There was a prevalence of spacing problems, especially with socioeconomic and demographic variables and morbidity as potential risk factors.

  14. Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Review of Findings from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C

    2016-06-01

    The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses. PMID:27254840

  15. Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Review of Findings from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C

    2016-06-01

    The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses.

  16. Adolescents' mental health outcomes according to different types of exposure to ongoing terror attacks.

    PubMed

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verté, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid

    2009-07-01

    This study investigates the impact of several types of exposure to terror attacks on adolescents' psychological outcomes in the context of ongoing terror. A total of 913 adolescents (51% girls) aged 12 to 18 years (12-13.6 = 33%; 13.7-15.6 = 38%; 15.7-18 = 28%) took part in the study. Detailed data were collected concerning objective, subjective and "mixed" types of exposure to terror, as well as demographics, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), emotional and behavioral problems and overall psychological and psychiatric difficulties. Subjective exposure was found to be the most important contributor to adolescents' post-traumatic stress and other mental health problems in this context. Gender also had important effects. The effects of objective and mixed types of exposure, as well as age, were less prominent. We did find, however, that the more adolescents consulted media, the less they experienced behavioral and emotional problems. Given that subjective experiences appear to be the best factor in explaining mental health outcomes when adolescents are confronted with persistent terror, the cognitive and emotional dynamics along with the coping behavior linked to such experiences merit further investigation.

  17. Involvement of stakeholders in determining health priorities of adolescents in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; Scholtz, Alexandra; Norris, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    Background When developing intervention research, it is important to explore issues from the community perspective. Interventions that promote adolescent health in South Africa are urgently needed, and Project Ntshembo (‘hope’) aims to improve the health of young women and their offspring in the Agincourt sub-district of rural northeast South Africa, actively using stakeholder involvement throughout the research process. Objective This study aimed to determine adolescent health priorities according to key stakeholders, to align stakeholder and researcher priorities, and to form a stakeholder forum, which would be active throughout the intervention. Design Thirty-two stakeholders were purposefully identified as community members interested in the health of adolescents. An adapted Delphi incorporating face-to-face discussions, as well as participatory visualisation, was used in a series of three workshops. Consensus was determined through non-parametric analysis. Results Stakeholders and researchers agreed that peer pressure and lack of information, or having information but not acting on it, were the root causes of adolescent health problems. Pregnancy, HIV, school dropout, alcohol and drug abuse, not accessing health services, and unhealthy lifestyle (leading to obesity) were identified as priority adolescent health issues. A diagram was developed showing how these eight priorities relate to one another, which was useful in the development of the intervention. A stakeholder forum was founded, comprising 12 of the stakeholders involved in the stakeholder involvement process. Conclusions The process brought researchers and stakeholders to consensus on the most important health issues facing adolescents, and a stakeholder forum was developed within which to address the issues. Stakeholder involvement as part of a research engagement strategy can be of mutual benefit to the researchers and the community in which the research is taking place. PMID:26983724

  18. Alcohol, Binge Drinking and Associated Mental Health Problems in Young Urban Chileans

    PubMed Central

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Cabieses, Báltica

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans. Methods Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010. Results Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54]) or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]). Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78]), feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]). Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05]). Conclusion Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed. PMID:25830508

  19. Discussing adolescent sexual health in African-American churches.

    PubMed

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Dodd, Darcy; Campbell, Bettina; Pichon, Latrice C; Griffith, Derek M

    2014-04-01

    This study describes the ways in which two African-American churches discuss adolescent sexual health topics. Six focus groups were conducted in two churches in Flint, Michigan, that reported no formal sexual health programming for their congregants. Three themes emerged to highlight the different perspectives about the role of churches in adolescent sexual decision-making and sexual health education: (1) churches as sources of sexual information, (2) churches as complex communities, and (3) recommendations for sexual education in churches. Participant responses suggest that churches can and should serve a resource for sexual health information. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  20. Adolescent Maturity and the Brain: The Promise and Pitfalls of Neuroscience Research in Adolescent Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sara B.; Blum, Robert W.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal neuroimaging studies demonstrate that the adolescent brain continues to mature well into the 20s. This has prompted intense interest in linking neuromaturation to maturity of judgment. Public policy is struggling to keep up with burgeoning interest in cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging. However, empirical evidence linking neurodevelopmental processes and adolescent real-world behavior remains sparse. Nonetheless, adolescent brain development research is already shaping public policy debates about when individuals should be considered mature for policy purposes. With this in mind, in this article we summarize what is known about adolescent brain development and what remains unknown, as well as what neuroscience can and cannot tell us about the adolescent brain and behavior. We suggest that a conceptual framework that situates brain science in the broader context of adolescent developmental research would help to facilitate research-to-policy translation. Furthermore, although contemporary discussions of adolescent maturity and the brain often use a deficit-based approach, there is enormous opportunity for brain science to illuminate the great strengths and potentialities of the adolescent brain. So, too, can this information inform policies that promote adolescent health and well-being. PMID:19699416

  1. Psychological maltreatment, emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents: The mediating role of resilience and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Gökmen

    2016-02-01

    In this study, structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating role of resilience and self-esteem in the relationships between psychological maltreatment-emotional problems and psychological maltreatment-behavioral problems in adolescents. Participants were 937 adolescents from different high schools in Turkey. The sample included 502 female (53.6%) and 435 male (46.4%) students, 14-19 years old (mean age=16.51, SD=1.15). Results indicated that psychological maltreatment was negatively correlated with resilience and self-esteem, and positively correlated with behavioral problems and emotional problems. Resilience and self-esteem also predicted behavioral problems and emotional problems. Finally, psychological maltreatment predicted emotional and behavioral problems mediated by resilience and self-esteem. Resilience and self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between psychological maltreatment-behavioral and psychological maltreatment-emotional problems in adolescents. Thus, resilience and self-esteem appear to play a protective role in emotional problems and behavioral problems in psychologically maltreated individuals. Implications are discussed and suggestions for psychological counselors and other mental health professionals are presented.

  2. Oral health status in children and adolescents with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Othman, N A A; Sockalingam, S N M P; Mahyuddin, A

    2015-09-01

    This case-controlled study aimed to evaluate the existing oral health status in children and adolescents with haemophilia. A total of 50 haemophilia patients and 50 matched controls aged seven to 16 years were recruited into the study. Clinical examination was carried out to determine dental caries experience, oral hygiene status and gingival condition in these two groups. Information regarding previous dental history, oral hygiene practices and dietary habits were also obtained. No significant difference was found in mean caries experience in primary and secondary dentitions (P = 0.86 and 0.32) and in Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S, P = 0.20) between both groups. However, a significantly higher proportion of haemophilia patients (24%) had better oral hygiene status as compared to the controls (2%, P = 0.004). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in Modified Gingival Index (MGI, P = 0.02) between the two groups with the study group having less gingival inflammation. A total of 88% (n = 44) of the haemophilia patients were registered and received dental treatment in specialist dental clinics. More than half (56%, n = 28) had frequent dental visits and only one-third of the haemophilia patients had history of hospitalization due to oral problems. There was no significant difference in oral hygiene practices and dietary habits between both groups. In general, haemophilia children and adolescents in this study had similar caries experience, a significantly better oral hygiene status and gingival health as compared to healthy controls. The main reason for this is the multidisciplinary approach implemented by medical health-care professionals as primary care provider and the dental team.

  3. Adolescent health in Russia: a view from Moscow and St. Petersburg.

    PubMed

    Blum, R W; Blum, L; Phillips, S; Smith, P; Slap, G

    1996-10-01

    This article describes some health issues among adolescents in Russia and the health care delivery system for treating reproductive health problems, AIDS, mental health problems, and drug and alcohol dependency. Russian professionals expect improvements in the Russian health care system to meet the needs of a generation of grandchildren. Physicians and patients must now contend with primitive conditions and almost no resources. Medicines are in short supply. The health care system relies heavily on in-patient care. Equipment is very out-of-date. Adolescents older than 15 years of age are treated in the adult system. There are 14 district hospitals in Moscow for treating children aged under 14 years. Medical care is provided free of charge to all children. The average pediatric length of stay is 11.2 days, due to poor home conditions. Community clinics are linked to hospitals and treat children under 14 years of age. Family planning services are not available for teenagers at district clinics. Special family planning clinics provide adolescent contraception and counseling for children aged under 15 years with parents' consent. Family planning and abortion are available to children aged over 15 years without parental consent. The Center for Adolescent Reproductive Health in St. Petersburg is one of the few adolescent-specific health clinics in the country. The center provides sex education classes, gynecologic services, cosmetology, dysmenorrhea treatment, acupuncture, and AIDS surveillance. Resources for drug treatment are limited. Drug treatment at the St. Petersburg Narcological Center includes detoxification, medical stabilization, psychological rehabilitation, and vocational rehabilitation. Outreach programs include a hotline and school education groups. The authors were impressed with the dedication, knowledge, and strong desire for up-to-date information of professionals.

  4. Handbook for Educating on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health. Book One, Understanding the Adolescents and Their Reproductive and Sexual Health: Guide to Better Educational Strategies [and] Book Two, Strategies and Materials on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Clearing House on Population Education and Communication.

    This two-part handbook presents information on educating adolescents about reproductive and sexual health issues. "Book One, Understanding the Adolescents and Their Reproductive and Sexual Health: Guide to Better Educational Strategies" focuses on the demographic profile of adolescents as well as their fertility, sexual behavior, incidence of…

  5. Health assets for adolescents: opinions from a neighbourhood in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Wilson, Patricia; Hernán, Mariano; Morgan, Antony R; Mena, Angel

    2015-09-01

    This study uses a health asset (HA) framework to explore current perspectives on health, wellbeing and their determinants amongst a group of 15-18-year-old adolescents living in the neighbourhood of Zaidin (Granada, Spain). The study was carried out in Summer 2011 using a qualitative approach. It included 20 semi-structured interviews, 2 focus groups with adolescents and 4 semi-structured interviews with key informants (adults who work with adolescents). Narrative data were analysed by means of content analysis methodology, considering the concept of health, HAs and how they are prioritized as dimensions for the analysis. The concept of health defined by adolescents involves physical, psychological and social dimensions. According to them, health is associated with happiness and quality of life. A range of HAs were identified and classified as internal (belonging to the adolescents) and external or contextual. Internal assets are classified into three types: personal traits (assets of 'being'), behaviour (assets of 'doing') and social resources which contribute to their feeling of health and well-being (assets of 'having'). The latter connects internal and external assets. The classification of HAs ('being', 'doing' and 'having') proposed in this study provides a useful starting framework of thinking about how these assets could be organized to support the development of health promotion programmes. The study highlights the opportunity for public policy to contribute to the improvement of the conditions and local scenarios that improve the possibilities for positive connections at the community level.

  6. Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Mental Health Problems: Behaviour, Self-Concept, Quality of Life and Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, R. A.; Hunter, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the adjustment of siblings of children with mental health problems. The participants had brothers or sisters receiving treatment at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service within the Hunter New England Health Service, New South Wales, Australia. Seventy-five siblings completed questionnaires on their self-concept, quality…

  7. [System approach to national health security problems].

    PubMed

    Venediktov, D D

    1998-01-01

    P. K. Anokhin's basic works on functional systems, on space-time continuum and advanced reflection of the reality, on the physiological structure of a behavior act, as well as his fundamental philosophical and scientific postulated are most fruitful for analyzing and solving a number of biomedical, societal, and political problems, among them there are problems of national security in general and its demographic and health aspects. Individual and public health as a measure of balance between the organism (population) and its biosocial environment depends on the efficiency of relevant physiological and societal functional systems is one of the basic prerequisites of national security and timely recognition, avoiding and overcoming numerous challenges, dangers, and threats to the nation. General political and socioeconomic crisis in Russia adversely affects the population's dynamics and public health and it is manifested by depopulatory processes, low birth and high mortality and morbidity rates, growing violence and crime, psychoemotional stress, decreased immunity level of vast majority of population, especially that of children, elderly and other vulnerable groups. Environmental pollution and degradation have reached dangerous proportions. The national health system is unable to meet basic needs of the population. To overcome the crisis, systemic measures should be in the foundation of all health reform concepts and strategies. Monitoring national health, including modelling its future status, as well as progress in health system reforms should be another basic condition for overcoming the national health crisis. PMID:9567717

  8. Investing in very young adolescents' sexual and reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Igras, Susan M.; Macieira, Marjorie; Murphy, Elaine; Lundgren, Rebecka

    2014-01-01

    Very young adolescents (VYAs) between the ages of 10 and 14 represent about half of the 1.2 billion adolescents aged 10–19 in the world today. In lower- and middle-income countries, where most unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, maternal deaths and sexually transmitted infections occur, investment in positive youth development to promote sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is increasing. Most interventions, though, focus on older adolescents, overlooking VYAs. Since early adolescence marks a critical transition between childhood and older adolescence and adulthood, setting the stage for future SRH and gendered attitudes and behaviours, targeted investment in VYAs is imperative to lay foundations for healthy future relationships and positive SRH. This article advocates for such investments and identifies roles that policy-makers, donors, programme designers and researchers and evaluators can play to address the disparity. PMID:24824757

  9. Adolescents' Use of School-Based Health Clinics for Reproductive Health Services: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Describes adolescents' use of school-based health clinics (SBCs) for family planning and sexually transmitted disease (STD)-related services, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicated that 13 percent received family planning and 8.9 percent received STD-related services from SBCs. Factors affecting the…

  10. Gene-environment correlation underlying the association between parental negativity and adolescent externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Horwitz, Briana N; Narusyte, Jurgita; Ganiban, Jody M; Spotts, Erica L; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2013-01-01

    Studies of adolescent or parent-based twins suggest that gene-environment correlation (rGE) is an important mechanism underlying parent-adolescent relationships. However, information on how parents' and children's genes and environments influence correlated parent and child behaviors is needed to distinguish types of rGE. The present study used the novel Extended Children of Twins model to distinguish types of rGE underlying associations between negative parenting and adolescent (age 11-22 years) externalizing problems with a Swedish sample of 909 twin parents and their adolescent offspring and a U.S.-based sample of 405 adolescent siblings and their parents. Results suggest that evocative rGE, not passive rGE or direct environmental effects of parenting on adolescent externalizing, explains associations between maternal and paternal negativity and adolescent externalizing problems.

  11. Interparental Relationship Sensitivity Leads to Adolescent Internalizing Problems: Different Genotypes, Different Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Fosco, Gregory M.; Cleveland, H. H.; Vandenbergh, David J.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have established that child interparental conflict evaluations link parent relationship functioning and adolescent adjustment. Using differential susceptibility theory and its vantage sensitivity complement as their framework, the authors examined differences between adolescents who vary in the DRD4 7 repeat genotype (i.e. 7+ vs. 7−) in how both interparental conflict and positivity affect adolescents’ evaluations of interparental conflict (i.e., threat appraisals) and how these evaluations affect internalizing problems. Results from longitudinal multiple-group path models using PROSPER data (N = 452) supported the hypothesis that threat appraisals for 7+ adolescents would be more affected by perceptions of interparental positivity compared to 7− adolescents; however, threat appraisals for 7+ adolescents were also less affected by interparental conflict. Among 7− adolescents, interparental conflict perceptions were associated with higher threat appraisals, and no association was found for perceptions of positivity. For adolescents of both genotypes, higher threat was associated with greater internalizing problems. PMID:25843974

  12. Family environment and adolescent psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior: a pioneer study in a Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1997-03-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents. PMID:9120405

  13. Family environment and adolescent psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior: a pioneer study in a Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1997-03-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents.

  14. The association between childhood maltreatment, mental health problems, and aggression in justice-involved boys.

    PubMed

    Hoeve, Machteld; Colins, Olivier F; Mulder, Eva A; Loeber, Rolf; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    The link between childhood maltreatment and adolescent aggression is well documented; yet, studies examining potential mechanisms that explain this association are limited. In the present study, we tested the association between childhood maltreatment and adolescent aggression in boys in juvenile justice facilities (N = 767) and examined the contribution of mental health problems to this relationship. Data on childhood maltreatment, mental health problems, and aggression were collected by means of self-report measures and structural equation models were used to test mediation models. We found that mental health problems mediated the link between maltreatment and aggression. Results demonstrated different pathways depending on the type of aggression examined. The association between childhood maltreatment and reactive aggression was fully mediated by a variety of mental health problems and for proactive aggression the association was partially mediated by mental health problems. We also found that reactive and proactive aggression partially mediated the association between maltreatment and mental health problems. These findings suggest that a transactional model may best explain the negative effects of childhood trauma on mental health problems and (in particular reactive) aggression. In addition, our findings add to the existing evidence that reactive and proactive aggression have different etiological pathways.

  15. Dignity and the right of internally displaced adolescents in Colombia to sexual and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Marleen; Gonzalez, Fernando; Brems, Eva; Temmerman, Marleen

    2012-10-01

    In Colombia, national policies and laws on the protection of vulnerable populations pay specific attention to the sexual and reproductive health needs and rights of internally displaced adolescents. This paper describes how a United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)-supported programme (September 2000-August 2004) on the sexual and reproductive health of internally displaced adolescents contributed to restoring their dignity as a precursor to promoting their sexual and reproductive health rights. Different forms of the arts were used as basic techniques to discover their body and to provide sexual and reproductive health information and education. The arts were found to play a key role in restoring their dignity. Although dignity appeared to be a determinant of greater awareness of rights, it did not lead to increased empowerment with regard to rights. The availability of and access to sexual and reproductive health services remains a problem and displaced populations continue to have little or no power to hold their authorities accountable.

  16. Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem?

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Cristina; Gonzalez, Lilliana

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem worldwide in all age groups, even in those residing in countries with low latitude, where it was generally assumed that UV radiation was adequate enough to prevent this deficiency, and in industrialized countries, where vitamin D fortification has been implemented now for years. However, most countries are still lacking data, particularly population representative data, with very limited information in infants, children, adolescents and pregnant women. Since the number of recent publications is escalating, with a broadening of the geographic diversity, the objective of the present report was to conduct a more recent systematic review of global vitamin D status, with particular emphasis in at risk groups. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed/Medline in April-June 2013 to identify articles on vitamin D status worldwide published in the last 10 years in apparently healthy individuals. Only studies with vitamin D status prevalence were included. If available, the first source selected was population-based or representative samples studies. Clinical trials, case-control studies, case reports or series, reviews, validation studies, letters, editorials, or qualitative studies were excluded. A total of 103 articles were eligible and included in the present report. Maps were created for each age group, providing an updated overview of global vitamin D status. In areas with available data, the prevalence of low vitamin D status is a global problem in all age groups, in particular in girls and women from the Middle East. These maps also evidenced the regions with missing data for each specific population groups. There is striking lack of data in infants, children and adolescents worldwide, and in most countries of South America and Africa. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem in all age groups, particularly in those from the Middle East. PMID:24239505

  17. Postformal Reasoning During Adolescence and Young Adulthood: The Influence of Problem Relevancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebby, Rickard A.; Papini, Dennis R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined postformal reasoning of young and older adolescents and young adults. Problems known to reflect issues relevant to adolescents, adults, and older adults were presented to 105 subjects. Three age groups differed with respect to perception of problem relevancy. Perceived relevancy appeared to disrupt postformal reasoning among youngest…

  18. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  19. Anxiety Symptoms Account for the Link between Reactive Aggression and Sleep Problems among Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Becker, Stephen P.; Rubens, Sonia L.; Cheatham-Johnson, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems are common among adolescents and have a negative impact on functioning. A better understanding of factors that contribute to sleep problems in adolescence can help guide more effective, targeted interventions. Objective: The current study examined the associations between reactive and proactive functions of aggression…

  20. Does Problem Behavior Elicit Poor Parenting?: A Prospective Study of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huh, David; Tristan, Jennifer; Wade, Emily; Stice, Eric

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that perceived parenting would show reciprocal relations with adolescents' problem behavior using longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results provided support for the assertion that female problem behavior has an adverse effect on parenting; elevated externalizing symptoms and substance abuse symptoms…

  1. Committee Opinion No. 653: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues. PMID:26942388

  2. Committee Opinion No. 653: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues.

  3. Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    1999-01-01

    Radiation litigation, the cleanup and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, radon exposure, nuclear medicine, food irradiation, stricter regulatory climate--these are some of the reasons health physics and radiation protection professionals are increasingly called upon to upgrade their skills. Designed to prepare candidates for the American Board of Health Physics Comprehensive examination (Part I) and other certification examinations, Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions introduces professionals in the field to radiation protection principles and their practical application in routine and emergency situations. It features more than 650 worked examples illustrating concepts under discussion along with an in-depth coverage of sources of radiation, standards and regulations, biological effects of ionizing radiation, instrumentation, external and internal dosimetry, counting statistics, monitoring and interpretations, operational health physics, transportation and waste, nuclear emergencies, and more. Reflecting for the first time the true scope of health physics at an introductory level, Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions gives readers the tools to properly evaluate challenging situations in all areas of radiation protection, including the medical, university, power reactor, fuel cycle, research reactor, environmental, non-ionizing radiation, and accelerator health physics.

  4. Adolescents' and parents' views of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Coyne, I; McNamara, N; Healy, M; Gower, C; Sarkar, M; McNicholas, F

    2015-10-01

    Service user involvement is essential for quality care in the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). This study was conducted to explore adolescents' and parents' experiences of CAMHS in relation to accessibility, approachability and appropriateness. This study used a descriptive qualitative design, and focus groups and single interviews were conducted with adolescents (n = 15) and parents (n = 32) from three mental health clinics. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Accessing mental health services was a challenging experience for many parents and adolescents due to knowledge deficit, lack of information and limited availability of specialist services. Some parents and adolescents reported positive experiences while others reported negative experiences. They expressed a need for more information, involvement in decision making, flexible scheduling of appointments, school support and parent support groups. The nature and quality of the relationship with staff was critical to positive experience with the service; therefore, frequent changes of medical staff was disruptive. Mental health nurses can play a vital role in ensuring continuity, assessing adolescents' participation preferences and advocating for their information needs with other members of the interdisciplinary team. PMID:25977175

  5. Adolescent mental health as a risk factor for adolescent smoking onset

    PubMed Central

    Hockenberry, Jason M; Timmons, Edward J; Weg, Mark W Vander

    2011-01-01

    Smoking continues to be a leading cause of preventable deaths and rates of trying cigarettes and progression to daily smoking among adolescents continues to remain high. A plethora of risk factors for smoking among adolescents has been addressed in the research literature. One that is gaining particular interest is the relationship between adolescent mental health and smoking (both initiation and progression). This paper reviews the evidence for adolescent mental health as a risk factor for cigarette smoking. We focus on the specific mental health conditions that have been more thoroughly addressed as possible risk factors in community-dwelling adolescents. We discuss the multiple hypotheses that have been posited as to the nature of the relationship between adolescent mental health and smoking, as well as detailing so called third factors that may account for the observed relationship. We highlight the contribution of the existing studies to the body of knowledge on this topic, as well as the limitations and open questions that remain as a result. We conclude with discussion of a broad research agenda going forward. PMID:24600273

  6. Use of the internet as a source of health information by Spanish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Internet is a fundamental part of the daily life of adolescents, they consider it as a safe and confidential source of information on health matters. The aims is to describe the experience of Spanish adolescents searching for health information on the Internet. Methods A cross-sectional study of 811 school-age adolescents in Granada was carried out. An adapted and piloted questionnaire was used which was controlled by trained personnel. Sociodemographic and health variables were included together with those concerning the conditions governing access to and use of information and communication technologies (ICT). Results 811 adolescents were surveyed (99.38% response rate), mean age was 17 years old. Of these, 88% used the Internet; 57.5% used it on a daily or weekly basis and 38.7% used it occasionally. Nearly half the sample group (55.7%) stated that they used the Internet to search for health-related information. The main problems reported in the search for e-health were the ignorance of good web pages (54.8%) and the lack of confidence or search skills (23.2%). Conclusions In conclusion, it seems plausible to claim that websites designed and managed by health services should have a predominant position among interventions specifically addressed to young people. PMID:20113486

  7. Depressive Symptoms and Health-Related Risk-Taking in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, C. Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear…

  8. Adolescents' experience with workplace aggression: school health implications.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carolyn R; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gillespie, Gordon L; Beery, Theresa A; Gates, Donna M

    2013-12-01

    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future workplace aggression. Semistructured interviews were used to gather participants' proposed responses to a series of hypothetical aggressive incidents in the workplace. Conventional content analysis identified patterns and themes among the participants' responses. Results indicated adolescent employees' proposed responses to workplace aggression are similar to other forms of aggression such as peer-bullying and teen dating violence. Education and training are needed within the school setting to promote appropriate responses to various forms of aggression encountered by adolescents. Implications for school health professionals' involvement in addressing responses to such aggression and further research opportunities are explored.

  9. Refocusing the Adolescent Preparticipation Physical Evaluation Toward Preventive Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Koester, Michael C.

    1995-01-01

    The traditional preparticipation physical evaluation has come under much scrutiny by sports medicine physicians in recent years, following a number of studies that have found it to be of low yield and not cost effective. There is a general consensus among these researchers that a refocused preparticipation physical evaluation presents an excellent opportunity for health education. In this article, I review recent research that shows that the traditional “head-to-toe” physical exam is unnecessary and is more effectively replaced by a detailed history and focused physical exam. I present current epidemiologic and sociologic data that is pertinent to all health care professionals working with adolescents. Various methods to uncover potential problem areas in the young athletes' lives are also discussed. Each format may be adapted to local or community standards and needs. The approach to the preparticipation physical evaluation presented in the article allows athletic trainers to have an active role in the most important aspect of health care: the prevention of disease and injury. PMID:16558363

  10. Couple and Family Interventions in Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Cleveland G.; Finley, Michelle A.; Chawla, Neelu

    2012-01-01

    Intervention research for couples and families managing chronic health problems is in an early developmental stage. We reviewed randomized clinical trials of family interventions for common neurological diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, which is similar to the content of previous reviews discussed later. One overriding theme…

  11. Hero/heroine modeling for Puerto Rican adolescents: a preventive mental health intervention.

    PubMed

    Malgady, R G; Rogler, L H; Costantino, G

    1990-08-01

    Culturally sensitive treatments of the special mental health needs of high-risk Puerto Rican adolescents are lacking. The hero/heroine intervention was based on adult Puerto Rican role models to foster ethnic identity, self-concept, and adaptive coping behavior. 90 nonclinical Puerto Rican 8th and 9th graders were screened for presenting behavior problems in school and randomly assigned to an intervention and a control group. After 19 sessions, the intervention significantly increased adolescents' ethnic identity and self-concept and reduced anxiety. Treatment outcomes varied as a function of grade level, sex, and household composition. Self-concept was negatively affected among girls from intact families. The study supports the effectiveness of the culturally sensitive modality as a preventive mental health intervention for high-risk Puerto Rican adolescents, especially from single-parent families.

  12. Family conflict, mood, and adolescents' daily school problems: moderating roles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Adela C; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Using daily diary data, this study examined cross-day associations between family conflict and school problems and tested mediating effects of daily negative mood and moderating effects of psychological symptoms. For 2 weeks, parents and adolescents (N = 106; Mage = 15.4) reported daily conflict; adolescents reported daily negative mood and school problems. Results indicated bidirectional, multiday spillover between parent-adolescent conflict and school problems with daily negative mood statistically accounting for spillover both within and across days. Externalizing symptoms strengthened links between father-adolescent conflict and school problems, whereas depressive and anxious symptoms strengthened links between parent-adolescent conflict and daily negative mood. By demonstrating cross-domain transmission of daily problems, these findings highlight the salience of everyday events as possible intervention targets.

  13. [Effects of family or school disconnection on adolescents' health].

    PubMed

    Demerval, R; Cartierre, N; Coulon, N

    2003-03-01

    This article presents research on the health of adolescents who are in situations of either family or school detachment. Fourteen health indicators were used to investigate the physical, social and psychological well-being of adolescents. In addition, two separate scales were constructed to take into account family and school disengagement. As anticipated, the results prove that detachment from either family or school has a negative impact on health and this effect is amplified in cases of double detachment--both from family and school. The results also suggest an effect of contextual resilience since the school can play a protective role in for the health of adolescents who are in a situation of family disaffiliation. This research emphasises the need to analyse the risk and protective factors within a developmental and ecological theoretical framework to allow for the consideration of the dynamics involved between the different areas of life which are significant for an individual at a given moment in his development.

  14. Cutaneous Melanoma: A Population Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Warren, Hermine

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM), generally referred to as melanoma, has been identified as an overall population health problem. Examination of evidence-based research revealed a strong correlation between CM and tanning bed usage, specifically by young females. For these reasons, a preliminary research question/hypothesis was structured that proposed examining different geographical locations, and whether the relationship between melanoma and tanning bed exposure by young females would be affected. Epidemiologic principles will be utilized to provide guidelines and tools for comprehensively examining this health issue and how it might affect morbidity and mortality within the populations where occurrences are identified. Furthermore, to understand some of the contributing factors of this disease, melanoma was discussed in terms of person, place, time, and how tanning bed exposure may significantly heighten CM as a potentially fatal health problem.

  15. The longitudinal relation between childhood autistic traits and psychosexual problems in early adolescence: The Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey study.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Linda P; Hartman, Catharina A; van der Vegt, Esther Jm; Verhulst, Frank C; van Oort, Floor Va; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with autistic traits are considered to be prone to develop psychosexual problems due to their limited social skills and insight. This study investigated the longitudinal relation between autistic traits in childhood (T1; age 10-12 years) and parent-reported psychosexual problems in early adolescence (T2; age 12-15 years). In a general population cohort study (n = 1873; the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)), autistic traits and psychosexual problems were determined. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate whether childhood autistic traits, in individuals displaying no psychosexual problems in childhood, predicted the presence of psychosexual problems in adolescence, while controlling for pubertal development and conduct problems. Higher levels of autistic traits at T1 significantly predicted mild psychosexual problems at T2, above and beyond pubertal development and conduct problems. Particularly two dimensions of autistic traits at T1 were significant predictors; i.e. 'reduced contact/social interest' and 'not optimally tuned to the social situation'. Children with autistic traits - especially those with limited social interest and social regulation problems - showed to have a higher risk to develop psychosexual problems, albeit mild, in early adolescence as reported by parents. Although we showed that autistic traits predict psychosexual problems, it is only one of multiple predictors.

  16. Adolescent Behavior and Health in Cross-Cultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Specific behavioral problems appear during early adolescence, and they become more pronounced. Although these problems are universal in many aspects, cultural differences are also conspicuous. The author, in addition to analyzing the five studies in the Special Issue, addresses questions concerning the cross-cultural context. The analysis reveals…

  17. The Measurement of Adolescent Psychological Health: One or Two Dimensions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Ross B.; Walford, Wendy A.

    1998-01-01

    Measures of psychological health were administered to 345 late adolescents. A series of confirmatory factor analyses supported an oblique two-factor model of psychological health with measures of anxiety and negative affect defining a distress construct and measures of positive affect, satisfaction with life, and happiness defining a well-being…

  18. Mental Health and Help-Seeking among Ethnic Minority Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Lori A.; Adelman, Howard S.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on survey on mental health status and help-seeking behavior of adolescents of lower SES, ethnic minority backgrounds. Found mental health status was similar to that of nonminorities. Respondents reported low service utilization. Primary providers were school-based sources and medical personnel. Cognitive-affective factors are potential…

  19. Gender & Economic Status Matter in Mental Health of Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Namita; Dua, Radha

    2011-01-01

    Mental health is the ability to adjust oneself satisfactorily to the various strains of life. Mental health and Education are closely related to each other. Sound mental is prerequisite for the learner. In this era of severe competition to excel or to be on the top is pressurizing today's adolescents to the utmost. Besides a number of factors like…

  20. Family material hardship and chinese adolescents' problem behaviors: a moderated mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenqiang; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined a moderated mediation model using the risk and resilience framework. Specifically, the impact of family material hardship on adolescent problem behaviors was examined in a Chinese sample; we used the family stress model framework to investigate parental depression and negative parenting as potential mediators of the relation between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. In addition, based on resilience theory, we investigated adolescents' resilience as a potential protective factor in the development of their internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants included 1,419 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.38 years, SD = 1.79) and their primary caregivers. After controlling for covariates (age, gender, location of family residence, and primary caregiver), we found that parental depression and negative parenting mediated the association between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. Furthermore, the adolescent resilience moderated the relationship between negative parenting and internalizing problems in a protective-stabilizing pattern; in addition, a protective-reactive pattern also emerged when adolescent resilience was examined as a moderator of the relationship between negative parenting and externalizing problems. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of risk and resilience in youth development. Moreover, the findings have important implications for the prevention of adolescent problem behaviors. PMID:26010256